This paper is an adaptation of Kohlenberg and Tsai's work, Functional Analytical Psychotherapy (1991), or FAP, to group psychotherapy. This author applied a behavioral rationale for interpersonal process groups by illustrating key points with a hypothetical client. Suggestions are also provided for starting groups, identifying goals, educating…
Verdeli, Helen; Clougherty, Kathleen; Bolton, Paul; Speelman, Liesbeth; Lincoln, Ndogoni; Bass, Judith; Neugebauer, Richard; Weissman, Myrna M
The current prevalence of depressive symptoms in Southwest Uganda, an area greatly affected by the HIV epidemic, has been shown to be as high as 21%. Traditional healers have expressed inability to treat these symptoms. The lack of physicians and high cost of medication make the use of antidepressants unfeasible. Therefore, an evidence-based psychotherapy was considered a reasonable treatment option by a team of health researchers familiar with the local culture, who designed a randomized controlled clinical trial. Interpersonal psychotherapy in a group format (IPT-G) was selected because it was time limited, was described in a manual, and had evidence of efficacy from clinical trials. Moreover, its focus on interpersonal triggers of depression was considered compatible with the culture. This paper describes the process of adapting the psychotherapy manual and the training of the group leaders who undertook the first psychotherapy clinical trial in Africa. PMID:16946913
VERDELI, HELEN; CLOUGHERTY, KATHLEEN; BOLTON, PAUL; SPEELMAN, LIESBETH; LINCOLN, NDOGONI; BASS, JUDITH; NEUGEBAUER, RICHARD; WEISSMAN, MYRNA M
The current prevalence of depressive symptoms in Southwest Uganda, an area greatly affected by the HIV epidemic, has been shown to be as high as 21%. Traditional healers have expressed inability to treat these symptoms. The lack of physicians and high cost of medication make the use of antidepressants unfeasible. Therefore, an evidence-based psychotherapy was considered a reasonable treatment option by a team of health researchers familiar with the local culture, who designed a randomized controlled clinical trial. Interpersonal psychotherapy in a group format (IPT-G) was selected because it was time limited, was described in a manual, and had evidence of efficacy from clinical trials. Moreover, its focus on interpersonal triggers of depression was considered compatible with the culture. This paper describes the process of adapting the psychotherapy manual and the training of the group leaders who undertook the first psychotherapy clinical trial in Africa. PMID:16946913
Swarr, Ralph R.; Ewing, Thomas N.
A focused 5-year research program used a large number of clients (45), groups (10), and co-therapists (20) to assess group psychotherapy outcome in a homeogeneous diagnostic population (severly disturbed college student neurotics) and therapist-treatment modality (eclectic, interpersonal learning based, with insight and behavior change goals).…
Wilfrey, Denise E.; And Others
Evaluated effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating among 56 women with nonpurging bulimia. At posttreatment, both CBT and IPT conditions showed significant improvement in reducing binge eating, compared to waiting-list condition. Binge eating remained significantly…
Wilfley, D E; Agras, W S; Telch, C F; Rossiter, E M; Schneider, J A; Cole, A G; Sifford, L A; Raeburn, S D
This study evaluated the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating. Fifty-six women with nonpurging bulimia were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: CBT, IPT, or a wait-list control (WL). Treatment was administered in small groups that met for 16 weekly sessions. At posttreatment, both group CBT and group IPT treatment conditions showed significant improvement in reducing binge eating, whereas the WL condition did not. Binge eating remained significantly below baseline levels for both treatment conditions at 6-month and 1-year follow-ups. These data support the central role of both eating behavior and interpersonal factors in the understanding and treatment of bulimia. PMID:8473584
Markowitz, John C.
This article briefly reviews the past and present and speculates on the future of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a time-limited, empirically supported treatment for depression and other psychiatric syndromes. IPT and other psychotherapies face a role transition in adjusting to an economically and otherwise turbulent future. The author speculates on the outcome in clinical, research, and other domains. PMID:9292443
Verdeli, Helen; Clougherty, Kathleen; Onyango, Grace; Lewandowski, Eric; Speelman, Liesbeth; Betancourt, Teresa S; Neugebauer, Richard; Stein, Traci R; Bolton, Paul
This article reviews the use of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) with depressed youth living in Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps in North Uganda. This youth has been exposed to severe losses and disruptions in relationships with caregivers, family, and community members; limited access to formal education; exposure to malnutrition and infections; and pressure to prematurely assume adult family roles. The process of adaptation to the content and training of IPT for these youth is presented and illustrated with case examples. PMID:18558315
Gallagher, Meagan E; Tasca, Giorgio A; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Maxwell, Hilary; Bissada, Hany
Yalom and Leszcz (2005) indicated that interpersonal learning is a key therapeutic factor in group psychotherapy. In this study, we conceptualized interpersonal learning as the convergence over time between an individual's and the group's perception of the individual's cohesion to the group. First, we developed parallel measures of: (a) an individual's self-rated cohesion to the group (Cohesion Questionnaire-Individual Version [CQ-I]), and (b) the group's rating of the individual's cohesion to the group (CQ-G) based on the original Cohesion Questionnaire (CQ; Piper, Marache, Lacroix, Richardsen, & Jones, 1983). Second, we used these parallel scales to assess differences between an individual's self-rating and the mean of the group's ratings of the individual's cohesion to the group. Women with binge eating disorder (N = 102) received Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Participants were assigned to homogeneously composed groups of either high or low attachment anxiety. Outcomes were measured pre- and post-treatment, and the CQ-I and CQ-G were administered every fourth group session. We found significant convergence over time between the CQ-I and mean CQ-G scale scores in both attachment anxiety conditions. Participants with higher attachment anxiety had lower individual self-ratings of cohesion and had greater discrepancies between the CQ-I and CG-G compared with those with lower attachment anxiety. There was a significant relationship between greater convergence in cohesion ratings and improved self-esteem at post-treatment. More accurate self-perceptions through feedback from group members may be a key factor in facilitating increased self-esteem in group therapy. Group therapists may facilitate such interpersonal learning, especially for those higher in attachment anxiety, by noting discrepancies and then encouraging convergence between an individual and the group in their perceptions of cohesion to the group. PMID:23398038
Champion, Lorna; Power, Michael J
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a leading evidence-based treatment for those eating disorders in which binge eating is a feature. This article begins with a consideration of the rationale for using IPT to treat patients with eating disorders. This is followed by a review of the evidence supporting its use and a brief description of treatment including an illustrative clinical case vignette. The article closes with a discussion of possible future directions for research on IPT for eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message IPT for eating disorders (IPT-ED) closely resembles IPT for depression and primarily focuses on current interpersonal problems. It is well suited for helping patients to address interpersonal difficulties which appear to be maintaining the eating disorder. PMID:22362599
Hewitt, Paul L; Mikail, Samuel F; Flett, Gordon L; Tasca, Giorgio A; Flynn, Carol A; Deng, Xiaolei; Kaldas, Janet; Chen, Chang
This study sought to determine whether clinically significant improvement could be obtained using a psychodynamic/interpersonal group treatment based on a comprehensive conceptualization of perfectionism. A sample of 71 community-recruited perfectionistic individuals participated in the University of British Columbia Perfectionism Treatment Study. Eighteen of these participants were initially nonrandomly assigned to a waitlist control condition. All participants completed measures of perfectionism traits, perfectionistic self-presentation, and automatic perfectionistic thoughts, as well as measures of distress including depression, anxiety, and interpersonal problems at pretreatment, posttreatment, and at a 4-month follow-up. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that perfectionism levels decreased with large effect sizes and that these decreases were associated with reductions in distress measures. Clinically significant decreases were found in all perfectionism components, and posttreatment scores on most variables were significantly lower in the treatment condition versus the waitlist control condition. The findings suggest that psychodynamic/interpersonal group treatment is effective in treating components of perfectionism. PMID:25985044
Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas
In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients. PMID:22955493
Young, Jami F; Benas, Jessica S; Schueler, Christie M; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E; Mufson, Laura
Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset. PMID:26638219
Miller, Lisa; Gur, Merav; Shanok, Arielle; Weissman, Myrna
The objective of this study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and helpfulness of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT-PA) for depression in pregnant adolescents. Method: Two open clinical trials were conducted of IPT-PA delivered in group format in a New York City public school for pregnant girls. Study 1 tests IPT-PA for management of…
Markowitz, John C.; Petkova, Eva; Neria, Yuval; Van Meter, Page E.; Zhao, Yihong; Hembree, Elizabeth; Lovell, Karina; Biyanova, Tatyana; Marshall, Randall D.
Background Exposure to trauma reminders has been considered imperative in psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). No treatment benefits all patients, however. We tested Interpersonal Psychotherapy, which has demonstrated antidepressant efficacy and showed promise in pilot PTSD research, as a non-exposure-based, non-cognitive behavioral PTSD treatment. Methods A randomized, fourteen-week trial compared Interpersonal Psychotherapy; Prolonged Exposure, an exposure-based exemplar; and Relaxation Therapy, an active control psychotherapy. Subjects were 110 unmedicated patients having DSM-IV chronic PTSD and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) score >50. Randomization stratified for comorbid major depression. We hypothesized Interpersonal Psychotherapy would be no more than minimally inferior (CAPS difference <12.5 points) to Prolonged Exposure. Results All therapies had large within-group pre/post effect sizes (d=1.32–1.88). Response rates (>30% CAPS improvement) were: Interpersonal Psychotherapy 63%, Prolonged Exposure 47%, Relaxation Therapy 38% (n.s.). Interpersonal psychotherapy and Prolonged Exposure CAPS outcome differed by 5.5 points (n.s.); the null hypothesis of more than minimal Interpersonal Psychotherapy inferiority was rejected (p=0.035). Patients with comorbid major depression dropped out from Prolonged Exposure nine times more than non-depressed Prolonged Exposure patients. Interpersonal Psychotherapy and Prolonged Exposure improved quality of life and social functioning more than Relaxation Therapy. Conclusions This first controlled study of individual Interpersonal Psychotherapy for PTSD demonstrated non-inferiority to the “gold standard” PTSD treatment. Interpersonal Psychotherapy had (non-significantly) lower attrition and higher response rates than Prolonged Exposure. Contradicting a widespread clinical belief, PTSD treatment may not require cognitive behavioral exposure to trauma reminders. Moreover, as differential
Markowitz, John C.; Leon, Andrew C.; Miller, Nina L.; Cherry, Sabrina; Clougherty, Kathleen F.; Villalobos, Liliana
There has been much outcome research on interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) but little investigation of its components. This study assessed interrater reliability of IPT therapists in identifying interpersonal problem areas and treatment foci from audiotapes of initial treatment sessions. Three IPT research psychotherapists assessed up to 18 audiotapes of dysthymic patients, using the Interpersonal Problem Area Rating Scale. Cohen's kappa was used to examine concordance between raters. Kappas for presence or absence of each of the four IPT problem areas were 0.87 (grief), 0.58 (role dispute), 1.0 (role transition), and 0.48 (interpersonal deficits). Kappa for agreement on a clinical focus was 0.82. IPT therapists agreed closely in rating problem areas and potential treatment foci, providing empirical support for potential therapist consistency in this treatment approach. PMID:10896737
Markowitz, J C; Leon, A C; Miller, N L; Cherry, S; Clougherty, K F; Villalobos, L
There has been much outcome research on interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) but little investigation of its components. This study assessed interrater reliability of IPT therapists in identifying interpersonal problem areas and treatment foci from audiotapes of initial treatment sessions. Three IPT research psychotherapists assessed up to 18 audiotapes of dysthymic patients, using the Interpersonal Problem Area Rating Scale. Cohen's kappa was used to examine concordance between raters. Kappas for presence or absence of each of the four IPT problem areas were 0.87 (grief), 0.58 (role dispute), 1.0 (role transition), and 0.48 (interpersonal deficits). Kappa for agreement on a clinical focus was 0.82. IPT therapists agreed closely in rating problem areas and potential treatment foci, providing empirical support for potential therapist consistency in this treatment approach. PMID:10896737
Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Woody, Erik; Ethier, Nicole; Sadler, Pamela
To demonstrate how a novel computer joystick coding method can illuminate the study of interpersonal processes in psychotherapy sessions, we applied it to Shostrom's (1966) well-known films in which a client, Gloria, had sessions with 3 prominent psychotherapists. The joystick method, which records interpersonal behavior as nearly continuous flows on the plane defined by the interpersonal dimensions of control and affiliation, provides an excellent sampling of variability in each person's interpersonal behavior across the session. More important, it yields extensive information about the temporal dynamics that interrelate clients' and therapists' behaviors. Gloria's 3 psychotherapy sessions were characterized using time-series statistical indices and graphical representations. Results demonstrated that patterns of within-person variability tended to be markedly asymmetric, with a predominant, set-point-like interpersonal style from which deviations mostly occurred in just 1 direction (e.g., occasional submissive departures from a modal dominant style). In addition, across each session, the therapist and client showed strongly cyclical variations in both control and affiliation, and these oscillations were entrained to different extents depending on the therapist. We interpreted different patterns of moment-to-moment complementarity of interpersonal behavior in terms of different therapeutic goals, such as fostering a positive alliance versus disconfirming the client's interpersonal expectations. We also showed how this method can be used to provide a more detailed analysis of specific shorter segments from each of the sessions. Finally, we compared our approach to alternative techniques, such as act-to-act lagged relations and dynamic systems and pointed to a variety of possible research and training applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24001123
Budge, Stephanie L
Interpersonal therapy (IPT) is a particularly useful approach to use when working with clients who identify as transgender or gender nonconforming. All transgender individuals will experience changes and adjustment throughout their identity process, often referred to as transitioning. IPT offers specific interventions for psychotherapists to use with clients whose presenting concerns are specifically related to transitions. The current article outlines a case example of a transgender man who is experiencing difficulty with "role transitions" and offers four transgender-specific clinical intervention strategies derived within the traditional IPT framework. PMID:24000851
Poleshuck, Ellen L.; Gamble, Stephanie A.; Cort, Natalie; Hoffman-King, Debra; Cerrito, Beth; Rosario-McCabe, Luis A.; Giles, Donna E.
Up to 37% of individuals experience chronic pain during their lifetimes. Approximately one-fourth of primary care patients with chronic pain also meet criteria for major depression. Many of these individuals fail to receive psychotherapy or other treatment for their depression; moreover when they do, physical pain is often not addressed directly. Women, socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals, African Americans and Latinos all report higher rates of pain and depression compared to other groups. This article describes a version of Interpersonal Psychotherapy tailored for patients with comorbid depression and chronic pain, Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depression and Pain (IPT-P). While IPT-P potentially could be delivered to many different patient populations in a range of clinical settings, this article focuses on its delivery within primary care settings for socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Adaptations include a brief 8-session protocol that incorporates strategies for anticipating barriers to psychotherapy, accepting patients’ conceptualization of their difficulties, encouraging patients to consider the impact of their pain on their roles and relationships, emphasizing self-care, incorporating pain management techniques, and flexible scheduling. In addition, IPT-P is designed as an adjunct to usual medical pain treatment, and seeks to engage non-treatment seeking patients in psychotherapy by focusing on accessibility and relevance of the intervention to concerns common among patients with pain. Identifying patients with comorbid depression and chronic pain and offering IPT-P as a treatment option has the potential to improve clinical outcomes for individuals with depression and chronic pain. PMID:21191470
Rounsaville, Bruce J.; And Others
Examined relation between general dimensions of psychotherapy process, rated with the Vanderbilt Psychotherapy Process Scale (VPPS), and a manual-guided psychotherapy, Short-Term Interpersonal Psychotherapy of Depression (IPT). VPPS-rated dimensions of patients and therapist behaviors were significantly correlated with IPT competence ratings.…
O'Malley, Stephanie S.; And Others
Examined whether therapist's level of competence in conducting interpersonal psychotherapy of depression was associated with patient improvement. Used data from 35 depressed outpatients receiving interpersonal psychotherapy. Results showed that measures of therapist performance contributed significantly to prediction of patient-rated change and…
Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria
This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress. PMID:26401793
Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Calugi, Simona; Rucci, Paola; Savino, Mario; Mauri, Mauro; Dell'Osso, Liliana
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a dynamically informed and present-focused psychotherapy originally conceived for patients with unipolar depression and subsequently modified for other disorders, including postpartum depression (PPD). The aim of this paper is to review the evidence on the efficacy of IPT for PPD. We conducted a systematic review of studies published between 1995 and April 2013 assessing the efficacy of IPT for PPD using PubMed and PsycINFO. We included the following: (i) articles that presented a combination of at least two of the established terms in the abstract, namely, interpersonal [all fields] and ("psychotherapy" [MeSH terms] or psychotherapy [all fields]) and (perinatal [all fields] or postpartum [all fields]) and ("depressive disorder" [MeSH terms] or ("depressive" [all fields] and "disorder" [all fields]) or depressive disorder [all fields] or "depression" [all fields] or depression [MeSH terms]); (ii) manuscripts in English; (iii) original articles; and (iv) prospective or retrospective observational studies (analytical or descriptive), experimental, or quasi-experimental. Exclusion criteria were as follows: (i) other study designs, such as case reports, case series, and reviews; (ii) non-original studies including editorials, book reviews, and letters to the editor; and (iii) studies not specifically designed and focused on IPT. We identified 11 clinical primary trials assessing the efficacy of IPT for PPD, including 3 trials with group interventions (G-IPT) and one that required the presence of the partner (PA-IPT). We also identified six studies interpersonal-psychotherapy-oriented preventive interventions for use in pregnancy. IPT studies showed overall clinical improvement in the most commonly used depression measures in postpartum depressed women (EPDS, HDRS, BDI) and often-full recovery in several cases of treated patients. Evidence from clinical trials indicates that, when administered in monotherapy (or in combination with
The paper presents an overview of the national developments of group psychotherapy (GPS) in Sweden during the period from World War II until the present time. Methods and concepts, imported primarily from England and the United States, inspired trainings and widespread psychodynamic and group analytic applications in schools, health treatment, and social care. Education in psychotherapy and GPS at universities opened new therapeutic and vocational areas during the period 1970-2005. Increasing criticism of psychodynamics, as in other Western societies, but more radical in Sweden, has in the last decades made group analytic GPS diminish in favor of cognitive behavioral therapy models. Prospects for GPS further development may presently look bleak but, in a longer perspective, are promising. PMID:26401795
Van Denburg, Todd F.; And Others
Reviews instruments, methodologies, and strategies available to assess clients' interpersonal functioning. Focuses on instruments that provide characterizations of clients' and counselors' overt interpersonal behavior and covert reactions translated onto interpersonal circle models. Presents suggested interpersonal assessment battery; describes…
Bechelli, Luiz Paulo de C; Santos, Manoel Antônio Dos
This study examines the concept of transference, focusing on its peculiarities in the group context. The nature of the therapeutic situation and the broad freedom given to patients in order to access the unconscious material at their own pace, within a safe environment and with as little censorship as can be managed, transference gradually takes place. Through displacement, the psychotherapist and group members are perceived not as they are, with their real attributes, but as one or more objects that arouse emotions coming from the infant world, more precisely from the collection of deep affective influences. One peculiarity of the group situation when compared to individual psychotherapy is that, in the former, multiple transferences coexist, which group members establish among themselves, enabling a wide range of possible feelings. Both treatment modes share the assumption that unresolved conflicts which stimulated patients to seek for help can be reduced or even abolished through the interpretation and working through of transference, which functions as a process of change throughout the psychotherapy. PMID:16532247
RAFAELI, ALEXANDRA KLEIN; MARKOWITZ, JOHN C.
Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), a time-limited, evidence-based treatment, has shown efficacy in treating major depressive disorder and other psychiatric conditions. Interpersonal Psychotherapy focuses on the patient’s current life events and social and interpersonal functioning for understanding and treating symptoms. This case report demonstrates the novel use of IPT as treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Preliminary evidence suggests IPT may relieve PTSD symptoms without focusing on exposure to trauma reminders. Thus IPT may offer an alternative for patients who refuse (or do not respond to) exposure-based approaches. Interpersonal Psychotherapy focuses on two problem areas that specifically affect patients with PTSD: interpersonal difficulties and affect dysregulation. This case report describes a pilot participant from a study comparing 14 weekly sessions of IPT to treatment with two other psychotherapies. We describe the session-by-session IPT protocol, illustrating how to formulate the case, help the patient identify and address problematic affects and interpersonal functioning, and to monitor treatment response. PMID:22032045
Hilbert, Anja; Saelens, Brian E.; Stein, Richard I.; Mockus, Danyte S.; Welch, R. Robinson; Matt, Georg E.; Wilfley, Denise E.
The present study examined pretreatment and process predictors of individual nonresponse to psychological group treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized trial, 162 overweight patients with BED were treated with either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group interpersonal psychotherapy. Treatment nonresponse, which was defined…
Hilbert, Anja; Saelens, Brian E; Stein, Richard I; Mockus, Danyte S; Welch, R Robinson; Matt, Georg E; Wilfley, Denise E
The present study examined pretreatment and process predictors of individual nonresponse to psychological group treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized trial, 162 overweight patients with BED were treated with either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group interpersonal psychotherapy. Treatment nonresponse, which was defined as nonabstinence from binge eating, was assessed at posttreatment and at 1 year following treatment completion. Using 4 signal detection analyses, greater extent of interpersonal problems prior to treatment or at midtreatment were identified as predictors of nonresponse, both at posttreatment and at 1-year follow-up. Greater pretreatment and midtreatment concerns about shape and weight, among those patients with low interpersonal problems, were predictive of posttreatment nonresponse. Lower group cohesion during the early treatment phase predicted nonresponse at 1-year follow-up. Attention to specific pre- or intreatment predictors could allow for targeted selection into differential or augmented care and could thus improve response to group psychotherapy for BED. PMID:17663618
Lichtmacher, Jonathan; Eisendrath, Stuart J.; Haller, Ellen
Objective: Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression is a brief, well researched treatment for acute major depression. This article describes the implementation of IPT as an evidence-based treatment for depression in a psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors tracked the implementation process over 5 years as interpersonal…
Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark
Background: Indicated interventions for adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms may help decrease rates of depression. The current study reports on the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group indicated preventive intervention. Methods: Forty-one adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were…
Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Talbot, Nancy; King, Deborah
Older adults in the U.S. and many countries around the world die by suicide at elevated rates compared to younger adults. However, relatively little is known about psychotherapeutic approaches to managing and treating suicide risk among older adults. The patient in this case presented with elevated suicide risk and was treated with Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) informed by the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide. This theoretical model proposes that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are causes of suicide ideation. IPT guides therapists to look for one of four interpersonal stressors that may be present in a client’s life – grief, role transitions, interpersonal disputes, and interpersonal sensitivity (i.e., skills deficits). The Interpersonal Theory provides a rationale for choosing one problem focus over another. Specifically, the problem area that allows the therapist and patient to target and ameliorate thwarted belongingness and/or perceived burdensomeness is selected. The positive outcome of reduced suicide risk in this case illustrates how targeting the constructs of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness with Interpersonal Psychotherapy may help older adults resolve suicide ideation and prevent recurrences of suicidal crises. PMID:27087791
Existential issues in group psychotherapy derive from existential thought both as a philosophy and as a value system. Its origins derive from the weakening of traditional values and the growing alienation of man from himself. The unique features of existentialism can be applied to all forms of therapy. These features are universal to humankind. They are finiteness, aloneness, guilt, responsibility, and freedom. In including existential concerns as part of group psychotherapy, therapist and patients move more closely to bilateral relationships and subjective interactions. PMID:11928200
Clark, Carlton F. "Perk"
Transpersonal group psychotherapy is a carpet of theory, technique, and experiences woven from threads of contemporary psychology, mysticism, and a perennial philosophy many centuries old. Introduces the basic concepts of transpersonal group psychotherapy, proposes a model of transpersonal group psychotherapy, discusses the training of…
O'Shea, Gabrielle; Spence, Susan H; Donovan, Caroline L
The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressed adolescents differed from non-depressed adolescents in terms of constructs consistent with those that are proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy. In particular, it was hypothesized that compared with non-depressed adolescents, depressed adolescents would demonstrate a greater number of negative life events associated with interpersonal loss and major life transitions, a more insecure attachment style and poorer communication skills, interpersonal relationships and social support. Thirty-one clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents were matched with 31 non-depressed adolescents on age, gender and socio-economic status. The 62 participants were aged between 12 and 19 years and comprised 18 male and 44 female adolescents. On a self-report questionnaire, depressed adolescents reported a greater number of negative interpersonal life events, a less secure attachment style and scored higher on all insecure attachment styles compared with the non-depressed adolescents. In addition, depressed adolescents demonstrated lower levels of social skill (on both adolescent and parent report), a poorer quality of relationship with parents (on both adolescent and parent report) and lower social competence (adolescent report only). Parents of depressed adolescents also reported more negative parental attitudes and behaviours towards their adolescent compared with parents of non-depressed adolescents. Thus, the results of this study are consistent with the constructs underlying interpersonal psychotherapy and suggest their usefulness in the assessment, conceptualization and treatment of adolescent depression. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23801523
FRANK, ELLEN; RITCHEY, FIONA C.; LEVENSON, JESSICA C.
We employed standard literature search techniques and surveyed participants on the International Society for Interpersonal Psychotherapy listserve (firstname.lastname@example.org) to catalogue the multiple and highly creative ways in which Klerman’s and Weissman’s original concept of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has been modified to meet the needs of a vast range of patient populations. Focusing first on adaptations of the individual treatment model for subgroups of adult patients, we next describe further adaptations of four major off-shoots of IPT: interpersonal counseling (IPC), IPT for adolescents (IPT-A), group IPT (IPT-G) and most recently, brief IPT (IPT-B). We then discuss IPT “in-laws,” those treatments that have married IPT with of other forms of psychotherapy for patients with bipolar disorder, panic symptomatology, and substance abuse. We conclude with that although there have been myriad successful adaptations of IPT, there remain some conditions for which IPT adaptations have not been found to be efficacious. PMID:26453344
This article provides a particular view on the use of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy (FAP) in a group therapy format. This view is based on the author's experiences as a supervisor of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Groups, including groups for women with depression and groups for chronic pain patients. The contexts in which this approach…
Hall, Elisabeth Baerg; Mufson, Laura
This article describes the treatment of a depressed adolescent (15 years of age) boy using Interpersonal Psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). IPT-A is an empirically supported psychosocial intervention for adolescents suffering from a depressive episode. It is delivered as an individual psychotherapy with a minimum of parental…
Hoffart, Asle; Borge, Finn-Magnus; Sexton, Harold; Clark, David M.
The purpose of this study was to test cognitive and interpersonal models for improving social phobia. Eighty patients with social phobia were randomized to 10-week residential cognitive (RCT) or residential interpersonal psychotherapy (RIPT). They completed process measures every Thursday and a sub-outcome measure every Monday. The ratings were…
Bowen, Sarah; Haworth, Kevin; Grow, Joel; Tsai, Mavis; Kohlenberg, Robert
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP; Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991) aims to improve interpersonal relationships through skills intended to increase closeness and connection. The current trial assessed a brief mindfulness-based intervention informed by FAP, in which an interpersonal element was added to a traditional intrapersonal mindfulness…
MacLennan, Beryce W.; Felsenfeld, Naomi
Intended as an aid in conceptualizing group programs for adolescents and as a basic text on group methods, the book examines the goals and processes of socialization and rehabilitation. Areas treated include the group as an agent of change, the adolescent and his culture, general considerations in group counseling and group psychotherapy, process…
Three groups of patients (N = 30) distributed as well as possible according to indication among standard psychoanalytic therapy, analytic group therapy and dynamic psychotherapy were submitted to testing in order to investigate the risk indices for stress factors (Dührssen) and to factor analysis with the aid of the Freiburg Personality Inventory, the Giessen-Test, and the Extended Giessen Complaint Sheet. A fourth group of Patients (N = 30), originally assigned to group therapy but having discontinued treatment, was used as control group. It was found that among patients assigned to any of these types of therapy the stress index was significantly higher than among patients seeing the physician for merely an initial examination and the taking of their case histories. Furthermore, the different groups showed different indices for stress factors: Patients in dynamic psychotherapy had by far the highest index of stress, followed by the patients who had discontinued group therapy. Group therapy patients who completed their treatment had again a slightly higher risk index than those who had been assigned to standard psychoanalytic therapy. Application of the above mentioned tests or complaint sheets revealed significant differences between the specific groups. But therapy also resulted in significant improvement of isolated aspects. An investigation concerned with the number of days of hospitalization and the number of days of disablement in a randomly selected group of patients in 1977 showed a statistically significant reduction of these numbers in the five-year period following therapy when compared to the last five years prior to therapy. On the whole the investigation has made it apparent that any comparative psychotherapy study is more or less futile when the patients under observation are parallelized merely according to age, sex, and symptoms while the respective risk indices with the accompanying stress factors in childhood and adolescence are being neglected
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B; Young, Jami F; Wilfley, Denise E
This article presents a brief case study of "Jane Doe," a 13-year-old, non-Hispanic White girl 2 participating in a clinical research trial of interpersonal psychotherapy-weight gain (IPT-WG). Girls at-risk for adult obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) were randomly assigned to take part in 12 weeks of preventative group treatment. Jane's IPT-WG group included five other early adolescent girls (mostly aged 12-13) at risk for adult obesity and BED. The case of Jane illustrates a successful example of IPT-WG for the prevention of excessive weight gain and for the prevention of BED. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267503
Fincke, Janna I.; Möller, Heidi; Taubner, Svenja
Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees’ interpersonal behavior on work involvement (WI) and compared their social behavior within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. Methods: The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS) were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, and cognitive behavioral therapy training. Trainees from Sample 1 (N = 184) were asked to describe their interpersonal behavior in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from Sample 2 (N = 135) were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Results: Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of healing involvement, while stress involvement was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees’ relationships with their patients. Social behavior within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behavior. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees’ interpersonal behavior with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behavior could only be found when comparing trainees’ level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Conclusion: Trainees’ interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behavior in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training. PMID:26106347
Heird, Emily Benton; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.
Research has shown that disruptive circumstances in an athlete's career (temporary injury, permanent injury, retirement) can pose significant difficulties, especially if the athlete has developed a salient athletic identity at the expense of a multidimensional self-concept. The authors present an interpersonal psychotherapy approach to case…
Rounsaville, Bruce J.; And Others
Reviews findings from manual-guided training programs in short-term interpersonal psychotherapy for depression, an exploratory treatment focusing on symptom reduction and improvement of social functioning. Discusses literature findings which suggest that the use of manuals and systematic therapist training may be useful for the conduct of…
Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark
Objective: To assess the impact of comorbid anxiety on treatment for adolescent depression in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). Method: A randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 1, 1999, through July 31, 2002. Sixty-three depressed adolescents, ages 12 to 18, received either IPT-A…
Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Mufson, Laura H.; Schniering, Carolyn A.
In order to treat adolescent depression, a number of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) have been developed from both the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) frameworks. Research has shown that in order for these treatments to be implemented in routine clinical practice (RCP), effective therapist…
Nylen, Kimberly J.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Brock, Rebecca; Moel, Joy; Gorman, Laura; Stuart, Scott
Objective: We examined the course and predictors of postpartum depression in the 18 months following interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Method: We enrolled 120 community women with major depression in a 12-week randomized trial of individual IPT during the postpartum period (O'Hara, Stuart, Gorman, & Wenzel, 2000). At 6, 12, and 18 months…
Young, Jami F.; Makover, Heather B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert J.; Benas, Jessica S.
Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. This article reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a…
Markowitz, John C.; Lipsitz, Joshua; Milrod, Barbara L.
Background Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy in treating mood and eating disorders. This article critically reviews outcome research testing IPT for anxiety disorders, a diagnostic area where cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has dominated research and treatment. Methods A literature search identified six open and five controlled trials of IPT for social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Results Studies were generally small, underpowered, and sometimes methodologically compromised. Nonetheless, minimally adapted from its standard depression strategies, IPT for anxiety disorders yielded positive results in open trials for the three diagnoses. In controlled trials, IPT fared better than waiting list (N = 2), was equipotent to supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy (N = 1), but less efficacious than CBT for SAD (N = 1), and CBT for panic disorder (N = 1) in a methodologically complicated study. IPT equaled CBT in a group residential format (N = 1). Conclusions IPT shows some promise for anxiety disorders but has thus far shown no advantages in controlled trials relative to other therapies. Methodological and ecological issues have complicated testing of IPT for anxiety disorders, clouding some findings. The authors discuss difficulties of conducting non-CBT research in a CBT-dominated area, investigator bias, and the probable need to further modify IPT for anxiety disorders. Untested therapies deserve the fairest possible testing. Depression and Anxiety 00:1–10, 2014. PMID:24493661
Szwabo, Peggy; Thale, Thomas T.
Traditionally, the elderly have not been viewed as appropriate candidates for dynamic psychotherapy. To examine the effectiveness of a psycho-dynamically oriented group (focusing on the issues of aging, conflict resolution, and self-actualization) on 6 older adult participants, ages 63 to 87 years, systematic clinical observations of group…
Homosexual or bisexual men, dissatisfied with, or indirectly because of, their sexual orientation, were treated in a psychotherapy group led by a male-female cotherapy team. Of the 66 patients in this series, almost half made heterosexuality an explicit treatment goal. Of these, 85 percent experienced at least partial heterosexual shifts. (Author)
Chevron, Eve S.; And Others
The training of psychotherapists has been an ongoing process in psychiatry and clinical psychology. Recently, however, a growing demand to operationalize competence criteria to enable independent evaluation of therapists' skills in specifically defined psychotherapies has occurred. To examine this phenomenon, evaluation procedures were developed…
Tasca, Giorgio A
The application of attachment theory to adult psychotherapy represents a growing area of research and practice. Despite the conceptual overlap between group therapeutic factors, attachment theory, and therapeutic tasks as outlined by Bowlby (1988), there is little research on attachment functioning in group therapy. Hence, there remain substantial questions about the role of attachment theory in understanding group therapy processes and outcomes. The three studies in this special section advance the research in some of these important areas, including showing that positive changes in self-reported attachment insecurity among clients persist long after group therapy ends; attachment anxiety affects the level and rate of interpersonal learning in groups; and change in attachment to the therapy group has an impact on longer term change in individual group members' attachment. Each article also examines the impact of these attachment concepts on treatment outcomes. Numerous areas remain to be explored when it comes to the implications of attachment theory for understanding and conducting group therapy, including the conceptual and practical overlap between attachment concepts such as security and exploration with group therapeutic factors such as cohesion and interpersonal learning. The articles in this special section begin to address some of these issues related to attachment theory and its implications for group therapists. PMID:24377399
Background Many studies have shown the efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) on depression; however, there are limited studies concerning the universality of the IPT problem areas in different countries. This study identifies whether the interpersonal problem areas defined in the IPT manual are endorsed by Thai depressed patients. Methods The Thai Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Thai HRSD) and Thai Interpersonal Questionnaire were used to assess 90 depressed and 90 non-depressed subjects in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, during July 2007 - January 2008. The association between interpersonal problem areas/sociodemographic variables and depressive disorder were analyzed by chi-square test. A multivariable analysis was performed by using logistic regression to identify the remaining factors associated with depressive disorder. Results Most of the subjects were young to middle-aged females living in Bangkok and the Central Provinces. All four interpersonal problem areas (grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal deficits) were increased in the depressed subjects as compared to the non-depressed subjects, as were the sociodemographic variables (low education, unemployment, low income, and having a physical illness). Logistic regression showed that all interpersonal problem areas still remained problems associated with depression (grief: adjusted OR = 6.01, 95%CI = 1.93 - 18.69, p < 0.01; interpersonal role disputes: adjusted OR = 6.01, 95%CI = 2.18 - 16.52, p < 0.01; role transitions: adjusted OR = 26.30, 95%CI = 7.84 - 88.25, p < 0.01; and interpersonal deficits: adjusted OR = 2.92, 95%CI = 1.12 - 7.60, p < 0.05). Conclusion All four interpersonal problem areas were applicable to Thai depressed patients. PMID:20964850
Cassidy, Omni; Sbrocco, Tracy; Vannucci, Anna; Nelson, Beatrice; Jackson-Bowen, Darlene; Heimdal, James; Mirza, Nazrat; Wilfley, Denise E.; Osborn, Robyn; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Young, Jami F.; Waldron, Heather; Carter, Michele
Objective To obtain focus group data regarding the perspectives of rural African American (AA) girls, parents/guardians, and community leaders on obesity, loss of control (LOC) eating, relationships, and interpersonal psychotherapy for the prevention of excessive weight gain (IPT-WG). Methods 7 focus groups (N = 50 participants) were moderated and the transcripts analyzed by Westat researchers using widely accepted methods of qualitative and thematic analysis. A session was held with experts in health disparities to elucidate themes. Results Participants understood LOC eating; however, they had culturally specific perceptions including usage of alternative terms. Relationships were highly valued, specifically those between mothers and daughters. IPT-WG program components generally resonated with participants, although modifications were recommended to respect parental roles. Experts interpreted focus group themes and discussed potential barriers and solutions to recruitment and participation. Conclusion Findings suggest that adapting IPT-WG may be acceptable to rural AA families. This research is the first step in developing a sustainable excessive weight gain and binge eating disorder prevention program for rural AA adolescents. PMID:23678135
Huang, Teresa Chen-Chieh; Hill, Clara E; Strauss, Nicole; Heyman, Michelle; Hussain, Mahum
In posttherapy interviews with 31 clients who had recently terminated from individual open-ended psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy, 18 reported having had at least 1 corrective relational experience (CRE) during psychotherapy, whereas 13 did not report any CREs. CREs typically occurred in the context of therapeutic relationships that were primarily positive but also had minor difficulties. Therapists typically facilitated CREs by identifying or questioning client behavior patterns and conveying trustworthiness. Corrective shifts for clients typically involved a new understanding of the therapy experience and variantly involved gaining a new understanding of behavior patterns. Consequences generally included improvements in the therapy relationship and intrapersonal well-being. Qualitatively, the 13 non-CRE clients more frequently reported wishing the therapist's theoretical orientation was a better match than did the 18 CRE clients. Quantitatively, the CRE clients rated themselves as having more interpersonal problems at intake on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32 (Barkham, Hardy, & Startup, 1996), had marginally significant improvements in interpersonal functioning over time, rated their therapy alliances higher on the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Revised (Hatcher & Gillaspy, 2006) midtherapy, and rated their therapy alliances higher over time compared with the non-CRE clients. Implications for practice and research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26651212
Hatcher, Robert L
Professional practice in psychology is anchored in interpersonal or relational skills. These skills are essential to successful interactions with clients and their families, students, and colleagues. Expertise in these skills is desired and expected for the practicing psychologist. An important but little-studied aspect of interpersonal skills is what Stiles and colleagues (Stiles, Honos-Webb, & Surko, 1998; Stiles, 2009, 2013) have called appropriate responsiveness. In treatment relationships, appropriate responsiveness is the therapist's ability to achieve optimal benefit for the client by adjusting responses to the current state of the client and the interaction. This article was designed to clarify this aspect of responsiveness, showing its links to empathy, illustrating how responsiveness has been detected in controlled clinical trials, discussing how educators and supervisors have worked to enhance students' responsiveness, and considering how appropriate responsiveness has been assessed. The article also discusses the development of skills underlying appropriate responsiveness and the role of stable differences in talent in training of professional psychologists. Notwithstanding other pessimistic reports on psychologists' expertise, demonstrable expertise may exist in the effective, responsive use of these skills in treatment settings. Appropriate responsiveness may be a variety of executive functioning, organizing and guiding the use of many specific competencies. As such it may be a metacompetency, with implications for the design of competency schemes. Key to all of these considerations is the distinction between therapeutic techniques and their responsive use, which involves astute judgment as to when and how to utilize these responses to best effect in the treatment situation. PMID:26618963
Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides…
Lenze, Shannon N.; Rodgers, Jennifer; Luby, Joan
Perinatal depression is a major public health burden impacting both mothers and their offspring. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the acceptability and feasibility of a novel psychotherapeutic intervention that integrates an evidence-based intervention for depression, interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), with postpartum dyadic psychotherapy focused on emotional development in the context of the mother-infant relationship. Nine women between 12 and 30 weeks gestation with Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) scores >12 were entered into treatment. Three out of nine women dropped out of the study after initiating treatment (one lost to follow-up antepartum; two lost to follow-up post-partum). Seven out of eight women (87 %) reported clinically significant improvements in EDS scores from baseline to 37–39 weeks gestation, and all women had clinically significant improvements at 12 months postpartum. A small randomized controlled trial is underway to further examine the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. PMID:25604869
Howard, Jonathan K.
Research on therapeutic factors of group psychotherapy for adult alcoholics is reviewed. The research in this area has focused on determining whether or not group psychotherapy is an effective treatment modality for alcoholics. This review examines therapeutic factors in three phases of treatment: (1) preadmission, (2) primary intervention, and…
In the course of group analytic psychotherapy, where we discovered the power of the therapeutic effects, there occurred the need of group analytic psychotherapy researches. Psychotherapeutic work in general, and group psychotherapy in particular, are hard to measure and put into some objective frames. Researches, i. e. measuring of changes in psychotherapy is a complex task, and there are large disagreements. For a long time, the empirical-descriptive method was the only way of research in the field of group psychotherapy. Problems of researches in group psychotherapy in general, and particularly in group analytic psychotherapy can be reviewed as methodology problems at first, especially due to unrepeatability of the therapeutic process. The basic polemics about measuring of changes in psychotherapy is based on the question whether a change is to be measured by means of open measuring of behaviour or whether it should be evaluated more finely by monitoring inner psychological dimensions. Following the therapy results up, besides providing additional information on the patient's improvement, strengthens the psychotherapist's self-respect, as well as his respectability and credibility as a scientist. PMID:25478094
TSCHUSCHKE, VOLKER; MACKENZIE, K. ROY; HAASER, BARBARA; JANKE, GUNDULA
Process and outcome measures were compared in two long-term psychotherapy groups. Measures of Self-Disclosure and Feedback were based on analysis of videotaped sessions by use of Bales’s SYMLOG three-axial system. These measures were then combined to form a measure of Interpersonal Work. High Interpersonal Work scores, both in early sessions and throughout treatment, predicted better outcome for individual members at 18-month follow-up. Interpersonal Work scores in later group sessions were not related to outcome. Findings suggest that early sessions are a critical time for members to develop a working style in the group. Members who fail to do so have a less successful outcome even if their working styles improve in later sessions. PMID:22700263
Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin
BACKGROUND. Drop-out from psychotherapy is common and represents a considerable problem in clinical practice and research. Aim. To explore pre-treatment predictors of early and late drop-out from psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient unit for non-psychotic disorders in Denmark. Methods. Naturalistic design including 329 patients, the majority with mood, neurotic and personality disorders referred to 39-session group therapy. Predictors were socio-demographic and clinical variables, self-reported symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-Revised) and personality style (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II). Drop-out was classified into early and late premature termination excluding patients who dropped out for external reasons. Results. Drop-out comprised 20.6% (68 patients) of the sample. Logistic regression revealed social functioning, vocational training, alcohol problems and antisocial behavior to be related to drop-out. However, early drop-outs had prominent agoraphobic symptoms, lower interpersonal sensitivity and compulsive personality features, and late drop-outs cognitive and somatic anxiety symptoms and antisocial personality features. Clinical and psychological variables accounted for the major part of variance in predictions of drop-out, which ranged from 15.6% to 19.5% (Nagelkerke Pseudo R-Square). Conclusion. Social functioning was consistently associated with drop-out, but personality characteristics and anxiety symptoms differentiated between early and late drop-out. Failure to discriminate between stages of premature termination may explain some of the inconsistencies in the drop-out literature. Clinical implications. Before selection of patients to time-limited psychodynamic groups, self-reported symptoms should be thoroughly considered. Patients with agoraphobic symptoms should be offered alternative treatment. Awareness of and motivation to work with interpersonal issues may be essential for compliance with group therapy. PMID:24754466
Objective: Psychotherapy instructors have used video technology to train residents for over 40 years. Though it has met with some controversy, many will argue that videotape review is essential for self-directed learning and accurate psychotherapy supervision. Methods: The author describes a technique of small-group videotape training as provided…
Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Swartz, Holly A.; Frank, Ellen
Objective: To minimize barriers to care, ameliorate antenatal depression, and prevent postpartum depression, we conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of providing brief interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-B) to depressed, pregnant patients on low incomes in an obstetrics and gynecological (OB/GYN) clinic. Method: Twelve pregnant,…
McBride, Carolina; Atkinson, Leslie; Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael
Anxiety and avoidance dimensions of adult attachment insecurity were tested as moderators of treatment outcome for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Fifty-six participants with major depression were randomly assigned to these treatment conditions. Beck Depression Inventory-II, Six-Item Hamilton Rating Scale…
Mufson, Laura H.; Dorta, Kristen Pollack; Olfson, Mark; Weissman, Myrna M.; Hoagwood, Kimberly
This paper describes the process of modifying and transporting an evidence-based treatment, Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents (IPT-A), from a university setting to school-based health clinics. It addresses conceptual issues involved in the shift from efficacy to effectiveness research as well as operational issues specific to…
Budman, S H; Cooley, S; Demby, A; Koppenaal, G; Koslof, J; Powers, T
This article describes a model of time-limited psychotherapy for patients with personality disorders that emphasizes the group as a social microcosm. The patient population described is relatively high functioning, although the majority of the group members meet DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) criteria for an Axis II diagnosis. The clinical model's key theoretical concepts, for example, interpersonal focus; active therapist stance; emphasis on group interaction and processes; use of time limits; primary care/intermittent treatment philosophy; and emphasis on patients' strengths, goals, and resources are described. The relationships between the phases of group therapy and the key theoretical concepts are delineated. PMID:8753151
MILLER, MARK D.; FRANK, ELLEN; CORNES, CLEON; IMBER, STANLEY D.; ANDERSON, BARBARA; EHRENPREIS, LIN; MALLOY, JULIE; SILBERMAN, REBECCA; WOLFSON, LEE; ZALTMAN, JEAN; REYNOLDS, CHARLES F.
The efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) as a treatment for outpatients with major depression has been documented in several controlled trials. Recently, IPT has been adapted specifically for depression in late life. The authors report on their experience in applying IPT to geriatric patients whose depression is temporally linked to the loss of their spouses. Detailed treatment techniques are illustrated with case vignettes. Preliminary treatment outcomes are presented for 6 subjects who showed a mean change on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression from 18.5 ± 2.3 SD to 7.2 ± 4.6 after an average of 17 weekly IPT sessions. IPT appears to be an effective short-term treatment for bereavement-related depression in elderly subjects. PMID:22700188
We systematically reviewed the research literature on spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy to answer the following three questions: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group psychotherapy; and, third, what is the outcome of the group psychotherapies? We searched in two databases: PsycINFO and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and checklists from standardized assessment tools were applied to the research literature. Qualitative and quantitative papers were included. In total, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded. PMID:24288557
Lenze, Shannon N; Rodgers, Jennifer; Luby, Joan
Perinatal depression is a major public health burden impacting both mothers and their offspring. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the acceptability and feasibility of a novel psychotherapeutic intervention that integrates an evidence-based intervention for depression, interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), with postpartum dyadic psychotherapy focused on emotional development in the context of the mother-infant relationship. Nine women between 12 and 30 weeks gestation with Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) scores >12 were entered into treatment. Three out of nine women dropped out of the study after initiating treatment (one lost to follow-up antepartum; two lost to follow-up postpartum). Seven out of eight women (87 %) reported clinically significant improvements in EDS scores from baseline to 37-39 weeks gestation, and all women had clinically significant improvements at 12 months postpartum. A small randomized controlled trial is underway to further examine the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. PMID:25604869
Ollila, Pekka; Knekt, Paul; Heinonen, Erkki; Lindfors, Olavi
Information on how the patient's interpersonal problems predict alliance development during long-term therapy is lacking. The aim of this study was to explore how the patient's pre-treatment interpersonal problems predict the development of alliance in long-term psychotherapy. Altogether 128 adult outpatients experiencing mood or anxiety disorder were assigned to long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study. The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) total score and the eight octant scores, assessed at baseline, were used as predictors. The trajectories of change in patient- and therapist-rated Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) were used as outcome measures at 7, 12, and 36 months of follow-up after baseline. Study of the changes by time showed that the patient-rated alliance was significantly improved by the 36-month follow-up, i.e. the most usual end-point of therapy, in persons with higher pre-treatment level of the IIP total score. Low total IIP score and low to moderate level of hostile type problems showed no slope of improvement of patient-rated alliance during follow-up. The therapist-rated alliance showed a similar course as the patient-rated alliance with the exception of a faster improvement for higher IIP scores. In conclusion, a higher level of patients' interpersonal problems predicted favorable alliance development. PMID:27173654
Altenstein, David; Krieger, Tobias; Grosse Holtforth, Martin
Interpersonal theories of psychotherapy hypothesize that the success of therapy depends on the therapist's and patient's dominant and affiliative behaviors as well as their interplay (complementarity). This study sought to investigate (a) how in-session interpersonal microprocesses predict postsession evaluations of the therapeutic alliance as well as cognitive-emotional processing and (b) how complementarity develops over the course of a therapy session. Twenty depressed patients were treated at a university-based outpatient clinic with a variant of cognitive therapy. One session was analyzed from each therapy's middle phase using a novel real-time rating procedure (joystick method) to assess the patients' and therapists' affiliative and dominant behaviors as well as their resulting complementarity over the course of the session. The therapeutic alliance and cognitive-emotional processing were assessed by self-reports directly after the respective session. As predicted, more emotional arousal was associated with deviations from complementarity, whereas a positive alliance was related to affiliative patient behavior. Moreover, marginally significant trends suggest that refraining from answering to the pull of patient hostility might benefit both the alliance as well as cognitive-emotional processing. Overall, multilevel growth modeling revealed a significant cubic trend of complementarity over the course of the session. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:23647390
Franks, V; Watts, M; Fabricius, J
The dissatisfaction of patients with communication in health care has largely been addressed by providing more communication skills training. Research into why skills training might be ineffective has identified various factors, which include organizational resistance, personal defences against anxiety and a need for personal reflection and support. In one college of nurse education small group discussion and reflection had become established practice for students in their first and second clinical experience. The groups met once weekly and were facilitated by a nurse teacher. Discussion was unstructured and focused on the nurse's interpersonal relationship with his or her patients. This project examined one such group and sought to examine the use of small group reflective discussion by nurses about their patients as a means of improving interpersonal communication. The research was conducted over a period of 6 months with nine student nurses meeting once weekly during their first two episodes of clinical experience. Kelly's personal construct theory was used and two repertory grids were constructed by the group. One grid examined processes and change in intrapersonal construing, and the other grid examined processes and change in construing about certain patients. These grids were completed by the students at the beginning and at the termination of the groups. Notes were taken after each group meeting, which recorded impressions and processes; these were discussed once weekly with supervision. The notes were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. The results show some changes in patterns of constructing in relation to self which indicate an increase in anxiety and reluctance to self-reflect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7860864
Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L; Handley, Elizabeth D
Genetic moderation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) efficacy for economically disadvantaged women with major depressive disorder was examined. Specifically, we investigated whether genotypic variation in corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) and the linked polymorphic region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderated effects of IPT on depressive symptoms over time. We also tested genotype moderation of IPT mechanisms on social adjustment and perceived stress. Non-treatment-seeking urban women at or below the poverty level with infants were recruited from the community (N = 126; M age = 25.33 years, SD = 4.99; 54.0% African American, 22.2% Caucasian, and 23.8% Hispanic/biracial) and randomized to individual IPT or Enhanced Community Standard groups. The results revealed that changes in depressive symptoms over time depended on both intervention group and genotypes (5-HTTLPR and CRHR1). Moreover, multiple-group path analysis indicated that IPT improved depressive symptoms, increased social adjustment, and decreased perceived stress at posttreatment among women with the 0 copies of the CRHR1 TAT haplotype only. Finally, improved social adjustment at postintervention significantly mediated the effect of IPT on reduced depressive symptoms at 8 months postintervention for women with 0 copies of the TAT haplotype only. Post hoc analyses of 5-HTTLPR were indicative of differential susceptibility, albeit among African American women only. PMID:25640828
Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.; Handley, Elizabeth D.
Genetic moderation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) efficacy for economically disadvantaged women with major depressive disorder was examined. Specifically, we investigated whether genotypic variation in corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) and the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) moderated effects of IPT on depressive symptoms over time. We also tested genotype moderation of IPT mechanisms social adjustment and perceived stress. Non-treatment seeking urban women at or below the poverty level with infants were recruited from the community (N = 126; M age = 25.33; SD = 4.99; 54.0% African-American, 22.2% Caucasian, and 23.8% Hispanic/biracial) and randomized to individual IPT or enhanced community standard (ECS). Results revealed that changes in depressive symptoms over time depended on both intervention group and genotypes (5-HTTLPR and CRHR1). Moreover, multiple-group path analysis indicated that IPT improved depressive symptoms, increased social adjustment and decreased perceived stress at post-treatment among women with the 0 copies of the CRHR1 TAT haplotype only. Finally, improved social adjustment at post-intervention significantly mediated the effect of IPT on reduced depressive symptoms at 8 months post-intervention for women 0 copies of the TAT haplotype only. Post-hoc analyses of 5-HTTLPR were indicative of differential susceptibility, albeit among African-American women only. PMID:25640828
Young, Jami F.; Makover, Heather B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert; Benas, Jessica S.
Objective Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. Method This paper reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a depression prevention program. Ninety-eight adolescents were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Outcome and predictor analyses were performed utilizing hierarchical linear models. Results IPT-AST adolescents had significantly greater reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms than SC adolescents during the intervention. Baseline anxiety symptoms predicted change in depressive symptoms for adolescents in both intervention conditions, with adolescents low in baseline anxiety demonstrating more rapid change in depressive symptoms than adolescents high in baseline anxiety. Conclusions These findings indicate that IPT-AST is effective at decreasing both depressive and anxiety symptoms. For adolescents with comorbid symptoms of anxiety, there may be slower rates of change in depressive symptoms following prevention programs. PMID:22891881
Razaghi, Emran Mohammad; Tabatabaee, Maryam; Pourramzani, Ali; Shirali Mohammadpour, Reza; Mousazade Moghaddam, Arezou; Yahyavi, Seyyed Taha
In Iran, inpatient group psychotherapy has been limited to transient practices for research purposes or fulfilling personal interest of therapists. The goal of this paper is to share and explain the experience of developing an inpatient group psychotherapy program in Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran, Iran. After theoretical delineation and preparation of a draft of the program guideline, two pilot sessions were held. Based on this initial experience a final treatment guideline was prepared. Afterwards, the program was continued for more than 1 year in a female ward at Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. The output of this exercise was a guideline that covers important topics in development of inpatient group psychotherapy. It is concluded that inpatient group psychotherapy has its unique challenges. Of the most important challenges that can be mentioned in this regard are the participation of patients with significant differences in levels of psychopathology and psychiatric signs and symptoms, and high comorbidity with specific personality traits or disorders. Other challenges relevant to the structure of the group include items such as very limited time for working through and inevitable out-of-group contacts. PMID:26576176
Group psychotherapy was used with socio-economically deprived adolescents whose capacity for self-expression was promising. Non-psychotic acting out characters and passive inadequate personalities participated, and discussion, role playing, and psychodrama were the techniques utilized. After one year the following changes were seen: (1) increased…
Bozzatello, Paola; Bellino, Silvio
Few investigations evaluated the long-term effects of psychotherapies in borderline personality disorder (BPD). In a previous study, we compared efficacy of combination of fluoxetine and interpersonal psychotherapy adapted to BPD (IPT-BPD) versus single fluoxetine administered for 32 weeks. This study is aimed to investigate whether the results obtained with the addition of IPT-BPD persist during a follow-up period. Forty-four patients who completed the 32 weeks trial underwent 24 months of follow-up receiving fluoxetine 20-40 mg/day. Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S), Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety (HDRS, HARS), Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P), and Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index (BPDSI) were repeated at 6, 12, and 24 months. Statistical analysis was performed with the general linear model. Results showed that most of the differences between combined therapy and single pharmacotherapy at the end of the 32 weeks trial were maintained after 24 months follow-up. The addition of IPT-BPD to medication produced greater effects on BPD symptoms (impulsivity and interpersonal relationships) and quality of life (perception of psychological and social functioning) that endured after termination of psychotherapy. On the contrary, different effects on anxiety symptoms and affective instability were lost after 6 months. PMID:27107668
Kellett, S; Beail, N
This article presents a single-case experimental study of a woman suffering a traumatized reaction to a road traffic accident (RTA). In addition to meeting the DSM-IV (APA, 1994) criteria for the diagnosis of PTSD, the client suffered recurrent bizarre nightmares. The client reported at assessment, that each night her dreams were dominated by a terrifying hooded cloaked faceless figure. The central aim of the study therefore was to assess the efficacy of a psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) style psychotherapy in the context of an unusual PTSD reaction. The methodology employed an A/B multiple baseline time series design, with six month follow-up. A and B represent a series of dream diary observations under two conditions: assessment/baseline (A) and treatment/intervention (B). Treatment consisted of a manualized psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) psychotherapy to facilitate insight into the content and meaning of the nightmares. The intervention reduced the frequency and associated distress of the nightmares to zero. Follow-up at six months noted the long-term efficacy of the psychotherapy. The study is discussed with reference to the assimilation model of psychotherapeutic change. PMID:9093749
Betts, Kevin R; Hinsz, Verlin B
An extensive research literature has examined the reactions of individuals facing interpersonal rejection. Small groups can also be rejected, but current research tells us little about the experiences of groups and their members directly. We integrate findings from various literatures to gain insight into shared rejection experiences and their outcomes. Of most practical importance, we argue that groups can be expected to react with more hostility than individuals when rejected. Four existing models that account for how group processes might alter such reactions are examined: a need-threat model, a rejection-identification model, a multimotive model, and a dual attitudes model. Aspects of these models are then integrated into a unifying framework that is useful for understanding hostile reactions to group marginalization. Implications for natural groups such as terrorist cells, school cliques, racial and ethnic minorities, and gangs are discussed. PMID:23928559
Martinez-Taboada, Cristina; Amutio, Alberto; Elgorriaga, Edurne; Arnoso, Ainara
(1) What is the history and the theoretical orientation of group therapy in Spain? (2) How is training organized? (3) What role does group psychotherapy play in the health system in Spain? (4) What is the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice in Spain? (5) What topics can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Spain? (6) How are group-related issues important within the social background of Spain? and (7) What does group work hold for the future? Although not even a century has passed since the birth of this discipline, there have already been many events associated with the management of power and knowledge, the development of a sense of community, and the evolution of the political and social life of our country. Group therapy training is still evolving and is properly supported and accredited by prestigious institutions. In the 2013 Symposium of the Spanish Society of Group Psychotherapy and Group Techniques (SEPTG), the need for joint group theories and techniques within the profession's activities was clearly highlighted. Further, the enthusiasm of group psychotherapists to open themselves to specific social perspectives (health, education, community prevention, organizations) is a way of encouraging society to untangle conscious and unconscious knots that are created in social interaction. PMID:26401792
... patients with BPD. 6 Interpersonal Therapy Interpersonal therapy (IPT) is most often used on a one-on- ... of depression). The current manual-based form of IPT used today was developed in the 1980's by ...
Dietz, Laura J.; Weinberg, Rebecca J.; Brent, David A.; Mufson, Laura
Objective To conduct a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for treating depression in preadolescents (ages 7–12) as compared to child-centered therapy (CCT), a supportive and nondirective treatment that closely approximates the standard of care for pediatric depression in community mental health. Method Preadolescents with depression (N=42) were randomly assigned FB-IPT or CCT. Pre- and posttreatment assessments included clinician-administered measures of depression, parent- and child-reported depression and anxiety symptoms, and parent-child conflict and interpersonal impairment with peers. Results Preadolescents receiving FB-IPT had higher rates of remission (66.0% vs. 31%), a greater decrease in depressive symptoms from pre- to posttreatment, and lower depressive symptoms at posttreatment (R2=0.35, Δ R2 = 0.22; B= -8.15, SE= 2.61, t(37)= -3.13, p=0.002, F2=0.28) than did preadolescents with depression receiving CCT. Furthermore, preadolescents in the FB-IPT condition reported significant reductions in anxiety and interpersonal impairment than did preadolescents in the CCT condition. Changes in social and peer impairment from pre- to posttreatment were associated with preadolescents’ posttreatment depressive symptoms. There was a significant indirect effect for decreased social impairment accounting for the association between the FB-IPT and preadolescents’ posttreatment depressive symptoms. Conclusion Findings indicate FB-IPT is an effective treatment for preadolescent depression and support further investigation of interpersonal mechanisms by which FB-IPT may reduce preadolescent depression. Clinical trial registration information Phase II Study of Family Based Interpersonal Psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for Depressed Preadolescents; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02054312; NCT02054312. PMID:25721184
Schlapobersky, John R
In the United Kingdom (U.K.), group therapy is one of the most widely practiced methods, with a broad range of applications and an extensive literature. The terminology used here is based on the author's chapter in The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (Schlapobersky & Pines, 2008). We used two factors-therapeutic goals and group leadership-to provide a classification of different models and applications. We described group therapy as a method, group analysis (for example) as a model, and an in-patient or weekly group as an application of a model. PMID:26401800
Azima, Fern J.
This paper defines a useful strategy for therapists working with adolescents which includes: (1) a general model of the group leader's responsibilities and (2) a cataloguing of some of the specific impediments for both adolescent peers and the therapist that prevent effective communication. The goal of the group therapy is to identify the specific…
Ettin, Mark F; Cohen, Bertram D
Macropolitical evolution, starting with authoritarian monarchism, has moved through anarchistic transitions either to the totalitarianism of fascism and communism or to liberal and social democracy. We posit analogous micropolitical development in process-oriented therapy groups: "dependence" and "counterdependence" corresponding to monarchism and anarchism; and "independence" and "interdependence" to liberal and social democracy, respectively. Transition from counterdependence to independence and interdependence may be: (1) facilitated through group members' cooperative experience of rebellion, or (2) blocked by collective identification, the internalization of dystopian or utopian fantasies that coalesce as "group-self" perceptions. We explore how group therapists work clinically with and through these several "political cultures" in the service of group and self transformation. PMID:14562523
The aim of this research is try to expose and to debate the groupal psychotherapy experience of homosexual males older than 65 years, in Buenos Aires. The starting point for this work is based on that homogeneous groups are effective in some contexts, what is demonstrated by the results at the beginning and at the end of the samples of the BSI and SAS, although this data are not, like it was supposed, commonly linked with the selected biographical antecedents (abuse of power, bereavements during the last military dictatorships, bereavements as result of the AIDS epidemic and the difficulties in the economic survival). PMID:12478313
Kibel, H D
The author reviews the history of the literature on inpatient group psychotherapy. Key observations of early workers--the central role of the group leader, the experiential benefits of the group, and the relationship to the milieu--have not resulted in wide application of this form of therapy because of limitations of previous conceptual models. The model presented draws on concepts of general systems and object relations theory. General systems theory explains how the small therapy group symbolically reflects the dynamic process of the psychiatric unit. Object relations theory provides a unique understanding of the central regulatory function of the therapist and the beneficial effects of the group. The author provides clinical illustrations of these points. PMID:7446787
Ettin, M F
Practitioners of analytical psychology were late in coming to the practice of group psychotherapy because Carl Jung effectively forbade the treatment of individuals in stranger groups. This article explores Jung's objections to group therapy and, by way of a conceptual review of the literature, expands on the practice that grew up proximate to his death. It is argued that Jungian theory is especially conducive to collective treatment because it is concerned with the relationship between oppositions (whether in persons or between people) and uses synthetic and symbolic processes to bring about an integration of the one with the many. For Jungians who espouse a theory of symbolic transformation, archetype, and myth, the group is embodied in individuals and can be accessed by working with individuals in groups. PMID:7558501
Pigeon, Wilfred R.; May, Pamela E.; Perlis, Michael L.; Ward, Erin A.; Lu, Naiji; Talbot, Nancy L.
Insomnia frequently occurs with trauma exposure and depression, but can ameliorate with improvements in depression. Insomnia was assessed by the insomnia subscale of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression in 106 women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and major depression receiving Interpersonal Psychotherapy in an uncontrolled pilot (n = 36) and an immediately subsequent randomized controlled trial (n = 70) comparing IPT to treatment as usual. Depression improved in each study and in both treatment conditions; insomnia had smaller, non-significant improvements. Overall, 95 women (90%) endorsed insomnia on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV at baseline and, of those, 90% endorsed insomnia following treatment. Despite improvements in depression, insomnia persists for most women with CSA. PMID:19885874
Cooper, Zafra; Allen, Elizabeth; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E; Fairburn, Christopher G
Consistent predictors, and more especially moderators, of response to psychological treatments for eating disorders have not been identified. The present exploratory study examined predictors and moderators of outcome in adult patients who took part in a randomised clinical trial comparing two leading treatments for these disorders, enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT-E) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Four potentially important findings emerged. Firstly, patients with a longer duration of disorder were less likely to benefit from either treatment. Second, across the two treatments the presence, at baseline, of higher levels of over-evaluation of the importance of shape predicted a less good treatment outcome. Third DSM-IV diagnosis did not predict treatment outcome. Fourth, with the exception of patients with baseline low self-esteem who achieved a better outcome with CBT-E, it was generally not possible to identify a subgroup of patients who would differentially benefit from one or other treatment. PMID:27423373
Crenshaw, David A.
This paper describes a group approach to the treatment of mildly retarded and borderline adolescents in a residential school setting. The program attempts to develop the requisite interpersonal skills for a successful return to community life. The approach utilizes strong reality orientation and role playing. (Author/MS)
Duncan, W. Jack; Beeland, James L.
Investigates seven task-oriented groups which examine consistency of social choice across a range of behavioral criteria (friendship, leadership, followship, and evaluation criteria of social interaction). Results suggest that some criteria of interpersonal relations are interdependent: acceptance and rejection choices are not opposite ends of…
Opiyo, Elizabeth; Ongeri, Linnet; Rota, Grace; Verdeli, Helen; Neylan, Thomas; Meffert, Susan
We examine the efficacy of nonspecialists delivering interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) to HIV-positive (HIV+) women. We describe a case in which local personnel without prior mental health training delivered IPT for the treatment of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in an HIV+ woman who reported experiencing gender-based violence and was enrolled in HIV care at the Family AIDS, Care, Education and Services program in Kisumu, Kenya. PMID:27463639
Does Interpersonal Psychotherapy improve clinical care for adolescents with depression attending a rural child and adolescent mental health service? Study protocol for a cluster randomised feasibility trial
Bearsley-Smith, Cate; Browne, Mark Oakley; Sellick, Ken; Villanueva, Elmer V; Chesters, Janice; Francis, Karen; Reddy, Prasuna
Background Depression amongst adolescents is a costly societal problem. Little research documents the effectiveness of public mental health services in mapping this problem. Further, it is not clear whether usual care in such services can be improved via clinician training in a relevant evidence based intervention. One such intervention, found to be effective and easily learned amongst novice clinicians, is Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). The study described in the current paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to investigate the impact on clinical care of implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescents for the treatment of adolescent depression within a rural mental health service compared with Treatment as Usual (TAU). The second objective is to record the process and challenges (i.e. feasibility, acceptability, sustainability) associated with implementing and evaluating an evidence-based intervention within a community service. This paper outlines the study rationale and design for this community based research trial. Methods/design The study involves a cluster randomisation trial to be conducted within a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in rural Australia. All clinicians in the service will be invited to participate. Participating clinicians will be randomised via block design at each of four sites to (a) training and delivery of IPT, or (b) TAU. The primary measure of impact on care will be a clinically significant change in depressive symptomatology, with secondary outcomes involving treatment satisfaction and changes in other symptomatology. Participating adolescents with significant depressive symptomatology, aged 12 to 18 years, will complete assessment measures at Weeks 0, 12 and 24 of treatment. They will also complete a depression inventory once a month during that period. This study aims to recruit 60 adolescent participants and their parent/guardian/s. A power analysis is not indicated as an intra-class correlation
Swartz, Holly A; Zuckoff, Allan; Frank, Ellen; Spielvogle, Heather N; Shear, M Katherine; Fleming, M A Dana; Scott, John
Major depression affects one out of five women during her lifetime. Depressed mothers with psychiatrically ill children represent an especially vulnerable population. Challenged by the demands of caring for ill children, these mothers often put their own needs last; consequently, their depressions remain untreated. This population is especially difficult to engage in treatment. We have developed a nine-session intervention, an engagement session followed by eight sessions of brief interpersonal psychotherapy designed to increase maternal participation in their own psychotherapy, resolve symptoms of maternal depression, and enhance relationships (IPT-MOMS). This open-label trial assesses the feasibility and acceptability of providing this treatment to depressed mothers. Thirteen mothers meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from a pediatric mental health clinic where their school-age children were receiving psychiatric treatment. Subjects (mothers) were treated openly with IPT-MOMS. Eighty-five percent (11/13) completed the study. Subjects were evaluated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and completed self-report measures of quality of life and functioning at three time points: baseline, after treatment completion, and 6-months posttreatment. A signed rank test was used to compare measurement changes between assessment time points. Subjects showed significant improvement from baseline to posttreatment on measures of maternal symptoms and functioning. These gains were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Therapy was well tolerated and accepted by depressed mothers, who are typically difficult to engage in treatment. A high proportion of subjects completed treatment and experienced improvements in functioning. Future randomized clinical trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this approach. PMID:16841341
van Schaik, Digna JF; van Marwijk, Harm WJ; Beekman, Aartjan TF; de Haan, Marten; van Dyck, Richard
Background Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) is recommended in most depression treatment guidelines and proved to be a suitable treatment for elderly depressed patients. Despite the favorable results of IPT in research populations, the dissemination to general practice is surprisingly limited. Little is known about uptake and satisfaction when this therapy is introduced into real-life general practice. Methods Motivation and evaluation of patients, GPs and therapists were recorded and organizational barriers described alongside a randomized controlled trial. IPT, given by mental health workers, was compared with usual general practitioner (GP) care. Included were patients (≥55 years) who met the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder. Results Patients were motivated for the psychotherapy intervention: of the 205 eligible patients, 143 (70%) entered the study, and of the 69 patients who were offered IPT, 77% complied with the treatment. IPT proved to be an attractive therapy for patients as well as for therapists from mental health organizations. General practitioners evaluated the intervention positively afterwards, mainly because of the time-limited and structured approach. Organizational barriers: no IPT therapists were available; an IPT trainer and supervisor had to be trained and training materials had to be developed and translated. Additionally, there was a lack of office space in some general practices; for therapists from private practices it was not feasible to participate because of financial reasons. IPT was superior to usual care in patients with moderate to severe depression. Conclusion As we succeeded in delivering IPT in primary care practice, and as IPT was superior to usual care, there are grounds to support the implementation of IPT for depressed elderly patients within general practice, as long as the practices have room for the therapists and financial barriers can be overcome. Consolidation may be achieved by making this intervention
Huibers, Marcus J. H.; Cohen, Zachary D.; Lemmens, Lotte H. J. M.; Arntz, Arnoud; Peeters, Frenk P. M. L.; Cuijpers, Pim; DeRubeis, Robert J.
Introduction Although psychotherapies for depression produce equivalent outcomes, individual patients respond differently to different therapies. Predictors of outcome have been identified in the context of randomized trials, but this information has not been used to predict which treatment works best for the depressed individual. In this paper, we aim to replicate a recently developed treatment selection method, using data from an RCT comparing the effects of cognitive therapy (CT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Methods 134 depressed patients completed the pre- and post-treatment BDI-II assessment. First, we identified baseline predictors and moderators. Second, individual treatment recommendations were generated by combining the identified predictors and moderators in an algorithm that produces the Personalized Advantage Index (PAI), a measure of the predicted advantage in one therapy compared to the other, using standard regression analyses and the leave-one-out cross-validation approach. Results We found five predictors (gender, employment status, anxiety, personality disorder and quality of life) and six moderators (somatic complaints, cognitive problems, paranoid symptoms, interpersonal self-sacrificing, attributional style and number of life events) of treatment outcome. The mean average PAI value was 8.9 BDI points, and 63% of the sample was predicted to have a clinically meaningful advantage in one of the therapies. Those who were randomized to their predicted optimal treatment (either CT or IPT) had an observed mean end-BDI of 11.8, while those who received their predicted non-optimal treatment had an end-BDI of 17.8 (effect size for the difference = 0.51). Discussion Depressed patients who were randomized to their predicted optimal treatment fared much better than those randomized to their predicted non-optimal treatment. The PAI provides a great opportunity for formal decision-making to improve individual patient outcomes in depression. Although
Tasca, Giorgio A; Francis, Kylie; Balfour, Louise
Trainees may experience greater effectiveness as therapists by conceptualizing group therapy interactions as occurring at different levels of functioning. We teach group therapy trainees to be aware of and flexibly direct their interventions to three levels of the group: (a) the intraindividual level, (b) the interpersonal level, and (3) the group-as-a-whole level. Within this conceptualization, we also encourage trainees to reinforce the group structure especially related to safety and secure base and to help group members to self-reflect about their interactions within the group. In this clinical process commentary, we describe a process of pregroup assessment and preparation that includes evaluating individual core relational patterns (CRPs) and how these patterns might express themselves in the three levels of group functioning. A running case presentation provides examples of a CRP formulation, levels of group functioning, and therapist interventions that are specific to each level. Making use of each group level within every session may allow the novice group therapist to sort the complex information they receive in a meaningful way. A therapist who can flexibly attend to and work within each group level will optimize the effectiveness of their interventions. PMID:24059738
Binder, Jeffrey L; Betan, Ephi J
Therapeutic discourse combines inquiry and dialogue strategies, which correspond, respectively, to the construction and deconstruction of a patient's maladaptive personal story line. This story line refers to a pattern of dysfunctional thinking/emotional management and a corresponding maladaptive interpersonal pattern that has been identified as the root cause of the patient's presenting problems. Identifying and critically examining a patient's personal story line is the superordinate technical strategy that guides our work each session. More specific technical guidance is provided by the change processes that we attempt to activate in each session: cognitive insight around emotionally loaded issues, corrective emotional/interpersonal experiences, and practice implementing the insights gained during a therapy session. PMID:24000865
Fassone, G; Valcella, F; Pallini, S; Scarcella, F; Tombolini, L; Ivaldi, A; Prunetti, E; Manaresi, F; Liotti, G
Assessing Interpersonal Motivations in Transcripts (AIMIT) is a coding system aiming to systematically detect the activity of interpersonal motivational systems (IMS) in the therapeutic dialogue. An inter- and intra-rater reliability study has been conducted. Sixteen video-recorded psychotherapy sessions were selected and transcribed according to the AIMIT criteria. Sessions relate to 16 patients with an Axis II diagnosis, with a mean Global Assessment of Functioning of 51. For the intra-rater reliability evaluation, five sessions have been selected and assigned to five independent coders who where asked to make a first evaluation, and then a second independent one 14 days later. For the inter-rater reliability study, the sessions coded by the therapist-coder were jointly revised with another coder and finally classified as gold standard. The 16 standard sessions were sent to other evaluators for the independent coding. The agreement (κ) was estimated according to the following parameters for each coding unit: evaluation units supported by the 'codable' activation of one or more IMS; motivational interaction with reference to the ongoing relation between patient and therapist; an interaction between the patient and another person reported/narrated by the patient; detection of specific IMS: attachment (At), caregiving (CG), rank (Ra), sexuality (Se), peer cooperation (PC); and transitions from one IMS to another were also scored. The intra-rater agreement was evaluated through the parameters 'cod', 'At', 'CG', 'Ra', 'Se' and 'PC' described above. A total of 2443 coding units were analysed. For the nine parameters on which the agreement was calculated, eight ['coded (Cod)', 'ongoing relation (Rel)', 'narrated relation (Nar)', 'At', 'CG', 'Ra', 'Se' and 'PC'] have κ values comprised between 0.62 (CG) and 0.81 (Cod) and were therefore satisfactory. The scoring of 'transitions' showed agreement values slightly below desired cut-off (0.56). Intra-rater reliability was
Verdeli, Helen; Therosme, Tatiana; Eustache, Eddy; Hilaire, Olissaint St; Joseph, Benissois; Sönmez, Cemile Ceren; Raviola, Giuseppe
After the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Zanmi Lasante, a local health care organization, implemented a collaborative stepped-care model to address depression in community and primary care settings in rural Haiti. Specialized community health workers, the ajans santé, collaborate with local psychologists and primary care doctors to offer home-based evaluation, support, and follow-up. The services include brief interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and/or medication to persons who met locally defined criteria for depression. A cross-national (Haiti-United States) expert mental health team has been overseeing the program. The present IPT supervision case of a severely depressed, physically abused, and pregnant young woman illustrates the U.S.-based supervisor's internal struggle to reconcile awareness of and respect for local norms while maintaining a human rights-based framework. It also highlights the critical role of community health workers in addressing the mental health treatment gap in regions plagued by extreme poverty and adversity. PMID:27532745
Strauss, Bernhard; Spangenberg, Lena; Brähler, Elmar; Bormann, Bianca
Based upon observations indicating decreasing attractiveness of groups within and outside the clinical field, the present study aimed to determine attitudes toward, and expectations of, groups in a representative sample of 2512 German citizens. The survey also included questions specifically related to group psychotherapy and its acceptance. In addition, psychological characteristics of respondents (measures of narcissism, psychological impairment, and emotion regulation) and socio-demographic variables were assessed to examine their potential association with group-related attitudes. In total, the survey revealed a relatively positive picture of attitudes and expectations toward groups in general and psychotherapy groups in particular. Those with more open attitudes towards groups were comparatively less distressed, anxious, and depressed; they favored emotional reappraisal instead of suppression as the dominant strategy to regulate their emotions. Contrary to prediction, narcissism did not influence attitudes towards groups. The results are related to current discussions of the attractiveness of groups and to implications for the practice of group psychotherapy. PMID:24963534
Griffin-Shelley, Eric; Wendel, Sandra
Describes group psychotherapy at an inpatient, psychiatric hospital serving priests, nuns, and religious brothers. Discusses formation of and differences among four groups: a low-level group for sisters; an interactional group for sisters; a high-level, Gestalt-oriented group for sisters; and an interactional group for priests and brothers. (ABL)
Fairburn, Christopher G.; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Doll, Helen A.; Jones, Rebecca; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E.; Cooper, Zafra
Eating disorders may be viewed from a transdiagnostic perspective and there is evidence supporting a transdiagnostic form of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). The aim of the present study was to compare CBT-E with interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a leading alternative treatment for adults with an eating disorder. One hundred and thirty patients with any form of eating disorder (body mass index >17.5 to <40.0) were randomized to either CBT-E or IPT. Both treatments involved 20 sessions over 20 weeks followed by a 60-week closed follow-up period. Outcome was measured by independent blinded assessors. Twenty-nine participants (22.3%) did not complete treatment or were withdrawn. At post-treatment 65.5% of the CBT-E participants met criteria for remission compared with 33.3% of the IPT participants (p < 0.001). Over follow-up the proportion of participants meeting criteria for remission increased, particularly in the IPT condition, but the CBT-E remission rate remained higher (CBT-E 69.4%, IPT 49.0%; p = 0.028). The response to CBT-E was very similar to that observed in an earlier study. The findings indicate that CBT-E is potent treatment for the majority of outpatients with an eating disorder. IPT remains an alternative to CBT-E, but the response is less pronounced and slower to be expressed. Current controlled trials ISRCTN 15562271. PMID:26000757
Lo Coco, Gianluca; Gullo, Salvatore; Di Fratello, Carla; Giordano, Cecilia; Kivlighan, Dennis M
Groups are more effective when positive bonds are established and interpersonal conflicts resolved in early sessions and work is accomplished in later sessions. Previous research has provided mixed support for this group development model. We performed a test of this theoretical perspective using group members' (actors) and aggregated group members' (partners) perceptions of positive bonding, positive working, and negative group relationships measured early and late in interpersonal growth groups. Participants were 325 Italian graduate students randomly (within semester) assigned to 1 of 16 interpersonal growth groups. Groups met for 9 weeks with experienced psychologists using Yalom and Leszcz's (2005) interpersonal process model. Outcome was assessed pre- and posttreatment using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and group relationships were measured at Sessions 3 and 6 using the Group Questionnaire. As hypothesized, early measures of positive bonding and late measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were positively related to improved interpersonal problems. Also as hypothesized, late measures of positive bonding and early measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were negatively related to improved interpersonal problems. We also found that early actor and partner positive bonding and negative relationships interacted to predict changes in interpersonal problems. The findings are consistent with group development theory and suggest that group therapists focus on group-as-a-whole positive bonding relationships in early group sessions and on group-as-a-whole positive working relationships in later group sessions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27379603
Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos; Kanter, Jonathan; Meyer, Sonia Beatriz
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is emerging as an effective psychotherapy for psychiatric clinical cases. However, there is little research demonstrating the process of change of FAP. The present study evaluated the introduction and withdrawal of FAP interventions on therapy-interfering verbal behaviors of two participants who were in…
Moreno, J. Kelly
Fifteen women with long-standing histories of eating disorders and other disordered behavior participated in a psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy group over a three-year period. Provides several observations on the group and describes how a variety of variables combined to help, as well as, hinder favorable outcomes in group members.…
Gunther, Marianne; Crandles, Sheila; Williams, Gillian; Swain, Margaret
Describes Project HOPE (New York), a psycho-social support program for noninfected children of HIV-positive parents, including the challenges of starting and implementing the program's psychotherapy group for grieving adolescents and clinical examples of group process and effective interventions in group leadership. Explicates the four stages in…
Little, Linda F.
Gestalt therapy respects parents' perceptions of their children and does not attempt to train parents to become therapists for their children. To examine the impact of Gestalt group psychotherapy on parents' perceptions of children identified as problematic, an experimental group of 10 parents participated in 10 2-hour Gestalt sessions. A group of…
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Wilfley, Denise E.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Glasofer, Deborah R.; Salaita, Christine G.
The most prevalent disordered eating pattern described in overweight youth is loss of control (LOC) eating, during which individuals experience an inability to control the type or amount of food they consume. LOC eating is associated cross-sectionally with greater adiposity in children and adolescents, and appears to predispose youth to gain weight or body fat above that expected during normal growth, thus likely contributing to obesity in susceptible individuals. No prior studies have examined whether LOC eating can be decreased by interventions in children or adolescents without full-syndrome eating disorders, or whether programs reducing LOC eating prevent inappropriate weight gain attributable to LOC eating. Interpersonal psychotherapy, a form of therapy that was designed to treat depression and has been adapted for the treatment of eating disorders, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing binge eating episodes and inducing weight stabilization among adults diagnosed with binge eating disorder. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model of excessive weight gain in adolescents at high-risk for adult obesity who engage in LOC eating and associated overeating patterns. A rationale is provided for interpersonal psychotherapy as an intervention to slow the trajectory of weight gain in at-risk youth, with the aim of preventing or ameliorating obesity in adulthood. PMID:17557971
Cooker, Philip G.; Nero, Randall S.
Examined effects of videotaped feedback on aspects of self-concept of patients in an aftercare psychotherapy group. All subjects (N=62) completed three administrations of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale; the 32 treatment patients also viewed videotaped interactions of their group therapy. The results suggest that videotaped feedback produces…
Devi, Akasha; Fenn, Edwin
This paper describes a systematic thematic analysis of one particular latency-aged children's group and includes a discussion about potentially helpful outcomes measures. The impetus for our small, practice-based qualitative research project came from the two papers by Reid (1999) and Canham (2002) about children's psychotherapy groups,…
Corder, Billie F.; Whiteside, Reid
Describes application of techniques for structuring interchange and feedback process in adolescent psychotherapy groups, including random assignment of "roles" for each member during sessions, "parent hot seat" exercises, group goal booklets, and negotiation exercises. Techniques discussed have proven helpful in ensuring effective group…
McCarrick, Anne K.; And Others
Examined changes in response control patterns exhibited by five married couples who participated in two brief psychotherapy groups. Used the Ericson-Rogers Relational Coding System to score the control direction of interactions between group members. Found individual flexibility increased for each of these relationships over the course of group…
Trachsel, Manuel; Itten, Simon; Stauffer, Barbara; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Hofer, Dieter
Individual therapy goals of psychotherapy patients either focus on symptom relief (disorder specific) or on improvements also in other functional areas (generic). The present study with 62 outpatients in a cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy (CBGT) investigated whether patients attain their disorder specific goals better than their generic therapy goals. Results indicated that patients reached disorder specific goals to a higher degree than the generic goals, although the group treatment specifically targeted the disorder specific goals. Implications of the results for the assessment and therapy of phobic patients are discussed. PMID:18092280
Watzke, Birgit; Scheel, Sylvia; Bauer, Christina; Rüddel, Heinz; Jürgensen, Ralph; Andreas, Sylke; Koch, Uwe; Schulz, Holger
Research concerning the question, whether and to what extent cognitive-behavioral (CB) and psychodynamic (PD) therapy consist of differing process components under clinical representative conditions, is relevant especially for a valid interpretation of comparative outcome research, for identifying differential beneficial factors of psychotherapy and for a systematic indication for, respectively assignment of, patients to the two treatments. In this study it is investigated whether PD and CB differ concerning the realisation of factors of group experience, respectively of beneficial group elements (e. g. cohesion, catharsis, learning by feedback). For this purpose, in a naturalistic design, a stratified sample (N = 36) of 104 videotaped sessions (PD groups, interactional CB groups and indicative CB groups; N = 171 patients with a broad spectrum of F-diagnoses of ICD-10, especially F3/F4) were rated by observers using the Kieler-Gruppenpsychotherapie-Prozess-Skala (KGPPS). Analyses of variance and a priori Helmert-contrasts reveal differences between PD and CB with at least medium effect sizes in 12 of the 16 factors of group experience. However, differences also were found between the two CB group treatments (9 factors of group experience with differences with large effect sizes). The results suggest that the different treatment approaches foster different qualities and quantities of group experience and that the latter seems not to evolve from the group context "per se" (i. e. by the plurality of the group). PMID:15343476
Priebe, S.; Savill, M.; Wykes, T.; Bentall, R. P.; Reininghaus, U.; Lauber, C.; Bremner, S.; Eldridge, S.; Röhricht, F.
Background Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have a severe impact on functional outcomes and treatment options are limited. Arts therapies are currently recommended but more evidence is required. Aims To assess body psychotherapy as a treatment for negative symptoms compared with an active control (trial registration: ISRCTN84216587). Method Schizophrenia out-patients were randomised into a 20-session body psychotherapy or Pilates group. The primary outcome was negative symptoms at end of treatment. Secondary outcomes included psychopathology, functional, social and treatment satisfaction outcomes at treatment end and 6-months later. Results In total, 275 participants were randomised. The adjusted difference in negative symptoms was 0.03 (95% CI −1.11 to 1.17), indicating no benefit from body psychotherapy. Small improvements in expressive deficits and movement disorder symptoms were detected in favour of body psychotherapy. No other outcomes were significantly different. Conclusions Body psychotherapy does not have a clinically relevant beneficial effect in the treatment of patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:27151073
Background Substantial data indicate potential health consequences of untreated postpartum depression (PPD) on the mother, infant, and family. Studies have evaluated interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) as treatment for PPD; however, the results are questionable due to methodological limitations. A comprehensive review of maternal treatment preferences suggests that mothers favor ‘talking therapy’ as a form of PPD treatment. Unfortunately, IPT is not widely available, especially in rural and remote areas. To improve access to care, telepsychiatry has been introduced, including the provision of therapy via the telephone. Methods/Design The purpose of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the effect of telephone-based IPT on the treatment of PPD. Stratification is based on self-reported history of depression and province. The target sample is 240 women. Currently, women from across Canada between 2 and 24 weeks postpartum are able to either self-identify as depressed and refer themselves to the trial or they may be referred by a health professional based on a score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Following contact by the trial coordinator, a detailed study explanation is provided. Women who fulfill the eligibility criteria (including a positive diagnostic assessment for major depression) and consent to participate are randomized to either the control group (standard postpartum care) or intervention group (standard postpartum care plus 12 telephone-based IPT sessions within 12 to 16 weeks, provided by trained nurses). Blinded research nurses telephone participants at 12, 24, and 36 weeks post-randomization to assess for PPD and other outcomes including depressive symptomatology, anxiety, couple adjustment, attachment, and health service utilization. Results from this ongoing trial will: (1) develop the body of knowledge concerning the effect of telephone-based IPT as a treatment option for PPD; (2) advance our understanding of
Marotta, Sylvia A.; Asner, Kimberly K.
Demonstrates the wide range of adequacy of current studies on group psychotherapy for women with incest histories. Because the studies differed in methodology and reporting, they were categorized and assessed by six criteria: design, sample, inclusion criteria, replicability, analysis, and outcome. Implications for both researchers and…
Harris, Ben; Lightner, Jean
Most histories of psychology and psychiatry attribute the first group psychotherapy to Joseph Pratt's 1905 class for tuberculosis patients. Pratt's actual treatment procedures are examined. They are shown to have consisted primarily of operant and social-learning techniques, aimed at increasing patient compliance with a demanding therapeutic…
Stillion, Judith M.
Suggests that research aimed at examining the effect of death education courses may be limited by the instructor's lack of awareness of the conditions necessary to promote change. Explores the parallels between death education and group psychotherapy and the factors inherent in seminar-type death education courses. (Author/JAC)
This article describes how a social systems approach to psychopathology can be applied to treatment goals in group psychotherapy with mentally retarded individuals. Treatment models blending behavioral and psychodynamic interventions are covered. Suggestions for maintaining cost-effective linkages between mental health and mental retardation…
Anchor, Kenneth N.
Findings indicate that it is both feasible and important to draw a distinction between high- and low-risk self-revelation in group psychotherapy. Vulnerability of members appears to be perceived as a function of the amount and quality of their own self-disclosing utterances. Institutionalized patients may be less capable of appropriate…
Silbergeld, Sam; And Others
Examined impacts of brief group psychotherapy on the marital and sex roles of five volunteer couples. Results show interactional correlates of traditional marital and sex role variations are attenuated, that communication between spouses is improved, and that the therapeutic quality of verbal behavior is enhanced over the course of therapy.…
Steuer, Joanne L.; And Others
Assessed whether depressed geriatric patients (N=33) would respond to group psychotherapy and, if they would respond differently to cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic modes. Results indicated that patients showed statistically and clinically significant reductions on observer-rated measures of depression and anxiety, as well as on self-report…
Harris, Sandra A.
Combining childhood roles and interpersonal theory produces a schematic model that includes all adult children of alcoholics, enhances understanding of the group dynamic, and suggests specific group treatment strategies. (Author)
Chida, Yoichi; Schrempft, Stephanie; Steptoe, Andrew
This randomized controlled trial aimed to examine the effect of the Happy Science doctrine-based group psychotherapy on depressive symptoms in 118 Japanese mental disorder outpatients. The treatment group (n = 58) took part in five 90-min sessions at one-week intervals, while the control group (n = 60) received standard care including medication. Depressive symptoms were assessed before the intervention, 5 weeks after the intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Compared to the control group, the treatment group showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms both at post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. In conclusion, this group psychotherapy might be of benefit in treating depressive symptoms. PMID:26320001
In relation to self-psychology narcissism-construct is important in analytic-oriented psychotherapy theoretical and practical and is more superior to emotional-relationship based conception by practical and living operalization opposite Roger's conception. We found based on variables-oriented multidimensional psychodiagnostical tests for neurotics in group-psychotherapy that questionnaires are suitable to diagnose narcissism in psychodynamical psychotherapy. Throughout on the one hand single scales of narcissism-states correlate with social desirability on the other hand are related to hypochondria, to psychastenic, depressive and schizoid tendencies. Through those patients having difficults to work reflexive and are attaining higher scores in narcissism-questionnaire opposite patients are optimal working, higher narcissism-scores are not condition for therapy success or unsuccess. In clusters of unsuccessful patients are reacting with defensive behaviour in group-psychotherapy in relation to higher narcissism-scores. Successful patients are more emotional-stable and additional more social-oriented and optimistic. These findings in study are therapy-valide with research-results in Psychoanalyse. PMID:1946903
Skinner, Kay Lesley; Hyde, Sarah J.; McPherson, Kerstin B. A.; Simpson, Maree D.
Health professional students must be equipped with the skills necessary to interact with patients. Effective interpersonal skills are difficult to both learn and teach, requiring development, practise and evaluation in both educational and clinical settings. In professions such as physiotherapy, traditional approaches to teaching these skills have…
Discusses research designs in which psychotherapy treatments are compared to placebo conditions, and suggests that chemotherapy and psychotherapy research efforts are complementary rather than analogous. Recommends the elimination of placebo groups in psychotherapy research. Discusses the negative connotation of psychotherapy as a placebo. (JAC)
Drakulić, Aleksandra Mindoljević
Modern history of short-term group psychotherapy dates back to the late 1950-ies. From then to present day, this psychotherapeutic method has been used in various forms, from dynamic-oriented to cognitive behavioural psychotherapies. Although it has always been considered rather controversial, due its cost-effectiveness, it has been capturing more and more popularity. This paper presents the specificities of first session short-term psychotherapy psychodrama group through session work with two examined groups: a group of 20 adult women who suffer from mild or moderate forms of unipolar depression and a group of 20 students of the School of Medicine in Zagreb without any psychiatric symptomatology. The results indicate the high importance of having structure in first psychodrama session, of relating it with the previously thoroughly conducted, initial, clinical, interviews, and of the clarity and focus in terms of determining the goals of therapy, especially in a clinical context. This study also confirmed assumptions regarding the need for different approaches of warming-up in psychodrama, both in the clinical and in non-clinical samples. A psychodrama psychotherapist should have good time managing skills and capability to convert the time available into an opportunity for directly boosting the group energy and work on therapeutic alliance. PMID:21661367
Anchor, Kenneth N.
This study examined the occurrence of high and low risk self-disclosure in 12 therapy groups. Eight groups were conducted for clients served by a community mental health center on an out-patient basis, and four groups were composed of extremely maladjusted in-patient clients at a state hospital. The Group Interaction Profile, an instrument which…
Simon, Gregory E; Ding, Victoria; Hubbard, Rebecca; Fishman, Paul; Ludman, Evette; Morales, Leo; Operskalski, Belinda; Savarino, James
Administrative data were used to examine early dropout among 16,451 health plan members calling to request psychotherapy for depression. Compared to members referred to group-model therapists, those referred to network-model therapists were more likely to drop out before the initial visit (OR 2.33, 95% CI 2.17 – 2.50) but less likely to drop out after the first visit (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.43 – 0.48). These differences were unaffected by adjustment for neighborhood income and educational attainment, antidepressant use, or generosity of insurance coverage. Efforts to increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy may required different strategies in group- and network-model practice. PMID:21710256
Luthar, Suniya S.; Suchman, Nancy E.
The Relational Psychotherapy Mothers’ Group (RPMG), a developmentally informed, supportive psychotherapy designed to serve heroin-addicted mothers with children up to 16 years of age, aims at addressing psychosocial vulnerabilities, and facilitating optimal parenting, among at-risk mothers. We present preliminary evidence on the efficacy of RPMG as an “add on” treatment in comparison with standard methadone counseling alone. At the end of the 24-week treatment period, mothers receiving RPMG plus standard methadone counseling demonstrated lower levels of risk for child maltreatment, greater involvement with their children, and more positive psychosocial adjustment than women who received methadone counseling alone. Children of RPMG participants also reflected fewer problems in multiple areas. At 6 months posttreatment, RPMG recipients continued to be at a relative advantage, although the magnitude of group differences was often attenuated. Notably, urinalyses indicated that RPMG mothers showed greater improvements in levels of opioid use over time than comparison mothers. PMID:10847626
Restek-Petrović, Branka; Orešković-Krezler, Nataša; Grah, Majda; Mayer, Nina; Bogović, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate
Work with dreams in the group analysis represents an important part of the analytical work, with insight into unconscious experiences of the individual dreamer, and his transferrential relations with the therapist, other members of the group, and with the group as a whole. The way dreams are addressed varies from one therapist to another, and in line with that, members of the group have varying frequency of dreams. In groups of psychotic patients dreams are generally rarely discussed and interpreted by the group, with analysis mainly resting on the manifested content. This paper describes a long-term group of psychotic patients which, after sharing the dreams of several members and daydreams of one female patient, their interpretation and reception in the group achieved better cohesion and improved communication and interaction, i.e. created a group matrix. Furthermore, through the content of dreams in the group, traumatic war experiences of several of the group members were opened and discussed, which brought with it recollections of the traumatic life situations of other group members. In expressing a daydream, a female member of the group revealed the background for her behaviour which was earlier interpreted as a negative symptom of the illness. PMID:23995198
Gross, J M
Knowledge of the basic economic factors underlying managed mental health care directly impacts the clinical practitioners' ability to make constructive changes in the system. To aid understanding this article introduces the managed care marketplace model, the interactive relationship between medical necessity and patient co-payment, and demand management economics. The author encourages practitioners to develop strategies to overcome specific economic obstacles that prevent the promotion of group psychotherapy. PMID:9314700
Toro, Paul A.; Rappaport, Julian
In recent years, mutual help groups have been formed to address problems in substance abuse, chronic physical illness, mental illness, marital disruption, and child abuse. Despite the proliferation of these groups, little research has been conducted to assess their efficacy or what happens in them. The nature of mutual help groups (N=32) was…
Barkowski, Sarah; Schwartze, Dominique; Strauss, Bernhard; Burlingame, Gary M; Barth, Jürgen; Rosendahl, Jenny
Group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) is an established treatment supported by findings from primary studies and earlier meta-analyses. However, a comprehensive summary of the recent evidence is still pending. This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of group psychotherapy for adult patients with SAD. A literature search identified 36 randomized-controlled trials examining 2171 patients. Available studies used mainly cognitive-behavioral group therapies (CBGT); therefore, quantitative analyses were done for CBGT. Medium to large positive effects emerged for wait list-controlled trials for specific symptomatology: g=0.84, 95% CI [0.72; 0.97] and general psychopathology: g=0.62, 95% CI [0.36; 0.89]. Group psychotherapy was also superior to common factor control conditions in alleviating symptoms of SAD, but not in improving general psychopathology. No differences appeared for direct comparisons of group psychotherapy and individual psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. Hence, group psychotherapy for SAD is an efficacious treatment, equivalent to other treatment formats. PMID:26953823
Miklowitz, David J.
Objective Psychotherapy has long been recommended as adjunctive to pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder, but it is unclear which interventions are effective for which patients, over what intervals, and for what domains of outcome. This article reviews randomized trials of adjunctive psychotherapy for bipolar disorder. Method Eighteen trials of individual and group psychoeducation, systematic care, family therapy, interpersonal therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy are described. Relevant outcome variables include time to recovery, recurrence, duration of episodes, symptom severity, and psychosocial functioning. Results The effects of the treatment modalities varied according to the clinical condition of patients at the time of random assignment and the polarity of symptoms at follow-up. Family therapy, interpersonal therapy, and systematic care appeared to be most effective in preventing recurrences when initiated after an acute episode, whereas cognitive-behavioral therapy and group psychoeducation appeared to be most effective when initiated during a period of recovery. Individual psychoeducational and systematic care programs were more effective for manic than depressive symptoms, whereas family therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy were more effective for depressive than manic symptoms. Conclusions Adjunctive psychotherapy enhances the symptomatic and functional outcomes of bipolar disorder over 2-year periods. The various modalities differ in content, structure, and associated mediating mechanisms. Treatments that emphasize medication adherence and early recognition of mood symptoms have stronger effects on mania, whereas treatments that emphasize cognitive and interpersonal coping strategies have stronger effects on depression. The placement of psychotherapy within chronic care algorithms and its role as a preventative agent in the early stages of the disorder deserve investigation. PMID:18794208
Zimmermann, Peter; Kröger, Norbert; Willmund, Gerd; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Hahne, Hans Heiner
Objective: This study is to assess the efficacy of short-term group psychotherapy rooted in depth psychology for Bundeswehr soldiers suffering from depressive, neurotic, stress, or personality disorders. Method: 103 participants in the in-patient, closed group setting were evaluated prospectively and compared with a non-randomized waitlisted control group. Results: In all relevant SCL-90-R (Symptom-Check-List-90) and MMPI-K (Minnesota-Multiphasic-Personality-Inventory short-form) scales therapy resulted in significant improvements as compared with the initial values. The control group did not show any significant changes, the therapy group was significantly superior to the control group in the scales of MMPI-K and the GSI-Scale of the SCL-90-R. For soldiers with a stress-reactive disorder (F43), no differences in efficacy could be identified compared with the other diagnosis groups. Conclusion: The results were considered to indicate that in-patient, short-term group psychotherapy may, in combination with additional setting components, be helpful in improving psychological symptoms in German soldiers. The indication range of group therapy offered to Bundeswehr soldiers should be expanded to also include primary prophylaxis and the treatment of mental-health problems following deployments abroad, if applicable. PMID:19742280
Raufman, Ravit; Nesher, Ronit; Weinberg, Haim
In Israel, the sense of belonging carries special meaning for historical and contemporary reasons. Since its establishment, Israel, with a background of centuries of persecution of the Jews, has been subjected to a consistent threat of war and terror that makes it a traumatized society. On the one hand, this intensifies social cohesiveness, especially in times of war. Yet many of the threats pose existential, political, and ideological dilemmas. The trauma of the Holocaust coupled with the continuous existence of wars enhanced the development of special kinds of groups. No wonder group therapy in Israel flourishes, perhaps more than in any other Western country (Nuttman-Shwartz & Weinberg, 2002). PMID:26401803
Marks, Michael W.; Vestre, Norris D.
College students (N=27) were assigned to a time-extended or a marathon group or a control condition to evaluate the effects of encounter experiences on self-perception and interpersonal behavior. Both experimental groups showed significantly greater changes in self-perceptions from pretest to posttest than the control group. (Author)
Marmarosh, Cheri L
Despite a large literature applying attachment to individual, family, and couple psychotherapy, it has taken much longer for clinicians to apply attachment theory to group psychotherapy. The lack of research attention in this area makes these three studies in this special section even more important to the field. They contribute significant findings that have the potential to help group leaders facilitate more cohesive and effective treatments for patients as well as move the field forward. Not only do we see the long-term impact of group treatment for those with insecure attachments, but we also learn how attachment anxiety impacts the group process, and how the attachment to the therapy group itself relates to changes in group member's personal attachment styles. The greatest contribution is the drawing of our attention to the many future studies that are needed to fully understand how group therapy facilitates change and how attachment theory plays a critical role in this process. Clinical implications are presented. PMID:24059737
This article discusses group psychotherapy as a possible crisis intervention technique for children and juveniles with behavioral problems at school or whose families are going through divorce, or as an intervention technique in trouble some school classes. The therapeutic group work at the Children and Juvenile Educational Counselling Centre in Bern, Switzerland, is described - "mythodrama" or the "tales, fiction and horror technique", a therapeutic approach which was developed during the last couple of years. The tale at the beginning of the article serves as an introduction and is followed by a description of the different phases of mythodrama. Finally, the main elements of this approach are summarized. PMID:1438057
Poteat, V. Paul; Mereish, Ethan H.; Birkett, Michelle
Social development theories highlight the centrality of peer groups during adolescence and their role in socializing attitudes and behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we tested the effects of group-level prejudice on ensuing positive and negative interpersonal interactions among peers over a 7-month period. We used social network analysis to…
Marcus, David K.; Holahan, William
Describes investigation in which participants in time-limited group therapy reported impressions of fellow group members via Impact Message Inventory. Social relations analysis of data indicated that subjects' perceptions included both assimilation and consensus. Suggests results demonstrate utility of social relations model for group therapy…
Authier, Jerry; Fix, A. James
Step-group therapy is a program designed to help adult impatients increase their interpersonal communications skills. Using microcounseling formats, psychiatric patients have been taught the skills of eye contact, verbal following, relaxed pasture and eventually, the use of feedback and self-disclosure. (Author)
Peterson, Sarah E.; Schreiber, James B.
We report the results of two replication studies using attribution theory to analyze personal and interpersonal motivation for collaborative projects. Undergraduate students responded to questionnaires containing hypothetical vignettes depicting success or failure outcomes due to ability or effort for dyads working on a group project. Dependent…
Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Gibson, Christopher; Pessin, Hayley; Poppito, Shannon; Nelson, Christian; Tomarken, Alexis; Timm, Anne Kosinski; Berg, Amy; Jacobson, Colleen; Sorger, Brooke; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan
Objectives An increasingly important concern for clinicians who care for patients at the end of life is their spiritual well-being and sense of meaning and purpose in life. In response to the need for short-term interventions to address spiritual well-being, we developed Meaning Centered Group Psychotherapy (MCGP) to help patients with advanced cancer sustain or enhance a sense of meaning, peace and purpose in their lives, even as they approach the end of life. Methods Patients with advanced (stage III or IV) solid tumor cancers (N = 90) were randomly assigned to either MCGP or a supportive group psychotherapy (SGP). Patients were assessed before and after completing the 8-week intervention, and again 2 months after completion. Outcome assessment included measures of spiritual well-being, meaning, hopelessness, desire for death, optimism/pessimism, anxiety, depression and overall quality of life. Results MCGP resulted in significantly greater improvements in spiritual well-being and a sense of meaning. Treatment gains were even more substantial (based on effect size estimates) at the second follow-up assessment. Improvements in anxiety and desire for death were also significant (and increased over time). There was no significant improvement on any of these variables for patients participating in SGP. Conclusions MCGP appears to be a potentially beneficial intervention for patients’ emotional and spiritual suffering at the end of life. Further research, with larger samples, is clearly needed to better understand the potential benefits of this novel intervention. PMID:19274623
Rucci, P; Frank, E; Scocco, P.; Calugi, S.; Miniati, M.; Fagiolini, A.; Cassano, G.B.
Background To date, few randomized controlled trials (RCT) of major depression have examined suicidal ideation as an outcome measure. Our aim is to determine the incidence of treatment-emergent suicidal ideation (ESI) and behaviors during the acute phase of treatment with an SSRI antidepressant or interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in patients with unipolar major depression. Methods In a two-site RCT, 291 adult outpatients with non-psychotic major depression and a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score ≥15 were randomly allocated to IPT or SSRI. Participants who did not remit with monotherapy received augmentation with the other treatment. ESI was defined as a post-baseline HDRS suicidality item score ≥2 or a post-baseline Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) score ≥2 in patients with a baseline score <=1. Results Of the 231 participants who had no suicidal ideation at baseline, 32 (13.8%) subsequently exhibited ESI on at least one post-baseline visit. Time to suicidal ideation was significantly longer in patients allocated to SSRI compared to those allocated to IPT (HR=2.21, 95% CI 1.04-4.66, p=0.038), even after controlling for treatment augmentation, benzodiazepine use and comorbidity with anxiety disorders. Worsening of suicidal ideation occurred in 7/60 patients who had suicidal ideation at baseline. In the large majority of cases, suicidal ideation was successfully managed with the study protocol. Conclusions In the context of careful monitoring and frequent contact, SSRI was associated with a lower risk of ESI that IPT and both SSRI and IPT appeared to be safe treatments for patients with past suicide attempts, none of whom exhibited ESI during the study. PMID:21308882
Richarz, Bernhard; Römisch, Sylvelin
In group processes, acting-out has diverse functions, all of them equally important. It has an intrapsychic, interpersonal, and group dynamic function. Not only may it be understood as a form of resistance, but also in its communicative and reparative potential. The authors investigate the thesis that acting-out also contains the seed for change, thus helping patients divest themselves of pathological behavior. Using a group process as an example, this article shows how boundaries can be drawn between past and present experiences while using the communicative and reparative functions of acting-out. Unconscious psychodynamics can then be transformed from acting-out into dreams. PMID:12082675
Davis, James A.; Leinhardt, Samuel
The authors sought to test Homans' proposition that small groups inevitably generate a social structure which combines subgroups (cliques) and a ranking system. We present a graph theoretical model of such a structure and prove that a necessary and sufficient condition for its existence is the absence of seven particular triad types. Expected…
Meeker, B. F.; Weitzel-O'Neill, P. A.
The sociological theory that men are instrument or task specialists and that women are expressive or social specialists has been weakened by research on small groups, families and personality. This paper suggests that sex differences in task-oriented situations may be explained by status processes, men having higher status than women. (Author/JM)
Dowlatabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Sorbi, Mohammad Hossein; Beiki, Omid; Razavi, Tayebeh Khademeh; Bidaki, Reza
Background Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women in the world. It causes fear, despair, and takes a tremendous toll on psychological status. Objective To determine the effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on the depression and happiness of breast cancer patients. Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 42 breast cancer patients in The Oncology Center at Kermanshah, Iran in 2015. The Data were gathered before intervention and ten weeks afterwards. The data were collected using Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Oxford’s happiness Inventory (OHI). The data were analyzed by SPSS-16, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S), chi-squared, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results The results showed a significant reduction in the depression of the group on positive psychotherapy compared with the control group. Also the positive psychotherapy group experienced a significant increase in the patients’ happiness, while there was no significant increase in the control group. Conclusion The results of this research showed the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy on the reduction of mental pressure and the improvement of the mental status of breast cancer patients. This economical therapy can be used to increase patients’ psychological health. Clinical Trial Registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRST) with the identification number IRCT2013101410063N4. Funding The authors received financial support for the research from Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27123227
Sanua, Victor D.
There are problems in using the traditional approaches of psychotherapy with various ethnic minority and national groups in the United States. Mental health practitioners, besides making errors in diagnosis, may also be handicapped in developing a therapeutic relationship with the patient. Numerous studies indicate that sociocultural factors tend…
Belt, Ritva; Punamaki, Raija-Leena
In this article we present a novel method of outpatient care: brief, dynamic mother-infant group psychotherapy with mothers who have substance use problems. In this therapy, substance abuse treatment is part of mental health and parenting interventions. The focus is on preventing disturbance in the mother-infant relationship in this high-risk…
Psychoanalysis has paid limited attention to disability, and at times the approach has lacked political awareness. Over recent decades the international disability rights movement has argued that disabled people constitute an oppressed, systemically disadvantaged minority. Lately, a critical psychoanalytic view has connected disablist discrimination to universal unconscious conflicts evoked by impairment. Corresponding evocations emerge in the therapeutic frame, producing countertransference responses to the impaired body. Drawing on psychoanalytically oriented group psychotherapy with severely physically impaired adults, countertransference phenomena were studied in developing discussion on disability-related clinical work. The complex, uncertain role of psychoanalytic practice in combating oppression was also examined. Key issues include challenges to the traditional frame, the crossing of psychic boundaries, anxieties relating to not knowing, and the role of unconscious factors in marginalizing disabled experience. PMID:22676787
Burlingame, G M; Barlow, S H
The outcome of clients who saw one of four "expert" professional group therapists selected by peer nomination or four "natural helper" nonprofessional nominated by students is contrasted in a 15-session psychotherapy group. Process measures tapping specific group and "common factors" were drawn from sessions 3, 8, and 14; outcome was assessed at pre, mid, posttreatment, and a 6-month follow-up. Results were examined by leader condition (professional vs. nonprofessional therapists) and time (group development). Virtually no reliable differences were found on measures of outcome primarily because of a floor effect on several measures. Therapist differences on the process measures tapping the "common factors" of therapeutic alliance, client expectancy, and perception of therapists were either nonsignificant or disappeared by the end of treatment. A complex picture of differences on one therapeutic factor (insight), common factor measures and subtle variation in the outcome data suggests a distinct pattern of change, however. Methodological limitations are also addressed including problems inherent in large-scale clinical-trial studies, ethical concerns raised by using nonprofessional leaders, and problems with generalizability, given the absence of significant psychopathology in group members. PMID:8898485
Dion, Kenneth L
The issues of interpersonal and group processes in long-term spacecrews from the perspectives of social and organizational psychology are considered here. A contrast between the Amundsen vs. Scott expeditions to the South Pole 90 yrs. ago highlights the importance of personnel selection and attention to interpersonal and group dynamics in expeditions to extreme and dangerous environments, such as long-term spaceflights today. Under the rubric of personnel selection, some further psychological "select-in" and "select-out" criteria are suggested, among them implicit measures of human motivation, intergroup attitudes ("implicit" and "explicit" measures of prejudice, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism), attachment styles, and dispositional hardiness. The situational interview and the idea of "selection for teams," drawn from current advances in organizational psychology, are recommended for selecting members for future spacecrews. Under the rubrics of interpersonal and group processes, the social relations model is introduced as a technique for modeling and understanding interdependence among spacecrew members and partialling out variance in behavioral and perceptual data into actor/perceiver, partner/target, and relationship components. Group cohesion as a multidimensional construct is introduced, along with a consideration of the groupthink phenomenon and its controversial link to cohesion. Group composition issues are raised with examples concerning cultural heterogeneity and gender composition. Cultural value dimensions, especially power distance and individual-collectivism, should be taken into account at both societal and psychological levels in long-term space missions. Finally, intergroup processes and language issues in crews are addressed. The recategorization induction from the common ingroup identity model is recommended as a possible intervention for overcoming and inhibiting intergroup biases within spacecrews and between space
Schamess, G; Streider, F H; Connors, K M
Cumulatively traumatized children frequently benefit from theme-centered, trauma-focused psychotherapy groups, which promote recovery from trauma and enhance ego functioning. Unfortunately, even as children's group programs proliferate, therapists are still routinely assigned to supervisors who neither understand nor appreciate the modality. Modality-specific supervision is critical in treating traumatized children in groups, because such children are at significant risk of retraumatization. This article surveys and discusses problematic supervisory practices; advocates modality-specific supervision focusing on peer interaction, multiple transference enactments, and group culture; and describes a process-oriented consultation group that facilitates modality-specific cognitive and affective learning. PMID:9314695
Wang, Zuoming; Walther, Joseph B.; Hancock, Jeffrey T.
This study investigates the influence of interpersonal communication and intergroup identification on members' evaluations of computer-mediated groups. Participants (N= 256) in 64 four-person groups interacted through synchronous computer chat. Subgroup assignments to minimal groups instilled significantly greater in-group versus out-group…
Seyedi Asl, Seyed Teymur; Sadeghi, Kheirollah; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Nazari Anamagh, Alireza; Khayatan, Tayebeh
Background Positive psychotherapy is one of the new approaches in psychology which is innovated for treating psychological disorders and enhancing positive emotions. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the group positive psychotherapy on elevation of life satisfaction and quality of life in infertile women. Materials and Methods In a randomized trial study, Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and clinical interview were used in a pre-test post-test control group design. After analyzing the result of the questionnaire, 36 infertile women who showed signs of mild to moderate depression were randomly placed into two following groups: control (n=18) and intervention (n=18). Before the treatment, the members of both groups answered BDI-II, Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and 12 item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). The intervention group received six sessions of group positive psychotherapy, but the treatment of the control group began six weeks after the intervention group. Results The results showed that the life satisfaction scores of the intervention group were significantly elevated from 22.66 in pre-test to 26.13 in post-test (P<0.001), while this improvement was not significant in the control group (P=0.405). The difference between life satisfaction scores of the intervention and the control groups was also significant (F=8.92, P=0.006). However, no significant change in the quality of life level of the intervention and control groups was observed (P=0.136). Conclusion Thus it can be deduced from the findings that this treatment method could be introduced as solution to increase the life satisfaction in infertile women, but not as a treatment for elevating their quality of life (Registration Number: IRCT2013042810063N3). PMID:27123207
Passos, Pedro; Milho, João; Fonseca, Sofia; Borges, João; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith
The authors examined whether, similar to collective agent behaviors in complex, biological systems (e.g., schools of fish and colonies of ants), performers in team sports displayed functional coordination tendencies, based on local interaction rules during performance. To investigate this issue, they used videogrammetry and digitizing procedures to observe interpersonal interactions in common 4 versus 2 + 2 subphases of the team sport of rugby union, involving 16 participants aged between 16 and 17 years of age. They observed pattern-forming dynamics in attacking subunits (n = 4 players) attempting to penetrate 2 defensive lines (n = 2 players in each). Data showed that within each attacking subunit, the 4 players displayed emergent functional grouping tendencies that differed between the 2 defensive lines. Results confirmed that grouping tendencies in attacking subunits of team games are sensitive to different task constraints, such as relative positioning to nearest defenders. It was concluded that running correlations were particularly useful for measuring the level of interpersonal coordination in functional grouping tendencies within attacking subunits. PMID:21400329
Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola
In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychotherapy with chronic patients should take into account several important differences between patients with chronic and acute depression (identification with their depressive illness, more severe social skill deficits, persistent sense of hopelessness, need of more time to adapt to better circumstances). Regarding adolescent depression, the effectiveness of IPT and CBT is empirically supported. Adolescents require appropriate modifications of treatment (developmental approach to psychotherapy, involvement of parents in therapy). The combination of psychotherapy and medication has recently attracted substantial interest; the available evidence suggests that combined treatment has small but significant advantages over each treatment modality alone, and may have a protective effect against depression relapse or recurrence. Psychobiological models overcoming a rigid brain-mind dichotomy may help the clinician give patients a clear rationale for the combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapies (CBT, family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, psychoeducation) as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorder. These therapies share several common elements and there is considerable overlap in their actual targets. Psychological interventions were found to be useful not only in the treatment of bipolar depressive episodes, but in all phases of the disorder. PMID
Byrne, Ciara; Bond, Lynne A.; London, Miv
This quasi-experimental study compared a group mindfulness-based intervention (MI) with an interpersonal process (IP) group intervention and a no-treatment (NT) control condition in reducing psychological distress among 112 students at 2 universities. At postintervention, IP and MI group participants exhibited significant reductions in anxiety,…
Reinheimer, Robert Edward
This study focused on the role played by two factors--interpersonal attractiveness of group members and pattern of distribution of task-relevant information--in forming an influence base in task-oriented discussion groups. For purposes of the study, members of discussion groups who were confederates in the study were assigned attitudinal…
Presents field of brief individual psychotherapy as coherent set of conventions, despite its diverse origins in schools of dynamic, behavioral, interpersonal or cognitive, and strategic psychotherapy. Proposes advantages and drawbacks of shared conventions and discusses how neighboring field could help field of family therapy reduce its errors.…
Lee, Eun Jin
The aim of the current study was to describe participants' experiences and examine the effects of group therapy on self-esteem and state anger among the adolescent children of immigrants in the US. A quasi-experimental design and qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Group therapy was conducted for 8weeks. Thirty-three adolescents took part in the study. Quantitative results revealed that group therapy improved self-esteem (t=2.222. p<.05) but not state anger. However, qualitative results suggested that group therapy helped improve interpersonal relationships and communication skills, the forgiveness of others, and the management of anger. Furthermore, group therapy utilizing positive psychology strategies improved self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, and communication skills. PMID:25858203
Background Meaning-focused coping may be at the core of adequate adjustment to life after cancer. Cancer survivors who experience their life as meaningful are better adjusted, have better quality of life and psychological functioning. Meaning-Centered Group Psychotherapy for Cancer Survivors (MCGP-CS) was designed to help patients to sustain or enhance a sense of meaning and purpose in their lives. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MCGP-CS. Methods/Design Survivors diagnosed with cancer in the last 5 years and treated with curative intent, are recruited via several hospitals in the Netherlands. After screening, 168 survivors are randomly assigned to one of the three study arms: 1. Meaning-Centered Group Psychotherapy (MCGP-CS) 2. Supportive group psychotherapy (SGP) 3. Care as usual (CAU). Baseline assessment takes place before randomisation, with follow up assessments post-intervention and at 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up. Primary outcome is meaning making (PMP, PTGI, SPWB). Secondary outcome measures address quality of life (EORTC-30), anxiety and depression (HADS), hopelessness (BHS), optimism (LOT-R), adjustment to cancer (MAC), and costs (TIC-P, EQ-5D, PRODISQ). Discussion Meaning-focused coping is key to adjustment to life after cancer, however, there is a lack of evidence based psychological interventions in this area. Many cancer survivors experience feelings of loneliness and alienation, and have a need for peer support, therefore a group method in particular, can be beneficial for sustaining or enhancing a sense of meaning. If this MCGP-CS is effective for cancer survivors, it can be implemented in the practice of psycho-oncology care. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register, NTR3571 PMID:24467861
Tasca, Giorgio A
This is a commentary on 3 case studies of relationship-focused therapies for eating disorders. The 3 approaches vary along a number of dimensions, but nevertheless share important similarities especially related to the role played by variables such as interpersonal problems and affect dysregulation. I briefly review research on interpersonal- and attachment-based models of eating disorders that provide the evidence-base for theories of therapy that are relationship-focused. The Interpersonal Psychotherapy case presented by Tanofsky-Kraff, Shomaker, Young, and Wilfley (2016) illustrates how a group context can facilitate change in key role disputes and role transitions in an adolescent at risk of developing an eating disorder later in her life. The Integrative-Dynamic Therapy case presented by Richards, Shingleton, Goldman, Siegel, and Thompson-Brenner (2016) is a novel sequential combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy followed by dynamic psychotherapy for a young adult with bulimia nervosa that likely reflects what most clinicians do in everyday practice. The Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy case presented by Lunn, Poulsen, and Daniel (2016) of a patient with severe personality pathology demonstrates how treatments for eating disorders sometimes must address complex attachment dysfunction, self-organization, and therapist countertransference in order to provide a useful therapeutic experience. Relationship-focused theories and therapies for eating disorders have come a long way over the past decades, thus providing therapists with a wider range of approaches that can be truly personalized to their clients. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267506
Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Applebaum, Allison; Kulikowski, Julia; Lichtenthal, Wendy G.
Purpose To test the efficacy of meaning-centered group psychotherapy (MCGP) to reduce psychological distress and improve spiritual well-being in patients with advanced or terminal cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced cancer (N = 253) were randomly assigned to manualized eight-session interventions of either MCGP or supportive group psychotherapy (SGP). Patients were assessed before and after completing the treatment and 2 months after treatment. The primary outcome measures were spiritual well-being and overall quality of life, with secondary outcome measures assessing depression, hopelessness, desire for hastened death, anxiety, and physical symptom distress. Results Hierarchical linear models that included a priori covariates and only participants who attended ≥ three sessions indicated a significant group × time interaction for most outcome variables. Specifically, patients receiving MCGP showed significantly greater improvement in spiritual well-being and quality of life and significantly greater reductions in depression, hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and physical symptom distress compared with those receiving SGP. No group differences were observed for changes in anxiety. Analyses that included all patients, regardless of whether they attended any treatment sessions (ie, intent-to-treat analyses), and no covariates still showed significant treatment effects (ie, greater benefit for patients receiving MCGP v SGP) for quality of life, depression, and hopelessness but not for other outcome variables. Conclusion This large randomized controlled study provides strong support for the efficacy of MCGP as a treatment for psychological and existential or spiritual distress in patients with advanced cancer. PMID:25646186
McClintock, Shawn M.; Brandon, Anna R.; Husain, Mustafa M.; Jarrett, Robin B.
Objective Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, after acute phase treatment and initial remission, relapse rates are significant. Strategies to prolong remission include continuation phase ECT, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or their combinations. This systematic review synthesizes extant data regarding the combined use of psychotherapy with ECT for the treatment of patients with severe MDD and offers the hypothesis that augmenting ECT with depression-specific psychotherapy represents a promising strategy for future investigation. Methods The authors performed two independent searches in PsychInfo (1806 – 2009) and MEDLINE (1948 – 2009) using combinations of the following search terms: Electroconvulsive Therapy (including ECT, ECT therapy, electroshock therapy, EST, shock therapy) and Psychotherapy (including cognitive behavioral, interpersonal, group, psychodynamic, psychoanalytic, individual, eclectic, and supportive). We included in this review a total of six articles (English language) that mentioned ECT and psychotherapy in the abstract, and provided a case report, series, or clinical trial. We examined the articles for data related to ECT and psychotherapy treatment characteristics, cohort characteristics, and therapeutic outcome. Results Although research over the past seven decades documenting the combined use of ECT and psychotherapy is limited, the available evidence suggests that testing this combination has promise and may confer additional, positive functional outcomes. Conclusions Significant methodological variability in ECT and psychotherapy procedures, heterogeneous patient cohorts, and inconsistent outcome measures prevent strong conclusions; however, existing research supports the need for future investigations of combined ECT and psychotherapy in well-designed, controlled clinical studies. Depression-specific psychotherapy approaches may need special
Weissman, M M
A review of epidemiologic and clinical data on depression suggests that psychotherapy is both an important alternative as well as a supplement to medication for the maintenance treatment of depression. Psychotherapy is an alternative for patients during periods when medication may not be suitable or feasible (e.g. pregnancy, nursing, before or during major surgery, or in the elderly). Psychotherapy also has a role in maintenance treatment in dealing with the social and interpersonal consequences or triggers of recurrent depression. Although the number of continuation or maintenance treatment trials that include psychotherapy is quite limited, the efficacy of maintenance treatment in the delay of recurrence and enhancement of social functioning is best established for interpersonal psychotherapy. There are also some results concerning cognitive and behavioural therapies for maintenance treatment of depression. PMID:7873137
Callaghan, Glenn M.
The interpersonal behavior therapy, Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) has been empirically investigated and described in the literature for a little over a decade. Still, little has been written about the process of supervision in FAP. While there are many aspects of FAP supervision shared by other contemporary behavior therapies and…
Applebaum, Allison J.; Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Pessin, Hayley A.; Radomski, Julia N.; Gökbayrak, N. Simay; Katz, Aviva M.; Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William
Objective The generalizability of palliative care intervention research is often limited by high rates of study attrition. This study examined factors associated with attrition from a randomized controlled trial comparing meaning-centered group psychotherapy (MCGP), an intervention designed to help advanced cancer patients sustain or enhance their sense of meaning to the supportive group psychotherapy (SGP), a standardized support group. Methods Patients with advanced solid tumor cancers (n = 153) were randomized to eight sessions of either the MCGP or SGP. They completed assessments of psychosocial, spiritual, and physical well-being pretreatment, midtreatment, and 2 months post-treatment. Attrition was assessed in terms of the percent of participants who failed to complete these assessments, and demographic, psychiatric, medical, and study-related correlates of attrition were examined for the participants in each of these categories. Results The rates of attrition at these time points were 28.1%, 17.7%, and 11.1%, respectively; 43.1% of the participants (66 of 153) completed the entire study. The most common reason for dropout was patients feeling too ill. Attrition rates did not vary significantly between study arms. The participants who dropped out pretreatment reported less financial concerns than post-treatment dropouts, and the participants who dropped out of the study midtreatment had poorer physical health than treatment completers. There were no other significant associations between attrition and any demographic, medical, psychiatric, or study-related variables. Conclusions These findings highlight the challenge of maintaining advanced cancer patients in longitudinal research and suggest the need to consider alternative approaches (e.g., telemedicine) for patients who might benefit from group interventions but are too ill to travel. PMID:21751295
Bychkova, Tetyana; Hillman, Saul; Midgley, Nick; Schneider, Celeste
An innovative methodology is presented for describing the therapeutic processes involved in five types of adolescent treatments: psychoanalysis, psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, mentalisation-based treatment and interpersonal psychotherapy. Using the "Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set" (APQ), 18 experienced clinicians…
Background: Self-Concept Clarity (SCC) describes the extent to which the schemas of the self are internally integrated, well defined, and temporally stable. This article presents a theoretical model that describes how different shapes of SCC change (especially stable increase and “V” shape) observed in the course of psychotherapy are related to the therapy outcome. Linking the concept of Jean Piaget and the dynamic systems theory, the study postulates that a stable SCC increase is needed for the participants with a rather healthy personality structure, while SCC change characterized by a “V” shape or fluctuations is optimal for more disturbed patients. Method: Correlational study in a naturalistic setting with repeated measurements (M = 5.8) was conducted on the sample of 85 patients diagnosed with neurosis and personality disorders receiving intensive eclectic group psychotherapy under routine inpatient conditions. Participants filled in the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS), Symptoms' Questionnaire KS-II, and Neurotic Personality Questionnaire KON-2006 at the beginning and at the end of the course of psychotherapy. The SCCS was also administered every 2 weeks during psychotherapy. Results: As hypothesized, among the relatively healthiest group of patients the stable SCC increase was related to positive treatment outcome, while more disturbed patients benefited from the fluctuations and “V” shape of SCC change. Conclusions: The findings support the idea that for different personality dispositions either a monotonic increase or transient destabilization of SCC is a sign of a good treatment prognosis. PMID:26579001
Hilsenroth, Mark J.; And Others
Investigates the differences between 97 patients who had prematurely terminated psychotherapy and 81 who had participated in individual psychotherapy for at least 6 months and 24 sessions on selected Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and Rorschach variables. Theoretical implications of interpersonal variables are discussed in…
Asgharipoor, Negar; Asgharnejad Farid, Aliasghar; Arshadi, Hamidreza; Sahebi, Ali
Objective: Aim of this experimental study is evaluating the effectiveness of two different approaches towards the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD): Positive-oriented psychotherapy and group cognitive-behavior therapy. Methods: Eighteen out-patients suffering from major depression were randomly divided into two groups to be treated according to either of these two approaches. Both groups undertook the treatments for 12 weeks. All the subjects were tested by Beck Depression Inventory, Subjective Wellbeing Scale, Oxford test of Happiness, and the scale of Subjective Units of Distress before and after the treatments. Results: The results show significant differences between the two groups in terms of the variables of happiness and mental distress, suggesting that effectiveness of positive psychotherapy is more than cognitive-behavioral therapy in increasing happiness. These two approaches were significantly different in neither decreasing the acuteness of depression symptoms nor increasing subjective wellbeing. Conclusion: As a whole, the results of this comparative study indicate that positive psychotherapy is more effective in increasing happiness among MDD patients. PMID:24644480
Darrow, Sabrina M.; Dalto, Georgia; Follette, William C.
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is an interpersonal behavior therapy that relies on a therapist's ability to contingently respond to in-session client behavior. Valued behavior change in clients results from the therapist shaping more effective client interpersonal behaviors by providing effective social reinforcement when these behaviors…
Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike
This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…
Seligman, Martin E P; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C
Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported them to be "life-changing." Delivered on the Web, positive psychology exercises relieved depressive symptoms for at least 6 months compared with placebo interventions, the effects of which lasted less than a week. In severe depression, the effects of these Web exercises were particularly striking. This address reports two preliminary studies: In the first, PPT delivered to groups significantly decreased levels of mild-to-moderate depression through 1-year follow-up. In the second, PPT delivered to individuals produced higher remission rates than did treatment as usual and treatment as usual plus medication among outpatients with major depressive disorder. Together, these studies suggest that treatments for depression may usefully be supplemented by exercises that explicitly increase positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115810
Moskowitz, Joel A.; Defries, Zira
This paper is an attempt to show the difference in the course of treatment of two successive groups of university students which functioned significantly differently in the manner and degree to which they examined defenses and manifested transference problems. (Author)
Westefeld, John S.
Current models and issues related to psychotherapy supervision are examined. These include ethical and legal issues, problems of interpersonal competence, and multicultural issues. As a part of this analysis, interviews about supervision with five prominent counseling psychologists are included to provide their perspectives. Implications for the…
Tisdale, John R.
Based on an earlier list of characteristics, ten assertions were derived about the nature of psychotherapy upon which it was believed that humanistic therapists would agree. These assertions were then submitted to three groups of therapists (111 returns) listed in the "National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology": behaviorists,…
Porter, J; Wilson, C; Frisch, G R
Scores of 82 distressed university students receiving psychotherapy were compared on the SCL-90-R with those of 21 distressed students waiting for treatment and those of 126 nondistressed normative students. The Posttreatment group showed significant reductions in scores indicating distress, with 36 Posttreatment men reporting lower scores on hostility and suspiciousness than their 60 normative peers. PMID:7892397
Fagan, Joen; And Others
This group of articles discusses various aspects of Gestalt Therapy including its major contributions, role in psychotherapy, and contributions of Gestalt psychology in general. There is some discussion of the philosophical background of Gestalt therapy along with Gestalt theory of emotion. A case study and an annotated bibliography are included…
Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Spiegel, David
Reviews research indicating that group psychotherapy is an effective adjunctive therapy to medical treatment for women with breast cancer. States that Supportive-Expressive group therapy has been effective in assisting patients in reducing anxiety related to death and dying, strengthening interpersonal relationships, and improving the quality of…
Gushue, George V.; Brazaitis, Sarah J.
A new class of medications, protease inhibitors, has dramatically improved the health of many people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). This development has had a major impact on the lives of those affected by HIV/AIDS. This article considers how a group is affected by the larger systems of…
Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan
This article presents, in the form of a clinical illustration, a therapeutic group of bereaved mothers with special reference to their dreams about their deceased children. The article presents descriptions of the emotions of these mothers and countertransference feelings, a topic that, to our knowledge, has not been frequently studied. The group…
Lazar, Susan G
Psychotherapy is an effective and often highly cost-effective medical intervention for many serious psychiatric conditions. Psychotherapy can also lead to savings in other medical and societal costs. It is at times the firstline and most important treatment and at other times augments the efficacy of psychotropic medication. Many patients are in need of more prolonged and intensive psychotherapy, including those with personality disorders and those with chronic complex psychiatric conditions often with severe anxiety and depression. Many patients with serious and complex psychiatric illness have experienced severe early life trauma in an atmosphere in which family members or caretakers themselves have serious psychiatric disorders. Children and adolescents with learning disabilities and those with severe psychiatric disorders can also require more than brief treatment. Other diagnostic groups for whom psychotherapy is effective and cost-effective include patients with schizophrenia, anxiety disorders (including posttraumatic stress disorder), depression, and substance abuse. In addition, psychotherapy for the medically ill with concomitant psychiatric illness often lowers medical costs, improves recovery from medical illness, and at times even prolongs life compared to similar patients not given psychotherapy. While "cost-effective" treatments can yield savings in healthcare costs, disability claims, and other societal costs, "cost-effective" by no means translates to "cheap" but instead describes treatments that are clinically effective and provided at a cost that is considered reasonable given the benefit they provide, even if the treatments increase direct expenses. In the current insurance climate in which Mental Health Parity is the law, insurers nonetheless often use their own non-research and non-clinically based medical necessity guidelines to subvert it and limit access to appropriate psychotherapeutic treatments. Many patients, especially those who need
Lagana, Luciana; Fobair, Patricia; Spiegel, David
The need for the psychosexual rehabilitation of breast cancer survivors and their intimate partners is underscored by the high prevalence of multiple psychosexual difficulties encountered by this patient population. Concerns about health, sexuality, and emotional distress are common among women with breast cancer and are often related to the side effects of cancer treatment. Additionally, both intimate relationship problems and partners’ distress are likely to influence patients’ psychosexual health. A clearer understanding of these complex clinical issues is needed in order to implement effective psychosexual rehabilitation interventions. In this article, we extended the use of the manualized and empirically validated Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy (SEGT) model to target the specific psychosexual needs of couples with breast (as well as other types of) cancer. In view of the pertinent literature in this area and based on our clinical experience utilizing this group therapy model with different patient populations, we have discussed how clinicians involved in the psychosexual care of oncology patients could apply such a model within a couples group therapy format. PMID:27239398
Smith, Bruce L.
This study examined the effects of discounting behavior ("put downs") on the quantity and quality of ideas produced by a group and on the group climate. Subjects were 52 college students divided into 8 groups. Groups in which discounting occurred produced significantly fewer ideas, and the emotional response to the group process was significantly…
Pomnitz, Fabiane; Strauß, Berhard; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally; Leiteritz, Andreas; Schreiber-Willnow, Karin; Dobersch, Johannes; Moffenter, Judith; Nickel, Ralf; Huber, Thomas; Braks, Karsten; Linsenmeier, Meinrad; Greiner, Wolf; Koschke, Mandy; Seidler, Klaus-Peter; Weber, Rainer; Subic-Wrana, Claudia
The study describes an application of the Inter-Session-Questionnaire (ISF) related to inpatient group psychotherapy. The instrument should be tested with the extension of differentiating intersession experiences related to the person of the therapist as well as the group. In a cross sectional study performed in 13 different hospitals, 702 patients were assessed. These patients were treated in rehab hospitals, acute hospitals as well as special hospitals providing treatment for eating disorders. The sample should be relatively representative for psychosomatic and psychotherapeutic hospitals in Germany. Besides the type of the hospital, we also analysed the influence of group characteristics (size of group, type of group and number of completed sessions) as well as the patients' sex. Surprisingly, there were almost no marked differences of inter-session-experiences related to the the therapist or the group. The profiles of the item judgements of the ISF were similar to those reported for outpatient and day treatment samples. Inter-session-experiences differed in part according to our expectation depending on the variables mentioned above which suggests to use the ISF in specific studies dealing with the process and outcome of inpatient group psychotherapy as well as the differentiation of relevant subgroups. PMID:26764902
Kearns, Patricia M.
This thesis is an analysis of data concerning drug usage among three groups of young soldiers and isolates significant factors relating to characteristic interpersonal and intrafamilial relationships prevalent in these groups. Those soldiers dependent on drugs all came from families that they considered disharmonious. The following variables…
Philipsen, Alexandra; Richter, Harald; Peters, Julia; Alm, Barbara; Sobanski, Esther; Colla, Michael; Münzebrock, Mirka; Scheel, Corinna; Jacob, Christian; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Hesslinger, Bernd
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder that often persists in adulthood. In a pilot study, a structured skills training group program for adult ADHD led to significant symptomatic improvements. The present study evaluated the program's effectiveness, feasibility, and patient acceptability in a multicenter setting. Seventy-two adult ADHD patients were assigned to 13 two-hour weekly sessions at 4 different therapy sites. The therapy was well tolerated and led to significant improvements of ADHD, depressive symptoms, and personal health status (p < 0.001). The factors treatment site and medication did not contribute to the overall improvement. Patients regarded the program topics "behavioral analyses," "mindfulness," and "emotion regulation" as the most helpful. In this multicenter study, the therapy program showed therapist-independent effects and seemed to be disorder-specific. This warrants the effort of organizing further controlled studies. PMID:18091195
Zhou, Xinyu; Hetrick, Sarah E; Cuijpers, Pim; Qin, Bin; Barth, Jürgen; Whittington, Craig J; Cohen, David; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Liu, Yiyun; Michael, Kurt D; Zhang, Yuqing; Weisz, John R; Xie, Peng
Previous meta-analyses of psychotherapies for child and adolescent depression were limited because of the small number of trials with direct comparisons between two treatments. A network meta-analysis, a novel approach that integrates direct and indirect evidence from randomized controlled studies, was undertaken to investigate the comparative efficacy and acceptability of psychotherapies for depression in children and adolescents. Systematic searches resulted in 52 studies (total N=3805) of nine psychotherapies and four control conditions. We assessed the efficacy at post-treatment and at follow-up, as well as the acceptability (all-cause discontinuation) of psychotherapies and control conditions. At post-treatment, only interpersonal therapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) were significantly more effective than most control conditions (standardized mean differences, SMDs ranged from −0.47 to −0.96). Also, IPT and CBT were more beneficial than play therapy. Only psychodynamic therapy and play therapy were not significantly superior to waitlist. At follow-up, IPT and CBT were significantly more effective than most control conditions (SMDs ranged from −0.26 to −1.05), although only IPT retained this superiority at both short-term and long-term follow-up. In addition, IPT and CBT were more beneficial than problem-solving therapy. Waitlist was significantly inferior to other control conditions. With regard to acceptability, IPT and problem-solving therapy had significantly fewer all-cause discontinuations than cognitive therapy and CBT (ORs ranged from 0.06 to 0.33). These data suggest that IPT and CBT should be considered as the best available psychotherapies for depression in children and adolescents. However, several alternative psychotherapies are understudied in this age group. Waitlist may inflate the effect of psychotherapies, so that psychological placebo or treatment-as-usual may be preferable as a control condition in psychotherapy
Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.
Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…
In the past decade, stimulated by public concern with issues of mental health, there has been a new spurt of interest in techniques of brief treatment with circumscribed goals. These are applicable to groups as well as to the single patient. There are still differences of opinion about the effectiveness of brief psychotherapy, particularly the lastingness and depth of the results obtained, yet it is often highly beneficial, especially to previously well-functioning individuals who are involved in a situational crisis. Although probably the best results of brief psychotherapy are with disturbances of moderate severity and recent onset, in practice, it is often tried with a wide spectrum of patients. Brief psychotherapy aims at relief of the patient's major current conflicts rather than at change of his personality structure, which generally requires long-term treatment. Brief psychotherapy is of special relevance for the general physician because the patients whom he sees in large numbers are precisely those best suited for this form of treatment. PMID:6075465
Page, Richard C.; Bridges, Ned
Assessed how illegal drug users (N=12) related to one another during a 16-hour unstructured group marathon. Interaction analysis supported the effectiveness of the marathon group. Members and facilitators were able to relate to each other by confronting significant behaviors and receiving feedback about ways to cope with personal problems. (JAC)
Project REAL (Relationship skills, Education on violence prevention, Academics, Leadership and decision-making skills) was a practicum designed to increase the academic achievement of middle school students exposed to domestic violence. Eleven students and their parents participated in a 12-week interpersonal-cognitive counseling group and its…
Studt, Hans Henning
The development and state of the art is presented for inpatient psychotherapy in neurotic and psychosomatic patients. The question is then posed whether time-tested inpatient psychotherapy can survive the introduction of "diagnosis-related groups" (DRG) with its threat of flat-rate case billing. Thus, the development of an "in- and outpatient network" has been considered as a possible alternative, in which hospitals and private practices combine intervals of inpatient and outpatient psychotherapy. PMID:14733063
Background Continuous feedback on patient improvement and the therapeutic alliance may reduce the number of dropouts and increase patient outcome. There are, however, only three published randomized trials on the effect of feedback on the treatment of eating disorders, showing inconclusive results, and there are no randomized trials on the effect of feedback in group therapy. Accordingly the current randomized clinical trial, initiated in September 2012 at the outpatient clinic for eating disorders at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre, aims to investigate the impact of continuous feedback on attendance and outcome in group psychotherapy. Methods/design The hypothesis is that continuous feedback to both patient and therapist on treatment progress and alliance will increase attendance and treatment outcome. The trial is set up using a randomized design with a minimum of 128 patients allocated to either an experimental or control group at a ratio of 1:1. The experimental group will receive standard treatment (systemic and narrative group psychotherapy) with feedback intervention, whereas the control group will receive standard treatment only. The participants are diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or an eating disorder not otherwise specified, according to the DSM-IV. In the experimental group feedback to the participants, based on the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Group Session Rating Scale (GSRS), is actively added to standard treatment. The ORS assesses areas of life functioning known to change as a result of therapeutic intervention. The GSRS assesses key dimensions of effective therapeutic relationships. In the control group, the patients fill out the Outcome Rating Scale only, and feedback is not provided. The primary outcome is the rate of attendance to treatment sessions. The secondary outcome is the severity of eating disorder symptoms. Exploratory outcomes are the level of psychological and social functioning, and suicide or self
Bottai, T; Biloa-Tang, M; Christophe, S; Dupuy, C; Jacquesy, L; Kochman, F; Meynard, J-A; Papeta, D; Rahioui, H; Adida, M; Fakra, E; Kaladjian, A; Pringuey, D; Azorin, J-M
Bipolar disorder is common, recurrent, often severe and debiliting disorder. All types of bipolar disorder have a common determinant: depressive episode. It is justify to propose a psychotherapy which shown efficacy in depression. Howewer, perturbations in circadian rhythms have been implicated in the genesis of each episode of the illness. Biological circadian dysregulation can be encouraged by alteration of time-givers (Zeitgebers) or occurrence of time-disturbers (Zeitstörers). Addition of social rhythm therapy to interpersonal psychotherapy leads to create a new psychotherapy adaptated to bipolar disorders: InterPersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT). IPSRT, in combinaison with medication, has demonstrated efficacy as a treatment for bipolar disorders. IPSRT combines psychoeducation, behavioral strategy to regularize daily routines and interpersonal psychotherapy which help patients cope better with the multiple psychosocial and relationship problems associated with this chronic disorder. The main issues of this psychotherapy are: to take the history of the patient's illness and review of medication, to help patient for "grief for the lost healthy self" translated in the french version in "acceptance of a long-term medical condition", to give the sick role, to examinate the current relationships and changes proximal to the emergence of mood symptoms in the four problem areas (unresolved grief, interpersonal disputes, role transitions, role déficits), to examinate and increase daily routines and social rhythms. French version of IPSRT called TIPARS (with few differences), a time-limited psychotherapy, in 24 sessions during approximatively 6 months, is conducted in three phases. In the initial phase, the therapist takes a thorough history of previous episodes and their interpersonal context and a review of previous medication, provides psychoeducation, evaluates social rhythms, introduces the Social Rhythm Metric, identifies the patient's main interpersonal
Slaten, Christopher D.; Elison, Zachary M.
Youth mental health is an area of profound disparity between the demand and supply of services, particularly in schools that serve students at risk of school dropout. This article describes the conceptual foundations and implementation of "MAGNIFY", a program that provides free group counseling to small alternative schools with students…
The New Beginnings program was developed at the Anna Freud Centre and originally piloted in Her Majesty Prisons in the United Kingdom. This study aimed to explore the use of this manualized parent-infant psychotherapy group model in an African setting with high-risk mother-infant dyads, and describes the implementation and investigation of this 12-week group psychotherapy intervention in two Johannesburg shelters for homeless women. The measures used to investigate treatment efficacy were the Parent Development Interview (A. Slade, J.L. Aber, I. Bresgi, B. Berger, & M. Kaplan,), the Emotional Availability Scales (Z. Biringen, J.L. Robinson, & R.N. Emde,), the Kessler-10 (R.C. Kessler et al.,), and the Griffiths Scales of Mental Development (D. Luiz et al., . At pretesting, infants exhibited delays in a number of developmental areas, and mothers showed high levels of depression and generally low capacities for reflective function. While significant shifts in the mothers' capacities for reflective function were not found in the treatment condition, significant shifts were found in the infants' speech abilities and in the mothers' abilities to structure their interactions with their infants. This suggests that the program enabled mothers to become more sensitized to their infants' needs in interaction and that communication between mother and infant increased. The number of sessions attended by the dyads correlated with improvements made by the mothers and their infants. PMID:25798508
Lasky, R G; Salomone, P R
Therapist-patient age similarity and therapist status were examined in relation to interpersonal attraction in the psychotherapy dyad. Psychiatric inpatients who comprised three age groupings were assigned randomly to one of four audiovisual treatments that depicted a dyadic psychotherapy situation (N = 60). For each treatment, therapist age and status were differentially presented on color slides with the same accompanying audiotape. Results indicated that age similarity was significantly (p less than .05) more relevant for the younger patients, whereas therapist status had greater significance for older patients. There were several significant interactions that concerned therapist-patient age similarity and therapist status effects on psychotherapeutic attraction. These results suggest that therapist-patient matching on age and/or therapist status should be considered carefully as a potential influence on therapeutic outcome. PMID:858795
Nozawa, Takayuki; Sasaki, Yukako; Sakaki, Kohei; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Kawashima, Ryuta
Research of interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning is an expanding nascent field. This field still requires the accumulation of findings and establishment of analytic standards. In this study, we therefore intend to extend fNIRS-based INS research in three directions: (1) verifying the enhancement of frontopolar INS by natural and unstructured verbal communication involving more than two individuals; (2) examining timescale dependence of the INS modulation; and (3) evaluating the effects of artifact reduction methods in capturing INS. We conducted an fNIRS hyperscanning study while 12 groups of four subjects were engaged in cooperative verbal communication. Corresponding to the three objectives, our analyses of the data (1) confirmed communication-enhanced frontopolar INS, as expected from the region's roles in social communication; (2) revealed the timescale dependency in the INS modulation, suggesting the merit of evaluating INS in fine timescale bins; and (3) determined that removal of the skin blood flow component engenders substantial improvement in sensitivity to communication-enhanced INS and segregation from artifactual synchronization, and that caution for artifact reduction preprocessing is needed to avoid excessive removal of the neural fluctuation component. Accordingly, this study provides a prospective technical basis for future hyperscanning studies during daily communicative activities. PMID:27039144
Deckersbach, Thilo; Peters, Amy T.; Sylvia, Louisa; Urdahl, Anna; Magalhães, Pedro V.S.; Otto, Michael W.; Frank, Ellen; Miklowitz, David J.; Berk, Michael; Kinrys, Gustavo; Nierenberg, Andrew
Objective At least 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder have a lifetime anxiety disorder. Individuals with both bipolar disorder and a co-occurring anxiety disorder experience longer illness duration, greater illness severity, and poorer treatment response. The study explored whether comorbid lifetime anxiety in bipolar patients moderates psychotherapy treatment outcome. Method In the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program randomized controlled trial of psychotherapy for bipolar depression, participants received up to 30 sessions of intensive psychotherapy (family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, or cognitive-behavioral therapy) or collaborative care, a three-session comparison treatment, plus pharmacotherapy. Using the number needed to treat, we computed effect sizes to analyze the relationship between lifetime anxiety disorders and rates of recovery across treatment groups after 1 year. Results A total of 269 patients (113 women) with a comorbid lifetime anxiety disorder (N=177) or without a comorbid lifetime anxiety disorder (N=92) were included in the analysis. Participants with a lifetime anxiety disorder were more likely to recover with psychotherapy than with collaborative care (66% compared with 49% recovered over 1 year; number needed to treat=5.88, small to medium effect). For patients without a lifetime anxiety disorder, there was no difference between rates of recovery in psychotherapy compared with collaborative care (64% compared with 62% recovered; number needed to treat=50, small effect). Participants with one lifetime anxiety disorder were likely to benefit from intensive psychotherapy compared with collaborative care (84% compared with 53% recovered; number needed to treat=3.22, medium to large effect), whereas patients with multiple anxiety disorders exhibited no difference in response to the two treatments (54% compared with 46% recovered; number needed to treat=12.5, small effect). Conclusions Depressed patients
Windholz, Michael J.; Silberschatz, George
Replicated two earlier studies undertaken by the Vanderbilt Psychotherapy Research Group to investigate relation between process and outcome of brief psychotherapy. Rated audiotaped segments of 38 brief psychodynamic psychotherapies with adult outpatients. Found significant correlations between therapist ratings of outcome and two process…
Manickam, L. S. S.
The articles that appeared in Indian Journal of Psychiatry were related to different areas of psychotherapy. Case reports dealt with a wide variety of cases. The review papers focused on the suitability of psychotherapy in the Indian context, different approaches in psychotherapy, psychotherapy training and supervision. Psychotherapy has been viewed very close to faith orientation. There were attempts to identify the indigenous concepts that are applicable to psychotherapy. Empirical studies are low in number. Concerted effort is needed to generate interest in psychotherapy, conduct more research on evidence-based therapies as well as on psychotherapeutic process variables. PMID:21836707
Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M
This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805
Johnson, Jennifer E.
In this article, I review my research applying interpersonal treatments and interpersonal principles from psychotherapy for major depression and substance use to broader public health goals for incarcerated women and other vulnerable populations. A public health focus has led me to expand the boundaries of psychotherapy research to include partners such as prisons, parole officers, and bachelor's level providers; behaviors like risky sex; service delivery challenges; and ultimately to research with an eye toward informing policy and advocacy. A public health perspective provides context and rationale for conducting sound psychotherapy research; the combination of public health and psychotherapy-specific perspectives can lead to novel research. PMID:24188727
Bhatia, Subhash C.; Madabushi, Jayakrishna; Kolli, Venkata; Bhatia, Shashi K.; Madaan, Vishal
The Bhagavad Gita is based on a discourse between Lord Krishna and Arjuna at the inception of the Kurukshetra war and elucidates many psychotherapeutic principles. In this article, we discuss some of the parallels between the Gita and contemporary psychotherapies. We initially discuss similarities between psychodynamic theories of drives and psychic structures, and the concept of three gunas. Arjuna under duress exhibits elements of distorted thinking. Lord Krishna helps remedy this through a process akin to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). We ascertain the analogies between the principles of Gita and CBT, grief emancipation, role transition, self-esteem, and motivation enhancement, as well as interpersonal and supportive psychotherapies. We advocate the pragmatic application of age old wisdom of the Gita to enhance the efficacy of psychotherapeutic interventions for patients from Indian subcontinent and to add value to the art of western psychotherapies. PMID:23858274
Markowitz, John C.; Milrod, Barbara; Bleiberg, Kathryn; Marshall, Randall D.
Exposure to reminders of trauma underlies the theory and practice of most treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet exposure may not be the sole important treatment mechanism. Interpersonal features of PTSD influence its onset, chronicity, and possibly its treatment. The authors review interpersonal factors in PTSD, including the critical but underrecognized role of social support as both protective posttrauma and as a mechanism of recovery. They discuss interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) as an alternative treatment for PTSD and present encouraging findings from two initial studies. Highlighting the potential importance of attachment and interpersonal relationships, the authors propose a mechanism to explain why improving relationships may ameliorate PTSD symptoms. PMID:19339847
Swartz, Holly A.; Swanson, Joshua
Although pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for bipolar disorder, medication offers only partial relief for patients. Treatment with pharmacologic interventions alone is associated with disappointingly low rates of remission, high rates of recurrence, residual symptoms, and psychosocial impairment. Bipolar-specific therapy is increasingly recommended as an essential component of illness management. This review summarizes the available data on psychotherapy for adults with bipolar disorder. We conducted a search of the literature for outcome studies published between 1995 and 2013 and identified 35 reports of 28 randomized controlled trials testing individual or group psychosocial interventions for adults with bipolar disorder. These reports include systematic trials investigating the efficacy and effectiveness of individual psychoeducation, group psychoeducation, individual cognitive-behavioral therapy, group cognitive-behavioral therapy, family therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, and integrated care management. The evidence demonstrates that bipolar disorder-specific psychotherapies, when added to medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder, consistently show advantages over medication alone on measures of symptom burden and risk of relapse. Whether delivered in a group or individual format, those who receive bipolar disorder-specific psychotherapy fare better than those who do not. Psychotherapeutic strategies common to most bipolar disorder-specific interventions are identified. PMID:26279641
Bonow, Jordan T.; Maragakis, Alexandros; Follette, William C.
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) targets a client's interpersonal behavior for change with the goal of improving his or her quality of life. One question guiding FAP case conceptualization is, "What interpersonal behavioral repertoires will allow a specific client to function optimally?" Previous FAP writings have suggested that a therapist…
Clinical psychologists face unique challenges in developing Southeast Asian countries because mental health care has not received the kind of attention it deserves. In part, this has been the result of lack of knowledge or misunderstanding about mental health and adherence to various religious and traditional beliefs. In this article, the practice of psychotherapy in Brunei Darussalam is reviewed and then illustrated with a typical case, Mrs. A. Asian psychotherapists need more comprehensive knowledge of prevailing cultural beliefs and religious practices among multiethnic population groups. PMID:17603780
Barolin, Gerhard S; Kaiser-Rekkas, Agnes
In "Integrated psychotherapy" we indicate necessity of combining psychotherapy with all other psychotherapeutic and medical methods (drugs, physiotherapy, etc.) in order to obtain best result. We distinguish between "professional" and "basic" psychotherapy. The latter also has effect on mood and by it on health for patients. Furthermore it is an important facilitating means for a special psychotherapy. We emphasize to teach this in systematic professional education as well for doctors as for all social professions. PMID:17928944
The social and intellectual climate of the late 1940s and early 1950s in America helped nourish humanistic, person-centered views of human behavior. During that time, psychologists such as Gordon Allport, Abraham Maslow, David McClelland, Harry Murray, and Carl Rogers emphasized the positive growth potential in human character. The psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan proposed that personality can best be understood within the context of interpersonal transactions, and he provided a practical, street-smart understanding of psychiatric symptoms that was quite an advance over the traditional medical and psychoanalytic viewpoints. These ideas, along with the concept of dimensionalizing traits rather than categorizing them, inspired my colleagues and I to conduct our cooperative work on the interpersonal circumplex, which culminated in the publication of my monograph. Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality (Leary, 1957). PMID:16367702
Stein, Myron; Ronald, Doris
Educational psychotherapy for preschool children and its functioning are described in detail. Also described is the process of training teachers to do this work. The educational psychotherapy process attempts to operate at the interface between education and psychotherapy. The components of catharsis, recall, sharpening and correcting of…
Perry, Jonathan; Linsley, Sue
Nominal group technique is a semi-quantitative/qualitative evaluative methodology. It has been used in health care education for generating ideas to develop curricula and find solutions to problems in programme delivery. This paper aims to describe the use of nominal group technique and present the data from nominal group evaluations of a developing module which used novel approaches to the teaching and assessment of interpersonal skills. Evaluations took place over 3 years. Thirty-six students took part in annual groups. Analysis of the data produced the following themes based on items generated in the groups: role play, marking, course content, teaching style and user involvement. Findings indicate that students valued the role play, feedback from service users and emphasis on engagement and collaboration elements of the module. The areas which participants found difficult and desired change included anxiety during experiential practice, the "snap shot" nature of assessment and the use of specific interventions. Indications are also given regarding the impact of changes made by teaching staff over the 3 year evaluation period. The findings support themes within the existing literature on the teaching of interpersonal skills and may to some extent point the way toward best practice in this area. The paper discusses these findings and their implications for nurse education. PMID:16481073
Mellin, Elizabeth Anne
In an attempt of fill the gap in theoretical and empirical information available for treatment of adolescent depression, interpersonal therapy for adolescents (IPT-A) was developed. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a brief, time-limited therapy originally developed for use with adults diagnosed with major depression. Several outcome studies…
Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio
Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study describes preliminary data from a group format manual-based intervention, the Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme, aimed at improving the cognitive and metacognitive process of social problem-solving skills focusing on typical social situations in the workplace based on mediation as the main strategy. A total of 50 adults with Asperger syndrome received the programme and were compared with a control group of typical development. The feasibility and effectiveness of the treatment were explored. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment on a task of social problem-solving skills and two secondary measures of socialisation and work profile using self- and caregiver-report. Using a variety of methods, the results showed that scores were significantly higher at post-treatment in the social problem-solving task and socialisation skills based on reports by parents. Differences in comparison to the control group had decreased after treatment. The treatment was acceptable to families and subject adherence was high. The Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme appears to be a feasible training programme. PMID:24569569
Hamm, Jay A; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kukla, Marina; Lysaker, Paul H
Although the role and relative prominence of psychotherapy in the treatment of schizophrenia has fluctuated over time, an analysis of the history of psychotherapy for schizophrenia, focusing on findings from the recovery movement, reveals recent trends including the emergence of the development of integrative psychotherapy approaches. The authors suggest that the recovery movement has revealed limitations in traditional approaches to psychotherapy, and has provided opportunities for integrative approaches to emerge as a mechanism for promoting recovery in persons with schizophrenia. Five approaches to integrative psychotherapy for persons with schizophrenia are presented, and a shared conceptual framework that allows these five approaches to be compatible with one another is proposed. The conceptual framework is consistent with theories of recovery and emphasizes interpersonal attachment, personal narrative, and metacognitive processes. Implications for future research on integrative psychotherapy are considered. PMID:23950665
Bradshaw, William; Roseborough, David; Pahwa, Rohini; Jordan, James
This study describes an evaluation of the effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy provided in an outpatient community mental health clinic. The study used a single group pretest-posttest design involving 78 clients. Clinical outcomes included overall psychosocial functioning and quality of life, level of subjective distress, interpersonal functioning and role functioning, measured by the Outcome Questionnaire (Lambert, Hansen, Umpress, Lunnen Okilshi, & Burlingame, 2000). Clients showed statistically significant improvement from pretest (first sessions) to completion of treatment in overall functioning, and quality of life, level of subjective distress, interpersonal functioning and role functioning. Eighty-five percent of clients made statistically and clinically significant change. Calculation of effect sizes for each outcome found moderate to strong change effects ranging from d = .4 to .9. The study illustrates a method of intervention research that therapists and agencies can use to integrate practical evaluation methods into their clinical services in order to improve mental health service to clients, to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions, and to provide data to support coverage for needed services for clients. PMID:20001199
Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Beamish, Patricia M.
This article provides mental health counselors with information about the prevalence and course of adolescent depression, other empirically tested treatments for adolescent depression, an explanation of Interpersonal psychotherapy for adolescents (IPT-A) treatment protocol, and results of outcome studies on the effectiveness of IPT-A. Suggestions…
Mahendran, Rathi; Tan, Joyce Yi Siang; Griva, Konstadina; Lim, Haikel Asyraf; Ng, Hui Ying; Chua, Joanne; Lim, Siew Eng; Kua, Ee Heok
Introduction Despite the rising trend of cancer prevalence and increase in family caregiving, little attention has been paid to the efficacy of psychosocial interventions among Asian caregiver samples, particularly support groups, given the benefits that have been shown in studies on Western populations. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot 4-week group psychotherapy for Singaporean family caregivers of patients receiving outpatient care. Methods and analysis Facilitated by a clinical psychologist, this intervention is primarily based on the brief integrative psychological therapy with a supportive-expressive intent. Participants will be recruited while they are accompanying their care recipients for outpatient consultations. Since this is a pilot study, a sample size of 120 participants is targeted on the basis of sample sizes of previous studies. The study adopts a quasi-experimental design, as participants are assigned the intervention or control arms based on their availability to attend the intervention. A mixed methods approach is used to evaluate the outcomes of the intervention. A self-administered battery of tests is completed at four time points: baseline, postintervention and follow-up at 1-month and 2-month postinterventions; semi-structured interviews are conducted at baseline and post-intervention. Primary outcomes are quality of life and anxious and depressive symptoms; secondary outcomes are stress and basic psychological needs. Analysis using analysis of covariance would be conducted to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol has ethics approval from the National Healthcare Group Domain Specific Review Board (NHG DSRB Ref: 2013/00662). Written informed consent is obtained from every participant. Results will be disseminated through journals and conferences, and will be particularly relevant for clinicians intending to implement similar support groups to address the
Dawood, Sindes; Pincus, Aaron L
The interpersonal paradigm of personality assessment provides a rich nomological net for describing and assessing constructs of interpersonal functioning. The aim of this article is to demonstrate for clinicians how the use of a multisurface interpersonal assessment (MSIA) battery can augment psychotherapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy). We present 2 clinical case examples and specify interpretative guidelines for MSIA that integrate multiple circumplex profiles (e.g., problems, traits, sensitivities, strengths, values, and efficacies) for each patient. Subsequently, we demonstrate how this approach provides a context to better understand patient symptoms and difficulties, and discuss how it can inform case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention. PMID:27070943
de Figueiredo, John M; Gostoli, Sara
In most societies, members of a culture have attempted to help each other in times of trouble with various types of healing methods. Demoralization - an individual experience related to a group phenomenon - responds to certain elements shared by all psychotherapies. This article has three objectives: (1) to review the theoretical background leading to our current views on culture and demoralization in psychotherapy, (2) to discuss the methodological challenges faced in the cross-cultural study of demoralization and psychotherapy, and (3) to describe the clinical applications and research prospects of this area of inquiry. Demoralization follows a shattering of the individual's assumptive world and it is different from homeostatic responses to a stressful situation or from depressive disorders. Only a few comparative studies of this construct across cultures have been undertaken. The presentation of distress may vary widely from culture to culture and even within the same culture. To avoid 'category fallacy', it is important to understand the idioms of distress peculiar to a cultural group. A cultural psychiatrist or psychotherapist would have to identify patient's values and sentiments, reconstruct his/her personal and collective ambient worlds, and only then study demoralization. The limitations of our current diagnostic systems have resulted in methodological challenges. Cultural clinicians should consider using a combination of both 'clinimetric' and 'perspectivistic' approaches in order to arrive at a diagnosis and identify the appropriate intervention. The presenting problem has to be understood in the context of the patient's individual, social and cultural background, and patients unfamiliar with Western-type psychotherapies have to be prepared to guide their own expectations before the former are used. Future research should identify the gaps in knowledge on the effectiveness of cultural psychotherapy at reversing or preventing demoralization. PMID:23816865
DeRubeis, Robert J.; Gelfand, Lois A.; German, Ramaris E.; Fournier, Jay C.; Forand, Nicholas R.
We identify difficulties researchers encounter in psychotherapy process-outcome investigations, and we describe several limitations of the popular “variance accounted for” approach to understanding the effects of psychotherapy. Using data simulations, we show how the expected correlation between an excellent measure of therapy quality and outcome would be surprisingly small (approximately .25) under conditions likely to be common in psychotherapy research. Even when we modeled conditions designed to increase the likelihood that strong process-outcome relationships would be observed, we found that the expected correlations were still only in the modest range (.38 – .51). We discuss the implications of our analysis for the interpretation of process-outcome findings as well as for design considerations in future investigations. PMID:24219275
Spiegel, Jeremy; Severino, Sally K.; Morrison, Nancy K.
The authors propose to clarify concepts of emotional attunement and failures of attunement in early development derived from theoretical and clinical work (Kohut) and infant psychiatry (Stern). Early attunement failures are experienced as shameful by the infant/child, and without repair they form a nidus for later destructive adult interpersonal relationships, “social blindness,” and depression. The authors present a case illustrating these ideas. The role of empathic attunement experienced in the unique setting/structure of psychotherapy emerges as the single critical variable for a successful outcome. PMID:10608906
Peres, Julio F P
There is increasing recognition of the need to take into account the cultural environment and belief systems of psychotherapy patients because these values reflect basic assumptions about man's nature and the cognitive references used to cope with psychological difficulties. Currently accepted psychotherapeutic approaches take no account of the belief in life after death held by most of the world's population. The World Values Survey (http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org) showed that there are large numbers of reincarnationists around the world, and whatever the reasons for believing in reincarnation, psychotherapeutic approaches should not ignore this significant group of people. Respect for patient opinions and subjective realities is a therapeutic need and an ethical duty, even though therapists may not share the same beliefs. Guidelines are suggested for professionals to develop collaborative models that help patients mobilize their intrinsic intelligence to find solutions to their complaints. PMID:22297317
Layne, Christopher M.; Saltzman, William R.; Poppleton, Landon; Burlingame, Gary M.; Pasalic, Alma; Durakovic, Elvira; Music, Mirjana; Campara, Nihada; Dapo, Nermin; Arslanagic, Berina; Steinberg, Alan M.; Pynoos, Robert S.
The study assesses the comparative efficacy of a classroom-based psycho-education and skills intervention and a school-based trauma- and grief-focused group treatment of a three-tiered mental health program for adolescents exposed to severe war-trauma, traumatic bereavement, and postwar adversity. The two-tier approach, combined with…
Touhey, John C.
As no experimental study has examined the effects of congruency on attraction, the present investigation orthogonally varied attitude similarity and interpersonal congruency in order to compare the two independent variables as determinants of interpersonal attraction. (Author/RK)
The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…
Koole, Sander L.; Tschacher, Wolfgang
During psychotherapy, patient and therapist tend to spontaneously synchronize their vocal pitch, bodily movements, and even their physiological processes. In the present article, we consider how this pervasive phenomenon may shed new light on the therapeutic relationship– or alliance– and its role within psychotherapy. We first review clinical research on the alliance and the multidisciplinary area of interpersonal synchrony. We then integrate both literatures in the Interpersonal Synchrony (In-Sync) model of psychotherapy. According to the model, the alliance is grounded in the coupling of patient and therapist’s brains. Because brains do not interact directly, movement synchrony may help to establish inter-brain coupling. Inter-brain coupling may provide patient and therapist with access to another’s internal states, which facilitates common understanding and emotional sharing. Over time, these interpersonal exchanges may improve patients’ emotion-regulatory capacities and related therapeutic outcomes. We discuss the empirical assessment of interpersonal synchrony and review preliminary research on synchrony in psychotherapy. Finally, we summarize our main conclusions and consider the broader implications of viewing psychotherapy as the product of two interacting brains. PMID:27378968
Moskowitz, D. S.; Zuroff, David C.
Three studies were conducted using the interpersonal grid, a method for assessing perceptions of agentic and communal behavior based on the interpersonal circumplex. The 1st examined consistency across perceivers and convergence between perceiver and the perceived person. The 2nd examined whether responses to the interpersonal grid were sensitive…
Interpersonal, Nonverbal, and Small Group Communication: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1980 (Vol. 41 Nos. 1 through 6).
ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.
This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 21 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) interpersonal communication patterns in whole families, (2) interpersonal conflict and cognitive complexity, (3) adult conceptualization of interpersonal…
van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C. A.; Pennings, Helena J. M.
This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' appraisals and interpersonal identity standards…
Meier, Emily A.; Irwin, Scott A.
Caring for patients with cancer involves addressing their myriad physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. Although many cancer treatments focus on physical or psychological needs, few treatments specifically target the basic need for meaning and spiritual well-being in this population. This article describes the creation and evolution of a new psychotherapy devoted to these needs, a therapy termed “meaning-centered psychotherapy.” In this article, a detailed description of meaning-centered psychotherapy is provided. An explanation of the current research findings related to this treatment are also offered, with information about the various group and individual treatments as well as the new expansions for use with cancer survivors or nursing staff. Overall, meaning-centered psychotherapy shows promise for enhancing meaning and spiritual well-being among patients with cancer and offers exciting possibilities for future research in other areas. PMID:25182513
Thomas, Lori P Montross; Meier, Emily A; Irwin, Scott A
Caring for patients with cancer involves addressing their myriad physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. Although many cancer treatments focus on physical or psychological needs, few treatments specifically target the basic need for meaning and spiritual well-being in this population. This article describes the creation and evolution of a new psychotherapy devoted to these needs, a therapy termed "meaning-centered psychotherapy." In this article, a detailed description of meaning-centered psychotherapy is provided. An explanation of the current research findings related to this treatment are also offered, with information about the various group and individual treatments as well as the new expansions for use with cancer survivors or nursing staff. Overall, meaning-centered psychotherapy shows promise for enhancing meaning and spiritual well-being among patients with cancer and offers exciting possibilities for future research in other areas. PMID:25182513
Fisch, J M
This paper presents Kohut's position regarding the use of introspection and empathy as the predominant tools of observation for any approach to be called psychological. This translates into the need to maintain a consistent focus on the patient's self experience, and for interpretations to be "experience near." The concept of selfobject and the specific selfobject transferences are reviewed, and the model of Muslin and Val is used to differentiate supportive psychotherapy, psychoanalytic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. A case illustration is presented demonstrating psychoanalytic psychotherapy where the therapeutic work focused on the patient's relationship outside the treatment, the "extra-transference object." The indications for and therapeutic value of this approach are discussed. PMID:7928295
Based on different theoretical concepts, psychotherapeutic methods in the treatment of schizophrenia reach from clinical pragmatism, psychoanalysis, learning theory, cognition and communication psychology to concepts of systems-theory. Both the German (DGPPN) and the American (APA) practice guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenic patients don't separate psychotherapy, social and rehabilitation measures strictly. So a specific psychotherapy for psychotic patients seems to be missing. A better relationship between patient and expert is fundamental for building up a ??? therapeutic liaison. For that purpose, the disease concepts of both sides must be carefully explained and integrated ("Basic psychotherapy"). PMID:11533865