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Sample records for group v elements

  1. Raman Scattering Detection Of Elemental Group V Deposits In Native Oxides On III-V Compound Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, G. P.

    1981-04-01

    The application of surface reflection Raman scattering as an optical probe for monitor-ing the presence and growth of elemental deposits of group V (P,As,Sb) metalloids in native oxide films on III-V compound semiconductors is discussed. Selective data from the litera-ture concerning arsenic inclusions in native oxides on GaAs and AlxGal_xAs and red phosphor-us deposits in thermally oxidized films on InP are used to illustrate the technique.

  2. A new structure of two-dimensional allotropes of group V elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Luo, Weidong

    The elemental two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and black phosphorus have attracted considerable attention due to their fascinating physical properties. Structurally they possess the honeycomb or distorted honeycomb lattices, which are composed of six-atom rings. Here we find a new structure of 2D allotropes of group V elements composed of eight-atom rings, which we name as the octagonal tiling (OT) structure. First-principles calculations indicate that these allotropes are dynamically stable and are also thermally stable at temperatures up to 600 K. These allotropes are semiconductors with band gaps ranging from 0.3 to 2.0 eV, thus they are potentially useful in near- and mid-infrared optoelectronic devices. OT-Bi is also a 2D topological insulator (TI) with a band gap of 0.33 eV, which is the largest among the reported elemental 2D TIs, and this gap can be increased further by applying compressive strains.

  3. A new structure of two-dimensional allotropes of group V elements.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Luo, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    The elemental two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and black phosphorus have attracted considerable attention due to their fascinating physical properties. Structurally they possess the honeycomb or distorted honeycomb lattices, which are composed of six-atom rings. Here we find a new structure of 2D allotropes of group V elements composed of eight-atom rings, which we name as the octagonal tiling (OT) structure. First-principles calculations indicate that these allotropes are dynamically stable and are also thermally stable at temperatures up to 600 K. These allotropes are semiconductors with band gaps ranging from 0.3 to 2.0 eV, thus they are potentially useful in near- and mid-infrared optoelectronic devices. OT-Bi is also a 2D topological insulator (TI) with a band gap of 0.33 eV, which is the largest among the reported elemental 2D TIs, and this gap can be increased further by applying compressive strains. PMID:27150010

  4. A new structure of two-dimensional allotropes of group V elements

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Luo, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    The elemental two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and black phosphorus have attracted considerable attention due to their fascinating physical properties. Structurally they possess the honeycomb or distorted honeycomb lattices, which are composed of six-atom rings. Here we find a new structure of 2D allotropes of group V elements composed of eight-atom rings, which we name as the octagonal tiling (OT) structure. First-principles calculations indicate that these allotropes are dynamically stable and are also thermally stable at temperatures up to 600 K. These allotropes are semiconductors with band gaps ranging from 0.3 to 2.0 eV, thus they are potentially useful in near- and mid-infrared optoelectronic devices. OT-Bi is also a 2D topological insulator (TI) with a band gap of 0.33 eV, which is the largest among the reported elemental 2D TIs, and this gap can be increased further by applying compressive strains. PMID:27150010

  5. A comprehensive ab initio study of doping in bulk ZnO with group V elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petretto, Guido; Bruneval, Fabien

    2014-03-01

    Zinc-oxyde, despite being a promising candidate for several electronic applications, up to now has provided several challenges to the scientific community, both from an experimental and theoretical point of view. In fact, a reliable p-type doping still has not been achieved and standard density functional theory (DFT) calculations has often provided unsatisfactory results and failed to help in the search for better configurations to obtain such property. To solve the band gap underestimation problem we have made use of the HSE hybrid functional, tuning the admixing parameter to match the experimental band gap. Within this framework, we extensively studied the formation and transition energies of group V elements related defects. These include simple substitutional defects XO, XZn (X=N, P, As, Sb) and complexes of the form XZn-2VZn and XZn-VZn. The stability of these complexes is also addressed. We show that it is unlikely to obtain good acceptor states from these elements due to deep transition energies and the presence of donor-like defects.

  6. Influence of the group V element on the chemical potential and crystal structure of Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2014-02-03

    We present a kinetic growth model having a particular emphasis on the influence of the group V element on the preferred crystal structure of Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires. The model circumvents the uncertainty in the group V contribution into the overall liquid chemical potential. We show why the nanowire elongation rate is limited by the group III transport, while the crystal structure depends on the effective group V to III imbalance. Within the model, we are able to explain some important structural trends in Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires. In particular, we show that high group V flux always favors wurtzite structure in molecular-beam epitaxy. This tendency could be inverted in vapor deposition techniques due to suppression of the group III diffusion at high group V flux.

  7. Strain driven topological phase transitions in atomically thin films of group IV and V elements in the honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhi-Quan; Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Liu, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Hsin; Su, Wan-Sheng; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Bansil, Arun

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated topological electronic properties of freestanding bilayers of group IV (C, Si, Ge, Sn, and, Pb) and V (As, Sb, and, Bi) elements of the periodic table in the buckled and planar honeycomb structures under isotropic strain using first-principles calculations. Our focus is on mapping strain driven phase diagrams and identifying topological phase transitions therein as a pathway for guiding search for suitable substrates to grow two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs) films. Bilayers of group IV elements, excepting Pb, generally transform from trivial metal \\to topological metal \\to TI \\to topological metal \\to trivial metal phase with increasing strain from negative (compressive) to positive (tensile) values. Similarly, among the group V elements, As and Sb bilayers transform from trivial metal \\to trivial insulator \\to TI phase, while Bi transforms from a topological metal to TI phase. The band gap of 0.5 eV in the TI phase of Bi is the largest we found among all bilayers studied, with the band gap increasing further under tensile strain. Differences in the topological characteristics of bilayers of group V elements reflect associated differences in the strength of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We show, in particular, that the topological band structure of Sb bilayer becomes similar to that of a Bi bilayer when the strength of the SOC in Sb is artificially enhanced by a factor of 4. This study provides the first report that As can be a 2D TI under tensile strain. Notably, we found the existence of TI phases in all elemental bilayers we studied, except Pb.

  8. Incorporation and activation of group V elements in MOVPE-grown Cd xHg 1- xTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capper, P.; Maxey, C. D.; Whiffin, P. A. C.; Easton, B. C.

    1989-10-01

    Reproducible acceptor doping has been achieved in MOVPE-grown layers of Cd xHg 1- xTe using Group V elements. Dopant element concentrations have been controlled over the range 5×10 15-8×10 17 cm -13 for As. Agreement has been obtained between these levels and Hall measurements made on annealed samples, at least for concentrations above 5×10 16 cm -3. At lower levels residual impurities may exert a significant influence on the electrical behaviour of layers. In order to achieve dopant activation it has been found necessary to establish "metal-rich" conditions during the CdTe growth cycle. High temperature anneals to activate the dopant are thus avoided which permits the growth of heterolayers with sharpe interfaces, both in terms of x and dopant concentration.

  9. Platinum-group element geochemistry of the Zhuqing Fe-Ti-V oxide ore-bearing mafic intrusions in western Yangtze Block, SW China: control of platinum-group elements by magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong-Peng; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Zhong, Hong; Bai, Zhong-Jie; He, De-Feng; Ye, Xian-Tao; Chen, Cai-Jie; Cao, Chong-Yong

    2014-06-01

    Platinum-group element (PGE) geochemistry combined with elemental geochemistry and magnetite compositions are reported for the Mesoproterozoic Zhuqing Fe-Ti-V oxide ore-bearing mafic intrusions in the western Yangtze Block, SW China. All the Zhuqing gabbros display extremely low concentrations of chalcophile elements and PGEs. The oxide-rich gabbros contain relatively higher contents of Cr, Ni, Ir, Ru, Rh, and lower contents of Pt and Pd than the oxide-poor gabbros. The abundances of whole-rock concentrations of Ni, Ir, Ru, and Rh correlate well with V contents in the Zhuqing gabbros, implying that the distributions of these elements are controlled by magnetite. The fractionation between Ir-Ru-Rh and Pt-Pd in the Zhuqing gabbros is mainly attributed to fractional crystallization of chromite and magnetite, whereas Ru anomalies are mainly due to variable degrees of compatibility of PGE in magnetite. The order of relative incompatibility of PGEs is calculated to be Pd < Pt < Rh < Ir < Ru. The very low PGE contents and Cu/Zr ratios and high Cu/Pd ratios suggest initially S-saturated magma parents that were highly depleted in PGE, which mainly formed due to low degrees of partial melting leaving sulfides concentrating PGEs behind in the mantle. Moreover, the low MgO, Ni, Ir and Ru contents and high Cu/Ni and Pd/Ir ratios for the gabbros suggest a highly evolved parental magma. Fe-Ti oxides fractionally crystallized from the highly evolved magma and subsequently settled in the lower sections of the magma chamber, where they concentrated and formed Fe-Ti-V oxide ore layers at the base of the lower and upper cycles. Multiple episodes of magma replenishment in the magma chamber may have been involved in the formation of the Zhuqing intrusions.

  10. Elementally specific electron-positron annihilation radiation emitted from ion cores of group-V impurity-vacancy complexes in germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, N. Yu.; Emtsev, V. V.

    2007-12-01

    High-momentum component (HMC) of the electron-positron annihilation has been detected by the angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR) technique in order to obtain elementally specific information about the ion cores of the donor-vacancy complexes (DV) formed by irradiation with 60Co γ-rays at Tirr.≈280 K in oxygen-lean n-Ge doped with group-V donors (D=As, Sb, and Bi). The probability of annihilation of positrons with the core electrons of DV complexes reconstructed from ACAR spectra increases in passing from AsV to SbV and BiV complexes. This increase correlates with the shift of the D atom from its regular position towards the vacancy site predicted by the results of spin-density functional modeling study. The data obtained suggest inward relaxation of the ion cores of DV complexes (including the one directed inward towards the vacancy).

  11. Finite element analysis of stress concentration in Class V restorations of four groups of restorative materials in mandibular premolar

    PubMed Central

    N, Shubhashini; N, Meena; Shetty, Ashish; Kumari, Anitha; DN, Naveen

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the concentration of stress in class V restoration of four different restorative materials subjected to occlusal load of 100N, 150N, 200N, 250N and to analyse the obtained data with the listed properties of the restorative material. Materials and Methods: Using FEM analysis the stresses generated in a class V lesion in a mandibular premolar was studied. Results: Within the framework of the aforementioned views, and from the results of the study it can be concluded that microfilled composite is the most suitable restorative material followed by flowable composite, glass ionomer cement and resin modified glass ionomer cement. Conclusion: Restoration of Class V lesions with materials of higher modulus of elasticity will enable better stress distribution. PMID:20142899

  12. Metal and metalloid indicator electrodes for the non-aqueous potentiometric titration of weak acids: comparative evaluation of group III, IV and V main-group elements.

    PubMed

    Greenhow, E J; Al-Mudarris, B F

    Indicator electrodes constructed from aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, arsenic, antimony and bismuth have been evaluated for the potentiometric titration of solutions of benzoic acid in dimethylformamide and 4-methyl-2-pentanone. The aluminium, gallium, silicon and arsenic electrodes have also been evaluated for the determination of 3,5-xylenol in the same two solvents. Aluminium, gallium, indium, silicon, germanium, antimony and bismuth electrodes are superior to, or compare favourably with, a glass electrode for the determination of benzoic acid, when the criterion of efficiency is the sharpness of the end-point inflexion. In non-aqueous titrations of 3,5-xylenol, aluminium and gallium electrodes are similar in efficiency to the glass electrode for determinations in dimethylformamide solution, while the gallium electrode is superior to the glass electrode when 4-methyl-2-pentanone is the solvent. Possible relationships between the properties of the electrode element and the end-point sharpness when it is used as an indicator electrode are briefly considered. PMID:18961658

  13. Systems of elements preserving measure on varieties of groups

    SciTech Connect

    Timoshenko, E I

    2013-12-31

    It is proved that for any l, 1≤l≤r, a system of elements (v{sub 1},…,v{sub l}) of a free metabelian group S of rank r≥2 is primitive if and only if it preserves measure on the variety of metabelian groups A{sup 2}. From this we obtain the result that a system of elements (v{sub 1},…,v{sub l}) is primitive in the group S if and only if it is primitive in its profinite completion S-hat . Furthermore, it is proved that there exist a variety M and a nonprimitive element v∈F{sub r}(M) such that v preserves measure on M. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  14. Substantial enhancement in intrinsic coercivity on M-type strontium hexaferrite through the increase in magneto-crystalline anisotropy by co-doping of group-V and alkali elements

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Kyunghan Ryu, Byungki; Korolev, Dmitry; Jae Kang, Young

    2013-12-09

    The effect of d{sup 1} impurity doping in Sr-hexaferrite (SrM) on the magnetic anisotropy is investigated. First-principles calculations revealed that group-V elements (V, Nb) are stabilized with co-doping of alkali elements. Na{sup 1+}/K{sup 1+} doping at Sr{sup 2+}-site is found to be critical to form the d{sup 1} impurities at Fe-site. Experimentally, Na–V doped SrM shows the intrinsic coercivity of ∼5.4 kOe, which is ∼300% enhancement compared to undoped SrM and comparable value to La–Co co-doped SrM. Finally, the spin-orbit coupling from non-vanishing angular momentum of d{sup 1} impurity in SrM should be a main factor for such a substantial improvement of intrinsic coercivity.

  15. V-V compact group of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, N.

    1984-01-01

    A search for X-ray emission from five compact groups of galaxies with the Einstein Observatory revealed detections from three groups. Soft, extended X-ray emission was observed in Stephan's Quintet which is most likely caused by hot intracluster gas. This provides evidence for dynamical interaction among the group galaxies. X-ray emission from the group Arp 330 may also originate in hot intracluster gas. Stephan's Quintet and Arp 330 have the largest velocity dispersions among the groups studied suggesting a correlation between high velocity and the release (or properties) of hot gas. X-ray emission from Arp 318 may originate in its member galaxies.

  16. Cold Fusion Production and Decay of Neutron-Deficient Isotopes of Dubnium and Development of Extraction Systems for Group V Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Jacklyn M.

    2008-07-31

    Excitation functions for the 1n and 2n exit channels of the 208Pb(51V,xn)259-xDb reaction were measured. A maximum cross section of the 1n exit channel of 2070+1100/-760 pb was measured at an excitation energy of 16.0 +- 1.8 MeV. For the 2n exit channel, a maximum cross section of 1660+450/-370 pb was measured at 22.0 +- 1.8 MeV excitation energy. The 1n excitation function for the 209Bi(50Ti,n)258Db reaction was remeasured, resulting in a cross section of 5480+1730/1370 pb at an excitation energy of 16.0 +- 1.6 MeV. Differences in cross section maxima are discussed in terms of the fusion probability below the barrier. The extraction of niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) from hydrochloric acid and mixed hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride media by bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphite (BEHP) was studied. The goal of the experiments was to find a system that demonstrates selectivity among the members of group five of the Periodic Table and is also suitable for the study of dubnium (Db, Z = 105). Experiments with niobium and tantalum were performed with carrier (10-6 M), carrier free (10-10 M) and trace (10-16 M) concentrations of metal using hydrochloric acid solution with concentrations ranging from 1 - 11 M. The extraction of niobium and tantalum from mixed hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride media by HDEHP and BEHP as a function of hydrogen ion (H+) concentration was also investigated. The data obtained are used as the basis to discuss the speciation of niobium and tantalum under the conditions studied and to evaluate possible extraction mechanisms. The 74Se(18O,p3n)88gNb excitation function was measured to determine the best energy for producing the 88Nb used in chemistry experiments. A maximum cross section of 495 +- 5 mb was observed at an 18O energy of 74.0 MeV. The half life of 88gNb was measured and determined to be 14.56 +- 0.11 min.

  17. Properties of Group Five and Group Seven transactinium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, Philip A.

    2001-05-01

    The detection and positive identification of the short-lived, low cross section isotopes used in the chemical studies of the heaviest elements are usually accomplished by measuring their alpha-decay, thus the nuclear properties of the heaviest elements must be examined simultaneously with their chemical properties. The isotopes 224 Pa and 266,267 Bh have been studied extensively as an integral part of the investigation of the heaviest members of the groups five and seven of the periodic table. The half-life of 224 Pa was determined to be 855 plus/minus19 ms by measuring its alpha-decay using our rotating wheel, solid state detector system at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. Protactinium was produced by bombardment of a bismuth target. New neutron rich isotopes, 267 Bh and 266 Bh, were produced in bombardments of a 249 Bk target and their decay was observed using the rotating wheel system. The 266 Bh that was produced decays with a half-life of approximately 1 s by emission of alpha particles with an average energy of 9.25 plus/minus 0.03 MeV. 267 Bh was observed to decay with a 17 s half-life by emission of alpha-particles with an average energy of 8.83 plus/minus 0.03 MeV. The chemical behavior of hafnium, Ha (element 105) was investigated using the fast on-line continuous liquid extraction and detection system SISAK-LISSY. Hafnium was not observed in this experiment following transport and extraction. Protactinium was used as on-line test of the apparatus to determine the experimental efficiency of the entire system. Unfortunately, the amount of protactinium observed after the extraction, compared to the amount produced, was extremely small, only 2.5%. The extraction of the protactinium isotope indicated the efficiency of the apparatus was too low to observe the extraction of hafnium. The chemical behavior of oxychloride compounds of bohrium was investigated by isothermal gas adsorption chromatography in a quartz column at 180, 150, and 75 C. It was found to be less volatile than the corresponding compounds of the lighter group seven homologues, rhenium and technetium, which had been measured previously with the same apparatus. Assuming the bohrium compound to be BhO3Cl, the evaluated standard adsorption enthalpy, and delta-Hads, of BhO3Cl on the quartz surface was calculated from Monte Carlo fits to the volatility data to be -75 kJ/mol. The adsorption enthalpies for TcO3Cl and ReO3Cl are -51 and -61 kJ/mol respectively.

  18. Subgroups of simple algebraic groups containing elements of fundamental subgroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebeck, Martin W.; Seitz, Gary M.

    1999-05-01

    Let G be a simple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field K of characteristic p. If [Sigma] is the root system of G and U[alpha] is the root subgroup of G corresponding to a long root [alpha][set membership][Sigma], then [left angle bracket]U[alpha], U[minus sign][alpha][right angle bracket] is an image of SL2 and any G-conjugate of this subgroup is called a fundamental subgroup of G. In [LS1], the closed connected semisimple subgroups of G generated by long root elements were determined. Of course, long root elements are unipotent elements of fundamental subgroups. In this paper we consider subgroups of G which are generated by semisimple elements lying in fundamental subgroups.Our first three results (Theorems 1-3) concern semisimple connected subgroups of G which contain a maximal torus of a fundamental subgroup; we call such a torus a fundamental torus. Notice that for classical groups, the elements in fundamental tori have fixed spaces of small codimension in the natural module; indeed, for the groups SL(V) and Sp(V), the elements of fundamental tori are precisely those semisimple elements with fixed space of codimension 2, while for SO(V), the codimension is 4.As consequences of these results, we obtain information on subgroups (finite or infinite) of classical groups which are generated by conjugates of a single element of a fundamental torus of order at least 5 (see Theorems 4, 5 and Corollary 6); for example, Theorem 5 determines those finite irreducible subgroups containing such an element which are quasisimple and of Lie type in characteristic p.We now state our results in detail. Recall from [LS1] that a subsystem subgroup of G is a connected semisimple subgroup which is invariant under a maximal torus of G.

  19. Novel chain structures in group VI elements.

    PubMed

    Degtyareva, Olga; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Somayazulu, Maddury; Dera, Przemyslaw; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J

    2005-02-01

    Recent developments in high-pressure methods and advances in X-ray crystallography have led to a new level of understanding of phase diagrams and structures of materials under pressure. Recently discovered phenomena such as complex phases of alkali metals, incommensurate host-guest structures, and incommensurately modulated structures have rendered obsolete our conventional wisdom about the range of structures possible in the elements. Using new in situ diffraction techniques, we have resolved the long-standing problem of the phase-transition sequence of sulphur in its non-metallic state. We demonstrate that it is very different from that previously proposed, with only two phases stable between 1.5 GPa and 83 GPa (the pressure of metallization), and temperatures from 300 K to 1,100 K. The phases have a triangular chain and a squared chain structure. The same squared chain structure is found in the heavier group VI element selenium. PMID:15665838

  20. How to efficiently select an arbitrary Clifford group element

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Robert; Smolin, John A.

    2014-12-15

    We give an algorithm which produces a unique element of the Clifford group on n qubits (C{sub n}) from an integer 0≤i<|C{sub n}| (the number of elements in the group). The algorithm involves O(n{sup 3}) operations and provides, in addition to a canonical mapping from the integers to group elements g, a factorization of g into a sequence of at most 4n symplectic transvections. The algorithm can be used to efficiently select random elements of C{sub n} which are often useful in quantum information theory and quantum computation. We also give an algorithm for the inverse map, indexing a group element in time O(n{sup 3})

  1. The Heavy Element Abundance in Groups of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Laurence

    2000-01-01

    Over the past few years we have analyzed a sample of clusters observed by the Advanced Spacecraft for Cosmology Astrophysics (ASCA) X-ray satellite. We performed spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy of a sample of 18 relaxed clusters of galaxies with gas temperatures below 4 keV. The spectral analysis was done using ASCA/SIS (Solid state Imaging Spectrometer) data combined with imaging data from ROSAT/PSPC (German acronym for X-ray satellite/Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) and Einstein/IPC (Imaging Proportional Counter) observations. We derived temperature profiles using single-temperature fits for all of the clusters in the sample, and also corrected for the presence of cold gas in the center of so-called 'cooling flow' clusters. For all of the clusters in the sample we derived Si and Fe abundance profiles. For a few of the clusters we also were able to derive Ne and S abundance profiles. We compared the elemental abundances derived at similar overdensities in all of the clusters in the sample. We also compared element mass-to-light ratios for the entire sample. We concluded that the preferential accretion of low entropy, low abundance gas into the potentials of groups and cold clusters can explain most of the observed trends in metallicity. In addition, we discussed the importance of preheating of the intracluster medium by Type II supernovae on the cluster scaling relations.

  2. Parallel and Serial Grouping of Image Elements in Visual Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkamp, Roos; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2010-01-01

    The visual system groups image elements that belong to an object and segregates them from other objects and the background. Important cues for this grouping process are the Gestalt criteria, and most theories propose that these are applied in parallel across the visual scene. Here, we find that Gestalt grouping can indeed occur in parallel in some

  3. Parallel and Serial Grouping of Image Elements in Visual Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkamp, Roos; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2010-01-01

    The visual system groups image elements that belong to an object and segregates them from other objects and the background. Important cues for this grouping process are the Gestalt criteria, and most theories propose that these are applied in parallel across the visual scene. Here, we find that Gestalt grouping can indeed occur in parallel in some…

  4. Methods for forming group III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for forming Group III--arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  5. Quantum Supergroups V. Braid Group Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Sean; Hill, David

    2016-04-01

    We construct a braid group action on quantum covering groups. We further use this action to construct a PBW basis for the positive half in finite type which is pairwise-orthogonal under the inner product. This braid group action is induced by operators on the integrable modules; however, these operators satisfy spin braid relations.

  6. Photochemistry and charge transfer chemistry of the platinum group elements

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.

    1991-12-01

    Significant progress has been made on the photochemistry and photophysics of platinum group element dithiolate complexes. The specific systems under investigation are square planar complexes of Pt(II) containing a dithiolate chelate and two other donor groups to complete the coordination sphere. The donor groups may be amines, imines, phosphines, phosphites or olefins, and they can be either monodentate or joined together as part of a chelate ring.

  7. A Renormalisation Group Method. V. A Single Renormalisation Group Step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydges, David C.; Slade, Gordon

    2015-05-01

    This paper is the fifth in a series devoted to the development of a rigorous renormalisation group method applicable to lattice field theories containing boson and/or fermion fields, and comprises the core of the method. In the renormalisation group method, increasingly large scales are studied in a progressive manner, with an interaction parametrised by a field polynomial which evolves with the scale under the renormalisation group map. In our context, the progressive analysis is performed via a finite-range covariance decomposition. Perturbative calculations are used to track the flow of the coupling constants of the evolving polynomial, but on their own perturbative calculations are insufficient to control error terms and to obtain mathematically rigorous results. In this paper, we define an additional non-perturbative coordinate, which together with the flow of coupling constants defines the complete evolution of the renormalisation group map. We specify conditions under which the non-perturbative coordinate is contractive under a single renormalisation group step. Our framework is essentially combinatorial, but its implementation relies on analytic results developed earlier in the series of papers. The results of this paper are applied elsewhere to analyse the critical behaviour of the 4-dimensional continuous-time weakly self-avoiding walk and of the 4-dimensional -component model. In particular, the existence of a logarithmic correction to mean-field scaling for the susceptibility can be proved for both models, together with other facts about critical exponents and critical behaviour.

  8. Discrimination Among Individuals V. Discrimination Among Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewy, Arieh

    1973-01-01

    The present paper called attention to the difference between discrimination among individuals and discrimination among groups and suggested that the intraclass correlation coefficient should be used in the process of item selection whenever one is interested in discrimination among groups. (Author)

  9. On spectral synthesis on element-wise compact Abelian groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, S. S.

    2015-08-01

    Let G be an arbitrary locally compact Abelian group and let C(G) be the space of all continuous complex-valued functions on G. A closed linear subspace \\mathscr H\\subseteq C(G) is referred to as an invariant subspace if it is invariant with respect to the shifts τ_y\\colon f(x)\\mapsto f(xy), y\\in G. By definition, an invariant subspace \\mathscr H\\subseteq C(G) admits strict spectral synthesis if \\mathscr H coincides with the closure in C(G) of the linear span of all characters of G belonging to \\mathscr H. We say that strict spectral synthesis holds in the space C(G) on G if every invariant subspace \\mathscr H\\subseteq C(G) admits strict spectral synthesis. An element x of a topological group G is said to be compact if x is contained in some compact subgroup of G. A group G is said to be element-wise compact if all elements of G are compact. The main result of the paper is the proof of the fact that strict spectral synthesis holds in C(G) for a locally compact Abelian group G if and only if G is element-wise compact. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  10. Summary of the TeV33 working group

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, P.P.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Colestock, P.

    1996-10-01

    This summary of the TeV33 working group at Snowmass reports on work in the areas of Tevatron store parameters, the beam-beam interaction, Main Injector intensity (slip stacking), antiproton production, and electron cooling.

  11. Dehydrocoupling routes to element-element bonds catalysed by main group compounds.

    PubMed

    Melen, Rebecca L

    2016-02-21

    Dehydrocoupling reactions, i.e. reactions involving elimination of H2 between two E-H bonds, provide a clean route to E-E bonds within the main group. The products afforded from these reactions have applications in organic synthesis and materials chemistry, and in addition the H2 released during these reactions can also be useful as an energy source. Previous methods for dehydrocoupling involve both thermal and transition metal catalysed routes but recent developments have shown that main group compounds can be used as catalysts in these reactions. This tutorial review will focus on the development of main group catalysed dehydrocoupling reactions as a route to heteronuclear element-element bonds. PMID:26255747

  12. Polycomb Group Response Elements in Drosophila and Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kassis, Judith A.; Brown, J. Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Polycomb group genes (PcG) encode a group of about 16 proteins that were first identified in Drosophila as repressors of homeotic genes. PcG proteins are present in all metazoans and are best characterized as transcriptional repressors. In Drosophila, these proteins are known as epigenetic regulators because they remember, but do not establish, the patterned expression state of homeotic genes throughout development. PcG proteins, in general, are not DNA binding proteins, but act in protein complexes to repress transcription at specific target genes. How are PcG proteins recruited to the DNA? In Drosophila, there are specific regulatory DNA elements called Polycomb group response elements (PREs) that bring PcG protein complexes to the DNA. Drosophila PREs are made up of binding sites for a complex array of DNA binding proteins. Functional PRE assays in transgenes have shown that PREs act in the context of other regulatory DNA and PRE activity is highly dependent on genomic context. Drosophila PREs tend to regulate genes with a complex array of regulatory DNA in a cell or tissue-specific fashion and it is the interplay between regulatory DNA that dictates PRE function. In mammals, PcG proteins are more diverse and there are multiple ways to recruit PcG complexes, including RNA-mediated recruitment. In this review, we discuss evidence for PREs in vertebrates and explore similarities and differences between Drosophila and vertebrate PREs. PMID:23419717

  13. Platinum group elements in mantle melts and mantle samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Stephen J.; Mungall, James E.; Maier, Wolfgang D.

    2015-09-01

    A large data compilation has been assembled of platinum group element (PGE) analyses in mantle melts and mantle rocks, the latter including an assortment of xenoliths and obducted mantle massifs. The degree of correlation has been investigated among the PGEs and with other major element variables such as Al2O3, TiO2 and Mg number, and the results are considered in the context of the current paradigm for the behaviour of highly siderophile elements in the silicate Earth. Primitive mantle melts have a wide range of PGE contents. Komatiites have the highest abundances of all the PGEs, show the strongest correlations between Pt and Rh, Pt and Pd and between the iridium-group PGEs Ir, Ru and Os (IPGEs). Most basalts of all affinities have lower levels of Pt and Pd and much lower levels of Ir, Ru and Os than komatiites. Within the basalt grouping Rh has stronger affinities with the IPGEs. Picrites and Archaean basalts are intermediate between these two groups. MORBs and a small proportion of continental LIP basalts show strong depletions in all PGEs attributable to retention of sulfide in their mantle source rocks, or sulfide liquid fractionation on ascent. The degree of PGE depletion in other basalts is probably attributable to equilibration with sulfide, but is less than would be expected under conventional models of sulfide extraction, and is instead attributed to mixing of magmas generated at variable depths incorporating both sulfide-saturated and undersaturated components. Basalts with Pt and Pd contents higher than typical komatiites are rare, a notable example being B1-type parent magmas to the Bushveld Complex, which have komatiite-like relative PGE abundances and Pt, Pd and Rh abundances up to a factor of two higher than komatiites for comparable Ti contents. The mantle composition array as a whole is characterized by variable degrees of depletion of Pt, Pd and Rh in Al-poor, melt-depleted harzburgite/dunite lithologies; lack of depletion in these elements in Al-bearing lherzolites; and a lack of systematic variation in IPGEs across this range. Strongest correlations across the entire set are observed between Ir, Ru and Os; and between Pt and Rh. Melt-depleted cratonic mantle samples are notably more deficient in Pd than in Pt, but comparable Pd-enriched components are not represented in the available data from continental environments. The only group of mantle melts that systematically record high Pd/Pt ratios are MORBs; if these are indeed the complement of the depleted cratonic mantle suite then the melt depletion recorded by the cratonic mantle suite occurred at low pressure prior to tectonic underplating of the depleted lithosphere beneath the cratons. A filtered subset of orogenic peridotite compositions that are thought not to have been affected by significant extents of melt extraction or metasomatic refertilization have median concentrations of 3.9 ppb Os, 2.9 ppb Ir, 6.3 ppb Ru, 1.0 ppb Rh, 6.2 ppb Pt, 5.4 ppb Pd, and Cu/Pd ratio of 5500, which we consider to be representative of the modern convecting mantle. The convecting mantle has PGE proportions closely resembling those of lunar impact breccias, diverging considerably from chondritic proportions and attributable to the presence of a late veneer-derived, predominantly sulfide-hosted component. The compositions of mantle peridotites show considerable scatter attributable to the combined effects of measurement error and a strong covariance due to a heterogeneous distribution of sulfide in the small samples typically chosen for pulverization. The intensity of the covariance between all of the PGE due to sampling error gives a false impression of a genetic trend toward highly enriched PGE in some samples which could be mistaken for the effects of metasomatism; however no plausible metasomatic process would be expected to retain the tight interelement correlations shown.

  14. Doping of indium phosphide with group IV elements

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharenkov, L.F.; Samorukov, B.E.; Zykov, A.M.

    1985-06-01

    This paper studies the doping of single crystals of indium phosphide (InP) with group IV elements using data obtained by measuring the total charge concentration of additives and carriers. Single crystals of indium phosphide were grown by the Czochralski method from liquid melts with a liquid hermetic seal in quartz cubicles. The total impurity concentration was determined by atomic-absorption analysis with + or - 10% error. In order to explain the behavior of germanium and tin in indium phosphide, the authors consider the bond energies of additives in indium phosphide and their tetrahedral radii. The authors conclude that the established higher amphoteric character of germanium with respect to tin is probably explained by the moduli of elasticity of the doped crystal.

  15. Determination of the CKM Element V(Ub)

    SciTech Connect

    Fortin, Dominique; /Victoria U.

    2007-04-06

    The precise determination of the CKM matrix element |V{sub ub}| is crucial in testing the Standard Model mechanism for CP violation. From a sample of 88 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector, charmless semileptonic B decays are selected using simultaneous requirements on the electron energy, E{sub e}, and the invariant mass squared of the electron-neutrino pair, q{sup 2}. The partial branching fraction, unfolded for detector effects, is determined in a region of the q{sup 2}-E{sub e} plane where the dominating semileptonic decays to charm mesons are highly suppressed. Theoretical calculations based on the Heavy Quark Expanion allows for a determination of |V{sub ub}| = (3.95 {+-} 0.27{sub -0.42}{sup +0.58} {+-} 0.25) x 10{sup -3}, where the errors represent experimental, heavy quark parameters and theoretical uncertainties, respectively.

  16. Mahowaldean families of elements in stable homotopy groups revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, David J.; Kuhn, Nicholas J.

    1999-09-01

    In the mid 1970s Mark Mahowald constructed a new infinite family of elements in the 2-component of the stable homotopy groups of spheres, [eta]j[set membership][pi]Sj2 (S0)(2) [M]. Using standard Adams spectral sequence terminology (which will be recalled in Section 3 below), [eta]j is detected by h1hj[set membership]Ext2,*[script A] (Z/2, Z/2). Thus he had found an infinite family of elements all having the same Adams filtration (in this case, 2), thus dooming the so-called Doomsday Conjecture. His constructions were ingenious: his elements were constructed as composites of pairs of maps, with the intermediate spaces having, on one hand, a geometric origin coming from double loopspace theory and, on the other hand, mod2 cohomology making them amenable to Adams Spectral Sequence analysis and suggesting that they were related to the new discovered Brown-Gitler spectra [BG].In the years that followed, various other related 2-primary infinite families were constructed, perhaps most notably (and correctly) Bruner's family detected by h2h2j[set membership] Ext3,*[script A](Z/2, Z/2) [B]. An odd prime version was studied by Cohen [C], leading to a family in [pi]S[low asterisk](S0)(p) detected by h0bj[set membership] Ext3,*[script A] (Z/p, Z/p) and a filtration 2 family in the stable homotopy groups of the odd prime Moore space. Cohen also initiated the development of odd primary Brown-Gitler spectra, completed in the mid 1980s, using a different approach, by Goerss [G], and given the ultimate modern treatment by Goerss, Lannes and Morel in the 1993 paper [GLM]. Various papers in the late 1970s and early 1980s, e.g. [BP, C, BC], related some of these to loopspace constructions.Our project originated with two goals. One was to see if any of the later work on Brown-Gitler spectra led to clarification of the original constructions. The other was to see if taking advantage of post Segal Conjecture knowledge of the stable cohomotopy of the classifying space BZ/p would help in constructing new families at odd primes, in particular a conjectural family detected by h0hj[set membership] Ext2,*[script A] (Z/p, Z/p). (This followed a paper [K1] by one of us on 2 primary families from this point of view.)

  17. Baryon Budget in 2keV Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornstrup, A.; Vikhlinin, A.; Burenin, R.; Ebeling, H.; Kotov, O.; Pedersen, K.; Quintana, H.; Rasmussen, J.

    We present gas-, total- and galaxy mass profiles from a 2 keV group of galaxies as part of measurements of these quantities from a small series of lowmass clusters and groups, drawn from a new 400 deg2 X-ray serendipitous survey of Clusters of Galaxies. The aim is to establish robust determinations of the baryon contents in these low-mass systems, and to determine if there is a baryon deficit compared to CMB observations.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of the Group 1A elements

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C.B.; Itkin, V.P.; Chase, M.W.

    1994-05-01

    This review describes thermodynamic properties of condensed phases of the alkali metals, excluding francium for which the amount of information is too limited. The properties considered are: heat capacities from 0 to 1600 K, temperatures and enthalpies of fusion and martensitic transformation in Li and Na; discussion of the Debye temperature and electronic heat capacity coefficient at absolute zero temperature is also included. The paper is the second part of a series. Similar to previous assessment of the IIA group [93ALC/CHA], this paper considers original studies, especially with respect to factors which influence the accuracy and reliability of results. Recommendations derived from such analyses are compared with most advanced previous reviews made at the Institute for High Temperatures (Moscow) [70SHP/YAK], [82GUR] and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (Washington) [85JAN]. The properties of individual elements of the group are compared and suggestions are made for experimental studies which should improve poorly measured quantities. The review is supplemented by an IBM PC database which contains references, assessed data, brief description of studies and has facilities for fitting and plotting of data and for adding new information.

  19. Comprehensive Analyses of the Spectra of Iron-group Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Gillian; Sansonetti, Craig J; Pickering, Juliet C; Liggins, Florence

    2014-06-01

    For many decades, the Atomic Spectroscopy Group at NIST has measured atomic data of vital use to astronomy and other fields using high resolution spectrometers that are found in few other places in the world. These now include the 2-m Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer covering the region 285 nm to 5500 nm, the FT700 vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) FT spectrometer covering the region 143 nm to 900 nm, and a 10.7-m normal incidence spectrograph (NIVS) covering 30 nm to 500 nm. Recent work focused on the measurement and analysis of wavelengths and energy levels of iron-group elements to provide extensive data for the analysis of astrophysical spectra. Our comprehensive linelist for Fe II from 90 nm to 5500 nm contains over 13 600 lines with order of magnitude improvements in the wavelengths compared to previous work [Nave & Johansson, ApJSS 204, 1(2013)]. The spectra were observed in high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode (HCL) discharges using FT spectrometers and our NIVS spectrograph. A similar analysis of Cr II contains over 5300 lines and extends the knowledge of this spectrum to the previously unobserved region between 731 nm at 5500 nm [Sansonetti, Nave, Reader & Kerber, ApJSS 202, 15 (2012); Sansonetti & Nave, ApJSS (in prep.)]. Our analysis of the Co III spectrum contains 750 lines observed in Penning discharge lamps and an additional 900 lines compiled from previous work, including Ritz wavelengths, optimized energy levels, and calculated log(gf) values [Smillie, Pickering, Nave & Smith, ApJSS (in prep.)]. NIST and ICL are currently collaborating to complete the measurement and analysis of wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure parameters for all singly-ionized iron-group elements of astrophysical interest, covering the wavelength range 80 nm to 5500 nm. This project uses archival data from FT spectrometers at NIST, ICL and Kitt Peak National Observatory, with additional spectra of HCL and Penning discharge sources taken using our FT and NIVS spectrometers. Current work includes the spectra of Mn I, Mn II, Ni II, Sc II, and Co III. This work was partially supported by NASA, the STFC and PPARC (UK), the Royal Society of the UK, and the Leverhulme Trust.

  20. Clostridium botulinum group III: a group with dual identity shaped by plasmids, phages and mobile elements

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clostridium botulinum strains can be divided into four physiological groups that are sufficiently diverged to be considered as separate species. Here we present the first complete genome of a C. botulinum strain from physiological group III, causing animal botulism. We also compare the sequence to three new draft genomes from the same physiological group. Results The 2.77 Mb chromosome was highly conserved between the isolates and also closely related to that of C. novyi. However, the sequence was very different from the human C. botulinum group genomes. Replication-directed translocations were rare and conservation of synteny was high. The largest difference between C. botulinum group III isolates occurred within their surprisingly large plasmidomes and in the pattern of mobile elements insertions. Five plasmids, constituting 13.5% of the total genetic material, were present in the completed genome. Interestingly, the set of plasmids differed compared to other isolates. The largest plasmid, the botulinum-neurotoxin carrying prophage, was conserved at a level similar to that of the chromosome while the medium-sized plasmids seemed to be undergoing faster genetic drift. These plasmids also contained more mobile elements than other replicons. Several toxins and resistance genes were identified, many of which were located on the plasmids. Conclusions The completion of the genome of C. botulinum group III has revealed it to be a genome with dual identity. It belongs to the pathogenic species C. botulinum, but as a genotypic species it should also include C. novyi and C. haemolyticum. The genotypic species share a conserved chromosomal core that can be transformed into various pathogenic variants by modulation of the highly plastic plasmidome. PMID:21486474

  1. Benchmarking of the 99-group ANSL-V library

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.Q.; Ford, W.E. III; Greene, N.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Westfall, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present thermal benchmark data testing results for the BAPL-1, TRX-1, and SEEP-1 lattices, using selected processed cross-sections from the ANSL-V 99-group library. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Platinum-group elements: so many excellent properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zientek, Michael L.; Loferski, Patricia J.

    2014-01-01

    The platinum-group elements (PGE) include platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium. These metals have similar physical and chemical properties and occur together in nature. The properties of PGE, such as high melting points, corrosion resistance, and catalytic qualities, make them indispensable to many industrial applications. PGE are strategic and critical materials for many nations because they are essential for important industrial applications but are mined in a limited number of places and have no adequate substitutes. Exploration and mining companies have found approximately 104,000 metric tons of PGE (with minor gold) in mineral deposits around the world that could be developed. For PGE, almost all known production and resources are associated with three geologic features: the Bushveld Complex, a layered mafic-to-ultramafic intrusion in South Africa; the Great Dyke, a layered mafic-to-ultramafic intrusion in Zimbabwe; and sill-like intrusions associated with flood basalts in the Noril’sk-Talnakh area, Russia. To help predict where PGE supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where PGE resources are concentrated in the Earth's crust and use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered PGE deposits may exist. Techniques used for assessing mineral resources were developed by the USGS to support the stewardship of Federal lands and evaluate mineral resource availability in a global context. The USGS also compiles statistics and information on the worldwide supply, demand, and flow of PGE. These data are all used to inform U.S. national policymakers.

  3. Investigation of group IVA elements combined with HAXPES and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.-T.; Li, G.-L.; Oji, H.; Son, J.-Y.

    2014-04-01

    The core level and valence band spectra of group IVA elements were investigated with hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) photon energy of 7.939 keV by bulk sensitive manner. The survey and valance band spectra were presented, relative peaks intensity are discussed by thinking about inelastic mean free path (IMFP) and photoionization cross section of photoelectrons (PICS). In order to understand bulk band structures, valence bands are compared with the calculated ones by considering PICS, IMFP and total energy resolution. The calculated results by GGA, HSE06 and GW0 methods are simply discussed by comparing with experiment spectra.

  4. Method of fabricating vertically aligned group III-V nanowires

    DOEpatents

    Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-11-25

    A top-down method of fabricating vertically aligned Group III-V micro- and nanowires uses a two-step etch process that adds a selective anisotropic wet etch after an initial plasma etch to remove the dry etch damage while enabling micro/nanowires with straight and smooth faceted sidewalls and controllable diameters independent of pitch. The method enables the fabrication of nanowire lasers, LEDs, and solar cells.

  5. Fe-Group Elements in the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937: Abundances and their Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Pignatari, Marco; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Wood, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    We have derived accurate relative abundances of the Fe-group elements Sc through Zn in the very metal-poor main-sequence turnoff star HD 84937. For this study we analyzed high resolution, high signal-to-noise HST/STIS and VLT/UVES spectra over a total wavelength range 2300-7000 Å. We employed only recent or newly-applied reliable laboratory transition data for all species. Abundances from more than 600 lines of non-Fe species were combined with about 550 Fe lines in HD 84937 to yield abundance ratios of high precision. From parallel analyses of solar photospheric spectra we also derived new solar abundances of these elements. This in turn yielded internally-consistent relative HD 84937 abundances with respect to the Sun. For seven of the ten Fe-group elements the HD 84937 abundances were from both neutral and ionized transitions. In all of these cases the neutral and ionized species yield the same abundances within the measurement uncertainties. Therefore standard Saha ionization balance appears to hold in the HD 84937 atmosphere. We derived metallicity [Fe/H] = -2.32 with sample standard deviation of 0.06. Solid evidence is seen for departures from the solar abundance mix in HD 84937, for example [Co/Fe] = +0.14, [Cu/Fe] = -0.83, and <[Sc,Ti,V/Fe]> = +0.31. Combining our Sc, Ti, and V abundances for this star with those from large-sample spectroscopic surveys suggests that these elements are positively correlated in stars with [Fe/H] < -2. HD 84937 is unusually enriched in Sc, Ti, and V. Our analysis strongly suggests that different types of supernovae with a large scatter of explosion energies and asymmetries contributed to the creation of the Fe-group elements early in the Galaxy's history.This work has been supported in part by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (J.E.L.), by NSF grants AST-1211055 (J.E.L.), AST-1211585 (C.S.), PHY-1430152 (through JINA, J.J.C. and M.P.), EU MIRGCT-2006-046520 (M.P.), and by the ``Lendlet-2014'' Programme of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (M.P.) and from SNF (Switzerland, M.P.).

  6. New laboratory atomic data for neutral, singly and doubly ionised iron group elements for astrophysics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, Juliet C.; Nave, Gillian; Liggins, Florence; Clear, Christian; Ruffoni, Matthew; Sansonetti, Craig

    2015-08-01

    We present new laboratory spectroscopic measurements to produce atomic data for astrophysically important species: neutral, singly and doubly ionised iron group elements.We use high resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) (resolving power up to 2x106 at 200nm) to measure atomic spectra, giving accurate line wavelengths (to a few parts in 108), atomic energy levels, hyperfine structure splitting and log gfs (accurate to a few %) (Ruffoni et al this meeting). These data are vital for astrophysical spectral analyses for: line identification, spectrum synthesis, elemental abundance determinations [eg 1], and disentangling of blends etc. It is not possible to theoretically calculate these atomic data to the accuracy needed for modern astrophysics applications.At Imperial College we have a unique visible-VUV FT spectrometer with short wavelength cut-off of 135nm. We supplement FTS data at shorter wavelengths with spectra recorded on the NIST 10.7m grating spectrograph (with phosphor image or photographic plates) and at longer wavelengths in the IR we use the NIST IR FT spectrometer.An elemental spectrum may contain thousands of spectral lines from the IR to VUV. We use these wavelengths to correct known atomic energy levels, and search for new atomic levels. The result is a classified linelist and accurate atomic energy levels.We present progress on iron group element atomic energy levels and wavelengths for V I and V II [2,3], Co III [4], Cr I, Mn I and Mn II, and Ni II.This work is supported by STFC(UK), The Leverhulme Trust, The Royal Society and NASA.References[1] Bergemann M, Pickering JC & Gehren T,“NLTE analysis of Co I/Co II lines in spectra of cool stars with new laboratory hyperfine splitting constants",MNRAS 401(2) 1334 (2010)[2] Thorne AP, Pickering JC & Semeniuk J,“The spectrum and term analysis of V II”, ApJS 207,13 (2013)[3] Thorne AP, Pickering JC & Semeniuk J,“The spectrum and term analysis of V I",ApJS 192,11 (2011)[4] Smillie DG, Pickering JC, Nave G & Smith PL,“The Spectrum and Term Analysis of Co III Measured using Fourier Transform and Grating Spectroscopy”,ApJS submitted

  7. The elemental composition of the Sun. II. The iron group elements Sc to Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Pat; Asplund, Martin; Grevesse, Nicolas; Bergemann, Maria; Sauval, A. Jacques

    2015-01-01

    We redetermine the abundances of all iron group nuclei in the Sun, based on neutral and singly-ionised lines of Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni in the solar spectrum. We employ a realistic 3D hydrodynamic model solar atmosphere, corrections for departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE), stringent line selection procedures and high quality observational data. We have scoured the literature for the best quality oscillator strengths, hyperfine constants and isotopic separations available for our chosen lines. We find log ɛSc = 3.16 ± 0.04, log ɛTi = 4.93 ± 0.04, log ɛV = 3.89 ± 0.08, log ɛCr = 5.62 ± 0.04, log ɛMn = 5.42 ± 0.04, log ɛFe = 7.47 ± 0.04, log ɛCo = 4.93 ± 0.05 and log ɛNi = 6.20 ± 0.04. Our uncertainties factor in both statistical and systematic errors (the latter estimated for possible errors in the model atmospheres and NLTE line formation). The new abundances are generally in good agreement with the CI meteoritic abundances but with some notable exceptions. This analysis constitutes both a full exposition and a slight update of the preliminary results we presented in Asplund et al. (2009, ARA&A, 47, 481), including full line lists and details of all input data we employed. Tables 1-3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Molecular nitrides with titanium and Group 13-15 elements.

    PubMed

    García-Castro, María; Martín, Avelino; Mena, Miguel; Yélamos, Carlos

    2009-07-20

    Several heterometallic nitrido complexes were prepared by reaction of the imido-nitrido titanium complex [{Ti(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))(mu-NH)}(3)(mu(3)-N)] (1) with amido derivatives of Group 13-15 elements. Treatment of 1 with bis(trimethylsilyl)amido [M{N(SiMe(3))(2)}(3)] derivatives of aluminum, gallium, or indium in toluene at 150-190 degrees C affords the single-cube amidoaluminum complex [{(Me(3)Si)(2)N}Al{(mu(3)-N)(2)(mu(3)-NH)Ti(3)(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))(3)(mu(3)-N)}] (2) or the corner-shared double-cube compounds [M(mu(3)-N)(3)(mu(3)-NH)(3){Ti(3)(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))(3)(mu(3)-N)}(2)] [M = Ga (3), In (4)]. Complexes 3 and 4 were also obtained by treatment of 1 with the trialkyl derivatives [M(CH(2)SiMe(3))(3)] (M = Ga, In) at high temperatures. The analogous reaction of 1 with [{Ga(NMe(2))(3)}(2)] at 110 degrees C leads to [{Ga(mu(3)-N)(2)(mu(3)-NH)Ti(3)(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))(3)(mu(3)-N)}(2)] (5), in which two [GaTi(3)N(4)] cube-type moieties are linked through a gallium-gallium bond. Complex 1 reacts with one equivalent of germanium, tin, or lead bis(trimethylsilyl)amido derivatives [M{N(SiMe(3))(2)}(2)] in toluene at room temperature to give cube-type complexes [M{(mu(3)-N)(2)(mu(3)-NH)Ti(3)(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))(3)(mu(3)-N)}] [M = Ge (6), Sn (7), Pb (8)]. Monitoring the reaction of 1 with [Sn{N(SiMe(3))(2)}(2)] and [Sn(C(5)H(5))(2)] by NMR spectroscopy allows the identification of intermediates [RSn{(mu(3)-N)(mu(3)-NH)(2)Ti(3)(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))(3)(mu(3)-N)}] [R = N(SiMe(3))(2) (9), C(5)H(5) (10)] in the formation of 7. Addition of one equivalent of the metalloligand 1 to a solution of lead derivative 8 or the treatment of 1 with a half equivalent of [Pb{N(SiMe(3))(2)}(2)] afford the corner-shared double-cube compound [Pb(mu(3)-N)(2)(mu(3)-NH)(4){Ti(3)(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))(3)(mu(3)-N)}(2)] (11). Analogous antimony and bismuth derivatives [M(mu(3)-N)(3)(mu(3)-NH)(3){Ti(3)(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))(3)(mu(3)-N)}(2)] [M = Sb (12), Bi (13)] were obtained through the reaction of 1 with the tris(dimethylamido) reagents [M(NMe(2))(3)]. Treatment of 1 with [AlCl(2){N(SiMe(3))(2)}(OEt(2))] affords the precipitation of the singular aluminum-titanium square-pyramidal aggregate [{{(Me(3)Si)(2)N}Cl(3)Al(2)}(mu(3)-N)(mu(3)-NH)(2){Ti(3)(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))(3)(mu-Cl)(mu(3)-N)}] (14). The X-ray crystal structures of 5, 11, 13, 14, and [AlCl{N(SiMe(3))(2)}(2)] were determined. PMID:19544507

  9. Elements of Mathematics, Book 10: Groups and Rings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Robert; And Others

    One of 12 books developed for use with the core material (Book O) of the Elements of Mathematics Program, this text covers material well beyond the scope of the usual secondary mathematics sequences. These materials are designed for highly motivated students with strong verbal abilities; mathematical theories and ideas are developed through…

  10. Design, synthesis, and properties of phthalocyanine complexes with main-group elements showing main absorption and fluorescence beyond 1000 nm.

    PubMed

    Furuyama, Taniyuki; Satoh, Koh; Kushiya, Tomofumi; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2014-01-15

    We present a comprehensive description of the unique properties of newly developed phthalocyanines (Pcs) containing main-group elements that absorb and emit in the near-IR region. Group 16 (S, Se, and Te) elements and group 15 (P, As, and Sb) elements were used as peripheral and central (core) substituents. With the introduction of group 16 elements into free-base Pc, a red-shift of the Q-band was observed, as a result of the electron-donating ability of group 16 elements particularly at the α positions. An X-ray crystallographic analysis of α-ArS-, ArSe-, and ArTe-linked free-base Pcs was also successfully performed, and the relationship between structure and optical properties was clarified. When a group 15 element ion was introduced into the center of the Pc ring, the resulting Pcs showed a single Q-band peak beyond 1000 nm (up to 1056 nm in CH2Cl2). In particular, [(ArS)8PcP(OMe)2](+) and [(ArS)8PcAs(OMe)2](+) exhibited a distinct fluorescence in the 960-1400 nm region with moderate quantum yields. The atomic radius of the group 15 element is important for determining the Pc structure, so that this can be controlled by the choice of group 15 elements. Electrochemical data revealed, while MO calculations suggested, that the red-shift of the Q-band is attributable to a decrease of the HOMO-LUMO gap due to significant and moderate stabilization of the LUMO and HOMO, respectively. The effect of peripheral substutuents and a central P(V) ion on the Q-band shift was independently predicted by MO calculations, while the magnitude of the total calculated shift was in good agreement with the experimental observations. The combination of spectral, electrochemical, and theoretical considerations revealed that all of the central group 15 elements, peripheral group 16 elements, and their positions are necessary to shift the Q-band beyond 1000 nm, indicating that the substitution effects of group 15 and 16 elements act synergistically. The Pcs having Q-bands beyond 1000 nm in this study also had stability under aerobic conditions comparative to that of CuPc, which is presently being widely used in consumer products. PMID:24328229

  11. The Abundances of the Fe Group Elements in Early B Stars in the Magellanic Clouds and Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Adelman, Saul J.

    2016-01-01

    The abundances of three Fe Group elements (V, Cr, and Fe) in 9 early main-sequence band B stars in the LMC, 7 in the SMC , and two in the Magellanic Bridge have been determined from archival FUSE observations and the Hubeny/Lanz NLTE programs TLUSTY/SYNSPEC. Lines from the Fe group elements, except for a few weak multiplets of Fe III, are not observable in the optical spectral region. The best set of lines in the FUSE spectral region are Fe III (UV1), V III 1150 Å, and Cr III 1137 Å. The abundances of these elements in early B stars are a marker for recent SNe Ia activity, as a single exploding white dwarf can deliver 0.5 solar masses of Ni-56 that decays into Fe to the ISM. The Fe group abundances in an older population of stars primarily reflect SNe II activity, in which a single explosion delivers only 0.07 solar masses of Ni-56 to the ISM (the rest remains trapped in the neutron star). The abundances of the Fe group elements in early B stars not only track SNe Ia activity but are also important for computing evolutionary tracks for massive stars. In general, the Fe abundance relative to the sun's value is comparable to the mean abundances for the lighter elements in the Clouds/Bridge but the values of [V,Cr/Fe]sun are smaller. This presentation will discuss the spatial distribution of the Fe Group elements in the Magellanic Clouds, and compare it with our galaxy in which the abundance of Fe declines with radial distance from the center. Support from NASA grants NAG5-13212, NNX10AD66G, STScI HST-GO-13346.22, and USC's Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  12. Report of the IAU/IAG Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seidelmann, P.K.; Archinal, B.A.; A'Hearn, M.F.; Conrad, A.; Consolmagno, G.J.; Hestroffer, D.; Hilton, J.L.; Krasinsky, G.A.; Neumann, G.; Oberst, J.; Stooke, P.; Tedesco, E.F.; Tholen, D.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Williams, I.P.

    2007-01-01

    Every three years the IAU/IAG Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements revises tables giving the directions of the poles of rotation and the prime meridians of the planets, satellites, minor planets, and comets. This report introduces improved values for the pole and rotation rate of Pluto, Charon, and Phoebe, the pole of Jupiter, the sizes and shapes of Saturn satellites and Charon, and the poles, rotation rates, and sizes of some minor planets and comets. A high precision realization for the pole and rotation rate of the Moon is provided. The expression for the Sun's rotation has been changed to be consistent with the planets and to account for light travel time ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Sandia Higher Order Elements (SHOE) v 0.5 alpha

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-09-24

    SHOE is research code for characterizing and visualizing higher-order finite elements; it contains a framework for defining classes of interpolation techniques and element shapes; methods for interpolating triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, and hexahedral cells using Lagrange and Legendre polynomial bases of arbitrary order; methods to decompose each element into domains of constant gradient flow (using a polynomial solver to identify critical points); and an isocontouring technique that uses this decomposition to guarantee topological correctness. Please notemore » that this is an alpha release of research software and that some time has passed since it was actively developed; build- and run-time issues likely exist.« less

  14. Sandia Higher Order Elements (SHOE) v 0.5 alpha

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-24

    SHOE is research code for characterizing and visualizing higher-order finite elements; it contains a framework for defining classes of interpolation techniques and element shapes; methods for interpolating triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, and hexahedral cells using Lagrange and Legendre polynomial bases of arbitrary order; methods to decompose each element into domains of constant gradient flow (using a polynomial solver to identify critical points); and an isocontouring technique that uses this decomposition to guarantee topological correctness. Please note that this is an alpha release of research software and that some time has passed since it was actively developed; build- and run-time issues likely exist.

  15. Heptaphosphide cluster anions bearing group 14 element amide functionalities.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Gabriela Espinoza; Paterson-Taylor, Isabelle; Rees, Nicholas H; Goicoechea, Jose M

    2016-02-01

    Reactions of the protonated heptaphosphide dianion, [HP7](2-), with one equivalent of E[N(SiMe3)2]2 (E = Ge, Sn, Pb) give rise to novel derivatized cluster anions [P7EN(SiMe3)2](2-) (E = Ge (1), Sn (2) and Pb (3)). All three species were characterized by multi-element solution-phase NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In addition, 1 and 2 were structurally authenticated by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction in [K(18-crown-6)]2[P7EN(SiMe3)2]·2py. Interestingly, while 2 appears to be indefinitely stable in solution for prolonged periods of time, the germanium-containing analogue, 1, readily decomposes at room temperature giving rise to the dimeric species [(P7Ge)2N(SiMe3)2](3-) (4) and [K(18-crown-6)][N(SiMe3)2]. A low quality single crystal X-ray structure of the former allowed for the confirmation of its composition and connectivity which is consistent with the (31)P NMR spectrum obtained for the anion. PMID:26206136

  16. Fish retroposons related to the Penelope element of Drosophila virilis define a new group of retrotransposable elements.

    PubMed

    Volff, J N; Hornung, U; Schartl, M

    2001-06-01

    Poseidon and Neptune are two ancient lineages of retroposons related to the Penelope element from Drosophila virilis. They have been identified in various teleost fish species, including the medakafish (Oryzias latipes), and the pufferfishes Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis, whose genomes are currently being sequenced. Some of these elements are highly reiterated in fish genomes. Penelope-related elements were also identified in blood fluke, shrimp, sea urchin, cichlid fish and frog, showing that they are widespread in animals. Penelope-related retroposons were not detected among sequences from the Drosophila melanogaster and human genome projects, suggesting that they have been lost from certain animal lineages. A sequence encoding a putative Uri (also called GIY-YIG) endonuclease domain was detected downstream from the gene for reverse transcriptase. To the best of our knowledge, this type of endonuclease sequence has previously been identified in group I introns and in genes for prokaryotic excinucleases but not in retrotransposable elements. Penelope-related elements are frequently truncated at their 5' ends and can also be flanked by long terminal repeat-like structures. Phylogenetic analysis of the reverse transcriptase domain failed to assign Penelope-related retroposons to one of the major groups of retroelements. Overall, therefore, the evidence strongly suggests that these sequences represent a new group of retrotransposable elements. PMID:11459192

  17. Integrated learning in practical machine element design course: a case study of V-pulley design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantrabandit, Manop

    2014-06-01

    To achieve an effective integrated learning in Machine Element Design course, it is of importance to bridge the basic knowledge and skills of element designs. The multiple core learning leads the pathway which consists of two main parts. The first part involves teaching documents of which the contents are number of V-groove formulae, standard of V-grooved pulleys, and parallel key dimension's formulae. The second part relates to the subjects that the students have studied prior to participating in this integrated learning course, namely Material Selection, Manufacturing Process, Applied Engineering Drawing, CAD (Computer Aided Design) animation software. Moreover, an intensive cooperation between a lecturer and students is another key factor to fulfill the success of integrated learning. Last but not least, the students need to share their knowledge within the group and among the other groups aiming to gain knowledge of and skills in 1) the application of CAD-software to build up manufacture part drawings, 2) assembly drawing, 3) simulation to verify the strength of loaded pulley by method of Finite Element Analysis (FEA), 4) the software to create animation of mounting and dismounting of a pulley to a shaft, and 5) an instruction manual. The end product of this integrated learning, as a result of the above 1 to 5 knowledge and skills obtained, the participating students can create an assembly derived from manufacture part drawings and a video presentation with bilingual (English-Thai) audio description of Vpulley with datum diameter of 250 mm, 4 grooves, and type of groove: SPA.

  18. On silicon group elements ejected by supernovae type IA

    SciTech Connect

    De, Soma; Timmes, F. X.; Brown, Edward F.; Calder, Alan C.; Townsley, Dean M.; Athanassiadou, Themis; Chamulak, David A.; Hawley, Wendy; Jack, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    There is evidence that the peak brightness of a Type Ia supernova is affected by the electron fraction Y {sub e} at the time of the explosion. The electron fraction is set by the aboriginal composition of the white dwarf and the reactions that occur during the pre-explosive convective burning. To date, determining the makeup of the white dwarf progenitor has relied on indirect proxies, such as the average metallicity of the host stellar population. In this paper, we present analytical calculations supporting the idea that the electron fraction of the progenitor systematically influences the nucleosynthesis of silicon group ejecta in Type Ia supernovae. In particular, we suggest the abundances generated in quasi-nuclear statistical equilibrium are preserved during the subsequent freeze-out. This allows potential recovery of Y {sub e} at explosion from the abundances recovered from an observed spectra. We show that measurement of {sup 28}Si, {sup 32}S, {sup 40}Ca, and {sup 54}Fe abundances can be used to construct Y {sub e} in the silicon-rich regions of the supernovae. If these four abundances are determined exactly, they are sufficient to recover Y {sub e} to 6%. This is because these isotopes dominate the composition of silicon-rich material and iron-rich material in quasi-nuclear statistical equilibrium. Analytical analysis shows the {sup 28}Si abundance is insensitive to Y {sub e}, the {sup 32}S abundance has a nearly linear trend with Y {sub e}, and the {sup 40}Ca abundance has a nearly quadratic trend with Y {sub e}. We verify these trends with post-processing of one-dimensional models and show that these trends are reflected in the model's synthetic spectra.

  19. On Silicon Group Elements Ejected by Supernovae Type Ia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Soma; Timmes, F. X.; Brown, Edward F.; Calder, Alan C.; Townsley, Dean M.; Athanassiadou, Themis; Chamulak, David A.; Hawley, Wendy; Jack, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    There is evidence that the peak brightness of a Type Ia supernova is affected by the electron fraction Y e at the time of the explosion. The electron fraction is set by the aboriginal composition of the white dwarf and the reactions that occur during the pre-explosive convective burning. To date, determining the makeup of the white dwarf progenitor has relied on indirect proxies, such as the average metallicity of the host stellar population. In this paper, we present analytical calculations supporting the idea that the electron fraction of the progenitor systematically influences the nucleosynthesis of silicon group ejecta in Type Ia supernovae. In particular, we suggest the abundances generated in quasi-nuclear statistical equilibrium are preserved during the subsequent freeze-out. This allows potential recovery of Y e at explosion from the abundances recovered from an observed spectra. We show that measurement of 28Si, 32S, 40Ca, and 54Fe abundances can be used to construct Y e in the silicon-rich regions of the supernovae. If these four abundances are determined exactly, they are sufficient to recover Y e to 6%. This is because these isotopes dominate the composition of silicon-rich material and iron-rich material in quasi-nuclear statistical equilibrium. Analytical analysis shows the 28Si abundance is insensitive to Y e, the 32S abundance has a nearly linear trend with Y e, and the 40Ca abundance has a nearly quadratic trend with Y e. We verify these trends with post-processing of one-dimensional models and show that these trends are reflected in the model's synthetic spectra.

  20. Platinum-group element resources in podiform chromitites from California and Oregon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, N.J.; Singer, D.A.; Moring, B.C.; Carlson, C.A.; McDade, J.M.; Wilson, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Assays of Pt, Pd, Rh and Ir from approx 280 podiform chromite deposits in Palaeozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites are statistically analysed to estimate their possible by-product value from mining the chromite. The platinum-group elements occur in discrete platinum-group minerals, and in solid solution in Cu-Ni-Fe sulphides. Low grades and small amounts of total platinum-group elements in podiform chromite deposits imply a small resource. -G.J.N.

  1. X-ray standing wave investigations of Group III and V metal adsorption on Si(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Y.; Bedzyk, M.J. |; Lyman, P.F.

    1997-05-01

    Investigations of atomic bonding, surface reconstruction, surface dynamics, and growth kinetics of group III and V metals on Si(001) are important for understanding the initial growth stage of III-V semiconductors on Si(001). Such studies can also provide valuable information for other important issues such as surfactant-mediated epitaxy, surface passivation and delta-doping layers. X-ray standing waves generated by dynamical Bragg diffraction were used as an element-specific structural probe for investigating Ga and Sb adsorption on Si(001). These high-resolution measurements reveal important quantitative structural information regarding the dimerized surface structures, and provide a stringent test for structural models proposed by various theoretical calculations. An overview of the X-ray standing wave technique and its application to surface structure and dynamics is presented.

  2. Re-187 Os-187 Isotopic and Highly Siderophile Element Systematics of Group IVB Irons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honesto, J.; McDonough, W. F.; Walker, R. J.; McCoy, T. J.; Ash, R. D.

    2005-01-01

    Study of the magmatic iron meteorite groups permits constraints to be placed on the chemical and isotopic composition of parent bodies, and the timing of, and crystal-liquid fractionation processes involved in the crystallization of asteroidal cores. Here we examine Re-Os isotopic and trace elemental systematics of group IVB irons. Compared to most irons, the irons comprising this group are enriched in some of the most refractory siderophile elements, yet highly-depleted in most volatile siderophile elements. These characteristics have been attributed to processes such as high temperature condensation of precursor materials and oxidation in the parent body. Most recently it has been suggested that both processes may be involved in the chemical complexity of the group. Here, high precision isotopic and highly siderophile element (HSE) concentrations are used to further examine these possible origins, and the crystallization history of the group. In addition, we have begun to assess the possibility of relating certain ungrouped irons with major groups via multi-element, trace element modeling. In a companion abstract, the isotopic and trace element systematics of the ungrouped iron Tishomingo are compared with the IVB irons.

  3. Electron collisions with Fe-peak elements: Fe V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, B. M.; Norrington, P. H.; Hibbert, A.; Scott, M. P.; Burke, P. G.; Burke, V. M.; Noble, C. J.

    2006-05-01

    Lines of Fe^+ -- Fe^6+ ions appear in the UV spectra of O-type stars. Accurate assessments of the relevant abundances of heavy elements and their ions can be obtained from the comparison of the observed spectra with synthetic NLTE spectra, if the atomic data for electron and photon interaction processes are known with sufficient accuracy. Electron-impact excitation collision strengths for the Fe-peak element Fe^4+ are calculated in the close-coupling approximation using the R-matrix suite of codes PRMAT. Eighty LS - coupled states arising from the 3d^4, 3d^34s and 3d^34p configurations of Fe^4+ are retained in our calculations. Accurate multi-configuration interaction target and scattering wavefunctions are used with the aid of 3p^2 ->3d^2 two-electron promotions and a n=4 basis set. Effective collision strengths for optically forbidden transitions in the 3d^4 manifold, which are extremely important in the analysis of lines in the Fe^4+ spectra, are obtained by averaging the electron collision strengths over a Maxwellian distribution for the electron temperature. The present results when compared to previous investigations for temperatures below 100,000 Kelvin show an enhancement of a factor of two. Further details will be presented at the meeting.

  4. Concentrations of platinum group elements in 122 U.S. coal samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oman, C.L.; Finkelman, R.B.; Tewalt, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of more than 13,000 coal samples by semi-quantitative optical emission spectroscopy (OES) indicates that concentrations of the platinum group elements (iridium, palladium, platinum, osmium, rhodium, and ruthenium) are less than 1 ppm in the ash, the limit of detection for this method of analysis. In order to accurately determine the concentration of the platinum group elements (PGE) in coal, additional data were obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, an analytical method having part-per-billion (ppb) detection limits for these elements. These data indicate that the PGE in coal occur in concentrations on the order of 1 ppb or less.

  5. Elemental abundance analyses with DAO spectrograms: XXXII. HR 6455 (A3 III), δ Aqr (A3 V), η Lep (F2 V), and 1 Boo (A1 V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüce, K.; Adelman, S. J.; Gulliver, A. F.; Hill, G.

    2011-08-01

    We examine the sharp-lined stars HR 6455 (A3 III, v sin i = 8.7 km s-1) and η Lep (F2 V, v sin i = 13.5 km s-1) as well as δ Aqr (A3 V, v sin i = 81 km s-1) and 1 Boo (A1 V, v sin i = 59 km s-1) to increase the number consistently analyzed A and F stars using high dispersion and high S/N (≥200) spectrograms obtained with CCD detectors at the long Coudé camera of the 1.22-m telescope of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory. Such studies contribute to understanding systematic abundance differences between normal and non-magnetic main-sequence band chemically peculiar A and early F stars. LTE fine analyses of HR 6455, δ Aqr, and 1 Boo using Kurucz's ATLAS suite programs show the same general elemental abundance trends with differences in the metal richness. Light and iron-peak element abundances are generally solar or overabundant while heavy element and rare earth element abundances are overabundant. HR 6455 is an evolved Am star while δ Aqr and 1 Boo show the phenomenon to different extents. Most derived abundances of η Lep are solar. Table 3 is available at the CDS via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/AN/332/681

  6. Distribution and evolution of mobile elements in the virilis species group of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zelentsova, H; Poluectova, H; Mnjoian, L; Lyozin, G; Veleikodvorskaja, V; Zhivotovsky, L; Kidwell, M G; Evgen'ev, M B

    1999-12-01

    The distributions of Penelope and Ulysses, two transposable elements that can induce hybrid dysgenesis, were studied in several species groups of Drosophila. No significant hybridization to Penelope and Ulysses probes was detected by Southern blot analyses of species outside the virilis group. In contrast, both element families have had a long residence in all species of the virilis species group, as indicated by their strong presence in the heterochromatic chromocenter. Except for D. kanekoi, D. lummei, and some strains of D. virilis, species of the group carry full-sized, and at least potentially functional, copies of both element families. Consistent with the occurrence of recent transposition, Penelope and Ulysses elements are located at different chromosomal sites in different geographical strains of the same species. A total of 79 Penelope and 47 Ulysses euchromatic insertion sites were localized to chromosomal subsections in species of the virilis group. Highly significant deviations from independence of the distributions of Penelope and Ulysses and previously established inversion breakpoints were documented, suggesting that these transposable elements may have played an important role in genomic reorganization and evolution of the virilis species group, which is especially rich in karyotypic variation. PMID:10654083

  7. The probability that an element of a metacylic 3-group fixes a set of size three

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamri, Siti Norziahidayu Amzee; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Omer, Sanaa Mohamed Saleh

    2016-02-01

    Let G be a metacylic 3-group of negative type of nilpotency class at least three. In this paper, Ω is a set of all subsets of all commuting elements of G of size three in the form of (a,b), where a and b commute. The probability that an element of a group G fixes a set Ω is one of extensions of the commutativity degree that can be obtained under group action on set. This probability is the ratio of the number of orbits to the order of Ω. In this paper, the probability that an element of a group G fixes a set Ω is computed by using conjugate action.

  8. Conserved Structural Elements in the V3 Crown of HIV-1 gp120

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Burke, V; Totrov, M; Williams, C; Cardozo, T; Gorny, M; Zolla-Pazner, S; Kong, X

    2010-01-01

    Binding of the third variable region (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the cell-surface coreceptors CCR5 or CXCR4 during viral entry suggests that there are conserved structural elements in this sequence-variable region. These conserved elements could serve as epitopes to be targeted by a vaccine against HIV-1. Here we perform a systematic structural analysis of representative human anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies in complex with V3 peptides, revealing that the crown of V3 has four conserved structural elements: an arch, a band, a hydrophobic core and the peptide backbone. These are either unaffected by or are subject to minimal sequence variation. As these regions are targeted by cross-clade neutralizing human antibodies, they provide a blueprint for the design of vaccine immunogens that could elicit broadly cross-reactive protective antibodies.

  9. The Abundances of the Fe Group Elements in Early B Stars in the Magellanic Clouds and Our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine Joan; Adelman, Saul Joseph

    2015-08-01

    The abundances of the Fe-peak elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) are of interest as they are important for assessing opacities for stellar evolution calculations, confirming theoretical calculations of explosive nucleosynthesis, and inferring the past history of supernova activity in a galaxy. FUSE FUV spectra of early B stars in the LMC and SMC and HST/STIS FUV/NUV spectra of nearby B stars in our galaxy are analyzed with the Hubeny/Lanz programs TLUSTY/SYNSPEC to determine abundance for the Fe group elements and produce a map of these abundances in the Magellanic Clouds (MC) and Magellanic Bridge (MB). Except for four weak multiplets of Fe III there are no measurable lines from the Fe group in the optical region. The Fe group species found in the FUV spectra of early B stars are primarily in the second stage of ionization. The best set of lines in the FUSE spectral region are Fe III (UV1), V III 1150 Å, and Cr III 1137 Å. Analysis of the galactic B stars provides a good assessment of the reliability of the atomic parameters that are used for the MC calculations. Twenty-two early B stars in the MC and MB and five in our galaxy were analyzed. In general the Fe group abundances range from solar to slightly below solar in our region of the galaxy. But in the MCs the abundances of V, Cr, and Fe tend to be significantly lower than the mean metal abundances for the galaxy. Maps of the Fe group abundances and their variations in the LMC and SMC, tracers of recent enrichment of the ISM from supernova activity, are shown. Support from NASA grants NAG5-13212, NNX10AD66G, STScI HST-GO-13346.22, and USC’s Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  10. Mono- and polynucleation, atomistic growth, and crystal phase of III-V nanowires under varying group V flow

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2015-05-28

    We present a refined model for the vapor-liquid-solid growth and crystal structure of Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires, which revisits several assumptions used so far and is capable of describing the transition from mononuclear to polynuclear regime and ultimately to regular atomistic growth. We construct the crystal phase diagrams and calculate the wurtzite percentages, elongation rates, critical sizes, and polynucleation thresholds of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires depending on the As flow. We find a non-monotonic dependence of the crystal phase on the group V flow, with the zincblende structure being preferred at low and high group V flows and the wurtzite structure forming at intermediate group V flows. This correlates with most of the available experimental data. Finally, we discuss the atomistic growth picture which yields zincblende crystal structure and should be very advantageous for fabrication of ternary III-V nanowires with well-controlled composition and heterointerfaces.

  11. Mono- and polynucleation, atomistic growth, and crystal phase of III-V nanowires under varying group V flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2015-05-01

    We present a refined model for the vapor-liquid-solid growth and crystal structure of Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires, which revisits several assumptions used so far and is capable of describing the transition from mononuclear to polynuclear regime and ultimately to regular atomistic growth. We construct the crystal phase diagrams and calculate the wurtzite percentages, elongation rates, critical sizes, and polynucleation thresholds of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires depending on the As flow. We find a non-monotonic dependence of the crystal phase on the group V flow, with the zincblende structure being preferred at low and high group V flows and the wurtzite structure forming at intermediate group V flows. This correlates with most of the available experimental data. Finally, we discuss the atomistic growth picture which yields zincblende crystal structure and should be very advantageous for fabrication of ternary III-V nanowires with well-controlled composition and heterointerfaces.

  12. Division Iv/v Working Group on Active B Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Jones, Carol E.; Townsend, Richard D.; Fabregat, Juan; Bjorkman, Karen S.; McSwain, M. Virginia; Mennickent, Ronald E.; Neiner, Coralie; Stee, Philippe; Fabregat, Juan

    2010-05-01

    The meeting of the Working Group on Active B Stars consisted of a business session followed by a scientific session containing nine talks. The titles of the talks and their presenters are listed below. We plan to publish a series of articles containing summaries of these talks in Issue No. 40 of the Be Star Newsletter. This report contains an account of the announcements made during the business session, an update on a forthcoming IAU Symposium on active B stars, a report on the status of the Be Star Newsletter, the results of the 2009 election of the SOC for the Working Group for 2009-12, a listing of the Working Group bylaws that were recently adopted, and a list of the scientific talks that we presented at the meeting.

  13. Spin-orbit effects in structural and electronic properties for the solid state of the group-14 elements from carbon to superheavy element 114

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Andreas; Furthmüller, Jürgen; Gäggeler, Heinz W.; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Spin-orbit effects approximately scale like Z2 and therefore become very important in the bonding of the heavier p -group elements in the periodic table. Here we show by first-principles density-functional calculations that such effects substantially lower the cohesive energy for solid lead and Uuq (ununquadium, eka-lead, nuclear charge 114), by 2.5 eV/atom for the latter and causing a structural change from face-centered cubic at the scalar relativistic to hexagonal close packed at the spin-orbit coupled level of theory. This implies that unlike lead (cohesive energy Ecoh=2.02eV/atom ), Uuq is weakly bound (Ecoh=0.5eV/atom) , and even less so than solid mercury (Ecoh=0.7eV/atom) , underpinning the original hypothesis by Pitzer in 1975 [K. Pitzer, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1033 (1975)10.1063/1.431398] that spin-orbit effects lead to chemical inertness of Uuq.

  14. Analysis of the trace element content of coals from the Wabaunsee Group southeastern Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, S.S.; Carr, J.D.; Kelter, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    Eight coal samples obtained from the Honey Creek, Lorton, Wamego, Elmo, and Nodaway coals of the Wabaunsee Group (Upper Pennsylvanian) were analyzed for their concentration of certain trace elements. Analysis of the data suggests (a) a general decrease of trace element concentrations away from the Precambrian Nemaha Arch in a basinward direction, and (b) the post-diagenetic emplacement of lead, zinc and cadmium typical of mid-continent coals.

  15. sp3-hybridized framework structure of group-14 elements discovered by genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Group-14 elements, including C, Si, Ge, and Sn, can form various stable and metastable structures. Finding new metastable structures of group-14 elements with desirable physical properties for new technological applications has attracted a lot of interest. Using a genetic algorithm, we discovered a new low-energy metastable distorted sp3-hybridized framework structure of the group-14 elements. It has P42/mnm symmetry with 12 atoms per unit cell. The void volume of this structure is as large as 139.7Å3 for Si P42/mnm, and it can be used for gas or metal-atom encapsulation. Band-structure calculations show that P42/mnm structures of Si and Ge are semiconducting with energy band gaps close to the optimal values for optoelectronic or photovoltaic applications. With metal-atom encapsulation, the P42/mnm structure would also be a candidate for rattling-mediated superconducting or used as thermoelectric materials.

  16. Precision determination of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa element V(cb).

    PubMed

    Alberti, Andrea; Gambino, Paolo; Healey, Kristopher J; Nandi, Soumitra

    2015-02-13

    We extract the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element V(c)} and the most relevant parameters of the heavy quark expansion from data of inclusive semileptonic B decays. Our calculation includes the recently computed O(α(s)Λ(QCD)(2)/m(b)(2)) corrections and a careful estimate of the residual theoretical uncertainty. Using a recent determination of the charm quark mass, we obtain |V(cb)|=(42.21±0.78)×10(-3) and m(b)(kin)(1  GeV)=(4.553±0.020)  GeV. PMID:25723205

  17. 25 years of N-heterocyclic carbenes: activation of both main-group element-element bonds and NHCs themselves.

    PubMed

    Würtemberger-Pietsch, Sabrina; Radius, Udo; Marder, Todd B

    2016-04-14

    N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) are widely used ligands and reagents in modern inorganic synthesis as well as in homogeneous catalysis and organocatalysis. However, NHCs are not always innocent bystanders. In the last few years, more and more examples were reported of reactions of NHCs with main-group elements which resulted in modification of the NHC. Many of these reactions lead to ring expansion and the formation of six-membered heterocyclic rings involving insertion of the heteroatom into the C-N bond and migration of hydrides, phenyl groups or boron-containing fragments. Furthermore, a few related NHC rearrangements were observed some decades ago. In this Perspective, we summarise the history of NHC ring expansion reactions from the 1960s till the present. PMID:26675582

  18. Functional groups and elemental analyses of cuticular morphotypes of Cordaites principalis (Germar) Geinitz, Carboniferous Maritimes Basin, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria; Orem, W.H.; Simunek, Z.; Bashforth, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    Well-preserved cuticles were isolated from Cordaites principalis (Germar) Geinitz leaf compressions, i.e., foliage from extinct gymnosperm trees Coniferophyta: Order Cordaitales. The specimens were collected from the Sydney. Stellarton and Bay St. George subbasins of the once extensive Carboniferous Maritimes Basin of Atlantic Canada. Fourier transformation of infrared spectra (FTIR) and elemental analyses indicate that the ca. 300-306-million-year-old fossil cuticles share many of the functional groups observed in modern cuticles. The similarities of the functional groups in each of the three cuticular morphotypes studied support the inclusion into a single cordaite-leaf taxon, i.e., C. principalis (Germar), confirming previous morphological investigations. Vitrinite reflectance measurements on coal seams in close proximity to the fossil-bearing sediments reveal that the Bay St. George sample site has the lowest thermal maturity, whereas the sites in Sydney and Stellarton are more mature. IR absorption and elemental analyses of the cordaite compressions corroborate this trend, which suggests that the coalified mesophyll in the leaves follows a maturation path similar to that of vitrinite. Comparison of functional groups of the cordaite cuticles with those from certain pteridosperms previously studied from the Sydney Subbasin shows that in the cordaite cuticles highly conjugated C-O (1632 cm-1) bands dominate over carbonyl stretch that characterizes the pteridosperm cuticles. The differences demonstrate the potential of chemotaxonomy as a valuable tool to assist distinguishing between Carboniferous plant-fossil groups. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  19. Radiochemical Separation of Group 5 Elements. Model Experiments for Investigation of Dubnium Chemical Behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Tereshatov, E. E.; Bozhikov, G. A.; Aksenov, N. V.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Vostokin, G. K.; Shishkin, S. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Bruchertseifer, H.; Gaeggeler, H. W.

    2007-05-22

    Chemical behaviour of group 5 elements in the aqueous hydrofluoric acid solutions was studied. The radiochemical method for the cation exchange separation of Nb (Pa) and Ta from Zr, Hf and lanthanides is presented. The developed scheme allows excluding of the presence of SF heavy actinides in fractions of separated elements. On the basis of the data of the present work, it is possible to suggest the following order of the stability of the fluoride complexes of group 4 and 5 elements: Nb {approx_equal} Pa > Zr > Hf > Ta. The order of the complex formation is in agreement with theoretical predictions. This analytical procedure can be used in future heavy nuclei synthesis experiments for the separation of dubnium (Db) from other reactions products and for its chemical identification.

  20. New data on platinum group elements in sulfide deposits of the Southern Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, S. G.; Puchkov, V. N.; Salikhov, D. N.

    2015-09-01

    New data on the concentrations of gold and platinum group elements (PGE) in sulfide deposits of the Southern Urals show that a substantial share of Au, Pt, and Pd is concentrated during technological ore processing in their dressing tailings. The behavior of Pt, Pd, and, partly, Au is determined by the size of individual mineral particles.

  1. The cyclopean ternus display and the perception of element versus group movement.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R; Hart, P; Nowak, D

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of bistable stroboscopic motion (Ternus display) with cyclopean stimuli created from retinal disparity embedded in dynamic random-element stereograms, the responses to which arise at binocular-integration levels of the visual system. To provide comparison data, observers were also tested with luminance-domain stimuli matched as closely as possible to their cyclopean counterparts. The results showed that the perception of element vs group movement was similar for both stimulus domains: element movement predominated at short interstimulus intervals (ISIs) while group movement predominated at long ISIs, and there was a tendency for a greater percentage of group movement to occur with a longer frame duration. These results cast suspicion on the interpretation of bistable motion that assumes element movement is a signature of a lower-level, short-range motion system whereas group movement is a signature of a higher-level, long-range system; both percepts are engendered at binocular-integration levels of vision. PMID:1771794

  2. IMPORTANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON'S OXYGEN SURFACE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ON ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of varying physical and chemical properties of activated carbons on adsorption of elemental mercury [Hg(0)] was studied by treating two activated carbons to modify their surface functional groups and pore structures. Heat treatment (1200 K) in nitrogen (N2), air oxidat...

  3. Levels of platinum group elements and rare-earth elements in wild mushroom species growing in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Kalač, Pavel; Siwulski, Marek; Rzymski, Piotr; Gąsecka, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Due to limited data-describing abilities of mushrooms to accumulate platinum group elements (PGEs) and rare-earth elements (REEs), the aim of this study was to determine, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry followed by microwave-assisted sample digestion by nitric acid, the content of these elements in 20 mushroom species (10 above ground and 10 growing on wood), mostly edible, collected near a busy trunk road. The highest content of PGEs in above-ground mushroom species was observed in Lepista gilva and Suillus bovinus fruit bodies (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.03 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while in mushrooms growing on wood, the highest content was observed in Pleurotus ostreatus (0.35 ± 0.04 mg kg(-1) DW). The mean content of PGEs for both these groups was 0.23 ± 0.08 and 0.26 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. The highest content of REEs in Suillus luteus and Tricholoma equestra was 5.03 ± 0.50 and 2.18 ± 0.56 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, but within mushrooms growing on wood in Ganoderma applanatum fruiting bodies it was 4.19 ± 0.78 mg kg(-1) DW. Mean contents of REEs were 1.39 ± 1.21 and 1.61 ± 0.97 mg kg(-1) DW in above-ground species and species growing on wood, respectively. Generally, the group of mushroom species growing on wood was capable of slightly higher accumulation of both REEs and PGEs. No limits have been established for both the groups until now. PMID:26515437

  4. Group V sensitive vapor-liquid-solid growth of Au-catalyzed and self-catalyzed III-V nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, Vladimir G.

    2016-04-01

    We present a new theoretical model that treats the group V sensitive growth rates and structures of Au-catalyzed and self-catalyzed III-V nanowires within a single kinetic picture. It is shown that Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires can grow with a time-independent radius within a wide range of parameters. At high V/III flux ratios, the vapor-liquid-solid growth of Au catalyzed III-V nanowires is controlled by surface diffusion of the group III adatoms, while at low V/III flux ratios it becomes nucleation-limited. Conversely, self-catalyzed III-V nanowires cannot grow with a time-independent droplet size and instead such nanowires may either swell or shrink or converge to a certain stationary radius depending on the V/III flux ratio. Quite importantly, the results are presented in a concise analytical form which is convenient for comparison with experimental data or prior theoretical works. We demonstrate how the model fits the data obtained previously for Au- and Ga-catalyzed GaAs nanowires.

  5. V1/V2 Neutralizing Epitope is Conserved in Divergent Non-M Groups of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Morgand, Marion; Bouvin-Pley, Mélanie; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Moreau, Alain; Alessandri, Elodie; Simon, François; Pace, Craig S.; Pancera, Marie; Ho, David D.; Poignard, Pascal; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Mouquet, Hugo; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Kwong, Peter D.; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick; Braibant, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Highly potent broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) have been obtained from individuals infected by HIV-1 group M variants. We analyzed the cross-group neutralization potency of these bNAbs toward non-M primary isolates (PI). Material and Methods: The sensitivity to neutralization was analyzed in a neutralization assay using TZM-bl cells. Twenty-three bNAbs were used, including reagents targeting the CD4-binding site, the N160 glycan-V1/V2 site, the N332 glycan-V3 site, the membrane proximal external region of gp41, and complex epitopes spanning both env subunits. Two bispecific antibodies that combine the inhibitory activity of an anti-CD4 with that of PG9 or PG16 bNAbs were included in the study (PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab). Results: Cross-group neutralization was observed only with the bNAbs targeting the N160 glycan-V1/V2 site. Four group O PIs, 1 group N PI, and the group P PI were neutralized by PG9 and/or PG16 or PGT145 at low concentrations (0.04–9.39 μg/mL). None of the non-M PIs was neutralized by the bNAbs targeting other regions at the highest concentration tested, except 10E8 that neutralized weakly 2 group N PIs and 35O22 that neutralized 1 group O PI. The bispecific bNAbs neutralized very efficiently all the non-M PIs with IC50 below 1 μg/mL, except 2 group O strains. Conclusion: The N160 glycan-V1/V2 site is the most conserved neutralizing site within the 4 groups of HIV-1. This makes it an interesting target for the development of HIV vaccine immunogens. The corresponding bNAbs may be useful for immunotherapeutic strategies in patients infected by non-M variants. PMID:26413851

  6. Cations and dications of heavier group 14 elements in low oxidation states.

    PubMed

    Swamy, V S V S N; Pal, Shiv; Khan, Shabana; Sen, Sakya S

    2015-08-01

    Cations and dications of heavier group 14 elements in their low oxidation state have received widespread attention in recent years. The journey started with the isolation of a series of cations of the composition [(C5Me5)E:](+) [E = Si-Pb], followed by the more recent isolation of a Ge(ii) dication encapsulated within a cryptand, a carbodiphosphorane stabilized [GeCl](+) monocation with a two coordinate Ge atom, Si(ii) cations and dications stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), which highlights the ongoing growth and interest in the chemistry of tetrel(ii) cations. This is presumably because the central atom (E) in these compounds contains two or three unoccupied valence orbitals as well as holds a lone pair of electrons. Such an electronic description represents ambiphilicity, which is of great interest for catalysis. The successful synthesis of divalent group 14 cations requires new synthetic strategies based on the sterically demanding neutral or monoanionic ligands, utilization of counter anions, and solvents with low nucleophilicity in order to minimize the degree of interactions with the cations. An alternative approach for the realization of divalent cations of group 14 elements is their coordination to the transition metals. This synthetic approach was successfully applied for the isolation of a range of transition metal coordinated divalent cations of group 14 elements. Apart from arousing academic interest some of these cations have found application as activators in the Ziegler-Natta polymerization of alkenes. PMID:26084389

  7. Quality evaluation of value sets from cancer study common data elements using the UMLS semantic groups

    PubMed Central

    Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to develop an approach to evaluate the quality of terminological annotations on the value set (ie, enumerated value domain) components of the common data elements (CDEs) in the context of clinical research using both unified medical language system (UMLS) semantic types and groups. Materials and methods The CDEs of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Data Standards Repository, the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) concepts and the UMLS semantic network were integrated using a semantic web-based framework for a SPARQL-enabled evaluation. First, the set of CDE-permissible values with corresponding meanings in external controlled terminologies were isolated. The corresponding value meanings were then evaluated against their NCI- or UMLS-generated semantic network mapping to determine whether all of the meanings fell within the same semantic group. Results Of the enumerated CDEs in the Cancer Data Standards Repository, 3093 (26.2%) had elements drawn from more than one UMLS semantic group. A random sample (n=100) of this set of elements indicated that 17% of them were likely to have been misclassified. Discussion The use of existing semantic web tools can support a high-throughput mechanism for evaluating the quality of large CDE collections. This study demonstrates that the involvement of multiple semantic groups in an enumerated value domain of a CDE is an effective anchor to trigger an auditing point for quality evaluation activities. Conclusion This approach produces a useful quality assurance mechanism for a clinical study CDE repository. PMID:22511016

  8. Trace-element composition and zoning in clinopyroxene- and amphibole-group minerals: Implications for element partitioning and evolution of carbonatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguir, Ekaterina P.; Chakhmouradian, Anton R.; Pisiak, Laura; Halden, Norman M.; Yang, Panseok; Xu, Cheng; Kynický, Jindřich; Couëslan, Chris G.

    2012-01-01

    The present work is a first comprehensive study of the trace-element composition and zoning in clinopyroxene- and amphibole-group minerals from carbonatites, incorporating samples from 14 localities worldwide (Afrikanda, Aley, Alnö, Blue River, Eden Lake, Huayangchuan, Murun, Oka, Ozernaya Varaka, Ozernyi, Paint Lake, Pinghe, Prairie Lake, Turiy Mys). The new electron-microprobe data presented here significantly extend the known compositional range of clinopyroxenes and amphiboles from carbonatites. These data confirm that calcic and sodic clinopyroxenes from carbonatites are not separated by a compositional gap, instead forming an arcuate trend from nearly pure diopside through intermediate aegirine-augite compositions confined to a limited range of CaFeSi 2O 6 contents (15-45 mol%) to aegirine with < 25 mol% of CaMgSi 2O 6 and a negligible proportion of CaFeSi 2O 6. A large set of LA-ICPMS data shows that the clinopyroxenes of different composition are characterized by relatively low levels of Cr, Co and Ni (≤ 40 ppm) and manifold variations in the concentration of trivalent lithophile and some incompatible elements (1-150 ppm Sc, 26-6870 ppm V, 5-550 ppm Sr, 90-2360 ppm Zr, and nil to 150 ppm REE), recorded in some cases within a single crystal. The relative contribution of clinopyroxenes to the whole-rock Rb, Nb, Ta, Th and U budget is negligible. The major-element compositional range of amphiboles spans from alkali- and Al-poor members (tremolite) to Na-Al-rich Mg- or, less commonly, Fe-dominant members (magnesiohastingsite, hastingsite and pargasite), to calcic-sodic, sodic and potassic-sodic compositions intermediate between magnesio-ferrikatophorite, richterite, magnesioriebeckite, ferri-nyböite and (potassic-)magnesio-arfvedsonite. In comparison with the clinopyroxenes, the amphiboles contain similar levels of tetravalent high-field-strength elements (Ti, Zr and Hf) and compatible transition elements (Cr, Co and Ni), but are capable of incorporating much higher concentrations of Sc and incompatible elements (up to 500 ppm Sc, 43 ppm Rb, 1470 ppm Sr, 1230 ppm Ba, 80 ppm Pb, 1070 ppm REE, 140 ppm Y, and 180 ppm Nb). In some carbonatites, amphiboles contribute as much as 25% of the Zr + Hf, 15% of the Sr and 35% of the Rb + Ba whole-rock budget. Both clinopyroxenes and amphiboles may also host a significant share (~ 10%) of the bulk heavy-REE content. Our trace-element data show that the partitioning of REE between clinopyroxene (and, in some samples, amphibole) and the melt is clearly bimodal and requires a revision of the existing models assuming single-site REE partitioning. Clinopyroxenes and amphiboles from carbonatites exhibit a diversity of zoning patterns that cannot be explained exclusively on the basis of crystal chemistry and relative compatibility of different trace-element in these minerals. Paragenetic analysis indicates that in most cases, the observed zoning patterns develop in response to removal of selected trace elements by phases co-precipitating with clinopyroxene and amphibole (especially magnetite, fluorapatite, phlogopite and pyrochlore). With the exception of magnesiohastingsite-richterite sample from Afrikanda, the invariability of trace-element ratios in the majority of zoned clinopyroxene and amphibole crystals implies that fluids are not involved in the development of zoning in these minerals. The implications of the new trace-element data for mineral exploration targeting REE, Nb and other types of carbonatite-hosted rare-metal mineralization are discussed.

  9. Adhesion and friction behavior of group 4 elements germanium, silicon, tin, and lead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Adhesion and friction studies were conducted with thin films of the group IV elements silicon, germanium, tin, and lead ion plated on the nickel (011) substrate. The mating surface was gold (111). Contacts were made for the elements in the clean state and with oxygen present. Adhesion and friction experiments were conducted at very light loads of 1 to 10 g. Sliding was at a speed of 0.7 mm/min. Friction results indicate that the more covalently bonded elements silicon and germanium exhibit lower adhesion and friction than the more metallic bonded tin and lead. The adhesion of gold to germanium was observed, and recrystallization of the transferred gold occurred. Plastic flow of germanium was seen with sliding. Oxygen reduced, but did not eliminate, the adhesion observed with germanium and silicon.

  10. Population Signatures in Planetary Nebulae from Abundances of Fe-group and Neutron-Capture Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Sterling, N. C.

    2015-08-01

    There are two categories of elements for which abundances are measured in planetary nebulae (PNe). The first are species whose abundances may be modified by nuclear reactions in the star prior to PN formation, such as He, C, N, and nuclei made by slow neutron captures (Karakas & Lattanzio 2014, PASA, 31, 30). In contrast, elements unaffected by evolution should indicate the star’s initial composition. These include S, Ar, Cl, and (with certain exceptions) O and Ne, most of which are alpha species. A long-missing piece of the puzzle has been the abundances of the Fe-group elements. We cannot determine a meaningful elemental abundance from the gas-phase Fe lines seen in PNe, since Fe is heavily depleted into dust. Another approach is to use a different element as a proxy for Fe. Dinerstein & Geballe (2001, ApJ, 562, 515) identified a line at 3.625 μm as due to Zn, the least refractory Fe-group element. Observations of this line in Milky Way PNe yield -1 ≤ [Zn/H] ≤ 0 (Smith, Zijlstra, & Dinerstein 2014, MNRAS, 441, 3161; Dinerstein et al. 2015, in preparation). Substituting Zn for Fe, PNe can be placed in the [alpha/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] diagram used to characterize stellar populations. Dividing our sample into probable thin and thick disk members using the kinematic criterion of Peimbert’s Type II and III classes (1978, IAU Symp. 76, 215), we find that they occupy similar regions in [alpha/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] phase space as the stars of those populations. Elevated [alpha/Fe] values at subsolar [Fe/H], which tend to be higher for thick than thin disk PNe, cause degeneracies that make alpha species ambiguous metallicity indicators. This is important for self-enrichment studies, since if the initial abundance of an element is lower than projected from an alpha species, internal synthesis may be required to produce even a solar final abundance. Low observed abundances of the n-capture element Se suggest that many Type III PNe may have subsolar initial abundances of n-capture elements (Sterling, Porter, & Dinerstein 2015, submitted). This work was supported by NSF grants AST-0708429 and 0901432, and JPL contract 1427884.

  11. A peripheral element assembles the compact core structure essential for group I intron self-splicing

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Mu; Li, Tingting; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Shang, Yuan; Wang, Fu; Chen, Shoudeng; Zhang, Yi

    2005-01-01

    The presence of non-conserved peripheral elements in all naturally occurring group I introns underline their importance in ensuring the natural intron function. Recently, we reported that some peripheral elements are conserved in group I introns of IE subgroup. Using self-splicing activity as a readout, our initial screening revealed that one such conserved peripheral elements, P2.1, is mainly required to fold the catalytically active structure of the Candida ribozyme, an IE intron. Unexpectedly, the essential function of P2.1 resides in a sequence-conserved short stem of P2.1 but not in a long-range interaction associated with the loop of P2.1 that stabilizes the ribozyme structure. The P2.1 stem is indispensable in folding the compact ribozyme core, most probably by forming a triple helical interaction with two core helices, P3 and P6. Surprisingly, although the ribozyme lacking the P2.1 stem renders a loosely folded core and the loss of self-splicing activity requires two consecutive transesterifications, the mutant ribozyme efficiently catalyzes the first transesterification reaction. These results suggest that the intron self-splicing demands much more ordered structure than does one independent transesterification, highlighting that the universally present peripheral elements achieve their functional importance by enabling the highly ordered structure through diverse tertiary interactions. PMID:16100381

  12. Minority carrier device comprising a passivating layer including a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barron, Andrew R. (Inventor); Hepp, Aloysius F. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip P. (Inventor); MacInnes, Andrew N. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A minority carrier device includes at least one junction of at least two dissimilar materials, at least one of which is a semiconductor, and a passivating layer on at least one surface of the device. The passivating layer includes a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component. Embodiments of the minority carrier device include, for example, laser diodes, light emitting diodes, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and solar cells.

  13. Electron transport study of single wall nanotubes based on group 14 elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasathya, S.; Thiruvadigal, D. John

    2012-06-01

    By applying non-equilibrium Green's functions in combination with density functional theory, we investigate the transport behaviours of single wall nanotubes based on group14 elements. The transmission spectrum and density of states for single wall nanotubes such as Lead nanotube(PbNT), Germanium nanotube(GeNT), Silicon nanotube(SiNT), Tin nanotube(SnNT) and Carbon nanotube(CNT) are compared.

  14. RUDI, a short interspersed element of the V-SINE superfamily widespread in molluscan genomes.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Andrea; Šatović, Eva; Mantovani, Barbara; Plohl, Miroslav

    2016-06-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in eukaryotic genomes. They exhibit a chimeric sequence structure consisting of a small RNA-related head, an anonymous body and an AT-rich tail. Although their turnover and de novo emergence is rapid, some SINE elements found in distantly related species retain similarity in certain core segments (or highly conserved domains, HCD). We have characterized a new SINE element named RUDI in the bivalve molluscs Ruditapes decussatus and R. philippinarum and found this element to be widely distributed in the genomes of a number of mollusc species. An unexpected structural feature of RUDI is the HCD domain type V, which was first found in non-amniote vertebrate SINEs and in the SINE from one cnidarian species. In addition to the V domain, the overall sequence conservation pattern of RUDI elements resembles that found in ancient AmnSINE (~310 Myr old) and Au SINE (~320 Myr old) families, suggesting that RUDI might be among the most ancient SINE families. Sequence conservation suggests a monophyletic origin of RUDI. Nucleotide variability and phylogenetic analyses suggest long-term vertical inheritance combined with at least one horizontal transfer event as the most parsimonious explanation for the observed taxonomic distribution. PMID:26987730

  15. Symmetry properties of tetraammine platinum(II) with C2v and C4v point groups

    PubMed Central

    Moghani, Ghorban Ali; Ashrafi, Ali Reza; Hamadanian, Masood

    2005-01-01

    Let G be a weighted graph with adjacency matrix A=[aij]. An Euclidean graph associated with a molecule is defined by a weighted graph with adjacency matrix D=[dij], where for i?j, dij is the Euclidean distance between the nuclei i and j. In this matrix dii can be taken as zero if all the nuclei are equivalent. Otherwise, one may introduce different weights for different nuclei. Balasubramanian (1995) computed the Euclidean graphs and their automorphism groups for benzene, eclipsed and staggered forms of ethane and eclipsed and staggered forms of ferrocene. This paper describes a simple method, by means of which it is possible to calculate the automorphism group of weighted graphs. We apply this method to compute the symmetry of tetraammine platinum(II) with C2v and C4v point groups. PMID:15682509

  16. DFT Study of Structural and Electronic Properties of Endohedral Complexes of Group V Atoms with C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahuja, Akshu; Srivastava, Sunita

    2013-09-01

    The structural and electronic properties of endohedral fullerenes formed by encapsulation of each of the group V elements inside the buckminsterfullerene cage have been investigated. The calculations reveal that all these species are thermodynamically stable, though the formation of Sb@C60 and Bi@C60 is slightly endothermic. The central atom preserves its electronic configuration and the quartet state. The energy gap and energy levels are perturbed by the inclusion of a foreign atom. The band gap of Sb@C60 and Bi@C60 is found to be significantly smaller than pristine C60, suggesting the reactivity of these complexes.

  17. Theoretical discovery of stable structures of group III-V monolayers: The materials for semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2015-11-23

    Group III-V compounds are very important as the materials of semiconductor devices. Stable structures of the monolayers of group III-V binary compounds have been discovered by using first-principles calculations. The primitive unit cell of the discovered structures is a rectangle, which includes four group-III atoms and four group-V atoms. A group-III atom and its three nearest-neighbor group-V atoms are placed on the same plane; however, these connections are not the sp{sup 2} hybridization. The bond angles around the group-V atoms are less than the bond angle of sp{sup 3} hybridization. The discovered structure of GaP is an indirect transition semiconductor, while the discovered structures of GaAs, InP, and InAs are direct transition semiconductors. Therefore, the discovered structures of these compounds have the potential of the materials for semiconductor devices, for example, water splitting photocatalysts. The discovered structures may become the most stable structures of monolayers which consist of other materials.

  18. Theoretical discovery of stable structures of group III-V monolayers: The materials for semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2015-11-01

    Group III-V compounds are very important as the materials of semiconductor devices. Stable structures of the monolayers of group III-V binary compounds have been discovered by using first-principles calculations. The primitive unit cell of the discovered structures is a rectangle, which includes four group-III atoms and four group-V atoms. A group-III atom and its three nearest-neighbor group-V atoms are placed on the same plane; however, these connections are not the sp2 hybridization. The bond angles around the group-V atoms are less than the bond angle of sp3 hybridization. The discovered structure of GaP is an indirect transition semiconductor, while the discovered structures of GaAs, InP, and InAs are direct transition semiconductors. Therefore, the discovered structures of these compounds have the potential of the materials for semiconductor devices, for example, water splitting photocatalysts. The discovered structures may become the most stable structures of monolayers which consist of other materials.

  19. Reactivity in the periphery of functionalised multiple bonds of heavier group 14 elements.

    PubMed

    Präsang, Carsten; Scheschkewitz, David

    2016-02-21

    Heavier group 14 multiple bonds have intrigued chemists since more than a century. The synthesis of stable compounds with double and triple bonds with silicon, germanium, tin and lead had considerable impact on modern ideas of chemical bonding. These developments were made possible by the use of bulky substituents that provide kinetic and thermodynamic protection. Since about a decade the compatibility of heavier multiple bonds with various functional groups has moved into focus. This review covers multiply bonded group 14 species with at least one additional reactive site. The vinylic functionalities of groups 1 and 17, resulting in nucleophilic and electrophilic disila vinyl groups, respectively, are the most prevalent and well-studied. They have been employed repeatedly for the transfer of heavier multiple bonds to yield low-valent group 14 compounds with novel structural motifs. Vinylic functionalities of groups 2 to 16 and a few σ-bonded transition metal complexes are experimentally known, but their reactivity has been studied to a lesser extent. Donor-coordinated multiple bonds are a relatively new field of research, but the large degree of unsaturation as isomers of alkynes (as well as residual functionality in some cases) offers considerable possibility for further manipulation, e.g. for the incorporation into more extended systems. Heavier allyl halides constitute the major part of heavier multiple bonds with a functional group in allylic position and some examples of successful transformations are given. At present, remote functionalities are basically limited to para-phenylene functionalised disilenes. The reported use of the latter for further derivatisation might encourage investigations in this direction. In summary, the study of peripherally functionalised multiple bonds with heavier group 14 elements is already well beyond its infancy and may be an instrumental factor in awakening the potential of group 14 chemistry for applications in polymers and other materials. PMID:26503807

  20. Verbesserte Elemente der RR-Lyrae-Sterne IQ Bootis, V651 Aurigae und BQ Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maintz, Gisela

    2015-04-01

    CCD observations of neglected RR Lyrae stars were taken at my private observatory. IQ Boo is a RRab star with a hump in the rising branch. BQ Lyr shows a weak Blazhko effect. The elements of these stars were revised. Star Max period +- JD [d] [d] IQ Boo 2457213.4681 0.535234 0.000001 V651 Aur 2457040.4056 0.617715 0.000003 BQ Lyr 2455703.4120 0.4350488 0.0000002

  1. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Ist group elements codoped ZnO:Fe nanoparticles by co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazhanivelu, V.; Paul Blessington Selvadurai, A.; Kannan, R.; Murugaraj, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the structural, vibrational and magnetic behavior of Ist group elements (Li+, Na+ and K+) codoping effect in ZnO:Fe nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by co-precipitation method. The single crystalline phase of the prepared NPs was identified as Wurtizite structure and the Raman spectra expressed the local structural change and the presence of complex lattice defects such as Zinc interstitial (Zni) and Oxygen vacanvy (V+o) defects in the NPs. The presence of functional groups was confirmed by FT-IR spectral analysis. The optical absorption properties of the prepared NPs were characterised by UV-Drs spectroscopy. The valance state of Zinc ions and the role of Oxygen related defects were analysed from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral line illustrated the presence of complex defects such as Zinc interstitial (Zni) and oxygen vacancy (V+o) defects in the sample. The observed room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in the prepared sample was induced by lattice defects. The observed results are discussed and reported.

  2. Composition, apparatus, and process, for sorption of gaseous compounds of group II-VII elements

    DOEpatents

    Tom, Glenn M.; McManus, James V.; Luxon, Bruce A.

    1991-08-06

    Scavenger compositions are disclosed, which have utility for effecting the sorptive removal of hazardous gases containing Group II-VII elements of the Periodic Table, such as are widely encountered in the manufacture of semiconducting materials and semiconductor devices. Gas sorption processes including the contacting of Group II-VII gaseous compounds with such scavenger compositions are likewise disclosed, together with critical space velocity contacting conditions pertaining thereto. Further described are gas contacting apparatus, including mesh structures which may be deployed in gas contacting vessels containing such scavenger compositions, to prevent solids from being introduced to or discharged from the contacting vessel in the gas stream undergoing treatment. A reticulate heat transfer structure also is disclosed, for dampening localized exothermic reaction fronts when gas mixtures comprising Group II-VII constituents are contacted with the scavenger compositions in bulk sorption contacting vessels according to the invention.

  3. Design of large aperture four group elements mid-wave infrared zoom lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yiqun; Shi, Rongbao; He, Hucheng; Shen, Weimin

    2012-10-01

    Zoom lens with variable focal length is well fit for researching objectives far and near. Design of zoom lens working at mid-wave infrared wavelength (7.7-10.3_m) and its view field 10 degrees is presented. Determination of the initial configuration of the variable and the compensate groups are discussed according to the mechanism compensate curves. The compensate group is determined with positive power. Its focal length changes during a large scope, which is from 300mm to 100mm. And the corresponding F number variables from 3.75 to 1.25. So the residual aberration needs to be carefully corrected. The optimized zoom lens is composed of four group elements, and its performance reaches diffraction limited at each focal position.

  4. Trace elements in organisms of different trophic groups in the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budko, D. F.; Demina, L. L.; Martynova, D. M.; Gorshkova, O. M.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, As, Co, and Se) have been studied in different trophic groups of organisms: primary producers (seston, presented mostly by phytoplankton), primary consumers (mesozooplankton, macrozooplankton, and bivalves), secondary consumers (predatory macrozooplankton and starfish), and consumers of higher trophic levels (fish species), inhabiting the coastal zone of Kandalaksha Bay and the White Sea (Cape Kartesh). The concentrations of elements differ significantly for the size groups of Sagitta elegans (zooplankton) and blue mussel Mytilus edulis, as well as for the bone and muscle tissues of studied fish species, Atlantic cod Gadus morhua marisalbi and Atlantic wolffish Anarhichas lupus. The concentrations of all the studied elements were lower among the primary consumers and producers, but increased again at higher trophic levels, from secondary consumers to tertiary consumers ("mesozooplankton → macrozooplankton Sagitta elegans" and "mussels → starfish"). Ni and Pb tended to decline through the food chains seston→…→cod and mesozooplankton→…→stickleback. Only the concentrations of Fe increased in all the trophic chains along with the increase of the trophic level.

  5. Vertical group III-V nanowires on si, heterostructures, flexible arrays and fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Deli; Soci, Cesare; Bao, Xinyu; Wei, Wei; Jing, Yi; Sun, Ke

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method for direct heteroepitaxial growth of vertical III-V semiconductor nanowires on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is etched to substantially completely remove native oxide. It is promptly placed in a reaction chamber. The substrate is heated and maintained at a growth temperature. Group III-V precursors are flowed for a growth time. Preferred embodiment vertical Group III-V nanowires on silicon have a core-shell structure, which provides a radial homojunction or heterojunction. A doped nanowire core is surrounded by a shell with complementary doping. Such can provide high optical absorption due to the long optical path in the axial direction of the vertical nanowires, while reducing considerably the distance over which carriers must diffuse before being collected in the radial direction. Alloy composition can also be varied. Radial and axial homojunctions and heterojunctions can be realized. Embodiments provide for flexible Group III-V nanowire structures. An array of Group III-V nanowire structures is embedded in polymer. A fabrication method forms the vertical nanowires on a substrate, e.g., a silicon substrate. Preferably, the nanowires are formed by the preferred methods for fabrication of Group III-V nanowires on silicon. Devices can be formed with core/shell and core/multi-shell nanowires and the devices are released from the substrate upon which the nanowires were formed to create a flexible structure that includes an array of vertical nanowires embedded in polymer.

  6. Determination of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements in lunar surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlenko, L. I.; Simonova, L. V.; Karyakin, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Distribution regularities of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements were investigated in basaltoid rocks of lunar and terrestrial origin. Samples of various regolith zones taken in the area of the Sea of Fertility were analyzed, along with samples of basic and ultrabasic rocks of the East African Rift for their content of the trace admixtures listed. Data obtained on the abundance of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, cobalt, nickel, chromium, and vanadium in Luna 16 lunar surface material were compared with the abundance of these elements in samples of lunar rocks returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, with the exception of scandium; its content in the latter samples was considerably higher.

  7. The Origin and Distribution of Heavy Elements in the CD Groups MKW 4 and AWM 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrtilek, Jan; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    At this point, data for MKW4 have been received and those for AWM4 are still awaited. The MKW4 data have been fully analyzed and a complete manuscript is available and in final review by co-authors before submission for refereed publication. The following is a summary of our principal findings: We examined the distribution and properties of the hot gas which makes up the group halo. The inner halo shows some signs of structure, with circular or elliptical beta-models providing a poor fit to the surface brightness profile. This may be evidence of large-scale motion in the inner halo, but we do not find evidence of sharp fronts or edges in the emission. The temperature of the halo declines in the core, with deprojected spectral fits showing a central temperature of approximately 1.3keV compared to approximately 3keV at 250 arcsec. However, cooling flow models provide poor fits to the inner regions of the group and the estimated cooling time of the gas is long except within the central dominant galaxy, NGC4073. Abundance profiles show a sharp increase in the core of the group. We conclude that MKW4 is a fairly relaxed group, which has developed a strong central temperature gradient but not a large-scale cooling flow.

  8. Multiple complexation of CO and related ligands to a main-group element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunschweig, Holger; Dewhurst, Rian D.; Hupp, Florian; Nutz, Marco; Radacki, Krzysztof; Tate, Christopher W.; Vargas, Alfredo; Ye, Qing

    2015-06-01

    The ability of an atom or molecular fragment to bind multiple carbon monoxide (CO) molecules to form multicarbonyl adducts is a fundamental trait of transition metals. Transition-metal carbonyl complexes are vital to industry, appear naturally in the active sites of a number of enzymes (such as hydrogenases), are promising therapeutic agents, and have even been observed in interstellar dust clouds. Despite the wealth of established transition-metal multicarbonyl complexes, no elements outside groups 4 to 12 of the periodic table have yet been shown to react directly with two or more CO units to form stable multicarbonyl adducts. Here we present the synthesis of a borylene dicarbonyl complex, the first multicarbonyl complex of a main-group element prepared using CO. The compound is additionally stable towards ambient air and moisture. The synthetic strategy used--liberation of a borylene ligand from a transition metal using donor ligands--is broadly applicable, leading to a number of unprecedented monovalent boron species with different Lewis basic groups. The similarity of these compounds to conventional transition-metal carbonyl complexes is demonstrated by photolytic liberation of CO and subsequent intramolecular carbon-carbon bond activation.

  9. Multiple complexation of CO and related ligands to a main-group element.

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Holger; Dewhurst, Rian D; Hupp, Florian; Nutz, Marco; Radacki, Krzysztof; Tate, Christopher W; Vargas, Alfredo; Ye, Qing

    2015-06-18

    The ability of an atom or molecular fragment to bind multiple carbon monoxide (CO) molecules to form multicarbonyl adducts is a fundamental trait of transition metals. Transition-metal carbonyl complexes are vital to industry, appear naturally in the active sites of a number of enzymes (such as hydrogenases), are promising therapeutic agents, and have even been observed in interstellar dust clouds. Despite the wealth of established transition-metal multicarbonyl complexes, no elements outside groups 4 to 12 of the periodic table have yet been shown to react directly with two or more CO units to form stable multicarbonyl adducts. Here we present the synthesis of a borylene dicarbonyl complex, the first multicarbonyl complex of a main-group element prepared using CO. The compound is additionally stable towards ambient air and moisture. The synthetic strategy used--liberation of a borylene ligand from a transition metal using donor ligands--is broadly applicable, leading to a number of unprecedented monovalent boron species with different Lewis basic groups. The similarity of these compounds to conventional transition-metal carbonyl complexes is demonstrated by photolytic liberation of CO and subsequent intramolecular carbon-carbon bond activation. PMID:26085273

  10. Negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry of main group elements Part 2. 6th group: sulfur, selenium and tellurium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachsmann, M.; Heumann, K. G.

    1992-05-01

    A systematic investigation of the formation of negative ions for the 6th main group elements using negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTI-MS) is presented. A double-filament ion source with BaO on the ionization filament has been applied to reduce the work function of the rhenium filament material. S[radical sign]-, Se[radical sign]- and Te[radical sign]- were produced as most abundant ions. Low intensities of SeO[radical sign]-, SeO[radical sign]-2, TeO[radical sign]- and TeO[radical sign]-2 have also been detected. Although the electron affinity of SO2 is low, high ion currents of SO[radical sign]-2 have been observed from BaSo4 samples. This may be due to an electron capture process of this molecule rather than to a thermal ionization process. A silica gel suspension mixed with the sample enhanced the Se[radical sign]- ion current by a factor of about 40 and the Te[radical sign]- intensity by a factor of about 10. However, the silica gel showed no enhancing effect on the S[radical sign]- ion current. An improvement in the precision of the selenium and tellurium isotope ratio measurements by a factor of up to 10 was obtained when using the silica gel technique as compared with previous NTI investigations. The data of the selenium isotope abundance measurements were accepted as "best measurements" by the IUPAC.

  11. A measurement of the cosmic ray elements C to Fe in the two energy intervals 0.5-2.0 GeV/n and 20-60 GeV/n

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W.; Gregory, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The study of the cosmic ray abundances beyond 20 GeV/n provides additional information on the propagation and containment of the cosmic rays in the galaxy. Since the average amount of interstellar material traversed by cosmic rays decreases as its energy increases, the source composition undergoes less distortion in this higher energy region. However, data over a wide energy range is necessary to study propagation parameters. Some measurements of some of the primary cosmic ray abundance ratios at both low (near 2 GeV/n) and high (above 20 GeV/n) energy are given and compared to the predictions of the leaky box mode. In particular, the integrated values (above 23.7 GeV/n) for the more abundant cosmic ray elements in the interval C through Fe and the differential flux for carbon, oxygen, and the Ne, Mg, Si group are presented. Limited statistics prevented the inclusion of the odd Z elements.

  12. 33 CFR 155.5052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for nontank vessels carrying group V petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements of 33 CFR 155.1052. ... evaluation criteria for nontank vessels carrying group V petroleum oil. 155.5052 Section 155.5052 Navigation... Response plan development and evaluation criteria for nontank vessels carrying group V petroleum...

  13. Mobile elements and chromosomal evolution in the virilis group of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Evgen'ev, M B; Zelentsova, H; Poluectova, H; Lyozin, G T; Veleikodvorskaja, V; Pyatkov, K I; Zhivotovsky, L A; Kidwell, M G

    2000-10-10

    Species of the virilis group of Drosophila differ by multiple inversions and chromosome fusions that probably accompanied, or led to, speciation. Drosophila virilis has the primitive karyotype for the group, and natural populations are exceptional in having no chromosomal polymorphisms. We report that the genomic locations of Penelope and Ulysses transposons are nonrandomly distributed in 12 strains of D. virilis. Furthermore, Penelope and Ulysses insertion sites in D. virilis show a statistically significant association with the breakpoints of inversions found in other species of the virilis group. Sixteen newly induced chromosomal rearrangements were isolated from the progeny of D. virilis hybrid dysgenic crosses, including 12 inversions, 2 translocations, and 2 deletions. Penelope and Ulysses were associated with the breakpoints of over half of these new rearrangements. Many rearrangement breakpoints also coincide with the chromosomal locations of Penelope and Ulysses insertions in the parental strains and with breakpoints of inversions previously established for other species of the group. Analysis of homologous sequences from D. virilis and Drosophila lummei indicated that Penelope insertion sites were closely, but not identically, located at the nucleotide sequence level. Overall, these results indicate that Penelope and Ulysses insert in a limited number of genomic locations and are consistent with the possibility that these elements play an important role in the evolution of the virilis species group. PMID:11016976

  14. Mobile elements and chromosomal evolution in the virilis group of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Evgen'ev, Michael B.; Zelentsova, Helena; Poluectova, Helena; Lyozin, George T.; Veleikodvorskaja, Vera; Pyatkov, K. I.; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; Kidwell, Margaret G.

    2000-01-01

    Species of the virilis group of Drosophila differ by multiple inversions and chromosome fusions that probably accompanied, or led to, speciation. Drosophila virilis has the primitive karyotype for the group, and natural populations are exceptional in having no chromosomal polymorphisms. We report that the genomic locations of Penelope and Ulysses transposons are nonrandomly distributed in 12 strains of D. virilis. Furthermore, Penelope and Ulysses insertion sites in D. virilis show a statistically significant association with the breakpoints of inversions found in other species of the virilis group. Sixteen newly induced chromosomal rearrangements were isolated from the progeny of D. virilis hybrid dysgenic crosses, including 12 inversions, 2 translocations, and 2 deletions. Penelope and Ulysses were associated with the breakpoints of over half of these new rearrangements. Many rearrangement breakpoints also coincide with the chromosomal locations of Penelope and Ulysses insertions in the parental strains and with breakpoints of inversions previously established for other species of the group. Analysis of homologous sequences from D. virilis and Drosophila lummei indicated that Penelope insertion sites were closely, but not identically, located at the nucleotide sequence level. Overall, these results indicate that Penelope and Ulysses insert in a limited number of genomic locations and are consistent with the possibility that these elements play an important role in the evolution of the virilis species group. PMID:11016976

  15. Metallic phases and siderophile elements in main group ureilites: Implications for ureilite petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Cyrena A.; Ash, Richard D.; Van Orman, James A.; Domanik, Kenneth; McDonough, William F.

    2013-07-01

    Metallic phases and siderophile elements are critical to understanding the petrogenesis of the enigmatic ureilite meteorites. We obtained petrographic, major and minor element, and the first in situ trace element data for metallic phases (metal, sulfides, phosphide, carbide) in 24 main group ureilites of various petrographic types with Fo ˜75-95. The most abundant type of metal (˜1-3 vol.%) occurs as ˜10-40 μm-wide strips along silicate grain boundaries. Ni contents of this metal range from ˜0 to 7.3 wt.% and are correlated with Co among all samples (Ni/Co = 0.64 × CI). A less abundant type of metal occurs as ˜5-150 μm diameter metallic spherules, consisting of cohenite (Fe3C), metal, phosphide and sulfide, enclosed in silicates (preferentially low-Ca pyroxene). Most samples contain 2 types of sulfide: (1) low-Cr (<0.1 wt.%) troilite, and (2) lamellar intergrowths of daubreelite (FeCr2S4) and troilite. Abundances of 17 (mostly siderophile) elements were measured by LA-ICP-MS in grain boundary metal, spherules, graphite, sulfides and silicates. Average compositions of grain boundary metal in 10 samples show decreasing CI-normalized abundance with increasing volatility, interrupted by depletions in W, Mo, Ni and Zn, and enrichments in Au, As, Ga and Ge. CI-normalized Os abundances range from ˜2 to 65, and are correlated with increasing Os/Pt, Os/Ni and Os/Pd ratios. CI-normalized Pt/Os ratios range from ˜0.3 to 1. Bulk cohenite-bearing spherules have siderophile element abundances indistinguishable from those of grain boundary metal in the same sample. CI-normalized patterns of most siderophile elements in the metal are, within error, identical to those of the bulk rock (at 25-40× higher abundances) in each sample. There are no correlations between siderophile element abundances and Fo. We infer that at T ⩾ 1200 °C ureilites contained immiscible Fe-C (3-4 wt.% C) and Fe-S melts, small samples of which were trapped as the spherules within silicates. The Fe-S melt was largely extracted from the rocks, and the bulk of the residual Fe-C melt is now represented by the grain boundary metal. Assuming that ureilite precursor materials had CI or CV abundances of siderophile elements, the large fractionations of HSE observed in metal in 7 of the 10 samples require extremely high degrees (>98%) of batch Fe-S melt extraction, which implies very high xFeS (= wt. FeS/[Fe + FeS]) in the precursors. Furthermore, at such high degrees of fractionation, the HSE are so strongly concentrated into the residual metal that to match their relatively low absolute abundances in the ureilite metal, very high initial metal contents are required. Together, these constraints would imply that ureilite precursors had abundances of Fe metal and FeS (˜20-35 wt.% each) far exceeding those of known CC or OC. These requirements could be relaxed, permitting lower (more plausible) degrees of melting and lower initial metal and sulfide abundances, if ureilite precursors were volatile-depleted to a greater extent than bulk CV. We suggest that ureilite precursors contained, to various degrees, an overabundance (relative to chondrites) of refractory-enriched material such as CAIs. Excess CAIs could also account for observed depletions of W and Mo (otherwise difficult to explain) in the ureilite metal, and lead to the observed range of siderophile element patterns and abundances among samples. Such a model can potentially explain the lack of correlation between siderophile element abundances and FeO (or olivine Fo), and reconcile the metal and siderophile element data with a redox model for ureilite petrogenesis.

  16. pH-dependent release of trace elements including platinum group elements (PGEs) from gasoline and diesel catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sucha, Veronika; Mihaljevic, Martin; Ettler, Vojtech; Strnad, Ladislav

    2014-05-01

    The release of trace metals and platinum group elements (PGEs) from automobile exhaust catalysts represents a remarkable source of higly dispersed environmental contamination. Especially, PGEs have shown increasing research interest due to their possible bioaccessibility. In our research, we focused on leaching behaviour of trace metals from gasoline and diesel automobile catalysts. While catalysts for gasoline engines contain a mixture of Pt-Pd-Rh or Pd-Rh, catalysts for diesel engines are composed only of Pt. We used dust from two crushed gasoline and two crushed diesel catalysts (new and aged). The dust of gasoline catalysts contains significant concentrations of Pt (700 mg.kg-1), Pd (11 000 mg.kg-1) and Rh (700 mg.kg-1). And the dust of diesel catalysts are composed of Pt (3 900 mg.kg-1) and they contains negligible amounts of Pd dan Rh (< 0.5 mg.kg-1, < 0.1 mg.kg-1, respectively). To evaluate leaching of trace metals from dust we used pH-stat leaching test according to the European standard CEN/TS 14997. The concentrations of cations: PGEs (Pt, Pd a Rh), K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, La and Ce were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), and anions: F-, Cl-, SO42- and NO3- by high-performance liquid chromatography. Although the dusts from catalysts were relatively stable to acid/base influence, the leaching of trace metals from catalysts showed a dependence on pH. Generally, the highest concentrations were released under acidic conditions. The leaching of PGEs was higher for Pt in diesel catalysts and for Pd and Rh in gasoline catalysts. The highest concentrations of Zn and Pb were observed in old catalysts. The rare earth metals were released more from gasoline catalysts. Catalysts particles represent health risk especially with respect to their PGEs contents.

  17. Recent searches for superheavy elements in deep-inelastic reactions. [Approximately 7 MeV/. mu.

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.; Lougheed, R.W.; Nitschke, J.M.

    1980-10-01

    New attempts have been made to synthesize superheavy elements (SHE) by nuclear reactions that may possibly form the products at low excitation energies. Survival of the superheavy elements would then be enhanced because of reduced losses from prompt fission. Classical and diffusion-model calculations of deep-inelastic reactions indicate there should be detectable yields of SHE formed with less than 30 MeV of excitation energy. Accordingly, superheavy elements have been sought in such reactions where targets of /sup 248/Cm and /sup 238/U have been irradiated with /sup 136/Xe and /sup 238/U ions. In the most recent experiments, targets of /sup 248/Cm metal (3.5 to 7 mg-cm/sup -2/) were bombarded with 1.8-GeV /sup 238/U ions from the UNILAC accelerator. The longer-lived SHE and actinides near the target Z were chemically separated, and the yields of a number of isotopes of Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm were measured. An upper limit of 30 nb was obtained for the formation of 1-h /sup 259/No. In addition to the off-line chemical recovery and search for SHE, an on-line experiment was performed to detect volatile SHE with half-lives of a minute or more. All experiments to produce and detect superheavy elements were much less than optimum because of premature failures in the Cm-metal targets. The outcome and status of these experiments and the implications of the actinide yields in estimating the chances for forming superheavy elements in the /sup 248/Cm + /sup 238/U reactions are discussed. 5 figures, 1 table.

  18. Matrix exponentials, SU(N) group elements, and real polynomial roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Kortryk, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    The exponential of an N × N matrix can always be expressed as a matrix polynomial of order N - 1. In particular, a general group element for the fundamental representation of SU(N) can be expressed as a matrix polynomial of order N - 1 in a traceless N × N hermitian generating matrix, with polynomial coefficients consisting of elementary trigonometric functions dependent on N - 2 invariants in addition to the group parameter. These invariants are just angles determined by the direction of a real N-vector whose components are the eigenvalues of the hermitian matrix. Equivalently, the eigenvalues are given by projecting the vertices of an (" separators=" N - 1 ) -simplex onto a particular axis passing through the center of the simplex. The orientation of the simplex relative to this axis determines the angular invariants and hence the real eigenvalues of the matrix.

  19. Impact Behavior of A356 Foundry Alloys in the Presence of Trace Elements Ni and V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casari, Daniele; Ludwig, Thomas H.; Merlin, Mattia; Arnberg, Lars; Garagnani, Gian Luca

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, the impact behavior of unmodified A356 alloys with the addition of Ni or V in as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions was assessed. Charpy V-notched specimens obtained from sand and permanent mold casting showed low total absorbed energy average values ( W t < 2 J). SEM analysis of fracture profiles and surfaces indicated a Si-driven crack propagation with a predominant transgranular fracture mode. Occasionally, intergranular contributions to fracture were detected in the permanent mold cast alloys due to the locally finer microstructure. Concurrent mechanisms related to the chemical composition, solidification conditions and heat treatment were found to control the impact properties of the alloys. While the trace element Ni exerted only minor effects on the impact toughness of the A356 alloy, V had a strong influence: (i) V-containing sand cast alloys absorbed slightly higher impact energies compared to the corresponding A356 base alloys; (ii) in the permanent mold cast alloys, V in solid solution led to a considerable loss of ductility, which in turn decreased the total absorbed energy.

  20. High-pressure phases in B group element alloys: a new sort of electronic phase

    SciTech Connect

    Degtyareva, V.F.; Ponyatovskii, E.G.

    1982-09-01

    General relationships are discussed for phase formation in B group element alloys with increasing pressure. The main tendency is determined by the homology rule: the effect of pressure is to change the phase equilibria in the same way as when one component is replaced by a heavier element in the same group. The sequence of relative configurations of stability regions for intermediate phases in the phase diagrams depends on the electron density. As the mean number of electrons in the alloy increases, there is a sequence of phases, accompanied by a decrease in the coordination number and packing density of the structure. Phases with identical structures occur in various systems for similar values of the electron density per atomic volume. Isostructural phases in various systems with equal electron densities have similar values of the transition temperature to the superconducting state. These B--B phases, whose crystal structure and properties are governed by the electron density factor, form a new series of electronic phases of the Hume-Rothery type.

  1. Coronal Element Abundances in the G8 V Star XI Boo A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laming, J. Martin; Drake, Jeremy J.

    1999-04-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a deep EUVE exposure (270 ks) of the G8 V star xi Boo A. We evaluate electron densities from line ratios in Fe X, Fe XII, Fe XIII, and Fe XIV, and use the intensities of lines from ions Fe IX - XXII to establish the emission measure distribution. We also observe and measure emission in lines from Ne VII, Mg VII - IX, Si VII, VIII, X, XII, S XII - XIV, Ar XV, XVI, Ca XIV - XVII, and Ni XVII, XVIII, from which we derive relative abundances in the corona of xi Boo A. We find very strong evidence for the FIP (First Ionization Potential) effect, in that the abundances of low FIP elements Mg, Si, Ca, Fe, and Ni appear to be enhanced by a factor of about 4 over those of the high FIP elements S and Ar, relative to their photospheric values. Thus xi Boo A joins alpha Cen B (K2 V) and possibly epsilon Eri (K2 V) in showing similar coronal abundance anomalies to those observed in the Sun, in contrast to Procyon (F5 IV) whose corona appears to have similar composition to its photosphere.

  2. Unique V kappa group associated with two mouse L chain genetic markers.

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, P D; Tsang, H C; Gibson, D M; Cannon, L E

    1981-01-01

    The C.C58 and C.AKR congeneic strains of mice differ from BALB/c at loci on chromosome 6 which govern kappa light chain variable region (V kappa) polymorphisms and the Lyt-2 and Lyt-3 alloantigens. Amino acid sequence analysis of light chains of myelomas induced in these strains revealed one light chain, C.C58 M75, that had an NH2-terminal serine and differed sufficiently from published V kappa sequences to define a new V kappa group, V kappa (Ser), apparently not expressed by BALB/c mice. Peptide map analysis indicated that the M75 light chain contained the IB-peptide marker, a V kappa polymorphism expressed by C.C58 but not BALB/c mice, which is determined by the IgK-Trpa allele present on chromosome 6. This same light chain was found by isoelectric focussing to correspond to IgK-Ef1a, another V kappa genetic marker of C.C58 and C.AKR. Isoelectric focussing of approximately 200 C.C58 and C.AKR myeloma light chains revealed three additional C.C58 and four C.AKR light chains that corresponded to IgK-Ef1a-specific light chains. All three additional C.C58 light chains belonged to the V kappa (Ser) group and contained the IB-peptide marker. Thus, the differences in V kappa repertoires represented by the IB-peptide and IgK-Ef1a markers and controlled by genes on chromosome 6 appear to reflect expression (or failure of expression) of a distinct group of V kappa regions. Images PMID:6787595

  3. Trans-iron group elements in hot helium-rich white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Our recent detection of twelve trans-iron group elements (Z=30-56) in the hot helium-rich white dwarf (i.e. spectral type DO) RE0503-289 is a unique discovery. This phenomenon was never observed before in any white dwarf. Abundance analyses hitherto performed for five species (Zn, Ge, Kr, Xe, Ba) reveal values between 155 and 23000 times solar. There are reasons to believe that these extreme overabundances are connected to the evolutionary history of the DO white dwarfs. They are the outcome of a late helium-shell flash that consumes all hydrogen in the stellar envelope and at the same time dredges up helium-rich intershell matter that is enriched with s-process elements. These elements were synthesised in the preceding AGB phase of the evolution. We argue that if RE0503-289 is a typical representative of the DO white dwarfs, then all DOs with similar effective temperature should also show these extraordinary chemical diversity and overabundances. In order to prove this hypothesis, we want to obtain FUV spectra of two other hot DO white dwarfs plus a representative of the PG1159 stars, which are thought to be immediate progenitors of DO white dwarfs. If all three targets show the same heavy-metal abundance pattern, then these objects hold the promise that their metal abundances can be used to constrain AGB star nucleosynthesis. If otherwise RE0503-289 remains a unique object, then an alternative evolutionary scenario (binary WD merger) is probably responsible for its extreme element abundances.

  4. Prediction of Large-Gap Two-Dimensional Topological Insulators Consisting of Hydrogenated Bilayers of Group III Elements with Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisostomo, Christian P.; Yao, Liang-Zi; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Lin, Hsin; Albao, Marvin A.; Bansil, Arun

    2015-03-01

    We use first-principles electronic structure calculations to predict a new class of two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs) in hydrogenated binary compositions of group III elements (B, Al, Ga, In, and Tl) and bismuth (Bi). We identify band inversions in unhydrogenated pristine GaBi, InBi, and TlBi bilayers, with gaps as large as 556 meV for the TlBi case, making these materials suitable for room-temperature applications. Double-sided hydrogenation in which hydrogen was added on opposite sides also exhibited band inversions in the case of GaBi, InBi, and TlBi just as in the unhydrogenated pristine ones. Furthermore, we report the gap to be 885 meV for the hydrogenated TlBi case. Hydrogenation enhace the band gap without changing the band topology. Moreover, our study also aim to demonstrate the possibility of strain engineering in that the topological phase transition in systems whose phase was nontrivial could be driven by suitable strain. Finally, the effect of placing hydrogen to topological edges was also demonstrated. Our findings suggest that the buckled honeycomb structure is a versatile platform for hosting nontrivial topological states and spin-polarized Dirac fermions with the flexibility of chemical and mechanical tunability. The robustness of III-Bi upon hydrogenation shows that these materials are possible to synthesize by growing on substrates.

  5. Implementation of Hybrid V-Cycle Multilevel Methods for Mixed Finite Element Systems with Penalty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Chen-Yao G.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the implementation of hybrid V-cycle hierarchical multilevel methods for the indefinite discrete systems which arise when a mixed finite element approximation is used to solve elliptic boundary value problems. By introducing a penalty parameter, the perturbed indefinite system can be reduced to a symmetric positive definite system containing the small penalty parameter for the velocity unknown alone. We stabilize the hierarchical spatial decomposition approach proposed by Cai, Goldstein, and Pasciak for the reduced system. We demonstrate that the relative condition number of the preconditioner is bounded uniformly with respect to the penalty parameter, the number of levels and possible jumps of the coefficients as long as they occur only across the edges of the coarsest elements.

  6. REDfly v3.0: toward a comprehensive database of transcriptional regulatory elements in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Steven M.; Gerrard, Dave T.; Miner, David; Simich, Michael; Des Soye, Benjamin; Bergman, Casey M.; Halfon, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    The REDfly database of Drosophila transcriptional cis-regulatory elements provides the broadest and most comprehensive available resource for experimentally validated cis-regulatory modules and transcription factor binding sites among the metazoa. The third major release of the database extends the utility of REDfly as a powerful tool for both computational and experimental studies of transcription regulation. REDfly v3.0 includes the introduction of new data classes to expand the types of regulatory elements annotated in the database along with a roughly 40% increase in the number of records. A completely redesigned interface improves access for casual and power users alike; among other features it now automatically provides graphical views of the genome, displays images of reporter gene expression and implements improved capabilities for database searching and results filtering. REDfly is freely accessible at http://redfly.ccr.buffalo.edu. PMID:20965965

  7. Group velocity of the light pulse in an open V-type system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingjuan; Fan, Xijun; Tian, Shufen; Liu, Chengpu; Gong, Shangqing; Xu, Zhizhan

    2007-04-01

    We investigate the group velocity of the probe light pulse in an open V-type system with spontaneously generated coherence. We find that, not only varying the relative phase between the probe and driving pulses can but varying the atomic exit rate or incoherent pumping rate also can manipulate dramatically the group velocity, even make the pulse propagation switching from subluminal to superluminal; the subliminal propagation can be companied with gain or absorption, but the superluminal propagation is always companied with absorption.

  8. Should an Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Grouping of Disorders Be Included in DSM-V?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Katharine A.; Stein, Dan J.; Rauch, Scott; Hollander, Eric; Fallon, Brian A.; Barsky, Arthur; Fineberg, Naomi; Mataix-Cols, David; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wilhelm, Sabine; Kelly, Megan M.; Clark, Lee Anna; Pinto, Anthony; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Farrow, Joanne; Leckman, James

    2014-01-01

    The obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e., grouping, or “chapter”) in DSM. This paper addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The paper builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of “Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders.” These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V. PMID:20533367

  9. 77 FR 43071 - MPS Customer Group v. Maine Public Service Company; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission MPS Customer Group v. Maine Public Service Company; Notice of Complaint Take... Maine Public Service Company (MPS or Respondent) seeking an order to reduce the return on equity (ROE) used in calculating formula rates for transmission service under the MPS Open Access...

  10. Layered V-B-O polyoxometalate nets linked by diethylenetriamine complexes with dangling amine groups.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Yunfeng; Yu, Zheng-Bao; Sun, Junliang

    2014-11-01

    Two layered V-B-O contained polyoxometalate (POM) net structures, denoted as SUT-12 and SUT-13, are reported here. SUT-12 was synthesized by the boric acid flux method, and it represents the first 2D structure constructed from the V6B20 vanadoborate cluster. SUT-13 was synthesized by the hydrothermal method and constructed from V12B6P12 vanadium borophosphate clusters. In both structures, the vanadoborate or vanadium borophosphate clusters were linked through in situ formed Zn(DETA)2 or Cu(DETA)2 complexes. Surprisingly, for all DETA molecules in the two metal complexes, there is one dangling amine group when it is coordinated to the metal. The phenomenon of the dangling amine group feature is abnormal and the Cu(DETA)2 complexes in SUT-13 were taken as an example and studied by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations in order to understand this unusual feature. PMID:25182271

  11. Spatial distribution and sources identification of elements in PM2.5 among the coastal city group in the Western Taiwan Strait region, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingling; Yu, Yanke; Yu, Jianshuan; Chen, Jinsheng; Niu, Zhenchuan; Yin, Liqian; Zhang, Fuwang; Liao, Xu; Chen, Yanting

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the spatial variations of 20 elements (Al, Si, Ti, Ca, Fe, Mg, Cr, Mn, Ni, P, S, K, Cu, Cl, V, Se, Br, As, Zn, and Pb) in PM(2.5) (particle matters ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) in the coastal city group in the Western Taiwan Strait (WTS) region, China during spring 2011. The average PM(2.5) mass concentration at 13 sites was 77.0 μg/m(3) and the elemental fraction accounted for about 10-20%. Multivariate analyses (principal component analysis and cluster analysis) and a correlation matrix were used to identify the sources of elements in PM(2.5). The results revealed that the elements originated mainly from traffic emissions, coal combustion, pyrometallurgical processes, and crustal sources. Spatially, the concentrations of elements were generally higher in several rapidly growing locations, and the enrichment factors (EFs) for most elements were much higher at the northern sites than those at the southern sites, suggesting that the air quality in the northern part of the study area was strongly affected by anthropogenic activity. Backward wind trajectory analysis during the sampling period indicated that the concentrations of elements in PM(2.5) in the WTS region were greatly impacted by dust particles transported from Northern China in spring. PMID:23178767

  12. Optical Spectroscopy of Diatomic Species: Copper with Group 14 Elements (Si, Ge, Sn, Pb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Y.; Schamps, J.

    2000-05-01

    Electronic band systems of the gaseous diatomic compounds of copper and various X elements of the 14th column (Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) have been observed by thermal excitation in the red part of the visible spectrum. Vibrational analysis of the two subsystems observed for each of these molecules (except for CuPb with only one system) are reported and assigned as 2Σ+-2Π3/2 and 2Σ+-2Π1/2 transitions. The variation of the spin-orbit splitting of the 2Π lower states from CuSi to CuSn follows closely that of the np shell spin-orbit parameters in the group 14 atoms. This fully corroborates previous ab initio calculations that predict a 2Πr ground state with the ionic Cu+ (3d10)X-(pς2pπ) configuration for these molecules.

  13. Platinum-group element geochemistry of zoned ultramafic intrusive suites, Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, F.; Page, N.J.; Carlson, C.A.; Wilson, S.A.; Carlson, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Analyses for platinum-group elements of the varied rock suites of three Alaskan-type ultramafic to mafic multi-intrusive bodies are reported. Ir and Ru are less than analytical sensitivities of 100 and 20 ppb; Rh is less than or near 1 ppb. Average Pd assays vary among the rocks within intrusive complexes and between the three complexes (6.3, 13.7, 36.4 ppb); average Pt assays vary little among the same samples (27.9, 60.9, 34.0 ppb). Statistically adjusted Pt/(Pt + Pd) ratios increase in each suite from gabbro through clinopyroxenite to olivine-rich rocks, possibly owing to Pd fractionation.-G.J.N.

  14. Characterization of the Sukinda and Nausahi ultramafic complexes, Orissa, India by platinum-group element geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, N.J.; Banerji, P.K.; Haffty, J.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of 20 chromitite, 14 ultramafic and mafic rock, and 9 laterite and soil samples from the Precambrian Sukinda and Nausahi ultramafic complexes, Orissa, India were analyzed for platinum-group elements (PGE). The maximum concentrations are: palladium, 13 parts per billion (ppb); platinum, 120 ppb; rhodium, 21 ppb; iridium, 210 ppb; and ruthenium, 630 ppb. Comparison of chondrite-normalized ratios of PGE for the chromitite samples of lower Proterozoic to Archean age with similar data from Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolite complexes strongly implies that these complexes represent Precambrian analogs of ophiolite complexes. This finding is consistent with the geology and petrology of the Indian complexes and suggests that plate-tectonic and ocean basin developement models probably apply to some parts of Precambrian shield areas. ?? 1985.

  15. Leaves of Phragmites australis as potential atmospheric biomonitors of Platinum Group Elements.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Pavone, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    The increasing emissions of Platinum Group Elements (PGEs), namely Pt, Pd and Rh, may pose a significant risk to ecosystem processes and human health. A periodic assessment of PGEs distribution in the environment is thus of the utmost importance for the implementation of timely measures of mitigation. Although several studies have quantified PGEs in different life forms such as mammals, birds, fish, crustaceans, algae, mosses and even human beings, data about vascular plants need further surveys. This study aimed to test the suitability of the grass Phragmites australis (common reed) as a biomonitor of PGEs atmospheric pollution. The results showed that Pd and Pt concentrations in leaves are significantly higher in urban areas. In particular, Pd showed the highest range of values in line with current studies that consider palladium as the main element of traffic-related pollution. Overall, the leaves of Phragmites australis reflected the different gradient of PGEs emissions, and may thus be considered as potential biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. PMID:25596354

  16. Combined AIE/EBE/GMRES approach to incompressible flows. [Adaptive Implicit-Explicit/Grouped Element-by-Element/Generalized Minimum Residuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.; Tezduyar, T. E.

    1990-01-01

    Adaptive implicit-explicit (AIE), grouped element-by-element (GEBE), and generalized minimum residuals (GMRES) solution techniques for incompressible flows are combined. In this approach, the GEBE and GMRES iteration methods are employed to solve the equation systems resulting from the implicitly treated elements, and therefore no direct solution effort is involved. The benchmarking results demonstrate that this approach can substantially reduce the CPU time and memory requirements in large-scale flow problems. Although the description of the concepts and the numerical demonstration are based on the incompressible flows, the approach presented here is applicable to larger class of problems in computational mechanics.

  17. Report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements: 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archinal, B. A.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bowell, E.; Conrad, A.; Consolmagno, G. J.; Courtin, R.; Fukushima, T.; Hestroffer, D.; Hilton, J. L.; Krasinsky, G. A.; Neumann, G.; Oberst, J.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Stooke, P.; Tholen, D. J.; Thomas, P. C.; Williams, I. P.

    2011-02-01

    Every three years the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements revises tables giving the directions of the poles of rotation and the prime meridians of the planets, satellites, minor planets, and comets. This report takes into account the IAU Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN) and the IAU Committee on Small Body Nomenclature (CSBN) definition of dwarf planets, introduces improved values for the pole and rotation rate of Mercury, returns the rotation rate of Jupiter to a previous value, introduces improved values for the rotation of five satellites of Saturn, and adds the equatorial radius of the Sun for comparison. It also adds or updates size and shape information for the Earth, Mars' satellites Deimos and Phobos, the four Galilean satellites of Jupiter, and 22 satellites of Saturn. Pole, rotation, and size information has been added for the asteroids (21) Lutetia, (511) Davida, and (2867) Šteins. Pole and rotation information has been added for (2) Pallas and (21) Lutetia. Pole and rotation and mean radius information has been added for (1) Ceres. Pole information has been updated for (4) Vesta. The high precision realization for the pole and rotation rate of the Moon is updated. Alternative orientation models for Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are noted. The Working Group also reaffirms that once an observable feature at a defined longitude is chosen, a longitude definition origin should not change except under unusual circumstances. It is also noted that alternative coordinate systems may exist for various (e.g. dynamical) purposes, but specific cartographic coordinate system information continues to be recommended for each body. The Working Group elaborates on its purpose, and also announces its plans to occasionally provide limited updates to its recommendations via its website, in order to address community needs for some updates more often than every 3 years. Brief recommendations are also made to the general planetary community regarding the need for controlled products, and improved or consensus rotation models for Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.

  18. Report of the IAU Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archinal, B.A.; A'Hearn, M.F.; Bowell, E.; Conrad, A.; Consolmagno, G.J.; Courtin, R.; Fukushima, T.; Hestroffer, D.; Hilton, J.L.; Krasinsky, G.A.; Neumann, G.; Oberst, J.; Seidelmann, P.K.; Stooke, P.; Tholen, D.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Williams, I.P.

    2010-01-01

    Every three years the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements revises tables giving the directions of the poles of rotation and the prime meridians of the planets, satellites, minor planets, and comets. This report takes into account the IAU Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN) and the IAU Committee on Small Body Nomenclature (CSBN) definition of dwarf planets, introduces improved values for the pole and rotation rate of Mercury, returns the rotation rate of Jupiter to a previous value, introduces improved values for the rotation of five satellites of Saturn, and adds the equatorial radius of the Sun for comparison. It also adds or updates size and shape information for the Earth, Mars’ satellites Deimos and Phobos, the four Galilean satellites of Jupiter, and 22 satellites of Saturn. Pole, rotation, and size information has been added for the asteroids (21) Lutetia, (511) Davida, and (2867) Šteins. Pole and rotation information has been added for (2) Pallas and (21) Lutetia. Pole and rotation and mean radius information has been added for (1) Ceres. Pole information has been updated for (4) Vesta. The high precision realization for the pole and rotation rate of the Moon is updated. Alternative orientation models for Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are noted. The Working Group also reaffirms that once an observable feature at a defined longitude is chosen, a longitude definition origin should not change except under unusual circumstances. It is also noted that alternative coordinate systems may exist for various (e.g. dynamical) purposes, but specific cartographic coordinate system information continues to be recommended for each body. The Working Group elaborates on its purpose, and also announces its plans to occasionally provide limited updates to its recommendations via its website, in order to address community needs for some updates more often than every 3 years. Brief recommendations are also made to the general planetary community regarding the need for controlled products, and improved or consensus rotation models for Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.

  19. First-principles study of group V and VII impurities in SnS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Congxin; Zhao, Xu; Peng, Yuting; Zhang, Heng; Wei, Shuyi; Jia, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Based on density functional theory, the electronic structure, formation energy and transition level of group V and VII atoms-doped SnS2 are investigated by means of first-principles methods. Numerical results show that the formation energy and transition level are dependent highly on the atom number in the periodic table. Group V atom substituting S atom has high formation energy and can create deep acceptor impurity level inside the band gap of SnS2. However, our calculations also show that group VII atom substituting S atom may serve as a promising n-type doping in the SnS2 due to its negative formation energy and shallow transition level under the Sn-rich growth conditions.

  20. Platinum group elements in automobile catalysts: characterization, sources and environmental mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaljevic, Martin; Ettler, Vojtech; Strnad, Ladislav; Sebek, Ondrej; Stedry, Robin; Adamec, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    The platinum group elements (PGE) comprise Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, and Pt. The PGE are extremely siderophile and most of the elements were during the Earth differentiation partitioned into the core. The average natural concentration of PGE in Earth's crust is low and range of 0.X - X0 μg kg-1. During the magmatic process the PGE are strongly partitioned into sulphides and Ni minerals. The distribution of PGE and increase of their emissions in the environment are mostly related to the use of automobile catalyst (AC) in car engines (in USA since 1975, in Europe since 1986). The ACs consist of a honeycomb support (made from γ-Al2O3 or cordierite with trace element admixtures - mostly lanthanides and Zr) coated with Pt, Pd and Rh in different ratios. While AC for gasoline engines contain a mixture of Pt-Pd-Rh or Pd-Rh, AC for diesel engines are composed only of Pt. New and aged AC of gasoline and diesel engines, AC standard reference materials, tunnel dust from Prague and tunnel dust reference materials were studied using scanning electron microscopy, electron microanalyses, X-ray diffraction and chemical analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The studied ACs differ in phase and elemental composition and PGE contents. The matrix of the gasoline AC is composed of Al, Zr, Ce, Ba oxides with Rh, Pd and Pt coatings. The support of diesel AC is composed of Mg, Al, Fe, Ti and Ca silicates with Pt coatings. Aged gasoline AC exhibit higher Mg, Mn, Zn and Pb contents compared to the new AC. Aged diesel AC differs in higher Zn and Ba contents compared to the new one. Both aged and new AC does not differ in total PGE contents. Leaching experiments were done with AC, real samples of tunnel dusts and reference materials with inorganic (Cl-, HPO42-) and organic (low and high molecular weight) complexing solutions. The solubility experiments indicate that PGE mobilization from ACs is dependent on particle type, time and complexing medium.

  1. An investigation of cadmium selenide photoluminescence as a chemical sensing method for group V hydrides and group III metal trialkyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winder, Edmund Jacques

    1997-10-01

    Chapter 1: Introduction. The origin of photoluminescence in semiconductors and the possible use of photoluminescence (PL) as a chemical sensing method are discussed. The process of adsorption and the CdSe surface are described. Chapter 2: Group V hydrides. The binding of three Group V hydrides (ammonia, phosphine, and arsine) to an etched CdSe surface is explored. They all act as Lewis bases toward the surface, producing reversible concentration-dependent PL enhancements. The PL changes are too slow for practical applications, but a moderate temperature increase was shown to substantially increase the analyte adsorption and desorption rates. A compact "hybrid" sensor device was constructed. Chapter 3: Group III trialkyls. The binding of four Group III metal trialkyls, trimethyl aluminum (TMAl), trimethyl gallium (TMGa), triethyl gallium (TEGa), and trimethyl indium (TMIn), to an etched CdSe surface is investigated. They all produce large and irreversible PL enhancements. This irreversibility is countered with three approaches. First, the use of sulfur-containing coatings can produce a CdSe surface which yields reversible PL enhancements when exposed to the trialkyls. Second, exposing an etched CdSe surface to amines subsequent to metal trialkyl exposure temporarily suppresses the large PL enhancement caused by the trialkyl; this is likely due to the amines forming neutral adducts with the trialkyls. Studies with a family of amines indicate the degree of suppression provided by an amine is dependent on steric factors. Third, pre-formed adducts of metal trialkyls with trimethylamine show reversible binding to etched CdSe. Chapter 4: Thermoelectric devices. Thermoelectric devices can be used as heat engines to generate electricity from a temperature difference or as heat pumps to transport heat when supplied with electricity. Because they are solid-state devices, they are compact, quiet, and rugged. Currently limited to niche applications due to their relatively low efficiency, research efforts to improve the performance of thermoelectric materials could broadly expand their uses. Thermoelectric materials and effects are described, as well as the preparation and use of classroom demonstrations of these devices.

  2. Permissive tracts for nickel, copper, platinum group elements (PGE), and chromium deposits of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 66): Chapter G1 in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Horton, John D.

    2012-01-01

    This report contains the USGS results of the PRISM-II Mauritania Minerals Project and is presented in cooperation with the Ministry of Petroleum, Energy, and Mines of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. The Report is composed of separate chapters consisting of multidisciplinary interpretive reports with accompanying plates on the geology, structure, geochronology, geophysics, hydrogeology, geochemistry, remote sensing (Landsat TM and ASTER), and SRTM and ASTER digital elevation models of Mauritania. The syntheses of these multidisciplinary data formed the basis for additional chapters containing interpretive reports on 12 different commodities and deposit types known to occur in Mauritania, accompanied by countrywide mineral resource potential maps of each commodity/deposit type. The commodities and deposit types represented include: (1) Ni, Cu, PGE, and Cr deposits hosted in ultramafic rocks; (2) orogenic, Carlin-like, and epithermal gold deposits; (3) polymetallic Pb-Zn-Cu vein deposits; (4) sediment-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag deposits of the SEDEX and Mississippi Valley-type; (5) sediment-hosted copper deposits; ( 6) volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits; (7) iron oxide copper-gold deposits; (8) uranium deposits; (9) Algoma-, Superior-, and oolitic-type iron deposits; (10) shoreline Ti-Zr placer deposits; (11) incompatible element deposits hosted in pegmatites, alkaline rocks, and carbonatites, and; (12) industrial mineral deposits. Additional chapters include the Mauritanian National Mineral Deposits Database are accompanied by an explanatory text and the Mauritania Minerals Project GIS that contains all of the interpretive layers created by USGS scientists. Raw data not in the public domain may be obtained from the Ministry of Petroleum, Energy, and Mines in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

  3. Elemental copper nanoparticle toxicity to different trophic groups involved in anaerobic and anoxic wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Puyol, Daniel; Gallagher, Sara; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2015-04-15

    Elemental copper nanoparticles (Cu(0) NPs) are potentially inhibitory to the different key microbial trophic groups involved in biological wastewater treatment processes. Cu-based NPs are known to be toxic to methanogens at low concentrations. However, very little is known about the toxic effect of Cu(0) NPs on other microbial groups involved in either upper trophic levels of anaerobic digestion or anoxic nitrogen removal processes. This study evaluated the toxicity of Cu(0) NPs to glucose fermentation, syntrophic propionate oxidation and denitrification in shaken batch bioassays with soluble substrates. Batch experiments were also supplemented with CuCl2 to evaluate the inhibitory impact of soluble Cu(II) ions. Syntrophic propionate oxidation and glucose fermentation were the least and most inhibited processes with inhibition constant (Ki) values of 0.202 and 0.047 mM of added Cu(0) NPs, respectively. Further analyses revealed that the Ki values calculated as a function of the free soluble Cu concentration were <0.003 mM for every biological process tested and most of these Ki values were similar in order of magnitude regardless of whether the Cu source was CuCl2 or Cu(0) NPs. The results taken as a whole indicate that Cu(0) NPs are toxic to all the microbial processes studied. Therefore, Cu(0) NPs can potentially be an important inhibitor of anaerobic wastewater treatment processes that rely on these trophic groups. The evidence suggests that the inhibitory impact of Cu(0) NPs was mainly due to the release of toxic Cu(II) ions originating from the corrosion and dissolution of Cu(0) NPs. PMID:25634735

  4. Tensorial Formalism for Rovibronic Spectroscopy of C3v Molecules Spectroscopy of XY3Z (C3v) Molecules with AN Even or Odd Number of Electrons: a Tensorial Formalism Adapted to the SU(2)otimes CIsupset C∞ vSsupset C3vS Group Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilali, A. El; Boudon, V.

    2010-06-01

    In molecular spectroscopy, it is often considered that sophisticated group theoretical and tensorial formalism methods are only really useful for spherical top (i.e. highly symmetrical) molecules, for which they have proven their high efficiency. Consequently, it is usually admitted that symmetric and asymmetric tops (i.e. lower symmetry) species should be treated using more ``conventional'' methods. However, some key elements of the formalism developed in our group for tetrahedral or octahedral molecules can be used with great profit even for less symmetrical systems: the ability of performing systematic developments of all rovibrational interactions in case of complex polyads and the so-called ``vibrational extrapolation'' which makes global analyses much easier. Firstly, we present the development of a tensorial formalism adapted to the study of XY3Z type molecules which possess integer angular momenta (i.e. in a singlet electronic state) by using the O(3)supset C∞ vsupset C3v chain. We present also the C3v TDS(C3v Top Data System) software for spectrum simulation dedicated to the study of symmetric-top molecules belonging to the C3v point group. Secondly, we present the development of a tensorial formalism adapted to the study of XY_3Z type open-shell species which possess half-integer angular momenta by using the SU(2)otimes C_Isupset C∞ vSsupset C3vS group chain A. El Hilali, V. Boudon and M. Loete, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 234, 176-181 (2005). A. El Hilali, Ch. Wenger, V. Boudon and M. Loete, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfert., accepted (2010). A. El Hilali, V. Boudon and M. Loete, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 239, 41-50 (2006). A. El Hilali, V. Boudon and M. Loete, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 253, 92-98 (2009). A. El Hilali, V. Boudon and M. Loete, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 234, 131-121 (2005).

  5. CSRL-V ENDF/B-V 227-group neutron cross-section library and its application to thermal-reactor and criticality safety benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.E. III; Diggs, B.R.; Knight, J.R.; Greene, N.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Webster, C.C.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.; Williams, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics and contents of the CSRL-V (Criticality Safety Reference Library based on ENDF/B-V data) 227-neutron-group AMPX master and pointwise cross-section libraries are described. Results obtained in using CSRL-V to calculate performance parameters of selected thermal reactor and criticality safety benchmarks are discussed.

  6. Mineralogical siting of platinum-group elements in pentlandite from the Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junge, Malte; Wirth, Richard; Oberthür, Thomas; Melcher, Frank; Schreiber, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The Bushveld Complex in South Africa hosts the world's largest resources of platinum-group elements (PGEs), which are mainly mined from three ore bodies, namely the Merensky Reef, the UG-2 chromitite, and the Platreef. In these ores, the PGEs are bimodally distributed, occurring both as discrete platinum-group minerals (PGMs) and hosted by sulfides. The presence of PGEs in sulfides has been demonstrated by electron probe microanalysis, laser ablation induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and particle-induced X-ray emission. However, evidence is lacking on the mineralogical siting of the PGEs, e.g., whether they occur in solid solution, as nano-inclusions, and/or micro-inclusions. Therefore, in the present study, a combination of focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy was used which allows to obtain crystal structural relationships between the host mineral and incorporated trace elements and revealing the physicochemical state of the PGE in sulfides. The present study confirms the existence of micrometer-sized discrete PGMs in the ores. Further, the PGEs occur in a number of forms, namely (1) as discrete nano-inclusions of PGMs, (2) as patchily distributed solid solution, (3) ordered within the pentlandite crystal structure, substituting for Ni and/or Fe (superlattice), and (4) as homogenous solid solution. Nanometer-sized PGMs (nPGMs) show no orientation relationship with the host sulfide mineral. Consequently, they are discrete phases, which were trapped within pentlandite during sulfide growth. Heterogeneous and patchy distributions of Rh and Ir within the pentlandite lattice suggest that Rh and Ir were already present within the sulfide liquid. The absence of possible reaction partners (e.g., Bi, As, and Sn) necessary for the formation of discrete PGMs forced Rh and Ir to remain in the crystal lattice of pentlandite and down-temperature exsolution caused patchy distribution patterns of Rh and Ir. High concentrations of Rh and Ir in pentlandite initiate ordering of the randomly distributed PGE in form of nanometer-sized lamellae resulting in the formation of a superlattice. Palladium is homogenously distributed within the pentlandite lattice, even at high Pd concentrations, and in addition also occurs as nPGMs.

  7. Coronal Element Abundances of the Post-Common Envelope Binary V471 Tauri with ASCA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Still, Martin; Hussain, Gaitee; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report on ASCA observations of the coronally active companion star in the post-common envelope binary V471 Tau. While it would be prudent to check the following results with grating spectroscopy, we find that a single-temperature plasma model does not fit the data. Two temperature models with variable abundances indicate that Fe is underabundant compared to the Hyades photospheric mean, whereas, the high first ionization potential element Ne is overabundant. This is indicative of the inverse first ionization effect, believed to result from the fractionation of ionized material by the magnetic field in the upper atmosphere of the star. Evolutionary calculations indicate that there should be no peculiar abundances on the companion star resulting from the common envelope epoch. Indeed, we find no evidence for peculiar abundances, although uncertainties are high.

  8. Study on 12kV outdoor vacuum switch with replaceable HRC element drop out fuse

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jiimei

    1996-12-31

    A new type of vacuum interrupter for 12kV outdoor vacuum switch was experimentally studied, the envelope of which was made of porcelain with petticoat flange for outdoor insulation. In order to produce an axial magnetic field and improve the capacity of transfer current in the vacuum interrupter, an iron plate of horse-shoe construction ingeniously designed was chosen as an electrode. The drop-out fuse with replaceable sand-filled HRC element in series with the vacuum switch is a new conception of design to increase breaking capacity. However, it is a vacuum switch of newly designed to form {open_quotes}a vacuum switch and drop-out type fuse combination{close_quotes}.

  9. Report of the IAU Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archinal, Brent A.; A’Hearn, Michael F.; Bowell, Edward; Conrad, Al; Consolmagno, Guy J.; Courtin, Regis; Fukushima, Toshio; Hestroffer, Daniel; Hilton, James L.; Krasinsky, Georgij A.; Neumann, Gregory; Oberst, Jurgen; Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Stooke, Philip; Tholen, David J.; Thomas, Peter C.; Williams, Iwan P.

    2010-01-01

    Every three years the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements revises tables giving the directions of the poles of rotation and the prime meridians of the planets, satellites, minor planets, and comets. This report takes into account the IAU Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN) and the IAU Committee on Small Body Nomenclature (CSBN) definition of dwarf planets, introduces improved values for the pole and rotation rate of Mercury, returns the rotation rate of Jupiter to a previous value, introduces improved values for the rotation of five satellites of Saturn, and adds the equatorial radius of the Sun for comparison. It also adds or updates size and shape information for the Earth, Mars’ satellites Deimos and Phobos, the four Galilean satellites of Jupiter, and 22 satellites of Saturn. Pole, rotation, and size information has been added for the asteroids (21) Lutetia, (511) Davida, and (2867) Šteins. Pole and rotation information has been added for (2) Pallas and (21) Lutetia. Pole and rotation and mean radius information has been added for (1) Ceres. Pole information has been updated for (4) Vesta. The high precision realization for the pole and rotation rate of the Moon is updated. Alternative orientation models for Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are noted. The Working Group also reaffirms that once an observable feature at a defined longitude is chosen, a longitude definition origin should not change except under unusual circumstances. It is also noted that alternative coordinate systems may exist for various (e.g. dynamical) purposes, but specific cartographic coordinate system information continues to be recommended for each body. The Working Group elaborates on its purpose, and also announces its plans to occasionally provide limited updates to its recommendations via its website, in order to address community needs for some updates more often than every 3 years. Brief recommendations are also made to the general planetary community regarding the need for controlled products, and improved or consensus rotation models for Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.

  10. Bismuth nano-droplets for group-V based molecular-beam droplet epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.; Zeng, Z. Q.; Hirono, Y.; Morgan, T. A.; Hu, X.; Salamo, G. J.; Fan, D. S.; Wu, J.; Yu, S. Q.; Wang, Zh. M.

    2011-12-12

    Self-assembly of bismuth droplets at nanoscale on GaAs(100) surface using molecular beam epitaxy was demonstrated. Fine control of density and size was achieved by varying growth temperature and total bismuth deposition. Droplet density was tuned by roughly 3 orders of magnitude, and the density-temperature dependence was found to be consistent with classical nucleation theory. These results may extend the flexibility of droplet epitaxy by serving as templates for group V based droplet epitaxy, which is in contrast to conventional group III based droplet epitaxy and may encourage nanostructure formation of bismuth-containing materials.

  11. Process for forming shaped group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  12. Re-187-Os-187, Pt-190-Os-186 Isotopic and Highly Siderophile Element Systematics of Group IVA Irons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; McCoy, T. J.; Schulte, R. F.; McDonough, W. F.; Ash, R. D.

    2005-01-01

    We have recently completed Re-187-Os-187 and Pt-190-Os-186 isotopic and elemental studies of the two largest magmatic iron meteorite groups, IIAB and IIIAB [1]. These studies revealed closed-system behavior of both isotopic systems, but complex trace element behavior for Re, Pt and Os in group IIIAB. Here we examine isotopic and trace elemental systematics of group IVA irons. The IVA irons are not as extensively fractionated as IIAB and IIIAB and their apparently less complex crystallization history may make for more robust interpretation of the relative partitioning behavior of Re, Pt and Os, as well as the other highly siderophile elements (HSE) measured here; Pd, Ru and Ir [e.g. 2]. An additional goal of our continuing research plan for iron meteorites is to assess the possibility of relating certain ungrouped irons with major groups via trace element modeling. Here, the isotopic and trace element systematics of the ungrouped irons Nedagolla and EET 83230 are compared with the IVA irons.

  13. Photochemistry and charge transfer chemistry of the platinum group elements. Progress report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.

    1991-12-01

    Significant progress has been made on the photochemistry and photophysics of platinum group element dithiolate complexes. The specific systems under investigation are square planar complexes of Pt(II) containing a dithiolate chelate and two other donor groups to complete the coordination sphere. The donor groups may be amines, imines, phosphines, phosphites or olefins, and they can be either monodentate or joined together as part of a chelate ring.

  14. Platinum group element incorporation into human bones resulting from increased anthropogenic utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrah, T. H.; Hannigan, R. E.; Campbell, E.; Prutsman-Pfeiffer, J.

    2009-12-01

    Platinum group elements (including Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Os, Ir) are rare precious metals that occur at exceedingly low concentrations in the Earth’s crust (~0.02-0.5 ng/g). Utilization of PGEs in the catalytic converter of automobiles, medical treatments, electronics, and as a catalyst, has rapidly increased since the early 20th century, leading to increased anthropogenic PGE emissions and consequently increasing concentrations in the environment. Recent reports indicate that environmental PGE concentrations are increasing in urban air, roadside soils, and aquatic environments (Rauch and Morrison, 2008). As a result, there is an increased potential for PGE uptake into the biosphere. To evaluate bio-incorporation of PGEs into the human body we use ICP-MS to analyze for PGE concentration in human bones. Human bone minerals serve as a reservoir for the majority of the body’s trace metals and provide a measure of PGE incorporation into the human body from various environmental sources. We compare PGE concentrations in femoral heads of 30 present-day modern humans to those in femurs of 10 humans exhumed from 18th and 19th century burial sites, whose metal exposures predate extensive anthropogenic use of PGEs.

  15. Accumulation and distribution characteristics of platinum group elements in roadside dusts in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Yu, Yanke; Zhou, Huaidong; Lu, Jin

    2012-06-01

    The concentrations, distribution, and accumulation of platinum group elements (PGEs) were investigated in roadside dusts collected in four different foundational areas in Beijing during February to May 2010. The results showed that PGE levels in all samples were above the average upper crust values, with mean concentrations of 57.5 ng · g(-1) Pd, 28.2 ng · g(-1) Pt, and 9.8 ng · g(-1) Rh, respectively. Palladium concentration has increased rapidly in recent years. The rank of PGE levels in four different functional regions for roadside dusts was: heavy density traffic area > residential area > educational area > tourism area. Palladium, Pt, and Rh concentrations in dusts showed strong positive correlations, indicating a common traffic-related source of these metals. Meanwhile, PGEs in these samples were not correlated with other traffic-related metals except for Cr. The average PGE ratios of road dusts from Beijing were consistent with those in Germany and Western Australia, but lower than those in the United States and Mexico, indicating that various catalyst productions were used in different countries. In addition, grain-size partitioning of PGEs in dusts indicated that concentrations of PGEs differed from one particle size to another. The coarse fraction had higher PGE concentrations than the fine fraction in roadside dusts. These results showed that autocatalyst PGE contamination estimates in the environment would be significantly underestimated if only a fine-grain size fraction (<0.063 mm) is analyzed. PMID:22505271

  16. Graphene challengers: silicene, germanene and stanene, group IV elemental synthetic electronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Lay, Guy

    Silicene, germanene and stanene, graphene's group IV elemental cousins, have attracted considerable interest since the birth of silicene in 2012. These novel synthetic two-dimensional (2D) Si, Ge and Sn allotropes are artificially created in situ under ultra high vacuum, since, at variance with graphene, which descents from graphite, they have no parent crystal in nature. They are considered as promising candidates for ultimate scaling of nanoelectronic devices. Indeed, the recent fabrication of the first silicene field effect transistors with ambipolar characteristics operating at room temperature demonstrates their potential as emerging 2D electronic materials. In this invited talk, I will present the archetype 3x3 silicene phase formed on a silver (111) substrate, its sister phases and the growth of multilayer silicene, which hosts Dirac fermions and which is stable in ambient air, protected by its ultra-thin native oxide. The recent synthesis of single layer germanene and stanene, near room temperature 2D topological insulators will be also presented, while multilayer germanene will be further addressed. Challenging graphene, silicene, germanene and stanene, which are directly compatible with the current semiconductor industry, could lead to the development of a new class of low energy consumption nanoelectronic devices.

  17. Platinum group elements in raptor eggs, faeces, blood, liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Ek, Kristine H; Rauch, Sebastien; Morrison, Gregory M; Lindberg, Peter

    2004-12-01

    The increased use of platinum group elements (PGEs) in automobile catalysts and their emission into the environment has led to a concern over environmental and particularly biological accumulation. Specimens of samples from raptors are useful for the investigation of the impact of PGEs because these birds are found in both urban and rural environments and are invariably at the top of the food chain. Platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) concentrations were determined by quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) in eggs of the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) and the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), and in blood, liver and kidney of the peregrine falcon, while only Pt was determined in faeces of the peregrine falcon and the gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus). PGE concentrations were higher in blood compared to both faeces and eggs, while liver and kidney concentrations were not elevated indicating no bioaccumulation through metallothionein pathways. A significant spatial trend could only be established for Pt in faeces. The general lack of a spatial trend is probably due to the widespread distribution of automobiles and the long-range transport of nanoparticles containing PGEs, and because birds migrate and forage over large areas. No significant temporal trend could be established. Higher relative concentrations of Pd, followed by Rh and Pt, indicate a mobility gradient of Pd>Rh>Pt. PMID:15504501

  18. Improved and Expanded Near-IR Oscillator Strengths for Fe-group Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael P.; Nave, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The use of modern experimental techniques, including LIF lifetime and FTS branching fraction measurements, has significantly increased the scope and reliability of laboratory atomic transition probabilities in the UV and visible. However, the combination of these techniques is problematic in the IR, a region of increasing importance due to improved detector, spectrometer, and telescope technologies. The result is a significant gap between the capabilities to record new IR astronomical spectra and the data needed to sufficiently understand and analyze them. To aid in closing this gap, we are developing new laboratory techniques to measure improved and expanded sets of oscillator strengths in the near-IR (λ ≈ 1-5 μm), with a primary focus on the Fe-group elements. A description of the methods proposed and their applicability will be presented. Input from the astronomical community is essential in order to focus the research on those lines and atomic species representing the greatest near-IR atomic data needs.

  19. Elemente der beiden W-UMa-Sterne GSC 0424-0792 (Brh V62) und GSC 1721-1591 (Brh V127)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Klaus; Frank, Peter; Moschner, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    CCD observations and ASAS-3 data of GSC 0424-0792 (Brh V62) and GSC 1721-1591 (Brh V127) lead to the following elements and types of variability: GSC 0424-0792: HJD (MinI)= 2453142.489(5)+ E*1.182336(1), type: WUMa GSC 1721-1591: HJD (MinI)= 2455429.5086(4)+E*0.3188963(1), type: WUMa

  20. Calculating three loop ladder and V-topologies for massive operator matrix elements by computer algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablinger, J.; Behring, A.; Blümlein, J.; De Freitas, A.; von Manteuffel, A.; Schneider, C.

    2016-05-01

    Three loop ladder and V-topology diagrams contributing to the massive operator matrix element AQg are calculated. The corresponding objects can all be expressed in terms of nested sums and recurrences depending on the Mellin variable N and the dimensional parameter ε. Given these representations, the desired Laurent series expansions in ε can be obtained with the help of our computer algebra toolbox. Here we rely on generalized hypergeometric functions and Mellin-Barnes representations, on difference ring algorithms for symbolic summation, on an optimized version of the multivariate Almkvist-Zeilberger algorithm for symbolic integration, and on new methods to calculate Laurent series solutions of coupled systems of differential equations. The solutions can be computed for general coefficient matrices directly for any basis also performing the expansion in the dimensional parameter in case it is expressible in terms of indefinite nested product-sum expressions. This structural result is based on new results of our difference ring theory. In the cases discussed we deal with iterative sum- and integral-solutions over general alphabets. The final results are expressed in terms of special sums, forming quasi-shuffle algebras, such as nested harmonic sums, generalized harmonic sums, and nested binomially weighted (cyclotomic) sums. Analytic continuations to complex values of N are possible through the recursion relations obeyed by these quantities and their analytic asymptotic expansions. The latter lead to a host of new constants beyond the multiple zeta values, the infinite generalized harmonic and cyclotomic sums in the case of V-topologies.

  1. Finite element stress analysis of three filling techniques for class V light-cured composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M M; Katona, T R; Paydar, N H

    1996-07-01

    An important disadvantage of current dental resin composites is polymerization shrinkage. This shrinkage has clinical repercussions such as sensitivity, marginal discoloration, and secondary caries. The objective of this study was to compare three filling techniques in terms of the transient stresses induced at the resin composite/tooth interface during polymerization. The techniques were: bulk filling (B), three horizontal increments (HI), and three wedge increments (WI). A simple Class V cavity preparation was modeled in finite element analysis. Polymerization shrinkage was simulated by a thermal stress analogy, thereby causing 1% shrinkage due to an arbitrary coefficient of thermal expansion. Interface normal and shear stresses were calculated at nine steps during polymerization, proceeding from 0% to 100% volume of cured resin. The importance of the interface transient stresses was revealed by the finding that, in most cases, their peak values exceeded the final or residual stress. Also, the WI and B techniques consistently exhibited the highest and lowest maximum transient stresses, respectively. These results from the simple model of a Class V restoration suggest that bulk filling of light-cured resin composites should be used in restorations which are sufficiently shallow to be cured to their full depth. PMID:8876599

  2. Platinum-group elements: quantification in collected exhaust fumes and studies of catalyst surfaces.

    PubMed

    Palacios, M A; Gómez, M M; Moldovan, M; Morrison, G; Rauch, S; Mcleod, C; Ma, R; Laserna, J; Lucena, P; Caroli, S; Alimonti, A; Petrucci, F; Bocca, B; Schramel, P; Lustig, S; Zischka, M; Wass, U; Stenbom, B; Luna, M; Saenz, J C; Santamaría, J; Torrens, J M

    2000-07-20

    Automotive catalytic converters, in which Pt, Pd and Rh (platinum-group elements; PGEs) are the active components for eliminating several noxious components from exhaust fumes, have become the main source of environmental urban pollution by PGEs. This work reports on the catalyst morphology through changes in catalyst surface by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) and laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) from fresh to aged catalytic converters. The distribution of these elements in the fresh catalysts analysed (Pt-Pd-Rh gasoline catalyst) is not uniform and occurs mainly in a longitudinal direction. This heterogeneity seems to be greater for Pt and Pd. PGEs released by the catalysts, fresh and aged 30,000 km, were studied in parallel. Whole raw exhaust fumes from four catalysts of three different types were also examined. Two of these were gasoline catalysts (Pt-Pd Rh and Pd-Rh) and the other two were diesel catalysts (Pt). Samples were collected following the 91,441 EUDC driving cycle for light-duty vehicle testing. The results show that at 0 km the samples collected first have the highest content of particulate PGEs and although the general tendency is for the release to decrease with increasing number of samples taken, exceptions are frequent. At 30,000 km the released PGEs in gasoline and diesel catalysts decreased significantly. For fresh gasoline catalysts the mean of the total amount released was approximately 100, 250 and 50 ng km(-1) for Pt, Pd and Rh, respectively. In diesel catalysts the Pt release varied in the range 400-800 ng km-1. After ageing the catalysts up to 30,000 km, the gasoline catalysts released amounts of Pt between 6 and 8 ng km(-1), Pd between 12 and 16 ng km(-1) and Rh between 3 and 12 ng km(-1). In diesel catalysts the Pt release varied in the range 108-150 ng km(-1). The soluble portion of PGEs in the HNO3 collector solution represented less than 5% of the total amount for fresh catalysts. For 30,000 km the total amount of soluble PGEs released was similar or slightly higher than for 0 km. PMID:10943898

  3. High salinity volatile phases in magmatic Ni-Cu-platinum group element deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, J. J.; Mungall, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    The role of "deuteric" fluids (exsolved magmatic volatile phases) in the development of Ni-Cu-PGE (platinum group element) deposits in mafic-ultramafic igneous systems is poorly understood. Although considerable field evidence demonstrates unambiguously that fluids modified most large primary Ni-Cu-PGE concentrations, models which hypothesize that fluids alone were largely responsible for the economic concentration of the base and precious metals are not widely accepted. Determination of the trace element composition of magmatic volatile phases in such ore-forming systems can offer considerable insight into the origin of potentially mineralizing fluids in such igneous environments. Laser ablation ICP-MS microanalysis allows researchers to confirm the original metal budget of magmatic volatile phases and quantify the behavior of trace ore metals in the fluid phase in the absence of well-constrained theoretical or experimental predictions of ore metal solubility. In this study, we present new evidence from major deposits (Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; Stillwater Complex, Montana, U.S.A.) that compositionally distinct magmatic brines and halide melt phases were exsolved from crystallizing residual silicate melt and trapped within high-T fluid conduits now comprised of evolved rock compositions (albite-quartz graphic granite, orthoclase-quartz granophyre). Petrographic evidence demonstrates that brines and halide melts coexisted with immiscible carbonic phases at the time of entrapment (light aliphatic hydrocarbons, CO2). Brine and halide melt inclusions are rich in Na, Fe, Mn, K, Pb, Zn, Ba, Sr, Al and Cl, and homogenize by either halite dissolution at high T ( ˜450-700° C) or by melting of the salt phase (700-800° C). LA-ICPMS analyses of single inclusions demonstrate that high salinity volatile phases contained abundant base metals (Cu, Fe, Sn, Bi) and precious metals (Pt, Pd, Au, Ag) at the time of entrapment. Notably, precious metal concentrations in the inclusions are comparable to and often exceed the economic concentrations of the metals within the ores themselves. As a consequence of these results, current genetic models must be revised to consider the role played by hydrous saline melts and magmatic brines in deposit development, and the potential for interaction and competition between sulfide liquids (or PGE-bearing sulfide minerals) and hydrosaline volatiles for available PGE and Au in a crystallizing mafic igneous system must be critically evaluated.

  4. Platinum-group element distribution in the oxidized Main Sulfide Zone, Great Dyke, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locmelis, Marek; Melcher, Frak; Oberthr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In the Great Dyke mafic/ultramafic layered intrusion of Zimbabwe, economic concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) are restricted to sulfide disseminations in pyroxenites of the Main Sulfide Zone (MSZ). Oxidized ores near the surface constitute a resource of ca. 400 Mt. Mining of this ore type has so far been hampered due to insufficient recovery rates. During the oxidation/weathering of the pristine ores, most notably, S and Pd are depleted, whereas Cu and Au are enriched. The concentrations of most other elements (including the other PGE) remain quite constant. In the oxidized MSZ, PGE occur in different modes: (1) as relict primary PGM (mainly sperrylite, cooperite, and braggite), (2) in solid solution in relict sulfides (dominantly Pd in pentlandite, up to 6,500 ppm Pd and 450 ppm Pt), (3) as secondary PGM neoformations (i.e., Pt-Fe alloy and zvyagintsevite), (4) as PGE oxides/hydroxides that replace primary PGM as the result of oxidation, (5) hosted in weathering products, i.e., iron oxides/hydroxides (up to 3,600 ppm Pt and 3,100 ppm Pd), manganese oxides/hydroxides (up to 1.6 wt.% Pt and 1,150 ppm Pd), and in secondary phyllosilicates (up to a few hundred ppm Pt and Pd). In the oxidized MSZ, most of the Pt and Pd are hosted by relict primary and secondary PGM; subordinate amounts are found in iron and manganese oxides/hydroxides. The amount of PGE hosted in solid solution in sulfides is negligible. Considerable local variations in the distribution of PGE in the oxidized ores complicate a mineralogical balance. Experiments to evaluate the PGE recovery from oxidized MSZ ore show that using physical concentration techniques (i.e., electric pulse disaggregation, hydroseparation, and magnetic separation), the PGE are preferentially concentrated into smaller grain size fractions by a factor of 2. Highest PGE concentrations occur in the volumetrically insignificant magnetic fraction. This indicates that a physical preconcentration of PGE is not feasible and that chemical, bulk-leaching methods need to be developed in order to successfully recover PGE from oxidized MSZ ore.

  5. Issues of platinum group element concentration analysis: Do we have solutions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, T.; Becker, H.; Walker, R. J.

    2004-05-01

    When addressing digestion techniques, sample inhomogeneity, reagent blanks and spike sample equilibration are issues of major concern. The issue of complete digestions is often overseen or neglected. Reasons are a) the lack of reference materials certified for PGE concentrations to validate methods, b) too few collaborative trials concerning PGE analysis (proficiency tests), c) assumptions made on complete digestions, d) the lack of alternative digestions method to validate analytical methods and e) large measurement uncertainties that do not allow for detection of bias. Acid digestions in Carius tubes (CT) where originally introduced (ca 1860) to digest organic material for major element analyses. In the 1940 CT were described as effective digestion method of platinum group elements applying temperatures of up to 300° C. In the early 1990s CT heated to about 230° C for silicate rock digestions for the Re-Os isotopic analysis. With the increasing interest in determining PGE with isotope dilution ICP-MS, CT were later on used for sample digestions, partially replacing the classical fire assay technique with NiS. The temperature of 230° C was thought to be sufficient for complete digestion and was not raised due to safety concerns. Recent studies show that CT do not release all the PGE contained in peridotites. It can be demonstrated that higher temperatures (greater 300° C) need to be attained to achieve complete digestions. The use of a high pressure asher (HPA-S) device makes complete PGE digestions of less than 4 g of silicates or chromites at temperatures up to 320° C in a extremely safe environment possible. The recent reintroduction of the original constructions for CT digestions of the 1940s now allow digestions even at 345° C and more. The home made device, which was build after the plan from NIST, is probably as efficient as HPA-S digestions. One advantage of the classical NiS fire assay is the possibility to process large sample amounts which should reduce the sampling effect. Since the results obtained by repeated digestions at high temperature digestions with a HPA-S or with high temperature CT show smaller relative standard deviations and higher concentrations than NiS fire assay digestions. Hence sample inhomogeneity is not the most important source of measurement uncertainty.

  6. Therapeutic elements in a self-management approach: experiences from group participation among people suffering from chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Furnes, Bodil; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Dysvik, Elin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chronic pain is a complex, multifaceted subjective experience that involves the whole person. Self-management is the dynamic and continuous process of adapting one’s situation to the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses necessary to maintain a satisfactory quality of life. Approaches based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) are described as appropriate in assisting people suffering from chronic pain because they challenge maladaptive beliefs and behaviors in relation to pain. This study aimed to explore patients’ experiences of therapeutic elements from group participation in a chronic pain management program. Methods A qualitative research design with a phenomenological hermeneutic approach was used. Six months after participation in the 8-week course, 34 participants formulated and submitted written reports based on open-ended questions related to their group participation and self-help achievement. These reports were analyzed by elements of qualitative content analysis. Results The analysis resulted in two subthemes: “The significance of active involvement in gaining new insight” and “The significance of community and group support.” These were abstracted in the main theme: “Successful self-management is related to several significant contributions in the group.” Conclusion An active role with writing, self-revelation, and exchanges of thoughts and feelings in the group seemed to be the key tools for success. In addition, group support and access to other group members’ experiences were significant therapeutic elements. We suggest that successful self-management requires knowledge of essential therapeutic elements. In a CBT-based group approach, such elements may offer an important health care contribution. PMID:25170253

  7. [Migration and transformation of anthropogenic platinum group elements in environment: a review].

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Miao; Gao, Xue-Lu

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic platinum group elements (PGEs) are widely applied in vehicle exhaust catalytic converters (VECs), industrial catalysts, and pharmaceutics, making the PGEs, especially Pt, Pd, and Rh, become the newly environmental pollutants in some fields. Given the positive correlations between the Pt/Pd and Pt/Rh ratios in various environmental samples and the active components of VECs, the VECs containing PGEs as catalysts are regarded as the primary source of PGEs pollution. Sufficient reports indicated that in the past three decades, there was a significant increase of PGEs concentrations in diverse environmental matrices like airborne particulate matters, aquatic ecosystem components (e.g., river water, rain water, groundwater, seawater, and sediments), soils, road dusts, and organisms. It was generally assumed that anthropogenic PGEs behave in inert manner, and the health risks associated with the environmental exposures to PGEs are minimal. However, the recent studies on PGEs toxicity and environmental bioavailability indicated that once entering environment, anthropogenic PGEs might easily be mobilized and transformed into more toxic forms under the actions of various biogeochemical processes, and thereby, enhanced their bioavailability and posed potential health risks to human beings through food chain. This paper summarized the research results about the sources, distribution, and biogeochemical behaviors of PGEs in various environmental media, and it was considered that to establish the standards of PGEs for human health risks, to develop standard substances of PGEs for environmental measurements, to study the PGEs in the sediments of marginal seas, and to assess the toxicity of PGEs to marine mollusks, the present contamination status of PGEs in foods, and the risks of PGEs to human health would be the hot research topics in the future. PMID:23479898

  8. Platinum group elements in the feathers of raptors and their prey.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K H; Rauch, S; Morrison, G M; Lindberg, P

    2002-04-01

    Platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh) concentrations were determined in the feathers of three raptor species in Sweden, the sparrowhawk ( Accipiter nisus), the peregrine falcon ( Falco peregrinus), and the gyrfalcon ( Falco rusticolus), as well as the main prey of the sparrowhawk (the house sparrow, Passer domesticus) and the gyrfalcon (the willow grouse, Lagopus lagopus). The analysis of feathers from 1917-1999 revealed a clear temporal trend, with significantly higher Rh concentrations in sparrowhawk and peregrine falcon after 1986. There is evidence for increasing platinum group element (PGE) concentrations from 1917 to 1999 in peregrine falcon and sparrowhawk. This suggests that feathers reflect increased PGE concentrations in the environment over this time period. Mean concentrations of PGE in feathers of raptors after 1986 ranged from 0.3 to 1.8 ng x g(-1) for Pt, 0.6 to 2.1 ng x g(-1) for Pd (indicative values), and 0.1 to 0.6 ng x g(-1) for Rh. House sparrows in urban areas had significantly higher Pt and Pd concentrations than urban sparrowhawks. The higher Pd concentrations in relation to Pt and Rh may indicate the greater mobility of Pd in the environment. Although PGE concentrations are generally higher in birds living in urban areas, no significant spatial trend could be established. This is partly due to the widespread distribution of automobiles and partly because birds forage and integrate PGE exposure over large areas. Laser ablation analysis demonstrates that PGE contamination of feathers is predominantly external, consisting of small particles in the nanometer size range. Other indications of external contamination are that Pt and Pd levels are significantly higher in the vane than in the shaft and that PGE relative ratios (except Pd) reflect urban particles. PMID:11910463

  9. [Pollution characteristics of platinum group elements in road rust in Xiamen].

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhen-yu; Hong, You-wei; Yin, Li-qian; Chen, Jin-sheng; Chen, Yan-ting; Xu, Ling-ling

    2015-01-01

    With the potential risks for the environment and human health, the concentration and distribution characteristics of platinum group element(PGEs) in road dust in Xiamen city were investigated. Road dust samples were collected from the traffic trunk road, tunnel, tourism area, and industrial area of Xiamen on October 2012. The samples were digested with aqua regia in a microwave assisted digestion system under high pressure condition, separated and purified with cation exchange resin( Dowex AG50W-X8), and the resulting solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that the average concentrations(range) of Pd, Pt and Rh in road dust were 246.82 (58.68-765.52) ng x g(-1), 95.45 (42.14-371.36) ng x g(-1) and 51.76 (21.04-119.72) ng x g(-1), respectively, which were two orders of magnitude higher than the background values. Compared with other cities worldwide, the concentrations of Pd, Pt and Rh in road dust in Xiamen were at higher levels. Theconcentrations of PGEs for different functional areas were listed in the following order: tunnel > urban district > industrial area > tourism area, which indicated that their spatial distributions were mainly affected by the traffic intensity. Correlation analysis results showed that concentration of Pd in the urban traffic artery was significantly correlated with Rh, while Pt was not so correlated with Pd and Rh, suggesting that other sources contributed to PGEs in road dust in addition to the vehicle emission. Although motor vehicle traveling was banned in tourist area, the concentration of PGEs was still at a high level. Some of them might originate from the road dust in surrounding area by atmosphere diffusion. PMID:25898678

  10. Complex anthropogenic sources of platinum group elements in aerosols on Cape Cod, USA.

    PubMed

    Sen, Indra S; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Geboy, Nicholas

    2013-09-17

    Platinum group elements (PGE) of anthropogenic origin have been reported in rainwater, snow, roadside soil and vegetation, industrial waste, and urban airborne particles around the world. As recent studies have shown that PGE are bioavailable in the environment and pose health risks at chronic levels, the extent of PGE pollution is of global concern. In this study, we report PGE concentrations and osmium isotope ((187)Os/(188)Os) ratios of airborne particles (particulate matter, PM10) collected in Woods Hole, a small coastal village on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S.A. The sampling site is more than 100 km away from the nearest urban centers (Boston, Providence) and has no large industrial emission center within a 30 km radius. The study reveals that, although PGE concentrations in rural airborne particulate matter are orders of magnitude lower than in urban aerosols, 69% of the total osmium is of anthropogenic origin. Anthropogenic PGE signatures in airborne particles are thus not restricted to large cities with high traffic flows and substantial industries; they can also be found in rural environments. We further conclude that the combination of Pt/Rh concentration ratios and (187)Os/(188)Os composition can be used to trace PGE sources. The Pt/Rh and (187)Os/(188)Os composition of Woods Hole aerosols indicate that the anthropogenic PGE fraction is primarily sourced from ore smelting processes, with possible minor contributions from fossil fuel burning and automobile catalyst-derived materials. Our results further substantiate the use of (187)Os/(188)Os in source apportionment studies on continental scales. PMID:23915354

  11. 78 FR 12873 - United States v. Apple, Inc., Hachette Book Group, Inc., Harpercollins Publishers L.L.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... February 25, 2013 Part III Department of Justice Antitrust Division United States v. Apple, Inc., Hachette... JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Apple, Inc., Hachette Book Group, Inc., Harpercollins... of New York in United States of America v. Apple, Inc. et al., Civil Action No. 12-CV- 2826. On...

  12. Characterization of Group V Dubnium Homologs on DGA Extraction Chromatography Resin from Nitric and Hydrofluoric Acid Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Despotopulos, J D; Sudowe, R

    2012-02-21

    Studies of the chemical properties of superheavy elements (SHE) pose interesting challenges due to their short half-lives and low production rates. Chemical systems must have extremely fast kinetics, fast enough kinetics to be able to examine the chemical properties of interest before the SHE decays to another nuclide. To achieve chemistry on such time scales, the chemical system must also be easily automated. Most importantly however, a chemical system must be developed which provides suitable separation and kinetics before an on-line study of a SHE can be performed. Relativistic effects make studying the chemical properties of SHEs interesting due to the impact these effects could have on the SHEs chemical properties. Relativistic effects arise when the velocity of the s orbital electrons approach the speed of light. As this velocity increases, the Bohr radius of the inner electron orbitals decreases and there is an increase in the particles mass. This contraction results in a destabilization of the energy of the outer d and f electron orbitals (5f and 6d in the case of SHE), which can cause these to expand due to their increased shielding from the nuclear charge. Another relativistic effect is the spin-orbit splitting for p, d, and f orbitals into j = 1 {+-} 1/2 states. This can lead most interestingly to a possible increased stability of element 114, which due to large spin-orbit splitting of the 7p orbital and the relativistically stabilized 7p{sub 1/2} and 7s orbital gives rise to a closed shell ground state of 7s{sup 2}7p{sub 1/2}{sup 2}. The homologs of element 105, dubnium (Db), Ta and Nb and the pseudo-homolog Pa, are well known to hydrolyze and form both neutral and non-neutral monoatomic and polyatomic species that may cause issues with extraction from a given chemical system. Early ion-exchange and solvent-extraction studies show mixed results for the behavior of Db. Some studies show Db behaving most similar to Ta, while others show it behaving somewhere between Nb and Pa. Much more recent studies have examined the properties of Db from HNO{sub 3}/HF matrices, and suggest Db forms complexes similar to those of Pa. Very little experimental work into the behavior of element 114 has been performed. Thermochromatography experiments of three atoms of element 114 indicate that the element 114 is at least as volatile as Hg, At, and element 112. Lead was shown to deposit on gold at temperatures about 1000 C higher than the atoms of element 114. Results indicate a substantially increased stability of element 114. No liquid phase studies of element 114 or its homologs (Pb, Sn, Ge) or pseudo-homologs (Hg, Cd) have been performed. Theoretical predictions indicate that element 114 is should have a much more stable +2 oxidation state and neutral state than Pb, which would result in element 114 being less reactive and less metallic than Pb. The relativistic effects on the 7p{sub 1/2} electrons are predicted to cause a diagonal relationship to be introduced into the periodic table. Therefore, 114{sup 2+} is expected to behave as if it were somewhere between Hg{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+}. In this work two commercially available extraction chromatography resins are evaluated, one for the separation of Db homologs and pseudo?homologs from each other as well as from potential interfering elements such as Group IV Rf homologs and actinides, and the other for separation of element 114 homologs. One resin, Eichrom's DGA resin, contains a N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide extractant, which separates analytes based on both size and charge characteristics of the solvated metal species, coated on an inert support. The DGA resin was examined for Db chemical systems, and shows a high degree of selectivity for tri-, tetra-, and hexavalent metal ions in multiple acid matrices with fast kinetics. The other resin, Eichrom's Pb resin, contains a di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 extractant with isodecanol solvent, which separates analytes based on steric interactions between the cavity of the crown ether and electrostatic interactions between the oxygen's of the ether and cations in the mobile phase. This particular resin has been shown to have an extremely high uptake affinity for Pb, a direct homolog of element 114, and is thus a good initial extractant to examine for a potential element 114 chemical system. Figure 1.1 shows the respective extractant molecules from the DGA and Pb resins. Batch uptake experiments were conducted to examine the uptake behavior of Ta on the DGA resin. Batch uptake experiments were also conducted to examine the uptake behavior of Ge on the Pb resin. Column experiments were designed based on batch uptake experiments of Ta, Am, Pa, Np, Zr, and Nb to establish a sequential extraction of Group IV/V homologs as well as Am for potential use as a Db chemical system.

  13. Current Light Elements of the δ Scuti Star V393 Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsen, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    V393 Carinae is a 7th magnitude delta Scuti star which has a principal period of 0.1413 d and an amplitude of 0.2 magnitude in V. Previous publications have suggested the existence of a second period, but its duration has so far evaded discovery. In view of the uncertainty, and since the only two papers on this star were published in 1984 and 2001, DSLR photometry was performed to obtain time series data. Images were taken during 6 nights from December 2013 to March 2014. The data were analyzed using a discrete Fourier transform, which yielded a principal frequency of 7.07727 (± 0.00005) cycles/day, corresponding to a period of 0.141297 (± 0.000001) day. Prewhitening for this frequency revealed a harmonic frequency precisely twice that of the principal, but no further dominant frequencies could be found. O-C diagrams suggested that it would appropriate to derive a new linear ephemeris from three times of maximum obtained by another author from 1977 to 1979, combined with the 6 new times of maximum reported in this paper. The light elements are: Tmax = HJD 2456732.0484 (6) + 0.14129328 (1). It is concluded that the current principal period of this star is almost identical to the period determined approximately 37 years ago. The issue of a second period is unresolved. None was detected, but it cannot be excluded that a second pulsation frequency of low amplitude could be hidden due to a low signal to noise ratio.

  14. The eclipsing binary star V380 Gem: First V and Rc light curve analysis and estimation of its absolute elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barani, C.; Martignoni, M.; Acerbi, F.

    2013-10-01

    We obtained complete V and Rc light curves of the eclipsing binary V380 Gem in 2012. With our data we were able to determine six new times of minimum light and refine the orbital period of the system to 0.3366088 days. The 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney code was used to analyze the light curves in the V and Rc bands simultaneously. It is shown that V380 Gem may be classified as an W-type W Ursae Majoris system with a high mass ratio q = 1.45, a degree of contact f = 10.6% the same temperature for both the components (?T = 10 K) and an orbital inclination of i = 81.5. Our observations show symmetric light curves in all passbands with brightness in both maxima at the same level. The absolute dimensions of V380 Gem are estimated and its dynamical evolution is inferred.

  15. Main group redox catalysis: reversible P(III)/P(V) redox cycling at a phosphorus platform.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Nicole L; Ha, Minji; Radosevich, Alexander T

    2012-07-18

    A planar, trivalent phosphorus compound is shown to undergo reversible two-electron redox cycling (P(III)/P(V)) enabling its use as catalyst for a transfer hydrogenation reaction. The trivalent phosphorus compound activates ammonia-borane to furnish a 10-P-5 dihydridophosphorane, which in turn is shown to transfer hydrogen cleanly to azobenzene, yielding diphenylhydrazine and regenerating the initial trivalent phosphorus species. This result constitutes a rare example of two-electron redox catalysis at a main group compound and suggests broader potential for this nonmetal platform to support bond-modifying redox catalysis of the type dominated by transition metal catalysts. PMID:22746974

  16. Platinum-group elemental distribution of the Panzhihua layered gabbroic intrusion and associated Fe-Ti oxide ores, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, K.; Zhou, M.; Qi, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Panzhihua intrusion is a 19-km-long layered gabbroic sill hosting a giant magmatic Fe-Ti oxide deposit in the Sichuan Province (SW China). It is synchronous with the formation of the end-Guadalupian (~260 Ma) Emeishan large igneous province. The intrusion consists of a basal microgabbroic Marginal zone (MGZ), overlain in succession by the Lower zone (LZ), Middle zone (sub-zones MZa and MZb) and Upper zone (UZ) composed of gabbroic, oxide gabbroic and/or Fe-Ti oxide cumulates. The ores are confined to the lower part of the intrusion and are particularly well-developed in the MGZ and LZ. This study documents the platinum-group element (PGE) geochemistry of the Panzhihua intrusion in order to examine its mineralization potential with respect to PGE and to understand the role of magnetite in PGE fractionation. We measure the concentrations of PGE (except Os) in 55 samples spanning over a ~1500 m stratigraphic section of the intrusion, following the analytical procedures designed to determine low PGE contents in geological samples Qi et al. (2004, J Anal Atom Spectrom 19, 1335; 2007, Geochem J 41, 407). The weighted average of PGE concentrations over a ~1500 m stratigraphic section of the intrusion is 1.49 ppb Pd, 2.45 ppb Pt, 0.08 ppb Rh, 0.13 ppb Ru and 0.34 ppb Ir. Most rocks of the intrusion are strongly depleted in Pd sub-group PGE (PPGE) compared to coeval high-Ti Emeishan basalts, and have high Cu/Pd ratios (~11800 to 331000; weighted average ~62500). The Fe-Ti oxide ores and some gabbros have elevated S contents and Cu/Zr ratios reflecting the occurrence of cumulus sulfides. These features indicate that the Panzhihua intrusion evolved through S-saturated differentiation and PGE might have been scavenged by early-formed immiscible sulfide liquids from the parental magma. Sulfur saturation was most likely due to early crystallization of Fe-Ti oxides suggested in earlier studies. Future exploration should focus on dykes or staging chambers feeding the intrusion where PGE-rich sulfides were presumably deposited. The MZb rocks, supposed to have formed from a magma that fractionated abundant magnetite to form ores in the underlying zones, do not exhibit strong fractionation between Ir sub-group PGE (IPGE) and PPGE as expected if magnetite preferentially concentrates IPGE. This, together with the lack of correlation between V and IPGE contents in the rocks, imply that magnetite plays a limited role in PGE fractionation.

  17. Group-V impurities in SnO2 from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varley, J. B.; Janotti, A.; van de Walle, C. G.

    2010-06-01

    By means of first-principles calculations we investigate the effects of N, P, As, and Sb impurities on the electrical properties of SnO2 . We find that N prefers to occupy the O site and unexpectedly acts as a very deep acceptor with a level closer to the conduction band than to the valence band. P, As, and Sb prefer the Sn site, where they act as shallow donors. The group-V impurities are therefore not suitable for achieving p -type conductivity in SnO2 , but P, As, and Sb may serve as n -type dopants. We also investigate the interaction between N and H impurities, finding that the binding energy of the N-H complex is much larger than the binding energies found for complexes involving H and group-IIIA impurities in SnO2 .

  18. Finite Element Simulation of Machining of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzuti, S.; Umbrello, D.

    2011-05-04

    Titanium and its alloys are an important class of materials, especially for aerospace applications, due to their excellent combination of strength and fracture toughness as well as low density. However, these materials are generally regarded as difficult to machine because of their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. Moreover, the low thermal conductivity of Titanium inhibits dissipation of heat within the workpiece causing an higher temperature at the cutting edge and generating for higher cutting speed a rapid chipping at the cutting edge which leads to catastrophic failure. In addition, chip morphology significantly influences the thermo-mechanical behaviour at the workpiece/tool interface, which also affects the tool life.In this paper a finite element analysis of machining of TiAl6V4 is presented. In particular, cutting force, chip morphology and segmentation are taken into account due to their predominant roles to determine machinability and tool wear during the machining of these alloys. Results in terms of residual stresses are also presented. Moreover, the numerical results are compared with experimental ones.

  19. Finite Element Simulation of Machining of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzuti, S.; Umbrello, D.

    2011-05-01

    Titanium and its alloys are an important class of materials, especially for aerospace applications, due to their excellent combination of strength and fracture toughness as well as low density. However, these materials are generally regarded as difficult to machine because of their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. Moreover, the low thermal conductivity of Titanium inhibits dissipation of heat within the workpiece causing an higher temperature at the cutting edge and generating for higher cutting speed a rapid chipping at the cutting edge which leads to catastrophic failure. In addition, chip morphology significantly influences the thermo-mechanical behaviour at the workpiece/tool interface, which also affects the tool life. In this paper a finite element analysis of machining of TiAl6V4 is presented. In particular, cutting force, chip morphology and segmentation are taken into account due to their predominant roles to determine machinability and tool wear during the machining of these alloys. Results in terms of residual stresses are also presented. Moreover, the numerical results are compared with experimental ones.

  20. Extremely bulky amido-group 14 element chloride complexes: potential synthons for low oxidation state main group chemistry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaye; Stasch, Andreas; Schenk, Christian; Jones, Cameron

    2011-10-28

    The preparation of a series of extremely bulky secondary amines, Ar*N(H)SiR(3) (Ar* = C(6)H(2){C(H)Ph(2)}(2)Me-2,6,4; R(3) = Me(3), MePh(2) or Ph(3)) is described. Their deprotonation with either LiBu(n), NaH or KH yields alkali metal amide complexes, several monomeric examples of which, [Li(L){N(SiMe(3))(Ar*)}] (L = OEt(2) or THF), [Na(THF)(3){N(SiMe(3))(Ar*)}] and [K(OEt(2)){N(SiPh(3))(Ar*)], have been crystallographically characterised. Reactions of the lithium amides with germanium, tin or lead dichloride have yielded the first structurally characterised two-coordinate, monomeric amido germanium(II) and tin(II) chloride complexes, [{(SiR(3))(Ar*)N}ECl] (E = Ge or Sn; R = Me or Ph), and a chloride bridged amido-lead(II) dimer, [{[(SiMe(3))(Ar*)N]Pb(μ-Cl)}(2)]. DFT calculations on [{(SiMe(3))(Ar*)N}GeCl] show its HOMO to exhibit Ge lone pair character and its LUMO to encompass its Ge based p-orbital. A series of bulky amido silicon(IV) chloride complexes have also been prepared and several examples, [{(SiR(3))(Ar*)N}SiCl(3)] (R(3) = Me(3), MePh(2)) and [{(SiMe(3))(Ar*)N}SiHCl(2)], were crystallographically characterised. The sterically hindered group 14 complexes reported in this study hold significant potential as precursors for kinetically stabilised low oxidation state and/or low coordination number group 14 complexes. PMID:21725555

  1. Control of the growth orientation and electrical properties of polycrystalline Cu2O thin films by group-IV elements doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, Shogo; Akimoto, Katsuhiro

    2004-11-01

    The effects of group-IV element dopants on the structural and electrical properties of Cu2O thin films were studied. Similar dopant-induced behavior was found in the observed variations of the growth orientation and electrical properties of Si- and Ge-doped Cu2O thin films. Ge doping was found to induce electrically active acceptors with an activation energy of 0.18 eV, comparable to the 0.19 eV value of Si-doped Cu2O. These results suggest that locally formed silicate and germanate have the same effect on the structural and electrical properties of Cu2O. On the other hand, Sn and Pb likely act as donors when incorporated substitutionally onto Cu-lattice sites, although further study may be required to suppress self-compensation effects in Cu2O to achieve n-type conductivity.

  2. Passion, containment, and commitment-essential elements of groups across the lifespan in Bruce Springsteen's work.

    PubMed

    Mangione, Lorraine

    2012-10-01

    The group, with its intensity, interaction, roles and dynamics, is an important unit of experience in everyday life, in psychotherapy groups, and in Bruce Springsteen's music. This paper explores experiences of and ideas about real life groups throughout the lifecycle through Springsteen's music, framed in concepts from a broad group literature including clinical psychology, social psychology, group psychotherapy, sociology, anthropology, and organizational psychology. The lifecycle includes adolescence and the role of the group to contain all its passions; the work world with its excitements and disillusionments; encounters with loss, and the holding power of the group; experiences of dissolution of the group, and possibilities for recommitment; and the passion and support of the group during celebrations. Themes of passion, containment, and commitment weave throughout the narrative. PMID:22974151

  3. ROLE OF SURFACE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN THE CAPTURE OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY AND MERCURIC CHLORIDE BY ACTIVATED CARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses using a laboratory-scale, fixed bed apparatus to study the role of surface functional groups (SFGs) in the capture of mercuric chloride (HgC12) and elemental mercury (Hgo) in nitrogen (N2) prior to flue gas atmosphere studies. The study focused on two activat...

  4. Differential chemical probing of a group II self-splicing intron identifies bases involved in tertiary interactions and supports an alternative secondary structure model of domain V.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, M; Christian, E L; Michel, F

    1998-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfate modification was used to probe for tertiary structural elements in the group II intron PI.LSU/2 from the mitochondrial pre-ribosomal RNA of the brown alga Pylaiella littoralis. Modification of the lariat form of the intron under conditions that allow both native folding and conformational homogeneity is found to be generally consistent with secondary and tertiary structural features identified previously for group II ribozymes. A comparison of chemical probing at temperatures just below and above the first melting transition illustrates the cooperative unfolding of tertiary structure and identifies novel candidates for tertiary interactions in addition to defining elements of secondary structure. Substitution of the GAAA terminal loop of domain V is shown to be compatible with retention of conformational homogeneity (despite the loss of an important tertiary interaction), but produces a concise methylation footprint in domain I at the site previously shown to harbor the receptor for that loop. The analysis also identified two nucleotide positions in domain V with novel secondary and potential tertiary structural roles. The proposed refinement of domain V secondary structure is supported by an expanded comparative analysis of group II sequences and bears increased resemblance to U2:U6 snRNA pairing in the spliceosome. PMID:9740125

  5. Properties of Group-IV, III-V and II-VI Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Sadao

    2005-03-01

    Almost all the semiconductors of practical interest are the group-IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors and the range of technical applications of such semiconductors is extremely wide. The purpose of this book is twofold: * to discuss the key properties of the group-IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors * to systemize these properties from a solid-state physics aspect The majority of the text is devoted to the description of the lattice structural, thermal, elastic, lattice dynamic, electronic energy-band structural, optical and carrier transport properties of these semiconductors. Some corrective effects and related properties, such as piezoelectric, elastooptic and electrooptic properties, are also discussed. The book contains convenient tables summarizing the various material parameters and the definitions of important semiconductor properties. In addition, graphs are included in order to make the information more quantitative and intuitive. The book is intended not only for semiconductor device engineers, but also physicists and physical chemists, and particularly students specializing in the fields of semiconductor synthesis, crystal growth, semiconductor device physics and technology.

  6. Effects of a Low-Element Challenge Course on Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Group Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clem, Jamie M.; Smith, Thomas E.; Richards, Kristin V.

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse researchers identify self-efficacy and group cohesion as important components in alcohol and other drug-dependency treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this single-group, pretest-posttest study is to explore the therapeutic value of a challenge course intervention on the self-efficacy and group cohesion of nine chemically

  7. Effects of a Low-Element Challenge Course on Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Group Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clem, Jamie M.; Smith, Thomas E.; Richards, Kristin V.

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse researchers identify self-efficacy and group cohesion as important components in alcohol and other drug-dependency treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this single-group, pretest-posttest study is to explore the therapeutic value of a challenge course intervention on the self-efficacy and group cohesion of nine chemically…

  8. Measurement of the mass attenuation coefficient from 81 keV to 1333 keV for elemental materials Al, Cu and Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjorgieva, Slavica; Barandovski, Lambe

    2016-03-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) for 3 high purity elemental materials Al, Cu and Pb were measured in the γ-ray energy range from 81 keV up to 1333 keV using 22Na, 60Co 133Ba and 133Cs as sources of gamma radiation. Well shielded detector (NaI (Tl) semiconductor detector) was used to measure the intensity of the transmitted beam. The measurements were made under condition of good geometry, assuring that any photon absorbed or deflected appreciably does not reach the detector. The measured values are compared with the theoretical ones obtained by Seltzer (1993).

  9. Compton scattering cross-sections for individual subshells for a few elements of biological interest in the energy region 5 keV-10 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D. V.; Seltzer, S. M.; Bergstrom, P. M.

    2004-07-01

    Total Compton scattering cross-sections for the individual subshells of a few elements (H, C, N, O, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe) that are the predominant constituents of biological materials are evaluated for photon energies from 5 keV to 10 MeV. These cross sections were calculated within the nonrelativistic impulse approximation, utilizing tabulated values of the Compton profile. These data are expected to be of use in detailed simulations of photon transport in matter. Cross sections for the whole atom, obtained by summing over the subshell data, are shown to be in agreement with previous tabulations.

  10. Platinum group elements in a 3.5 Ga nickel-iron occurrence - Possible evidence of a deep mantle origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tredoux, Marian; Hart, Rodger J.; Lindsay, Nicholas M.; De Wit, Maarten J.; Armstrong, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of new field observations and the geochemical analyses for the area of the Bon Accord (BA) (the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa) Ni-Fe deposit, with particular consideration given to the trace element, platinum-group element, and isotopic (Pb, Nd, and Os) compositions. On the basis of these data, an interpretation of BA is suggested, according to which the BA deposit is a siderophile-rich heterogeneity remaining in the deep mantle after a process of incomplete core formation. The implications of such a model for the study of core-mantle segregation and the geochemistry of the lowermost mantle are discussed.

  11. Report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, M.E.; Abalakin, V.K.; Cross, C.A.; Duncombe, R.L.; Masursky, H.; Morando, B.; Owen, T.C.; Seidelmann, P.K.; Sinclair, A.T.; Wilkins, G.A.; Tjuflin, Y.S.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is the entire report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites, including three annexes. Tables give the recemmended values for the directions of the north poles of rotation and the prime meridians of the planets and satellites. Reference surfaces for mapping these bodies are described. The annexes discuss the guiding principles, given in the body of the report, present explanatory notes, and provide a bibliography of the rotational elements and reference surfaces of the planets and satellites, definitions, and algebraic expressions of relevant parameters. ?? 1980 D. Reidel Publishing Co.

  12. Abundances of elements of the palladium group in the atmospheres of evolved stars. I. Molybdenum

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, M.Ya.; Shavrina, A.V.

    1988-11-01

    The abundance of molybdenum in the atmospheres of the K giants /upsilon/ Ser, 9 Boo, and /rho/ Boo has been determined using spectra with reciprocal dispersion 6 /angstrom//mm and the method of model atmospheres. Data on the abundance of this element in the atmospheres of other evolved stars are also given.

  13. Elements of Sexism in a Selected Group of Picture Books Recommended for Kindergarten Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Ann

    A list of 100 books recommended for kindergarten use were reviewed and evaluated for elements of sexism and sex role stereotyping. Each book was carefully scanned and notations made on survey sheets. The story was checked to see if it was a boy or girl centered story, had an adult male or adult female character, male or female animal or inanimate…

  14. Synthesis and properties of layered synthetic microstructure (LSM) dispersion elements for 62 eV (200A) to 1. 24 keV (10A) radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The opportunities offered by engineered synthetic multilayer dispersion elements for x-rays have been recognized since the earliest days of x-ray diffraction analysis. In this paper, application of sputter deposition technology to the synthesis of Layered Synthetic Microstructure (LSMs) of sufficient quality for use as x-ray dispersion elements is discussed. It will be shown that high efficiency, controllable bandwidth dispersion elements, with d spacings varying from 15 A to 180 A, may be synthesized onto both mechanically stiff and flexible substrates. Multilayer component materials include tungsten, niobium, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, and silicon layers separated by carbon layers. Experimental observations of peak reflectivity in first order, integrated reflectivity in first order, and diffraction performance at selected photon energies in the range, 100 to 15,000 eV, will be reported and compared to theory.

  15. Strain induced topological phase transitions in monolayer honeycomb structures of group-V binary compounds

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yaozhuang; Rahman, Mavlanjan; Wang, Daowei; Wang, Can; Guo, Guanghua

    2015-01-01

    We present first-principles calculations of electronic structures of a class of two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb structures of group-V binary compounds. Our results show these new 2D materials are stable semiconductors with direct or indirect band gaps. The band gap can be tuned by applying lattice strain. During their stretchable regime, they all exhibit metal-indirect gap semiconductor-direct gap semiconductor-topological insulator (TI) transitions with increasing strain from negative (compressive) to positive (tensile) values. The topological phase transition results from the band inversion at the Γ point which is due to the evolution of bonding and anti-bonding states under lattice strain. PMID:26656257

  16. Method of loading organic materials with group III plus lanthanide and actinide elements

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Huei-Ho, Chuen (Oak Ridge, TN); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN); Hurlbut, Charles (Sweetwater, TX)

    2003-04-08

    Disclosed is a composition of matter comprising a tributyl phosphate complex of a group 3, lanthanide, actinide, or group 13 salt in an organic carrier and a method of making the complex. These materials are suitable for use in solid or liquid organic scintillators, as in x-ray absorption standards, x-ray fluorescence standards, and neutron detector calibration standards.

  17. Threat to Valued Elements of Life: The Experience of Dementia across Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vanessa; Samsi, Kritika; Banerjee, Sube; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There is a fundamental knowledge gap regarding the experience of dementia within minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The present study examined the subjective reality of living with dementia from the perspective of people with dementia within the 3 largest ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Design and Methods:…

  18. Comparison between steady-state and dynamic I-V measurements from a single-cell thermionic fuel element

    SciTech Connect

    Wernsman, Bernard

    1997-01-10

    A comparison between steady-state and dynamic I-V measurements from a single-cell thermionic fuel element (TFE) is made. The single-cell TFE used in this study is the prototype for the 40 kW{sub e} space nuclear power system that is similar to the 6 kW{sub e} TOPAZ-II. The steady-state I-V measurements influence the emitter temperature due to electron cooling. Therefore, to eliminate the steady-state I-V measurement influence on the TFE and provide a better understanding of the behavior of the thermionic energy converter and TFE characteristics, dynamic I-V measurements are made. The dynamic I-V measurements are made at various input power levels, cesium pressures, collector temperatures, and steady-state current levels. From these measurements, it is shown that the dynamic I-V's do not change the TFE characteristics at a given operating point. Also, the evaluation of the collector work function from the dynamic I-V measurements shows that the collector optimization is not due to a minimum in the collector work function but due to an emission optimization. Since the dynamic I-V measurements do not influence the TFE characteristics, it is believed that these measurements can be done at a system level to understand the influence of TFE placement in the reactor as a function of the core thermal distribution.

  19. Comparison between steady-state and dynamic I-V measurements from a single-cell thermionic fuel element

    SciTech Connect

    Wernsman, B.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison between steady-state and dynamic I-V measurements from a single-cell thermionic fuel element (TFE) is made. The single-cell TFE used in this study is the prototype for the 40kW{sub e} space nuclear power system that is similar to the 6kW{sub e} TOPAZ-II. The steady-state I-V measurements influence the emitter temperature due to electron cooling. Therefore, to eliminate the steady-state I-V measurement influence on the TFE and provide a better understanding of the behavior of the thermionic energy converter and TFE characteristics, dynamic I-V measurements are made. The dynamic I-V measurements are made at various input power levels, cesium pressures, collector temperatures, and steady-state current levels. From these measurements, it is shown that the dynamic I-V{close_quote}s do not change the TFE characteristics at a given operating point. Also, the evaluation of the collector work function from the dynamic I-V measurements shows that the collector optimization is not due to a minimum in the collector work function but due to an emission optimization. Since the dynamic I-V measurements do not influence the TFE characteristics, it is believed that these measurements can be done at a system level to understand the influence of TFE placement in the reactor as a function of the core thermal distribution. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Effects of the s-process on Fe-group elements in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippella, O.; Busso, M.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Palmerini, S.; Frondini, F.; Petrelli, M.; Zucchini, A.

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper we investigate the possible connection between s-process nucleosynthesis occurring during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of low-mass stars (LMS) and the isotopic anomalies of the “Fe-group” elements observed in several macroscopic samples of meteorites or in grains formed as circumstellar condensates (hereafter CIRCONs). The available measurements of chromium, iron, and nickel are well reproduced by stellar models, which account for the largest shifts in the heaviest isotopes of each element: in particular 54Cr, 58Fe, and 64Ni. Moreover, many circumstellar condensates reflect 50Ti excesses and some production of 46, 47, 49Ti, as predicted by slow-neutron captures in AGB stars. Nevertheless, some difficulties are found in comparing theoretical calculations of s-process nucleosynthesis with calcium, silicon, and zinc isotopic anomalies.

  1. Multigram group separation of actinide and lanthanide elements by LiCl-based anion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.D.; Benker, D.E.; Chattin, F.R.; Orr, P.B.; Ross, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The laboratory-scale LiCl AIX process has been successfully adapted to the multigram scale and has been used effectively in transuranium element production campaigns to separate the lanthanide fission products from the transplutonium actinides and to partition americium and curium from the heavier elements. Corrosion of the tantalum and glass equipment has been negligible. Although radiolytic gas generation has not caused a problem, radiation exposure of the Dowex 1-X10 anion exchange resin does occur significantly. However, the 1.3-L resin bed can be used successfully to process up to 3 batches, each containing 19 g of /sup 244/Cm (54 W of decay heat). The chromatographic elution process is controlled by use of an alpha detector in the column effluent line and by periodic measurement of the neutron profile of the column. The development and use of feed pretreatment and operating methods has enabled effective and dependable operation.

  2. Combined distillation and normal freezing to purify elements of groups II and VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    A practical system and its application to the purification of Te and Cd is described. Single crystals are grown directly in vitreous silica ampoules subsequently used for sealed Bridgman growth of (Hg-Cd)Te. The system also prepares the ampoules by heating in high vacuum. Purification of the elements is by the combined effect of distillation and normal freezing. Transport and segregation are discussed.

  3. Precision supply system of the group of magnetic elements of the Low-Energy Particle Toroidal Accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplin, V. I.; Karpinskii, V. N.; Rudakov, A. Yu.

    2013-01-01

    An individual power supply source is usually used for each group of identical magnetic elements in accelerators of charge particles. We discuss the power supply and control system on the basis of additional current shunts applied for the simultaneous supply of several groups of magnets in the positron storage ring of the Low-Energy Particle Toroidal Accumulator (LEPTA). Data on the use of the shunt of the linear and key converter are given. The option of the device of a power supply system with the transformation of the recuperated energy in the storage battery and supply from it of the precision power supply sources of the LEPTA correcting magnets is considered. A channel of the individual digital transformation of power supply system elements is given which allows one to build, together with a reverse precision converter, effective intellectual balanced power supply systems.

  4. Final Report: Main Group Element Chemistry in Service of Hydrogen Storage and Activation

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Dixon; Anthony J. Arduengo, III

    2010-09-30

    Replacing combustion of carbon-based fuels with alternative energy sources that have minimal environmental impact is one of the grand scientific and technological challenges of the early 21st century. Not only is it critical to capture energy from new, renewable sources, it is also necessary to store the captured energy efficiently and effectively for use at the point of service when and where it is needed, which may not be collocated with the collection site. There are many potential storage media but we focus on the storage of energy in chemical bonds. It is more efficient to store energy on a per weight basis in chemical bonds. This is because it is hard to pack electrons into small volumes with low weight without the use of chemical bonds. The focus of the project was the development of new chemistries to enable DOE to meet its technical objectives for hydrogen storage using chemical hydrogen storage systems. We provided computational chemistry support in terms of thermodynamics, kinetics, and properties prediction in support of the experimental efforts of the DOE Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage. The goal of the Center is to store energy in chemical bonds involving hydrogen atoms. Once the hydrogen is stored in a set of X-H/Y-H bonds, the hydrogen has to be easily released and the depleted fuel regenerated very efficiently. This differs substantially from our current use of fossil fuel energy sources where the reactant is converted to energy plus CO2 (coal) or CO2 and H2O (gasoline, natural gas), which are released into the atmosphere. In future energy storage scenarios, the spent fuel will be captured and the energy storage medium regenerated. This places substantial additional constraints on the chemistry. The goal of the computational chemistry work was to reduce the time to design new materials and develop materials that meet the 2010 and 2015 DOE objectives in terms of weight percent, volume, release time, and regeneration ability. This goal was met in terms of reducing the number of costly experiments and helping to focus the experimental effort on the potentially optimal targets. We have used computational chemistry approaches to predict the thermodynamic properties of a wide range of compounds containing boron, nitrogen, hydrogen, and other elements as appropriate including carbon. These calculations were done in most cases with high level molecular orbital theory methods that have small error bars on the order of ± 1 to 2 kcal/mol. The results were used to benchmark more approximate methods such as density functional theory for larger systems and for database development. We predicted reliable thermodynamics for thousands of compounds for release and regeneration schemes to aid/guide materials design and process design and simulation. These are the first reliable computed values for these compounds and for many represent the only available values. Overall, the computational results have provided us with new insights into the chemistry of main group and organic-base chemical hydrogen systems from the release of hydrogen to the regeneration of spent fuel. A number of experimental accomplishments were also made in this project. The experimental work on hydrogen storage materials centered on activated polarized σ- or π-bonded frameworks that hold the potential for ready dihydrogen activation, uptake, and eventually release. To this end, a large number of non-traditional valence systems including carbenes, cyanocarbons, and C-B and and B-N systems were synthesized and examined. During the course of these studies an important lead arose from the novel valency of a class of stable organic singlet bi-radical systems. A synthetic strategy to an “endless” hydrogen storage polymer has been developed based on our cyanocarbon chemistry. A key issue with the synthetic efforts was being able to link the kinetics of release with the size of the substituents as it was difficult to develop a low molecular weight molecule with the right kinetics. A novel hydrogen activation process has been developed which showed that Lewis acid-base pairs need not be “frustrated” in their reactivity towards activating H2. Reaction can occur at temperatures as low as -80 ºC. We established that the interaction of H2 with the electrophile is a key step in the activation process.

  5. Azithromycin versus penicillin V in the treatment of paediatric patients with acute streptococcal pharyngitis/tonsillitis. Paediatric Azithromycin Study Group.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, B

    1996-09-01

    The efficacy and safety of azithromycin and penicillin V in the treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis/tonsillitis in paediatric patients were compared in a double-blind, double-dummy prospective study. A total of 489 children (age range, 2-13 years) were randomized to receive treatment with penicillin V (125-250 mg 4 x daily for 10 days) or azithromycin in an oral suspension (10 or 20 mg/kg 1 x daily for 3 days). Only patients with baseline cultures positive for Streptococcus pyogenes and complete clinical and microbiological assessments at the end of the therapy and follow-up one month later were included in the efficacy analysis. A satisfactory clinical response (cure or improvement) was recorded in 99% of the 10 mg/kg azithromycin group, 100% of the 20 mg/kg azithromycin group, and 97% of the penicillin V group at the end of therapy (day 12-14). At the follow-up evaluation (day 28-30), relapse rates in patients cured or improved at the end of therapy were 6%, 5%, and 2%, respectively. Bacteriological eradication rates at the end of therapy were 98% in both azithromycin groups and 92% in patients who received penicillin V (p = 0.011); pathogen recurrence was recorded at follow-up in 4% of the 20 mg/kg azithromycin group and in 6% of both the 10 mg/kg azithromycin and penicillin V groups. Treatment-related adverse events, the majority of mild to moderate severity, occurred in 13% of patients in the 20 mg/kg azithromycin group, 9% in the 10 mg/kg azithromycin group, and 5% in the penicillin V group. Azithromycin in a dosage of 10 or 20 mg/kg/day one daily for three days was as safe and effective as penicillin V administered four times daily in the treatment of paediatric patients with acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis. PMID:8922571

  6. Multiple bonds between transition metals and main-group elements. 73. Synthetic routes to rhenium(V) alkyl and rhenium(VII) alkylidyne complexes. X-ray crystal structures of (. eta. sup 5 -C sub 5 Me sub 5 )Re( double bond O)(CH sub 3 )(CH sub 2 C(CH sub 3 ) sub 3 ) and (. eta. sup 5 -C sub 5 Me sub 5 )(Br) sub 3 Re triple bond CC(CH sub 3 ) sub 3

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, W.A.; Felixberger, J.K.; Anwander, R.; Herdtweck, E.; Kiprof, P.; Riede, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Dialkyloxo({eta}{sup 5}pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)rhenium(V) complexes ({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})Re({double bond}O)(CH{sub 3})R{prime}(R{prime} = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, CH{sub 2}Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}, CH{sub 2}C(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}), 1c-e, have become accessible through alkylation of ({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})Re({double bond}O)(Cl)(CH{sub 3}) (7) with R{prime}MgCl. 1c-e are the first rhenium complexes containing different alkyl ligands. The neopentyl derivative 1e (R{prime} = CH{sub 2}C(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}) crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with a = 960.7 (2), b = 2.844.5 (4), c = 1,260.7 (2) pm, and Z = 8. The X-ray crystal structure was refined to R{sub W} = 3.9%. The chiral molecule shows a distorted tetrahedral geometry around the rhenium center. The tribromide 3b has been structurally characterized. Brown crystals of 3b belong to space group P2{sub 1}/c with unit cell dimensions a = 1,311.5 (2), b = 723.0 (1), c = 1,901.6 (2) pm, {beta} = 92.68 (1){degree}, and Z = 4. The structure exhibits a four-legged piano stool geometry with no trans influence of the neopentylidyne ligand to the bromine atom.

  7. Use of 4.7 MeV alpha particles in elemental analysis and fusion reactor materials studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Dima, S.; Florescu, V.; Ivanov, E. A.; Ploştinaru, D.; Sârbu, C.

    1986-07-01

    The possibilities for using 4.7 MeV alpha particles produced at the U-120 CIP Cyclotron for charged particle induced X- and gamma-ray emission applications (PIXE and PIGE, respectively) and for fast neutron radiation damage simulation are presented. The combined analysis using PIGE and PIXE methods either separately or simultaneously is an excellent means of determining the relative abundances of lighter elements with gamma-ray spectra and of heavier elements ( Z ⩾ 16) with X-ray spectra. Some aspects of surface deformation effects by neutrons were simulated by means of medium-energy helium ions. An investigation of three types of commercial stainless steel (Romanian W 4016, Soviet 12KH18N10T and Japanese W 4541) was started using 3.0 [1], 4.7 and 6.8 MeV helium ions. The main post-irradiation effects observed are discussed.

  8. 77 FR 77094 - United States v. Apple, Inc., Hachette Book Group, Inc., HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Apple, Inc., Hachette Book Group, Inc., HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C., Verlagsgruppe Georg Von Holtzbrinck Gmbh, Holtzbrinck Publishers, LLC D/B/A Macmillan, The Penguin Group, A Division of Pearson PLC, Penguin...

  9. Elemental composition effects on self-absorption for photons below 100 keV in gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziri, S.; Nachab, A.; Nourreddine, A.; Sellam, A.; Pape, A.

    2014-07-01

    The influence of elemental composition in the self-absorption phenomenon is observed. The effective atomic number (Zeff) is used to explain this influence for energies below 100 keV. Monte Carlo simulations based on MCNPX and GESPECOR are used to demonstrate the separate impact of Zeff and density ρ on the self-absorption for a given extended sample. Results obtained by simulation are in good agreement with those obtained by the transmission method.

  10. Which Social Elements Are Visible in Virtual Groups? Addressing the Categorization of Social Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Mateo, M.; Guitert, M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning is a social process. That is why it is extremely important to understand how students interact socially in online courses and how it affects the learning process. However, social aspects, understood as those expressions or comments that go beyond strictly academic interaction, i.e. the need to carry out group work, are not clearly

  11. Crystal Field Theory and the Angular Overlap Model Applied to Hydrides of Main Group Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is how crystal field theory and the angular overlap model can be applied to very simple molecules which can then be used to introduce such concepts as bonding orbitals, MO diagrams, and Walsh diagrams. The main-group compounds are used as examples and a switch to the transition metal complexes. (KR)

  12. Which Social Elements Are Visible in Virtual Groups? Addressing the Categorization of Social Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Mateo, M.; Guitert, M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning is a social process. That is why it is extremely important to understand how students interact socially in online courses and how it affects the learning process. However, social aspects, understood as those expressions or comments that go beyond strictly academic interaction, i.e. the need to carry out group work, are not clearly…

  13. Stabilization and highly metallic properties of heavy group-V hydrides at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Kazutaka; Ashcroft, N. W.

    2015-12-01

    Compressed hydrides of the heavy group-15 elements Bi and Sb are investigated using ab initio methods. While the hydrides of Bi and Sb are known to be quite unstable at one atmosphere, our calculations predict that they can be stabilized at high pressures. Thus, at the composition of XH 3 (X =Bi or Sb), possible Bi hydrides are BiH2(P n m a ) + H beyond 105 GPa and BiH3(I 41/a m d ) beyond 250 GPa; for Sb hydrides, SbH2 + H hardly appears, and SbH3(P n m a ) is stabilized beyond 150 GPa. All of these hydrides are metallic with very dispersive electronic structures, this being in accordance with the predictions of the Goldhammer-Herzfeld criterion. Superconducting transition temperatures have also been estimated from the extended McMillan equation, and they turn out to be 39 K for BiH2 at 125 GPa, 65 K for BiH3 at 270 GPa, and 68 K for SbH3 at 170 GPa.

  14. Functionalization of phosphorescent emitters and their host materials by main-group elements for phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Guijiang; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2015-12-01

    Phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) have attracted increased attention from both academic and industrial communities due to their potential practical application in high-resolution full-color displays and energy-saving solid-state lightings. The performance of phosphorescent OLEDs is mainly limited by the phosphorescent transition metal complexes (such as iridium(III), platinum(II), gold(III), ruthenium(II), copper(I) and osmium(II) complexes, etc.) which can play a crucial role in furnishing efficient energy transfer, balanced charge injection/transporting character and high quantum efficiency in the devices. It has been shown that functionalized main-group element (such as boron, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulfur and fluorine, etc.) moieties can be incorporated into phosphorescent emitters and their host materials to tune their triplet energies, frontier molecular orbital energies, charge injection/transporting behavior, photophysical properties and thermal stability and hence bring about highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs. So, in this review, the recent advances in the phosphorescent emitters and their host materials functionalized with various main-group moieties will be introduced from the point of view of their structure-property relationship. The main emphasis lies on the important role played by the main-group element groups in addressing the key issues of both phosphorescent emitters and their host materials to fulfill high-performance phosphorescent OLEDs. PMID:26245654

  15. The group separation of the rare-earth elements and yttrium from geologic materials by cation-exchange chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Lichte, F.E.; Wildeman, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Demand is increasing for the determination of the rare-earth elements (REE) and yttrium in geologic materials. Due to their low natural abundance in many materials and the interferences that occur in many methods of determination, a separation procedure utilizing gradient strong-acid cation-exchange chromatography is often used to preconcentrate and isolate these elements from the host-rock matrix. Two separate gradient strong-acid cation-exchange procedures were characterized and the major elements as well as those elements thought to provide the greatest interference for the determination of the REE in geologic materials were tested for separation from the REE. Simultaneous inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICAP-AES) measurements were used to construct the chromatograms for the elution studies, allowing the elution patterns of all the elements of interest to be determined in a single fraction of eluent. As a rock matrix, U.S. Geological Survey standard reference BCR-1 basalt was digested using both an acid decomposition procedure and a lithium metaborate fusion. Hydrochloric and nitric acids were tested as eluents and chromatograms were plotted using the ICAP-AES data; and we observed substantial differences in the elution patterns of the REE and as well as in the solution patterns of Ba, Ca, Fe and Sr. The nitric acid elution required substantially less eluent to elute the REE and Y as a group when compared to the hydrochloric acid elution, and provided a clearer separation of the REE from interfering and matrix elements. ?? 1984.

  16. Labile trace elements in basaltic achondrites: Can they distinguish between meteorites from the Moon, Mars, and V-type asteroids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Stephen F.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    2009-06-01

    We report data for 14 mainly labile trace elements (Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn) in eight whole-rock lunar meteorites (Asuka [A-] 881757, Dar al Gani [DaG] 262, Elephant Moraine [EET] 87521, Queen Alexandra Range [QUE] 93069, QUE 94269, QUE 94281, Yamato [Y-] 793169, and Y-981031), and Martian meteorite (DaG 476) and incorporate these into a comparative study of basaltic meteorites from the Moon, Mars, and V-type asteroids. Multivariate cluster analysis of data for these elements in 14 lunar, 13 Martian, and 34 howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites demonstrate that materials from these three parents are distinguishable using these markers of late, low-temperature episodes. This distinguishability is essentially as complete as that based on markers of high-temperature igneous processes. Concentrations of these elements in 14 lunar meteorites are essentially lognormally distributed and generally more homogeneous than in Martian and HED meteorites. Mean siderophile and labile element concentrations in the 14 lunar meteorites indicate the presence of a CI-equivalent micrometeorite admixture of 2.6% When only feldspathic samples are considered, our data show a slightly higher value of 3.4% consistent with an increasing micrometeorite content in regolith samples of higher maturity. Concentrations of labile elements in the 8 feldspathic samples hint at the presence of a fractionated highly labile element component, possibly volcanic in origin, at a level comparable to the micrometeorite component. Apparently, the process(es) that contributed to establishing lunar meteorite siderophile and labile trace element contents occurred in a system open to highly labile element transport.

  17. Anti-bactericidal properties of stingray Dasyatis pastinaca groups V, IIA, and IB phospholipases A2: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bacha, Abir Ben

    2014-10-01

    Group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (group IIA sPLA2) is known to display potent Gram-positive bactericidal activity in vitro and in vivo. We have analyzed the bactericidal activity of the full set of native stingray and dromedary groups V, IIA, and IB sPLA2s on several Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. The rank order potency among both marine and mammal sPLA2s against Gram-positive bacteria is group IIA > V > IB, whereas Gram-negative bacteria exhibited a much higher resistance. There is a synergic action of the sPLA2 with lysozyme when added to the bacteria culture prior to sPLA2.The bactericidal efficiency of groups V and IIA sPLA2s was shown to be dependent upon the presence of calcium ions and to a less extent Mg(2+) ions and then a correlation could be made to its hydrolytic activity of membrane phospholipids. Importantly, we showed that stingray and dromedary groups V, IIA, and IB sPLA2s present no cytotoxicity after their incubation with MDA-MB-231cells. stingray groups V and IIA sPLA2s, like mammal ones, may be considered as future therapeutic agents against bacterial infections. PMID:25119545

  18. Transfer of scarlet fever-associated elements into the group A Streptococcus M1T1 clone.

    PubMed

    Ben Zakour, Nouri L; Davies, Mark R; You, Yuanhai; Chen, Jonathan H K; Forde, Brian M; Stanton-Cook, Mitchell; Yang, Ruifu; Cui, Yujun; Barnett, Timothy C; Venturini, Carola; Ong, Cheryl-lynn Y; Tse, Herman; Dougan, Gordon; Zhang, Jianzhong; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Beatson, Scott A; Walker, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    The group A Streptococcus (GAS) M1T1 clone emerged in the 1980s as a leading cause of epidemic invasive infections worldwide, including necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. Horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements has played a central role in the evolution of the M1T1 clone, with bacteriophage-encoded determinants DNase Sda1 and superantigen SpeA2 contributing to enhanced virulence and colonization respectively. Outbreaks of scarlet fever in Hong Kong and China in 2011, caused primarily by emm12 GAS, led to our investigation of the next most common cause of scarlet fever, emm1 GAS. Genomic analysis of 18 emm1 isolates from Hong Kong and 16 emm1 isolates from mainland China revealed the presence of mobile genetic elements associated with the expansion of emm12 scarlet fever clones in the M1T1 genomic background. These mobile genetic elements confer expression of superantigens SSA and SpeC, and resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin. Horizontal transfer of mobile DNA conferring multi-drug resistance and expression of a new superantigen repertoire in the M1T1 clone should trigger heightened public health awareness for the global dissemination of these genetic elements. PMID:26522788

  19. Transfer of scarlet fever-associated elements into the group A Streptococcus M1T1 clone

    PubMed Central

    Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Davies, Mark R.; You, Yuanhai; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Forde, Brian M.; Stanton-Cook, Mitchell; Yang, Ruifu; Cui, Yujun; Barnett, Timothy C.; Venturini, Carola; Ong, Cheryl-lynn Y.; Tse, Herman; Dougan, Gordon; Zhang, Jianzhong; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Beatson, Scott A.; Walker, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    The group A Streptococcus (GAS) M1T1 clone emerged in the 1980s as a leading cause of epidemic invasive infections worldwide, including necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome123. Horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements has played a central role in the evolution of the M1T1 clone45, with bacteriophage-encoded determinants DNase Sda16 and superantigen SpeA27 contributing to enhanced virulence and colonization respectively. Outbreaks of scarlet fever in Hong Kong and China in 2011, caused primarily by emm12 GAS8910, led to our investigation of the next most common cause of scarlet fever, emm1 GAS89. Genomic analysis of 18 emm1 isolates from Hong Kong and 16 emm1 isolates from mainland China revealed the presence of mobile genetic elements associated with the expansion of emm12 scarlet fever clones1011 in the M1T1 genomic background. These mobile genetic elements confer expression of superantigens SSA and SpeC, and resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin. Horizontal transfer of mobile DNA conferring multi-drug resistance and expression of a new superantigen repertoire in the M1T1 clone should trigger heightened public health awareness for the global dissemination of these genetic elements. PMID:26522788

  20. Epitaxial-driven synthesis of group IV element and alloy via designer molecular chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yanyan

    This dissertation reports a systematic study of device-quality elemental structures based on a new approach of producing high quality Ge films on Si substrates by introducing small concentration of digermylmethane or germylmethane organometallic additives into conventional digermane. Optimized molecular mixtures of these compounds have enabled layer-by-layer growth via facile elimination of extremely stable methane and hydrogen byproducts, consistent-with-calculated chemisorption energies and surface reactivities. The results indicate the additives confer unique pseudosurfactant behavior that profoundly alters the classic Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism of epitaxial Ge on Si surfaces. Using this approach, atomically flat, carbon-free Ge layers directly on Si with low dislocations densities at unprecedented low temperatures compatible with selective area growth applications have been produced. The new Ge growth processes provide a unique route to extend the utility of elemental Ge into the wider IR optoelectronic domain by tuning its fundamental optical properties using tensile strain as a main parameter. In this study, digermylmethane and digermane have been utilized to produce high quality, thermally stable and tensile strained Ge layers at low temperatures on GeSn/Si or GeSiSn/GeSn/Si heterostructures. As high as 0.43 percent tensile strained Ge film has been demonstrated. Ge/Si(100) systems can serve as perfect templates. Tensile strained pure Si films have been grown on Ge buffered Si (100) via decomposition of trisilane by CVD with an intermediate fully strained thin GeSi layer at Si-Ge interface. These results are significant for Ge-based MOS applications that require a thin Si-layer to isolate the Ge channel from the high permittivity oxide. Furthermore, an entirely new family of GeSiSn/Ge/Si exhibiting tunable direct band gaps at a fixed lattice constant identical to Ge has been developed as a new class of versatile IR semiconductors. In addition, the dissertation presents encouraging results of low-temperature heteroepitaxial growth of GeSi on Si (100) via decomposition of designer Si-Ge hydrides and chlorinated analogs. Metastable compressive strain in these films is dramatically enhanced. Moreover, the materials can grow seamlessly, conformally and selectively in the "source/drain" regions of prototypical transistors.

  1. Common Data Elements for Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Recommendations from the Working Group on Demographics and Clinical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Adelson, P. David; Pineda, Jose; Bell, Michael J.; Abend, Nicholas S.; Berger, Rachel P.; Giza, Christopher C.; Hotz, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Common Data Elements (CDEs) initiative is a National Institutes of Health (NIH) interagency effort to standardize naming, definitions, and data structure for clinical research variables. Comparisons of the results of clinical studies of neurological disorders have been hampered by variability in data coding, definitions, and procedures for sample collection. The CDE project objective is to enable comparison of future clinical trials results in major neurological disorders, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. As part of this effort, recommendations for CDEs for research on TBI were developed through a 2009 multi-agency initiative. Following the initial recommendations of the Working Group on Demographics and Clinical Assessment, a separate workgroup developed recommendations on the coding of clinical and demographic variables specific to pediatric TBI studies for subjects younger than 18 years. This article summarizes the selection of measures by the Pediatric TBI Demographics and Clinical Assessment Working Group. The variables are grouped into modules which are grouped into categories. For consistency with other CDE working groups, each variable was classified by priority (core, supplemental, and emerging). Templates were produced to summarize coding formats, guide selection of data points, and provide procedural recommendations. This proposed standardization, together with the products of the other pediatric TBI working groups in imaging, biomarkers, and outcome assessment, will facilitate multi-center studies, comparison of results across studies, and high-quality meta-analyses of individual patient data. PMID:21939389

  2. CTCF-binding elements 1 and 2 in the Igh intergenic control region cooperatively regulate V(D)J recombination.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sherry G; Guo, Chunguang; Su, Arthur; Zhang, Yu; Alt, Frederick W

    2015-02-10

    Ig heavy chain (IgH) variable region exons are assembled from V, D, and J gene segments during early B-lymphocyte differentiation. A several megabase region at the "distal" end of the mouse IgH locus (Igh) contains hundreds of V(H)s, separated by an intergenic region from Igh Ds, J(H)s, and constant region exons. Diverse primary Igh repertoires are generated by joining Vs, Ds, and Js in different combinations, with a given B cell productively assembling only one combination. The intergenic control region 1 (IGCR1) in the V(H)-to-D intergenic region regulates Igh V(D)J recombination in the contexts of developmental order, lineage specificity, and feedback from productive rearrangements. IGCR1 also diversifies IgH repertoires by balancing proximal and distal V(H) use. IGCR1 functions in all these regulatory contexts by suppressing predominant rearrangement of D-proximal V(H)s. Such IGCR1 functions were neutralized by simultaneous mutation of two CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-binding elements (CBE1 and CBE2) within it. However, it was unknown whether only one CBE mediates IGCR1 functions or whether both function in this context. To address these questions, we generated mice in which either IGCR1 CBE1 or CBE2 was replaced with scrambled sequences that do not bind CTCF. We found that inactivation of CBE1 or CBE2 individually led to only partial impairment of various IGCR1 functions relative to the far greater effects of inactivating both binding elements simultaneously, demonstrating that they function cooperatively to achieve full IGCR1 regulatory activity. Based on these and other findings, we propose an orientation-specific looping model for synergistic CBE1 and CBE2 functions. PMID:25624508

  3. Elements of a new Global Water Strategy for the Group on Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, Richard; Koike, Toshio; Ochiai, Osamu; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    In order to address the need to review the scope and direction of GEO activities related to water and to provide guidance for the post-2015 GEO planning, the Integrated Global Water Cycle Observations (IGWCO) Community of Practice and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) are working together to develop a strategy for GEO water activities over the next decade. This presentation will review the elements of the strategy which include topics as comprehensive as user needs and engagement, water cycle observational systems, assessment of water quality, data issues, interoperability and integration of water information systems and capacity building. Impediments in the flow of information and technological capabilities from the providers of new technologies, innovations and data products to the end users will be explored in terms of the nature of these impediments and how they can be overcome. To be successful in GEO's framework of volunteerism, the water strategy should build on activities that are on-going in related programmes at the international and national levels. In addition, implementation of the strategy will need to be supported through new initiatives and policies that promote greater integration. Suggestions for achieving these goals will be outlined at the end of the talk.

  4. Trace element analysis of obsidian artifacts from a classic Maya residential group at Nohmul, Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, N.; Neivens, M.D.; Harbottle, G.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-nine obsidian artifacts from a classic period residential group at Nohmul, northern Belize, have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The majority of the samples originated from Ixtepeque, and the remainder from El Chayal. Increasing prominence of the Ixtepeque source from the late Classic into the Terminal Classic (i.e., before and after ca. A.D. 800) suggests greater use of a coastal distribution route known to have originated in the formative and to have remained in use through the colonial period.

  5. Efficiency of group implicit concurrent algorithms for transient finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, M.; Sotelino, E. D.; Nour-Omid, B.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of group implicit algorithms is assessed on actual concurrent computers. It is shown that, as the number of subdomains is increased, performance enhancements are derived from two sources: the increased parallelism in the computations; and a reduction in equation solving effort. Moreover, these two performance enhancements are synergistic, in the sense that the corresponding speed-ups are multiplied, rather than merely added. Simulations on a 32-node hypercube are presented for which the interprocessor communications efficiencies obtained are consistently in excess of 90 percent.

  6. Compendation of SSC lattice optics in the presence of dipole field errors: Report of the Correction Element Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Bintinger, D.; Chao, A.; Forest, E.

    1989-02-01

    The assignment of the Correction Element Working Group (CEWG) is to advance the designs of various candidate correction schemes to a point where they can be compared and distilled down to a single plan. Choosing among, the options often involves consideration of incommensurate factors such as cost, practicality, and theoretical performance. Except for minor issues, the CEWG purpose is to gather and array the facts in a form from which these decisions can be rationally made, but not to make the decisions. The present report analyses various schemes for compensating nonlinear multipole errors in the main arc dipoles of the Superconducting Super Collider. Emphasis is on comparing lumped and distributed compensation, on minimizing the total number of correction elements, and on reducing the sensitivity to closed-orbit errors.

  7. Multiple magma evolution and ore-forming processes of the Hongge layered intrusion, SW China: Insights from Sr-Nd isotopes, trace elements and platinum-group elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Mingyang; Tao, Yan; Song, Xieyan; Li, Yubang; Xiong, Feng

    2015-12-01

    The Hongge layered intrusion (259 Ma), which is located in the inner zone of the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP), is one of the most typical Fe-Ti-V ore deposits in the Pan-Xi area. Mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions of the ELIP have attracted a lot of attention lately because these intrusions host world class Fe-Ti-V oxide deposits plus interesting Cu-Ni-(PGE) mineralization which may have economic potential. This paper, reports new whole-rock major and trace element compositions, PGE abundances and Sr-Nd isotopic data for selected cumulate rocks and basalts. We use these data to investigate the nature of parental magmas and the controls on its evolution from the source mantle en route to the surface involving the Hongge ore-bearing intrusion. Two abrupt changes in Mt/Ilm and trace element ratios such as Ba/Th with depths in the Hongge layered intrusion indicate that this intrusion formed by at least two pluses of relatively primitive magma. The whole rock Sr-Nd isotopic data of basaltic and intrusive rocks plot in the region of Emeishan low-Ti basalts and the compositions of residual liquid (at ∼1260 °C and 1155 °C) calculated by MELTS are similar to our actual high-Ti (BFQ-2) and low-Ti (BC-1) basltic samples, indicate they are co-magmatic rather than derivation from a distinct source. Total PGE abundances in the Hongge samples are extremely low, ranging from 0.5 to 10 ppb. Sulfide-bearing rocks in the Hongge intrusion and the nearby coeval Banfangqing and Baicao basalts have similar mantle-like Pd/Pt ratios (2-6) and extremely high Cu/Pd ratios (3 × 104 to 4 × 105), indicating that sulfide segregation took place at depth prior to emplacement at Hongge and eruption in this region. Sulfide saturation in the Hongge magma may have resulted from such crustal contamination event. Crystallization of silicate minerals under the anhydrous magma, magma hydration plus Fe-Ti enrichments in the parental magma are three critical factors for the formation of Fe-Ti oxide ore layers in the Hongge intrusion.

  8. Mobilization of the platinum group elements by low-temperature fluids: Implications for mineralization and the iridium controversy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Kim; Keays, Reid R.; Wallace, Malcolm W.; Gostin, Victor A.

    1992-01-01

    Geochemical investigations on the widely dispersed Late Proterozoic Acraman impact ejecta horizon and its host marine shales in the Adelaide Geosyncline provide strong evidence for low-temperature mobilization of the platinum group elements (PGE), including Ir. The ejecta horizon was formed when the middle Proterozoic dacitic volcanics in the Gawler Ranges, central South Australia, were impacted by a very large (ca. 4 km) meteorite. The resulting structure, now represented by Lake Acraman, is Australia's largest meteorite impact structure. Debris from the impact was blasted for many hundreds of kilometers, some falling into the shallow sea of the Adelaide Geosyncline, some 300 km to the east of the impact site.

  9. Osmium-Isotope and Platinum-Group-Element Systematics of Impact-Melt Rocks, Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure, Virginia, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seung Ryeol; Wright Horton, J., Jr.; Walker, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Osmium (Os) isotopes and platinum-group elements (PGEs) are useful for geochemically identifying a meteoritic component within impact structures, because meteorites are typically characterized by low (187)Os/(188)Os ratios and high PGE concentrations. In contrast, most types of crustal target rocks have high radiogenic Os and very low PGE concentrations. We have examined Os isotope and PGE systematics of impact-melt rocks and pre-impact target rocks from a 2004 test hole in the late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure and from nearby coreholes. Our goal is to determine the proportion of the projectile component in the melt rock Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  10. Average bond energies between boron and elements of the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh groups of the periodic table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altshuller, Aubrey P

    1955-01-01

    The average bond energies D(gm)(B-Z) for boron-containing molecules have been calculated by the Pauling geometric-mean equation. These calculated bond energies are compared with the average bond energies D(exp)(B-Z) obtained from experimental data. The higher values of D(exp)(B-Z) in comparison with D(gm)(B-Z) when Z is an element in the fifth, sixth, or seventh periodic group may be attributed to resonance stabilization or double-bond character.

  11. Epigenetic control of group V phospholipase A2 expression in human malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Menschikowski, Mario; Hagelgans, Albert; Nacke, Brit; Jandeck, Carsten; Mareninova, Olga A; Asatryan, Liana; Siegert, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    Secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) are suggested to play an important role in inflammation and tumorigenesis. Different mechanisms of epigenetic regulation are involved in the control of group IIA, III and X sPLA2s expression in cancer cells, but group V sPLA2 (GV-PLA2) in this respect has not been studied. Here, we demonstrate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulation of GV-PLA2 expression in different cell lines originating from leukaemia and solid cancers. In blood leukocytes from leukaemic patients, levels of GV-PLA2 transcripts were significantly lower in comparison to those from healthy individuals. Similarly, in DU-145 and PC-3 prostate and CAL-51 and MCF-7 mammary cancer cell lines, levels of GV-PLA2 transcripts were significantly lower in relation to those found in normal epithelial cells of prostate or mammary. By sequencing and methylation-specific high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) analyses of bisulphite-modified DNA, distinct CpG sites in the GV-PLA2 promoter region were identified that were differentially methylated in cancer cells in comparison to normal epithelial and endothelial cells. Spearman rank order analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the methylation degree and the cellular expression of GV-PLA2 (r = -0.697; p = 0.01). The effects of demethylating agent (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) and histone deacetylase inhibitor (trichostatin A) on GV-PLA2 transcription in the analysed cells confirmed the importance of DNA methylation and histone modification in the regulation of the GV-PLA2 gene expression in leukaemic, prostate and mammary cancer cell lines. The exposure of tumour cells to human recombinant GV-PLA2 resulted in a reduced colony forming activity of MCF-7, HepG2 and PC-3 cells, but not of DU-145 cells suggesting a cell-type-dependent effect of GV-PLA2 on cell growth. In conclusion, our results suggest that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification play an important role in downregulation of GV-PLA2 expression in cancer cells. PMID:26715269

  12. Compressive Strength Evaluation in Brazed ZrO2/Ti6Al4V Joints Using Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kee, Se Ho; Jung, Flora; Heo, Yongku; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to synthesize and evaluate the compressive strength of the ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint brazed using an active metal filler Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti, and its application to dental implants assuring its reliability to resist the compressive failure in the actual oral environment. The brazing was performed at a temperature of 750 °C for 30 min in a vacuum furnace under 5 × 10-6 Torr atmosphere. The microstructure of the brazed joint showed the presence of an Ag-rich matrix and a Cu-rich phase, and Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds were observed along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface. The compressive strength of the brazed ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint was measured by EN ISO 14801 standard test method. The measured compressive strength of the joint was ~1477 MPa—a value almost five times that of existing dental cements. Finite element analysis also confirmed the high von Mises stress values. The compressive strains in the samples were found concentrated near the Ti-6Al-4V position, matching with the position of the real fractured sample. These results suggest extremely significant compressive strength in ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joints using the Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti filler. It is believed that a highly reliable dental implant can be processed and designed using the results of this study.

  13. Compressive Strength Evaluation in Brazed ZrO2/Ti6Al4V Joints Using Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kee, Se Ho; Jung, Flora; Heo, Yongku; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to synthesize and evaluate the compressive strength of the ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint brazed using an active metal filler Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti, and its application to dental implants assuring its reliability to resist the compressive failure in the actual oral environment. The brazing was performed at a temperature of 750 °C for 30 min in a vacuum furnace under 5 × 10-6 Torr atmosphere. The microstructure of the brazed joint showed the presence of an Ag-rich matrix and a Cu-rich phase, and Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds were observed along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface. The compressive strength of the brazed ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint was measured by EN ISO 14801 standard test method. The measured compressive strength of the joint was ~1477 MPa—a value almost five times that of existing dental cements. Finite element analysis also confirmed the high von Mises stress values. The compressive strains in the samples were found concentrated near the Ti-6Al-4V position, matching with the position of the real fractured sample. These results suggest extremely significant compressive strength in ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joints using the Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti filler. It is believed that a highly reliable dental implant can be processed and designed using the results of this study.

  14. Continuum in the X-Z---Y weak bonds: Z= main group elements.

    PubMed

    Joy, Jyothish; Jose, Anex; Jemmis, Eluvathingal D

    2016-01-15

    The Continuum in the variation of the X-Z bond length change from blue-shifting to red-shifting through zero- shifting in the X-Z---Y complex is inevitable. This has been analyzed by ab-initio molecular orbital calculations using Z= Hydrogen, Halogens, Chalcogens, and Pnicogens as prototypical examples. Our analysis revealed that, the competition between negative hyperconjugation within the donor (X-Z) molecule and Charge Transfer (CT) from the acceptor (Y) molecule is the primary reason for the X-Z bond length change. Here, we report that, the proper tuning of X- and Y-group for a particular Z- can change the blue-shifting nature of X-Z bond to zero-shifting and further to red-shifting. This observation led to the proposal of a continuum in the variation of the X-Z bond length during the formation of X-Z---Y complex. The varying number of orbitals and electrons available around the Z-atom differentiates various classes of weak interactions and leads to interactions dramatically different from the H-Bond. Our explanations based on the model of anti-bonding orbitals can be transferred from one class of weak interactions to another. We further take the idea of continuum to the nature of chemical bonding in general. PMID:26279192

  15. Distribution of platinum-group elements in the Bati Kef chromite deposit, Guleman-Elazig area, eastern Turkey.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, N.J.; Engin, T.; Singer, D.A.; Haffty, J.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of platinum-group elements (PGE) within chromite deposits from an ophiolite is determined and their geochemistry compared with chromitites from ophiolites and from stratiform layered complexes elsewhere in the world. The Guleman area chromitites are lenses of layered massive to disseminated chromite in dunite or sheared harzburgite along and near the dunite-harzburgite contact. PGE were analysed by a fire assay/spectrographic method. The analyses, in ppb, varied narrowly near the detection limits; only Ir was mostly detected (24-27 ppb) . The data plot as independent, slight variations of individual PGE with crude and irregular spatial distributions, oriented with respect to the land surface. Based on studies elsewhere, the PGE reside mostly in laurite, erlichmanite and Os/Ir alloys included within or interstitial to chromite. Average values for each PGE were normalized with respect to average chondrite concentrations for these elements. All patterns for ophiolite-chromitites (5) show depletion of these elements relative to chondrite average concentrations, with greater depletion in Pt and Pd than in Ir and Ru, to produce patterns with negative slopes. Chromitites from differentiated stratiform complexes (2) yield patterns with positive slopes. -G.J.N.

  16. Finite element solution of the multi-group neutron diffusion equation applied to the hypothetical core disruptive accident

    SciTech Connect

    Baldasaro, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    A two-dimensional (r,z), space-time-energy dependent calculational method has been developed for use in LMFBR hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) analyses which utilizes the Finite Element Method (subsequently referred to as FEM) for the necessary diffusion theory neutronics calculations.The hydrodynamic portion of the calculation is performed with a modified form of the VENUS-I computer program which does a thermodynamic energy balance and uses an energy-density-dependent equation-of-state to calculate the pressures which cause reactor disassembly. The reactivity feedback which results from material motion is based on a Hermite Finite Element neutronics method in (r,z) geometry. The FEM neutronic calculations are done using an Eulerian coordinate system while the VENUS calculations employ a Lagrangian coordinate system. A unique feature of the FEM calculations is that the use of Hermite finite elements allows the analytic construction of iteration matrices. The numerical solution of the resulting system of equations utilizes direct matrix inversion which helps to minimize computing time. The major disadvantage of this method, relative to the standard finite differencing method (FDM), is the additional computational logic which is required. This application of the FEM demonstrates the potential which the method has for providing fast, accurate, and reliable solutions to the multi-group neutron diffusion problem where the effects of local heterogeneities are minimal.

  17. A new bismuth strontium vanadate, BiSr 2V 3O 11, with both orthovanadate and pyrovanadate groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinfan; Sleight, Arthur W.

    1992-03-01

    A new bismuth strontium vanadate, BiSr 2V 3O 11, has been synthesized, and its structure was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. This compound may be represented by the descriptive formula BiSr 2(VO 4)(V 2O 7), indicating one orthovanadate group and one pyrovanadate group in each formula unit. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P overline1 with a = 7.0332(6) Å, b = 10.213(2) Å, c = 6.982(2) Å, α = 96.01(2)°, β = 92.87(2)°, γ = 99.16(2)°, V = 491.3(1) Å 3, and Z = 2. The Bi atom is 7-coordinated to oxygen atoms with BiO distances from 2.208(8) to 2.88(1) Å. Two types of Sr atoms were found: one with a coordination number of 9 and the other with one of 7. For the orthovanadate group, the average VO bond length is 1.72 Å and the OVO angles are in the range of 103.9(4)° to 116.2(4)°. For the pyrovanadate group, the average VO bond length is 1.716 Å and the VOV angle is 125.3°.

  18. New approaches to the low oxidation state chemistry of some main group elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomeli Tapuach, Maria Viviana

    The first structurally authenticated terminal borylene-metal complex has been synthesized via the reaction of pentamethylcyclopentadienylboron dichloride with the dipotassium salt of iron tetracarbonyl. The reactions of organoindium and organoboron dihalides with several reducing reagents have been examined with the aim of preparing the corresponding monovalent species. Both 2,6-bis(dimethylaminomethyl)phenylindium dichloride and ortho-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenylboron dibromide were found to be remarkably stable toward alkali metal reduction. Even though formation of an indium(I) compound did not occur with the former, its reaction with the dilithium salt of diisopropylaminoborole resulted in the isolation of a novel indium(II)-indium(II) compound with intramolecular donor-acceptor bonds. The reactivity of the cyclic germylene, 1,3-di-tert-butyl-1,3,2-diazagermol-2-ylidene, toward a variety of Lewis acidic main group reagents has been explored. This germylene was found to be capable of effecting metallacycle transfer to phosphorus trichloride and arsenic trichloride, resulting in the formation of the corresponding N-heterocyclic phosphenium and arsenium cations. The X-ray crystal structures of both cations are presented. The reaction of 1,3-di-tert-butyl-1,3,2-diazagermol-2-ylidene with Lawesson's reagent resulted in the isolation and structural characterization of a novel germanium spirocycle. Silane is a chemical of strategic importance for the manufacture of semiconductors; however, this compound is a highly toxic and flammable gas. Accordingly, interest has arisen on the part of industry to identify a safe alternative to the use of silane. The synthesis of bis(dimethylamino)silane and 1,1,2,2-tetrachlorodisilane as potential candidates for silane replacement is described.

  19. Role of various extractants in removing group-IIB elements of soils incubated with EDTA.

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Singh, Uttam Kumar; Das, D K

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation undertaken to evaluate different extractant solutions viz. HCl, Mg(NO3)2, and DTPA with the range of concentration from 0.001 to 0.1N after incubation with group-IIB metals (Zn, Cd, and Hg) and EDTA to understand the capability to remove Zn, Cd, and Hg from soils. Two noncontaminated soils, one acidic (GHL) and the other alkaline (KAP), in reaction were taken from an agricultural field of West Bengal, India for this investigation. Experiments were conducted on these two soils spiked with ZnII, CdII, and HgII in concentrations of 612, 321, and 215 mg/kg for soil GHL and 778, 298, and 157 mg/kg for soil KAP, respectively, which simulate typical electroplating waste contamination. The removal of Zn, Cd, and Hg in soil GHL within the range of HCl concentrations was 8.2-16.5, 12.2-19.1, and 4.3-6.9 whereas these were 6.5-7.6, 8.5-14.1, and 3.2-5.2 in soil KAP. The removal of Zn, Cd, and Hg in soil GHL within the range of Mg(NO3)2 concentrations were 12.2-28.5, 19.1-24.6, and 18.2-19.1 whereas these were 9.1-12.1, 8.3-12.1, and 10.6-48.1 in soil KAP. For DTPA extractant, the percent removal of metal was found to be significantly higher than the other two extractants, which corroborates that DTPA is a better extractant for soil cleaning. PMID:15632982

  20. Spontaneous Double Hydrometallation Induced by N→M Coordination in Organometallic Hydrides of Group 14 Elements.

    PubMed

    Novák, Miroslav; Dostál, Libor; Turek, Jan; Alonso, Mercedes; De Proft, Frank; Růžička, Aleš; Jambor, Roman

    2016-04-11

    Our attempts to synthesise N→M intramolecularly coordinated diorganometallic hydrides L2 MH2 [M=Si (4), Ge (5), Sn (6)] containing the CH=N imine group (in which L is C,N-chelating ligand {2-[(2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 )N=CH]C6 H4 }(-) ) yielded 1,1'-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-2,2'-spriobi[benzo[c][1,2]azasilole] (7), 1,1'-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-2,2'-spriobi[benzo[c][1,2]azagermole] (8) and C,N-chelated homoleptic stannylene L2 Sn (10), respectively. Compounds 7 and 8 are an outcome of a spontaneous double hydrometallation of the two CH=N imine moieties induced by N→M intramolecular coordination (M=Si, Ge) in the absence of any catalyst. In contrast, the diorganotin hydride L2 SnH2 (6) is redox-unstable and the reduction of the tin centre with the elimination of H2 provided the C,N-chelated homoleptic stannylene L2 Sn (10). Compounds 7 and 8 were characterised by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Because the proposed N→M intramolecularly coordinated diorganometallic hydrides L2 MH2 [M=Si (4), Ge (5), Sn (6)] revealed two different types of reduction reactions, DFT calculations were performed to gain an insight into the structures and bonding of the non-isolable diorganometallic hydrides as well as the products of their subsequent reactions. Furthermore, the thermodynamic profiles of the different reaction pathways with respect to the central metal atom were also investigated. PMID:26934563

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Shackleford, M.H.

    1958-12-16

    A fuel element possessing good stability and heat conducting properties is described. The fuel element comprises an outer tube formed of material selected from the group consisting of stainhess steel, V, Ti. Mo. or Zr, a fuel tube concentrically fitting within the outer tube and containing an oxide of an isotope selected from the group consisting of U/sup 235/, U/sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/, and a hollow, porous core concentrically fitting within the fuel tube and formed of an oxide of an element selected from the group consisting of Mg, Be, and Zr.

  2. Measurement of activation cross-sections for several elements between 12 and 20 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, S.; Matsuyama, S.; Ohkubo, T.; Fukuda, H.; Sakuma, M.; Kitamura, M.

    1994-12-31

    Activation cross-sections for cobalt, nickel, yttrium, niobium, thulium and gold have been measured in the neutron energies from 12 to 20 MeV with the reference cross section of NEA {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92m}Nb at Tohoku Dynamitron Facility.

  3. Platinum-group elemental geochemistry of mafic and ultramafic rocks from the Xigaze ophiolite, southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Genwen; Xia, Bin

    2008-04-01

    The Xigaze ophiolite in the central part of the Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone, southern Tibet, has a well-preserved sequence of sheeted dykes, basalts, cumulates and mantle peridotites at Jiding and Luqu. Both the basalts and diabases at Jiding have similar compositions with SiO 2 ranging from 45.9 to 53.5 wt%, MgO from 3.1 to 6.8 wt% and TiO 2 from 0.87 to 1.21 wt%. Their Mg #s [100Mg/(Mg + Fe)] range from 40 to 60, indicating crystallization from relatively evolved magmas. They have LREE-depleted, chondrite-normalized REE diagrams, suggesting a depleted mantle source. These basaltic rocks have slightly negative Nb- and Ti-anomalies, suggesting that the Xigaze ophiolite represents a fragment of mature MORB lithosphere modified in a suprasubduction zone environment. The mantle peridotites at Luqu are high depleted with low CaO (0.3-1.2 wt%) and Al 2O 3 (0.04-0.42 wt%). They display V-shaped, chondrite-normalized REE patterns with (La/Gd) N ratios ranging from 3.17 to 64.6 and (Gd/Yb) N from 0.02 to 0.20, features reflecting secondary metasomatism by melts derived from the underlying subducted slab. Thus, the geochemistry of both the basaltic rocks and mantle peridotites suggests that the Xigaze ophiolite formed in a suprasubduction zone. Both the diabases and basalts have Pd/Ir ratios ranging from 7 to 77, similar to MORB. However, they have very low PGE abundances, closely approximating the predicted concentration in a silicate melt that has fully equilibrated with a fractionated immiscible sulfide melt, indicating that the rocks originated from magmas that were S-saturated before eruption. Moderate degrees of partial melting and early precipitation of PGE alloys explain their high Pd/Ir ratios and negative Pt-anomalies. The mantle peridotites contain variable amounts of Pd (5.99-13.5 ppb) and Pt (7.92-20.5 ppb), and have a relatively narrow range of Ir (3.47-5.01 ppb). In the mantle-normalized Ni, PGE, Au and Cu diagram, they are relatively rich in Pd and depleted in Cu. There is a positive correlation between CaO and Pd. The Pd enrichment is possibly due to secondary enrichment by metasomatism. Al 2O 3 and Hf do not correlate with Ir, but show positive variations with Pt, Pd and Au, indicating that some noble metals can be enriched by metasomatic fluids or melts carrying a little Al and Hf. We propose a model in which the low PGE contents and high Pd/Ir ratios of the basaltic rocks reflect precipitation of sulfides and moderate degrees of partial melting. The high Pd mantle peridotites of Xigaze ophiolites were formed by secondary metasomatism by a boninitic melt above a subduction zone.

  4. Transition metal-mediated donor-acceptor coordination of low-oxidation state Group 14 element halides.

    PubMed

    Swarnakar, Anindya K; Ferguson, Michael J; McDonald, Robert; Rivard, Eric

    2016-03-30

    The reactivity of tungsten carbonyl adducts of Group 14 element (Ge, Sn and Pb) dihalides towards the metal-based donors (η(5)-C5H5)Rh(PMe2Ph)2 and Pt(PCy3)2 was examined. When (η(5)-C5H5)Rh(PMe2Ph)2 was treated with the Lewis acid supported Ge(ii) complex, THF·GeCl2·W(CO)5, cyclopentadienyl ring activation occurred, whereas the analogous Lewis acidic units SnCl2·W(CO)5 and PbCl2 form direct adducts with the Rh complex to yield Rh-Sn and Rh-Pb dative bonds. Attempts to prepare metal coordinated element(ii) hydrides by adding hydride sources to the above mentioned rhodium-E(ii) halide complexes were unsuccessful; in each case insoluble products were formed along with regeneration of free (η(5)-C5H5)Rh(PMe2Ph)2. In a parallel study, ECl2·W(CO)5 (E = Ge or Sn) groups were shown to participate in E-Cl oxidation addition chemistry with (Cy3P)2Pt to give the formal Pt(ii) complexes ClPt(PCy3)2ECl·W(CO)5. PMID:26373599

  5. Low keV electron probe analysis of silicate minerals for Mg, Al, and Si using pure-element standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, G. G.

    1972-01-01

    Accurate electron probe values for Mg, Al, and Si in silicate minerals may be obtained with pure-element standards. Analysis must be done at low (6 kV) accelerating potential and for best results, the average atomic number of the sample should be within about plus or minus 1 of the atomic number of the pure-element standard. This last requirement is automatically fulfilled for most common silicate minerals, as their average atomic numbers usually fall within the 11 to 15 range. Examples studied include a wet-chemically analyzed cordierite containing 17.71 weight percent Al, for which a value of 17.6 plus or minus 0.3 percent was obtained with the electron probe, and a hornblende containing 19.15 percent Si, which gave 19.0 plus or minus 0.3 percent using the probe method.

  6. Gamow-Teller matrix elements in light nuclei and (p,n) cross sections at Ep = 35 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orihara, H.; Terakawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Suzuki, H.; Kumagai, K.; Kikuchi, Y.; Jon, G. C.; Ishii, K.; Niizeki, T.; Sagawa, H.; Ohnuma, H.

    2002-07-01

    The (p,n) cross sections for the 0+-->1+ excitation are studied experimentally at Ep=35 MeV in eight nuclei with Tz=(N-Z)/2=1, 14C, 18O, 22Ne, 26Mg, 30Si, 34S, 38Ar and 42Ca. It is found that the peak (p,n) cross sections around θ~30° are proportional to the corresponding β+-decay rates of the Tz=-1 partners of the T=1 multiplets. We propose a prescription to extract GT matrix elements in light nuclei from (p,n) cross sections using such proportionality. The method is applied to determine an unknown B(GT) matrix element in 26Al, which is energetically inaccessible by β+-decay experiments.

  7. Enzymatic properties of stingray Dasyatis pastinaca group V, IIA and IB phospholipases A(2): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Abid, Islem; Horchani, Habib; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, we have purified the group V phospholipase from the heart of cartilaginous fish stingray Dasyatis pastinaca and compared its biochemical properties with group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) and IB (sPLA2-IB) phospholipases previously purified from pancreas and intestine, respectively. Group V phospholipase (sPLA2-V) was purified to homogeneity by heat treatment, ammonium sulphate precipitation and RP-HPLC. The N-terminal sequence of the purified sPLA2-V exhibits a high degree of homology with those of mammal. The enzyme was found to be monomeric with a molecular mass estimation of 14 kDa. The specific activity of the purified enzyme, measured at pH 8 and 37 °C was 52 U/mg. Like sPLA2-IB and sPLA2-IIA, the sPLA2-V is found to be stable between pH 3 and 11 after 30 min of incubation. The purified sPLA2-V retained 65% of its activity after 10 min of incubation at 70 °C and it absolutely requires Ca(2+) for enzymatic activity. In addition it displayed high tolerance to organic solvents. Kinetic parameters Kmapp, kcat and the deduced catalytic efficiency (kcat/Kmapp) of the purified group-V, -IB and -IIA PLA2s were determined using phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylserine (PS) as substrate. The three enzymes hydrolyze the zwiterionic PE and PC substrates more efficiently than anionic PS substrate. PMID:24120965

  8. Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts from Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount, equatorial Indian Ocean: Sources and fractionation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banakar, V.K.; Hein, J.R.; Rajani, R.P.; Chodankar, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    The major element relationships in ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount (ANS), eastern equatorial Indian Ocean, appear to be atypical. High positive correlations (r = 0.99) between Mn/Co and Fe/Co ratios, and lack of correlation of those ratios with Co, Ce, and Ce/Co, indicate that the ANS Fe-Mn crusts are distinct from Pacific seamount Fe-Mn crusts, and reflect region-specific chemical characteristics. The platinum group elements (PGE: Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd) and Au in ANS Fe-Mn crusts are derived from seawater and are mainly of terrestrial origin, with a minor cosmogenic component. The Ru/Rh (0.5-2) and Pt/Ru ratios (7-28) are closely comparable to ratios in continental basalts, whereas Pd/Ir ratios exhibit values ( 0.75) correlations between water depth and Mn/Co, Fe/Co, Ce/Co, Co, and the PGEs. Fractionation of the PGE-Au from seawater during colloidal precipitation of the major-oxide phases is indicated by well-defined linear positive correlations (r > 0.8) of Co and Ce with Ir, Ru, Rh, and Pt; Au/Co with Mn/Co; and by weak or no correlations of Pd with water depth, Co-normalized major-element ratios, and with the other PGE (r < 0.5). The strong enrichment of Pt (up to 1 ppm) relative to the other PGE and its positive correlations with Ce and Co demonstrate a common link for the high concentrations of all three elements, which likely involves an oxidation reaction on the Mn-oxide and Fe-oxyhydroxide surfaces. The documented fractionation of PGE-Au and their positive association with redox sensitive Co and Ce may have applications in reconstructing past-ocean redox conditions and water masses.

  9. Local Structure of Transition Elements (V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn) in Al2SiO5 Polymorphs

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Yuki; Yoshiasa, Akira; Nishiyama, Tadao; Arima, Hiroshi; Okube, Maki; Murai, Kei-ichiro

    2007-02-02

    We measured XAFS spectra near the Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn K-edges in Al2SiO5 polymorphs to reveal the local structure around these elements in the minerals. XANES spectra show that the valence of Fe and Cr is different depending on the crystal structure and formation environments. The spectra of kyanite, a high pressure mineral, shift to high energy side. The Fe-O bond length of kyanite determined by EXAFS data analyses is the shortest of all samples.

  10. Identification of polycomb and trithorax group responsive elements in the regulatory region of the Drosophila homeotic gene Sex combs reduced

    SciTech Connect

    Gindhart, J.G. Jr.; Kaufman, T.C.

    1995-02-01

    The Drosophilia homeotic gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) is necessary for the establishment and maintenance of the morphological identity of the labial and prothoracic segments. In the early embryo, its expression pattern is established through the activity of several gap and segmentation gene products, as well as other transcription factors. Once established, the Polycomb group (Pc-G) and trithorax group (trx-G) gene products maintain the spatial pattern of Scr expression for the remainder of development. We report the identification of DNA fragments in the Scr regulatory region that may be important for its regulation by Polycomb and trithorax group gene products. When DNA fragments containing these regulatory sequences are subcloned into P-element vectors containing a white minigene, transformants containing these constructs exhibit mosaic patterns of pigmentation in the adult eye, indicating that white minigene expression is repressed in a clonally heritable manner. The size of pigmented and nonpigmented clones in the adult eye suggests that the event determining whether a cell in the eye anlagen will express white occurs at least as early as the first larval instar. The amount of white minigene repression is reduced in some Polycomb group mutants, whereas repression is enhanced in flies mutant for a subset of trithorax group loci. The repressor activity of one fragment, normally located in Scr Intron 2, is increased when it is able to homologously pair, a property consistent with genetic data suggesting that Scr exhibits transvection. Another Scr regulatory fragment, normally located 40 kb upstream of the Scr promoter, silences ectopic expression of an Scr-lacZ fusion gene in the embryo and does so in a Polycomb-dependent manner. We propose that the regulatory sequences located within these DNA fragments may normally mediate the regulation of Scr by proteins encoded by members of Polycomb and trithorax group loci. 98 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Identification of Polycomb and Trithorax Group Responsive Elements in the Regulatory Region of the Drosophila Homeotic Gene Sex Combs Reduced

    PubMed Central

    Gindhart-Jr., J. G.; Kaufman, T. C.

    1995-01-01

    The Drosophila homeotic gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) is necessary for the establishment and maintenance of the morphological identity of the labial and prothoracic segments. In the early embryo, its expression pattern is established through the activity of several gap and segmentation gene products, as well as other transcription factors. Once established, the Polycomb group (Pc-G) and trithorax group (trx-G) gene products maintain the spatial pattern of Scr expression for the remainder of development. We report the identification of DNA fragments in the Scr regulatory region that may be important for its regulation by Polycomb and trithorax group gene products. When DNA fragments containing these regulatory sequences are subcloned into P-element vectors containing a white minigene, transformants containing these constructs exhibit mosaic patterns of pigmentation in the adult eye, indicating that white minigene expression is repressed in a clonally heritable manner. The size of pigmented and nonpigmented clones in the adult eye suggests that the event determining whether a cell in the eye anlagen will express white occurs at least as early as the first larval instar. The amount of white minigene repression is reduced in some Polycomb group mutants, whereas repression is enhanced in flies mutant for a subset of trithorax group loci. The repressor activity of one fragment, normally located in Scr Intron 2, is increased when it is able to homologously pair, a property consistent with genetic data suggesting that Scr exhibits transvection. Another Scr regulatory fragment, normally located 40 kb upstream of the Scr promoter, silences ectopic expression of an Scr-lacZ fusion gene in the embryo and does so in a Polycomb-dependent manner. We propose that the regulatory sequences located within these DNA fragments may normally mediate the regulation of Scr by proteins encoded by members of the Polycomb and trithorax group loci. PMID:7713433

  12. Measurement of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element V(ub) with B-->rhoenu decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; O'Neale, S W; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Bhimji, W; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Clark, P J; Cottingham, W N; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Jolly, S; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Korol, A A; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Raven, G; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Grothe, M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Pulliam, T; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; T'Jampens, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Anjomshoaa, A; Bernet, R; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Falbo, M; Borean, C; Bozzi, C; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Bagnasco, S; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Bionta, R M; Brigljević, V; Lange, D J; van Bibber, K; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, M; Kay, M; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Aspinwall, M L; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Back, J J; Bellodi, G; Dixon, P; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Savvas, N; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; LoSecco, J M; Alsmiller, J R G; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Brau, J; Frey, R; Iwasaki, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Speziali, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Campagna, E; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Triggiani, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Turnbull, L; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tumanov, A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; del Re, D; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Leonardi, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Tehrani, F Safai; Serra, M; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Serfass, B; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, K; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Himel, T; Hryn'ova, T; Huffer, M E; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schietinger, T; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Cheng, C H; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Henderson, R; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-05-01

    We present a measurement of the branching fraction for the rare decays B-->rhoenu and extract a value for the magnitude of V(ub), one of the smallest elements of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing matrix. The results are given for five different calculations of form factors used to para-metrize the hadronic current in semileptonic decays. Using a sample of 55 x 10(6) BB meson pairs recorded with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e(+)e(-) storage ring, we obtain B(B0-->rho(-)e(+)nu)=(3.29+/-0.42+/-0.47+/-0.55) x 10(-4) and |V(ub)|=(3.64+/-0.22+/-0.25(+0.39)(-0.56)) x 10(-3), where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and theoretical, respectively. PMID:12785997

  13. An Instrument to Measure Elemental Energy Spectra of Cosmic Ray Nuclei Up to 10(exp 16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov,S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    A longstanding goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of cosmic rays up to and through the "knee" (approx. equal to 3 x 10 (exp 15) eV. It is not currently feasible to achieve this goal with an ionization calorimeter because the mass required to be deployed in Earth orbit is very large (at least 50 tonnes). An alternative method will be presented. This is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer using silicon microstrip detector technology. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11)- 10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a design for a new lightweight instrument with a large aperture (KLEM) will be described.

  14. Molecular structure and intermediate phases in group-V binary chalcogenide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Daniel Georgiev

    Chalcogenide glasses offer unique opportunities for basic science and technological applications. The physical properties of such network-forming glasses, including the glass-forming tendency, are intimately connected to global connectivity of their backbones. In particular, the elastic behavior of glasses leads to the existence of three distinct phases that appears to be generic in network forming systems. Weakly cross-linked networks are mechanically soft and form floppy phases. Optimally cross-linked networks lead to stress-free or self-organized networks, and are identified with intermediate phases. Strongly cross-linked networks are mechanically stiff and usually form part of stressed-rigid phases. The floppy-intermediate and stressed-rigid classification of the group V chalcogenides is recognized in this work for the first time. The glass systems examined include P-Se, As-Se, and As-S. Thermally reversing windows (glass compositions wherein Tg become almost completely reversing) are observed in the three binary glass systems using temperature-Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC), and are identified with the opening of (non-mean-field) intermediate phases . The molecular structure of these glasses is studied by Raman scattering, MDSC and 31P NMR, and the local structures responsible for intermediate phases are identified with assistance from constraint counting procedures. Raman scattering and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) results on P-Se glasses provide compelling evidence for existence of four-fold coordinated phosphorous species that are bonded to three bridging and one terminal selenium, Se = P(Se1/2)3. The structure results provide a basis to quantitatively understand compositional trends in Tg in the stochastic agglomeration limit. The existence of analog four-fold coordinated As species is suggested by MDSC experiments on As-Se glasses. Our experimental results also show that stressed-rigid phases in the examined glasses are usually phase separated on a molecular level. Phase separation initiates near the stoichiometric composition, As2S3, and grows as the As content, x, of binary As xS1-x glasses exceeds 0.38. Similar behavior has been observed in As-Se and P-Se glasses. A new understanding of global maxima in glass transition temperatures near stoichiometric compositions has emerged. These maxima are the result of a decrease in network connectivity as the backbone nano-scale phase separates.

  15. 78 FR 71377 - United States et al. v. US Airways Group, Inc. and AMR Corporation; Proposed Final Judgment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 78 Wednesday, No. 229 November 27, 2013 Part III Department of Justice Antitrust Division United States et al. v. US Airways Group, Inc. and AMR Corporation; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 229...

  16. 76 FR 45248 - PJM Interconnection, L.L.C., PJM Power Providers Group v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PJM Interconnection, L.L.C., PJM Power Providers Group v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice of Staff Technical Conference On June 13, 2011, the Commission issued... Resources Services, Inc., Maryland Public Service Commission, Monitoring Analytics, L.L.C., National...

  17. 75 FR 35786 - Resale Power Group of Iowa, WPPI Energy v. ITC Midwest LLC, Interstate Power and Light Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Resale Power Group of Iowa, WPPI Energy v. ITC Midwest LLC, Interstate Power and Light Company; Notice of Filing June 16, 2010. Take notice that, on June 15, 2010, Resale...

  18. 75 FR 29531 - Resale Power Group of Iowa, WPPI Energy v. ITC Midwest LLC, Interstate Power and Light Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Resale Power Group of Iowa, WPPI Energy v. ITC Midwest LLC, Interstate Power and Light Company; Notice of Complaint May 19, 2010. Take notice that on May 18,...

  19. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL...

  20. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operating. An oil spill removal organization may not be listed in the plan unless the oil spill removal... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL...

  1. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operating. An oil spill removal organization may not be listed in the plan unless the oil spill removal... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL...

  2. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operating. An oil spill removal organization may not be listed in the plan unless the oil spill removal... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL...

  3. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operating. An oil spill removal organization may not be listed in the plan unless the oil spill removal... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL...

  4. The coupling of thermochemistry and phase diagrams for group III-V semiconductor systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.J.

    1998-07-21

    The project was directed at linking the thermochemical properties of III-V compound semiconductors systems with the reported phase diagrams. The solid-liquid phase equilibrium problem was formulated and three approaches to calculating the reduced standard state chemical potential were identified and values were calculated. In addition, thermochemical values for critical properties were measured using solid state electrochemical techniques. These values, along with the standard state chemical potentials and other available thermochemical and phase diagram data, were combined with a critical assessment of selected III-V systems. This work was culminated with a comprehensive assessment of all the III-V binary systems. A novel aspect of the experimental part of this project was the demonstration of the use of a liquid encapsulate to measure component activities by a solid state emf technique in liquid III-V systems that exhibit high vapor pressures at the measurement temperature.

  5. Optimization of parameters for semiempirical methods V: Modification of NDDO approximations and application to 70 elements

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Several modifications that have been made to the NDDO core-core interaction term and to the method of parameter optimization are described. These changes have resulted in a more complete parameter optimization, called PM6, which has, in turn, allowed 70 elements to be parameterized. The average unsigned error (AUE) between calculated and reference heats of formation for 4,492 species was 8.0kcal mol?1. For the subset of 1,373 compounds involving only the elements H, C, N, O, F, P, S, Cl, and Br, the PM6 AUE was 4.4kcal mol?1. The equivalent AUE for other methods were: RM1: 5.0, B3LYP 631G*: 5.2, PM5: 5.7, PM3: 6.3, HF 631G*: 7.4, and AM1: 10.0kcal mol?1. Several long-standing faults in AM1 and PM3 have been corrected and significant improvements have been made in the prediction of geometries. Figure Calculated structure of the complex ion [Ta6Cl12]2+ (footnote): Reference value in parenthesis Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00894-007-0233-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17828561

  6. Fragmentation Cross Sections of 290 and 400 MeV/nucleon 12C Beamson Elemental Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitlin, C.; Guetersloh, S.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Fukumura,A.; Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T.

    2007-03-17

    Charge-changing and fragment production cross sections at 0circ have been obtained for interactions of 290 MeV/nucleon and 400MeV/nucleon carbon beams with C, CH2, Al, Cu, Sn, and Pb targets. Thesebeams are relevant to cancer therapy, space radiation, and the productionof radioactive beams. We compare to previously published results using Cand CH2 targets at similar beam energies. Due to ambiguities arising fromthe presence of multiple fragments on many events, previous publicationshave reported only cross sections for B and Be fragments. In this work wehave extracted cross sections for all fragment species, using dataobtained at three distinct values of angular acceptance, supplemented bydata taken with the detector stack placed off the beam axis. A simulationof the experiment with the PHITS Monte Carlo code shows fair agreementwith the data obtained with the large acceptance detectors, but agreementis poor at small acceptance. The measured cross sections are alsocompared to the predictions of the one-dimensional cross section modelsEPAX2 and NUCFRG2; the latter is presently used in NASA's space radiationtransport calculations. Though PHITS and NUCFRG2 reproduce thecharge-changing cross sections with reasonable accuracy, none of themodels is able to accurately predict the fragment cross sections for allfragment species and target materials.

  7. Coronal Element Abundances of the Post-Common Envelope Binary V471 Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Still, M.; Hussain, G.

    2004-07-01

    Evolutionary calculations indicate that there should be no peculiar abundances on the companion star resulting from the common envelope epoch if accretion efficiencies are low. Indeed, we find no evidence for peculiar abundances from archival ASCA data, although uncertainties are high. We find that a single-temperature plasma model does not fit the data. Two-temperature models with decoupled elemental abundances suggest that Fe is underabundant compared to the Hyades photospheric mean. In the absence of a measurement of photospheric Ne abundance in the cluster, we find Ne is overabundant compared to the solar photospheric value. This is indicative of the inverse first ionization potential effect. Differences between coronal and photospheric abundances are believed to result from the fractionation of ionized and neutral material in the upper atmosphere of the star. Care must be taken to include this effect when inferring photospheric abundances from X-ray data (e.g., Sarna 2004).

  8. Design of amphoteric mixed oxides of zinc and Group 3 elements (Al, Ga, In): migration effects on basic features.

    PubMed

    Mekki-Berrada, Adrien; Grondin, Didier; Bennici, Simona; Auroux, Aline

    2012-03-28

    The design of new amphoteric catalysts is of great interest for several industrial processes, especially those covering dehydration and dehydrogenation phenomena. Adsorption microcalorimetry was used to monitor the design of mixed oxides of zinc with Group 3 elements (aluminium, gallium, indium) with amphoteric character and enhanced specific surface area. Acid-base features were found to evolve non-linearly with the relative amounts of metal, and the strengths of the created acidic or basic sites were measured by adsorption microcalorimetry. A panel of bifunctional catalysts of various acid-base (amounts, strengths) and redox character was obtained. Besides, special interest was given to In-Zn mixed oxides for their enhanced basicity: this series of catalysts displays important basic features of high strength (q(diff) (SO? ads.) > 200 kJ mol(SO?)? in substantial amounts (1 - 2 ?mol m(catalyst)?), whose impact on efficiency or selectivity in catalytic dehydration/dehydrogenation can be valuable. PMID:22333932

  9. Verification of Threshold Voltage Variation of Scaled Transistors with Ultralarge-Scale Device Matrix Array Test Element Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunomura, Takaaki; Nishida, Akio; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2009-12-01

    Randomness of threshold voltage (VT) variations of negative channel field effect transistors (NFETs) and positive channel field effect transistors (PFETs) in the 65 nm technology is precisely examined. For this purpose, an ultralarge-scale device matrix array test element group (DMA-TEG) that contains 1 million single-size metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) has been designed and fabricated, and a very rapid measurement system has been developed. By evaluating VT of a very large number of MOSFETs, VT variation can be precisely evaluated. This rapid measurement is achieved by parallel address signal input, optimization of the measurement program, and 4-chip parallel measurements. The measured VT variations are decomposed into random and systematic components. The results reveal that the random component is overwhelmingly dominant in the VT variations in the 65 nm technology and that the VT variations exhibit a normal distribution up to ±5σ.

  10. Synthetic, Spectroscopic and Biocidal Aspects of Heterobimetallic Complexes Comprising Platinum(II) and a Group Four or Fourteen Element

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kripa

    2000-01-01

    Heterobimetallic complexes with varying amines have been synthesized by the reaction of [Pt(C2H8N2)2]Cl2 with group four or fourteen organometallic dichlorides, viz., R2MCl2 and Cp2M'Cl2 in a 1:2 molar ratio in MeOH (where M=Si or Sn, M'= Ti or Zr and R=Ph or Me). These complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molecular weight determinations, magnetic measurements, conductance, IR, 1H NMR and electronic spectra. The spectral data suggest a square planar geometry for all the complexes. Conductivity data suggest that they behave as electrolytes. These monometallic precursors along with their complexes have been screened in vitro against a number of pathogenic fungi and bacteria to assess their growth inhibiting potential. PMID:18475917

  11. Platinum-group elements in rocks from the voikar-syninsky ophiolite complex, Polar Urals, U.S.S.R.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, N.J.; Aruscavage, P. J.; Haffty, J.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of platinum-group elements (PGE) in rocks collected from the Voikar-Syninsky ophiolite in the Polar Urals suggest that the distribution and geochemistry of PGE in this Paleozoic ophiolite are similar to those in Mesozoic ophiolites from elsewhere. Chondrite-normalized PGE patterns for chromitite, the tectonite unit, and ultramafic and mafic cumulate unit have negative slopes. These results are similar to those found for chromitites from other ophiolites; stratiform chromities show positive slopes. If the magmas that form both types of chromitite originate from similar mantle source material with respect to PGE content, the processes involved must be quite different. However, the distinct chondrite-normalized PGE patterns may reflect differing source materials. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Significant Li isotope fractionation in geochemically evolved rare element-bearing pegmatites from the Little Nahanni Pegmatite Group, NWT, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Elspeth M.; Weis, Dominique; Groat, Lee A.

    2012-02-01

    Lithium isotope signatures of whole rock pegmatite samples and mineral separates from the rare element-bearing Little Nahanni Pegmatite Group, NWT, and whole rock samples from nearby granitic intrusions were measured. Correlation of the Li isotopic values from the pegmatite dikes with whole rock trace element geochemistry, mineralogy and primary textural evidence reflect mechanisms of Li isotopic fractionation during pegmatite formation. The heavier δ 7Li signatures within the broad range measured from whole rock LNPG samples (- 0.94‰ to + 11.36‰) are related to the consolidation of the final ~ 15% melt fraction of a volatile-rich peraluminous magma in the late stages of magmatic fractionation. Rock-forming minerals (quartz, albite, spodumene and mica) display δ 7Li signatures that indicate consolidation of the dikes under variable, non-equilibrium conditions. Lithium isotope signatures of relatively cool, highly evolved peraluminous magmas reflect the build-up of fluxes (e.g., H 2O and F) and provide a qualitative assessment of the state of mineral/melt chemical equilibrium.

  13. Batch leaching tests of motherboards to assess environmental contamination by bromine, platinum group elements and other selected heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Almeida, César; Grosselli, Melina; González, Patricia; Martínez, Dante; Gil, Raúl

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a batch leaching test was executed to evaluate the toxicity associated with chemicals contained in motherboards. The leaching solutions used were distilled water, nitric acid, acetic acid and synthetic acid rain solution. A total of 21 elements including Ag, As, Au, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hf, Ir, Mn, Ni, Os, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rd, Rh, Se, U and Zn were analyzed. In this study, the pH values of all the leachates fell within the range of 2.33-4.88. The highest concentrations of metals were obtained from the acid rain solution, whilst the maximum value of bromine was achieved with solution of acetic acid. Appreciable concentrations of platinum group elements were detected with concentrations around 3.45, 1.43, 1.21 and 22.19 µg L(-1) for Ir, Pd, Pt and Rh, respectively. The different leaching of the motherboards revealed the predominant presence of the toxic substances in the leached from the e-waste. PMID:26343021

  14. Mineralogy and geochemistry of platinum-group elements in the Aguablanca Ni-Cu deposit (SW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, R.; Gervilla, F.; Ortega, L.; Lunar, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Aguablanca Ni-Cu-(PGE) magmatic sulphide deposit is associated with a magmatic breccia located in the northern part of the Aguablanca gabbro (SW, Iberia). Three types of ores are present: semi-massive, disseminated, and chalcopyrite-rich veined ore. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite. A relatively abundant platinum-group mineral (PGM) assemblage is present and includes merenskyite, melonite, michenerite, moncheite and sperrylite. Moreover, concentrations of base and precious metals and micro-PIXE analyses were obtained for the three ore-types. The mineralogy and the mantle-normalised chalcophile element profiles strongly suggest that semi-massive ore represents mss crystallisation, whereas the disseminated ore represents an unfractionated sulphide liquid and the chalcopyrite-rich veined ore a Cu-rich sulphide liquid. Palladium-bearing minerals occur commonly enclosed within sulphides, indicating a magmatic origin rather than hydrothermal. The occurrences and the composition of these minerals suggest that Pd was initially dissolved in the sulphides and subsequently exsolved at low temperatures to form bismutotellurides. Negative Pt and Au anomalies in the mantle-normalised chalcophile element profiles, a lack of Cu-S correlation and textural observations (such as sperrylite losing its euhedral shape when in contact with altered minerals) suggest partial remobilisation of Pt, Au and Cu by postmagmatic hydrothermal fluids after the sulphide crystallisation.

  15. Element distribution patterns in the ordovician Galena group, Southeastern Minnesota: Indicators of fluid flow and provenance of terrigenous material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lively, R.S.; Morey, G.B.; Mossler, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a regional geochemical investigation of lower Paleozoic strata in the Hollandale embayment of southeastern Minnesota, elemental concentrations in acid-insoluble residues were determined for carbonate rock in the Middle Ordovician Galena Group. Elemental distribution patterns within the insoluble residues, particularly those of Ti, Al, and Zr, show that the Wisconsin dome and the Wisconsin arch, which contributed sediment to the embayment prior to Galena time, continued as weak sources of sediment during this period. In contrast, trace metals commonly associated with Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc mineralization, including Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Ni, Co, As, and Mo, show dispersal patterns that are independent of those associated with primary depositional phenomena. These trace metals are concentrated in southern Minnesota in carbonate rocks near the interface between limestone- and dolostone-dominated strata. Dispersal patterns imply that the metals were carried by a north-flowing regional ground-water system. The results show that the geochemical attributes of insoluble residues can be used to distinguish provenance and transport directions of primary sediments within a depositional basin from effects of subsequent regional ground-water flow systems.

  16. Platinum in the environment: frequency of reactions to platinum-group elements in patients with dermatitis and urticaria.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Valenzano, C; de Rocco, M; Cristaudo, A

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate whether increasing environmental exposure increases the frequency of the positive prick and patch test reactions to certain chlorinated platinum salts in patients with dermatitis and urticaria. 800 consecutive subjects with contact dermatitis (n=749) and urticaria (n=51) were variously patch and prick tested with 30 haptens of a standard series, with aqueous solutions of, respectively, hexachloroplatinic acid (H2[PtCl6]), potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K2[PtCl4]), sodium hexachloroplatinate (Na2[PtCl6]), iridium chloride (IrCl3), rhodium chloride (RhCl3) and palladium chloride (PdCl2), and with 16 common inhalants. 153 workers, variably exposed in a platinum refinery, were patch and prick tested only with solutions containing platinum-group elements at various concentrations and with 16 common inhalants. Platinum-group elements did not elicit positive patch or prick test reactions in non-occupationally exposed subjects. In contrast, in exposed workers, positive patch test reactions at day 2 and at 25 min, respectively, were found in 2 subjects with hand dermatitis and in 2 with urticaria and asthma. 22 out of the 153 workers, 18 of whom had rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria, gave positive prick test reactions to 1 or more salts. Furthermore, on patch and prick testing, 4 cross-reactions between platinum, palladium, iridium and rhodium were demonstrated. In conclusion, the test results demonstrate that the present concentration in the environment does not increase the incidence of reactions to platinum salts in patients with dermatitis and/or urticaria. However, if the average level of environmental platinum exposure approaches those existing in industrial settings in the future, we are going to observe more frequent health effects. PMID:11140383

  17. Partitioning of platinum-group elements and Au between sulfide liquid and basalt and the origins of mantle-crust fractionation of the chalcophile elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungall, James E.; Brenan, James M.

    2014-01-01

    The partitioning of platinum-group elements (PGE; Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd) and Au between sulfide melt and silicate melt (i.e., DPGEsul) exerts a critical control on the PGE composition of the Earth’s crust and mantle, but previous estimates have been plagued by experimental uncertainties and vary through several orders of magnitude. Here we present direct experimental measurements of DPGEsul, based on in situ microanalysis of the sulfide and silicate melt, with values ranging from ∼4 × 105 (Ru) to ∼2-3 × 106 (Ir, Pt). Our measurements of DPGEsul are >100 times larger than previous results but smaller than anticipated based on comparison of alloy solubilities in sulfide melts and S-free silicate melts. The presence of S in the silicate melt greatly increases alloy solubility. We use our new set of partition coefficients to develop a fully constrained model of PGE behavior during melting which accurately predicts the abundances of PGE in mantle-derived magmas and their restites, including mid-ocean ridge basalts, continental picrites, and the parental magmas of the Bushveld Complex of South Africa. Our model constrains mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) to be the products of pooled low and high degree fractional melts. Within-plate picrites are pooled products of larger degrees of fractional melting in columnar melting regimes. A significant control on PGE fractionation in mantle-derived magmas is exerted by residual alloy or platinum group minerals in their source. At low pressures (e.g., MORB genesis) the mantle residual to partial melting retains primitive mantle inter-element ratios and abundances of PGE until sulfide has been completely dissolved but then evolves to extremely high Pt/Pd and low Pd/Ir because Pt and Ir alloys form in the restite. During melting at high pressure to form picrites or komatiites Ir alloy appears as a restite phase but Pt alloy is not stable due to the large effect of pressure on fS2, and of temperature on fO2 along an internal oxygen buffer, which causes large increases in alloy solubility. The magmas parental to the Bushveld Complex of South Africa appear, at least in part, to be partial melts of mantle that has previously been melted to the point of total sulfide exhaustion at low pressure, closely resembling mantle xenoliths of the Kaapvaal craton. Using the new extremely large DPGEsul the world-class Merensky Reef and UG2 Pt deposits of the Bushveld Complex can readily be modeled as the result of sulfide saturation due to mixing of magmas with unremarkable PGE contents, obviating the need to postulate anomalously PGE-rich parent magmas or hydrothermal inputs to the deposits.

  18. Effect of small additional elements on DBTT of V 4Cr 4Ti irradiated at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibayama, Tamaki; Yamagata, Ichiro; Kayano, Hideo; Namba, Chusei

    1998-10-01

    As a part of a program to screen several V-4Cr-4Ti containing Si, Al and Y alloys and optimize the amounts of Si, Al and Y, the Charpy impact test of five kinds of V-4Cr-4Ti-Si-Al-Y alloys by an instrumented Charpy impact testing machine using miniaturized specimens (1.5 mm × 1.5 mm × 20 mm) have been conducted before and after neutron irradiation. Charpy impact specimens were encapsulated in an aluminum vial filled with high purity He and irradiated up to 1.06 × 10 19 n/cm 2 ( E > 1 MeV, 156 h) at low temperatures (about 150°C) in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of each alloy was determined by various methods on absorbed energy, brittle fracture ratio and lateral expansion from a quantitative analysis of fractography for broken specimens after the Charpy impact test. Almost all specimens were embrittled after low temperature irradiation. Decomposition of primary precipitates could result in migration of interstitial elements to irradiation defects and many precipitates are formed under irradiation. Radiation hardening then caused the substantial degradation of its fracture toughness.

  19. Group analysis, explicit solutions and conservation laws of the Logarithmic-KdV equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gangwei; Xu, Tianzhou

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the complete description of Lie point symmetries for the logarithmic KdV equation is derived. In terms of the classical Lie symmetry method, the associated vector fields are constructed. Furthermore, the explicit solutions are given. In particular, the conservation laws of the equation are presented.

  20. Biocompatibility and compressive properties of Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds having Mg element.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Seyed Mohammad; Arabi, Hossein; Mirdamadi, Shamsodin; Mirsalehi, Seyed Ali

    2015-08-01

    Porous scaffolds of Ti-6Al-4V were produced by mixing of this alloy with different amount of magnesium (Mg) powders. The mixtures were compacted in steel die by applying uniaxial pressure of 500 MPa before sintering the compacts in sealed quartz tubes at 900 °C for 2 h. Employing Archimedes׳ principle and Image Tool software, the total and open volume percentages of porosities within the scaffolds were found to be in the range of 47-64% and 41-47%, respectively. XRD results of titanium before and after sintering showed that no contamination, neither oxides nor nitrides formed during processes. Compressive properties of the scaffolds were studied using an Instron machine. The observed compressive strength and Young׳s module of the scaffolds were in the range of 72-132 MPa, and 37-47 GPa, respectively. Cell attachment and proliferation rate of MG-63 on porous samples were investigated. The results showed that proliferation rate increased with increasing Mg content. However no clear differences were observed between samples regarding cell attachment, so that bridges were observed in all cell gaps within the scaffolds. PMID:25955560

  1. Major and trace element composition of copiapite-group minerals and coexisting water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Peterson, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    Copiapite-group minerals of the general formula AR4 (SO4)6(OH)2??nH2O, where A is predominantly Mg, Fe2+, or 0.67Al3+, R is predominantly Fe3+, and n is typically 20, are among several secondary hydrous Fe sulfates occurring in the inactive mine workings of the massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, CA, a USEPA Superfund site that produces extremely acidic drainage. Samples of copiapite-group minerals, some with coexisting water, were collected from the Richmond mine. Approximately 200 mL of brownish pore water with a pH of -0.9 were extracted through centrifugation from a 10-L sample of moist copiapite-group minerals taken from pyritic muck piles. The pore water is extremely rich in ferric iron (Fe3+=149 g L-1, FeT=162 g L-1 and has a density of 1.52 g mL-1. The composition of the pore water is interpreted in the context of published phase relations in the Fe2O3- SO3-H2O system and previous work on the chemistry of extremely acid mine waters and associated minerals in the Richmond mine. Two distinct members of the copiapite mineral group were identified in the samples with coexisting water: (1) abundant magnesiocopiapite consisting of platy crystals 10 to 50 ??m and (2) minor aluminocopiapite present as smaller platy crystals that form spheroidal aggregates. The average composition (n=5) of the magnesiocopiapite is (Mg0.90Fe0.172+ Zn0.02Cu0.01)???1.10(Fe3.833+Al0.09)???3.92(SO4) 6.00(OH)1.96??20H2O. Bulk compositions determined by digestion and wet-chemical analysis are consistent with the microanalytical results. These results suggest that magnesiocopiapite is the least soluble member of the copiapite group under the prevailing conditions. Micro-PIXE analysis indicates that the copiapite-group minerals in this sample sequester Zn (average 1420 ppm), with lesser amounts of Cu (average 270 ppm) and As (average 64 ppm). ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dilute group III-V nitride intermediate band solar cells with contact blocking layers

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man

    2015-02-24

    An intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) is provided including a p-n junction based on dilute III-V nitride materials and a pair of contact blocking layers positioned on opposite surfaces of the p-n junction for electrically isolating the intermediate band of the p-n junction by blocking the charge transport in the intermediate band without affecting the electron and hole collection efficiency of the p-n junction, thereby increasing open circuit voltage (V.sub.OC) of the IBSC and increasing the photocurrent by utilizing the intermediate band to absorb photons with energy below the band gap of the absorber layers of the IBSC. Hence, the overall power conversion efficiency of a IBSC will be much higher than an conventional single junction solar cell. The p-n junction absorber layers of the IBSC may further have compositionally graded nitrogen concentrations to provide an electric field for more efficient charge collection.

  3. Dilute Group III-V nitride intermediate band solar cells with contact blocking layers

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man

    2012-07-31

    An intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) is provided including a p-n junction based on dilute III-V nitride materials and a pair of contact blocking layers positioned on opposite surfaces of the p-n junction for electrically isolating the intermediate band of the p-n junction by blocking the charge transport in the intermediate band without affecting the electron and hole collection efficiency of the p-n junction, thereby increasing open circuit voltage (V.sub.OC) of the IBSC and increasing the photocurrent by utilizing the intermediate band to absorb photons with energy below the band gap of the absorber layers of the IBSC. Hence, the overall power conversion efficiency of a IBSC will be much higher than an conventional single junction solar cell. The p-n junction absorber layers of the IBSC may further have compositionally graded nitrogen concentrations to provide an electric field for more efficient charge collection.

  4. Les Houches Physics at TeV Colliders 2005 Beyond the Standard Model Working Group: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Allanach, B.C.; Grojean, C.; Skands, P.; Accomando, E.; Azuelos, G.; Baer, H.; Balazs, C.; Belanger, G.; Benakli, K.; Boudjema, F.; Brelier, B.; Bunichev, V.; Cacciapaglia, G.; Carena, M.; Choudhury, D.; Delsart, P.-A.; De Sanctis, U.; Desch, K.; Dobrescu, B.A.; Dudko, L.; El Kacimi, M.; /Saclay, SPhT /CERN /Fermilab /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Montreal U. /TRIUMF /Florida State U. /Argonne /Annecy, LAPTH /Paris, LPTHE /Moscow State U. /Cornell U., CIHEP /Delhi U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Freiburg U. /Cadi Ayyad U., Marrakech /Orsay, LPT /Oslo U. /Lancaster U.

    2006-03-17

    The work contained herein constitutes a report of the ''Beyond the Standard Model'' working group for the Workshop ''Physics at TeV Colliders'', Les Houches, France, 2-20 May, 2005. We present reviews of current topics as well as original research carried out for the workshop. Supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric models are studied, as well as computational tools designed in order to facilitate their phenomenology.

  5. Experimental investigations of multiple scattering of 662keV gamma photons in elements and binary alloys.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Manpreet; Sandhu, B S; Singh, Bhajan

    2008-08-01

    The energy, intensity and angular distributions of multiple scattering of 662 keV gamma photons, emerging from targets of pure elements and binary alloys, are observed as a function of target thickness in reflection and transmission geometries. The observed spectra recorded by a properly shielded NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, in addition to singly scattered events, consist of photons scattered more than once for thick targets. To extract the contribution of multiply scattered photons from the measured spectra, a singly scattered distribution is reconstructed analytically. We observe that the numbers of multiply scattered events increase with increase in target thickness, and saturate for a particular thickness called saturation thickness. The saturation thickness decreases with increasing atomic number. The multiple scattering, an interfering background noise in Compton profiles and Compton cross-section measurements, has been successfully used as a new technique to assign the "effective atomic number" to binary alloys. Monte Carlo calculations support the present experimental results. PMID:18313314

  6. Epizootic of group B Streptococcus agalactiae serotype V in DBA/2 mice.

    PubMed

    Geistfeld, J G; Weisbroth, S H; Jansen, E A; Kumpfmiller, D

    1998-02-01

    Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus agalactiae serotype V was identified as the cause of an infection in laboratory mice. Principally, the organism induced fatal septicemia in DBA/2 breeding-age mice. The syndrome appeared to originate as an ascending pyelonephritis, which progressed to septicemia. Microscopic lesions were found in the heart, kidneys, spleen, and liver, and less commonly in the uterus, thoracic cavity, lymph nodes, and lungs. The epizootic was controlled by eradication of the breeding colonies, disinfection of the barrier, and autoclaving of all equipment. The new replacement colonies have remained free of the organism. PMID:9517886

  7. High mobility group protein-B1 interacts with sterol regulatory element-binding proteins to enhance their DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Najima, Yuho; Yahagi, Naoya; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Sekiya, Motohiro; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Amemiya-Kudo, Michiyo; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Okazaki, Sachiko; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Iizuka, Yoko; Ohashi, Ken; Harada, Kenji; Gotoda, Takanari; Nagai, Ryozo; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ishibashi, Shun; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Osuga, Jun-ichi; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2005-07-29

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that are predominately involved in the regulation of lipogenic and cholesterogenic enzyme gene expression. To identify unknown proteins that interact with SREBP, we screened nuclear extract proteins with 35S-labeled SREBP-1 bait in Far Western blotting analysis. Using this approach, high mobility group protein-B1 (HMGB1), a chromosomal protein, was identified as a novel SREBP interacting protein. In vitro glutathione S-transferase pull-down and in vivo coimmunoprecipitation studies confirmed an interaction between HMGB1 and both SREBP-1 and -2. The protein-protein interaction was mediated through the helix-loop-helix domain of SREBP-1, residues 309-344, and the A box of HMGB1. Furthermore, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that HMGB1 enhances SREBPs binding to their cognate DNA sequences. Moreover, luciferase reporter analyses, including RNA interference technique showed that HMGB1 potentiates the transcriptional activities of SREBP in cultured cells. These findings raise the intriguing possibility that HMGB1 is potentially involved in the regulation of lipogenic and cholesterogenic gene transcription. PMID:16040616

  8. Blackbody-radiation-induced shifts and the broadening of Rydberg states in the ions of group IIa elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhov, I. L.; Nikitina, E. A.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.

    2016-02-01

    The rates of blackbody-radiation(BBR)-induced transitions from excited nS, nP, nD and nF states into bound states and into continua of the group IIa ions Ca+, Sr+, Ba+ at temperatures from T = 100 K to T = 3000 K are calculated in consecutive comparison of the Fues model potential (FMP) with quantum defect method (QDM). The temperature and binding-energy dependencies are determined and analytical asymptotic approximations are proposed for evaluating numerically the contributions of the bound states and continua to the Rydberg-level widths and positions. The general properties of n-dependence at the threshold and regularities of above-threshold ionization cross sections for states with high principal quantum numbers n are used for determining the rates of BBR-induced ionization. Relations are determined between deviations from general regularities for the sum rules of oscillator- strengths and specific non-local dependence of the FMP on optical-electron angular momentum. The QDM appears preferable in comparison with the FMP approach for calculating the amplitudes of radiation transitions from Rydberg states, and specifically sums of matrix-element-dependent terms over very large (in particular, infinite) numbers of discrete states. The fractional (related to natural decay) rates of BBR-induced decay into lower bound states, excitation into upper bound states and ionization transitions into the continuum are presented asymptotically with parameters tabulated for the S, P, D and F Rydberg states.

  9. Platinum group element enrichments and possible chondritic Ru:Ir across the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, western New York State.

    PubMed

    Over, D J; Conaway, C A; Katz, D J; Goodfellow, W D; Gregoire, D C

    1997-08-01

    The Frasnian-Famennian boundary is recognized as the culmination of a global mass extinction in the Late Devonian. In western New York State the boundary is a distinct horizon within a pyritic black shale bed of the upper Hanover Shale defined by the first occurrence of Palmatolepis triangularis in the absence of Frasnian conodonts. The boundary is characterized by a minor disconformity marked by a lag concentration of conodonts. Iridium at the boundary is 0.11-0.24 ng/g, two to five times background levels of <0.05 ng/g; other Ir enrichments of 0.38 ng/g and 0.49 ng/g occur within 50 cm of the conodont-constrained boundary. Numerous Ir enrichments in the boundary interval suggest extraterrestrial accretion and platinum group element (PGE) concentration at disconformities, or mobilization and concentration in organic-rich/pyritic-rich laminations from cosmic or terrestrial sources. PGE ratios of Pt/Pd and Ku/Ir at the boundary horizon approximate chondritic ratios and are suggestive of an unaltered extraterrestrial source. These values do not conclusively establish a single extraterrestrial impact as the ultimate cause of the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction, especially given the presence of similar Ir enrichments elsewhere in the section and the absence at the boundary of microtektites and shocked mineral grains. PMID:11541728

  10. Thermal Evaporation Synthesis and Properties of ZnO Nano/Microstructures Using Carbon Group Elements as the Reducing Agents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nano/microstructures have been formed by thermal evaporation method using ZnO powders mixed with carbon group elements (C, Si, Ge, Sn, or Pb) as the reducing agent. For cases of mixed precursors of ZnO/C, ZnO/Si, and ZnO/Ge, the pure ZnO nano/microstructures are realized, while for ZnO/Sn (ZnO/Pb) systems, the phase of Pb2O3(Zn2SnO4) generally are represented in the ZnO products. The appearance of Pb2O3(Zn2SnO4) is attributed to the lower melting point and higher vapor pressure of Sn (Pb) in the heating and evaporation processes. The morphologies and sizes of the products are controlled by adjusting the growth regions and/or introducing gaseous argon. Room temperature (RT) photoluminescence spectra indicate that the intensity (peak position) of the ultraviolet emission is increased (redshift) due to the existence of Zn2SnO4 phase in the ZnO products. The Pb2O3(Zn2SnO4) phase in ZnO nano/microstructures plays a important role in enhancing the saturation magnetizations of RT ferromagnetism with respect to the case of pure ZnO products fabricated by the precursor of mixed ZnO and graphite. PMID:20672143

  11. Porous Silica Sol-Gel Glasses Containing Reactive V2O5 Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, Albert E.

    1995-01-01

    Porous silica sol-gel glasses into which reactive vanadium oxide functional groups incorporated exhibit number of unique characteristics. Because they bind molecules of some species both reversibly and selectively, useful as chemical sensors or indicators or as scrubbers to remove toxic or hazardous contaminants. Materials also oxidize methane gas photochemically: suggests they're useful as catalysts for conversion of methane to alcohol and for oxidation of hydrocarbons in general. By incorporating various amounts of other metals into silica sol-gel glasses, possible to synthesize new materials with broad range of new characteristics.

  12. Towards a Precise and Accurate Estimate of the Platinum Group Element Composition of the Primitive Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, H.; Horan, M. F.; Walker, R. J.; Lorand, J.; Gao, S.; Rudnick, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    Determining precise and accurate platinum group element (PGE) abundances in peridotites is key for the detection of primordial and secondary (i.e., magmatic) heterogeneities of the PGE in the mantle, and may be used to establish model PGE compositions of the primitive upper mantle (PUM). In conjunction with 187Os/188Os (reflecting the Re/Os of PUM), the PGE model composition of PUM, in particular its Pd/Ir, may help in tracing the source of the late siderophile element influx at 1 AU by comparison with data for chondrites (Horan et al. 2003). We have determined Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd and Re abundances in samples from continental peridotite massifs and peridotite xenoliths. The new approach uses isotope dilution and high-pressure, high-temperature digestion in Carius tubes at 345 C, as most other techniques are either not precise enough, or do not access the complete PGE budget during the digestion of peridotites (Meisel et al. 2003, and in press). Reproducibility and accuracy are controlled by multiple analysis of the peridotite standard UB-N, for which the PGE content is now well constrained through high-T-P digestion and Na2O2-NaOH fusion. New data for peridotites from the Pyrenees and Lanzo indicate that, in some cases, Ir and Ru contents may have been underestimated by up to 50-80% by older techniques using NiS-fire assay, resulting in overestimates of Pd/Ir. The new data also show a good correlation of Pd/Ir with Al, suggesting a Pd/Ir of PUM between 1.5 and 2.0, comparable to or higher than EH chondrites. Data for peridotite xenoliths from Hannuoba (China), while also correlating with Al, show larger scatter in Pd/Ir than the European samples. This could be an analytical artifact, because most of the Chinese samples were digested in standard Carius tubes at 220 C. High-T-P digestions will be performed to test this hypothesis and data on other peridotites are being obtained to constrain the composition of PUM.

  13. Platinum-group element concentrations in pyrite from the Main Sulfide Zone of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, R.; Gervilla, F.; Barnes, S.-J.; Oberthür, T.; Lunar, R.

    2016-02-01

    The Main Sulfide Zone (MSZ) of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe hosts the world's second largest resource of platinum-group elements (PGE) after the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. The sulfide assemblage of the MSZ comprises pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and minor pyrite. Recently, several studies have observed in a number of Ni-Cu-PGE ore deposits that pyrite may host significant amounts of PGE, particularly Pt and Rh. In this study, we have determined PGE and other trace element contents in pyrite from the Hartley, Ngezi, Unki, and Mimosa mines of the Great Dyke by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Based on the textures and PGE contents, two types of pyrite can be differentiated. Py1 occurs as individual euhedral or subhedral grains or clusters of crystals mostly within chalcopyrite and pentlandite, in some cases in the form of symplectitic intergrowths, and is PGE rich (up to 99 ppm Pt and 61 ppm Rh; 1.7 to 47.1 ppm Ru, 0.1 to 7.8 ppm Os, and 1.2 to 20.2 ppm Ir). Py2 occurs as small individual euhedral or subhedral crystals within pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and less frequently within chalcopyrite and silicates and has low PGE contents (<0.11 ppm Pt, <0.34 ppm Rh, <2.5 ppm Ru, <0.37 ppm Ir, and <0.40 ppm Os). Py1 contains higher Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Pt contents than the associated pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite, whereas Py2 has similar PGE contents as coexisting pyrrhotite and pentlandite. Based on the textural relationships, two different origins are attributed for each pyrite type. Py1 intergrowth with pentlandite and chalcopyrite is inferred to have formed by late, low temperature (<300 °C) decomposition of residual Ni-rich monosulfide solid solution, whereas Py2 is suggested to have formed by replacement of pyrrhotite and pentlandite caused by late magmatic/hydrothermal fluids.

  14. Fossil group origins. V. The dependence of the luminosity function on the magnitude gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarattini, S.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Barrena, R.; Boschin, W.; del Burgo, C.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Corsini, E. M.; D'Onghia, E.; Girardi, M.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Kundert, A.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Vilchez, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Context. In nature we observe galaxy aggregations that span a wide range of magnitude gaps between the two first-ranked galaxies of a system (Δm12). Thus, there are systems with gaps close to zero (e.g., the Coma cluster), and at the other extreme of the distribution, the largest gaps are found among the so-called fossil systems. The observed distribution of magnitude gaps is thought to be a consequence of the orbital decay of M∗ galaxies in massive halos and the associated growth of the central object. As a result, to first order the amplitude of this gap is a good statistical proxy for the dynamical age of a system of galaxies. Fossil and non-fossil systems could therefore have different galaxy populations that should be reflected in their luminosity functions. Aims: In this work we study, for the first time, the dependence of the luminosity function parameters on Δm12 using data obtained by the fossil group origins (FOGO) project. Methods: We constructed a hybrid luminosity function for 102 groups and clusters at z ≤ 0.25 using both photometric data from the SDSS-DR7 and redshifts from the DR7 and the FOGO surveys. The latter consists of ~1200 new redshifts in 34 fossil system candidates. We stacked all the individual luminosity functions, dividing them into bins of Δm12, and studied their best-fit Schechter parameters. We additionally computed a "relative" luminosity function, expressed as a function of the central galaxy luminosity, which boosts our capacity to detect differences - especially at the bright end. Results: We find trends as a function of Δm12 at both the bright and faint ends of the luminosity function. In particular, at the bright end, the larger the magnitude gap, the fainter the characteristic magnitude M∗. The characteristic luminosity in systems with negligible gaps is more than a factor three brighter than in fossil-like ones. Remarkably, we also find differences at the faint end. In this region, the larger the gap, the flatter the faint-end slope α. Conclusions: The differences found at the bright end support a dissipationless, dynamical friction-driven merging model for the growth of the central galaxy in group- and cluster-sized halos. The differences in the faint end cannot be explained by this mechanism. Other processes - such as enhanced tidal disruption due to early infall and/or prevalence of eccentric orbits - may play a role. However, a larger sample of systems with Δm12> 1.5 is needed to establish the differences at the faint end.

  15. Secondary cluster ion distributions produced by MeV ion impacts on Group IIA oxides and nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrell, W. R.; von Heimburg, S. L.; van Stipdonk, M. J.; Schweikert, E. A.

    1996-10-01

    Cluster ion distributions from MeV atomic ion impacts (fission fragments from 252Cf on divalent Group IIA (GIIA) oxides and nitrates have been examined. The two predominant positive cluster species observed from both solids, (MO)nH+ and (MO)n M+ (M denotes metal atom) are evidence of a localized plasma state thought to be created by discrete MeV ion impacts. Cluster intensities and extent of clustering from nitrates were generally greater than those from oxides. The enhanced abundances at certain "magic numbers" of n observed in the mass spectra are believed to arise during the actual cluster production process. These periodic enhancements in cluster stabilities are attributed to the adoption by size-specific clusters of atomic arrangements analogous to segments of the rock salt lattice of the GIIA oxides. Cluster stabilities for the GIIA oxides and nitrates are influenced by the ionicity of M-O bonds, formal valence of metal and radius of cation.

  16. Structure of the Type IX Group B Streptococcus Capsular Polysaccharide and Its Evolutionary Relationship with Types V and VII

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Francesco; Campisi, Edmondo; Toniolo, Chiara; Morelli, Laura; Crotti, Stefano; Rosini, Roberto; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Pinto, Vittoria; Brogioni, Barbara; Torricelli, Giulia; Janulczyk, Robert; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada

    2014-01-01

    The Group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide type IX was isolated and purified, and the structure of its repeating unit was determined. Type IX capsule →4)[NeupNAc-α-(2→3)-Galp-β-(1→4)-GlcpNAc-β-(1→6)]-β-GlcpNAc-(1→4)-β-Galp-(1→4)-β-Glcp-(1→ appears most similar to types VII and V, although it contains two GlcpNAc residues. Genetic analysis identified differences in cpsM, cpsO, and cpsI gene sequences as responsible for the differentiation between the three capsular polysaccharide types, leading us to hypothesize that type V emerged from a recombination event in a type IX background. PMID:24990951

  17. Ancient mantle trapped in the Mariana arc-basin system: Insights from the platinum group elements and Os isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savov, I. P.; Shirey, S. B.; Horan, M. F.; Mock, T. D.

    2006-12-01

    Serpentinized harzburgites recently drilled during ODP Leg 195 at South Chamorro Seamount in the Mariana forearc region have been studied for their platinum group element (PGE) concentrations and Os isotopic compositions. The samples allow a look at the slab fluid-modified subarc mantle immediately overlaying the actively subducting Pacific slab at depths of ~ 30 km. The average PGE (Os 2.3 ppb, Ir 1.5 ppb, Ru 5.4 ppb, Pd 1.6 ppb and Pt 16.3 ppb) and Re (60 ppt) abundances are comparable to those measured in other subarc mantle xenolith suites. The PGE and Re abundances are depleted up to 3 orders of magnitude relative to chondrites, with relative order of depletions Ru > Os > Ir> Pt> Re> Pd. The variable Pd contents (0.01-4.5 ppb) and the low Pd/Os (<2) in the Mariana forearc samples differ significantly from that of altered oceanic crust (Pd/Os~ 22), suggesting Os remained relatively unchanged during low temperature subduction-fluid additions. Serpentinitization of the harzburgites occurred in equilibrium with fluids that were both reducing and highly alkaline. Os in its original phases may be stabilized in such an environment, therefore can preserve evidence for ancient melting despite later slab interactions. Finally, the high Pt/Pd (ave. ~ 25) and low Re contents (ave.~ 60 ppt) in the Leg 195 forearc samples are complementary to those measured in boninites from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc-basin system, showing a genetic relationship. Our samples reveal an average 187Os/188Os of 0.123 [range = 0.119- 0.127], making them similar to abyssal peridotites from elsewhere. Radiogenic 187Os/188Os ratios would have been imparted to the serpentinites by slab fluids, so the subchondritic Os isotopic compositions implies that peridotite-slab fluid interactions did not alter the Os isotope systematics of the mantle protoliths. Low alumina abundances (<1 %) and trace element signatures (low HFSE; REE with U-shaped chondrite-normalized patterns and 2-3 times lower than chondrite meteorite abundances) imply that the serpentinites are highly melt-depleted. Depleted mantle model ages calculated from the Os isotopic compositions span the range from several million to more than billion years as was shown for other Mariana subarc mantle samples recovered ~ 1000 km to the north at Conical Seamount [Parkinson et al., Science, 1998]. The dramatic age variations and the trace element and isotope systematics in the subarc mantle of the Marianas reveal that 55 M.y. of active plate convergence in the Western Pacific did not entirely recycle the pre-subduction mantle. We suggest that remnants of old mantle remain trapped as small "plum"- like domains in the region between the Mariana Trench and the Mariana volcanic front.

  18. Electroabsorption modulators for CMOS compatible optical interconnects in III-V and group IV materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Jonathan Edgar

    While electrical systems excel at information processing, photonics is useful in systems for high-bandwidth, low-loss signal transmission. As photonics technology has become increasingly widespread and has been deployed at shorter distance scales than traditional long-haul networks, it has become important to efficiently integrate photonics components with electrical integrated circuits. Optoelectronic modulators used as transmitters are an important class of device for use in optical interconnects. Many optoelectronic modulator designs use waveguides. Coupling light into waveguides requires a difficult alignment step. This dissertation will describe a number of optoelectronic modulators that do not have the tight alignment constraints associated with waveguide-based modulators. The eased alignment constraints may be important for the practical manufacturing and packaging of systems using optical interconnects. Most currently deployed photonics technologies also use substrates other than silicon and materials incompatible with CMOS manufacturing. Recently we discovered a strong quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum well structures that can be used to create efficient optoelectronic modulators on silicon substrates. Optoelectronic modulators using this technology can be fabricated with conventional CMOS foundry processes, possibly on the same chips as CMOS circuits. In this dissertation, an optical interconnect operating in the C-band will be presented. We believe this is the first such device employing an optical transmitter flip-chip bonded to silicon CMOS. A number of novel modulators will be presented, which are fabricated on silicon substrates, and employ Ge/SiGe quantum well structures. These modulators include a novel architecture known as the side-entry modulator, which is designed for monolithic integration with electronics. One side-entry modulator achieved over 3 dB of contrast in the telecommunications C-band for a voltage swing of 1V. Such a device is compatible with both the voltage swing of modern CMOS circuits, and long-distance telecommunications technologies including low-loss optical fiber and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers.

  19. Direct observation of N-(group V) bonding defects in dilute nitride semiconductors using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, F.; Fuyuno, S.; Higashi, K.; Kondow, M.; Machida, M.; Oji, H.; Son, J.-Y.; Trampert, A.; Umeno, K.; Furukawa, Y.; Wakahara, A.

    2011-03-21

    Using bulk sensitive hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we directly observe a spectrum related to N-As bonding defects in (Ga,In)(N,As)/Ga(N,As) heterostructure. The defects are most likely attributed to split interstitials. Their concentration is in the order of 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, close to the detection limit of the measurement. Rapid thermal annealing eliminates the defects, leading to those undetectable. Similar phenomenon is observed for N-P bonding defects in In(N,P). The results indicate common features in dilute nitride semiconductor system: existence of N-(group V) bonding defects and their behavior on postgrowth annealing.

  20. Environmental risk of particulate and soluble platinum group elements released from gasoline and diesel engine catalytic converters.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, M; Palacios, M A; Gómez, M M; Morrison, G; Rauch, S; McLeod, C; Ma, R; Caroli, S; Alimonti, A; Petrucci, F; Bocca, B; Schramel, P; Zischka, M; Pettersson, C; Wass, U; Luna, M; Saenz, J C; Santamaría, J

    2002-09-16

    A comparison of platinum-group element (PGE) emission between gasoline and diesel engine catalytic converters is reported within this work. Whole raw exhaust fumes from four catalysts of three different types were examined during their useful lifetime, from fresh to 80,000 km. Two were gasoline engine catalysts (Pt-Pd-Rh and Pd-Rh), while the other two were diesel engine catalysts (Pt). Samples were collected following the 91441 EUDC driving cycle for light-duty vehicle testing, and the sample collection device used allowed differentiation between the particulate and soluble fractions, the latter being the most relevant from an environmental point of view. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (quadrupole and high resolution), and special attention was paid to the control of spectral interference, especially in the case of Pd and Rh. The results obtained show that, for fresh catalysts, the release of particulate PGE through car exhaust fumes does not follow any particular trend, with a wide range (one-two orders of magnitude) for the content of noble metals emitted. The samples collected from 30,000-80,000 km present a more homogeneous PGE release for all catalysts studied. A decrease of approximately one order of magnitude is observed with respect to the release from fresh catalysts, except in the case of the diesel engine catalyst, for which PGE emission continued to be higher than in the case of gasoline engines. The fraction of soluble PGE was found to represent less than 10% of the total amount released from fresh catalysts. For aged catalysts, the figures are significantly higher, especially for Pd and Rh. Particulate PGE can be considered as virtually biologically inert, while soluble PGE forms can represent an environmental risk due to their bioavailability, which leads them to accumulate in the environment. PMID:12398337

  1. Thermodynamic calculations of the volatility of the platinum group elements (PGE): The PGE content of fluids at magmatic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Scott A.

    1987-11-01

    The volatilities of the platinum-group elements as metals, oxides and chlorides were calculated at temperatures of 800-1600 K. Only Pd is significantly volatile as the metal. At log fH2O = 1 Kbar and 1200 K., the concentration (weight) of Pd in the vapor reaches 1 ppt and at 1600 K attains several ppb. The PGE oxides are extremely volatile at atmospheric oxygen fugacities. However, only Os and Ru have significant volatilities (≥ ppt) as oxides (OsO 4, RuO 3) at oxygen fugacities typical of magmatic PGE deposits (near QFM) and only at temperatures greater than 1400 K. Data on the volatility of PGE chlorides exist only for Pd and Ru, both of which are somewhat more volatile as chlorides than as oxides. At 1400 log fH2O = 1 bars, fHCl = 100 bars and at QFM, the calculated vapor concentrations of PdCl 2 and RuCl 3 are 500 ppt and 20 ppt, respectively (and less in the presence of sulfur). However, higher concentrations of PGE may be attained at higher temperatures, higher fO2, higher fHCl or lower fH2. Also, any interactions between water vapor and PGE vapor species (e.g. ionization, solvation) would tend to increase the vapor concentration of PGE. Volatility of Ir as IrF 6 is insignificant at all conditions. Vapor transport of the more volatile PGE as chlorides may play some role in the transport of these metals in mafic igneous complexes such as the Stillwater or the Bushveld. However, under the conditions where the PGE are most volatile, the metals Fe, Ni and Cu are several factors often more volatile, so that enrichment of the PGE and Cu over Ni and Fe cannot be explained by chloride transport alone.

  2. Re-Os isotope and platinum group elements of a FOcal ZOne mantle source, Louisville Seamounts Chain, Pacific ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejada, Maria Luisa G.; Hanyu, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Akira; Senda, Ryoko; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Fitton, Godfrey; Williams, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    The Louisville Seamount Chain (LSC) is, besides the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain, one of the longest-lived hotspot traces. We report here the first Re-Os isotope and platinum group element (PGE) data for Canopus, Rigil, and Burton Guyots along the chain, which were drilled during IODP Expedition 330. The LSC basalts possess (187Os/188Os)i = 0.1245-0.1314 that are remarkably homogeneous and do not vary with age. A Re-Os isochron age of 64.9 ± 3.2 Ma was obtained for Burton seamount (the youngest of the three seamounts drilled), consistent with 40Ar-39Ar data. Isochron-derived initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.1272 ± 0.0008, together with data for olivines (0.1271-0.1275), are within the estimated primitive mantle values. This (187Os/188Os)i range is similar to those of Rarotonga (0.124-0.139) and Samoan shield (0.1276-0.1313) basalts and lower than those of Cook-Austral (0.136-0.155) and Hawaiian shield (0.1283-0.1578) basalts, suggesting little or no recycled component in the LSC mantle source. The PGE data of LSC basalts are distinct from those of oceanic lower crust. Variation in PGE patterns can be largely explained by different low degrees of melting under sulfide-saturated conditions of the same relatively fertile mantle source, consistent with their primitive mantle-like Os and primordial Ne isotope signatures. The PGE patterns and the low 187Os/188Os composition of LSC basalts contrast with those of Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) tholeiites. We conclude that the Re-Os isotope and PGE composition of LSC basalts reflect a relatively pure deep-sourced common mantle sampled by some ocean island basalts but is not discernible in the composition of OJP tholeiites.

  3. Deletion of the P5abc Peripheral Element Accelerates Early and Late Folding Steps of the Tetrahymena Group I Ribozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Russell,R.; Tijerina, P.; Chadee, A.; Bhaskaran, H.

    2007-01-01

    The P5abc peripheral element stabilizes the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme and enhances its catalytic activity. Despite its beneficial effects on the native structure, prior studies have shown that early formation of P5abc structure during folding can slow later folding steps. Here we use a P5abc deletion variant (E{sup {Delta}P5abc}) to systematically probe the role of P5abc throughout tertiary folding. Time-resolved hydroxyl radical footprinting shows that E{sup {Delta}P5abc} forms its earliest stable tertiary structure on the millisecond time scale, {approx}5-fold faster than the wild-type ribozyme, and stable structure spreads throughout E{sup {Delta}P5abc} in seconds. Nevertheless, activity measurements show that the earliest detectable formation of native E{sup {Delta}P5abc} ribozyme is much slower ({approx}0.6 min{sup -1}), in a manner similar to that of the wild type. Also similar, only a small fraction of E{sup {Delta}P5abc} attains the native state on this time scale under standard conditions at 25 {sup o}C, whereas the remainder misfolds; footprinting experiments show that the misfolded conformer shares structural features with the long-lived misfolded conformer of the wild-type ribozyme. Thus, P5abc does not have a large overall effect on the rate-limiting step(s) along this pathway. However, once misfolded, E{sup {Delta}P5abc} refolds to the native state 80-fold faster than the wild-type ribozyme and is less accelerated by urea, indicating that P5abc stabilizes the misfolded structure relative to the less-ordered transition state for refolding. Together, the results suggest that, under these conditions, even the earliest tertiary folding intermediates of the wild-type ribozyme represent misfolded species and that P5abc is principally a liability during the tertiary folding process.

  4. Sulfide-scale insights into platinum-group element behavior during carbonate mantle metasomatism and evolution of Spitsbergen lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Nak Kyu; Choi, Sung Hi; Dale, Christopher W.

    2016-03-01

    We report combined Re-Os isotope and highly siderophile element data for whole-rock and whole-sulfide grains from Spitsbergen peridotites. The Os-Ir contents in whole-rocks are elevated compared to those of the primitive mantle, but the Pt-Pd-Re contents are depleted, reflecting refractory monosulfide solid solution (Mss) control during mantle melting. There are two general types of sulfide documented in global mantle samples: primary residual Mss with subchondritic Pd/Ir ratios and secondary metasomatic sulfides with suprachondritic Pd/Ir ratios. Most Spitsbergen sulfides have elevated Ir contents, and belong to the residual group. Most but not all Spitsbergen sulfides, however, are unusual in that they show a fractionation of Os (and Ru) from Ir which cannot be reconciled with a simple partial melting process. The Os(+ Ru) fractionation from Ir is most notable in a sample containing mantle-derived carbonate-bearing pockets. Infiltration of carbonate-rich S-undersaturated melt into the Spitsbergen lithospheric mantle may result in the formation of localized S-rich liquid by dissolving residual Mss. Such melt compositions may promote laurite crystallization before Mss, causing the combined depletion of Os + Ru relative to Ir in later-formed Mss. The Re-depletion model ages of residual sulfide grains from Spitsbergen peridotites coincide with crustal ages determined for Spitsbergen, indicating coupled mantle-crust evolution, and furthermore, they coincide with the previously proposed major peaks of pulsed crustal formation periods in Earth at ca. 2.7, 1.9 and 1.2 Ga.

  5. Platinum Group Elements (PGE) geochemistry of komatiites and boninites from Dharwar Craton, India: Implications for mantle melting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhishek; Manikyamba, C.; Santosh, M.; Ganguly, Sohini; Khelen, Arubam C.; Subramanyam, K. S. V.

    2015-06-01

    High MgO volcanic rocks having elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr are potential hosts for platinum group elements (PGE) owing to their primitive mantle origin and eruption at high temperatures. Though their higher PGE abundance is economically significant in mineral exploration studies, their lower concentrations are also valuable geochemical tools to evaluate petrogenetic processes. In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate the PGE geochemistry of high MgO volcanic rocks from two greenstone belts of western and eastern Dharwar Craton and to discuss different mantle processes operative at diverse geodynamic settings during the Neoarchean time. The Bababudan greenstone belt of western and Gadwal greenstone belt of eastern Dharwar Cratons are dominantly composed of high MgO volcanic rocks which, based on distinct geochemical characteristics, have been identified as komatiites and boninites respectively. The Bababudan komatiites are essentially composed of olivine and clinopyroxene with rare plagioclase tending towards komatiitic basalts. The Gadwal boninites contain clinopyroxene, recrystallized hornblende with minor orthopyroxene, plagioclase and sulphide minerals. The Bababudan komatiites are Al-undepleted type (Al2O3/TiO2 = 23-59) with distinctly high MgO (27.4-35.8 wt.%), Ni (509-1066 ppm) and Cr (136-3036 ppm) contents. These rocks have low ΣPGE (9-42 ppb) contents with 0.2-2.4 ppb Iridium (Ir), 0.2-1.4 ppb Osmium (Os) and 0.4-4.4 ppb Ruthenium (Ru) among Iridium group PGE (IPGE); and 1.4-16.2 ppb Platinum (Pt), 2.8-19 ppb Palladium (Pd) and 0.2-9.8 ppb Rhodium (Rh) among Platinum group PGE (PPGE). The Gadwal boninites are high-Ca boninites with CaO/Al2O3 ratios varying between 0.8 and 1.0, with 12-24 wt.% MgO, 821-1168 ppm Ni and 2307-2765 ppm Cr. They show higher concentration of total PGE (82-207 ppb) with Pt concentration ranging from 13 to 19 ppb, Pd between 65 and 180 ppb and Rh in the range of 1.4-3 ppb compared to the Bababudan komatiites. Ir, Os and Ru concentrations range from 0.6 to 2.2 ppb, 0.2 to 0.6 ppb and 1.4 to 2.6 ppb respectively in IPGE. The PGE abundances in Bababudan komatiites were controlled by olivine fractionation whereas that in Gadwal boninites were influenced by fractionation of chromite and sulphides. The Al-undepleted Bababudan komatiites are characterized by low CaO/Al2O3, (Gd/Yb)N, (La/Yb)N, with positive Zr, Hf, Ti anomalies and high Cu/Pd, Pd/Ir ratios at low Pd concentrations suggesting the derivation of parent magma by high degrees (>30%) partial melting of mantle under anhydrous conditions at shallow depth with garnet as a residual phase in the mantle restite. The komatiites are geochemically analogous to Al-undepleted Munro type komatiites and their PGE compositions are consistent with Alexo and Gorgona komatiites. The S-undersaturated character of Bababudan komatiites is attributed to decompression and assimilation of lower crustal materials during magma ascent and emplacement. In contrast, the higher Al2O3/TiO2, lower (Gd/Yb)N, for Gadwal boninites in combination with negative Nb, Zr, Hf, Ti anomalies and lower Cu/Pd at relatively higher Pd/Ir and Pd concentrations reflect high degree melting of refractory mantle wedge under hydrous conditions in an intraoceanic subduction zone setting. Higher Pd/Ir ratios and S-undersaturation of these boninites conform to influx of fluids derived by dehydration of subducted slab resulting into high fluid pressure and metasomatism of mantle wedge.

  6. Multiple cis-acting elements are required for proper transcription of the mouse V[delta]1 T cell receptor promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Puntuieri, A.; Shirakata, Yumiko; Bovolenta, C.; Kikuchi, G.; Coligan, J.E. )

    1993-01-01

    To gain insight into the developmentally regulated expression of the mouse TCR V[delta]-gene segments, the authors have investigated the role of the 5[prime] promoter region of the V[delta]1-gene. Transient transfection assays showed that a construct encompassing 267 nucleotides upstream from the mapped transcriptional start site was capable of driving promoter activity when transfected into V[delta]1[sup +]T cells. The inclusion of an additional 459-bp 5[prime] segment to this construct did not affect promoter activity. However, a deletion of 222 5[prime] nucleotides from the same construct dramatically decreased promoter activity. In vivo genomic footprinting localized several protein-DNA interactions to the stretch of DNA shown to have transcriptional activity. A computer analysis revealed that the segments of DNA participating in these protein-DNA interactions were identical to the previously described cyclic AMP response element (CRE), E box, and leukemia virus E26 cis-acting elements. Transient transfection assays performed with [minus]267 bp constructs containing mutations at each of the localized cis-acting elements revealed that the CRE, E box, and Ets elements work together in driving promoter activity and that the CRE and Ets elements are the most important for driving transcription. Gel mobility shift analyses showed that each of these cis-acting elements is capable of binding specific nuclear factors present in V[delta]1-expressing cells. These data indicate that multiple transcription factors acting in concert are responsible for V[delta]1 gene expression. 69 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Entrapping a Group-VB Transition Metal, Vanadium, within an Endohedral Metallofullerene: V(x)Sc(3-x)N@I(h)-C80 (x = 1, 2).

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Wang, Song; Lu, Xing; Tan, Yuanzhi; Huang, Jing; Liu, Fupin; Li, Qunxiang; Xie, Suyuan; Yang, Shangfeng

    2016-01-13

    So far the entrapped metals for the isolated endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) are primarily limited to rare earth metals, whereas except group-IVB metals, whether it is possible to entrap other d-block transition metals remains unclear. Herein we report the successful entrapment of the group-VB transition metal vanadium(V) into fullerene cage, affording the heretofore unknown V-containing EMFs. Two novel V-containing EMFs--V(x)Sc(3-x)N@C80 (x = 1, 2)--were isolated, and their molecular structures were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography to be I(h)(7)-C80 cage entrapping the planar VSc2N/V2ScN clusters. V(x)Sc(3-x)N@I(h)(7)-C80 (x = 1, 2) were further characterized by UV-vis-NIR and ESR spectroscopies and electrochemistry, revealing that the electronic and magnetic properties of V(x)Sc(3-x)N@I(h)(7)-C80 (x = 1, 2) are tunable upon varying the number of entrapped V atoms (i.e., x value). The molecular structures and electronic properties of V(x)Sc(3-x)N@I(h)(7)-C80 (x = 1, 2) were further compared with those of the reported analogous EMFs based on lanthanide metals and the adjacent group-IVB transition metal Ti, revealing the peculiarity of the group-VB transition metal V-based EMFs. PMID:26645852

  8. Evidence from meimechites and other low-degree mantle melts for redox controls on mantle-crust fractionation of platinum-group elements

    PubMed Central

    Mungall, James E.; Hanley, Jacob J.; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Debecdelievre, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of the geochemistry of the chalcophile elements [i.e., Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd (platinum-group elements), and Au, Cu, Ni] has been informed for at least 20 years by the common assumption that when crust-forming partial melts are extracted from the upper mantle, sulfide liquid in the restite sequesters chalcophile elements until the extent of partial melting exceeds ≈25% and all of the sulfide has been dissolved in silicate melt [Hamlyn, P. R. & Keays, R. R. (1985) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 49, 1797–1811]. Here we document very high, unfractionated, chalcophile element concentrations in small-degree partial melts from the mantle that cannot be reconciled with the canonical residual sulfide assumption. We show that the observed high, unfractionated platinum-group element concentrations in small-degree partial melts can be attained if the melting takes place at moderately high oxygen fugacity, which will reduce the amount of sulfide due to the formation of sulfate and will also destabilize residual monosulfide solid solution by driving sulfide melts into the spinel-liquid divariant field. Magmas formed at high oxygen fugacity by small degrees of mantle melting can be important agents for the transfer of chalcophile elements from the upper mantle to the crust and may be progenitors of significant ore deposits of Pt, Pd, and Au. PMID:16908861

  9. Effects of Oxygen Element and Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Surface Wettability of Coal Dust with Various Metamorphic Degrees Based on XPS Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gang; Xu, Cuicui; Cheng, Weimin; Zhang, Qi; Nie, Wen

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the difference of surface oxygen element and oxygen-containing functional groups among coal dusts with different metamorphic degrees and their influence on surface wettability, a series of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments on 6 coal samples are carried out. The result demonstrates that the O/C ratio of coal surface shows an overall increasing trend compared with the result of its elements analysis. As the metamorphic degree increases, the O/C ratio on the surface gradually declines and the hydrophilic groups tend to fall off from coal surface. It could be found that different coals show different surface distributions of carboxyl and hydroxyl which are considered as the greatest promoter to the wettability of coal surface. With the change of metamorphic degree, the distribution of ether group is irregular while the carbonyl distribution keeps stable. In general, as the metamorphic degree goes higher, the content of oxygen-containing polar group tends to reduce. According to the measurement results, the contact angle is negatively related to the content of oxygen element, surface oxygen, and polar groups. In addition, compared with surface oxygen content, the content of oxygen-containing polar group serves as a more reasonable indicator of coal dust wettability. PMID:26257980

  10. Positive anomaly in platinum group elements and the presence of shocked diamonds: Two question marks at the Younger Dryas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, P. F.; Schryvers, D.; Tian, H.; Goderis, S.

    2009-12-01

    Recently, a large size impact was proposed as the cause of the global changes taking place at the Younger Dryas (YD) some 12,9 kyr ago. Impact evidence was reported in a C-rich black layer of broad geographic distribution. The impact markers consist of a large anomaly in the concentration of platinum group elements (PGE) and the presence of nanodiamonds, in particular lonsdaleite, which hexagonal structure is believed to be of shock origin. The impact is proposed to have occurred on the North American continent. A crater large enough (> 150 km) to induce a mass extinction some ~12.9 ka ago, formed in a geologically well-known area, is unlikely to have escaped detection. Therefore, an alternative hypothesis is that a cometary projectile exploded fully within the atmosphere spreading PGE and shock formed diamonds, without any target rock contribution, all around the Northern hemisphere. So far, PGE measurements failed to reproduce the elevated (> ppb) concentrations reported previously at Younger Dryas sites containing the black layer. In Lommel (Belgium) where the first study detected up to 117 ppb Ir, the Ir concentration is below the detection limit of the method (NiS fire assay + ICP-MS) used (0.06 ppb). At all sites analyzed the PGE pattern is typical of that of the continental crust. In several craters (Popigai, Ries) or at the KT boundary nanodiamonds have been reported associated with shocked materials. Several types of carbon components occur in the black layer of the Lommel section such as i) flakes reaching up to 1 µm, ii) nano particles of cubic diamond, 1 to 10 nm in size and iii) larger carbon onion-ring structures, which core can act as a nanoscopic pressure cell leading to the formation of nanodiamond by self- compression. The Lommel nanodiamonds present in the Younger Dryas layer do resemble nanodiamonds found in carbon spherules of unknown origin previously reported in top soil from several localities in Belgium and Germany. The C stable isotopic signature measured in the C-rich black layer is clearly produced by organic matter of terrestrial origin (-29‰).

  11. Platinum-group element abundance and distribution in chromite deposits of the Acoje Block, Zambales Ophiolite Complex, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacuta, G.C., Jr.; Kay, R.W.; Gibbs, A.K.; Lipin, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    Platinum-group elements (PGE) occur in ore-grade concentration in some of the chromite deposits related to the ultramafic section of the Acoje Block of the Zambales Ophiolite Complex. The deposits are of three types: Type 1 - associated with cumulate peridotites at the base of the crust; Type 2 - in dunite pods from the top 1 km of mantle harzburgite; and Type 3 - like Type 2, but in deeper levels of the harzburgite. Most of the deposites have chromite compositions that are high in Cr with Cr/(Cr + Al) (expressed as chromium index, Cr#) > 0.6; high-Al (Cr# Pd, thought to be characteristic of PGE-barren deposits) and positive slope (Ir < Pd, characteristic of PGE-rich deposits). Iridium, Ru and Os commonly occur as micron-size laurite (sulfide) inclusions in unfractured chromite. Laurite and native Os are also found as inclusions in interstitial sulfides. Platinum and Pd occur as alloy inclusions (and possibly as solid solution) in interstitial Ni-Cu sulfides and as tellurobismuthides in serpentine and altered sulfides. Variability of PGE distribution may be explained by alteration, crystal fractionation or partial melting processes. Alteration and metamorphism were ruled out, because PGE contents do not correlate with degree of serpentinization or the abundance and type (hydroxyl versus non-hydroxyl) of silicate inclusions in chromite. Preliminary Os isotopic data do not support crustal contamination as a source of the PGEs in the Acoje deposits. The anomalous PGE concentrations in Type 1 high-Cr chromite deposits are attributed to two stages of enrichment: an early enrichment of their mantle source from previous melting events and a later stage of sulfide segregation accompanying chromite crystallization. High-Al chromite deposits which crystallized from basalts derived from relatively low degrees of melting owe their low PGE content to partitioning of PGEs in sulfides and alloys that remain in the mantle. High-Cr deposits crystallized from melts that were previously enriched with PGEs during early melting events of their mantle source; Pt and Pd ore concentrations (ppm levels) are attained by segregation of magmatic sulfides. The Acoje deposits indicate that ophiolites are a potential economic source of the PGEs. ?? 1990.

  12. Do The Concentrations Of Platinum Group Elements In The Younger Dryas Black Layer Really Support An Extraterrestrial Origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, P.; Paquay, F.; Goderis, S.; Vanhaecke, F.

    2008-12-01

    An enigmatic carbon-rich black layer, of possible worldwide occurrence, is interpreted to indicate an extraterrestrial impact around 12.9 ka, a period coeval with the Younger Dryas (YD) environmental changes (Firestone et al. 2007, PNAS 104). This interpretation is based on the possible identification of a series of markers postulated to be of impact origin, such as magnetic grains and microspherules, charcoal, soot, C- spherules, nanodiamonds, fullerenes with extraterrestrial He and elevated concentrations of Ir. Among these markers, only the elevated Ir concentration is a non-ambiguous impact indicator. In early 2007, one of us (PC) measured the concentration of platinum group elements (including Ir) in 4 samples of this black layer. Allen West provided the samples along with their Ir concentrations. The samples originated from Howard Bay, NC (level HB-11D2) and Blackwater Draw, NM (levels BW-DT, D/C and BW-B/A), and were supposed to contain 15 ng/g Ir (<150 micron magnetic fraction), 2.0 ng/g Ir (bulk sediment), 2.25 ng/g Ir (bulk sediment) and <0.1 ng/g Ir (bulk sediment) respectively. In Table 1 of Firestone et al. (2007) the Blackwater Draw sample contains 2.3 ng/g Ir, and the separated magnetic fraction rises up 24 ng/g. The obtained results showed that none of the 4 samples yielded PGE concentrations above 0.5 ng/g. Considering the attention the claim of a possible YD impact has generated in the last year, we are currently reanalyzing these 4 samples of the black layer using high precision NiS fire-assay preconcentration combined with ICP-MS analyses. On proven crater melt rocks or impact layers, the quantitation limits reach: 0.06 ng/g Ru, 0.01 ng/g Rh, 0.14 ng/g Pd, 0.06 ng/g Ir, and 0.1 ng/g Pt, far below the Ir values claimed by Firestone et al. (2007). In addition, these 4 samples are being analyzed for Os isotopes, known to be most sensitive for the detection of minute amounts of extraterrestrial components (%<%%<%0.05 wt%) in impact layers. The results of these new analyses will confirm or not the extraterrestrial origin of the Younger Dryas C-rich black layer.

  13. Ni, Cu, Au, and platinum-group element contents of sulphides associated with intraplate magmatism: A synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, S.-J.; Zientek, M.L.; Severson, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The tectonic setting of intraplate magmas, typically a plume intersecting a rift, is ideal for the development of Ni - Cu - platinum-group element-bearing sulphides. The plume transports metal-rich magmas close to the mantle - crust boundary. The interaction of the rift and plume permits rapid transport of the magma into the crust, thus ensuring that no sulphides are lost from the magma en route to the crust. The rift may contain sediments which could provide the sulphur necessary to bring about sulphide saturation in the magmas. The plume provides large volumes of mafic magma; thus any sulphides that form can collect metals from a large volume of magma and consequently the sulphides will be metal rich. The large volume of magma provides sufficient heat to release large quantities of S from the crust, thus providing sufficient S to form a large sulphide deposit. The composition of the sulphides varies on a number of scales: (i) there is a variation between geographic areas, in which sulphides from the Noril'sk - Talnakh area are the richest in metals and those from the Muskox intrusion are poorest in metals; (ii) there is a variation between textural types of sulphides, in which disseminated sulphides are generally richer in metals than the associated massive and matrix sulphides; and (iii) the massive and matrix sulphides show a much wider range of compositions than the disseminated sulphides, and on the basis of their Ni/Cu ratio the massive and matrix sulphides can be divided into Cu rich and Fe rich. The Cu-rich sulphides are also enriched in Pt, Pd, and Au; in contrast, the Fe-rich sulphides are enriched in Fe, Os, Ir, Ru, and Rh. Nickel concentrations are similar in both. Differences in the composition between the sulphides from different areas may be attributed to a combination of differences in composition of the silicate magma from which the sulphides segregated and differences in the ratio of silicate to sulphide liquid (R factors). The higher metal content of the disseminated sulphides relative to the massive and matrix sulphides may be due to the fact that the disseminated sulphides equilibrated with a larger volume of magma than massive and matrix sulphides. The difference in composition between the Cu- and Fe-rich sulphides may be the result of the fractional crystallization of monosulphide solid solution from a sulphide liquid, with the Cu-rich sulphides representing the liquid and the Fe-rich sulphides representing the cumulate.

  14. Determination, by X-ray-fluorescence spectroscopy, of platinum-group elements, iron, and chromium in special corrosion-resistant steels

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, B.T.; Balaes, A.M.E.; Hasty, R.A.; Farrer, H.N.

    1987-11-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of corrosion-resistant steels.It is known that addition of platinum group elements increases the corrosion resistance of metals and alloys; however, such metals are costly. Therefore x-ray fluorescence analysis, a nondestructive technique was applied in the present study.(AIP)

  15. Examining the Use of Video Study Groups for Developing Literacy Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Critical Elements of Strategy Instruction with Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Lynn E.; Tochelli, Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    This collective case study explored what nine elementary teachers' video study group discussions revealed about their understanding of pedagogical content knowledge for an explicit reading strategy instruction framework, Critical Elements of Strategy Instruction (CESI). Qualitative methods were used to inductively and deductively analyze…

  16. A Divergent P Element and Its Associated MITE, BuT5, Generate Chromosomal Inversions and Are Widespread within the Drosophila repleta Species Group

    PubMed Central

    Rius, Nuria; Delprat, Alejandra; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    The transposon BuT5 caused two chromosomal inversions fixed in two Drosophila species of the repleta group, D. mojavensis and D. uniseta. BuT5 copies are approximately 1-kb long, lack any coding capacity, and do not resemble any other transposable element (TE). Because of its elusive features, BuT5 has remained unclassified to date. To fully characterize BuT5, we carried out bioinformatic similarity searches in available sequenced genomes, including 21 Drosophila species. Significant hits were only recovered for D. mojavensis genome, where 48 copies were retrieved, 22 of them approximately 1-kb long. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot analyses on 54 Drosophila species showed that BuT5 is homogeneous in size and has a widespread distribution within the repleta group. Thus, BuT5 can be considered as a miniature inverted-repeat TE. A detailed analysis of the BuT5 hits in D. mojavensis revealed three partial copies of a transposon with ends very similar to BuT5 and a P-element-like transposase-encoding region in between. A putatively autonomous copy of this P element was isolated by PCR from D. buzzatii. This copy is 3,386-bp long and possesses a seven-exon gene coding for an 822-aa transposase. Exon–intron boundaries were confirmed by reverse transcriptase-PCR experiments. A phylogenetic tree built with insect P superfamily transposases showed that the D. buzzatii P element belongs to an early diverging lineage within the P-element family. This divergent P element is likely the master transposon mobilizing BuT5. The BuT5/P element partnership probably dates back approximately 16 Ma and is the ultimate responsible for the generation of the two chromosomal inversions in the Drosophila repleta species group. PMID:23682154

  17. Platinum Group Element Distribution and Mineralogy of the Finero Chromitites: How Analytical Results Should be Supported by Mineralogical Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, T.; Zaccarini, F.; Garuti, G.; Stumpfl, E. F.

    2004-05-01

    The Finero phlogopite peridotite represents a metasomatized residual mantle harzburgite, ex-posed at the base of the lower-crust section, in the Ivrea Zone (Western Italian Alps). It forms the core of a concentrically zoned sequence of layered gabbro and pyroxenite, amphibole-rich peridotite, and gabbro. The phlogopite peridotite contains small-size podiform chromitites that represent a rare example of chromitites formed by metasomatic processes within the mantle. The available literature data on platinum group elements (PGE) for the Finero chromitites are fragmentary, due to high values of the detection limits for the analytical method. Therefore the trends of chondritic-normalized PGE patterns obtained from these data, remain undefined in most cases. Here we report the results of the Finero chromitites performed with a simple and very effective procedure for the determination of Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir and Pt concentration. Samples are spiked with enriched isotopes and digested in a HNO3/HCl (5+2) acid mixture at 300° C and 125 bar pressure in a high pressure asher (HPA-S, Anton Paar) for 4 to 12 hours. The PGEs are then measured in an ICP-MS after a simple on-line matrix removal determined with an ICP-MS system. The acid digestion procedure does not require an optimization for each chromite composition as it is required for the flux for NiS fire assay digestions. Our results, normalized to the mantle (ca. 0.085 CI chondrite) show a peculiar shape. Osmium, Ir, Ru are unfractionated (5-8 times the mantle concentration), forming flat patterns, whilst the content of Rh is quite high (about 10 times the mantle concentration) giving a positive anomaly in all the analyzed chromitites. Low contents of Pt > Pd (less than the mantle concentration) is reflected in a strong negative slope. Several polished sections, obtained from the same chromites have been investigated by reflected-light microscopy at 250-800x magnification. This "in situ" investigation identified more than 50 Platinum Group Minerals (PGM), that occur, in most cases, as small grains (less than 10 microns) included in the chromite crystals. Most of these PGM have been analyzed by electron microprobe analysis. The most abundant PGM is laurite that is accompanied by abundant cuprorhodsite and cuproiridsite. One alloy of Pt-Cu and one grain of Rh-Sb-S have been also analyzed. Hence, the relatively high Rh concentrations in these chromitites is supported by the presence of Rh bearing minerals, especially cuprorhodsite. The PGM population found in the Finero chromitites is thus consistent with the whole rock PGE analyses, being characterized by the presence of abundant Ru-Os-Ir-Rh minerals and the absence of Pd phases. The combination of mineralogical observations with chemical analytical data make the results credible and thus useful for geochemical interpretations. The distribution and mineralogy of PGE indicate that the chromite-PGE mineralization in the Finero complex significantly differs from that typical of ophiolitic mantle. This difference possibly reflects variations in the chemical and physical conditions of the chromite-forming system within sub-continental upper mantle compared with a sub-oceanic environment.

  18. Traceable stopping cross sections of Al and Mo elemental targets for 0.9-3.6-MeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, M. V.; Silva, T. F.; Mangiarotti, A.; Guimarães-Filho, Z. O.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate knowledge about the energy loss of ions in matter is essential in many problems, ranging from fundamental to applied nuclear physics. Indeed, there is a recent and increasing demand for new data on stopping cross sections measured with high accuracy and with a rigorous budget of their uncertainty sources. In the present paper we describe an accurate and traceable approach to determine the stopping cross sections in pure elemental materials—aluminum and molybdenum—for protons in the energy range of 0.9-3.6 MeV by the transmission method. The main sources of uncertainties here considered are (i) (random) the uncertainty in the peak positions and in the Gaussian fits and (ii) (systematic) the presence of thickness nonuniformity (a special procedure has been developed to correct it as far as possible). The accuracy in the final stopping cross section is 0.63 % (0.32 % random and 0.54 % systematic) for Al and 1.5 % (0.44 % random and 1.4 % systematic) for Mo, both mainly limited by the quality and homogeneity of the foils. For Al, this high accuracy represents an improvement compared to previous publications and serves as a benchmark for our procedure. For Mo, even though the uncertainty is somewhat higher, our results will help in improving the few data currently available in the energy range here considered. The data were also compared to the most commonly employed theoretical models (srim 1985, srim 2013, pstar, and casp 5.2) and Monte Carlo codes (geant 3 and geant 4). The experimental results are electronically available as supplemental material.

  19. Comprehensive study of density functional theory based properties for group 14 atoms and functional groups, -XY3 (X = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Element 114; Y = CH3, H, F, Cl, Br, I, At).

    PubMed

    Giju, Kalathingal T; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2005-03-31

    All electron nonrelativistic and relativistic density functional theory calculations at the BP86/QZ4P (Slater type) level are reported for a set of fundamentally useful DFT based reactivity descriptors for group 14 elements (C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Element 114 (abbreviated as Uuq)) and functional groups, -XY3 (X = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Element 114 (Uuq); Y = CH3, H, F, Cl, Br, I, At); these include electronegativity (chi), chemical hardness (eta), global softness (S), and electrophilicity index (omega). This approach permits an evaluation of the discrepancies in electronegativity scales and associated properties at uniform levels affording a nonempirical analysis for the first time. The vital importance of the spin-orbit interaction, in addition to the scalar relativistic terms, is demonstrated in reproducing the experimental trends on going from top to bottom of the group. The order for isolated atoms is altered when passing to -XY3 groups for all of the properties studied. For example, the calculated atomic electronegativities show a uniform decrease from C to Pb increasing again to Uuq as verified in the experimental data for C-Pb but at variance with several other scales. The sequence for functional groups is different and in accordance with experimental NMR data where available. The experimental hardness sequence for the isolated atoms (C > Pb > Si > Ge > Sn) is opposed to the trends of decreasing hardness on going down the periodic table as is found, e.g., in the halogen group and confirmed by this study. The -XY3 functional groups however follow the C > Si > Ge > Sn > Pb sequence. The recently developed electrophilicity index (omega) has been shown to be highly correlated with the electron affinity rather than the electronegativity. Finally, regression analyses that discriminate between the properties are carried out to investigate the nature of additivity of atomic contributions in functional group properties. PMID:16833611

  20. Differential occurrence of chromosome inversion polymorphisms among Muller's elements in three species of the tripunctata group of Drosophila, including a species with fast chromosomal evolution.

    PubMed

    Brianti, Mitsue T; Ananina, Galina; Klaczko, Louis B

    2013-01-01

    Detailed chromosome maps with reliable homologies among chromosomes of different species are the first step to study the evolution of the genetic architecture in any set of species. Here, we present detailed photo maps of the polytene chromosomes of three closely related species of the tripunctata group (subgenus Drosophila): Drosophila mediopunctata, D. roehrae, and D. unipunctata. We identified Muller's elements in each species, using FISH, establishing reliable chromosome homologies among species and D. melanogaster. The simultaneous analysis of chromosome inversions revealed a distribution pattern for the inversion polymorphisms among Muller's elements in the three species. Element E is the most polymorphic, with many inversions in each species. Element C follows; while the least polymorphic elements are B and D. While interesting, it remains to be determined how general this pattern is among species of the tripunctata group. Despite previous studies showing that D. mediopunctata and D. unipunctata are phylogenetically closer to each other than to D. roehrae, D. unipunctata shows rare karyotypic changes. It has two chromosome fusions: an additional heterochromatic chromosome pair and a pericentric inversion in the X chromosome. This especial conformation suggests a fast chromosomal evolution that deserves further study. PMID:23379335

  1. Effect of replacing a hydroxyl group with a methyl group on arsenic (V) species adsorption on goethite (alpha-FeOOH).

    PubMed

    Zhang, J S; Stanforth, R S; Pehkonen, S O

    2007-02-01

    Arsenate and methylated arsenicals, such as dimethylarsinate (DMA) and monomethylarsonate (MMA), are being found with increasing frequency in natural water systems. The mobility and bioavailability of these arsenic species in the environment are strongly influenced by their interactions with mineral surface, especially iron and aluminum oxides. Goethite (alpha-FeOOH), one of the most abundant ferric (hydr)oxides in natural systems, has a high retention capacity for arsenic species. Unfortunately, the sorption mechanism for the species is not completely understood, which limits our ability to model their behavior in natural systems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of replacing a hydroxyl group with a methyl group on the adsorption behaviors of arsenic (V) species using adsorption edges, the influence of the background electrolyte on arsenic adsorption, and their effect on the zeta potential of goethite. The affinity of the three species to the goethite surface decreases in the order of AsO4=MMA>DMA. The uptake of DMA and MMA is independent of the concentration of background electrolyte, indicating that both species form inner-sphere complexes on the goethite surface and the most charge of adsorbed DMA and MMA locates at the surface plane. Arsenate uptake increases with increasing concentrations of background electrolyte at pH above 4, possibly due to that the charge of adsorbed arsenate is distributed between the surface plane and another electrostatic plane. DMA and lower concentrations of MMA have small effect on the zeta potential, whereas the zeta potential of goethite decreases in the presence of arsenate. The small effect on zeta potential of DMA or MMA adsorption suggests that the sorption sites for the anions is not important in controlling the surface charge. This observation is inconsistent with most adsorption models that postulate a singly coordinated hydroxyls contributing to both the adsorption and the surface charge, but supports the thesis that the charge on the goethite surface comes primarily from protonation of the triply bound oxygen atoms on the surface. PMID:17056055

  2. v-src Induction of the TIS10/PGS2 prostaglandin synthase gene is mediated by an ATF/CRE transcription response element

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, W.; Fletcher, B.S.; Andersen, R.D.; Herschman, H.R.

    1994-10-01

    The authors recently reported the cloning of a mitogen-inducible prostaglandin synthase gene, TIS10/PGS2. In addition to growth factor and tumor promoters, the v-src oncogene induces TIS10/PGS2 expression in 3T3 cells. Deletion analysis, using luciferase reporters, identifies a region between -80 and -40 nucleotides 5{prime} of the TIS10/PGS2 transcription start site that mediates pp60{sup v-src} induction in 3T3 cells. This region contains the sequence CGTCACGTG, which includes overlapping ATF/CRE (CGTCA) and E-box (CACGTG) sequences. Gel shift-oligonucleotide competition experiments with nuclear extracts from cells stably transfected with a temperature-sensitive v-src gene demonstrate that the CGTCACGTG sequence can bind proteins at both the AFT/CRE and E-box sequences. Dominant-negative CREB and Myc proteins that bind DNA, but do not transactivate, block v-src induction of a luciferase reporter driven by the first 80 nucleotides of the TIS10/PGS2 promoter. Mutational analysis distinguishes which TIS10/PGS2 cis-acting element mediates pp60{sup v-src} induction. E-box mutation has no effect on the fold induction in response to pp60{sup v-src}. In contrast, ATF/CRE mutation attenuates the pp{sup v-src} response. Antibody supershift and methylation interference experiments demonstrate that CREB and at least one other ATF transcription factor in these extracts bind to the TIS10/PGS2 ATF/CRE element. Expression of a dominant-negative ras gene also blocks TIS10/PGS2 induction by v-src. The data suggest that Ras mediates pp60{sup v-src} activation of an ATF transcription factor, leading to induced TIS10/PGS2 expression via the ATF/CRE element of the TIS10/PGS2 promoter. This is the first description of v-src activation of gene expression via an ATF/CRE element. 64 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Behavior of iron-group elements, oxybarometry, and genesis of unique chromite deposits in the Kempirsai massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashchukhin, I. S.; Votyakov, S. L.

    2009-04-01

    Ultramafic rocks and high-Cr chromite ore from the Almaz-Zhemchuzhina deposit, the largest in the Main ore field of the Kempirsai massif, have been studied. The detailed mineralogical and geochemical examination of deep structure test and exploratory boreholes allowed us to establish the rough stratification of ultramafic rocks and to demonstrate the position of unique chromite deposits in the generalized vertical section of the southeastern Kempirsai massif. From top to bottom, a barren harzburgite-lherzolite series gives way to an ore-bearing dunite-harzburgite complex with the largest chromite deposits, including the unique Almaz-Zhemchuzhina deposit, in its upper portion and then to pyroxene-free dunite densely impregnated with chromite in the upper part and containing sparsely disseminated chromite at its base. The lower unit is composed of a barren lherzolite-harzburgite series transformed into blastomylonites near the contact with dunite, suggesting a tectonically doubled section in the southeastern part of the massif. The synore asymmetric geochemical zoning developed in the course of formation of chromite deposits as a result of removal of oreforming iron-group elements from the underlying and wall ultramafic rocks into the overlying rocks. Host rocks with disturbed initial proportions of Cr, Fe, Ni, and Mn, together with orebodies, made up ore-bearing zones no less than 1 km in thickness and subdivided into supra-, inter-, and subore subzones. The subore and wall rocks are characterized by partial loss (wt %) of Cr2O3(0.1), NiO (0.04), FeOtot(0.5), and MnO (0.02) and their removal into the interore and supraore (0.03 NiO) subzones. Thus, the subore ultramafic rocks served as a source of ore-forming components, while the interore zone with orebodies occurring therein served as a zone of discharge of these components. Using Mössbauer spectroscopy, the crystal chemistry of iron ions was studied in a representative selection of Cr-spinel samples from rocks and ores of the southeastern and western blocks (the Almaz-Zhemchuzhina and Geophysical XII deposits). The degree of iron oxidation in the samples varies from 8 to 33%. In most cases, a difference in degree of iron oxidation is established in stoichiometric approximation and from Mössbauer data. In other words, the integral stoichiometry of ferrous and ferric ions is disturbed. Such a disturbance may be related not only to partial inversion of the Cr-spinel structure but also to local heterogeneity of the mineral at the micro- and nanolevels with clustering of cations and formation of their associates. An empirical correction of the olivine-Cr-spinel geothermometer and oxybarometer has been performed. The inverse correlation between oxygen fugacity and degree of depletion of ultramafic rocks indicates that these rocks were formed in a closed system with participation of a water-methane fluid. Along with stratification of ultramafics, this correlation testifies to a powerful asthenospheric source of reduced fluids. The retention of low oxygen fugacity in central portions of orebodies does not rule out that after a break this source participated in the formation of unique chromite deposits in the Kempirsai massif.

  4. Genome sequence and virulence factors of a group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain with a new element carrying erm(B).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zong, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    A Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) strain WCHSDSE-1, which caused an outbreak of tonsillopharyngitis among healthcare workers in China, was subjected to genome sequencing and analysis. WCHSDSE-1 belongs to the Lancefield group G, emm type stG211.1 and sequence type 44. WCHSDSE-1 has virulence factors for adherence, impairing the recruitment of neutrophils to infection sites and toxins including streptolysins O and S and exotoxin G. WCHSDSE-1 has a 45.4-kb element resembling a conjugative transposon. This element is absent from other known SDSE genomes and contains the macrolide-resistant gene erm(B). Conjugative transfer of erm(B) was not successful in mating experiments, suggesting that the element might have lost its ability of conjugation. An almost identical element, which contains the tetracycline-resistant gene tet(M) instead of erm(B), is present on the genome of Filifactor alocis ATCC 35896. The boundaries and insertion sites of the two elements were identified and both were flanked by a 3-bp direct repeat, which is characteristic of transposition. In conclusion, the spectrum of virulence factors of WCHSDSE-1 is similar to other SDSE strains causing invasive diseases. WCHSDSE-1 possesses a new transposable element encoding macrolide resistance, which could pick up different resistance genes and could be transferred across species in oral microflora. PMID:26843282

  5. Genome sequence and virulence factors of a group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain with a new element carrying erm(B)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zong, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    A Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) strain WCHSDSE-1, which caused an outbreak of tonsillopharyngitis among healthcare workers in China, was subjected to genome sequencing and analysis. WCHSDSE-1 belongs to the Lancefield group G, emm type stG211.1 and sequence type 44. WCHSDSE-1 has virulence factors for adherence, impairing the recruitment of neutrophils to infection sites and toxins including streptolysins O and S and exotoxin G. WCHSDSE-1 has a 45.4-kb element resembling a conjugative transposon. This element is absent from other known SDSE genomes and contains the macrolide-resistant gene erm(B). Conjugative transfer of erm(B) was not successful in mating experiments, suggesting that the element might have lost its ability of conjugation. An almost identical element, which contains the tetracycline-resistant gene tet(M) instead of erm(B), is present on the genome of Filifactor alocis ATCC 35896. The boundaries and insertion sites of the two elements were identified and both were flanked by a 3-bp direct repeat, which is characteristic of transposition. In conclusion, the spectrum of virulence factors of WCHSDSE-1 is similar to other SDSE strains causing invasive diseases. WCHSDSE-1 possesses a new transposable element encoding macrolide resistance, which could pick up different resistance genes and could be transferred across species in oral microflora. PMID:26843282

  6. Layer-resolved elemental-composition determination at the Co/V interface in Co/V/MgO(1 0 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, M.; Román, E.; Laan, G. van der; Bailey, P.; Noakes, T. C. Q.; Martin, A. Muñoz; Huttel, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Medium energy ion scattering has been used to investigate the possible interdiffusion of Co and V at the Co/V interface in the Co/V/MgO(1 0 0) system at room temperature and after annealing in the temperature range from 100 to 500 °C. The Co and V composition and structure as a function of depth has been studied using two-dimensional maps of the scattered ion energy versus scattering angle and with the corresponding projections onto the angle axis over a small energy range (angle spectrum) and onto the energy axis over a small scattering angle range (energy spectrum). At room temperature only limited interdiffusion at the Co/V interface can be inferred from the analysis of the experimental data, while at 300 °C and higher drastic changes are observed at the Co/V interface in terms of sharpness and composition. Furthermore, a structural change is observed after annealing at 500 °C as a consequence of the V and/or Co interdiffusion.

  7. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. I. Electronic structures and properties of MCl{sub 4} and MOCl{sub 2} (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, and Rf)

    SciTech Connect

    Pershina, V.; Borschevsky, A.; Iliaš, M.

    2014-08-14

    Relativistic, infinite order exact two-component, density functional theory electronic structure calculations were performed for MCl{sub 4} and MOCl{sub 2} of group-4 elements Ti, Zr, Hf, and element 104, Rf, with the aim to predict their behaviour in gas-phase chromatography experiments. RfCl{sub 4} and RfOCl{sub 2} were shown to be less stable than their lighter homologs in the group, tetrachlorides and oxychlorides of Zr and Hf, respectively. The oxychlorides turned out to be stable as a bent structure, though the stabilization energy with respect to the flat one (C{sub 2v}) is very small. The trend in the formation of the tetrachlorides from the oxychlorides in group 4 is shown to be Zr < Hf < Rf, while the one in the formation of the oxychlorides from the chlorides is opposite. All the calculated properties are used to estimate adsorption energy of these species on various surfaces in order to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments, as is shown in Paper II.

  8. Rhenium-osmium isotope and platinum-group elements in the Xinjie layered intrusion, SW China: Implications for source mantle composition, mantle evolution, PGE fractionation and mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hong; Qi, Liang; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Gou, Ti-Zhong; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Liu, Bing-Guang; Chu, Zhu-Yin

    2011-03-01

    The Xinjie mafic-ultramafic layered intrusion in the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) hosts Cu-Ni-platinum group element (PGE) sulfide ore layers within the lower part and Fe-Ti-V oxide-bearing horizons within the middle part. The major magmatic Cu-Ni-PGE sulfide ores and spatially associated cumulate rocks are examined for their PGE contents and Re-Os isotopic systematics. The samples yielded a Re-Os isochron with an age of 262 ± 27 Ma and an initial 187Os/ 188Os of 0.12460 ± 0.00011 ( γOs( t) = -0.5 ± 0.1). The age is in good agreement with the previously reported U-Pb zircon age, indicating that the Re-Os system remained closed for most samples since the intrusion emplacement. They have near-chondritic γOs( t) values ranging from -0.7 to -0.2, similar to those of the Lijiang picrites and Song Da komatiites. Exceptionally, two samples from the roof zone and one from upper sequence exhibit radiogenic γOs( t) values (+0.6 to +8.6), showing minor contamination by the overlying Emeishan basalts. The PGE-rich ores contain relatively high PGE and small amounts of sulfides (generally less than 2%) and the abundance of Cu and PGE correlate well with S, implying that the distribution of these elements is controlled by the segregation and accumulation of a sulfide liquid. Some ore samples are poor in S (mostly <800 ppm), which may due to late-stage S loss caused by the dissolution of FeS from pre-existing sulfides through their interaction with sulfide-unsaturated flowing magma. The combined study shows that the Xinjie intrusion may be derived from ferropicritic magmas. The sharp reversals in Mg#, Cr/FeO T and Cr/TiO 2 ratios immediately below Units 2-4, together with high Cu/Zr ratios decreasing from each PGE ore layer within these cyclic units, are consistent with multiple magma replenishment episodes. The sulfides in the cumulate rocks show little evidence of PGE depletion with height and thus appear to have segregated from successive inputs of fertile magma. This suggests that the Xinjie intrusion crystallized from in an open magma system, e.g., a magma conduit. The compositions of the disseminated sulfides in most samples can be modeled by applying an R factor (silicate-sulfide mass ratio) of between 1000 and 8000, indicating the segregation of only small amounts of sulfide liquid in the parental ferropicritic magmas. Thus, continuous mixing between primitive ferropicritic magma and differentiated resident magma could lead to crystallization of chromite, Cr-bearing magnetite and subsequently abundant Fe-Ti oxides, thereby the segregation of PGE-rich Cu-sulfide. When considered in the light of previous studies on plume-derived komatiites and picrites worldwide, the close-to-chondritic Os isotopic composition for most Xinjie samples, Lijiang picrites and Song Da komatiites suggest that the ferropicritic magma in the ELIP were generated from a plume. This comprised recycled Neoproterozic oceanic lithosphere, including depleted peridotite mantle embedded with geochemically enriched domains. The ascending magmas thereafter interacted with minor (possibly <10%) subducted/altered oceanic crust. This comparison suggests that the komatiitic melts in the ELIP originated from a greater-than normal degree of melting of incompatible trace element depleted, refractory mantle components in the plume source.

  9. Three Groups of Transposable Elements with Contrasting Copy Number Dynamics and Host Responses in the Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) Genome

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Concepcion M.; Meca, Esteban; Tenaillon, Maud I.; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2014-01-01

    Most angiosperm nuclear DNA is repetitive and derived from silenced transposable elements (TEs). TE silencing requires substantial resources from the plant host, including the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Thus, the interaction between TEs and siRNAs is a critical aspect of both the function and the evolution of plant genomes. Yet the co-evolutionary dynamics between these two entities remain poorly characterized. Here we studied the organization of TEs within the maize (Zea mays ssp mays) genome, documenting that TEs fall within three groups based on the class and copy numbers. These groups included DNA elements, low copy RNA elements and higher copy RNA elements. The three groups varied statistically in characteristics that included length, location, age, siRNA expression and 24∶22 nucleotide (nt) siRNA targeting ratios. In addition, the low copy retroelements encompassed a set of TEs that had previously been shown to decrease expression within a 24 nt siRNA biogenesis mutant (mop1). To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the three groups, we estimated their abundance in two landraces, one with a genome similar in size to that of the maize reference and the other with a 30% larger genome. For all three accessions, we assessed TE abundance as well as 22 nt and 24 nt siRNA content within leaves. The high copy number retroelements are under targeted similarly by siRNAs among accessions, appear to be born of a rapid bust of activity, and may be currently transpositionally dead or limited. In contrast, the lower copy number group of retrolements are targeted more dynamically and have had a long and ongoing history of transposition in the maize genome. PMID:24743518

  10. Isotope Anomalies in the Fe-group Elements in Meteorites and Connections to Nucleosynthesis in AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Trippella, O.; Busso, M.

    2015-05-01

    We study the effects of neutron captures in AGB stars on “Fe-group” elements, with an emphasis on Cr, Fe, and Ni. These elements show anomalies in 54Cr, 58Fe, and 64Ni in solar system materials, which are commonly attributed to supernovae (SNe). However, as large fractions of the interstellar medium (ISM) were reprocessed in AGB stars, these elements were reprocessed, too. We calculate the effects of such reprocessing on Cr, Fe, and Ni through 1.5 {{M}⊙ } and 3 {{M}⊙ } AGB models, adopting solar and 1/3 solar metallicities. All cases produce excesses of 54Cr, 58Fe, and 64Ni, while the other isotopes are little altered; hence, the observations may be explained by AGB processing. The results are robust and not dependent on the detailed initial isotopic composition. Consequences for other “Fe group” elements are then explored. They include 50Ti excesses and some production of 46,47,49Ti. In many circumstellar condensates, Ti quantitatively reflects these effects of AGB neutron captures. Scatter in the data results from small variations (granularity) in the isotopic composition of the local ISM. For Si, the main effects are instead due to variations in the local ISM from different SN sources. The problem of Ca is discussed, particularly with regard to 48Ca. The measured data are usually represented assuming terrestrial values for 42Ca/44Ca. Materials processed in AGB stars or sources with variable initial 42Ca/44Ca ratios can give apparent 48Ca excesses/deficiencies, attributed to SNe. The broader issue of galactic chemical evolution is also discussed in view of the isotopic granularity in the ISM.

  11. Increase in platinum group elements in Mexico City as revealed from growth rings of Taxodium mucronatum ten.

    PubMed

    Morton-Bermea, Ofelia; Beramendi-Orosco, Laura; Martínez-Reyes, Ángeles; Hernández-Álvarez, Elizabeth; González-Hernández, Galia

    2016-02-01

    Tree rings may be used as indicators of contamination events providing information on the chronology and the elemental composition of the contamination. In this framework, we report PGEs enrichment in growth rings of Taxodium mucronatum ten for trees growing in the central area of Mexico City as compared to trees growing in a non-urban environment. Concentrations of PGE were determined by ICP-MS analysis on microwave-digested tree rings. The element found in higher concentrations was Pd (1.13-87.98 μg kg(-1)), followed by Rh (0.28-36.81 μg kg(-1)) and Pt (0.106-7.21 μg kg(-1)). The concentration trends of PGEs in the tree-ring sequences from the urban area presented significant correlation values when comparing between trees (r between 0.618 and 0.98, P < 0.025) and between elements within individual trees (r between 0.76 and 0.994, P < 0.01). Furthermore, a clear increase was observed for rings after 1997, with enrichment of up to 60 times the mean concentration found for the sequence from the non-urban area and up to 40 times the mean concentration for the pre-1991 period in the urban trees. These results also demonstrate the feasibility of applying T. mucronatum ten to be used as a bioindicator of the increase in PGE in urban environments. PMID:25903068

  12. Chemo-dynamical evolution model: Enrichment of r-process elements in the Local Group dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Yutaka; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Fujii, Michiko S.; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2015-08-01

    Enrichment of the r-process elements is expected to provide a critical clue to understand the formation history of galactic halos. Recent astronomical high dispersion observations of metal-poor stars have shown large dispersions in relative abundance ratios of r-process elements such as [Eu/Fe] in stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5. Astrophysical site(s) of r-process has, however, not been identified yet. Promising site(s) of r-process are core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and neutron-star mergers (NSMs). Recent nucleosynthesis studies have shown that r-process elements heavier than 110 of mass number are difficult to synthesize by CCSNe. On the other hand, several studies reported that NSMs can synthesize these elements due to their environment of low electron fraction. Previous chemical evolution model (e.g., Argast et al. 2004) of the Milky Way (MW) halo without dynamical evolution pointed out that the NSMs are difficult to reproduce observed dispersion in [Eu/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] due to their low rate 10-6 - 10-3 yr-1 for a MW size galaxy and the long delay time, t ≥ 100 Myr. In the present study, we carry out numerical simulations of galactic chemo-dynamical evolution using an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, ASURA. We construct detailed chemo-dynamical evolution model for dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) assuming that the NSMs are the major source of the r-process elements. Our models successfully reproduce the observed dispersion in [Eu/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] if we set t < 500 Myr with the Galactic NSM rate ~10-4 yr-1. Moreover, our results are consistent with observed metallicity distribution and mass-metallicity relation of dSphs. We then find that the effects of gas mixing processes including metals in the star-forming region of a typical scale of giant molecular clouds ~ 10 - 100 pc play the significant roles in reproducing the measured dispersion in [Eu/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] of the metal-poor stars in dSphs. We also find that the star formation rate of ~ 10-3 M⊙yr-1 in early epoch (< 1 Gyr) of galactic halo evolution is necessary for this results. This study strongly supports that NSM is a major site of r-process.

  13. Report of the IAU/IAG/COSPAR Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.; Abalakin, V. K.; Brahic, A.; Bursa, M.; Chovitz, B. H.; Lieske, J. H.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Sinclair, A. T.; Tiuflin, I. S.

    1992-01-01

    Revised values are presented for the directions of the north poles of rotation, the prime meridians, and for the sizes and shapes of the planets and satellites. Also presented are definitions of rotational elements and the cartographic coordinate systems. These revised values and definitions are the results of a report provided every three years by an international working group with members from IAU, IAG, and COSPAR.

  14. Nucleolar introns from Physarum flavicomum contain insertion elements that may explain how mobile group I introns gained their open reading frames.

    PubMed Central

    Vader, A; Naess, J; Haugli, K; Haugli, F; Johansen, S

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of two group I intron sequences in the nucleolar genome of the myxomycete Physarum flavicomum to their homologs in the closely related Physarum polycephalum revealed insertion-like elements. One of the insertion-like elements consists of two repetitive sequence motifs of 11 and 101 bp in five and three copies, respectively. The smaller motif, which flanks the larger, resembles a target duplication and indicates a relationship to transposons or retroelements. The insertion-like elements are found in the peripheral loops of the RNA structure; the positions occupied by the ORFs of mobile nucleolar group I introns. The P. flavicomum introns are 1184 and 637 bp in size, located in the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, and can be folded into group I intron structures at the RNA level. However, the intron 2s from both P. flavicomum and P. polycephalum contain an unusual core region that lacks the P8 segment. None of the introns are able to self-splice in vitro. Southern analysis of different isolates indicates that the introns are not optional in myxomycetes. Images PMID:7984404

  15. Group V Secretory Phospholipase A2 Is Involved in Tubular Integrity and Sodium Handling in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Moraes-Santos, Felipe; Landgraf, Sharon Schilling; Silva, Leandro Souza; Sirtoli, Gabriela Modenesi; Zamith-Miranda, Daniel; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Pinheiro, Ana Acacia Sá; Diaz, Bruno Lourenço; Caruso-Neves, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Group V (GV) phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a member of the family of secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) enzymes. This enzyme has been identified in several organs, including the kidney. However, the physiologic role of GV sPLA2 in the maintenance of renal function remains unclear. We used mice lacking the gene encoding GV sPLA2 (Pla2g5−/−) and wild-type breeding pairs in the experiments. Mice were individually housed in metabolic cages and 48-h urine was collected for biochemical assays. Kidney samples were evaluated for glomerular morphology, renal fibrosis, and expression/activity of the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase α1 subunit. We observed that plasma creatinine levels were increased in Pla2g5−/− mice following by a decrease in creatinine clearance. The levels of urinary protein were higher in Pla2g5−/− mice than in the control group. Markers of tubular integrity and function such as γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase, and sodium excretion fraction (FENa+) were also increased in Pla2g5−/− mice. The increased FENa+ observed in Pla2g5−/− mice was correlated to alterations in cortical (Na+ + K+) ATPase activity/ expression. In addition, the kidney from Pla2g5−/− mice showed accumulation of matrix in corticomedullary glomeruli and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. These data suggest GV sPLA2 is involved in the maintenance of tubular cell function and integrity, promoting sodium retention through increased cortical (Na+ + K+)-ATPase expression and activity. PMID:26820468

  16. Group V Secretory Phospholipase A2 Is Involved in Tubular Integrity and Sodium Handling in the Kidney.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, João Luiz; Peruchetti, Diogo Barros; Moraes-Santos, Felipe; Landgraf, Sharon Schilling; Silva, Leandro Souza; Sirtoli, Gabriela Modenesi; Zamith-Miranda, Daniel; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Pinheiro, Ana Acacia Sá; Diaz, Bruno Lourenço; Caruso-Neves, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Group V (GV) phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a member of the family of secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) enzymes. This enzyme has been identified in several organs, including the kidney. However, the physiologic role of GV sPLA2 in the maintenance of renal function remains unclear. We used mice lacking the gene encoding GV sPLA2 (Pla2g5-/-) and wild-type breeding pairs in the experiments. Mice were individually housed in metabolic cages and 48-h urine was collected for biochemical assays. Kidney samples were evaluated for glomerular morphology, renal fibrosis, and expression/activity of the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase α1 subunit. We observed that plasma creatinine levels were increased in Pla2g5-/- mice following by a decrease in creatinine clearance. The levels of urinary protein were higher in Pla2g5-/- mice than in the control group. Markers of tubular integrity and function such as γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase, and sodium excretion fraction (FENa+) were also increased in Pla2g5-/- mice. The increased FENa+ observed in Pla2g5-/- mice was correlated to alterations in cortical (Na+ + K+) ATPase activity/ expression. In addition, the kidney from Pla2g5-/- mice showed accumulation of matrix in corticomedullary glomeruli and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. These data suggest GV sPLA2 is involved in the maintenance of tubular cell function and integrity, promoting sodium retention through increased cortical (Na+ + K+)-ATPase expression and activity. PMID:26820468

  17. The excitation probabilities of K?,? and L?1,2 for some elements in 56?Z?68 at 59.54 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akman, F.; Kaal, M. R.; Durak, R.

    2016-02-01

    The K?,? and L?1,2 excitation probabilities for some elements in 56?Z?68 at 59.54 keV were obtained using a Si(Li) detector with a multichannel analyzer. It is the first time that the K?,? and L?1,2 excitation probabilities were determined for the present elements. To obtain the K?,? and L?1,2 excitation probabilities, the K and L3 shell/sub-shell absorption jump factors and the K and L3 shell/sub-shell fluorescence yields were determined experimentally. The measured results of absorption jump factor and fluorescence yield were compared with the theoretical and other experimental results. The determined excitation probabilities were compared only with theoretical calculated ones since there are no other experimental reports for the present elements in the literature.

  18. A measurement of the top quark mass in 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions using a novel matrix element method

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, John C.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2007-12-01

    A measurement of the top quark mass in t{bar t} {yields} l + jets candidate events, obtained from p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron using the CDF II detector, is presented. The measurement approach is that of a matrix element method. For each candidate event, a two dimensional likelihood is calculated in the top pole mass and a constant scale factor, 'JES', where JES multiplies the input particle jet momenta and is designed to account for the systematic uncertainty of the jet momentum reconstruction. As with all matrix elements techniques, the method involves an integration using the Standard Model matrix element for tt production and decay. however, the technique presented is unique in that the matrix element is modified to compensate for kinematic assumptions which are made to reduce computation time. Background events are dealt with through use of an event observable which distinguishes signal from background, as well as through a cut on the value of an event's maximum likelihood. Results are based on a 955 pb{sup -1} data sample, using events with a high-p{sub T} lepton and exactly four high-energy jets, at least one of which is tagged as coming from a b quark; 149 events pass all the selection requirements. They find M{sub meas} = 169.8 {+-} 2.3(stat.) {+-} 1.4(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  19. A Measurement of the Top Quark Mass in 1.96 TeV Proton-Antiproton Collisions Using a Novel Matrix Element Method

    SciTech Connect

    CDF Collaboration; Freeman, John; Freeman, John

    2007-09-30

    A measurement of the top quark mass in t{bar t} {yields} l + jets candidate events, obtained from p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron using the CDF II detector, is presented. The measurement approach is that of a matrix element method. For each candidate event, a two dimensional likelihood is calculated in the top pole mass and a constant scale factor, 'JES', where JES multiplies the input particle jet momenta and is designed to account for the systematic uncertainty of the jet momentum reconstruction. As with all matrix element techniques, the method involves an integration using the Standard Model matrix element for t{bar t} production and decay. However, the technique presented is unique in that the matrix element is modified to compensate for kinematic assumptions which are made to reduce computation time. Background events are dealt with through use of an event observable which distinguishes signal from background, as well as through a cut on the value of an event's maximum likelihood. Results are based on a 955 pb{sup -1} data sample, using events with a high-p{sub T} lepton and exactly four high-energy jets, at least one of which is tagged as coming from a b quark; 149 events pass all the selection requirements. They find M{sub meas} = 169.8 {+-} 2.3(stat.) {+-} 1.4(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  20. An accuracy assessment of photo-ionization cross-section datasets for 1-2 keV x-rays in light elements using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heirwegh, C. M.; Pradler, I.; Campbell, J. L.

    2013-09-01

    Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) was used to assess the accuracy of the National Institute of Standards and Technology XCOM and FFAST photo-ionization cross-section databases in the low energy region (1-2 keV) for light elements. Characteristic x-ray yields generated in thick samples of Mg, Al and Si in elemental and oxide form, were compared to fundamental parameters computations of the expected x-ray yields; the database for this computation included XCOM attenuation coefficients. The resultant PIXE instrumental efficiency constant was found to differ by 4-6% between each element and its oxide. This discrepancy was traced to use of the XCOM Hartree-Slater photo-electric cross-sections. Substitution of the FFAST Hartree-Slater cross-sections reduced the effect. This suggests that for 1-2 keV x-rays in light element absorbers, the FFAST predictions of the photo-electric cross-sections are more accurate than the XCOM values.

  1. The use of cation exchange matrix separation coupled with ICP-MS to directly determine platinum group element (PGE) and other trace element emissions from passenger cars equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPF).

    PubMed

    Cairns, Warren R L; De Boni, Antonella; Cozzi, Giulio; Asti, Massimo; Borla, Edoardo Merlone; Parussa, Flavio; Moretto, Ezio; Cescon, Paolo; Boutron, Claude; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo

    2011-03-01

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry coupled with cation exchange matrix separation has been optimised for the direct determination of platinum group element (PGE) and trace element emissions from a diesel engine car. After matrix separation method detection limits of 1.6 ng g(-1) for Pd, 0.4 ng g(-1) for Rh and 4.3 ng g(-1) for Pt were achieved, the method was validated against the certified reference material BCR 723, urban road dust. The test vehicle was fitted with new and aged catalytic converters with and without diesel particulate filters (DPF). Samples were collected after three consecutive New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) of the particulate and "soluble" phases using a home-made sampler optimised for trace element analysis. Emission factors for the PGEs ranged from 0.021 ng km(-1) for Rh to 70.5 ng km(-1) for Pt; when a DPF was fitted, the emission factors for the PGEs actually used in the catalysts dropped by up to 97% (for Pt). Trace element emission factors were found to drop by a maximum of 92% for Ni to a minimum of 18% for Y when a DPF was fitted; a new DPF was also found to cause a reduction of up to 86% in the emission of particulate matter. PMID:21210274

  2. Ab initio calculation of natural band offsets of all group IV, II-VI and III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Su-Huai; Walsh, Aron; Li, Yong-Hua; Gong, Xingao

    2010-03-01

    The natural band offset between semiconductors is one of the most fundamental properties in materials physics. It is a necessary quantity to assess charge transport and quantum confinement, and is of particular relevance to the design of optoelectronic devices which feature an interface between two or more materials. However, in the past, the natural band offset calculations were based on the assumption that certain reference levels (core levels, average Coulomb potentials, etc.) have zero absolute deformation potential, and thus align between the bulk and heterostructures. In this study [1], using an all-electron band structure approach, we have systematically calculated the natural band offsets between all group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductor compounds, taking into account the deformation potential of the core states. This revised approach removes assumptions regarding the deformation potential of the reference levels, and offers a more reliable prediction of the `natural' unstrained offsets. Comparison is made to experimental work, where a noticeable improvement is found compared to previous methodologies. [1] Y.-H. Li et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 212109 (2009).

  3. Structural Elements of the Determination of Negative Social Status: Conceptual Reflections on the Notion of Minority Group Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuvlesky, William P.

    A minority group is a social category involving a clearly differentiated subpopulation within a larger collectivity on the basis of some common set of characteristics which are negatively evaluated by the dominant members of the collectivity. The following characteristics are attributed to negative evaluation: (1) members experience pejorative…

  4. Nuclear localization of v-Abl leads to complex formation with cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-binding protein and transactivation through CRE motifs.

    PubMed Central

    Birchenall-Roberts, M C; Ruscetti, F W; Kasper, J J; Bertolette, D C; Yoo, Y D; Bang, O S; Roberts, M S; Turley, J M; Ferris, D K; Kim, S J

    1995-01-01

    Deregulated expression of v-abl and BCR/abl genes has been associated with myeloproliferative syndromes and myelodysplasia, both of which can progress to acute leukemia. These studies identify the localization of the oncogenic form of the abl gene product encoded by the Abelson murine leukemia virus in the nuclei of myeloid cells and the association of the v-Abl protein with the transcriptional regulator cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB). We have mapped the specific domains within each of the proteins responsible for this interaction. We have shown that complex formation is a prerequisite for transcriptional potentiation of CREB. Transient overexpression of the homologous cellular protein c-Abl also results in the activation of promoters containing an intact CRE. These observations identify a novel function for v-Abl, that of a transcriptional activator that physically interacts with a transcription factor. PMID:7565761

  5. Effects of third-element additions on the superconducting properties of bronze-processed V/sub 3/Ga wires

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, K.; Rohr, S.; Moench, J.; Holzhaeuser, W.; Lange, F.

    1981-09-01

    The effect of In, Zn, and Mn additions to the bronze matrix on formation rate, critical current density, and critical temperature of V/sub 3/Ga layers in bronze-processed V/sub 3/Ga wires has been investigated. The V/sub 3/Ga layers were produced by heat treatment at 600-650/sup 0/C within a period of 20-200 hr. For a given heat treatment, the critical current density (J/sub c/) of the V/sub 3/Ga phase and the critical current (I/sub c/) of In-containing of bronze are considerably higher than those of conductors with binary Cu-Ga alloy containing 19 at.% Ga. The critical temperature of In-containing samples is relatively high and approaches values up to 15.4 K. 6 refs.

  6. Simultaneous removal of elemental mercury and NO from flue gas by V2O5-CeO2/TiO2 catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xunan; Li, Caiting; Zhao, Lingkui; Zhang, Jie; Zeng, Guangming; Xie, Yin'e.; Yu, Ming'e.

    2015-08-01

    A series of Ce-doped V2O5/TiO2 catalysts synthesized by an ultrasound assisted impregnation method were employed to investigate simultaneous removal of elemental mercury (Hg0) and NO in lab-scale experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffractogram (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were used to characterize the samples. Compared to TiO2 support, the catalytic performance of CeO2 doped on both TiO2 and V2O5/TiO2 catalysts have been improved. Remarkably, 1%V2O5-10% CeO2/TiO2 (V1Ce10Ti) exhibited the highest Hg0 oxidation efficiency of 81.55% at 250 °C with a desired NO removal efficiency under the same condition. Both the NO conversion and Hg0 oxidation efficiency were enhanced in the presence of O2. The activity was inhibited by the injection of NH3 with the increase of NH3/NO. When in the presence of 400 ppm SO2, Hg0 oxidation was slightly affected. Furthermore, Hg0 removal behavior under both oxidation and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) condition over V1Ce10Ti were well investigated to further probe into the feasibility of one single unit for multi-pollutants control in industry application. The existence of the redox cycle of V4+ + Ce4+ ↔ V5+ + Ce3+ in V2O5-CeO2/TiO2 catalyst could not only greatly improve the NO conversion, but also promote the oxidation of Hg0.

  7. Concentrations of Ni and V, other heavy metals, arsenic, elemental and organic carbon in atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5) from Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, David Acevedo; Rodríguez-Sierra, Carlos J; Jiménez-Velez, Braulio D

    2015-01-01

    Fine atmospheric particulate PM2.5 (particles with diameters of <2.5 μm) were sampled in an urban industrialized area – Guaynabo, Puerto Rico (Figure 1) – and in a reference less polluted site – Fajardo, Puerto Rico – and analyzed for trace metals, and inorganic and organic elemental carbon. PM2.5 samples were collected from November 2000 to September 2001 using an Andersen Instruments RAAS2.5-400 for periods of 72 h. Metals analyzed were arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) by atomic absorption. Levels of elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) were also determined. All metals analyzed, except for Fe, were significantly higher in PM2.5 from Guaynabo when compared to Fajardo. Average levels of PM2.5 in Guaynabo were 11.6 versus 8.5 μg/m3 in Fajardo. Average levels of EC were 1.5 and <0.14 μg/m3; and OC levels were 2.2 and <1 μg/m3 for Guaynabo and Fajardo, respectively. Levels of Ni (17 ng/m3) and V (40 ng/m3) determined in PM2.5 from the Guaynabo area were high when compared to other cities, and these metals could be responsible for respiratory problems reported in the area. Multivariate analyses showed strong relationships in Guaynabo between Ni and V, PM2.5 and Fe and As and Cu and Pb. In Fajardo, the strongest associations were obtained between PM2.5 and Fe, Cd and V and Ni and Pb and Cu, these last three elements exhibiting an inverse relationship. PMID:16716038

  8. Optimization of determination of platinum group elements in airborne particulate matter by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bujdoš, Marek; Hagarová, Ingrid; Matúš, Peter; Canecká, Lucia; Kubová, Jana

    2012-03-01

    Determination of automotive traffic-emitted platinum group metals (PGM) by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was optimized. The interferences from Sr, Cu, Pb, Y, Cd, Zr and Hf were evaluated using model solutions. Plasma radiofrequency (RF) power and nebulizer gas flow were optimized for 103Rh, 105Pd, 108Pd and 195Pt. Two standard reference materials were analyzed: SARM-7 Platinum ore and BCR-723 Road dust. The optimized procedure was used to analyze samples of airborne particulate matter collected in the urban site with heavy automotive traffic in the centre of Bratislava, Slovakia. PMID:24061181

  9. Dabrafenib for Treating Unresectable, Advanced or Metastatic BRAF V600 Mutation-Positive Melanoma: An Evidence Review Group Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fleeman, Nigel; Bagust, Adrian; Beale, Sophie; Boland, Angela; Dickson, Rumona; Dwan, Kerry; Richardson, Marty; Dundar, Yenal; Davis, Helen; Banks, Lindsay

    2015-09-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited GlaxoSmithKline, the manufacturer of dabrafenib, to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of dabrafenib for the treatment of unresectable, advanced or metastatic BRAF V600 mutation-positive melanoma in accordance with the Institute's Single Technology Appraisal (STA) process. The Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG) at the University of Liverpool was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article summarizes the ERG's review of the evidence submitted by the company and provides a summary of the Appraisal Committee's (AC) final decision in October 2014. The clinical evidence for dabrafenib was derived from an ongoing phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international, multicentre clinical trial (BREAK-3) involving 230 patients randomized 2:1 to receive either dabrafenib or dacarbazine. A significant improvement in median progression-free survival (PFS) but not overall survival (OS) was reported in the dabrafenib arm compared with dacarbazine. Vemurafenib is considered a more appropriate comparator than is dacarbazine. The clinical evidence for vemurafenib was derived from a completed phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international, multicentre clinical trial (BRIM-3) involving 675 patients randomized 1:1 to receive either vemurafenib or dacarbazine. A significant improvement in median PFS and OS was reported in the vemurafenib arm compared with dacarbazine. As there is no direct evidence comparing dabrafenib versus vemurafenib, the company presented an indirect treatment comparison (ITC) that demonstrated no statistical differences between dabrafenib and vemurafenib for PFS or OS. The ERG expressed concerns with the ITC, mainly in relation to the validity of the assumptions underpinning the methodology; the ERG concluded this resulted in findings that are unlikely to be robust or reliable. Dabrafenib and vemurafenib are both available to patients treated by the National Health Service (NHS) in England via a Patient Access Scheme (PAS) in which the costs of the drugs are discounted. Using these discounted costs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) generated by the company were £60,980 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for dabrafenib versus dacarbazine and £11,046 per QALY gained for dabrafenib versus vemurafenib. The ERG considered the economic model structure developed by the company to derive the ICERs to be overly complex and based on unsubstantiated assumptions, most importantly in relation to the projection of OS. Applying the latest OS data from BREAK-3 to a less complex model structure increased the estimated ICER for dabrafenib compared with dacarbazine from £60,980 to £112,727 per QALY gained. Since the results from the ITC were considered by the ERG to be neither reliable nor robust, the ERG also considered a cost-effectiveness comparison to be inappropriate due to a lack of meaningful or reliable data. In spite of limitations in the data, the AC took the view that dabrafenib and vemurafenib were "likely" of similar clinical effectiveness. Since the overall costs of these two drugs were similar, the AC recommended the use of dabrafenib in patients with unresectable, advanced or metastatic BRAF V600 mutation-positive melanoma. PMID:25906420

  10. A Strategy for Preservice Teachers to Integrate Cultural Elements within Planning and Instruction: Cultural L.I.V.E.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salsbury, Denise E.

    2008-01-01

    The large percentages of teachers in the United States are white, middle class people who may not understand or identify their own cultural connections within the American culture, let alone elaborate their own ancestral cultural elements. Educators are expected to teach a diverse student population, and preservice teachers should be prepared to…

  11. 29 CFR Appendix V to Part 1918 - Basic Elements of a First Aid Training Program (Non-mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transportation of the victim and body part to the hospital. Subject Index for 29 CFR 1918—Longshoring Pt. 1918...) Dunnage: Clear of Work Area .91(a) Nails .91(f), (1), (2) Placement on Deck .91(c) Racked Against Sweat... Sandblasting .96(d) Edge, Unguarded .32(b), .85(l) Emergency Action Plan: Alarm System .100(c) Elements...

  12. 29 CFR Appendix V to Part 1918 - Basic Elements of a First Aid Training Program (Non-mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transportation of the victim and body part to the hospital. Subject Index for 29 CFR 1918—Longshoring Pt. 1918...) Dunnage: Clear of Work Area .91(a) Nails .91(f), (1), (2) Placement on Deck .91(c) Racked Against Sweat... Sandblasting .96(d) Edge, Unguarded .32(b), .85(l) Emergency Action Plan: Alarm System .100(c) Elements...

  13. 29 CFR Appendix V to Part 1918 - Basic Elements of a First Aid Training Program (Non-mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation of the victim and body part to the hospital. Subject Index for 29 CFR 1918—Longshoring Pt. 1918...) Dunnage: Clear of Work Area .91(a) Nails .91(f), (1), (2) Placement on Deck .91(c) Racked Against Sweat... Sandblasting .96(d) Edge, Unguarded .32(b), .85(l) Emergency Action Plan: Alarm System .100(c) Elements...

  14. Extractive separation of molybdenum as Mo(V) xanthate from Iron, vanadium, Tungsten, copper, uranium and other elements.

    PubMed

    Yatirajam, V; Ram, J

    1974-06-01

    A simple and selective extraction of molybdenum is described. Tungsten is masked with tartaric acid and molybdenum(VI) is reduced in 2M hydrochloric acid by boiling with hydrazine sulphate. Iron, copper and vanadium are then masked with ascorbic acid, thiourea and potassium hydrogen fluoride respectively. The molybdenum(V) is extracted as its xanthate complex into chloroform, from 1M hydrochloric acid that is 0.4M potassium ethyl xanthate. The complex is decomposed by excess of liquid bromine, and the molybdenum is stripped into alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution. The molybdenum is then determined by standard methods. Large amounts of Cu(II), Mn(II), Fe(III), Ti(IV), Zr, Ce(IV), V(V), Nb, Cr(VI), W(VI), U(VI), Re(VII) and Os(VIII) do not interfere. Several synthetic samples and ferromolybdenum have been rapidly and satisfactorily analysed by the method. PMID:18961480

  15. First-principles electronic structure and formation energies of group V and VII impurities in the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Congxin; Jia, Yu; Zhang, Qiming

    2014-09-21

    Based on density functional theory, the electronic structures, formation energy, and transition level of the selected group V and VII impurities in α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are investigated by means of first-principles methods. Numerical results show that the group V and VII atoms-doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be energetically favorable under the Fe-rich condition. Group V atom substituting O atom can induce the acceptor impurity level, while the deep donor impurity states are formed inside the band gap when group VII atom substitute O atom in the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Moreover, our results show that halogen atom F substituting O atom should be very easy in the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, our results also show that for both group V and VII atom-doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the upper sides of valence band are modified obviously, while the conduction band edge does not change.

  16. The origin and evolution of the odd-Z iron-peak elements Sc, V, Mn, and Co in the Milky Way stellar disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistini, Chiara; Bensby, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Context. Elements heavier than Li are produced in the interiors of stars. However, for many elements the exact production sites and the timescales on which they are dispersed into the interstellar medium are unknown. Having a clear picture on the origins of the elements is important for our ability to trace and understand the formation and chemical evolution of the Milky Way and its stellar populations. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the origin and evolution of Sc, V, Mn, and Co for a homogeneous and statistically significant sample of stars probing the different populations of the Milky Way, in particular the thin and thick disks. Methods: Using high-resolution spectra obtained with the MIKE, FEROS, SOFIN, FIES, UVES, and HARPS spectrographs, we determine Sc, V, Mn, and Co abundances for a large sample of F and G dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. The method is based on spectral synthesis and using one-dimensional, plane-parallel, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model stellar atmospheres calculated with the MARCS 2012 code. The non-LTE (NLTE) corrections from the literature were applied to Mn and Co. Results: We find that the abundance trends derived for Sc (594 stars), V (466 stars), and Co (567 stars) are very similar to what has been observed for the α-elements in the thin and thick disks. On the contrary, Mn (569 stars) is generally underabundant relative to the Sun (i.e., [ Mn/Fe ] < 0) for [ Fe/H ] < 0. In addition, for Mn, when NLTE corrections are applied, the trend changes and is almost flat over the entire metallicity range of the stars in our sample (-2 ≲ [ Fe/H ] ≲ + 0.4). The [Sc/Fe]-[Fe/H] abundance trends show a small separation between the thin and thick disks, while for V and Co they completely overlap. For Mn there is a small difference in [Mn/Fe], but only when NLTE corrections are used. Comparisons with Ti as a reference element show flat trends for all the elements except for Mn that show well separated [Mn/Ti]-[Ti/H] trends for the thin and thick disks. Conclusions: The elements Sc and V present trends compatible with production from type II supernovae (SNII) events. In addition, Sc clearly shows a metallicity dependence for [ Fe/H ] < -1. Instead, Mn is produced in SNII events for [ Fe/H ] ≲ -0.4 and then type Ia supernovae start to produce Mn. Finally, Co appears to be produced mainly in SNII with suggestion of enrichment from hypernovae at low metallicities. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) on La Palma, Spain; the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) on Paranal, Chile (ESO Proposal ID 69.B-0277 and 72.B-0179); the ESO 1.5-m, 2.2-m. and 3.6-m telescopes on La Silla, Chile (ESO Proposal ID 65.L-0019, 67.B-0108, 76.B-0416, 82.B-0610); and data from UVES Paranal Observatory Project (ESO DDT Program ID 266.D-5655).Full versions of Tables 2 and 5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A9Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Determination of Kα,β excitation factors in thin target for selected elements from Y to Te at 59.54keV excitation energy.

    PubMed

    Akman, F; Akdemir, F; Durak, R; Kaçal, M R; Aksakal, O; Araz, A

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the first measurements of the Kα and Kβ excitation factors for some selected elements from Y to Te. To determine the Kα and Kβ excitation factors, the experimental values of K shell X-ray production cross sections and total absorption photoelectric cross sections were used. The measurements were performed using a Si(Li) detector coupled with 2048 multichannel analyzer and an Am-241 annular radioisotope source which is emitted 59.54keV γ-photons. It is observed that the Kα excitation factors are 5-6 times larger than the Kβ excitation factors. The measured excitation factors were compared only with theoretical calculated ones since there are no other experimental reports for the present elements in the literature. The present experimental values of Kα and Kβ excitation factors are in satisfactory agreement with the theoretical results. PMID:26623929

  18. Ages and sources of components of Zn-Pb, Cu, precious metal, and platinum group element deposits in the goodsprings district, clark county, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vikre, P.; Browne, Q.J.; Fleck, R.; Hofstra, A.; Wooden, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Goodsprings district, Clark County, Nevada, includes zinc-dominant carbonate replacement deposits of probable late Paleozoic age, and lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits, copper ?? precious metal-platinum group element (PGE) deposits, and gold ?? silver deposits that are spatially associated with Late Triassic porphyritic intrusions. The district encompasses ??500 km2 although the distribution of all deposits has been laterally condensed by late Mesozoic crustal contraction. Zinc, Pb, and Cu production from about 90 deposits was ??160,000 metric tons (t) (Zn > Pb >> Cu), 2.1 million ounces (Moz) Ag, 0.09 Moz Au, and small amounts of PGEs-Co, V, Hg, Sb, Ni, Mo, Mn, Ir, and U-were also recovered. Zinc-dominant carbonate replacement deposits (Zn > Pb; Ag ?? Cu) resemble Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) Zn-Pb deposits in that they occur in karst and fault breccias in Mississippian limestone where the southern margin of the regional late Paleozoic foreland basin adjoins Proterozoic crystalline rocks of the craton. They consist of calcite, dolomite, sphalerite, and galena with variably positive S isotope compositions (??34S values range from 2.5-13%), and highly radiogenic Pb isotope compositions (206Pb/204Pb >19), typical of MVT deposits above crystalline Precambrian basement. These deposits may have formed when southward flow of saline fluids, derived from basinal and older sedimentary rocks, encountered thinner strata and pinch-outs against the craton, forcing fluid mixing and mineral precipitation in karst and fault breccias. Lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits (Pb > Zn, Ag ?? Cu ?? Au) occur among other deposit types, often near porphyritic intrusions. They generally contain higher concentrations of precious metals than zinc-dominant deposits and relatively abundant iron oxides after pyrite. They share characteristics with copper ?? precious metal- PGE and gold ?? silver deposits including fine-grained quartz replacement of carbonate minerals in ore breccias and relatively low S and Pb isotope values (??34S values vary from 0-??4%; 206Pb/204Pb <18.5). Copper ?? precious metal-PGE deposits (Cu, Co, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt) consist of Cu carbonate minerals (after chalcocite and chalcopyrite) and fine-grained quartz that have replaced breccia clasts and margins of fissures in Paleozoic limestones and dolomites near porphyritic intrusions. Gold ?? silver deposits occur along contacts and within small-volume stocks and dikes of feldspar porphyry, one textural variety of porphyritic intrusions. Lead isotope compositions of copper ?? precious metal-PGE, gold ?? silver, and lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits are similar to those of Mojave crust plutons, indicating derivation of Pb from 1.7 Ga crystalline basement or from Late Proterozoic siliciclastic sedimentary rocks derived from 1.7 Ga crystalline basement. Four texturally and modally distinctive porphyritic intrusions are exposed largely in the central part of the district: feldspar quartz porphyry, plagioclase quartz porphyry, feldspar biotite quartz porphyry, and feldspar porphyry. Intrusions consist of 64 to 70 percent SiO2 and variable K2O/Na2O (0.14-5.33) that reflect proportions of K-feldspar and albite phenocrysts and megacrysts as well as partial alteration to K-mica; quartz and biotite phenocrysts are present in several subtypes. Albite may have formed during emplacement of magma in brine-saturated basinal strata, whereas hydrothermal alteration of matrix, phenocrystic, and megacrystic feldspar and biotite to K-mica, pyrite, and other hydrothermal minerals occurred during and after intrusion emplacement. Small volumes of garnet-diopside-quartz and retrograde epidote-mica-amphibole skarn have replaced carbonate rocks adjacent to one intrusion subtype (feldspar-quartz porphyry), but alteration of carbonate rocks at intrusion contacts elsewhere is inconsp. Uranium-lead ages of igneous zircons vary inconsistently from ?? 180 to 230

  19. Confocal microscopy?fracture reconstruction and finite element modeling characterization of local cleavage toughness in a ferritic/martensitic steel in subsized Charpy V-notch impact tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Odette, G. R.; Lucas, G. E.; Matsui, H.

    2000-12-01

    The confocal microscopy (CM)-fracture reconstruction (FR) method, coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fractography, was used to measure the critical notch deformation conditions at cleavage initiation for two subsized Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimen geometries of Japan ferritic/martensitic steel (JFMS). A new method was developed to permit FR of notched specimens. Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the notch and specimen deformation were used to estimate values of critical micro-cleavage fracture stress, σ ∗, and critical stressed area, A ∗. Since σ ∗-A ∗ is independent of size and geometry, it provides a fundamental local measure of cleavage toughness.

  20. First measurement of the ratio B(t --> Wb)/B(t --> Wq) and associated limit on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa element /V(tb)/.

    PubMed

    Affolder, T; Akimoto, H; Akopian, A; Albrow, M G; Amaral, P; Amendolia, S R; Amidei, D; Anikeev, K; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Asakawa, T; Ashmanskas, W; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Bacchetta, N; Bailey, M W; Bailey, S; de Barbaro, P; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Barone, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Belforte, S; Bell, W H; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Bensinger, J; Beretvas, A; Berge, J P; Berryhill, J; Bevensee, B; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blusk, S R; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bokhari, W; Bolla, G; Bonushkin, Y; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Brandl, A; van den Brink, S; Bromberg, C; Brozovic, M; Bruner, N; Buckley-Geer, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Byon-Wagner, A; Byrum, K L; Calafiura, P; Campbell, M; Carithers, W; Carlson, J; Carlsmith, D; Caskey, W; Cassada, J; Castro, A; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Chan, A W; Chang, P S; Chang, P T; Chapman, J; Chen, C; Chen, Y C; Cheng, M T; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chirikov-Zorin, I; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Christofek, L; Chu, M L; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Clark, A G; Connolly, A; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cranshaw, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Cropp, R; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; D'Auria, S; DeJongh, F; Dell'Agnello, S; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; Devlin, T; Dittmann, J R; Donati, S; Done, J; Dorigo, T; Eddy, N; Einsweiler, K; Elias, J E; Engels, E; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Fan, Q; Feild, R G; Fernandez, J P; Ferretti, C; Field, R D; Fiori, I; Flaugher, B; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J; Friedman, J; Fukui, Y; Furic, I; Galeotti, S; Gallinaro, M; Gao, T; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gatti, P; Gay, C; Gerdes, D W; Giannetti, P; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldstein, J; Gordon, A; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Green, C; Grim, G; Gris, P; Groer, L; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guenther, M; Guillian, G; Da Costa, J G; Haas, R M; Haber, C; Hafen, E; Hahn, S R; Hall, C; Handa, T; Handler, R; Hao, W; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hardman, A D; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heinrich, J; Heiss, A; Herndon, M; Hill, C; Hoffman, K D; Holck, C; Hollebeek, R; Holloway, L; Hughes, R; Huston, J; Huth, J; Ikeda, H; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iwai, J; Iwata, Y; James, E; Jensen, H; Jones, M; Joshi, U; Kambara, H; Kamon, T; Kaneko, T; Karr, K; Kasha, H; Kato, Y; Keaffaber, T A; Kelley, K; Kelly, M; Kennedy, R D; Kephart, R; Khazins, D; Kikuchi, T; Kilminster, B; Kim, B J; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirk, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Koehn, P; Köngeter, A; Kondo, K; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korn, A; Korytov, A; Kovacs, E; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhlmann, S E; Kurino, K; Kuwabara, T; Laasanen, A T; Lai, N; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lamoureux, J I; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lander, R; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, A M; Lee, K; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lindgren, M; Liss, T M; Liu, J B; Liu, Y C; Litvintsev, D O; Lobban, O; Lockyer, N; Loken, J; Loreti, M; Lucchesi, D; Lukens, P; Lusin, S; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Malferrari, L; Mangano, M; Mariotti, M; Martignon, G; Martin, A; Matthews, J A; Mayer, J; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McKigney, E; Menguzzato, M; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Meyer, A; Miao, T; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Minato, H; Miscetti, S; Mishina, M; Mitselmakher, G; Moggi, N; Moore, E; Moore, R; Morita, Y; Moulik, T; Mulhearn, M; Mukherjee, A; Muller, T; Munar, A; Murat, P; Murgia, S; Nachtman, J; Nagaslaev, V; Nahn, S; Nakada, H; Nakaya, T; Nakano, I; Nelson, C; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neuberger, D; Newman-Holmes, C; Ngan, C Y; Niu, H; Nodulman, L; Nomerotski, A; Oh, S H; Ohmoto, T; Ohsugi, T; Oishi, R; Okusawa, T; Olsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pagliarone, C; Palmonari, F; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Pappas, S P; Partos, D; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pescara, L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pitts, K T; Pompos, A; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Popovic, M; Prokoshin, F; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pukhov, O; Punzi, G; Ragan, K; Rakitine, A; Reher, D; Reichold, A; Ribon, A; Riegler, W; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Riveline, M; Robertson, W J; Robinson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Rosenson, L; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Roy, A; Safonov, A; St Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Sansoni, A; Santi, L; Sato, H; Savard, P; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A; Scribano, A; Segler, S; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Shah, T; Shapiro, M D; Shepard, P F; Shibayama, T; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Siegrist, J; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Singh, P; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, C; Snider, F D; Solodsky, A; Spalding, J; Speer, T; Sphicas, P; Spinella, F; Spiropulu, M; Spiegel, L; Steele, J; Stefanini, A; Strologas, J; Strumia, F; Stuart, D; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, T; Takano, T; Takashima, R; Takikawa, K; Tamburello, P; Tartarelli, G F; Tanaka, M; Tannenbaum, B; Taylor, W; Tecchio, M; Tesarek, R; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thompson, A S; Thurman-Keup, R; Tipton, P; Tkaczyk, S; Tollefson, K; Tollestrup, A; Toyoda, H; Trischuk, W; de Troconiz, J F; Tseng, J; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vaiciulis, T; Valls, J; Vejcik, S; Velev, G; Vidal, R; Vilar, R; Volobouev, I; Vucinic, D; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wahl, J; Wallace, N B; Walsh, A M; Wang, C; Wang, M J; Watanabe, T; Waters, D; Watts, T; Webb, R; Wenzel, H; Wester, W C; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilkes, T; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Winn, D; Wolbers, S; Wolinski, D; Wolinski, J; Wolinski, S; Worm, S; Wu, X; Wyss, J; Yagil, A; Yao, W; Yeh, G P; Yeh, P; Yoh, J; Yosef, C; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S; Yu, Z; Zanetti, A; Zetti, F; Zucchelli, S

    2001-04-01

    We present the first measurement of the ratio of branching fractions R identical withB(t-->Wb)/B(t-->Wq) from p_p collisions at sqrt[s] = 1.8 TeV. The data set corresponds to 109 pb(-1) of data recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab during the 1992-95 Tevatron run. We measure R = 0.94(+0.31)(-0.24)(stat+syst) or R>0.61 (0.56) at 90% (95)% C.L., in agreement with the standard model predictions. This measurement yields a limit on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element /V(tb)/ under the assumption of three generations and unitarity. PMID:11327939

  1. Muon groups and primary composition at 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budko, E. V.; Chudakov, A. E.; Dogujaev, V. A.; Mihelev, A. R.; Padey, V. A.; Petkov, V. A.; Striganov, P. S.; Suvorova, O. V.; Voevodsky, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    The data on muon groups observed at Baksan underground scintillation telescope is analyzed. In this analysis we compare the experimental data with calulations, based on a superposition model in order to obtain the effective atomic number of primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR FP-98 MINIPLEAT V-BLANK FILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar FP-98 Minipleat V-Bank Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 137 Pa clean and 348 Pa ...

  3. Performance of the Vitek MS v2.0 System in Distinguishing Streptococcus pneumoniae from Nonpneumococcal Species of the Streptococcus mitis Group

    PubMed Central

    Markham, Rachelle P.; Garner, Cherilyn D.; Rychert, Jenna A.; Ferraro, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    The Vitek MS v2.0 matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry system accurately distinguished Streptococcus pneumoniae from nonpneumococcal S. mitis group species. Only 1 of 116 nonpneumococcal isolates (<1%) was misidentified as S. pneumoniae. None of 95 pneumococcal isolates was misidentified. This method provides a rapid, simple means of discriminating among these challenging organisms. PMID:23784130

  4. 75 FR 45623 - Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil LLC; and PSEG Power LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil..., LLC, PSEG Fossil LLC and PSEG Power LLC (PSEG Power Companies) (Respondents), requesting that...

  5. Cosmic-ray elemental abundances from 1 to 10 GeV per amu for boron through nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, Robert; Meyer, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The relative abundances of cosmic-ray nuclei in the charge range boron through nickel over the energy range 1-10 GeV per amu were measured with a balloon-borne detector. The instrument consists of a scintillation and Cerenkov counter telescope with a multiwire proportional chamber hodoscope and has been flown in four high-altitude balloon flights. Good charge resolution (sigma = 0.2 charge units at iron) and high statistical accuracy have been achieved. These data are used to derive the energy dependence of the leakage path length using the leaky box model of propagation and confinement in the galaxy. This energy dependence is found to be best fit by lambda = E(tot) exp -n, where n = 0.49 + or - 0.06 over 1-10 GeV per amu. Relative abundances at the source are consistent with an energy-independent composition.

  6. G2(+)M study on N-alkylamino cation affinities of neutral main-group element hydrides: trends across the periodic table.

    PubMed

    Geng, Song; Wu, Ding-Lu; Yang, Jing; Wei, Xi-Guang; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Ren, Yi; Lau, Kai-Chung

    2014-05-01

    We have made an extensive theoretical exploration of gas-phase N-alkylamino cation affinities (NAAMCA), including amino cation affinities (AMCA) and N-dimethylamino cation affinities (NDMAMCA), of neutral main-group element hydrides of groups 15-17 and periods 2-4 in the periodic table by using the G2(+)M method. Some similarities and differences are found between NAAMCA and the corresponding alkyl cation affinities (ACA) of H(n)X. Our calculations show that the AMCA and NDMAMCA are systematically lower than the corresponding proton affinities (PA) for H(n)X. In general, there is no linear correlation between NAAMCA and PA of H(n)X. Instead, the correlations exist only within the central elements X in period 2, or periods 3-4, which is significantly different from the reasonable correlations between ACA and PA for all H(n)X. NAAMCA (H(n)X) are weaker than NAAMCA (H(n-1)X(-)) by more than 700 kJ/mol and generally stronger than ACA (H(n)X), with three exceptions: H2ONR2(+)(R = H, Me) and HFNH2(+). These new findings can be rationalized by the negative hyperconjugation and Pauli repulsion. PMID:24738576

  7. III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor are disclosed. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V materials varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V material can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  8. Synthesis, surface group modification of 3D MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanostructures and adsorption effect on Rhodamine B

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wanqun; Chemical Experimental Teaching Center, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 ; Shi, Lei; Tang, Kaibin; Liu, Zhongping

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ► Fabrication of urchin-like MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} with oxygen-containing surface groups. ► Mn{sub 0.5}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}·nH{sub 2}O as an intermediate product holds the key to the final products. ► 3D architectures of MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} with oxygen-containing surface groups as sorbent. ► The sorbent shows a good adsorption ability. -- Abstract: Highly uniform 3D MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanostructures modified by oxygen functional groups (-COO-) were successfully prepared in large quantities by an approach involving preparation of vanadyl ethylene glycolate as the precursor. The growth and self-assembly of MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanobelts and nanorods could be readily tuned by additive species and quantities, which brought different morphologies and sizes to the final products. With a focus on the regulation of structure, the formation process of 3D architectures of MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} by self-assembly of nanobelts was followed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The consecutive processes of vanadyl ethylene glycolate and benzoyl peroxide assisted formation of layered structure Mn{sub 0.5}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}·nH{sub 2}O, growth of aligned MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanobelts, and oriented assembly were proposed for the growth mechanism. The band gap vs. different morphology was also studied. Optical characterization of these MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} with different morphologies showed direct bandgap energies at 1.8–1.95 eV. The adsorption properties of 3D MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanostructures synthesized under different conditions were investigated through the removal test of Rhodamine B in aqueous water, and the 3D nanostructures synthesized with 30 g L{sup −1} benzoyl peroxide showed good adsorption capability of Rhodamine B.

  9. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Icosahedral quasicrystalline phase formation in Zr-Al-Ni-Cu glassy alloys by addition of Nb, Ta and V elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saida, Junji; Inoue, Akihisa

    2001-01-01

    It is found that an icosahedral quasicrystalline phase is formed in the Zr-Al-Ni-Cu glassy alloy by addition of Nb, Ta or V elements. The icosahedral phase was confirmed as a primary precipitation phase in the melt-spun Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu12.5X5 (X=Nb, Ta or V) glassy alloys with a two-stage crystallization process after the distinct glass transition. The onset temperature of the transformation from glass to icosahedral phase is 705 K for Nb, 710 K for Ta and 702 K for V at the heating rate of 0.67 Ks-1. The size of the icosahedral particles is in the range of 10 to 50 nm. The second crystallization reaction results in the formation of Zr2Cu + Zr2Ni + Zr3Al2 phases through a sharp exothermic reaction. The formation of a nano scale icosahedral phase in the Zr-Al-Ni-Cu glassy alloy by addition of Nb, Ta or V, as well as noble metals, indicates that the increase of the nucleation rate contributes to the precipitation of the icosahedral phase, leading to the concept that the icosahedral short-range order exists in the glassy state in the Zr-Al-Ni-Cu alloy.

  10. Energy spectra of elements with 18 or = Z or = 28 between 10 and 300 GeV/amu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. D.; Klarmann, J.; Stone, E. C.; Waddington, C. J.; Binns, W. R.; Garrard, T. L.; Israel, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The HEAO-3 Heavy Nuclei Experiment is composed of ionization chambers above and below a plastic Cerenkov counter. The energy dependence of the abundances of elements with atomic number, Z, between 18 and 28 at very high energies where they are rare and thus need the large area x time are measured. The measurements of the Danish-French HEAO-3 experiment (Englemann,, et al., 1983) are extended to higher energies, using the relativistic rise of ionization signal as a measure of energy. Source abundances for Ar and Ca were determined.

  11. GEANT4 Simulation of Hadronic Interactions at 8-GeV/C to 10-GeV/C: Response to the HARP-CDP Group

    SciTech Connect

    Uzhinsky, V.; Apostolakis, J.; Folger, G.; Ivanchenko, V.N.; Kossov, M.V.; Wright, D.H.; /SLAC

    2011-11-21

    The results of the HARP-CDP group on the comparison of GEANT4 Monte Carlo predictions versus experimental data are discussed. It is shown that the problems observed by the group are caused by an incorrect implementation of old features at the programming level, and by a lack of the nucleon Fermi motion in the simulation of quasielastic scattering. These drawbacks are not due to the physical models used. They do not manifest themselves in the most important applications of the GEANT4 toolkit.

  12. M-shell X-ray production cross-sections for elements with 67 {<=} Z {<=} 92 at incident photon energies E{sub M{sub 1}}V

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Yogeshwar; Kumar, Anil; Puri, Sanjiv

    2009-07-15

    The X-ray production cross-sections for the Mk (k = {xi}, {delta}, {alpha}, {beta}, {zeta}, {gamma}, m{sub 1} and m{sub 2}) groups of X-rays have been evaluated for all the elements with 67 {<=} Z {<=} 92 at incident photon energies ranging E{sub M{sub 1}}V using currently available theoretical data sets of different physical parameters, namely, partial photoionization cross-sections, X-ray emission rates, fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields, and the K-shell/L{sub j} (j = 1-3) subshell to the M{sub i} (i = 1-5) subshell vacancy transfer probabilities, based on the independent particle models.

  13. Measurement of the t-channel single-top-quark production cross section and of the | V tb| CKM matrix element in pp collisions at = 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Keaveney, J.; Kim, T. J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Dildick, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Klein, B.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Aldá, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Plestina, R.; Tao, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, Q.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. b.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. 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M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Fanzago, F.; Galanti, M.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giubilato, P.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Moon, C. S.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. 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A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Wolszczak, W.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. 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I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Meister, D.; Mohr, N.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Quittnat, M.; Rebane, L.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Kilminster, B.; Millan Mejias, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Taroni, S.; Verzetti, M.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. 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D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; Lawson, P.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Miceli, T.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Rakness, G.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Lacroix, F.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Nguyen, H.; Shrinivas, A.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Danielson, T.; Dishaw, A.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chu, J.; Eggert, N.; Hopkins, W.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kaadze, K.; Klima, B.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Kurt, P.; Moon, D. H.; O'Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Duru, F.; Haytmyradov, M.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Rahmat, R.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Gray, J.; Kenny, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Sekaric, J.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Di Matteo, L.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Meier, F.; Snow, G. R.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Vuosalo, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Hebda, P.; Hunt, A.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zenz, S. C.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Woods, N.

    2014-06-01

    Measurements are presented of the t-channel single-top-quark production cross section in proton-proton collisions at = 8 TeV. The results are based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. The cross section is measured inclusively, as well as separately for top (t) and antitop , in final states with a muon or an electron. The measured inclusive t-channel cross section is σ t-ch. = 83 .6 ± 2 .3 (stat.) ± 7 .4 (syst.) pb. The single t and cross sections are measured to be σ t-ch.( t) = 53 .8 ± 1 .5 (stat.) ± 4 .4 (syst.) pb and σ t-ch. = 27 .6 ± 1 .3 (stat.) ± 3 .7 (syst.) pb, respectively. The measured ratio of cross sections is R t-ch. = σ t-ch.(t) /σ t-ch. = 1 .95 ± 0 .10 (stat.) ± 0 .19 (syst.), in agreement with the standard model prediction. The modulus of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element V tb is extracted and, in combination with a previous CMS result at = 7 TeV, a value | V tb| = 0 .998 ± 0 .038 (exp.) ± 0 .016 (theo.) is obtained. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. The origin and distribution of HAPs elements in relation to maceral composition of the A1 lignite bed (Paleocene, Calvert Bluff Formation, Wilcox Group), Calvert mine area, east-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, S.S.; Warwick, P.D.; Ruppert, L.F.; Pontolillo, J.

    1997-01-01

    The origin and distribution of twelve potentially Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs; As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb Sb, Se, and U) identified in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments were examined in relation to the maceral composition of the A1 bed (Paleocene, Calvert Bluff Formation, Wilcox Group) of the Calvert mine in east-central Texas. The 3.2 m-thick A1 bed was divided into nine incremental channel samples (7 lignite samples and 2 shaley coal samples) on the basis of megascopic characteristics. Results indicate that As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb, and U are strongly correlated with ash yield and are enriched in the shaley coal samples. We infer that these elements are associated with inorganic constituents in the coal bed and may be derived from a penecontemporaneous stream channel located several kilometers southeast of the mining block. Of the HAPs elements studied, Mn and Hg are the most poorly correlated to ash yield. We infer an organic association for Mn; Hg may be associated with pyrite. The rest of the trace elements (Be, Co, and Se) are weakly correlated with ash yield. Further analytical work is necessary to determine the mode of occurrence for these elements. Overall, concentrations of the HAPs elements are generally similar to or less than those reported in previous studies of lignites of the Wilcox Group, east-central region, Texas. Petrographic analysis indicates the following ranges in composition for the seven lignite samples: liptinites (5-8%), huminites (88-95%), and inertinites (trace amounts to 7%). Samples from the middle portion of the A1 bed contain abundant crypto-eugelinite compared to the rest of the samples; this relationship suggests that the degradation of plant material was an important process during the development of the peat mire. With the exception of Hg and Mn, relatively low levels of the HAPs elements studied are found in the samples containing abundant crypto-eugelinite. We infer that the peat-forming environment for this portion of the coal bed was very wet with minimal detrital input. Relatively high concentrations of crypto-humotelinite were found in samples from the top and base of the coal bed. The presence of abundant crypto-humotelinite in this part of the coal bed suggests the accumulation of wood-rich peat under conditions conducive to a high degree of tissue preservation in the peat mire. Although several of the trace elements (Be, Co, Ni, and Sb) exhibit enrichment in these samples, they are not necessarily chemically associated with humotelinite. We infer that these elements, with the exception of Be, are possibly associated with deposition of the roof and floor rock of the coal bed; however, further analytical work would be necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Beryllium may have an organic origin. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  15. Revised Energy Spectra for Primary Elements, H - Si, above 50 GeV from the ATIC-2 Science Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, J. P.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunashingha, R. M.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Kim, K. C.; Kouznetsov, E. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panov, A. D.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Seo, E. S.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Watts, J. W.; Wu, J.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) long duration balloon experiment had a successful science flight accumulating 18 days of data (12/02 - 1/03) during a single circumnavigation in Antarctica. ATIC measures the energy spectra of elements from H to Fe in primary cosmic rays using a fully active Bismuth Germanate calorimeter preceded by a carbon target, with embedded scintillator hodoscopes, and a silicon matrix charge detector at the top. Preliminary results from ATIC have been reported in previous conferences. The revised results reported here are derived from a new analysis of the data with improved charge resolution, lower background and revised energy calibration. The raw energy deposit spectra are de-convolved into primary energy spectra and extrapolated to the top of the atmosphere. We compare these revised results to previous data and comment upon the astrophysical interpretation of the results.

  16. Increased risk of venous thrombosis by AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Lima, Magaly B P L V; de Oliveira-Filho, Aldemir Branco; Campos, Júlia F; Melo, Fárida C B C; Neves, Washington Batista das; Melo, Raul Antônio Morais; Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    Most cases of a predisposition to venous thrombosis are caused by resistance to activated protein C, associated in 95% of cases with the Factor V Leiden allele (FVL or R506Q). Several recent studies report a further increased risk of thrombosis by an association between the AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden. The present study investigated this association with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in individuals treated at the Hemocentro de Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. A case-control comparison showed a significant risk of thrombosis in the presence of Factor V Leiden (OR = 10.1), which was approximately doubled when the AB alleles of the ABO blood group were present as well (OR = 22.3). These results confirm that the increased risk of deep vein thrombosis in the combined presence of AB alleles and Factor V Leiden is also applicable to the Brazilian population suggesting that ABO blood group typing should be routinely added to FVL in studies involving thrombosis. PMID:21637678

  17. Increased risk of venous thrombosis by AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Most cases of a predisposition to venous thrombosis are caused by resistance to activated protein C, associated in 95% of cases with the Factor V Leiden allele (FVL or R506Q). Several recent studies report a further increased risk of thrombosis by an association between the AB alleles of the ABO blood group and Factor V Leiden. The present study investigated this association with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in individuals treated at the Hemocentro de Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. A case-control comparison showed a significant risk of thrombosis in the presence of Factor V Leiden (OR = 10.1), which was approximately doubled when the AB alleles of the ABO blood group were present as well (OR = 22.3). These results confirm that the increased risk of deep vein thrombosis in the combined presence of AB alleles and Factor V Leiden is also applicable to the Brazilian population suggesting that ABO blood group typing should be routinely added to FVL in studies involving thrombosis. PMID:21637678

  18. Platinum-group element, Gold, Silver and Base Metal distribution in compositionally zoned sulfide droplets from the Medvezky Creek Mine, Noril'sk, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, S.-J.; Cox, R.A.; Zientek, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of Ag, Au, Cd, Co, Re, Zn and Platinum-group elements (PGE) have been determined in sulfide minerals from zoned sulfide droplets of the Noril'sk 1 Medvezky Creek Mine. The aims of the study were; to establish whether these elements are located in the major sulfide minerals (pentlandite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and cubanite), to establish whether the elements show a preference for a particular sulfide mineral and to investigate the model, which suggests that the zonation in the droplets is caused by the crystal fractionation of monosulfide solid solution (mss). Nickel, Cu, Ag, Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Rh and Pd, were found to be largely located in the major sulfide minerals. In contrast, less than 25% of the Au, Cd, Pt and Zn in the rock was found to be present in these sulfides. Osmium, Ir, Ru, Rh and Re were found to be concentrated in pyrrhotite and pentlandite. Palladium and Co was found to be concentrated in pentlandite. Silver, Cd and Zn concentrations are highest in chalcopyrite and cubanite. Gold and platinum showed no preference for any of the major sulfide minerals. The enrichment of Os, Ir, Ru, Rh and Re in pyrrhotite and pentlandite (exsolution products of mss) and the low levels of these elements in the cubanite and chalcopyrite (exsolution products of intermediate solid solution, iss) support the mss crystal fractionation model, because Os, Ir, Ru, Rh and Re are compatible with mss. The enrichment of Ag, Cd and Zn in chalcopyrite and cubanite also supports the mss fractionation model these minerals are derived from the fractionated liquid and these elements are incompatible with mss and thus should be enriched in the fractionated liquid. Gold and Pt do not partition into either iss or mss and become sufficiently enriched in the final fractionated liquid to crystallize among the iss and mss grains as tellurides, bismithides and alloys. During pentlandite exsolution Pd appears to have diffused from the Cu-rich portion of the droplet into pentlandite. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  19. Group V secreted phospholipase A2 is upregulated by IL-4 in human macrophages and mediates phagocytosis via hydrolysis of ethanolamine phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Julio M; Rodríguez, Juan P; Gil-de-Gómez, Luis; Guijas, Carlos; Balboa, María A; Balsinde, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the heterogeneity and plasticity of macrophage populations led to the identification of two major polarization states: classically activated macrophages or M1, induced by IFN-γ plus LPS, and alternatively activated macrophages, induced by IL-4. We studied the expression of multiple phospholipase A2 enzymes in human macrophages and the effect that polarization of the cells has on their levels. At least 11 phospholipase A2 genes were found at significant levels in human macrophages, as detected by quantitative PCR. None of these exhibited marked changes after treating the cells with IFN-γ plus LPS. However, macrophage treatment with IL-4 led to strong upregulation of the secreted group V phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-V), both at the mRNA and protein levels. In parallel with increasing sPLA2-V expression levels, IL-4-treated macrophages exhibited increased phagocytosis of yeast-derived zymosan and bacteria, and we show that both events are causally related, because cells deficient in sPLA2-V exhibited decreased phagocytosis, and cells overexpressing the enzyme manifested higher rates of phagocytosis. Mass spectrometry analyses of lipid changes in the IL-4-treated macrophages suggest that ethanolamine lysophospholipid (LPE) is an sPLA2-V-derived product that may be involved in regulating phagocytosis. Cellular levels of LPE are selectively maintained by sPLA2-V. By supplementing sPLA2-V-deficient cells with LPE, phagocytosis of zymosan or bacteria was fully restored in IL-4-treated cells. Collectively, our results show that sPLA2-V is required for efficient phagocytosis by IL-4-treated human macrophages and provide evidence that sPLA2-V-derived LPE is involved in the process. PMID:25725101

  20. V&V framework

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Richard G.; Maniaci, David Charles; Naughton, Jonathan W.

    2015-09-01

    A Verification and Validation (V&V) framework is presented for the development and execution of coordinated modeling and experimental program s to assess the predictive capability of computational models of complex systems through focused, well structured, and formal processes.The elements of the framework are based on established V&V methodology developed by various organizations including the Department of Energy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Four main topics are addressed: 1) Program planning based on expert elicitation of the modeling physics requirements, 2) experimental design for model assessment, 3) uncertainty quantification for experimental observations and computational model simulations, and 4) assessment of the model predictive capability. The audience for this document includes program planners, modelers, experimentalist, V &V specialist, and customers of the modeling results.

  1. The Supreme Court Permits Religious Groups To Use Public School Facilities: Good News Club v. Milford Central School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews basis for U.S. Supreme Court's June 2001 decision in "Good News Club v. Milford Central School," where Court held that the Christian religious club for students had the Constitutional right under the Free Speech Clause to use public school facilities after school hours. Explains impact of decision on board of education policy. (Contains…

  2. Top quark mass measurement in the tt all hadronic channel using a matrix element technique in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Maki, T.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Remortel, N. van; Adelman, J.; Brubaker, E.; Fedorko, W. T.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Kim, Y. K.; Krop, D.; Kwang, S.; Lee, H. S.; Paramonov, A. A.; Schmidt, M. A.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Wilbur, S.; Wolfe, C.; Yang, U. K.

    2009-04-01

    We present a measurement of the top quark mass in the all hadronic channel (tt{yields}bbq{sub 1}q{sub 2}q{sub 3}q{sub 4}) using 943 pb{sup -1} of pp collisions at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV collected at the CDF II detector at Fermilab (CDF). We apply the standard model production and decay matrix element (ME) to tt candidate events. We calculate per-event probability densities according to the ME calculation and construct template models of signal and background. The scale of the jet energy is calibrated using additional templates formed with the invariant mass of pairs of jets. These templates form an overall likelihood function that depends on the top quark mass and on the jet energy scale (JES). We estimate both by maximizing this function. Given 72 observed events, we measure a top quark mass of 171.1{+-}3.7(stat+JES){+-}2.1(syst) GeV/c{sup 2}. The combined uncertainty on the top quark mass is 4.3 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  3. 3D finite element simulation of microstructure evolution in blade forging of Ti-6Al-4V alloy based on the internal state variable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiao; Wu, Bin; Li, Miao-Quan

    2012-02-01

    The physically-based internal state variable (ISV) models were used to describe the changes of dislocation density, grain size, and flow stress in the high temperature deformation of titanium alloys in this study. The constants of the present models could be identified based on experimental results, which were conducted at deformation temperatures ranging from 1093 K to 1303 K, height reductions ranging from 20% to 60%, and the strain rates of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 s-1. The physically-based internal state variable models were implemented into the commercial finite element (FE) code. Then, a three-dimensional (3D) FE simulation system coupling of deformation, heat transfer, and microstructure evolution was developed for the blade forging of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. FE analysis was carried out to simulate the microstructure evolution in the blade forging of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Finally, the blade forging tests of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were performed to validate the results of FE simulation. According to the tensile tests, it is seen that the mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elongation, satisfy the application requirements well. The maximum and minimum differences between the calculated and experimental grain size of primary α phase are 11.71% and 4.23%, respectively. Thus, the industrial trials show a good agreement with FE simulation of blade forging.

  4. HRTEM-AEM-HAADF-STEM study of platinum-group elements within a mantle-derived Cr spinel (Lherz; North-Eastern Pyrenees, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, Cristiano; Lorand, Jean-Pierre

    2008-11-01

    As platinum group elements (PGE) like Ru, Os, Ir and Rh have appropriate charge and ionic radii to substitute the major cations in the spinel structure, Cr-spinel is one of the potential minerals that can fractionate such elements during the partial melting and fractional crystallization. However, whether PGE occur in solid solution or are physically collected as poly-metallic clusters of atoms on spinel grain boundaries is a central issue for PGE geochemistry. A PGE-bearing Cr-spinel separated from one harzburgite sample from Lherz has been analyzed by Transmission, Analytical and Scanning-Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM-AEM-STEM). Our analyses did not reveal any exsolution/cluster feature at the nanometric scale, except for Ir, which is concentrated as Ir-bearing lamellar rutile, about 100 nm width. Rutile appears to have enhanced unmixing of Ir from the spinel structure. The DCr spinel/silicate melt partition coefficients estimated from the Lherz Cr-spinel (Ir = 32 ± 0.7; Os = 28 ± 6; Ru = 12.5 ± 2; Pt = 1.5 ± 0.2; Pd = 0.2 ± 0.05) may be appropriate for modelling the behavior of PGE in sulfur-undersaturated melting processes of the shallow upper mantle, while being lower than those derived from experiments and natural ultramafic melts.

  5. Correlation consistent basis sets for explicitly correlated wavefunctions: Pseudopotential-based basis sets for the post-d main group elements Ga-Rn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. Grant; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2014-09-01

    New correlation consistent basis sets, cc-pVnZ-PP-F12 (n = D, T, Q), for all the post-d main group elements Ga-Rn have been optimized for use in explicitly correlated F12 calculations. The new sets, which include not only orbital basis sets but also the matching auxiliary sets required for density fitting both conventional and F12 integrals, are designed for correlation of valence sp, as well as the outer-core d electrons. The basis sets are constructed for use with the previously published small-core relativistic pseudopotentials of the Stuttgart-Cologne variety. Benchmark explicitly correlated coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples [CCSD(T)-F12b] calculations of the spectroscopic properties of numerous diatomic molecules involving 4p, 5p, and 6p elements have been carried out and compared to the analogous conventional CCSD(T) results. In general the F12 results obtained with a n-zeta F12 basis set were comparable to conventional aug-cc-pVxZ-PP or aug-cc-pwCVxZ-PP basis set calculations obtained with x = n + 1 or even x = n + 2. The new sets used in CCSD(T)-F12b calculations are particularly efficient at accurately recovering the large correlation effects of the outer-core d electrons.

  6. Bioaccumulation of platinum group elements and characterization of their species in Lolium multiflorum by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Lesniewska, Barbara A; Messerschmidt, Jürgen; Jakubowski, Norbert; Hulanicki, Adam

    2004-04-25

    The bioaccumulation of Pt, Pd and Rh by grass grown hydroponically with nutrient solutions containing these ions at elevated (38.7 mg l(-1) Pt, 21.7 mg l(-1) Pd and 7.1 mg l(-1) Rh) and medium (3.6 mg l(-1) Pt, 4.4 mg l(-1) Pd and 0.5 mg l(-1) Rh) concentrations was studied by using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). The highest bioaccumulation factors were obtained for Pd and Rh in roots and for Pt in leaves. The obtained results showed that most of the studied metals were accumulated in roots, and only a small fraction was really metabolised and transported to leaves. The multi-element capability of ICP-SFMS has been exploited to study the metabolism of platinum group elements (PGEs) in cultivated plants. The species of studied metals were extracted from roots and leaves and separated into two mass fractions by ultra-filtration. The low molecular mass (<10 kDa) fractions of the root and the leaf extracts were investigated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled on-line to ICP-SFMS. The presence of Ca, Cu, S and C in the same fractions as Pt, Pd and Rh may indicate the interaction of PGEs with phytochelatins and carbohydrates. PMID:15081741

  7. Multireference - Møller-Plesset Perturbation Theory Results on Levels and Transition Rates in Al-like Ions of Iron Group Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Santana, J A; Ishikawa, Y; Tr�abert, E

    2009-02-26

    Ground configuration and low-lying levels of Al-like ions contribute to a variety of laboratory and solar spectra, but the available information in databases are neither complete not necessarily correct. We have performed multireference Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory calculations that approach spectroscopic accuracy in order to check the information that databases hold on the 40 lowest levels of Al-Like ions of iron group elements (K through Ge), and to provide input for the interpretation of concurrent experiments. Our results indicate problems of the database holdings on the levels of the lowest quartet levels in the lighter elements of the range studied. The results of our calculations of the decay rates of five long-lived levels (3s{sup 2}3p {sup 2}p{sup o}{sub 3/2}, 3s3p{sup 2} {sup 4}P{sup o} J and 3s3p3d {sup 4}F{sup o}{sub 9/2}) are compared with lifetime data from beam-foil, electron beam ion trap and heavy-ion storage ring experiments.

  8. Correlation consistent basis sets for explicitly correlated wavefunctions: Pseudopotential-based basis sets for the post-d main group elements Ga–Rn

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. Grant E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu; Peterson, Kirk A. E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu

    2014-09-07

    New correlation consistent basis sets, cc-pVnZ-PP-F12 (n = D, T, Q), for all the post-d main group elements Ga–Rn have been optimized for use in explicitly correlated F12 calculations. The new sets, which include not only orbital basis sets but also the matching auxiliary sets required for density fitting both conventional and F12 integrals, are designed for correlation of valence sp, as well as the outer-core d electrons. The basis sets are constructed for use with the previously published small-core relativistic pseudopotentials of the Stuttgart-Cologne variety. Benchmark explicitly correlated coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples [CCSD(T)-F12b] calculations of the spectroscopic properties of numerous diatomic molecules involving 4p, 5p, and 6p elements have been carried out and compared to the analogous conventional CCSD(T) results. In general the F12 results obtained with a n-zeta F12 basis set were comparable to conventional aug-cc-pVxZ-PP or aug-cc-pwCVxZ-PP basis set calculations obtained with x = n + 1 or even x = n + 2. The new sets used in CCSD(T)-F12b calculations are particularly efficient at accurately recovering the large correlation effects of the outer-core d electrons.

  9. Platinum group elements in gold-sulfide and base-metal ores of the Sayan-Baikal Fold Region and possible platinum and palladium speciation in sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A. G.; Zhmodik, S. M.; Kolesov, G. M.; Mit'kin, V. N.; Damdinov, B. B.; Zayakina, S. B.

    2008-02-01

    The concentration levels and distribution features of the platinum group elements (PGE) in quartz-sulfide and base-metal ores in deposits of the Sayan-Baikal Fold Region (SBFR) are discussed. Microfire assay neutron activation analysis (MF-NAA), which enables one to work on a nondestructive basis and allows one to avoid inaccuracies related to chemical sample preparation, was used as the main analytical technique. Three types of hydrothermal mineralization with elevated grades of PGE (especially Pt, Pd, and Ru) have been identified: (1) pyrite-pyrrhotite (massive sulfide) mineralization hosted in black shales of the Il’chir Sequence; (2) gold-sulfide ores of the Zun-Kholba, Tainsky, Kamenny, and some other gold deposits; and (3) silver-basemetal ores of the Dzhida-Vitim Zone. The PGE contents significantly vary, from global average values to tens of grams per ton. An absence of PGE minerals implies that these elements are finely dispersed in sulfide minerals and native gold. Taking into account difficulties in conversion of PGE into analytical forms, their nonuniform distribution in sulfide minerals, their high affinity to coordination compounds, and experimental results, cluster species of Pt and Pd in major minerals are suggested for the gold-sulfide and silver-base-metal ores in deposits, which are related to suprasubduction ophiolites and island-arc and intraplate settings in the SBFR.

  10. Fragmentation cross sections of 290 and 400 MeV/nucleon C12 beams on elemental targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Guetersloh, S.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Fukumura, A.; Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T.

    2007-07-01

    Charge-changing and fragment production cross sections at 0° have been obtained for interactions of 290 and 400 MeV/nucleon carbon beams with C, CH2, Al, Cu, Sn, and Pb targets. These beams are relevant to cancer therapy, space radiation, and the production of radioactive beams. We compare these results against previously published results using C and CH2 targets at similar beam energies. Because of ambiguities arising from the presence of multiple fragments on many events, the previous publications reported only cross sections for B and Be fragments. In this work, we have extracted cross sections for all fragment species, using data obtained at three distinct values of angular acceptance, supplemented by data taken with the detector stack placed off the beam axis. A simulation of the experiment with the particle and heavy ion transport system (PHITS) Monte Carlo model shows fair agreement with the data obtained with the large-acceptance detectors, but agreement is poor at small acceptance. The measured cross sections are also compared with the predictions of the one-dimensional cross section models EPAX2 and NUCFRG2; the latter is presently used in NASA's space radiation transport calculations. Though PHITS and NUCFRG2 reproduce the charge-changing cross sections with reasonable accuracy, none of the models is able to accurately predict the fragment cross sections for all fragment species and target materials.

  11. Platinum-group element signatures in the North Atlantic Igneous Province: Implications for mantle controls on metal budgets during continental breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Hannah S. R.; McDonald, Iain; Kerr, Andrew C.

    2015-09-01

    The North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) is a large igneous province (LIP) that includes a series of lava suites erupted from the earliest manifestations of the (proto)-Icelandic plume, through continental rifting and ultimate ocean opening. The lavas of one of these sub-provinces, the British Palaeogene Igneous Province (BPIP), were some of the first lavas to be erupted in the NAIP and overlie a thick crustal basement and sedimentary succession with abundant S-rich mudrocks. We present the first platinum-group element (PGE) and Au analyses of BPIP flood basalts from the main lava fields of the Isle of Mull and Morvern and the Isle of Skye, in addition to a suite of shallow crustal dolerite volcanic plugs on Mull, and other minor lavas suites. BPIP lavas display both S-saturated and S-undersaturated trends which, coupled with elevated PGE abundances (> MORB), suggest that the BPIP is one of the most prospective areas of the NAIP to host Ni-Cu-PGE-(Au) mineralisation in conduit systems. Platinum-group element, Au and chalcophile element abundances in lavas from West and East Greenland, and Iceland, are directly comparable to BPIP lavas, but the relative abundances of Pt and Pd vary systematically between lavas suites of different ages. The oldest lavas (BPIP and West Greenland) have a broadly chondritic Pt/Pd ratio (~ 1.9). Lavas from East Greenland have a lower Pt/Pd ratio (~ 0.8) and the youngest lavas from Iceland have the lowest Pt/Pd ratio of the NAIP (~ 0.4). Hence, Pt/Pd ratio of otherwise equivalent flood basalt lavas varies temporally across the NAIP and appears to be coincident with the changing geodynamic environment of the (proto)-Icelandic plume through time. We assess the possible causes for such systematic Pt/Pd variation in light of mantle plume and lithospheric controls, and suggest that this reflects a change in the availability of lithospheric mantle Pt-rich sulphides for entrainment in ascending plume magmas. Hence the precious metal systematics and potential prospectivity of a LIP may be affected by contamination of plume-derived magmas by subcontinental lithospheric mantle at the margins of cratons that have been enriched by Palaeoproterozoic orogenesis.

  12. Effects of small amount of additional elements on control of interstitial impurities and mechanical properties of V?4Cr?4Ti?Si?Al?Y alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuto, Toshinori; Satou, Manabu; Hasegawa, Akira; Abe, Katsunori; Muroga, Takeo; Yamamoto, Norikazu

    2004-03-01

    In order to improve the mechanical properties of low activation vanadium alloys for fusion structural applications, effects of small addition of Si, Al and Y on the control of interstitial impurities (O, C and N) during the fabrication process were examined for several V-4Cr-4Ti-Si-Al-Y alloys produced by the levitation melting method. Charpy impact tests and tensile tests were carried out for five kinds of V-4Cr-4Ti-Si-Al-Y alloys using miniaturized specimens for the purpose of evaluating the effects of these elements on mechanical properties. Oxygen concentration decreased almost linearly with increasing loss of yttrium during melting. This oxygen reduction with yttrium loss during the melting process may have been achieved by two types of mechanisms, they are, (i) suppression of oxygen penetration into the molten materials from the environment and (ii) getting of oxygen from the matrix by forming Y 2O 3, which floats to the surface during the melting. There was no effect of Si and Al addition to control the concentration of interstitial impurities. V-4Cr-4Ti-0.1Si-0.1Al-0.1Y alloy showed the best impact properties out of the alloys investigated. Upper-shelf energy of the alloys decreased with increasing yttrium content. High number density of coarse inclusions containing yttrium could cause the degradation of impact properties, though they hardly affect tensile properties of the alloys. Even at higher yttrium contents, V-4Cr-4Ti-Y alloys without addition of Si and Al showed relatively high upper-shelf energy.

  13. Evaluation of critical depth ratio for soft V2O5 film on hard Si substrate by finite element modeling of experimentally measured nanoindentation response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A. K.; Porwal, Deeksha; Dey, Arjun; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar; Sharma, Anand Kumar

    2016-04-01

    A combined nanoindentation experiment and finite element modeling (FEM) approach was utilized in the present work to evaluate the effects of variations in the ratio (h/t) of indentation depth (h) to film thickness (t) on the nanomechanical behavior of 2.3-6.2 μm vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) films. The soft V2O5 films were deposited by pulsed radio frequency magnetron sputtering on a relatively hard silicon (Si) substrate. The elasto-plastic properties of the V2O5 films as well as the Si substrate were evaluated using a power law-based nonlinear material model. Based on the present nanoindentation and FEM results the critical penetration depth to film thickness ratio (h /t)c, i.e. critical depth ratio (CDR) was predicted as 7.9%,,confirming thereby that there is no universal critical penetration depth beyond which the mechanical properties of the substrate start to affect the evaluated nanomechanical properties (e.g. nanohardness H, Young’s modulus E, etc) of a given soft film on a given hard substrate. The experimental data showed that at h ~ 0.5t the magnitudes of E and H were approximately two times the values measured at h  ⩽  0.1t. The FEM results obtained in the present work successfully predicted the effects of variations in the h /t ratio on the indenter displacements as well as the distributions of the von Mises stress for the soft V2O5 films on the hard Si substrate system.

  14. Ectomycorrhizal influence on particle size, surface structure, mineral crystallinity, functional groups, and elemental composition of soil colloids from different soil origins.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Wang, Huimei; Wang, Wenjie; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang

    2013-01-01

    Limited data are available on the ectomycorrhizae-induced changes in surface structure and composition of soil colloids, the most active portion in soil matrix, although such data may benefit the understanding of mycorrhizal-aided soil improvements. By using ectomycorrhizae (Gomphidius viscidus) and soil colloids from dark brown forest soil (a good loam) and saline-alkali soil (heavily degraded soil), we tried to approach the changes here. For the good loam either from the surface or deep soils, the fungus treatment induced physical absorption of covering materials on colloid surface with nonsignificant increases in soil particle size (P > 0.05). These increased the amount of variable functional groups (O-H stretching and bending, C-H stretching, C=O stretching, etc.) by 3-26% and the crystallinity of variable soil minerals (kaolinite, hydromica, and quartz) by 40-300%. However, the fungus treatment of saline-alkali soil obviously differed from the dark brown forest soil. There were 12-35% decreases in most functional groups, 15-55% decreases in crystallinity of most soil minerals but general increases in their grain size, and significant increases in soil particle size (P < 0.05). These different responses sharply decreased element ratios (C:O, C:N, and C:Si) in soil colloids from saline-alkali soil, moving them close to those of the good loam of dark brown forest soil. PMID:23766704

  15. Formation of a reliable intermediate band in Si heavily coimplanted with chalcogens (S, Se, Te) and group III elements (B, Al)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, K.; Aguilera, I.; Palacios, P.; Wahnón, P.

    2010-10-01

    This first-principles study describes the properties of Si implanted with several chalcogen species (S, Se, Te) at doses considerably above the equilibrium solubility limit, especially when coimplanted with the group III atoms B and Al. The measurements of chalcogen-implanted Si show strong optical absorption in the infrared range. The calculations carried out show that substitution of Si by chalcogen atoms requires lower formation energy than the interstitial implantation. In the resulting electronic structure, at concentrations close to 0.5%, an impurity band determined by the properties of the chalcogens introduced is observed in the forbidden energy gap of Si. Although this band is a few tenths of an electron volt wide, it remains energetically isolated from both the valence and the conduction bands. Appropriate coimplantation with group III elements allows control over the occupation of the intermediate band while modifying its energies only slightly. A moderate energy gain (especially small for B) seems to be obtained when p -doping atoms occupy the sites next to those of the chalcogens. Therefore, the apparent electrostatic attraction between species that in isolation would act as acceptors and double donors is smaller than expected. The intermediate-band properties have been preserved for all of the coimplanted compounds analyzed here, regardless of the species involved or the distance between them, which constitutes an appreciable advantage for the design of new experimental materials.

  16. Measurement of the t-channel single-top-quark production cross section and of the $\\mid V_{tb} \\mid$ CKM matrix element in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$= 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2014-06-16

    Our measurements are presented of the t-channel single-top-quark production cross section in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV. The results are based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. The cross section is measured inclusively, as well as separately for top (t) and antitop (t¯), in final states with a muon or an electron. The measured inclusive t-channel cross section is σ t-ch. = 83.6 ± 2.3 (stat.) ± 7.4 (syst.) pb. The single t and t¯ cross sections are measured to be σ t-ch.(t) = 53.8 ± 1.5 (stat.) ± 4.4 (syst.) pb and σ t-ch. (t¯) = 27.6 ± 1.3 (stat.) ± 3.7 (syst.) pb, respectively. The measured ratio of cross sections is R t-ch. = σ t-ch.(t)/σ t-ch. (t¯) = 1.95 ± 0.10 (stat.) ± 0.19 (syst.), in agreement with the standard model prediction. Finally, the modulus of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element V tb is extracted and, in combination with a previous CMS result at √s = 7 TeV, a value |V tb| = 0.998 ± 0.038 (exp.) ± 0.016 (theo.) is obtained.

  17. Measurement of the t-channel single-top-quark production cross section and of the $$\\mid V_{tb} \\mid$$ CKM matrix element in pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$= 8 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2014-06-16

    Our measurements are presented of the t-channel single-top-quark production cross section in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV. The results are based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. The cross section is measured inclusively, as well as separately for top (t) and antitop (t¯), in final states with a muon or an electron. The measured inclusive t-channel cross section is σ t-ch. = 83.6 ± 2.3 (stat.) ± 7.4 (syst.) pb. The single t and t¯ cross sections are measured to be σ t-ch.(t) =more » 53.8 ± 1.5 (stat.) ± 4.4 (syst.) pb and σ t-ch. (t¯) = 27.6 ± 1.3 (stat.) ± 3.7 (syst.) pb, respectively. The measured ratio of cross sections is R t-ch. = σ t-ch.(t)/σ t-ch. (t¯) = 1.95 ± 0.10 (stat.) ± 0.19 (syst.), in agreement with the standard model prediction. Finally, the modulus of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element V tb is extracted and, in combination with a previous CMS result at √s = 7 TeV, a value |V tb| = 0.998 ± 0.038 (exp.) ± 0.016 (theo.) is obtained.« less

  18. SWIFT trial of delayed elective intervention v conservative treatment after thrombolysis with anistreplase in acute myocardial infarction. SWIFT (Should We Intervene Following Thrombolysis?) Trial Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To see whether early elective angiography with a view to coronary angioplasty or bypass grafting of a stenosed infarct related vessel would improve outcome in acute myocardial infarction treated by thrombolysis with anistreplase. DESIGN--Randomised study of two treatment strategies with analysis of results over 12 months. SETTING--21 district hospitals and regional cardiac centres in Britain and Ireland. SUBJECTS--800 of 993 patients presenting with clinical and electrocardiographic features of acute myocardial infarction up to three hours after the onset of major symptoms. TREATMENT STRATEGIES--Intravenous anistreplase 30 units followed by a standard regimen of heparin, warfarin, and timolol and (in patients so randomised) early angiography plus appropriate intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Death or reinfarction within 12 months. RESULTS--397 patients were randomised to receive early angiography plus appropriate intervention (coronary angioplasty in 169 cases, coronary grafting in 59) and 403 patients to receive conservative care (of these, 12 had angioplasty and seven bypass grafting during the initial admission). By 12 months mortality (5.8% (23 patients) in the intervention group v 5.0% (20) in the conservative care group; p = 0.6) and rates of reinfarction (15.1% (60 patients) v 12.9% (52); p = 0.4) were similar in the two groups. No significant differences in rates of angina or rest pain were found at 12 months. Left ventricular ejection fraction at three and 12 months was the same in both groups. Median hospital stay was longer in the intervention group (11 days v 10 days; p less than 0.0001). CONCLUSION--For most patients given thrombolytic treatment for acute myocardial infarction a strategy of angiography and intervention is appropriate only when required for clinical indications. PMID:2021717

  19. [Memorandum 'Development of health services research in Bavaria from the perspective of the Bavarian State Working Group 'Health Services Research (LAGeV)': status quo - potential - strategies'].

    PubMed

    Hollederer, A; Braun, G E; Dahlhoff, G; Drexler, H; Engel, J; Gräßel, E; Häusler, E; Heide, H; Heuschmann, P U; Hörl, G; Imhof, H; Kaplan, M; Kasperbauer, R; Klemperer, D; Kolominsky-Rabas, P; Kuhn, J; Lang, M; Langejürgen, R; Lankes, A; Leidl, R; Liebl, B; Loss, J; Ludewig, K; Mansmann, U; Melcop, N; Nagels, K; Nowak, D; Pfundner, H; Reuschenbach, B; Schneider, A; Schneider, W; Schöffski, O; Schreiber, W; Voigtländer, S; Wildner, M; Zapf, A; Zellner, A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the memorandum on the development of health services research (HSR) in Bavaria is to operationalise the global objectives of the State Working Group "Health Services Research" (LAGeV) and to collectively define future topics, specific implementation steps, methods as well as ways of working for the future course of the LAGeV. The LAGeV is an expert committee that integrates and links the competencies of different actors from science, politics and health care regarding HSR and facilitates their cooperation. The memorandum is based on an explorative survey among the LAGeV members, which identified the status quo of health services research in Bavaria, potential for development, important constraints, promoting factors, specific recommendations as well as future topics for the further development of HSR in Bavaria. From the perspective of the LAGeV members, the 12 most important future topics are: 1) Interface and networking research, 2) Innovative health care concepts, 3) Health care for multimorbid patients, 4)Health care for chronically ill patients, 5) Evaluation of innovations, processes and technologies, 6) Patient orientation and user focus, 7) Social and regional inequalities in health care, 8) Health care for mentally ill patients, 9) Indicators of health care quality, 10) Regional needs planning, 11) Practical effectiveness of HSR and 12) Scientific use of routine data. Potential for development of HSR in Bavaria lies a) in the promotion of networking and sustainable structures, b) the establishment of an HSR information platform that bundles information and results in regard to current topics and aims to facilitate cooperation as well as c) in the initiation of measures and projects. The latter ought to pinpoint health care challenges and make recommendations regarding the improvement of health care and its quality. The cooperation and networking structures that were established with the LAGeV should be continuously expanded and be used to work on priority topics in order to achieve the global objectives of the LAGeV. PMID:25422951

  20. LBRIG Newsletter: The Trimestrial Publication of the Language by Radio Interest Group, Vol. V, No.1, September, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Alan, Ed.; And Others

    This issue of the Language by Radio Interest Group newsletter contains: an article by Paul A. Gaeng on his experience as a radio listener, an article by Richard E. Wood on "Radio Peking," and a partial reprint of frequency listings from the January 1976 number. Gaeng reports that, when he was a student in Geneva, he developed skills as a…

  1. LBRIG Newsletter: The Trimestrial Publication of the Language by Radio Interest Group, Vol. V, No.1, September, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Alan, Ed.; And Others

    This issue of the Language by Radio Interest Group newsletter contains: an article by Paul A. Gaeng on his experience as a radio listener, an article by Richard E. Wood on "Radio Peking," and a partial reprint of frequency listings from the January 1976 number. Gaeng reports that, when he was a student in Geneva, he developed skills as a

  2. Evaluation of cross sections for Lα x-ray production by up to 4 MeV protons in representative elements from silver to uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapicki, Gregory

    2009-07-01

    Over the last two decades, Lα x-ray production cross sections have been fitted with a number of empirical formulae. Cross sections obtained from these formulae are averaged and fitted to a new empirical formula. These new empirical cross sections are compared with the results of the plane-wave Born approximation and the ECPSSR theory of Brandt and Lapicki (1981 Phys. Rev. A 23 1717). They are also gauged by the ECPSSR theory that has been corrected with a united atom approach in slow collisions, evaluated with Dirac-Hartree-Slater instead of screened hydrogenic wavefunctions, modified for intra-shell couplings as well as the change of the atomic parameters due to multiple ionizations. The effects of appropriately normalized intra-shell coupling factors and of multiple ionization were found to be small and essentially offset each other. The role of different sets of atomic parameters in conversion of the predictions of these ionization theories for Lα x-ray production in elements from the 47 <= Z2 <= 92 range of target atoms bombarded by up to 4 MeV protons is examined, and the selection of the optimal combination of ionization theory and atomic parameters for a reliable data base for PIXE analysis of elements heavier than palladium is discussed.

  3. Ion-selective electrode in determining fluorine in binary fluorides of metals of groups II-V

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, V.T.; Mukomel', V.L.; Polvektov, N.S.; Shilova, L.P.; Tselik, E.I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a method of determining fluorine by ion-selective electrode techniques in specimens containing mixtures of the fluorides of magnesium and the rare-earth elements (REE), as well as scandium and bismuth. The specimens after treatment at high temperatures are sparingly soluble at room temperature in water and also in aqueous solutions of acids and bases. The authors found that a mixture of KNaCO/sub 3/ and K/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 8/ with a mass ratio of 2:1 was an effective flux for MgF/sub 2/-MeF/sub 3/ specimens, where Me is an REE ion. The combined method of analyzing binary mixtures of fluorides (Mg and REE, Sc and Bi) which provides satisfactory accuracy and reliability in determining the fluoride and two different metals whose compounds may have various ratios in the samples.

  4. First principles DFT study of ferromagnetism in SnO{sub 2} induced by doped group 1A and 2A non-magnetic elements X (X=Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca)

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda Ramaniah, Lavanya M.

    2014-04-24

    Transition metal - free - ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) is of much current interest in the search for more efficient DMS materials for spintronic applications. Here, we report the results of our first principles density functional theory (DFT) study on impurity - induced ferromagnetism in non-magnetic SnO{sub 2} by a non-magnetic impurity. The impurities considered are sp-type of group 1A and 2A elements X (X = Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca). Even a single atom of the group 1A elements makes the system magnetic, whereas for the group 2A elements Ca and Mg, a higher doping is required to induce ferromagnetism. For all the elements studied, the magnetic moment appears to increase with the doping concentration, at least at certain impurity separations, which is a positive indicator for practical applications.

  5. Platinum-group element distribution in base-metal sulfides of the Merensky Reef from the eastern and western Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osbahr, Inga; Klemd, Reiner; Oberthür, Thomas; Brätz, Helene; Schouwstra, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Base-metal sulfides in magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE deposits are important carriers of platinum-group elements (PGE). The distribution and concentrations of PGE in pentlandite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite were determined in samples from the mineralized portion of four Merensky Reef intersections from the eastern and western Bushveld Complex. Electron microprobe analysis was used for major elements, and in situ laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for trace elements (PGE, Ag, and Au). Whole rock trace element analyses were performed on representative samples to obtain mineralogical balances. In Merensky Reef samples from the western Bushveld, both Pt and Pd are mainly concentrated in the upper chromitite stringer and its immediate vicinity. Samples from the eastern Bushveld reveal more complex distribution patterns. In situ LA-ICP-MS analyses of PGE in sulfides reveal that pentlandite carries distinctly elevated PGE contents, whereas pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite only contain very low PGE concentrations. Pentlandite is the principal host of Pd and Rh in the ores. Palladium and Rh concentrations in pentlandite reach up to 700 and 130 ppm, respectively, in the samples from the eastern Bushveld, and up to 1,750 ppm Pd and up to 1,000 ppm Rh in samples from the western Bushveld. Only traces of Pt are present in the base-metal sulfides (BMS). Pyrrhotite contains significant though generally low amounts of Ru, Os, and Ir, but hardly any Pd or Rh. Chalcopyrite contains most of the Ag but carries only extremely low PGE concentrations. Mass balance calculations performed on the Merensky Reef samples reveal that in general, pentlandite in the feldspathic pyroxenite and the pegmatoidal feldspathic pyroxenite hosts up to 100 % of the Pd and Rh and smaller amounts (10-40 %) of the Os, Ir, and Ru. Chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite usually contain less than 10 % of the whole rock PGE. The remaining PGE concentrations, and especially most of the Pt (up to 100 %), are present in the form of discrete platinum-group minerals such as cooperite/braggite, sperrylite, moncheite, and isoferroplatinum. Distribution patterns of whole rock Cu, Ni, and S versus whole rock Pd and Pt show commonly distinct offsets. The general sequence of "offset patterns" of PGE and BMS maxima, in the order from bottom to top, is Pd in pentlandite → Pd in whole rock → (Cu, Ni, and S). The relationship is not that straightforward in general; some of the reef sequences studied only partially show similar trends or are more complex. In general, however, the highest Pd concentrations in pentlandite appear to be related to the earliest, volumetrically rather small sulfide liquids at the base of the Merensky Reef sequence. A possible explanation for the offset patterns may be Rayleigh fractionation.

  6. Effects of mother lode-type gold mineralization on 187Os/188Os and platinum group element concentrations in peridotite: Alleghany District, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Böhlke, J.K.; McDonough, W.F.; Li, J.

    2007-01-01

    Osmium isotope compositions and concentrations of Re, platinum group elements (PGE), and Au were determined for host peridotites (serpentinites and barzburgites) and hydrothermally altered ultramafic wall rocks associated with Mother Lode-type hydrothermal gold-quartz vein mineralization in the Alleghany district, California. The host peridotites have Os isotope compositions and Re, PGE, and Au abundances typical of the upper mantle at their presumed formation age during the late Proterozoic or early Paleozoic. The hydrothermally altered rocks have highly variable initial Os isotope compositions with ??os, values (% deviation of 187OS/188OS from the chondritic average calculated for the approx. 120 Ma time of mineralization) ranging from -1.4 to -8.3. The lowest Os isotope compositions are consistent with Re depletion of a chondritic source (e.g., the upper mantle) at ca. 1.6 Ga. Most of the altered samples are enriched in Au and have depleted and fractionated abundances of Re and PGE relative to their precursor peridotites. Geoehemical characteristics of the altered samples suggest that Re and some PGE were variably removed from the ultramafic rocks during the mineralization event. In addition to Re, the Pt and Pd abundances of the most intensely altered rocks appear to have been most affected by mineralization. The 187Os-depleted isotopic compositions of some altered rocks are interpreted to be a result of preferential 187Os loss via destruction of Re-rich phases during the event. For these rocks, Os evidently is not a useful tracer of the mineralizing fluids. The results do, however, provide evidence for differential mobility of these elements, and mobility of 187Os relative to the initial bulk Os isotope composition during hydrothermal metasomatic alteration of ultramafic rocks. ?? 2007 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

  7. ICEG2D (v2.0) - An Integrated Software Package for Automated Prediction of Flow Fields for Single-Element Airfoils With Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson David S.; Soni, Bharat K.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated geometry/grid/simulation software package, ICEG2D, is being developed to automate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for single- and multi-element airfoils with ice accretions. The current version, ICEG213 (v2.0), was designed to automatically perform four primary functions: (1) generate a grid-ready surface definition based on the geometrical characteristics of the iced airfoil surface, (2) generate high-quality structured and generalized grids starting from a defined surface definition, (3) generate the input and restart files needed to run the structured grid CFD solver NPARC or the generalized grid CFD solver HYBFL2D, and (4) using the flow solutions, generate solution-adaptive grids. ICEG2D (v2.0) can be operated in either a batch mode using a script file or in an interactive mode by entering directives from a command line within a Unix shell. This report summarizes activities completed in the first two years of a three-year research and development program to address automation issues related to CFD simulations for airfoils with ice accretions. As well as describing the technology employed in the software, this document serves as a users manual providing installation and operating instructions. An evaluation of the software is also presented.

  8. Monochromatic X-ray-induced thermal effect on four-reflection “nested” meV-monochromators: dynamical diffraction theory and finite-element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ling-Fei; Gao, Li-Dan; Li, Zhen-Jie; Wang, Shan-Feng; Sheng, Wei-Fan; Liu, Peng; Xu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    The high energy resolution monochromator (HRM) is widely used in inelastic scattering programs to detect phonons with energy resolution, down to the meV level. Although the large amount of heat from insertion devices can be reduced by a high heat-load monochromator, the unbalanced heat load on the inner pair of crystals in a nested HRM can affect its overall performance. Here, a theoretical analysis of the unbalanced heat load using dynamical diffraction theory and finite element analysis is presented. By utilizing the ray-tracing method, the performance of different HRM nesting configurations is simulated. It is suggested that the heat balance ratio, energy resolution, and overall spectral transmission efficiency are the figures of merit for evaluating the performance of nested HRMs. Although the present study is mainly focused on nested HRMs working at 57Fe nuclear resonant energy at 14.4 keV, it is feasible to extend this to other nested HRMs working at different energies.

  9. Design, synthesis and 1H NMR study of C3v-symmetric anion receptors with urethane-NH as recognition group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Oh; Sahoo, Suban K.; Choi, Heung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    C3v-Symmetric anion receptors 3 and 4 with urethane groups were synthesized by using trindane triol as tripodal molecular framework. In 1H NMR titration study, the receptors showed noticeable downfield shift/disappearance of the urethane-NH peak in presence of H2PO4- and F- due to the host-guest complexation occurred through multiple hydrogen bonding and/or the deprotonation of urethane-NH groups. Other tested anions such as Cl-, Br-, HSO4-, and NO3- showed either no or negligible chemical shift of the urethane groups. The deprotonation event in 4 allowed selective detection of F- by perceptible color change from colorless to yellowish-red with the appearance of a new charge transfer absorption band at 450 nm.

  10. “Structural Transformations in Ceramics: Perovskite-like Oxides and Group III, IV, and V Nitrides”

    SciTech Connect

    James P. Lewis , Dorian M. Hatch , and Harold T. Stokes

    2006-12-31

    1 Overview of Results and their Significance Ceramic perovskite-like oxides with the general formula (A. A0. ...)(B. B0. ...)O3and titanium-based oxides are of great technological interest because of their large piezoelectric and dielectric response characteristics.[1] In doped and nanoengineered forms, titantium dioxide finds increasing application as an organic and hydrolytic photocatalyst. The binary main-group-metal nitride compounds have undergone recent advancements of in-situ heating technology in diamond anvil cells leading to a burst of experimental and theoretical interest. In our DOE proposal, we discussed our unique theoretical approach which applies ab initio electronic calculations in conjunction with systematic group-theoretical analysis of lattice distortions to study two representative phase transitions in ceramic materials: (1) displacive phase transitions in primarily titanium-based perovskite-like oxide ceramics, and (2) reconstructive phase transitions in main-group nitride ceramics. A sub area which we have explored in depth is doped titanium dioxide electrical/optical properties.

  11. Methods for forming group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for forming Group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  12. Crystal structure of the streptococcal superantigen SpeI and functional role of a novel loop domain in T cell activation by group V superantigens.

    PubMed

    Brouillard, Jean-Nicholas P; Gnther, Sebastian; Varma, Ashok K; Gryski, Irene; Herfst, Christine A; Rahman, A K M Nur-ur; Leung, Donald Y M; Schlievert, Patrick M; Madrenas, Joaqun; Sundberg, Eric J; McCormick, John K

    2007-04-01

    Superantigens (SAgs) are potent microbial toxins that bind simultaneously to T cell receptors (TCRs) and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules, resulting in the activation and expansion of large T cell subsets and the onset of numerous human diseases. Within the bacterial SAg family, streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin I (SpeI) has been classified as belonging to the group V SAg subclass, which are characterized by a unique, relatively conserved approximately 15 amino acid extension (amino acid residues 154 to 170 in SpeI; herein referred to as the alpha3-beta8 loop), absent in SAg groups I through IV. Here, we report the crystal structure of SpeI at 1.56 A resolution. Although the alpha3-beta8 loop in SpeI is several residues shorter than that of another group V SAg, staphylococcal enterotoxin serotype I, the C-terminal portions of these loops, which are located adjacent to the putative TCR binding site, are structurally similar. Mutagenesis and subsequent functional analysis of SpeI indicates that TCR beta-chains are likely engaged in a similar general orientation as other characterized SAgs. We show, however, that the alpha3-beta8 loop length, and the presence of key glycine residues, are necessary for optimal activation of T cells. Based on Vbeta-skewing analysis of human T cells activated with SpeI and structural models, we propose that the alpha3-beta8 loop is positioned to form productive intermolecular contacts with the TCR beta-chain, likely in framework region 3, and that these contacts are required for optimal TCR recognition by SpeI, and likely all other group V SAgs. PMID:17303163

  13. A protective surface protein from type V group B streptococci shares N-terminal sequence homology with the alpha C protein.

    PubMed Central

    Lachenauer, C S; Madoff, L C

    1996-01-01

    Infection by group B streptococci (GBS) is an important cause of bacterial disease in neonates, pregnant women, and nonpregnant adults. Historically, serotypes Ia, Ib, II, and III have been most prevalent among disease cases; recently, type V strains have emerged as important strains in the United States and elsewhere. In addition to type-specific capsular polysaccharides, many GBS strains possess surface proteins which demonstrate a laddering pattern on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and resistance to trypsin digestion. These include the alpha C protein, the R proteins, and protein Rib. Some of these proteins elicit protective antibodies in animals. We demonstrate a trypsin-resistant laddering protein purified from a type V GBS strain by mutanolysin extraction and column chromatography. This protein contains a major 90-kDa band and a series of smaller bands spaced approximately 10 kDa apart on SDS-PAGE. Cross-reactivity of the type V protein with the alpha C protein and with R1 was demonstrated on Western blot (immunoblot). N-terminal sequence analysis of the protein revealed residue identity with 17 of 18 residues at corresponding positions on the alpha protein. Western blot of SDS extracts of 41 clinical type V isolates with rabbit antiserum to the protein demonstrated a homologous protein in 25 isolates (61%); two additional strains exhibited a heterologous pattern which was also demonstrated with 4G8, a monoclonal antibody directed to the alpha C protein repeat region. Rabbit antiserum raised to the type V protein conferred protection in neonatal mice against a type V strain bearing a homologous protein. These data support the hypothesis that there exists a family of trypsin-resistant, laddering GBS surface proteins which may play a role in immunity to GBS infection. PMID:8926097

  14. Role of sphingomyelin and ceramide in the regulation of the activity and fatty acid specificity of group V secretory phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dev K.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Subbaiah, Papasani V.

    2007-01-01

    We previously showed that group V secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2V) is inhibited by sphingomyelin (SM), but activated by ceramide. Here we investigated the effect of sphingolipid structure on the activity and acyl specificity of sPLA2V. Degradation of HDL SM to ceramide, but not to ceramide phosphate, stimulated the activity by 6-fold, with the release of all unsaturated fatty acids being affected equally. Ceramide-enrichment of HDL similarly stimulated the release of unsaturated fatty acids. Incorporation of SM into phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes preferentially inhibited the hydrolysis of 16:0–20:4 PC. Conversely, SMase C treatment or ceramide incorporation resulted in preferential stimulation of hydrolysis of 16:0–20:4 PC. The presence of a long chain acyl group in ceramide was essential for the activation, and long chain diacylglycerols were also effective. However, ceramide phosphate was inhibitory. These studies show that SM and ceramide in the membranes and lipoproteins not only regulate the activity of phospholipases, but also the release of arachidonate, the precursor of eicosanoids. PMID:17178097

  15. The mineralogy and mineral associations of platinum group elements and gold in the Platreef at Zwartfontein, Akanani Project, Northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Merwe, Frits; Viljoen, Fanus; Knoper, Mike

    2012-09-01

    The mineralogy of the platinum-group elements (PGE), and gold, in the Platreef of the Bushveld Complex, was investigated using an FEI Mineral Liberation Analyser. Polished sections were prepared from 171 samples collected from two boreholes, for the in-situ examination of platinum group minerals (PGM). PGM and gold minerals encountered include maslovite (PtBiTe, 32 area% of total PGM), kotulskite (Pd(BiTe), 17 %), isoferroplatinum (Pt3Fe, 15 %), sperrylite (PtAs2, 11 %), cooperite (PtS, 5 %), moncheite (PtTe2; 5 %), electrum (AuAg; 5 %), michenerite (PdBiTe; 3 %), Pd alloys (Pd, Sb, Sn; 3 %), hollingworthite ((Rh,Pt)AsS; 2 %), as well as minor (all <1 area% of total PGM) merenskyite (PdBiTe2), laurite (RuS2), rustenburgite (Pt0.4Pd0.4Sn0.2), froodite (PdBi2), atokite (Pd0.5Pt0.3Sn0.2), stumpflite (PtSb), plumbopalladinite (Pd3Pb2), and zvyagintsevite (Pd3Pb). An observed association of all PGM with base metal sulfides (BMS), and a pronounced association of PGE tellurides, arsenides and Pd&Pt alloys with secondary silicates, is consistent with the remobilisation and recrystallisation of some of the PGM's during hydrothermal alteration and serpentinisation subsequent to their initial (primary) crystallisation from BMS (e.g. Godel et al. J Petrol 48:1569-1604, 2007; Hutchinson and McDonald Appl Earth Sci (Trans Inst Min Metall B) 114:B208-224, 2008).

  16. Platinum-group element distribution in base-metal sulfides of the UG2 chromitite, Bushveld Complex, South Africa—a reconnaissance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osbahr, Inga; Oberthür, Thomas; Klemd, Reiner; Josties, Anja

    2014-08-01

    Two drill cores of the UG2 chromitite from the eastern and western Bushveld Complex were studied by whole-rock analysis, ore microscopy, SEM/Mineral Liberation Analysis (MLA), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis. The top and base of the UG2 main seam have the highest bulk-rock Pd and Pt concentrations. Sulfides mostly occur as aggregates of pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and rare pyrrhotite and pyrite or as individual grains associated mostly with chromite grains. In situ LA-ICP-MS analyses reveal that pentlandite carries distinctly elevated platinum-group element (PGE) contents. In contrast, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite contain very low PGE concentrations. Pentlandite shows average maximum values of 350-1,000 ppm Pd, 200 ppm Rh, 130-175 ppm Ru, 20 ppm Os, and 150 ppm Ir, and is the principal host of Pd and Rh in the studied ores of the UG2. Mass balance calculations were conducted for samples representing the UG2 main seam of the drill core DT46, eastern Bushveld. Pentlandite consistently hosts elevated contents of the whole-rock Pd (up to 55 %) and Rh (up to 46 %), and erratic contents of Os (up to 50 %), Ir (2 to 17 %), and Ru (1-39 %). Platinum-group mineral (PGM) investigations support these mass balance results; most of the PGM are Pt-dominant such as braggite/cooperite and Pt-Fe alloys or laurite (carrying elevated concentrations of Os and Ir). Palladium and Rh-bearing PGM are rare. Both PGE concentrations and their distribution in base-metal sulfides (BMS) in the UG2 largely resemble that of the Merensky Reef, as most of the Pd and Rh are incorporated in pentlandite, whereas pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite are almost devoid of PGE.

  17. Sulfide-associated mineral assemblages in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: platinum-group element enrichment by vapor refining by chloride-carbonate fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanitpanyacharoen, W.; Boudreau, A. E.

    2013-02-01

    The petrology of base metal sulfides and associated accessory minerals in rocks away from economically significant ore zones such as the Merensky Reef of the Bushveld Complex has previously received only scant attention, yet this information is critical in the evaluation of models for the formation of Bushveld-type platinum-group element (PGE) deposits. Trace sulfide minerals, primarily pyrite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite are generally less than 100 microns in size, and occur as disseminated interstitial individual grains, as polyphase assemblages, and less commonly as inclusions in pyroxene, plagioclase, and olivine. Pyrite after pyrrhotite is commonly associated with low temperature greenschist alteration haloes around sulfide grains. Pyrrhotite hosted by Cr- and Ti-poor magnetite (Fe3O4) occurs in several samples from the Marginal to Lower Critical Zones below the platiniferous Merensky Reef. These grains occur with calcite that is in textural equilibrium with the igneous silicate minerals, occur with Cl-rich apatite, and are interpreted as resulting from high temperature sulfur loss during degassing of interstitial liquid. A quantitative model demonstrates how many of the first-order features of the Bushveld ore metal distribution could have developed by vapor refining of the crystal pile by chloride-carbonate-rich fluids during which sulfur and sulfide are continuously recycled, with sulfur moving from the interior of the crystal pile to the top during vapor degassing.

  18. Pt-Pd reefs in magnetitites of the Stella layered intrusion, South Africa: A world of new exploration opportunities for platinum group elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, W. D.; Barnes, S.-J.; Gartz, V.; Andrews, G.

    2003-10-01

    The 3033 Ma Stella layered intrusion of South Africa consists largely of magnetite gabbros and gabbros that are hosted by greenstones of the Kraaipan belt. The intrusion contains a 100-m-thick, platinum group element (PGE) enriched interval that includes a number of laterally continuous PGE reefs constituting the oldest mineralization of this type known on Earth. The richest of the reefs is hosted by magnetitite and contains 10 15 ppm Pt + Pd over 1 m, representing by far the highest PGE grades known up to this time in magnetitite-hosted Pt-Pd reefs. The PGEs are interpreted to have been concentrated by sulfide melt, after S saturation had been reached in the advanced stages of magmatic differentiation, in response to magnetite crystallization. Reaction between sulfide melt and oxides led to late magmatic S loss, causing a paucity of sulfides in most of the PGE mineralized interval. As a result, the reefs cannot be distinguished macroscopically from their unmineralized host rocks, and we suggest that similar mineralization may have been overlooked in the upper parts of other tholeiitic intrusions elsewhere.

  19. The pH-dependent release of platinum group elements (PGEs) from gasoline and diesel fuel catalysts: Implication for weathering in soils.

    PubMed

    Suchá, Veronika; Mihaljevič, Martin; Ettler, Vojtěch; Strnad, Ladislav

    2016-04-15

    Powdered samples of new and old gasoline catalysts (Pt, Pd, Rh) and new and old diesel (Pt) catalysts were subjected to a pH-static leaching procedure (pH 2-9) coupled with thermodynamic modeling using PHREEQC-3 to verify the release and mobility of PGEs (platinum group elements). PGEs were released under acidic conditions, mostly exhibiting L-shaped leaching patterns: diesel old: 5.47, 0.005, 0.02; diesel new: 68.5, 0.23, 0.11; gasoline old: 0.1, 11.8, 4.79; gasoline new 2.6, 25.2, 35.9 in mg kg(-1) for Pt, Pd and Rh, respectively. Only the new diesel catalyst had a strikingly different leaching pattern with elevated concentrations at pH 4, probably influenced by the dissolution of the catalyst carrier and washcoat. The pH-static experiment coupled with thermodynamic modeling was found to be an effective instrument for understanding the leaching behavior of PGEs under various environmental conditions, and indicated that charged Pt and Rh species may be adsorbed on the negatively charged surface of kaolinite or Mn oxides in the soil system, whereas uncharged Pd and Rh species may remain mobile in soil solutions. PMID:26874614

  20. Distribution and mineralogy of platinum-group elements in altered chromitites of the Campo Formoso layered intrusion (Bahia State, Brazil): control by magmatic and hydrothermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garuti, G.; Proenza, J. A.; Zaccarini, F.

    2007-03-01

    Polyphase, penetrative hydrothermal metasomatism in chromitites of the Campo Formoso layered intrusion produced spectacular chromite - ferrian chromite zoning and transformed the primary intercumulus silicates into a chlorite - serpentine - carbonate - talc assemblage. Alteration did not substantially modify the composition of chromite cores and the distribution of platinum-group elements (PGE) through the sequence of chromitite layers, which still are consistent with magmatic fractionation processes. Texture and composition of laurite and Os-Ir-Ru alloys included in chromite cores indicate that these PGM were not altered, and are probably magmaticin origin. In contrast, the PGM located in the intergranular chlorite matrix (laurite, Ir-Ru-Rh sulfarsenides and Pt-Pd compounds with Sb, Bi and Te) display evidence of hydrothermal reworking. These PGM are intimately intergrown with low-temperature Ni-sulfides. The paragenesis suggests that the Ni-sulfides-PGM assemblage formed at the expenses of unknown PGM precursors, which must have been originally present in the intercumulus silicate matrix. Mechanism of formation involves a sequence of dissolution-precipitation events controlled by variation of redox conditions during chromite alteration. The presence of a secondary ore mineral assemblage consisting of galena, bismuthinite, native antimony, and various Pb-Sb compounds suggests a possible contribution of fluids derived from the adjacent granite.

  1. Determination of the platinum - Group elements (PGE) and gold (Au) in manganese nodule reference samples by nickel sulfide fire-assay and Te coprecipitation with ICP-MS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balaram, V.; Mathur, R.; Banakar, V.K.; Hein, J.R.; Rao, C.R.M.; Gnaneswara, Rao T.; Dasaram, B.

    2006-01-01

    Platinum group elements (PGE) and Au data in polymetallic oceanic ferromanganese nodule reference samples and crust samples obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after separation and pre-concentration by nickel sulfide fire-assay and Te coprecipitation, are presented. By optimizing several critical parameters such as flux composition, matrix matching calibration, etc., best experimental conditions were established to develop a method suitable for routine analysis of manganese nodule samples for PGE and Au. Calibrations were performed using international PGE reference materials, WMG-1 and WMS-1. This improved procedure offers extremely low detection limits in the range of 0.004 to 0.016 ng/g. The results obtained in this study for the reference materials compare well with previously published data wherever available. New PGE data arc also provided on some international manganese nodule reference materials. The analytical methodology described here can be used for the routine analysis of manganese nodule and crust samples in marine geochemical studies.

  2. Identification of a modular pathogenicity island that is widespread among urease-producing uropathogens and shares features with a diverse group of mobile elements.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Erika L; Mody, Lona; Mobley, Harry L T

    2009-11-01

    Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) are a specific group of genomic islands that contribute to genomic variability and virulence of bacterial pathogens. Using a strain-specific comparative genomic hybridization array, we report the identification of a 94-kb PAI, designated ICEPm1, that is common to Proteus mirabilis, Providencia stuartii, and Morganella morganii. These organisms are highly prevalent etiologic agents of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (caUTI), the most common hospital acquired infection. ICEPm1 carries virulence factors that are important for colonization of the urinary tract, including a known toxin (Proteus toxic agglutinin) and the high pathogenicity island of Yersinia spp. In addition, this PAI shares homology and gene organization similar to the PAIs of other bacterial pathogens, several of which have been classified as mobile integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). Isolates from this study were cultured from patients with caUTI and show identical sequence similarity at three loci within ICEPm1, suggesting its transfer between bacterial genera. Screening for the presence of ICEPm1 among P. mirabilis colonizing isolates showed that ICEPm1 is more prevalent in urine isolates compared to P. mirabilis strains isolated from other body sites (P<0.0001), further suggesting that it contributes to niche specificity and is positively selected for in the urinary tract. PMID:19687197

  3. Chromatographic separation of the platinum-group elements, gold, base metals and sulfur during degassing of a compacting and solidifying igneous crystal pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, A. E.; Meurer, W. P.

    The major platinum-group elements (PGE) concentrations in layered intrusions are typically associated with zones in which the sulfide abundance begins to increase. In a number of layered intrusions, there is also a distinct stratigraphic separation in the peak concentrations of the PGE from those of the base metals, gold and sulfur through these zones. These stratigraphic ``offsets'' are characterized by a lower, typically S-poor, Pt- and Pd-enriched zone overlain by a zone enriched in the base metals, S and Au. The separations amount to a few decimeters to several tens of meters. In some instances, the high Pt and Pd concentrations are associated with trivial amounts of sulfide. Theoretical considerations suggest that these offsets can be modeled as chromatographic peaks that develop during an infiltration/reaction process. Using Pd as a typical PGE and Cu as a typical base metal, a numeric model is developed that illustrates how metal separations can develop in a vapor-refining zone as fluid evolved during solidification of a cumulus pile leaches sulfide and redeposits it higher in the crystal pile. The solidification/degassing ore-element transport is coupled with a compaction model for the crystal pile. Solidification resulting from conductive cooling through the base of the compacting column leads to an increasing volatile concentration in the intercumulus liquid until it reaches fluid saturation. Separation and upward migration of this fluid lead to an upward-migrating zone of increasingly higher bulk water contents as water degassed from underlying cumulates enriches overlying, fluid-undersaturated interstitial liquids. Sulfide is resorbed from the degassing regions and is reprecipitated in these vapor-undersaturated interstitial liquids, producing a zone of relatively high modal sulfide that also migrates upward with time. Owing to its strong preference for sulfide, Pd is not significantly mobile until all sulfide is resorbed. The result is a zone of increasing PGE enrichment that follows the sulfide resorption front as solidification/degassing continues. In detail, the highest Pd concentrations occur stratigraphically below the peak in S and base metals. The high Pd/S ratio mimics values conventionally interpreted as the result of high (silicate liquid)/(sulfide liquid) mass ratios (``R'' values). However, in this case, the high Pd/S ratio is the result of a chromatographic/reaction front enrichment and not a magmatic sulfide-saturation event.

  4. Platinum-group element constraints on source composition and magma evolution of the Kerguelen Plateau using basalts from ODP Leg 183

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazey, William J.; Neal, Clive R.

    2005-10-01

    Seventeen basalts from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 183 to the Kerguelen Plateau (KP) were analyzed for the platinum-group elements (PGEs: Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd), and 15 were analyzed for trace elements. Relative concentrations of the PGEs ranged from ˜0.1 (Ir, Ru) to ˜5 (Pt) times primitive mantle. These relatively high PGE abundances and fractionated patterns are not accounted for by the presence of sulfide minerals; there are only trace sulfides present in thin-section. Sulfur saturation models applied to the KP basalts suggest that the parental magmas may have never reached sulfide saturation, despite large degrees of partial melting (˜30%) and fractional crystallization (˜45%). First order approximations of the fractionation required to produce the KP basalts from an ˜30% partial melt of a spinel peridotite were determined using the PELE program. The model was adapted to better fit the physical and chemical observations from the KP basalts, and requires an initial crystal fractionation stage of at least 30% olivine plus Cr-spinel (49:1), followed by magma replenishment and fractional crystallization (RFC) that included clinopyroxene, plagioclase, and titanomagnetite (15:9:1). The low Pd values ([Pd/Pt] pm < 1.7) for these samples are not predicted by currently available K d values. These Pd values are lowest in samples with relatively higher degrees of alteration as indicated by petrographic observations. Positive anomalies are a function of the behavior of the PGEs; they can be reproduced by Cr-spinel, and titanomagnetite crystallization, followed by titanomagnetite resorption during the final stages of crystallization. Our modeling shows that it is difficult to reproduce the PGE abundances by either depleted upper or even primitive mantle sources. Crustal contamination, while indicated at certain sites by the isotopic compositions of the basalts, appears to have had a minimal affect on the PGEs. The PGE abundances measured in the Kerguelen Plateau basalts are best modeled by melting a primitive mantle source to which was added up to 1% of outer core material, followed by fractional crystallization of the melt produced. This reproduces both the abundances and patterns of the PGEs in the Kerguelen Plateau basalts. An alternative model for outer core PGE abundances requires only 0.3% of outer core material to be mixed into the primitive mantle source. While our results are clearly model dependent, they indicate that an outer core component may be present in the Kerguelen plume source.

  5. I.v. cocaine induces rapid, transient excitation of striatal neurons via its action on peripheral neural elements: single-cell, iontophoretic study in awake and anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, E A; Brown, P L

    2007-09-21

    Cocaine's (COC) direct interaction with the dopamine (DA) transporter is usually considered the most important action underlying the psychomotor stimulant and reinforcing effects of this drug. However, some physiological, behavioral and psycho-emotional effects of COC are very rapid and brief and they remain intact during DA receptor blockade, suggesting possible involvement of peripheral non-DA neural mechanisms. To assess this issue, single-unit recording with microiontophoresis was used to examine changes in impulse activity of dorsal and ventral striatal neurons to i.v. COC (0.25-0.5 mg/kg) in the same rats under two conditions: awake with DA receptor blockade and anesthetized with urethane. In the awake preparation approximately 70% striatal neurons showed rapid and transient (latency approximately 6 s, duration approximately 15 s) COC-induced excitations. These effects were stronger in ventral than dorsal striatum. During anesthesia, these phasic effects were fully blocked and COC slowly decreased neuronal discharge rate. Cocaine-methiodide (COC-M), a derivative that cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, also caused phasic excitations in the awake, but not anesthetized condition. In contrast to regular COC, COC-M had no tonic effect on discharge rate in either preparation. Most striatal neurons that were phasically excited by both COC forms also showed short-latency excitations during tail-touch and tail-pinch in the awake preparation, an effect strongly attenuated during anesthesia. Finally, most striatal neurons that in awake conditions were phasically excited by somato-sensory stimuli and COC salts were also excited by iontophoretic glutamate (GLU). Although striatal neurons were sensitive to GLU in both preparations, the response magnitude at the same GLU current was higher in awake than anesthetized conditions. These data suggest that in awake animals i.v. COC, like somato-sensory stimuli, transiently excites striatal neurons via its action on peripheral neural elements and rapid neural transmission. While the nature of these neuronal elements needs to be clarified using other analytical techniques, they might involve voltage-gated K(+) and Na(+) channels, which have a high affinity for COC and are located on terminals of visceral sensory nerves that densely innervate peripheral vessels. Therefore, along with direct action on specific brain substrates, central excitatory effects of COC may occur via indirect action, involving afferents of visceral sensory nerves and rapid neural transmission. By providing a rapid sensory signal and triggering transient neural activation, such a peripherally triggered action might play a crucial role in the sensory effects of COC, thus contributing to learning and development of drug-taking behavior. PMID:17706878

  6. Differences in the activities of eight enzymes from ten soil fungi and their possible influences on the surface structure, functional groups, and element composition of soil colloids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjie; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Huimei; Zu, Yuangang

    2014-01-01

    How soil fungi function in soil carbon and nutrient cycling is not well understood by using fungal enzymatic differences and their interactions with soil colloids. Eight extracellular enzymes, EEAs (chitinase, carboxymethyl cellulase, β-glucosidase, protease, acid phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, laccase, and guaiacol oxidase) secreted by ten fungi were compared, and then the fungi that showed low and high enzymatic activity were co-cultured with soil colloids for the purpose of finding fungi-soil interactions. Some fungi (Gomphidius rutilus, Russula integra, Pholiota adiposa, and Geastrum mammosum) secreted 3-4 enzymes with weak activities, while others (Cyathus striatus, Suillus granulate, Phallus impudicus, Collybia dryophila, Agaricus sylvicola, and Lactarius deliciosus) could secret over 5 enzymes with high activities. The differences in these fungi contributed to the alterations of functional groups (stretching bands of O-H, N-H, C-H, C = O, COO- decreased by 11-60%, while P = O, C-O stretching, O-H bending and Si-O-Si stretching increased 9-22%), surface appearance (disappearance of adhesive organic materials), and elemental compositions (11-49% decreases in C1s) in soil colloids. Moreover, more evident changes were generally in high enzymatic fungi (C. striatus) compared with low enzymatic fungi (G. rutilus). Our findings indicate that inter-fungi differences in EEA types and activities might be responsible for physical and chemical changes in soil colloids (the most active component of soil matrix), highlighting the important roles of soil fungi in soil nutrient cycling and functional maintenance. PMID:25398013

  7. Distribution of platinum-group elements and Os isotopes in chromite ores from Mayarí-Baracoa Ophiolitic Belt (eastern Cuba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervilla, F.; Proenza, J. A.; Frei, R.; González-Jiménez, J. M.; Garrido, C. J.; Melgarejo, J. C.; Meibom, A.; Díaz-Martínez, R.; Lavaut, W.

    2005-12-01

    The Mayarí-Baracoa ophiolitic belt in eastern Cuba hosts abundant chromite deposits of historical economic importance. Among these deposits, the chemistry of chromite ore is very variable, ranging from high Al (Cr#=0.43-0.55) to high Cr (Cr#=0.60-0.83) compositions. Platinum-group element (PGE) contents are also variable (from 33 ppb to 1.88 ppm) and correlate positively with the Cr# of the ore. Bulk PGE abundances correlate negatively with the Pd/Ir ratio showing that chromite concentrates mainly Os, Ir and Ru which gives rise to the characteristic negatively sloped, chrondrite-normalized PGE patterns in many chromitites. This is consistent with the mineralogy of PGEs, which is dominated by members of the laurite-erlichmanite solid solution series (RuS2-OsS2), with minor amounts of irarsite (IrAsS), Os-Ir alloys, Ru-Os-Ir-Fe-Ni alloys, Ni-Rh-As, and sulfides of Ir, Os, Rh, Cu, Ni, and/or Pd. Measured 187Os/188Os ratios (from 0.1304 to 0.1230) are among the lower values reported for podiform chromitites. The 187Os/188Os ratios decrease with increasing whole-rock PGE contents and Cr# of chromite. Furthermore, γOs values of all but one of the chromitite samples are negative indicating a subchondiritc mantle source. γOs decrease with increasing bulk Os content and decreasing 187Re/188Os ratios. These mineralogical and geochemical features are interpreted in terms of chromite crystallization from melts varying in composition from back-arc basalts (Al-rich chromite) to boninites (Cr-rich chromite) in a suprasubduction zone setting. Chromite crystallization occurs as a consequence of magma mixing and assimilation of preexisting gabbro sills at the mantle-crust transition zone. Cr#, PGE abundances, and bulk Os isotopic composition of chromitites are determined by the combined effects of mantle source heterogeneity, the degree of partial melting, the extent of melt-rock interactions, and the local sulfur fugacity. Small-scale (μm to cm) chemical and isotopic heterogeneities in the platinum-group minerals are controlled by the mechanism(s) of chromite crystallization in a heterogeneous environment created by the turbulent regime generated by successive inputs of different batches of melt.

  8. Elements of Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobker, Lee R.

    A film is the successful combination of two distinct groups of elements: (1) the technical elements by which the film is made (camera, lighting, sound and editing) and (2) the esthetic elements that transform the craft into an art. This book attempts to combine the study of these elements by providing technical information about the process of…

  9. Platinum-group elements (PGE) and Rhenium in Marine Sediments across the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary: Constraints on Re-PGE Transport in the Marine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus; Wasserburg, Gerald J.; Kyte, Frank T.

    2003-01-01

    The nature of Re-platinum-group element (PGE; Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, Ru) transport in the marine environment was investigated by means of marine sediments at and across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) at two hemipelagic sites in Europe and two pelagic sites in the North and South Pacific. A traverse across the KTB in the South Pacific pelagic clay core found elevated levels of Re, Pt, Ir, Os, and Ru, each of which is approximately symmetrically distributed over a distance of approx. 1.8 m across the KTB. The Re-PGE abundance patterns are fractionated from chondritic relative abundances: Ru, Pt, Pd, and Re contents are slightly subchondritic relative to Ir, and Os is depleted by approx. 95% relative to chondritic Ir proportions. A similar depletion in Os (approx. 90%) was found in a sample of the pelagic KTB in the North Pacific, but it is enriched in Ru, Pt, Pd, and Re relative to Ir. The two hemipelagic KTB clays have near-chondritic abundance patterns. The approx. 1.8-m-wide Re-PGE peak in the pelagic South Pacific section cannot be reconciled with the fallout of a single impactor, indicating that postdepositional redistribution has occurred. The elemental profiles appear to fit diffusion profiles, although bioturbation could have also played a role. If diffusion had occurred over approx. 65 Ma, the effective diffusivities are approx. 10(exp -13)sq cm/s, much smaller than that of soluble cations in pore waters (approx. 10(exp -5) sq cm/s). The coupling of Re and the PGEs during redistribution indicates that postdepositional processes did not significantly fractionate their relative abundances. If redistribution was caused by diffusion, then the effective diffusivities are the same. Fractionation of Os from Ir during the KTB interval must therefore have occurred during aqueous transport in the marine environment. Distinctly subchondritic Os/Ir ratios throughout the Cenozoic in the South Pacific core further suggest that fractionation of Os from Ir in the marine environment is a general process throughout geologic time because most of the inputs of Os and Ir into the ocean have OsAr ratios greater than or = 1. Mass balance calculations show that Os and Re burial fluxes in pelagic sediments account for only a small fraction of the riverine Os (less than 10%) and Re (less than 0.1%) inputs into the oceans. In contrast, burial of Ir in pelagic sediments is similar to the riverine Ir input, indicating that pelagic sediments are a much larger repository for Ir than for Os and Re. If all of the missing Os and Re is assumed to reside in anoxic sediments in oceanic margins, the calculated burial fluxes in anoxic sediments are similar to observed burial fluxes. However, putting all of the missing Os and Re into estuarine sediments would require high concentrations to balance the riverine input and would also fail to explain the depletion of Os at pelagic KTB sites, where at most approx. 25% of the K-T impactor's Os could have passed through estuaries. If Os is preferentially sequestered in anoxic marine environments, it follows that the OsAr ratio of pelagic sediments should be sensitive to changes in the rates of anoxic sediment deposition. There is thus a clear fractionation of Os and Re from Ir in precipitation out of sea water in pelagic sections. Accordingly, it is inferred here that Re and Os are removed from sea water in anoxic marine depositional regimes.

  10. Abundances of platinum group elements in native sulfur condensates from the Niuatahi-Motutahi submarine volcano, Tonga rear arc: Implications for PGE mineralization in porphyry deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Woo; Campbell, Ian H.; Kim, Jonguk

    2016-02-01

    Some porphyry Cu-Au deposits, which are enriched in Pd, are potentially an economic source of Pd. Magmatic volatile phases are thought to transport the platinum group elements (PGEs) from the porphyry source magma to the point of deposition. However, the compatibilities of the PGEs in magmatic volatile phases are poorly constrained. We report PGE and Re contents in native sulfur condensates and associated altered dacites from the Niuatahi-Motutahi submarine volcano, Tonga rear arc, in order to determine the compatibility of PGEs and Re in magmatic volatile phases, and their mobility during secondary hydrothermal alteration. The native sulfur we analyzed is the condensate of a magmatic volatile phase exsolved from the Niuatahi-Motutahi magma. The PGEs are moderately enriched in the sulfur condensates in comparison to the associated fresh dacite, with enrichment factors of 11-285, whereas Au, Cu and Re are strongly enriched with enrichment factors of ∼20,000, ∼5000 and ∼800 respectively. Although the PGEs are moderately compatible into magmatic volatile phases, their compatibility is significantly lower than that of Au, Cu and Re. Furthermore, the compatibility of PGEs decrease in the order: Ru > Pt > Ir > Pd. This trend is also observed in condensates and sublimates from other localities. PGE mineralization in porphyry Cu-Au deposits is characterized by substantially higher Pd/Pt (∼7-60) and Pd/Ir (∼100-10,500) than typical orthomagmatic sulfide deposits (e.g. Pd/Pt ∼0.6 and Pd/Ir ∼20 for the Bushveld). It has previously been suggested that the high mobility of Pd, relative to the other PGEs, may account for the preferential enrichment of Pd in porphyry Cu-Au deposits. However, the low compatibility of Pd in the volatile phase relative to the other PGEs, shown in this study, invalidates this explanation. We suggest that the PGE geochemistry of Pd-rich Cu-Au deposits is principally derived from the PGE characteristics of the magma from which the ore-forming fluid exsolved. Pd-rich porphyry Cu-Au deposits are associated with highly oxidized magmas. Prior to sulfide saturation Pd, Au and Cu behave as incompatible elements and concentrate in the melt with fractional crystallization, whereas Pt is depleted by early crystallization of a Pt-rich alloy and the other PGEs by the co-crystallization of the Pt-rich alloy and Cr spinel. As a consequence the Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir in the evolving melt and the magmatic volatile phases that exsolve from that melt, increase with increased fractionation. The high Pd content and high Pd/Pt (∼7-60) of Cu-Au porphyry ores therefore require the parent magma to have undergone extensive sulfide-undersaturated fractional crystallization prior to volatile exsolution. Our study also showed that the altered dacites contain PGE abundances that are similar to those of fresh dacites although Pt and Rh are slightly enriched in the altered dacites, which indicates low mobility of PGEs during secondary hydrothermal alteration.

  11. Specific roles for Group V secretory PLA₂ in retinal iron-induced oxidative stress. Implications for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Diez, G; Sánchez Campos, S; Giusto, N M; Salvador, G A

    2013-08-01

    Iron accumulation and oxidative stress are hallmarks of retinas from patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We have previously demonstrated that iron-overloaded retinas are a good in vitro model for the study of retinal degeneration during iron-induced oxidative stress. In this model we have previously characterized the role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and calcium-independent isoform (iPLA2). The aim of the present study was to analyze the implications of Group V secretory PLA2 (sPLA2), another member of PLA2 family, in cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) regulation. We found that sPLA2 is localized in cytosolic fraction in an iron concentration-dependent manner. By immunoprecipitation (IP) assays we also demonstrated an increased association between Group V sPLA2 and COX-2 in retinas exposed to iron overload. However, COX-2 activity in IP assays was observed to decrease in spite of the increased protein levels observed. p65 (RelA) NF-κB levels were increased in nuclear fractions from retinas exposed to iron. In the presence of ATK (cPLA2 inhibitor) and YM 26734 (sPLA2 inhibitor), the nuclear localization of both p65 and p50 NF-κB subunits was restored to control levels in retinas exposed to iron-induced oxidative stress. Membrane repair mechanisms were also analyzed by studying the participation of acyltransferases in phospholipid remodeling during retinal oxidation stress. Acidic phospholipids, such as phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylserine (PS), were observed to show an inhibited acylation profile in retinas exposed to iron while phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) showed the opposite. The use of PLA2 inhibitors demonstrated that PS is actively deacylated during iron-induced oxidative stress. Results from the present study suggest that Group V sPLA2 has multiple intracellular targets during iron-induced retinal degeneration and that the specific role of sPLA2 could be related to inflammatory responses by its participation in NF-κB and COX-2 regulation. PMID:23791636

  12. Platinum-group elements in alpine-type ultramafic rocks and related chromite ores of the main ophiolite belt of the Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volchenko, Yu. A.; Koroteev, V. A.; Neustroeva, I. I.

    2009-04-01

    On the basis of a representative collection of ultramafic rocks and chromite ores and a series of technological samples from the largest (Central and Western) deposits in the Rai-Iz massif of the Polar Urals and the Almaz-Zhemchuzhina and Poiskovy deposits in the Kempirsai massif of the southern Urals, the distribution and speciation of platinum-group elements (PGE) in various type sections of mafic-ultramafic massifs of the Main ophiolite belt of the Urals have been studied. Spectral-chemical and spectrophotometric analyses were carried out to estimate PGE in 700 samples of ultramafic rocks and chromite ores; 400 analyses of minerals from rocks, ores, and concentrates and 100 analyses of PGE minerals (PGM) in chromite ores and concentrates were performed using an electron microprobe. Near-chondritic and nonchondritic PGE patterns in chromitebearing sections have been identified. PGE mineralization has been established to occur in chromite ore from all parts of the mafic-ultramafic massifs in the Main ophiolite belt of the Urals. The PGE deposits and occurrences discovered therein are attributed to four types (Kraka, Kempirsai, Nurali-Upper Neiva, and Shandasha), which are different in mode of geological occurrence, geochemical specialization, and placer-forming capability. Fluid-bearing minerals of the pargasite-edenite series have been identified for the first time in the matrix of chromite ore of the Kempirsai massif (the Almaz-Zhemchuzhina deposit) and Voikar-Syn’ya massif (the Kershor deposit). The PGE grade in various types of chromite ore ranges from 0.1-0.2 to 1-2 g/t or higher. According to technological sampling, the average PGE grade in the largest deposits of the southeastern ore field of the Kempirsai massif is 0.5-0.7 g/t. Due to the occurrence of most PGE as PGM 10-100 mm in size and the proved feasibility of their recovery into nickel alloys, chromites of the Kempirsai massif can be considered a complex ore with elevated and locally high Os, Ir, and Ru contents. The Nurali-Upper Neiva type of ore is characterized by small-sized primary deposits, which nevertheless are the main source of large Os-Ir placers in the Miass and Nev’yansk districts of the southern and central Urals, respectively.

  13. Platinum Group Elements, 187OS/188OS and 87SR/86SR Isotope Systematics in Depleted Fluid-Modified Mariana Fore-Arc Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Savov, I. P.; Shirey, S. B.; Horan, M. F.; Mock, T. D.

    2012-12-01

    The serpentine mud volcanoes of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) fore-arc, collected during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 195 [1], contain hard-rock clasts of serpentine sampled from close to the décollement, which separates the down-going Pacific slab from the overlying mantle wedge. These clasts preserve evidence for melt depletion (>25 % melt extraction in many instances) in a sub-arc environment, and extensive (40 - 100%) serpentinization due to subsequent fluid / peridotite interaction, e.g. [2]. Platinum-group element (PGE) abundances are not consistent with melt-depletion alone [3]. Fractionation between I-PGE (Os, Ir, Ru) has resulted in groups of IBM serpentinites with either a high chondrite-normalized Os/Ir ratio (OsN/IrN) or a low OsN/IrN ratio. Similarly, fractionation of P-PGE (Pt, Pd) is marked, and distinguishes the IBM serpentinites from worldwide abyssal peridotites. Interaction with high-pH fluids [4] may have partially oxidized mantle sulphide, the major primary host for PGE in these rocks, leading to partial breakdown to sulphate and the selective redistribution of certain PGE (Os, Ru, Pt), a feature normally associated with sub-aerial weathering [5], but which likely prevails in other oxidizing environments. In particular, the Re-Os systematics of the high (OsN/IrN) IBM serpentinites have been disturbed by the addition of Os. Unlike peridotite xenoliths associated with magmatic regions of subduction zones where subduction-related Os-addition is unequivocally radiogenic and derived from crustal material [6][7], where Os has been added to the IBM serpentinites it is unradiogenic and was most likely derived from within the oceanic mantle. IBM serpentinites therefore preserve osmium isotope ratios that are exclusively sub-chondritic (187Os/188Os ≤ 0.127), as previously reported [8]. These serpentinized peridotites were produced by at least a three-step process: melt depletion, serpentinization, and the mobilization of Os, Ru and Pt to produce low OsN/IrN "donor" and high OsN/IrN "recipient" serpentinites. The distinct chondrite normalized PGE patterns of the low OsN/IrN serpentinites are remarkably similar to those of back-arc basin basalts (BABB) from sites 291, 292, 444A, 450 drilled in the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) during DSDP Legs 31, 58 and 59 [9]. [1] Fryer, et al. (1992) Proc. ODP Sci. Results 125, Fryer, P., Pearce, J. A., Stokking, L. B., et al., 373-385, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station TX, USA. [2] Savov et al. (2005) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 6, Q04J15, doi:10.1029/2004GC000777 [3] Handler, & Bennett (1999) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 63, 3597-3618 [4] Mottl, M.J. (1992) Proc. ODP Sci. Results, 125, Fryer, P., Pearce, J. A., Stokking, L. B., et al., 373-385, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station TX, USA. [5] Lorand, et al. (2003) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67, 4137-4151. [6] Brandon et al. (1999) Chem. Geol. 160, 387-407. [7] Widom et al. (2003) Chem. Geol. 196, 283- 306. [8] Parkinson et al. (1999) Science 281, 211-312 [9] Dale et al. (2008) Chem. Geol. 248, 213-238.

  14. Elemental Abundance Analyses with DAO Spectrograms. XXXVIII. The SB2 Stars HR 104 (A2 V) and θ Aql (B9.5 III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Yüce, Kutluay; Gulliver, Austin F.

    2015-06-01

    The study of the elemental abundances of double-lined spectroscopic binaries should provide information on the chemical differentiation of a once uniform prestellar nebula. To determine the effective temperatures and surface gravities of the primary and secondary stellar components of HR 104 and θ Aql, we used parameters derived from their orbital analyses and the requirement of equal abundances derived from Fe I and Fe II lines. For constraints we had optical region spectrophotometry for θ Aql and the large equivalent width ratios for the many spectral metal lines which were produced in both stellar atmospheres for HR 104. Since the primary stars were much brighter than the secondary stars, the abundances are considerably better determined for the primary stars. For HR 104 A we found Teff = 9875 K, log g = 4.26, and ξ = 1.7 km s-1 for HR 104 B Teff = 7200 K, log g = 4.26, and ξ = 0.6 km s-1 for θ Aql A Teff = 10400 K, log = 3.63, and ξ = 0.3 km s-1 and for θ Aql B Teff = 10250 K, log = 4.20, and ξ = 1.9 km s-1. The abundances of HR 104 A, HR 104 B, and θ Aql A are best described as the solar pattern. Those of θ Aql B suggest a weak nonmagnetic CP star pattern. While there is no trace of the Hg II 3984 line for θ Aql, the most extreme observed abundance anomalies for the secondary are those of Ca, V, Mn, and Ni. Further study of this hot marginal Am star could provide insights into the origin of the nonsolar chemical abundances.

  15. Desorption mass spectrometry: Revisiting the in-situ calibration technique for mixed group-V alloy MBE growth of ~3.3 μm diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, Ron; Lu, Chunte; Yang, Chi; Newell, Timothy C.; Luong, Sanh

    2015-09-01

    We apply the desorption mass spectrometry (DMS) technique and analyze the desorbed Sb species in-situ during MBE growth of mixed As/Sb heterostructures. We demonstrate how DMS is useful in pre-growth calibration of the V/III ratio, the group-III ratio, as well as the Sb-content in quaternary or quinary mixed As/Sb alloys. We also apply DMS to the digital alloy growth method. For demonstration purposes, we start with an un-calibrated MBE system, use the DMS technique to calibrate all of the previously undetermined MBE parameters and grow a ~3.3 μm diode laser heterostructure in only one attempt. The results demonstrate that the DMS technique will allow the MBE to quickly converge toward a set of acceptable growth parameters without the need for ex-situ calibration of alloy composition.

  16. Assessment of Degree of Applicability of Benchmarks for Gadolinium Using KENO V.a and the 238-Group SCALE Cross-Section Library

    SciTech Connect

    Goluoglu, S.

    2003-12-01

    A review of the degree of applicability of benchmarks containing gadolinium using the computer code KENO V.a and the gadolinium cross sections from the 238-group SCALE cross-section library has been performed for a system that contains {sup 239}Pu, H{sub 2}O, and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The system (practical problem) is a water-reflected spherical mixture that represents a dry-out condition on the bottom of a sludge receipt and adjustment tank around steam coils. Due to variability of the mixture volume and the H/{sup 239}Pu ratio, approximations to the practical problem, referred to as applications, have been made to envelop possible ranges of mixture volumes and H/{sup 239}Pu ratios. A newly developed methodology has been applied to determine the degree of applicability of benchmarks as well as the penalty that should be added to the safety margin due to insufficient benchmarks.

  17. Batisivite, V8Ti6[Ba(Si2O)]O28, a new mineral species from the derbylite group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznitsky, L. Z.; Sklyarov, E. V.; Armbruster, T.; Galuskin, E. V.; Ushchapovskaya, Z. F.; Polekhovsky, Yu. S.; Karmanov, N. S.; Kashaev, A. A.; Barash, I. G.

    2008-12-01

    Batisivite has been found as an accessory mineral in the Cr-V-bearing quartz-diopside metamorphic rocks of the Slyudyanka Complex in the southern Baikal region, Russia. A new mineral was named after the major cations in its ideal formula (Ba, Ti, Si, V). Associated minerals are quartz, Cr-V-bearing diopside and tremolite; calcite; schreyerite; berdesinskiite; ankangite; V-bearing titanite; minerals of the chromite-coulsonite, eskolaite-karelianite, dravite-vanadiumdravite, and chernykhite-roscoelite series; uraninite; Cr-bearing goldmanite; albite; barite; zircon; and unnamed U-Ti-V-Cr phases. Batisivite occurs as anhedral grains up to 0.15-0.20 mm in size, without visible cleavage and parting. The new mineral is brittle, with conchoidal fracture. Observed by the naked eye, the mineral is black and opaque, with a black streak and resinous luster. Batisivite is white in reflected light. The microhardness (VHN) is 1220-1470 kg/mm2 (load is 30 g), the mean value is 1330 kg/mm2. The Mohs hardness is near 7. The calculated density is 4.62 g/cm3. The new mineral is weakly anisotropic and bireflected. The measured values of reflectance are as follows (λ, nm— R {max/'}/ R {min/'}): 440—17.5/17.0; 460—17.3/16.7; 480—17.1/16.5; 500—17.2/16.6; 520—17.3/16.7; 540—17.4/16.8; 560—17.5/16.8; 580—17.6/16.9; 600—17.7/17.1; 620—17.7/17.1; 640—17.8/17.1; 660—17.9/17.2; 680—18.0/17.3; 700—18.1/17.4. Batisivite is triclinic, space group P overline 1 ; the unit-cell dimensions are: a = 7.521(1) Å, b = 7.643(1) Å, c = 9.572(1) Å, α = 110.20°(1), β = 103.34°(1), γ = 98.28°(1), V = 487.14(7) Å3, Z = 1. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [ d, Å ( I, %)( hkl)] are: 3.09(8)(12 overline 2 ); 2.84, 2.85(10)(021, 120); 2.64(8)(21 overline 3 ); 2.12(8)(31 overline 3 ); 1.785(8)(32 overline 4 ), 1.581(10)(24 overline 2 ); 1.432, 1.433(10)(322, 124). The chemical composition (electron microprobe, average of 237 point analyses, wt %) is: 0.26 Nb2O5, 6.16 SiO2, 31.76 TiO2, 1.81 Al2O3, 8.20 VO2, 26.27 V2O3, 12.29 Cr2O3, 1.48 Fe2O3, 0.08 MgO, 11.42 BaO; the total is 99.73. The VO2/V2O3 ratio has been calculated. The simplified empirical formula is (V{4.8/3+}Cr2.2V{0.7/4+}Fe0.3)8.0(Ti5.4V{0.6/4+})6.0[Ba(Si1.4Al0.5O0.9)]O28. An alternative to the title formula could be a variety (with the diorthogroup Si2O7) V8Ti6[Ba(Si2O7)]O22. Batisivite probably pertains to the V{8/3+}Ti{6/4+}[Ba(Si2O)]O28-Cr{8/3+}Ti{6/4+} [Ba(Si2O)]O28 solid solution series. The type material of batisivite has been deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

  18. Relatively Long-Lived Dubnium Isotopes and Chemical Identification of Superheavy Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Tereshatov, E. E.; Voronyuk, M. G.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Petrushkin, O. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Bruchertseifer, H.

    2010-04-30

    The present study has been performed within the framework of experiments aimed at the investigation of chemical properties of long-lived Db isotopes in aqueous solutions. The isocratic anion exchange separations of group V elements in the solutions containing HF have been considered. Parameters of separation of dubnium homologues (Pa, Nb and Ta) in HF/HNO{sub 3} mixed solutions have been optimized. The procedure of separation of group V elements from multicomponent system has been suggested.

  19. Whitehead Groups of Spinor Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monastyrnyĭ, A. P.; Yanchevskiĭ, V. I.

    1991-02-01

    The Whitehead groups of spinor groups are studied. The known Kneser-Tits conjecture for spinor groups is reduced to a spinor analogue of the Tannaka-Artin problem, namely, to the question of whether the group K1Spin(D), where D is a division ring of exponent 2 , is trivial. A counterexample to the Kneser-Tits problem is constructed in the class of spinor groups. The group K1Spin(D) is computed. The stability of the Whitehead groups of spinor groups under purely transcendental extensions of the ground field is established. The R-equivalence on the k-points of spinor groups and the weak approximation problem are considered. The study of spinor group completes the study of the Whitehead groups of algebraic groups of classical type, that was started in studying reduced K-theory (V.P. Platonov) and was continued for reduced unitary K-theory (V.I. Yanchevskiĭ) and Hermitian K-theory (Platonov and Yanchevskiĭ). Bibliography: 50 titles.

  20. Levels and risk assessment for humans and ecosystems of platinum-group elements in the airborne particles and road dust of some European cities.

    PubMed

    Gómez, B; Palacios, M A; Gómez, M; Sanchez, J L; Morrison, G; Rauch, S; McLeod, C; Ma, R; Caroli, S; Alimonti, A; Petrucci, E; Bocca, B; Schramel, P; Zischka, M; Petterson, C; Wass, U

    2002-11-01

    Traffic is the main source of platinum-group element (PGE) contamination in populated urban areas. There is increasing concern about the hazardous effects of these new pollutants for people and for other living organisms in these areas. Airborne and road dusts, as well as tree bark and grass samples were collected at locations in the European cities of Göteborg (Sweden), Madrid (Spain), Rome (Italy), Munich (Germany), Sheffield and London (UK). Today, in spite of the large number of parameters that can influence the airborne PGE content, the results obtained so far indicate significantly higher PGE levels at traffic sites compared with the rural or non-polluted zones that have been investigated (background levels). The average Pt content in airborne particles found in downtown Madrid, Göteborg and Rome is in the range 7.3-13.1 pg m(-3). The ring roads of these cities have values in the range 4.1-17.7 pg m(-3). In Munich, a lower Pt content was found in airborne particles (4.1 pg m(-3)). The same tendency has been noted for downtown Rh, with contents in the range 2.2-2.8 pg m(-3), and in the range 0.8-3.0 and 0.3 pg m(-3) for motorway margins in Munich. The combined results obtained using a wide-range airborne classifier (WRAC) collector and a PM-10 or virtual impactor show that Pt is associated with particles for a wide range of diameters. The smaller the particle size, the lower the Pt concentration. However, in particles

  1. Cosmic-ray energy spectra between 10 and several hundred GeV per atomic mass unit for elements from Ar-18 to Ni-28 - Results from HEAO 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Jones, Michael D.; Kamionkowski, M. P.; Garrard, T. L.

    1988-01-01

    Results from the Heavy Nuclei experiment on HEAO 3 are used to determine the primary abundances of Ni and Fe. Ni and Fe are found to have nearly constant relative abundances over the interval of 10 to about 500 GeV per amu. Individual secondary elements derived principally from interactions of primary Fe nuclei are shown to display a power-law decrease in relative abundance up to about 150 GeV per amu. Ar/Fe and Ca/Fe ratios of 2.6 + or - 0.7 percent and 8.8 + or - 0.7 percent, respectively, are found, confirming a fractionation of source abundances in which elements with high values of the first ionization potential are depleted relative to those with low first ionization potential.

  2. Elemental abundance analyses with coadded DAO spectrograms. IV - Revision of previous analyses. V - The mercury-manganese stars Phi Herculis, 28 Herculis and HR 7664

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Saul J.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in chromium, manganese, and nickel abundances derived from singly ionized lines are incorporated into the elemental abundance of Adelman and Hill (1987) in order to provide more accurate gf values and damping constants for several atomic species. An improved agreement with the values from neutral lines of the same element is found. In the second part, the method is applied to an elemental abundance analysis of three mercury-manganese stars, and correlations are found between the derived abundances and the effective temperature.

  3. Critical role of phospholipase A2 group IID in age-related susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome–CoV infection

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Rahul; Hua, Xiaoyang; Meyerholz, David K.; Miki, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kei; Gelb, Michael; Murakami, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and chronic low-grade inflammation in the lungs are associated with aging and may contribute to age-related immune dysfunction. To maintain lung homeostasis, chronic inflammation is countered by enhanced expression of proresolving/antiinflammatory factors. Here, we show that age-dependent increases of one such factor in the lungs, a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) group IID (PLA2G2D) with antiinflammatory properties, contributed to worse outcomes in mice infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Strikingly, infection of mice lacking PLA2G2D expression (Pla2g2d−/− mice) converted a uniformly lethal infection to a nonlethal one (>80% survival), subsequent to development of enhanced respiratory DC migration to the draining lymph nodes, augmented antivirus T cell responses, and diminished lung damage. We also observed similar effects in influenza A virus–infected middle-aged Pla2g2d−/− mice. Furthermore, oxidative stress, probably via lipid peroxidation, was found to induce PLA2G2D expression in mice and in human monocyte–derived macrophages. Thus, our results suggest that directed inhibition of a single inducible phospholipase, PLA2G2D, in the lungs of older patients with severe respiratory infections is potentially an attractive therapeutic intervention to restore immune function. PMID:26392224

  4. Critical role of phospholipase A2 group IID in age-related susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV infection.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Rahul; Hua, Xiaoyang; Meyerholz, David K; Miki, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kei; Gelb, Michael; Murakami, Makoto; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-10-19

    Oxidative stress and chronic low-grade inflammation in the lungs are associated with aging and may contribute to age-related immune dysfunction. To maintain lung homeostasis, chronic inflammation is countered by enhanced expression of proresolving/antiinflammatory factors. Here, we show that age-dependent increases of one such factor in the lungs, a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) group IID (PLA2G2D) with antiinflammatory properties, contributed to worse outcomes in mice infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Strikingly, infection of mice lacking PLA2G2D expression (Pla2g2d(-/-) mice) converted a uniformly lethal infection to a nonlethal one (>80% survival), subsequent to development of enhanced respiratory DC migration to the draining lymph nodes, augmented antivirus T cell responses, and diminished lung damage. We also observed similar effects in influenza A virus-infected middle-aged Pla2g2d(-/-) mice. Furthermore, oxidative stress, probably via lipid peroxidation, was found to induce PLA2G2D expression in mice and in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Thus, our results suggest that directed inhibition of a single inducible phospholipase, PLA2G2D, in the lungs of older patients with severe respiratory infections is potentially an attractive therapeutic intervention to restore immune function. PMID:26392224

  5. On Some Algebraic and Combinatorial Properties of Dunkl Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Anatol N.

    2012-11-01

    We introduce and study a certain class of nonhomogeneous quadratic algebras together with the special set of mutually commuting elements inside of each, the so-called Dunkl elements. We describe relations among the Dunkl elements. This result is a further generalization of similar results obtained in [S. Fomin and A. N. Kirillov, Quadratic algebras, Dunkl elements and Schubert calculus, in Advances in Geometry (eds. J.-S. Brylinski, V. Nistor, B. Tsygan and P. Xu), Progress in Math. Vol. 172 (Birkhäuser Boston, Boston, 1995), pp. 147-182, A. Postnikov, On a quantum version of Pieri's formula, in Advances in Geometry (eds. J.-S. Brylinski, R. Brylinski, V. Nistor, B. Tsygan and P. Xu), Progress in Math. Vol. 172 (Birkhäuser Boston, 1995), pp. 371-383 and A. N. Kirillov and T. Maenor, A Note on Quantum K-Theory of Flag Varieties, preprint]. As an application we describe explicitly the set of relations among the Gaudin elements in the group ring of the symmetric group, cf. [E. Mukhin, V. Tarasov and A. Varchenko, Bethe Subalgebras of the Group Algebra of the Symmetric Group, preprint arXiv:1004.4248]. Also we describe a few combinatorial properties of some special elements in the associative quasi-classical Yang-Baxter algebra in a connection with the values of the β-Grothendieck polynomials for some special permutations, and on the other hand, with the Ehrhart polynomial of the Chan-Robbins polytope.

  6. On Some Algebraic and Combinatorial Properties of Dunkl Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Anatol N.

    2013-06-01

    We introduce and study a certain class of nonhomogeneous quadratic algebras together with the special set of mutually commuting elements inside of each, the so-called Dunkl elements. We describe relations among the Dunkl elements. This result is a further generalization of similar results obtained in [S. Fomin and A. N. Kirillov, Quadratic algebras, Dunkl elements and Schubert calculus, in Advances in Geometry (eds. J.-S. Brylinski, V. Nistor, B. Tsygan and P. Xu), Progress in Math. Vol. 172 (Birkhäuser Boston, Boston, 1995), pp. 147-182, A. Postnikov, On a quantum version of Pieri's formula, in Advances in Geometry (eds. J.-S. Brylinski, R. Brylinski, V. Nistor, B. Tsygan and P. Xu), Progress in Math. Vol. 172 (Birkhäuser Boston, 1995), pp. 371-383 and A. N. Kirillov and T. Maenor, A Note on Quantum K-Theory of Flag Varieties, preprint]. As an application we describe explicitly the set of relations among the Gaudin elements in the group ring of the symmetric group, cf. [E. Mukhin, V. Tarasov and A. Varchenko, Bethe Subalgebras of the Group Algebra of the Symmetric Group, preprint arXiv:1004.4248]. Also we describe a few combinatorial properties of some special elements in the associative quasi-classical Yang-Baxter algebra in a connection with the values of the β-Grothendieck polynomials for some special permutations, and on the other hand, with the Ehrhart polynomial of the Chan-Robbins polytope.

  7. CNO abundances in H II regions of the Magellanic clouds and the galaxy with implications regarding the nucleosynthesis of the CNO element group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, R. J.; Shields, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Final abundance results of IUE observations of the UV spectra of three H II regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud and four H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud are presented. Calculated yields of carbon and oxygen derived are y(C)=.00063 and y(O)=.0016. The nucleosynthetic origin of nitrogen was evaluated as being predominantly a secondary element produced from carbon as its seed. Plotting log N/C versus log C/H yielded the rather unexpected result that log N/C decreases with lo C/H over the SMC-LMC-Orion range. The cause of this relationship is discussed.

  8. The use of artificial neural network for modelling of phycoremediation of toxic elements As(III) and As(V) from wastewater using Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Podder, M S; Majumder, C B

    2016-02-15

    In the present study, a thorough investigation has been done on the removal efficiency of both As(III) and As (V) from synthetic wastewater by phycoremediation of Botryococcus braunii algal biomass. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are practised for predicting % phycoremediation efficiency of both As(III) and As(V) ions. The influence of several parameters for example initial pH, inoculum size, contact time and initial arsenic concentration (either As(III) or As(V)) was examined systematically. The maximum phycoremediation of As(III) and As(V) was found to be 85.22% and 88.15% at pH9.0, equilibrium time of 144h by using algal inoculum size of 10% (v/v) and initial arsenic concentration of 50mg/L. The data acquired from laboratory scale experimental set up was utilized for training a three-layer feed-forward back propagation (BP) with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) training algorithm having 4:5:1 architecture. A comparison between the experimental data and model outputs provided a high correlation coefficient (R(2)all_ANN equal to 0.9998) and exhibited that the model was capable for predicting the phycoremediation of both As(III) and As(V) from wastewater. The network topology was optimized by changing number of neurons in hidden layers. ANNs are efficient to model and simulate highly non-liner multivariable relationships. Absolute error and Standard deviation (SD) with respect to experimental output were calculated for ANN model outputs. The comparison of phycoremediation efficiencies of both As(III) and As(V) between experimental results and ANN model outputs exhibited that ANN model can determine the behaviour of As(III) and As(V) elimination process under various circumstances. PMID:26615452

  9. The use of artificial neural network for modelling of phycoremediation of toxic elements As(III) and As(V) from wastewater using Botryococcus braunii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podder, M. S.; Majumder, C. B.

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, a thorough investigation has been done on the removal efficiency of both As(III) and As (V) from synthetic wastewater by phycoremediation of Botryococcus braunii algal biomass. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are practised for predicting % phycoremediation efficiency of both As(III) and As(V) ions. The influence of several parameters for example initial pH, inoculum size, contact time and initial arsenic concentration (either As(III) or As(V)) was examined systematically. The maximum phycoremediation of As(III) and As(V) was found to be 85.22% and 88.15% at pH 9.0, equilibrium time of 144 h by using algal inoculum size of 10% (v/v) and initial arsenic concentration of 50 mg/L. The data acquired from laboratory scale experimental set up was utilized for training a three-layer feed-forward back propagation (BP) with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) training algorithm having 4:5:1 architecture. A comparison between the experimental data and model outputs provided a high correlation coefficient (R2all_ANN equal to 0.9998) and exhibited that the model was capable for predicting the phycoremediation of both As(III) and As(V) from wastewater. The network topology was optimized by changing number of neurons in hidden layers. ANNs are efficient to model and simulate highly non-liner multivariable relationships. Absolute error and Standard deviation (SD) with respect to experimental output were calculated for ANN model outputs. The comparison of phycoremediation efficiencies of both As(III) and As(V) between experimental results and ANN model outputs exhibited that ANN model can determine the behaviour of As(III) and As(V) elimination process under various circumstances.

  10. Accelerator measurement of the energy spectra of neutrons emitted in the interaction of 3-GeV protons with several elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalesnik, W. J.; Devlin, T. J.; Merker, M.; Shen, B. S. P.

    1972-01-01

    The application of time of flight techniques for determining the shapes of the energy spectra of neutrons between 20 and 400 MeV is discussed. The neutrons are emitted at 20, 34, and 90 degrees in the bombardment of targets by 3 GeV protons. The targets used are carbon, aluminum, cobalt, and platinum with cylindrical cross section. Targets being bombarded are located in the internal circulating beam of a particle accelerator.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of some new Schiff base complexes of group 13 elements, ab initio studies, cytotoxicity and reaction with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Mozaffar; Savaripoor, Nooshin; Asadi, Zahra; Ghatee, Mohammad Hadi; Moosavi, Fatemeh; Yousefi, Reza; Jamshidi, Mehrnaz

    2013-01-15

    A novel tetradentate Schiff base, naphthabza-H2=N,N'-bis(naphthylidene)-2-aminobenzylamine, and a series of aluminum(III), gallium(III), and indium(III) complexes with general formula, MLNO3, were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric method. The product of the reaction of complexes with hydrogen peroxide was characterized by similar techniques. According to the ab initio calculations aluminum and gallium complexes have five-coordinated structures and indium complex is a six-coordinated one. Also, the growth inhibitory effects of the complexes toward K562 cancer cell line were measured and the results for these complexes are as follows: Al>Ga>In. PMID:23143208

  12. Group V secretory phospholipase A2-modified low density lipoprotein promotes foam cell formation by a SR-A- and CD36-independent process that involves cellular proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Boyanovsky, Boris B; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R; Webb, Nancy R

    2005-09-23

    Accumulating evidence indicates that secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzymes promote atherogenic processes. We have previously showed the presence of Group V sPLA2 (GV sPLA2) in human and mouse atherosclerotic lesions, its hydrolysis of low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, and the ability of GV sPLA2-modified LDL (GV-LDL) to induce macrophage foam cell formation in vitro. The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in macrophage uptake of GV-LDL. Peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 mice (wild type (WT)), C57BL/6 mice deficient in LDL receptor (LDLR-/-), or SR-A and CD36 (DKO) were treated with control LDL, GV-LDL, oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) or LDL aggregated by vortexing (vx-LDL). As expected, ox-LDL induced significantly more cholesterol ester accumulation in WT and LDLR-/- compared with DKO macrophages. In contrast, there was no difference in the accumulation of GV-LDL or vx-LDL in the three cell types. 125I-ox-LDL exhibited high affinity, saturable binding to WT cells that was significantly reduced in DKO cells. Vx-LDL and GV-LDL showed low affinity, non-saturable binding that was similar for both cell types, and significantly higher compared with control LDL. GV-LDL degradation in WT and DKO cells was similar. Analyses by confocal microscopy indicated a distinct intracellular distribution of Alexa-568-labeled GV-LDL and Alexa-488-labeled ox-LDL. Uptake of GV-LDL (but not ox-LDL or vx-LDL) was significantly reduced in cells preincubated with heparin or NaClO3, suggesting a role for proteoglycans in GV-LDL uptake. Our data point to a physiological modification of LDL that has the potential to promote macrophage foam cell formation independent of scavenger receptors. PMID:16040605

  13. The unusual 23S rRNA gene of Coxiella burnetii: two self-splicing group I introns flank a 34-base-pair exon, and one element lacks the canonical omegaG.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Rahul; Miller, Scott R; Hicks, Linda D; Minnick, Michael F

    2007-09-01

    We describe the presence and characteristics of two self-splicing group I introns in the sole 23S rRNA gene of Coxiella burnetii. The two group I introns, Cbu.L1917 and Cbu.L1951, are inserted at sites 1917 and 1951 (Escherichia coli numbering), respectively, in the 23S rRNA gene of C. burnetii. Both introns were found to be self-splicing in vivo and in vitro even though the terminal nucleotide of Cbu.L1917 is adenine and not the canonical conserved guanine, termed OmegaG, found in Cbu.L1951 and all other group I introns described to date. Predicted secondary structures for both introns were constructed and revealed that Cbu.L1917 and Cbu.L1951 were group IB2 and group IA3 introns, respectively. We analyzed strains belonging to eight genomic groups of C. burnetii to determine sequence variation and the presence or absence of the elements and found both introns to be highly conserved (>/=99%) among them. Although phylogenetic analysis did not identify the specific identities of donors, it indicates that the introns were likely acquired independently; Cbu.L1917 was acquired from other bacteria like Thermotoga subterranea and Cbu.L1951 from lower eukaryotes like Acanthamoeba castellanii. We also confirmed the fragmented nature of mature 23S rRNA in C. burnetii due to the presence of an intervening sequence. The presence of three selfish elements in C. burnetii's 23S rRNA gene is very unusual for an obligate intracellular bacterium and suggests a recent shift to its current lifestyle from a previous niche with greater opportunities for lateral gene transfer. PMID:17644584

  14. Sequence stratigraphic elements and geochemical variable within a {open_quotes}condensed section{close_quotes}: Eagle Ford Group, East-Central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Liro, L.M.; Dawson, W.C.; Katz, B.J.; Robison, V.D.

    1994-12-31

    The Cenomanian-Turonian Eagle Ford Group, the likely source of oil for the East Texas field, is exposed along a broad belt in Central and northeastern Texas. Detailed analysis of Eagle Ford outcrops in Central Texas reveals considerable lithologic variability at several different scales. A lower section is interpreted to represent transgressive, in part {open_quotes}condensed{close_quotes} deposits, whereas the overlying section is interpreted as a highstand deposit. This sequence stratigraphic framework is suggested by stratigraphic and geochemical evidence. The lower portion of the measured Eagle Ford Group outcrops contain dark shales with a blocky character. These shales exhibit minor bioturbation and are well laminated. A few bentonites are evident in this portion of the section but are not as significant as in the overlying unit. Above this interval, the Eagle Ford changes character dramatically, exhibiting a series of interbedded carbonate flagstones, recessive shales, and numerous bentonites. Several bentonite layers appear to be continuous regionally, and compositional analyses suggest that they may be useful in stratigraphic correlation. Detailed organic geochemical analyses clearly differentiate the upper and lower Eagle Ford. The shales in the lower transgressive unit are organically enriched, exhibit higher generation potentials, and are more oil-prone than shales in the overlying regressive interval. Even within the oil-prone intervals there is considerable variation in geochemical attributes. This work raises concerns about uncritically equating {open_quotes}condensed sections{close_quotes} with source rock potential.

  15. Sequence-stratigraphic elements and geochemical variability within a {open_quotes}condensed section{close_quotes}: Eagle Ford Group, east-central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Liro, L.M.; Dawson, W.C.; Katz, B.J.

    1994-09-01

    The Cenomanian-Turonian Eagle Ford Group, the likely source for the East Texas field, crops out along a broad belt in central and northeastern Texas. Detailed analysis of Eagle Ford outcrops in central Texas reveals considerable variability at several different scales. A lower section is interpreted to represent transgressive, in-part {open_quotes}condensed{close_quotes} deposits, whereas the overlying section is interpreted as a highstand deposit. This sequence-stratigraphic framework is suggested by stratigraphic and geochemical evidence. The lower portion of the measured Eagle Ford Group outcrops contains dark shales with a blocky character. These shales exhibit minor bioturbation and are well laminated. A few bentonites are evident in this portion of the section but are not as significant as in the overlying unit. Above this interval, the Eagle Ford changes character dramatically, exhibiting a series of interbedded carbonate flags and recessive shales and numerous bentonites. Several bentonite layers appear to be continuous regionally, and compositional analyses suggest that they may be useful in stratigraphic correlation. Detailed organic geochemical analyses clearly differentiate the upper and lower Eagle Ford. The shales in the lower transgressive unit are organically enriched, exhibit higher generation potentials, and are more oil prone than shales in the overlying regressive interval. Even within the oil-prone intervals, there is considerable variation in geochemical attributes. This work raises concerns about uncritically equating {open_quotes}condensed sections{close_quotes} with source rock potential.

  16. NASA Constellation Program (CxP) Key Driving Requirements and Element Descriptions for International Architecture Working Group (IAWG) Functional Teams Human Transportation Cargo Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Roland M.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation uncrewed cargo mission delivers cargo to any designated location on the lunar surface (or other staging point) in a single mission. This capability is used to deliver surface infrastructure needed for lunar outpost construction, to provide periodic logistics resupply to support a continuous human lunar presence, and potentially deliver other assets to various locations.In the nominal mission mode, the Altair lunar lander is launched on Ares V into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), following a short Low Earth Orbit (LEO) loiter period, the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) performs the Trans Lunar Injection (TLI) burn and is then jettisoned. The Altair performs translunar trajectory correction maneuvers as necessary and performs the Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) burn. Altair then descends to the surface to land near a designated target, presumably in proximity to an Outpost location or another site of interest for exploration.Alternatively, the EDS and Altair Descent Stage could deliver assets to various staging points within their propulsive capabilities.

  17. The Influence of Ni and V Trace Elements on High-Temperature Tensile Properties and Aging of A356 Aluminum Foundry Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giovanni, Maria Teresa; Cerri, Emanuela; Casari, Daniele; Merlin, Mattia; Arnberg, Lars; Garagnani, Gian Luca

    2016-05-01

    High-temperature tensile properties of unmodified A356 alloy with and without the addition of Ni or V in traces (600 and 1000 ppm of Ni and V, respectively) were investigated by analyzing samples obtained from sand and permanent mold castings in the as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions. Tensile tests were performed at 508 K (235 °C) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. In addition, samples were subjected to artificial aging at 508 K (235 °C) for different times, and corresponding hardness curves were plotted. Microstructures and fracture surfaces, analyzed by FEG-SEM equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, showed that neither Ni nor V addition had a detrimental effect on high-temperature tensile properties. Aging curves showed a strong loss of hardness affecting the T6 class between 30-min and 1-h exposure time. After 6-h aging, no evidence of aging treatment persisted on hardness of the tested material. Hardness values did not reveal any significant difference between the reference alloy and the Ni- and V-containing alloys in both casting conditions, in complete analogy with the tensile properties. Unmodified eutectic silicon particles provided inhomogeneity in the α-Al matrix and acted as the principal source of stress concentration leading to fracture.

  18. The Influence of Ni and V Trace Elements on High-Temperature Tensile Properties and Aging of A356 Aluminum Foundry Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giovanni, Maria Teresa; Cerri, Emanuela; Casari, Daniele; Merlin, Mattia; Arnberg, Lars; Garagnani, Gian Luca

    2016-02-01

    High-temperature tensile properties of unmodified A356 alloy with and without the addition of Ni or V in traces (600 and 1000 ppm of Ni and V, respectively) were investigated by analyzing samples obtained from sand and permanent mold castings in the as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions. Tensile tests were performed at 508 K (235 °C) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. In addition, samples were subjected to artificial aging at 508 K (235 °C) for different times, and corresponding hardness curves were plotted. Microstructures and fracture surfaces, analyzed by FEG-SEM equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, showed that neither Ni nor V addition had a detrimental effect on high-temperature tensile properties. Aging curves showed a strong loss of hardness affecting the T6 class between 30-min and 1-h exposure time. After 6-h aging, no evidence of aging treatment persisted on hardness of the tested material. Hardness values did not reveal any significant difference between the reference alloy and the Ni- and V-containing alloys in both casting conditions, in complete analogy with the tensile properties. Unmodified eutectic silicon particles provided inhomogeneity in the α-Al matrix and acted as the principal source of stress concentration leading to fracture.

  19. Complexes of an anionic gallium(I) N-heterocyclic carbene analogue with group 14 element(II) fragments: synthetic, structural and theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    Green, Shaun P; Jones, Cameron; Lippert, Kai-Alexander; Mills, David P; Stasch, Andreas

    2006-09-01

    The reactions of the anionic gallium(I) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) analogue, [K(tmeda)][:Ga{[N(Ar)C(H)]2}], Ar = C6H3Pri2-2,6, with the heavier group 14 alkene analogues, R2E=ER2, E = Ge or Sn, R = -CH(SiMe3)2, have been carried out. In 2:1 stoichiometries, these lead to the ionic [K(tmeda)][R2EGa{[N(Ar)C(H)]2}] complexes which exhibit long E-Ga bonds. The nature of these bonds has been probed by DFT calculations, and the complexes have been compared to neutral NHC adducts of group 14 dialkyls. The 4:1 reaction of [K(tmeda)][:Ga{[N(Ar)C(H)]2}] with R2Sn=SnR2 leads to the digallyl stannate complex, [K(tmeda)][RSn[Ga{[N(Ar)C(H)]2}]2], presumably via elimination of KR. In contrast, the reaction of the gallium heterocycle with PbR2 affords the digallane4, [Ga{[N(Ar)C(H)]2}]2, via an oxidative coupling reaction. For sake of comparison, the reactions of [K(tmeda)][:Ga{[N(Ar)C(H)]2}] with Ar'2E=EAr'2, E = Ge, Sn or Pb, Ar' = C6H2Pri3-2,4,6, were carried out and led to either no reaction (E = Ge), the formation of [K(tmeda)][Ar'2SnGa{[N(Ar)C(H)]2}] (E = Sn), or the gallium(III) heterocycle, [Ar'Ga{[N(Ar)C(H)]2}] (E = Pb). Salt elimination reactions between [K(tmeda)][:Ga{[N(Ar)C(H)]2}] and the guanidinato group 14 complexes [(Giso)ECl], E = Ge or Sn, Giso = [Pri2NC{N(Ar)}2]-, gave the neutral [(Giso)EGa{[N(Ar)C(H)]2}] complexes. All complexes have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallographic studies. PMID:16933925

  20. Standards and Attitudes, Working Party Paper No. 5; Response, Record of Group Discussion; Papers of Working Party V and Study Groups VIII-Language; Miscellaneous Paper: Social Class, Linguistic Codes and Grammatical Elements; And Final Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marckwardt, Albert H.; And Others

    The question of standards of language and attitudes toward language is discussed in this set of conference papers. In the initial paper, a short review of language teaching practices in the United States since 1900 is presented. At that time, both grammar texts and books on language written for the general public displayed a rigid and unyielding…

  1. A Measurement of the Top Quark Mass with the D0 Detector at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV using the Matrix Element Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeninger, Kevin Alexander; /Bonn U.

    2004-04-01

    Using a data set of 158 and 169 pb{sup -1} of D0 Run-II data in the electron and muon plus jets channel, respectively, the top quark mass has been measured using the Matrix Element Method. The method and its implementation are described. Its performance is studied in Monte Carlo using ensemble tests and the method is applied to the Moriond 2004 data set.

  2. 12(S)-HETE-induced microvascular endothelial cell retraction results from PKC-dependent rearrangement of cytoskeletal elements and alpha V beta 3 integrins.

    PubMed

    Tang, D G; Diglio, C A; Honn, K V

    1993-03-01

    12(S)-HETE, a lipoxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid, has been demonstrated to induce a reversible retraction of vascular endothelial cells (EC). 12(S)-HETE-induced microvascular EC retraction was blocked by a selective protein kinase C inhibitor, calphostin C, but not by the protein kinase A inhibitor, H8. EC exposed to 12(S)-HETE demonstrated a gradual dissolution of actin microfilaments and a decrease of vinculin-containing focal adhesions. The intermediate filaments, vimentin, also underwent extensive reorganization (i.e., filament bundling and enrichment to the cell filapodia) following 12(S)-HETE treatment. In vivo phosphorylation studies revealed that 12(S)-HETE induced a hyperphosphorylation of several major cytoskeletal proteins including myosin light chain, actin, and vimentin. The increased phosphorylation of these cytoskeletal proteins following 12(S)-HETE stimulation was abolished by calphostin C but not by H8. Confluent EC express alpha v beta 3 in focal adhesions at both the cell body and the cell-cell borders. 12(S)-HETE induced a sequential rearrangement of the alpha v beta 3-containing focal adhesions, resulting in a general decrease in alpha v beta 3 integrin receptors, especially in those retracted EC. 12(S)-HETE-induced rearrangement of alpha v beta 3 was inhibited by calphostin C but not by H8. In contrast to alpha v beta 3, confluent EC enrich alpha 5 beta 1 integrin receptors primarily at the cell-cell borders, colocalizing with extracellular fibronectin and cell cortical microfilaments. 12(S)-HETE treatment also disrupted the cell-border distribution pattern of alpha 5 beta 1 as EC retracted, but no distinct alterations (such as time-related redistribution and quantitative differences) in alpha 5 beta 1 were observed. PMID:7683434

  3. How Deep and Hot was Earth's Magma Ocean? Combined Experimental Datasets for the Metal-silicate Partitioning of 11 Siderophile Elements - Ni, Co, Mo, W, P, Mn, V, Cr, Ga, Cu and Pd

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Since approximately 1990 high pressure and temperature (PT) experiments on metal-silicate systems have showed that partition coefficients (D) for siderophile (iron-loving) elements are much different than those measured at low PT conditions. The high PT data have been used to argue for a magma ocean during growth of the early Earth. Initial conclusions were based on experiments and calculations for a small number of elements such as Ni and Co. However, for many elements only a limited number of experimental data were available then, and they only hinted at values of metal-silicate D's at high PT conditions. In the ensuing decades there have been hundreds of new experiments carried out and published on a wide range of siderophile elements. At the same time several different models have been advanced to explain the siderophile elements in the earth's mantle: a) intermediate depth magma ocean; 25-30 GPa, b) deep magma ocean; up to 50 GPa, and c) early reduced and later oxidized magma ocean. Some studies have drawn conclusions based on a small subset of siderophile elements, or a set of elements that provides little leverage on the big picture (like slightly siderophile elements), and no single study has attempted to quantitatively explain more than 5 elements at a time. The purpose of this abstract is to update the predictive expressions outlined by Righter et al. (1997) with new experimental data from the last decade, test the predictive ability of these expressions against independent datasets (there are more data now to do this properly), and to apply the resulting expressions to the siderophile element patterns in Earth's upper mantle. The predictive expressions have the form: lnD = alnfO2 + b/T + cP/T + d(1Xs) + e(1Xc) + SigmafiXi + g These expressions are guided by the thermodynamics of simple metal-oxide equilibria that control each element, include terms that mimic the activity coefficients of each element in the metal and silicate, and quantify the effect of variable oxygen fugacity. Preliminary results confirm that D(Ni) and D(Co) converge at pressures near 25-30 GPa and approximately 2200 K, and show that D(Pd) and D(Cu) become too low at the PT conditions of the deepest models. Furthermore, models which force fit V and Cr mantle concentrations by metal-silicate equilibrium overlook the fact that at early Earth mantle fO2, these elements will be more compatible in Mg-perovskite and (Fe,Mg)O than in metal. Thus an intermediate depth magma ocean, at 25-30 GPa, 2200 K, and at IW-2, can explain more mantle siderophile element concentrations than other models.

  4. Partitioning of Mo, P and other siderophile elements (Cu, Ga, Sn, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn, V, and W) between metal and silicate melt as a function of temperature and silicate melt composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L.; Lee, Cin-Ty

    2010-03-01

    Metal-silicate partition coefficients can provide information about the earliest differentiation histories of terrestrial planets and asteroids. Systematic studies of the effects of key parameters such as temperature and melt composition are lacking for many elements. In particular, data for Mo is scarce, but given its refractory nature, is of great value in interpreting metal-silicate equilibrium. Two series of experiments have been carried out to study Mo and P partitioning between Fe metallic liquid and basaltic to peridotitic silicate melt, at 1 GPa and temperatures between 1500 and 1900 °C. Because the silicate melt utilized was natural basalt, there are also measurable quantities of 9 other siderophile elements (Ni, Co, W, Sn, Cu, Mn, V, Cr, Ga and Zn). The Ni and Co data can be used to assess consistency with previous studies. In addition, the new data also allow a first systematic look at the temperature dependence of Cu, Ga, Sn, Cr, Mn V and W for basaltic to peridotitic melts. Many elements exhibit an increase in siderophile behavior at higher temperature, contrary to popular belief, but consistent with predictions from thermodynamics. Using these new data we examine DMomet/sil and DPmet/sil in detail and show that increasing temperature causes a decrease in the former and an increase in the latter, whereas both increase with MgO content of the silicate melt. The depletions of Mo and P in the mantle of the Earth can be explained by metal-silicate equilibrium at magma ocean conditions — both elements are satisfied at PT conditions of an intermediate depth magma ocean for the Earth 22.5 GPa and 2400 °C.

  5. Hydroxypyridinonate complex stability of group (IV) metals and tetravalent f-block elements: the key to the next generation of chelating agents for radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Choi, Taylor A; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2015-04-01

    The solution thermodynamics of the water-soluble complexes formed between 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and Zr(IV) or Pu(IV) were investigated to establish the metal coordination properties of this octadentate chelating agent. Stability constants log ?110 = 43.1 0.6 and 43.5 0.7 were determined for [Zr(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] and [Pu(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))], respectively, by spectrophotometric competition titrations against Ce(IV). Such high thermodynamic stabilities not only confirm the unparalleled Pu(IV) affinity of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) as a decorporation agent but also corroborate the great potential of hydroxypyridinonate ligands as new (89)Zr-chelating platforms for immuno-PET applications. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with previous estimates and are discussed with respect to ionic radius and electronic configuration, in comparison with those of Ce(IV) and Th(IV). Furthermore, a liquid chromatography assay combined with mass spectrometric detection was developed to probe the separation of the neutral [M(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] complex species (M = Zr, Ce, Th, and Pu), providing additional insight into the coordination differences between group IV and tetravalent f-block metals and on the role of d and f orbitals in bonding interactions. PMID:25799124

  6. Tevatron Combination of Single-Top-Quark Cross Sections and Determination of the Magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix Element V_{tb}.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agnew, J P; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurisano, A; Avila, C; Azfar, F; Badaud, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartlett, J F; Bartos, P; Bassler, U; Bauce, M; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Bedeschi, F; Begalli, M; Behari, S; Bellantoni, L; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bortoletto, D; Borysova, M; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brigliadori, L; Brock, R; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brucken, E; Bu, X B; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camacho-Pérez, E; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chakrabarti, S; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Chokheli, D; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Clutter, J; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corbo, M; Corcoran, M; Cordelli, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cutts, D; Das, A; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; Davies, G; de Barbaro, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demina, R; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; D'Errico, M; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Eads, M; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Edmunds, D; Elagin, A; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Farrington, S; Fauré, A; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fernández Ramos, J P; Fiedler, F; Field, R; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Fuess, S; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garbincius, P H; Garcia-Bellido, A; García-González, J A; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gavrilov, V; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gershtein, Y; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Ginther, G; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gogota, O; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Golovanov, G; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Hahn, S R; Haley, J; Han, J Y; Han, L; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Harder, K; Hare, M; Harel, A; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinrich, J; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herndon, M; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hocker, A; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Holzbauer, J L; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ito, A S; Ivanov, A; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; James, E; Jang, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Jindariani, S; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jones, M; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Joshi, J; Jun, S Y; Jung, A W; Junk, T R; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Karmanov, D; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Katsanos, I; Kaur, M; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Kiselevich, I; Knoepfel, K; Kohli, J M; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurata, M; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lammers, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lei, X; Lellouch, J; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Li, D; Li, H; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lim, J K; Limosani, A; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipeles, E; Lipton, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lobodenko, A; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Luna-Garcia, R; Lungu, G; Lyon, A L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Maciel, A K A; Madar, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Mansour, J; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Martínez-Ortega, J; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Mesropian, C; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miao, T; Miconi, F; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondal, N K; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nagy, E; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neustroev, P; Nguyen, H T; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Nunnemann, T; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Orduna, J; Ortolan, L; Osman, N; Osta, J; Pagliarone, C; Pal, A; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parker, W; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pleier, M-A; Podstavkov, V M; Pondrom, L; Popov, A V; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Pranko, A; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ripp-Baudot, I; Ristori, L; Rizatdinova, F; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Rominsky, M; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sajot, G; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santi, L; Santos, A S; Sato, K; Savage, G; Saveliev, V; Savitskyi, M; Savoy-Navarro, A; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwanenberger, C; Schwarz, T; Schwienhorst, R; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Sekaric, J; Semenov, A; Severini, H; Sforza, F; Shabalina, E; Shalhout, S Z; Shary, V; Shaw, S; Shchukin, A A; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simak, V; Simonenko, A; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, H; Sonnenschein, L; Sorin, V; Soustruznik, K; St Denis, R; Stancari, M; Stark, J; Stentz, D; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Titov, M; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tokmenin, V V; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Verkheev, A Y; Vernieri, C; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vidal, M; Vilanova, D; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wahl, H D; Wallny, R; Wang, M H L S; Wang, S M; Warchol, J; Waters, D; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weichert, J; Welty-Rieger, L; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wobisch, M; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wood, D R; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yamada, R; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, S; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, W; Ye, Z; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Youn, S W; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, J M; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zennamo, J; Zhao, T G; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zucchelli, S

    2015-10-01

    We present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb^{-1} per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be σ_{t}=2.25_{-0.31}^{+0.29} pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s+t channel cross section measurement resulting in σ_{s+t}=3.30_{-0.40}^{+0.52} pb, without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σ_{s}/σ_{t}. The resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |V_{tb}|=1.02_{-0.05}^{+0.06}, corresponding to |V_{tb}|>0.92 at the 95% C.L. PMID:26550718

  7. Tevatron combination of single-top-quark cross sections and determination of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element $\\bf V_{tb}$

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero

    2015-10-07

    In this study, we present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb-1 per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be σt= 2.25-0.31+0.29 pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s+t channel cross section measurement resulting in σs+t= 3.30-0.40+0.52 pb, without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σst. The resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |Vtb|= 1.02-0.05+0.06, corresponding to |Vtb| > 0.92 at the 95% C.L.

  8. Energy spectra of elements with 18 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28 between 10 and 300 GeV/amu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. D.; Klarmann, J.; Stone, E. C.; Waddington, C. J.; Binns, W. R.; Garrard, T. L.; Israel, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The HEAO-3 Heavy Nuclei Experiment is composed of ionization chambers above and below a plastic Cherenkov counter. The energy dependence of the abundances of elements with atomic number, Z, between 18 and 28 were measured at very high energies where they are rare and thus need the large area x time of this experiment. The measurements of the Danish-French HEAO-3 experiment were extended to higher energies, using the relativistic rise of ionization signal as a measure of energy, and determine source abundances for Ar and Ca.

  9. Removal of elemental mercury by TiO2doped with WO3 and V2O5 for their photo- and thermo-catalytic removal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huazhen; Ie, Iau-Ren; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Chen, Wei-Hsiang

    2016-03-01

    The catalytic removal of Hg(0) was investigated to ascertain whether the catalysts could simultaneously possess both thermo- and photo-catalytic reactivity. The immobilized V2O5/TiO2 and WO3/TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by sol-gel method and then coated on the surface of glass beads for catalytic removal of Hg(0). They were also characterized by SEM, BET, XRD, UV-visible, and XPS analysis, and their catalytic reactivity was tested under 100-160 °C under the near-UV irradiation. The results indicated that V2O5/TiO2 solely possessed the thermo-catalytic reactivity while WO3/TiO2 only had photo-catalytic reactivity. Although the synthesis catalytic reactivity has not been found for these catalysts up to date, but compared with TiO2, the removal efficiencies of Hg(0) at 140 and 160 °C were enhanced; particularly, the efficiency was improved from 20 % at 160 °C by TiO2 to nearly 90 % by WO3/TiO2 under the same operating conditions. The effects of doping amount of V2O5 and WO3 were also investigated, and the results showed that 10 % V2O5 and 5 % WO3/TiO2 were the best immobilized catalysts for thermo- and photo-catalytic reactivity, respectively. The effect of different influent concentrations of Hg(0) was demonstrated that the highest concentration of Hg(0) led to the best removal efficiencies for V2O5/TiO2 and WO3/TiO2 at 140 and 160 °C, because high Hg(0) concentration increased the mass transfer rate of Hg(0) toward the surface of catalysts and dro