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Sample records for group-specific prevalence estimates

  1. Development of gender- and age group-specific equations for estimating body weight from anthropometric measurement in Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Trakulhoon, Vibul; Ungpinitpong, Winai; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2012-01-01

    Background Many medical procedures routinely use body weight as a parameter for calculation. However, these measurements are not always available. In addition, the commonly used visual estimation has had high error rates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a predictive equation for body weight using body circumferences. Methods A prospective study was performed in healthy volunteers. Body weight, height, and eight circumferential level parameters including neck, arm, chest, waist, umbilical level, hip, thigh, and calf were recorded. Linear regression equations were developed in a modeling sample group divided by sex and age (younger <60 years and older ≥60 years). Original regression equations were modified to simple equations by coefficients and intercepts adjustment. These equations were tested in an independent validation sample. Results A total of 2000 volunteers were included in this study. These were randomly separated into two groups (1000 in each modeling and validation group). Equations using height and one covariate circumference were developed. After the covariate selection processes, covariate circumference of chest, waist, umbilical level, and hip were selected for single covariate equations (Sco). To reduce the body somatotype difference, the combination covariate circumferences were created by summation between the chest and one torso circumference of waist, umbilical level, or hip and used in the equation development as a combination covariate equation (Cco). Of these equations, Cco had significantly higher 10% threshold error tolerance compared with Sco (mean percentage error tolerance of Cco versus Sco [95% confidence interval; 95% CI]: 76.9 [74.2–79.6] versus 70.3 [68.4–72.3]; P < 0.01, respectively). Although simple covariate equations had more evidence errors than the original covariate equations, there was comparable error tolerance between the types of equations (original versus simple: 74.5 [71.9–77.1] versus 71.7 [69.2

  2. Bayesian melding for estimating uncertainty in national HIV prevalence estimates

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, L; Raftery, A E; Brown, T

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To construct confidence intervals for HIV prevalence in countries with generalised epidemics. Methods: In the Bayesian melding approach, a sample of country-specific epidemic curves describing HIV prevalence over time is derived based on time series of antenatal clinic prevalence data and general information on the parameters that describe the HIV epidemic. The prevalence trends at antenatal clinics are calibrated to population-based HIV prevalence estimates from national surveys. For countries without population based estimates, a general calibration method is developed. Based on the sample of calibrated epidemic curves, we derive annual 95% confidence intervals for HIV prevalence. The curve that best represents the data at antenatal clinics and population-based surveys, as well as general information about the epidemic, is chosen to represent the best estimates and predictions. Results: We present results for urban areas in Haiti and Namibia to illustrate the estimates and confidence intervals that are derived with the methodology. PMID:18647860

  3. The oculoauriculovertebral spectrum: Refining the estimate of birth prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Gabbett, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    The oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a well-described pattern of congenital malformations primarily characterized by hemifacial microsomia and/or auricular dysplasia. However, the birth prevalence of OAVS is poorly characterized. Figures ranging from 1 in 150,000 through to 1 in 5,600 can be found in the literature – the latter figure being the most frequently quoted. This study aims to evaluate the reasons behind such discrepant figures and to refine the estimated birth prevalence of OAVS. Published reports on the incidence and prevalence of OAVS were systematically sought after. This evidence was critically reviewed. Data from appropriate studies was amalgamated to refine the estimate of the birth prevalence for OAVS. Two main reasons were identified why birth prevalence figures for OAVS are so highly discrepant: differing methods of case ascertainment and the lack of a formal definition for OAVS. This study refines the estimate of birth prevalence for OAVS to between 1 in 40,000 and 1 in 30,000. This number needs to be confirmed in a large well-designed prospective study using a formally agreed-upon definition for OAVS.

  4. Prevalence Estimates of Combat-Related PTSD: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lisa K.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Acierno, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide a critical review of prevalence estimates of combat-related PTSD among military personnel and veterans, and of the relevant factors that may account for the variability of estimates within and across cohorts, including methodological and conceptual factors accounting for differences in prevalence rates across nations, conflicts/wars, and studies. Method We examined MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases for literature on combat-related PTSD. The following terms were used independently and in combinations in this search: PTSD, combat, veterans, military, epidemiology, prevalence. Results The point prevalence of combat-related PTSD in US military veterans since the Vietnam War ranges from about 2 – 17%. Studies of recent conflicts suggest that combat-related PTSD afflicts between 4 – 17% of US Iraq War veterans, but only 3 – 6% of returning UK Iraq War veterans. Thus, the prevalence range is narrower and tends to have a lower ceiling among combat veterans of non-US Western nations. Variability in prevalence is likely due to differences in sampling strategies; measurement strategies; inclusion and measurement of the DSM-IV clinically significant impairment criterion; timing and latency of assessment and potential for recall bias; and combat experiences. Prevalence rates are also likely affected by issues related to PTSD course, chronicity, and comorbidity; symptom overlap with other psychiatric disorders; and sociopolitical and cultural factors that may vary over time and by nation. Conclusions The disorder represents a significant and costly illness to veterans, their families, and society as a whole. However, further carefully conceptualized research is needed to advance our understanding of disorder prevalence, as well as associated information on course, phenomenology, protective factors, treatment, and economic costs. PMID:20073563

  5. Estimating Neospora caninum prevalence in wildlife populations using Bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Torres, Karla; Wolfe, Barbara; Saville, William; Garabed, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Prevalence of disease in wildlife populations, which is necessary for developing disease models and conducting epidemiologic analyses, is often understudied. Laboratory tests used to screen for diseases in wildlife populations often are validated only for domestic animals. Consequently, the use of these tests for wildlife populations may lead to inaccurate estimates of disease prevalence. We demonstrate the use of Bayesian latent class analysis (LCA) in determining the specificity and sensitivity of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA; VMRD (®), Inc.) serologic test used to identify exposure to Neospora caninum (hereafter N. caninum) in three wildlife populations in southeastern Ohio, USA. True prevalence of N. caninum exposure in these populations was estimated to range from 0.1% to 3.1% in American bison (Bison bison), 51.0% to 53.8% in Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus), and 40.0% to 45.9% in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The accuracy of the cELISA in American bison and Père David's deer was estimated to be close to the 96% sensitivity and 99% specificity reported by the manufacturer. Sensitivity in white-tailed deer, however, ranged from 78.9% to 99.9%. Apparent prevalence of N. caninum from the test results is not equal to the true prevalence in white-tailed deer and Père David's deer populations. Even when these species inhabit the same community, the true prevalence in the two deer populations differed from the true prevalence in the American bison population. Variances in prevalence for some species suggest differences in the epidemiology of N. caninum for these colocated populations. Bayesian LCA methods could be used as in this example to overcome some of the constraints on validating tests in wildlife species. The ability to accurately evaluate disease status and prevalence in a population improves our understanding of the epidemiology of multihost pathogen systems at the community level. PMID:27099713

  6. Gambling disorder: estimated prevalence rates and risk factors in Macao.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit

    2014-12-01

    An excessive, problematic gambling pattern has been regarded as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) for more than 3 decades (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980). In this study, its latest prevalence in Macao (one of very few cities with legalized gambling in China and the Far East) was estimated with 2 major changes in the diagnostic criteria, suggested by the 5th edition of DSM (APA, 2013): (a) removing the "Illegal Act" criterion, and (b) lowering the threshold for diagnosis. A random, representative sample of 1,018 Macao residents was surveyed with a phone poll design in January 2013. After the 2 changes were adopted, the present study showed that the estimated prevalence rate of gambling disorder was 2.1% of the Macao adult population. Moreover, the present findings also provided empirical support to the application of these 2 recommended changes when assessing symptoms of gambling disorder among Chinese community adults. Personal risk factors of gambling disorder, namely being male, having low education, a preference for casino gambling, as well as high materialism, were identified. PMID:25134026

  7. An estimate of the prevalence of developmental phonagnosia.

    PubMed

    Shilowich, Bryan E; Biederman, Irving

    2016-08-01

    A web-based survey estimated the distribution of voice recognition abilities with a focus on determining the prevalence of developmental phonagnosia, the inability to identify a familiar person based on their voice. Participants matched clips of 50 celebrity voices to 1-4 named headshots of celebrities whose voices they had previously rated for familiarity. Given a strong correlation between rated familiarity and recognition performance, a residual was calculated based on the average familiarity rating on each trial, which thus constituted each respondent's voice recognition ability that could not be accounted for by familiarity. 3.2% of the respondents (23 of 730 participants) had residual recognition scores 2.28 SDs below the mean (whereas 8 or 1.1% would have been expected from a normal distribution). They also judged whether they could imagine the voice of five familiar celebrities. Individuals who had difficulty in imagining voices were also generally below average in their accuracy of recognition. PMID:27376464

  8. Quantifying group specificity of animal vocalizations without specific sender information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vester, Heike; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Timme, Marc; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Recordings of animal vocalization can lack information about sender and context. This is often the case in studies on marine mammals or in the increasing number of automated bioacoustics monitorings. Here, we develop a framework to estimate group specificity without specific sender information. We introduce and apply a bag-of-calls-and-coefficients approach (BOCCA) to study ensembles of cepstral coefficients calculated from vocalization signals recorded from a given animal group. Comparing distributions of such ensembles of coefficients by computing relative entropies reveals group specific differences. Applying the BOCCA to ensembles of calls recorded from group of long-finned pilot whales in northern Norway, we find that differences of vocalizations within social groups of pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are significantly lower than intergroup differences.

  9. Quantifying group specificity of animal vocalizations without specific sender information.

    PubMed

    Vester, Heike; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Timme, Marc; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Recordings of animal vocalization can lack information about sender and context. This is often the case in studies on marine mammals or in the increasing number of automated bioacoustics monitorings. Here, we develop a framework to estimate group specificity without specific sender information. We introduce and apply a bag-of-calls-and-coefficients approach (BOCCA) to study ensembles of cepstral coefficients calculated from vocalization signals recorded from a given animal group. Comparing distributions of such ensembles of coefficients by computing relative entropies reveals group specific differences. Applying the BOCCA to ensembles of calls recorded from group of long-finned pilot whales in northern Norway, we find that differences of vocalizations within social groups of pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are significantly lower than intergroup differences. PMID:26986319

  10. Estimating the prevalence of inbreeding from incomplete pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Marshall, T C; Coltman, D W; Pemberton, J M; Slate, J; Spalton, J A; Guinness, F E; Smith, J A; Pilkington, J G; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2002-08-01

    A previous review of inbreeding in natural populations suggested that close inbreeding (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25) is generally rare in wild birds and mammals. However, the review did not assess rates of moderate inbreeding (f = 0.125), which may make a rather larger contribution to overall inbreeding in a population. Furthermore, previous studies may have underestimated the prevalence of inbreeding in wild populations with incomplete pedigrees. By categorizing inbreeding events by the relationship of the parental pair, we suggest a simple method for estimating rates of close and moderate inbreeding from incomplete pedigree data. We applied this method to three wild populations of ruminants: red deer on Rum, Scotland, Soay sheep on Hirta, Scotland and reintroduced Arabian oryx on the Jiddat-al-Harasis, Oman. Although paternal half-sib pairs were the most common category of inbreeding in all three populations, there was considerable variation among populations in the frequencies of the various categories of inbreeding. This variation may be largely explained by differences in population size and dynamics, in maternal and paternal sibship size and in the overlap of reproductive lifespan of consecutive generations. Close and moderate inbreeding appear to be a routine part of breeding behaviour in these ruminant populations. PMID:12184822

  11. Estimated prevalence of antenatal depression in the US population.

    PubMed

    Ashley, June M; Harper, Bridgette D; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J; LoBello, Steven G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of minor and major depression among pregnant women in the USA. Also, we compare prevalence of depression among pregnant and non-pregnant women while controlling for relevant covariates. A population-representative sample of pregnant women (n = 3010) surveyed for the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was compared to a sample of women who were not pregnant (n = 68,620). Binary logistic regression was used to determine prevalence ratios of depression for pregnant and non-pregnant women while controlling for the effects of age, race, annual income, employment status, educational level, marital status, general health, and availability of emotional support. Depression was measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8). The prevalence of major depression was no greater among pregnant women (6.1 %) compared to non-pregnant women (7 %; adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.1, 95 % confidence interval (CI) .8 and 1.5). The prevalence of minor depression was greater among pregnant women (16.6 %) compared to non-pregnant women (11.4 %; adjusted PR = 1.5, 95 % CI 1.2 and 1.9). Prevalence ratios are adjusted for the effects of covariates noted above. Prevalence of major depression is not associated with pregnancy, but minor depression is more likely among women who are pregnant. PMID:26687691

  12. Estimating Prevalences of Sensitive Problems from Nonsensitive Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and regularly updated prevalences are critical to guide both prevention and policy. However, despite their impact on public health, the prevalence of behavioral and mental health problems such as child maltreatment and intimate partner violence (IPV) are collected infrequently (e.g., once per decade or less). The purpose of this study is…

  13. Development and Validation of a Hypertension Prevalence Estimator Tool For Use in Clinical Settings.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, Matthew; Yuan, Keming; Gillespie, Cathleen; Zhang, Guangyu; Ostchega, Yechiam

    2016-08-01

    Health systems are well positioned to identify and control hypertension among their patients. However, almost one third of US adults with uncontrolled hypertension are currently receiving medical care and are unaware of being hypertensive. This study describes the development and validation of a tool that health systems can use to compare their reported hypertension prevalence with their expected prevalence. Tool users provide the number of patients aged 18 to 85 years treated annually, stratified by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and comorbidity status. Each stratum is multiplied by stratum-specific national prevalence estimates and the amounts are summed to calculate the number of expected hypertensive patients. The tool's validity was assessed by applying samples from cohorts with known hypertension prevalence; small differences in expected vs actual prevalence were identified (range, -3.3% to 0.6%). This tool provides clinically useful hypertension prevalence estimates that health systems can use to help inform hypertension management quality improvement efforts. PMID:26729615

  14. Estimate of HIV prevalence and number of people living with HIV in India 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Arvind; Sahu, Damodar; Bakkali, Taoufi; Reddy, DCS; Venkatesh, S; Kant, Shashi; Bhattacharya, M; Raj, Yujwal; Haldar, Partha; Bhardwaj, Deepak; Chandra, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To update the estimation of the adult HIV prevalence and number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India for the year 2008−2009 with the combination of improved data and methods. Design Based on HIV sentinel surveillance (HSS) data and a set of epidemiological assumptions, estimates of HIV prevalence and burden in India have been derived. Setting HSS sites spread over all the States of India. Participants Secondary data from HSS sites which include attendees of antenatal clinics and sites under targeted interventions of high-risk groups, namely, female sex workers (FSW), intravenous drug users (IDU) and men having sex with men (MSM). Primary and secondary outcome measures Estimates of adult HIV prevalence and PLHIV in India and its states. Results The adult HIV prevalence in India has declined to an estimated 0.31% (0.25–0.39%) in 2009 against 0.36% (0.29–0.45%) in 2006. Among the high prevalence states, the HIV prevalence has declined in Tamil Nadu to 0.33% in 2009 and other states show either a plateau or a slightly declining trend over the time period 2006–2009. There are states in the low prevalence states where the adult HIV prevalence has risen over the last 4 years. The estimated number of PLHIV in India is 2.4 million (1.93–3.04 million) in 2009. Of which, 39% are women, children under 15 years of age account for 4.4% of all infections, while people aged 15–49 years account for 82.4% of all infections. Conclusions The estimated adult prevalence has declined in few states, a plateau or a slightly declining trend over the time. In future, efforts may be made to examine the implications of the emerging trend of the HIV prevalence on the recent infections in the study population. PMID:23028110

  15. Estimating the Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in Alaska Using Partial, Nonrandom Measurement Data

    PubMed Central

    Boles, Myde; Fink, Karol; Topol, Rebecca; Fenaughty, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although monitoring childhood obesity prevalence is critical for state public health programs to assess trends and the effectiveness of interventions, few states have comprehensive body mass index measurement systems in place. In some states, however, assorted school districts collect measurements on student height and weight as part of annual health screenings. To estimate childhood obesity prevalence in Alaska, we created a logistic regression model using such annual measurements along with public data on demographics and socioeconomic status. Our mixed-effects model-generated prevalence estimates validated well against weighted estimates, with 95% confidence intervals overlapping between methodologies among 7 of 8 participating school districts. Our methodology accounts for variation in school-level and student-level demographic factors across the state, and the approach we describe can be applied by other states that have existing nonrandom student measurement data to estimate childhood obesity prevalence. PMID:27010843

  16. Estimating the Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in Alaska Using Partial, Nonrandom Measurement Data.

    PubMed

    Everson, Erik; Boles, Myde; Fink, Karol; Topol, Rebecca; Fenaughty, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although monitoring childhood obesity prevalence is critical for state public health programs to assess trends and the effectiveness of interventions, few states have comprehensive body mass index measurement systems in place. In some states, however, assorted school districts collect measurements on student height and weight as part of annual health screenings. To estimate childhood obesity prevalence in Alaska, we created a logistic regression model using such annual measurements along with public data on demographics and socioeconomic status. Our mixed-effects model-generated prevalence estimates validated well against weighted estimates, with 95% confidence intervals overlapping between methodologies among 7 of 8 participating school districts. Our methodology accounts for variation in school-level and student-level demographic factors across the state, and the approach we describe can be applied by other states that have existing nonrandom student measurement data to estimate childhood obesity prevalence. PMID:27010843

  17. Estimating HIV Prevalence in Zimbabwe Using Population-Based Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Chinomona, Amos; Mwambi, Henry Godwell

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of HIV prevalence computed using data obtained from sampling a subgroup of the national population may lack the representativeness of all the relevant domains of the population. These estimates are often computed on the assumption that HIV prevalence is uniform across all domains of the population. Use of appropriate statistical methods together with population-based survey data can enhance better estimation of national and subgroup level HIV prevalence and can provide improved explanations of the variation in HIV prevalence across different domains of the population. In this study we computed design-consistent estimates of HIV prevalence, and their respective 95% confidence intervals at both the national and subgroup levels. In addition, we provided a multivariable survey logistic regression model from a generalized linear modelling perspective for explaining the variation in HIV prevalence using demographic, socio-economic, socio-cultural and behavioural factors. Essentially, this study borrows from the proximate determinants conceptual framework which provides guiding principles upon which socio-economic and socio-cultural variables affect HIV prevalence through biological behavioural factors. We utilize the 2010–11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (2010–11 ZDHS) data (which are population based) to estimate HIV prevalence in different categories of the population and for constructing the logistic regression model. It was established that HIV prevalence varies greatly with age, gender, marital status, place of residence, literacy level, belief on whether condom use can reduce the risk of contracting HIV and level of recent sexual activity whereas there was no marked variation in HIV prevalence with social status (measured using a wealth index), method of contraceptive and an individual’s level of education. PMID:26624280

  18. Estimating HIV Prevalence in Zimbabwe Using Population-Based Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Chinomona, Amos; Mwambi, Henry Godwell

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of HIV prevalence computed using data obtained from sampling a subgroup of the national population may lack the representativeness of all the relevant domains of the population. These estimates are often computed on the assumption that HIV prevalence is uniform across all domains of the population. Use of appropriate statistical methods together with population-based survey data can enhance better estimation of national and subgroup level HIV prevalence and can provide improved explanations of the variation in HIV prevalence across different domains of the population. In this study we computed design-consistent estimates of HIV prevalence, and their respective 95% confidence intervals at both the national and subgroup levels. In addition, we provided a multivariable survey logistic regression model from a generalized linear modelling perspective for explaining the variation in HIV prevalence using demographic, socio-economic, socio-cultural and behavioural factors. Essentially, this study borrows from the proximate determinants conceptual framework which provides guiding principles upon which socio-economic and socio-cultural variables affect HIV prevalence through biological behavioural factors. We utilize the 2010-11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (2010-11 ZDHS) data (which are population based) to estimate HIV prevalence in different categories of the population and for constructing the logistic regression model. It was established that HIV prevalence varies greatly with age, gender, marital status, place of residence, literacy level, belief on whether condom use can reduce the risk of contracting HIV and level of recent sexual activity whereas there was no marked variation in HIV prevalence with social status (measured using a wealth index), method of contraceptive and an individual's level of education. PMID:26624280

  19. Estimating the prevalence of anaemia: a comparison of three methods.

    PubMed Central

    Sari, M.; de Pee, S.; Martini, E.; Herman, S.; Sugiatmi; Bloem, M. W.; Yip, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the most effective method for analysing haemoglobin concentrations in large surveys in remote areas, and to compare two methods (indirect cyanmethaemoglobin and HemoCue) with the conventional method (direct cyanmethaemoglobin). METHODS: Samples of venous and capillary blood from 121 mothers in Indonesia were compared using all three methods. FINDINGS: When the indirect cyanmethaemoglobin method was used the prevalence of anaemia was 31-38%. When the direct cyanmethaemoglobin or HemoCue method was used the prevalence was 14-18%. Indirect measurement of cyanmethaemoglobin had the highest coefficient of variation and the largest standard deviation of the difference between the first and second assessment of the same blood sample (10-12 g/l indirect measurement vs 4 g/l direct measurement). In comparison with direct cyanmethaemoglobin measurement of venous blood, HemoCue had the highest sensitivity (82.4%) and specificity (94.2%) when used for venous blood. CONCLUSIONS: Where field conditions and local resources allow it, haemoglobin concentration should be assessed with the direct cyanmethaemoglobin method, the gold standard. However, the HemoCue method can be used for surveys involving different laboratories or which are conducted in relatively remote areas. In very hot and humid climates, HemoCue microcuvettes should be discarded if not used within a few days of opening the container containing the cuvettes. PMID:11436471

  20. Spatially interpolated disease prevalence estimation using collateral indicators of morbidity and ecological risk.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-10-01

    This paper considers estimation of disease prevalence for small areas (neighbourhoods) when the available observations on prevalence are for an alternative partition of a region, such as service areas. Interpolation to neighbourhoods uses a kernel method extended to take account of two types of collateral information. The first is morbidity and service use data, such as hospital admissions, observed for neighbourhoods. Variations in morbidity and service use are expected to reflect prevalence. The second type of collateral information is ecological risk factors (e.g., pollution indices) that are expected to explain variability in prevalence in service areas, but are typically observed only for neighbourhoods. An application involves estimating neighbourhood asthma prevalence in a London health region involving 562 neighbourhoods and 189 service (primary care) areas. PMID:24129116

  1. The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Visual Impairment in Aging: Current Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine prevalence of five age-related eye conditions (age-related cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and visual impairment) in the United States. Methods. Review of published scientific articles and unpublished research findings. Results. Cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, DR, and visual impairment prevalences are high in four different studies of these conditions, especially in people over 75 years of age. There are disparities among racial/ethnic groups with higher age-specific prevalence of DR, open-angle glaucoma, and visual impairment in Hispanics and blacks compared with whites, higher prevalence of age-related cataract in whites compared with blacks, and higher prevalence of late AMD in whites compared with Hispanics and blacks. The estimates are based on old data and do not reflect recent changes in the distribution of age and race/ethnicity in the United States population. There are no epidemiologic estimates of prevalence for many visually-impairing conditions. Conclusions. Ongoing prevalence surveys designed to provide reliable estimates of visual impairment, AMD, age-related cataract, open-angle glaucoma, and DR are needed. It is important to collect objective data on these and other conditions that affect vision and quality of life in order to plan for health care needs and identify areas for further research. PMID:24335069

  2. Estimating Contraceptive Prevalence Using Logistics Data for Short-Acting Methods: Analysis Across 30 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Marc; Brown, Niquelle; Sacher, Suzy; Hatch, Benjamin; Inglis, Andrew; Aronovich, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) is a vital indicator used by country governments, international donors, and other stakeholders for measuring progress in family planning programs against country targets and global initiatives as well as for estimating health outcomes. Because of the need for more frequent CPR estimates than population-based surveys currently provide, alternative approaches for estimating CPRs are being explored, including using contraceptive logistics data. Methods: Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 30 countries, population data from the United States Census Bureau International Database, and logistics data from the Procurement Planning and Monitoring Report (PPMR) and the Pipeline Monitoring and Procurement Planning System (PipeLine), we developed and evaluated 3 models to generate country-level, public-sector contraceptive prevalence estimates for injectable contraceptives, oral contraceptives, and male condoms. Models included: direct estimation through existing couple-years of protection (CYP) conversion factors, bivariate linear regression, and multivariate linear regression. Model evaluation consisted of comparing the referent DHS prevalence rates for each short-acting method with the model-generated prevalence rate using multiple metrics, including mean absolute error and proportion of countries where the modeled prevalence rate for each method was within 1, 2, or 5 percentage points of the DHS referent value. Results: For the methods studied, family planning use estimates from public-sector logistics data were correlated with those from the DHS, validating the quality and accuracy of current public-sector logistics data. Logistics data for oral and injectable contraceptives were significantly associated (P<.05) with the referent DHS values for both bivariate and multivariate models. For condoms, however, that association was only significant for the bivariate model. With the exception of the CYP

  3. Global and Regional Estimates of Prevalent and Incident Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infections in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Looker, Katharine J.; Magaret, Amalia S.; May, Margaret T.; Turner, Katherine M. E.; Vickerman, Peter; Gottlieb, Sami L.; Newman, Lori M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) commonly causes orolabial ulcers, while HSV-2 commonly causes genital ulcers. However, HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital infection. Previously, the World Health Organization estimated the global burden of HSV-2 for 2003 and for 2012. The global burden of HSV-1 has not been estimated. Methods We fitted a constant-incidence model to pooled HSV-1 prevalence data from literature searches for 6 World Health Organization regions and used 2012 population data to derive global numbers of 0-49-year-olds with prevalent and incident HSV-1 infection. To estimate genital HSV-1, we applied values for the proportion of incident infections that are genital. Findings We estimated that 3709 million people (range: 3440–3878 million) aged 0–49 years had prevalent HSV-1 infection in 2012 (67%), with highest prevalence in Africa, South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Assuming 50% of incident infections among 15-49-year-olds are genital, an estimated 140 million (range: 67–212 million) people had prevalent genital HSV-1 infection, most of which occurred in the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific. Conclusions The global burden of HSV-1 infection is huge. Genital HSV-1 burden can be substantial but varies widely by region. Future control efforts, including development of HSV vaccines, should consider the epidemiology of HSV-1 in addition to HSV-2, and especially the relative contribution of HSV-1 to genital infection. PMID:26510007

  4. A door-to-door survey to estimate the prevalence of Parkinsonism in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Suliman; Nabi, Ghulam; Naeem, Muhammad; Ali, Liaqat; Silburn, Peter A; Mellick, George D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) occurs in all races and cultures, and population-related differences in frequency may provide etiological clues. The present study was designed to explore the prevalence of PD and Parkinsonism in Pakistan, the world’s sixth most populous country, for which no published prevalence data are available. Methods We conducted a three-phase door-to-door survey in two districts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, to assess the prevalence of PD and Parkinsonism in a sample of 4,000 individuals aged 50 years and above. Results We identified 14 cases of Parkinsonism, eleven with a diagnosis of idiopathic PD. The overall prevalence estimates were 1.7/100 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9–2.46) for Parkinsonism and 1.28/100 (95% CI: 0.6–1.94) for PD in persons aged 65 years and above. The age-standardized prevalence of PD (aged 65 years and above), normalized to the USA population in 2000, was 1.33/100, which is similar to that observed in other human populations. Of the total 14 cases, five were newly diagnosed and four had a family history of PD. Conclusion The estimated prevalence rates in Pakistan are similar to those observed in other human populations. The frequency of familial Parkinsonism is also equivalent to previous estimates. PMID:27382292

  5. Revisiting multi-subject random effects in fMRI: advocating prevalence estimation.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J D; Vink, M; Benjamini, Y

    2014-01-01

    Random effect analysis has been introduced into fMRI research in order to generalize findings from the study group to the whole population. Generalizing findings is obviously harder than detecting activation within the study group since in order to be significant, an activation has to be larger than the inter-subject variability. Indeed, detected regions are smaller when using random effect analysis versus fixed effects. The statistical assumptions behind the classic random effect model are that the effect in each location is normally distributed over subjects, and "activation" refers to a non-null mean effect. We argue that this model is unrealistic compared to the true population variability, where due to function-anatomy inconsistencies and registration anomalies, some of the subjects are active and some are not at each brain location. We propose a Gaussian-mixture-random-effect that amortizes between-subject spatial disagreement and quantifies it using the prevalence of activation at each location. We present a formal definition and an estimation procedure of this prevalence. The end result of the proposed analysis is a map of the prevalence at locations with significant activation, highlighting activation regions that are common over many brains. Prevalence estimation has several desirable properties: (a) It is more informative than the typical active/inactive paradigm. (b) In contrast to the usual display of p-values in activated regions - which trivially converge to 0 for large sample sizes - prevalence estimates converge to the true prevalence. PMID:23988271

  6. The estimated prevalence and incidence of late stage age related macular degeneration in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Jarrar, Zakariya; Wormald, Richard; Cook, Derek G; Fletcher, Astrid E; Rudnicka, Alicja R

    2012-01-01

    Background UK estimates of age related macular degeneration (AMD) occurrence vary. Aims To estimate prevalence, number and incidence of AMD by type in the UK population aged ≥50 years. Methods Age-specific prevalence rates of AMD obtained from a Bayesian meta-analysis of AMD prevalence were applied to UK 2007–2009 population data. Incidence was estimated from modelled age-specific prevalence. Results Overall prevalence of late AMD was 2.4% (95% credible interval (CrI) 1.7% to 3.3%), equivalent to 513 000 cases (95% CrI 363 000 to 699 000); estimated to increase to 679 000 cases by 2020. Prevalences were 4.8% aged ≥65 years, 12.2% aged ≥80 years. Geographical atrophy (GA) prevalence rates were 1.3% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.9%), 2.6% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.7%) and 6.7% (95% CrI 4.6% to 9.6%); neovascular AMD (NVAMD) 1.2% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.7%), 2.5% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.4%) and 6.3% (95% CrI 4.5% to 8.6%), respectively. The estimated number of prevalent cases of late AMD were 60% higher in women versus men (314 000 cases in women, 192 000 men). Annual incidence of late AMD, GA and NVAMD per 1000 women was 4.1 (95% CrI 2.4% to 6.8%), 2.4 (95% CrI 1.5% to 3.9%) and 2.3 (95% CrI 1.4% to 4.0%); in men 2.6 (95% CrI 1.5% to 4.4%), 1.7 (95% CrI 1.0% to 2.8%) and 1.4 (95% CrI 0.8% to 2.4%), respectively. 71 000 new cases of late AMD were estimated per year. Conclusions These estimates will guide health and social service provision for those with late AMD and enable estimation of the cost of introducing new treatments. PMID:22329913

  7. Estimating the prevalence of drug misuse in Dundee, Scotland: an application of capture-recapture methods.

    PubMed Central

    Hay, G; McKeganey, N

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To apply capture-recapture methods to provide an estimate of the prevalence of opiate and benzodiazepine misuse in Dundee, Scotland. DESIGN: A four sample capture-recapture method using data from both statutory and non-statutory data sources to estimate drug misuse prevalence in Dundee between January 1990 and December 1994. PARTICIPANTS: Users of benzodiazepines or opiates residing within Dundee. RESULTS: Altogether 855 drug misusers were identified from various sources within Dundee; many were identified from more than one source. Using this data, the estimated unknown population was 1702, giving a total population of 2557 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1974, 3458) who misuse benzodiazepines or opiates. This represents a prevalence of 28.8 (95% CI 22.3, 39.0) per thousand. CONCLUSIONS: Capture-recapture techniques can be applied to statutory and non-statutory agency data to produce an estimate of at least certain sections of the drug misusing population. However, it is important to recognise the limitations of this methodology and in future to seek to combine a range of approaches to the problem of estimating prevalence rather than sticking rigidly to any single approach. PMID:8882234

  8. The Lifetime Prevalence of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use and Dependence in Americans: Current Best Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Harrison G.; Kanayama, Gen; Athey, Alison; Ryan, Erin; Hudson, James I.; Baggish, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although various surveys have tracked the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use in American teenagers and young adults, no recent surveys have assessed the lifetime prevalence of AAS use in Americans overall. We therefore analyzed serial youth-survey data to derive estimates of the lifetime prevalence of AAS use in the current American general population. Methods We first determined the distribution of age of onset of AAS use, based on pooled data from nine studies. Using this distribution, we then developed equations to project the eventual lifetime prevalence of AAS use among young survey respondents, once they aged and completed the period of risk for initiating AAS. We similarly calculated the denominator of lifetimes of risk for AAS use in the total American population. We next applied these equations to four independent national youth datasets to derive current American general-population estimates for lifetime AAS use. Finally, using data from 10 pooled studies, we estimated the lifetime prevalence of AAS dependence among AAS users. Results Age-of-onset studies consistently showed that AAS use begins later than most drugs, with only 22% of users (95% confidence interval: 19%–25%) starting before age 20. Applying the age-of-onset findings to national youth datasets, we estimated that among Americans currently age 13 to 50 years, 2.9–4.0 million have used AAS. Within this group, roughly 1 million may have experienced AAS dependence. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Although subject to various limitations, our estimation techniques suggest a surprisinigly high prevalence of AAS use and dependence among Americans. PMID:24112239

  9. Estimation of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in South Korea, revisited.

    PubMed

    Pantelis, Peter C; Kennedy, Daniel P

    2016-07-01

    Two-phase designs in epidemiological studies of autism prevalence introduce methodological complications that can severely limit the precision of resulting estimates. If the assumptions used to derive the prevalence estimate are invalid or if the uncertainty surrounding these assumptions is not properly accounted for in the statistical inference procedure, then the point estimate may be inaccurate and the confidence interval may not be a true reflection of the precision of the estimate. We examine these potential pitfalls in the context of a recent high-profile finding by Kim et al. (2011, Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in a total population sample. American Journal of Psychiatry 168: 904-912), who estimated that autism spectrum disorder affects 2.64% of children in a South Korean community. We reconstructed the study's methodology and used Monte Carlo simulations to analyze whether their point estimate and 95% confidence interval (1.91%, 3.37%) were reasonable, given what was known about their screening instrument and sample. We find the original point estimate to be highly assumption-dependent, and after accounting for sources of uncertainty unaccounted for in the original article, we demonstrate that a more reasonable confidence interval would be approximately twice as large as originally reported. We argue that future studies should give serious consideration to the additional sources of uncertainty introduced by a two-phase design, which may easily outstrip any expected gains in efficiency. PMID:26122467

  10. Estimated Prevalence of Glaucoma in South Korea Using the National Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang Jin; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Sang Yeop; Bae, Hyoung Won; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate the prevalence of glaucoma and costs associated with glaucoma care in South Korea between 2008 and 2013 using the Korean national claims database. Design. Retrospective cross-sectional study from a national claims database. Methods. Patients who were diagnosed with glaucoma between 2008 and 2013 were retrospectively identified in the national claims database using glaucoma diagnostic codes. For each year, the prevalence of glaucoma and direct medical costs associated with glaucoma care were estimated. Result. The prevalence of glaucoma in patients ≥40 years of age increased from 0.79% in 2008 to 1.05% in 2013. The number of patients with glaucoma increased by 54% between 2008 and 2013 (9% average annual increase). The prevalence of glaucoma increased with age and was higher in males than in females. The cost to care for glaucoma patients increased from $16.5 million in 2008 to $29.2 million in 2013, which translated into an 81% increase over the 6 years examined (12.7% average annual increase). Conclusion. The estimated prevalence and socioeconomic burden of glaucoma have steadily increased each year in South Korea. Nevertheless, many glaucoma patients remain undiagnosed in the present study using national claims database. PMID:27247797

  11. Global and regional estimates of COPD prevalence: Systematic review and meta–analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adeloye, Davies; Chua, Stephen; Lee, Chinwei; Basquill, Catriona; Papana, Angeliki; Theodoratou, Evropi; Nair, Harish; Gasevic, Danijela; Sridhar, Devi; Campbell, Harry; Chan, Kit Yee; Sheikh, Aziz; Rudan, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) across many world regions is high. We aim to estimate COPD prevalence and number of disease cases for the years 1990 and 2010 across world regions based on the best available evidence in publicly accessible scientific databases. Methods We conducted a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and Global Health for original, population–based studies providing spirometry–based prevalence rates of COPD across the world from January 1990 to December 2014. Random effects meta–analysis was conducted on extracted crude prevalence rates of COPD, with overall summaries of the meta–estimates (and confidence intervals) reported separately for World Health Organization (WHO) regions, the World Bank's income categories and settings (urban and rural). We developed a meta–regression epidemiological model that we used to estimate the prevalence of COPD in people aged 30 years or more. Findings Our search returned 37 472 publications. A total of 123 studies based on a spirometry–defined prevalence were retained for the review. From the meta–regression epidemiological model, we estimated about 227.3 million COPD cases in the year 1990 among people aged 30 years or more, corresponding to a global prevalence of 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.3%–14.0%) in this age group. The number of COPD cases increased to 384 million in 2010, with a global prevalence of 11.7% (8.4%–15.0%). This increase of 68.9% was mainly driven by global demographic changes. Across WHO regions, the highest prevalence was estimated in the Americas (13.3% in 1990 and 15.2% in 2010), and the lowest in South East Asia (7.9% in 1990 and 9.7% in 2010). The percentage increase in COPD cases between 1990 and 2010 was the highest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (118.7%), followed by the African region (102.1%), while the European region recorded the lowest increase (22.5%). In 1990, we estimated about 120.9 million COPD cases

  12. Body dysmorphic disorder in different settings: A systematic review and estimated weighted prevalence.

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Gledhill, Lucinda J; Christodoulou, Polyxeni; Hodsoll, John

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to systematically review the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in a variety of settings. Weighted prevalence estimate and 95% confidence intervals in each study were calculated. The weighted prevalence of BDD in adults in the community was estimated to be 1.9%; in adolescents 2.2%; in student populations 3.3%; in adult psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adolescent psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adult psychiatric outpatients 5.8%; in general cosmetic surgery 13.2%; in rhinoplasty surgery 20.1%; in orthognathic surgery 11.2%; in orthodontics/cosmetic dentistry settings 5.2%; in dermatology outpatients 11.3%; in cosmetic dermatology outpatients 9.2%; and in acne dermatology clinics 11.1%. Women outnumbered men in the majority of settings but not in cosmetic or dermatological settings. BDD is common in some psychiatric and cosmetic settings but is poorly identified. PMID:27498379

  13. Satellite-based Estimates of Ambient Air Pollution and Global Variations in Childhood Asthma Prevalence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, H. Ross; Butland, Barbara K.; Donkelaar, Aaron Matthew Van; Brauer, Michael; Strachan, David P.; Clayton, Tadd; van Dingenen, Rita; Amann, Marcus; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Lai, Christopher; Lamsal, Lok N.; Martin, Randall V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of ambient air pollution on global variations and trends in asthma prevalence is unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate community-level associations between asthma prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and satellite-based estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and modelled estimates of ozone. Methods: We assigned satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 at a spatial resolution of 0.1deg × 0.1deg and modeled estimates of ozone at a resolution of 1deg × 1deg to 183 ISAAC centers. We used center-level prevalence of severe asthma as the outcome and multilevel models to adjust for gross national income (GNI) and center- and country-level sex, climate, and population density. We examined associations (adjusting for GNI) between air pollution and asthma prevalence over time in centers with data from ISAAC Phase One (mid-1900s) and Phase Three (2001-2003). Results: For the 13- to 14-year age group (128 centers in 28 countries), the estimated average within-country change in center-level asthma prevalence per 100 children per 10% increase in center-level PM2.5 and NO2 was -0.043 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.139, 0.053] and 0.017 (95% CI: -0.030, 0.064) respectively. For ozone the estimated change in prevalence per parts per billion by volume was -0.116 (95% CI: -0.234, 0.001). Equivalent results for the 6- to 7-year age group (83 centers in 20 countries), though slightly different, were not significantly positive. For the 13- to 14-year age group, change in center-level asthma prevalence over time per 100 children per 10% increase in PM2.5 from Phase One to Phase Three was -0.139 (95% CI: -0.347, 0.068). The corresponding association with ozone (per ppbV) was -0.171 (95% CI: -0.275, -0.067). Conclusion: In contrast to reports from within-community studies of individuals exposed to traffic pollution, we did not find

  14. Estimated Prevalence of People with Cognitive Impairment: Results from Nationally Representative Community and Institutional Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Amy B.; Remsburg, Robin E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We address how the national prevalence of cognitive impairment can be estimated from two nationally representative surveys. Design and Methods: Data are from the 1999-2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the 1999 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS). The NHIS represents all community-dwelling people living in the United States,…

  15. Prevalence Estimates of Health Risk Behaviors of Immigrant Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Wolfson, Mark; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R.; Alegria-Ortega, Jose; Eng, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about the health status of rural immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). These MSM comprise a subpopulation that tends to remain "hidden" from both researchers and practitioners. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, and sexual risk behaviors of Latino MSM living in…

  16. The estimated prevalence and incidence of HIV in 96 large US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, S D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to estimate the size and direction of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with populations greater than 500,000. METHODS: A "components model" from review of more than 350 documents, several large datasets, and information from 220 public health personnel was used. Data review focused on injection drug users, men who have sex with men, and high-risk heterosexual men and women. RESULTS: In the 96 MSAs, there are, broadly, an estimated 1.5 million injection drug users, 1.7 million gay and bisexual men, and 2.1 million at-risk heterosexuals, and, among them, an estimated 565,000 prevalent and 38,000 incident HIV infections. This implies about 700,000 prevalent and 41,000 new HIV infections yearly in the United States. Roughly half of all estimated new infections are occurring among injection drug users, most of them in northeastern cities, Miami, and San Juan. Gay and bisexual men still represent most prevalent HIV infections, although incidence--except in young and minority gay men--is much lower now than it was a decade ago. Relatively high prevalences of HIV in at-risk heterosexual persons in several cities indicate the potential for an increase in transmission among them. CONCLUSIONS: This review and synthesis outline the comparative epidemiology of HIV in major US cities and identify populations for interventions. PMID:8629714

  17. Redrawing the US Obesity Landscape: Bias-Corrected Estimates of State-Specific Adult Obesity Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Zachary J.; Long, Michael W.; Resch, Stephen C.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Cradock, Angie L.; Giles, Catherine; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y. Claire

    2016-01-01

    Background State-level estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) underestimate the obesity epidemic because they use self-reported height and weight. We describe a novel bias-correction method and produce corrected state-level estimates of obesity and severe obesity. Methods Using non-parametric statistical matching, we adjusted self-reported data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2013 (n = 386,795) using measured data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n = 16,924). We validated our national estimates against NHANES and estimated bias-corrected state-specific prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30) and severe obesity (BMI≥35). We compared these results with previous adjustment methods. Results Compared to NHANES, self-reported BRFSS data underestimated national prevalence of obesity by 16% (28.67% vs 34.01%), and severe obesity by 23% (11.03% vs 14.26%). Our method was not significantly different from NHANES for obesity or severe obesity, while previous methods underestimated both. Only four states had a corrected obesity prevalence below 30%, with four exceeding 40%–in contrast, most states were below 30% in CDC maps. Conclusions Twelve million adults with obesity (including 6.7 million with severe obesity) were misclassified by CDC state-level estimates. Previous bias-correction methods also resulted in underestimates. Accurate state-level estimates are necessary to plan for resources to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:26954566

  18. Estimates of HIV prevalence in a highly endemic area of China: Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yujiang; Sun, Jiangping; Fan, Lu; Song, Duan; Tian, Shuming; Yang, Yuecheng; Jia, Manhong; Lu, Lin; Sun, Xinhua; Zhang, Sanguo; Kulczycki, Andrzej; Vermund, Sten H

    2008-01-01

    Background Dehong Prefecture in Yunnan Province, China, borders Myanmar. Its proximity to the ‘Golden Triangle’, one of the world's largest illicit drug production and distribution centre, contributes to drug trafficking and ready availability of heroin. Dehong's 1.1 million people confront a serious HIV problem fuelled by injection drug use. The aim of this study is to improve the 2005 estimates of the true status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Dehong Prefecture. Methods We estimated the HIV prevalence by synthesizing the results from several data sources (HIV/AIDS case reports, surveys, surveillance activities and epidemiological studies). We applied three different statistical procedures for estimations: (i) The Workbook method, adapted to meet the estimation needs in Dehong Prefecture; (ii) An estimate based on antenatal clinical data; and (iii) a dynamic model based on the local epidemic pattern. Results We estimated that the population prevalence for HIV infections in Dehong Prefecture is 1.3% (likely range from low/high of three estimates: 0.9–1.7%) such that 13 500 people were living with HIV/AIDS in Dehong Prefecture (likely range: 8200–18 300) in 2005. Infections remain concentrated among injection drug users, female sex workers and their clients with an uneven geographical distribution of estimated cases. Conclusion More reliable estimates of HIV prevalence can be made by synthesizing multiple data sources using several procedures. Current HIV prevention, care and treatment challenges are judged substantial in Dehong Prefecture, regardless of what modelling strategy is used. PMID:18922804

  19. Accuracy of Herdsmen Reporting versus Serologic Testing for Estimating Foot-and-Mouth Disease Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Handel, Ian G.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Hamman, Saidou M.; Nfon, Charles; Bergman, Ingrid E.; Malirat, Viviana; Sorensen, Karl J.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. de C.

    2014-01-01

    Herdsman-reported disease prevalence is widely used in veterinary epidemiologic studies, especially for diseases with visible external lesions; however, the accuracy of such reports is rarely validated. Thus, we used latent class analysis in a Bayesian framework to compare sensitivity and specificity of herdsman reporting with virus neutralization testing and use of 3 nonstructural protein ELISAs for estimates of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) prevalence on the Adamawa plateau of Cameroon in 2000. Herdsman-reported estimates in this FMD-endemic area were comparable to those obtained from serologic testing. To harness to this cost-effective resource of monitoring emerging infectious diseases, we suggest that estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of herdsmen reporting should be done in parallel with serologic surveys of other animal diseases. PMID:25417556

  20. A Bayesian Approach to Latent Class Modeling for Estimating the Prevalence of Schizophrenia Using Administrative Databases

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, Vincent; Joseph, Lawrence; Gold, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the incidence and the prevalence of psychotic disorders in the province of Quebec has been the object of some interest in recent years as a contribution to the epidemiological study of the causes of psychotic disorders being carried out primarily in UK and Scandinavia. A number of studies have used administrative data from the Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec (RAMQ) that includes nearly all Quebec citizens to obtain geographical and temporal prevalence estimates for the illness. However, there has been no investigation of the validity of RAMQ diagnoses for psychotic disorders, and without a measure of the sensitivity and the specificity of these diagnoses, it is impossible to be confident in the accuracy of the estimates obtained. This paper proposes the use of latent class analysis to ascertain the validity of a diagnosis of schizophrenia using RAMQ data. PMID:26217241

  1. The estimated prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a German community sample.

    PubMed

    de Zwaan, Martina; Gruss, Barbara; Müller, Astrid; Graap, Holmer; Martin, Alexandra; Glaesmer, Heide; Hilbert, Anja; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2012-02-01

    Little research on the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD has been conducted outside the United States. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a large representative sample of the German population aged 18-64 years (n = 1,655). Two self-rating screening instruments to assess childhood and adult ADHD symptomatology were used to estimate the prevalence of ADHD. A 4-item screening tool was used to assess probable cases of current depression and anxiety (Patient Health Questionnaire). The estimated crude prevalence rate of current ADHD was 4.7%. Adult ADHD was significantly associated with lower age, low educational level, unemployment, marital status (never married and divorced), and rural residency. No association was found with gender. Adult ADHD was strongly associated with positive screening results for depression and anxiety. ADHD is a common disorder of adulthood, is associated with significant social impairment and psychiatric co-morbidity, and should receive further research attention. PMID:21499942

  2. Estimation of global and regional incidence and prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms 1990 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Uchechukwu K A; Norman, Paul E; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Aboyans, Victor; Song, Yanna; Harrell, Frank E; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Naghavi, Mohsen; Denenberg, Julie O; McDermott, Mary M; Criqui, Michael H; Mensah, George A; Ezzati, Majid; Murray, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The global burden of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has not been studied previously. Such information is important given the emergence of cardiovascular diseases in developing countries. We conducted a systematic literature review and estimated the global and regional incidence and prevalence of AAA in 21 world regions by age and sex. The search for prevalence and incidence of AAA using standard clinical and epidemiological terms was conducted using MEDLINE (1950 to 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010), AMED (1985 to 2010), CINAHL (1982 to 2010), and LILACS (2008 to 2010). Data abstracted from the systematic review served as priors for Bayesian meta-regression analyses. The analysis drew from 26 high-quality studies to estimate AAA prevalence and incidence. In 1990, the global age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 ranged from 8.43 (95% CI: 7.03 to 10.14) in the 40 to 44 years age group to 2,422.53 (95% CI: 2,298.63 to 2,562.25) in the 75 to 79 years age group; the corresponding range in 2010 was 7.88 (95% CI: 6.54 to 9.59) to 2,274.82 (95% CI: 2,149.77 to 2,410.17). Prevalence was higher in developed versus developing nations, and the rates within each development stratum decreased between 1990 and 2010. Globally, the age-specific annual incidence rate per 100,000 in 1990 ranged from 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66 to 1.17) in 40 to 44 years age group to 176.08 (95% CI: 162.72 to 190.28) in the 75 to 79 years age group. In 2010, this range was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.61 to 1.11) to 164.57 (95% CI: 152.20 to 178.78). The highest prevalence in 1990 was in Australasia and North America high income regions: 382.65 (95% CI: 356.27 to 410.88) and 300.59 (95% CI: 280.93 to 321.54), respectively. Australasia had the highest prevalence in 2010, although the prevalence decreased to 310.27 (95% CI: 289.01 to 332.94). Regional prevalence increased in Oceania, tropical Latin America, Asia Pacific high income, Southern Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Central SSA, South Asia, Western SSA, and Central Asia. AAA

  3. Estimating the Prevalence and Awareness Rates of Hypertension in Africa: A Systematic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adeloye, Davies; Basquill, Catriona

    2014-01-01

    Background The burden of hypertension is high in Africa, and due to rapid population growth and ageing, the exact burden on the continent is still far from being known. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and awareness rates of hypertension in Africa based on the cut off “≥140/90 mm Hg”. Methods We conducted a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and Global Health. Search date was set from January 1980 to December 2013. We included population-based studies on hypertension, conducted among people aged ≥15 years and providing numerical estimates on the prevalence of hypertension in Africa. Overall pooled prevalence of hypertension in mixed, rural and urban settings in Africa were estimated from reported crude prevalence rates. A meta-regression epidemiological modelling, using United Nations population demographics for the years 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2030, was applied to determine the prevalence rates and number of cases of hypertension in Africa separately for these four years. Results Our search returned 7680 publications, 92 of which met the selection criteria. The overall pooled prevalence of hypertension in Africa was 19.7% in 1990, 27.4% in 2000 and 30.8% in 2010, each with a pooled awareness rate (expressed as percentage of hypertensive cases) of 16.9%, 29.2% and 33.7%, respectively. From the modelling, over 54.6 million cases of hypertension were estimated in 1990, 92.3 million cases in 2000, 130.2 million cases in 2010, and a projected increase to 216.8 million cases of hypertension by 2030; each with an age-adjusted prevalence of 19.1% (13.9, 25.5), 24.3% (23.3, 31.6), 25.9% (23.5, 34.0), and 25.3% (24.3, 39.7), respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest the prevalence of hypertension is increasing in Africa, and many hypertensive individuals are not aware of their condition. We hope this research will prompt appropriate policy response towards improving the awareness, control and overall management of hypertension in Africa. PMID:25090232

  4. Estimating adjusted prevalence ratio in clustered cross-sectional epidemiological data

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carlos Antônio ST; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L; Oliveira, Nelson F; Cunha, Sérgio; Barreto, Maurício L; do Carmo, Maria Beatriz B; Moncayo, Ana-Lucia; Rodrigues, Laura C; Cooper, Philip J; Amorim, Leila D

    2008-01-01

    Background Many epidemiologic studies report the odds ratio as a measure of association for cross-sectional studies with common outcomes. In such cases, the prevalence ratios may not be inferred from the estimated odds ratios. This paper overviews the most commonly used procedures to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios and extends the discussion to the analysis of clustered cross-sectional studies. Methods Prevalence ratios(PR) were estimated using logistic models with random effects. Their 95% confidence intervals were obtained using delta method and clustered bootstrap. The performance of these approaches was evaluated through simulation studies. Using data from two studies with health-related outcomes in children, we discuss the interpretation of the measures of association and their implications. Results The results from data analysis highlighted major differences between estimated OR and PR. Results from simulation studies indicate an improved performance of delta method compared to bootstrap when there are small number of clusters. Conclusion We recommend the use of logistic model with random effects for analysis of clustered data. The choice of method to estimate confidence intervals for PR (delta or bootstrap method) should be based on study design. PMID:19087281

  5. Using inpatient data to estimate the prevalence of Wegener's granulomatosis in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Cui, Yazhou; Li, Yan; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Heng; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Summary China lacks a registry for most rare diseases, so specific epidemiological data on those diseases are lacking. A strategy involving the DISMOD II model was recently formulated to estimate the epidemiological parameters of rare diseases, and this strategy has been used to study several rare diseases. The current study used this strategy to estimate the prevalence of one such rare disease, Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), in China based on its incidence, mortality, and rate of remission according to the software tool DISMOD II. The incidence of WG was calculated based on inpatient data from 100 hospitals throughout China. The cause-specific mortality from WG was estimated based on data from the National Vital Statistics System of the United States and adjusted for the Chinese population. The rate of disease remission was based on the results of previous study. The current results indicated that the prevalence of WG in China is 1.94/100,000, which is slightly lower than that in Europe and the United States. The mean age at onset of WG in China was calculated to be 38.9 years for males and 39.3 years for females and the duration of disease was 28 years for both male and female patients. These figures are similar to published data from other countries. In conclusion, the DISMOD II model was used to estimate the prevalence of WG in China, providing a basis to evaluate the potential disease burden and orphan drug use by patients with WG. The DISMOD II model could be used to estimate the prevalence of other rare diseases. PMID:26989646

  6. Students' estimates of the prevalence of drug use: evidence for a false consensus effect.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, S

    2000-09-01

    False consensus, or the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share one's own attitudes and behaviors, was investigated in a study of 348 university students classified as non-drug users, cannabis-only users, or amphetamine + cannabis users. Participants estimated the prevalence of cannabis and amphetamine use among students. Cannabis and amphetamine users made significantly higher estimates of cannabis use among students than did nonusers, whereas amphetamine users gave significantly higher estimates of amphetamine use than nonusers and cannabis-only users. Correlations between estimates of use among friends and other students were significantly positive for both drugs. The results suggest that students are motivated to overestimate the commonality of their own position on drug use and that their estimates may also be influenced by selective exposure. PMID:10998955

  7. Reliability of Nationwide Prevalence Estimates of Dementia: A Critical Appraisal Based on Brazilian Surveys

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The nationwide dementia prevalence is usually calculated by applying the results of local surveys to countries’ populations. To evaluate the reliability of such estimations in developing countries, we chose Brazil as an example. We carried out a systematic review of dementia surveys, ascertained their risk of bias, and present the best estimate of occurrence of dementia in Brazil. Methods and Findings We carried out an electronic search of PubMed, Latin-American databases, and a Brazilian thesis database for surveys focusing on dementia prevalence in Brazil. The systematic review was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42014008815). Among the 35 studies found, 15 analyzed population-based random samples. However, most of them utilized inadequate criteria for diagnostics. Six studies without these limitations were further analyzed to assess the risk of selection, attrition, outcome and population bias as well as several statistical issues. All the studies presented moderate or high risk of bias in at least two domains due to the following features: high non-response, inaccurate cut-offs, and doubtful accuracy of the examiners. Two studies had limited external validity due to high rates of illiteracy or low income. The three studies with adequate generalizability and the lowest risk of bias presented a prevalence of dementia between 7.1% and 8.3% among subjects aged 65 years and older. However, after adjustment for accuracy of screening, the best available evidence points towards a figure between 15.2% and 16.3%. Conclusions The risk of bias may strongly limit the generalizability of dementia prevalence estimates in developing countries. Extrapolations that have already been made for Brazil and Latin America were based on a prevalence that should have been adjusted for screening accuracy or not used at all due to severe bias. Similar evaluations regarding other developing countries are needed in order to verify the scope of these limitations. PMID:26131563

  8. The impact of proposed changes to ICD-11 on estimates of PTSD prevalence and comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Wisco, Blair E; Miller, Mark W; Wolf, Erika J; Kilpatrick, Dean; Resnick, Heidi S; Badour, Christal L; Marx, Brian P; Keane, Terence M; Rosen, Raymond C; Friedman, Matthew J

    2016-06-30

    The World Health Organization's posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) work group has published a proposal for the forthcoming edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) that would yield a very different diagnosis relative to DSM-5. This study examined the impact of the proposed ICD-11 changes on PTSD prevalence relative to the ICD-10 and DSM-5 definitions and also evaluated the extent to which these changes would accomplish the stated aim of reducing the comorbidity associated with PTSD. Diagnostic prevalence estimates were compared using a U.S. national community sample and two U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs clinical samples. The ICD-11 definition yielded prevalence estimates 10-30% lower than DSM-5 and 25% and 50% lower than ICD-10 with no reduction in the prevalence of common comorbidities. Findings suggest that by constraining the diagnosis to a narrower set of symptoms, the proposed ICD-11 criteria set would substantially reduce the number of individuals with the disorder. These findings raise doubt about the extent to which the ICD-11 proposal would achieve the aim of reducing comorbidity associated with PTSD and highlight the public health and policy implications of such a redefinition. PMID:27124207

  9. Evaluation of geospatial methods to generate subnational HIV prevalence estimates for local level planning

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence of substantial subnational variation in the HIV epidemic. However, robust spatial HIV data are often only available at high levels of geographic aggregation and not at the finer resolution needed for decision making. Therefore, spatial analysis methods that leverage available data to provide local estimates of HIV prevalence may be useful. Such methods exist but have not been formally compared when applied to HIV. Design/methods: Six candidate methods – including those used by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS to generate maps and a Bayesian geostatistical approach applied to other diseases – were used to generate maps and subnational estimates of HIV prevalence across three countries using cluster level data from household surveys. Two approaches were used to assess the accuracy of predictions: internal validation, whereby a proportion of input data is held back (test dataset) to challenge predictions; and comparison with location-specific data from household surveys in earlier years. Results: Each of the methods can generate usefully accurate predictions of prevalence at unsampled locations, with the magnitude of the error in predictions similar across approaches. However, the Bayesian geostatistical approach consistently gave marginally the strongest statistical performance across countries and validation procedures. Conclusions: Available methods may be able to furnish estimates of HIV prevalence at finer spatial scales than the data currently allow. The subnational variation revealed can be integrated into planning to ensure responsiveness to the spatial features of the epidemic. The Bayesian geostatistical approach is a promising strategy for integrating HIV data to generate robust local estimates. PMID:26919737

  10. Estimated trends in the prevalence of heroin addiction in Switzerland. A multiple-indicator approach.

    PubMed

    Maag, Verena

    2003-10-01

    Data on the prevalence of heroin addiction have considerable relevance in the field of public health as a means of evaluating measures aimed at improving the lives of the individuals concerned. The number of heroin addicts in Switzerland was estimated by six different methods based on various data sources. This resulted in an overall estimate for the reference year 1997 ranging from a minimum of 24,000 to a maximum of 35,000 heroin addicts. In the 1990s, the trend in the prevalence of heroin addiction was characterised by a rapid rise up to 1993/94 followed by a gradual decline. The increasing medicalisation (focus on treatment rather than on punishment) of Switzerland's heroin problem has therefore not translated into a clear downward trend in the estimated prevalence of heroin addiction; however, the data for the various sub-groups lend plausibility to the assumption that this population is more integrated, less conspicuous and receiving better medical care. PMID:12970586

  11. Estimating the prevalence of obstetric fistula: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstetric fistula is a severe condition which has devastating consequences for a woman’s life. The estimation of the burden of fistula at the population level has been impaired by the rarity of diagnosis and the lack of rigorous studies. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and incidence of fistula in low and middle income countries. Methods Six databases were searched, involving two separate searches: one on fistula specifically and one on broader maternal and reproductive morbidities. Studies including estimates of incidence and prevalence of fistula at the population level were included. We conducted meta-analyses of prevalence of fistula among women of reproductive age and the incidence of fistula among recently pregnant women. Results Nineteen studies were included in this review. The pooled prevalence in population-based studies was 0.29 (95% CI 0.00, 1.07) fistula per 1000 women of reproductive age in all regions. Separated by region we found 1.57 (95% CI 1.16, 2.06) in sub Saharan Africa and South Asia, 1.60 (95% CI 1.16, 2.10) per 1000 women of reproductive age in sub Saharan Africa and 1.20 (95% CI 0.10, 3.54) per 1000 in South Asia. The pooled incidence was 0.09 (95% CI 0.01, 0.25) per 1000 recently pregnant women. Conclusions Our study is the most comprehensive study of the burden of fistula to date. Our findings suggest that the prevalence of fistula is lower than previously reported. The low burden of fistula should not detract from their public health importance, however, given the preventability of the condition, and the devastating consequences of fistula. PMID:24373152

  12. Incidence and Estimated Prevalence of Endometriosis and Adenomyosis in Northeast Italy: A Data Linkage Study.

    PubMed

    Morassutto, Caterina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Ricci, Giuseppe; Barbone, Fabio; Ronfani, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Despite being quite frequent and having serious implications in terms of symptomatology and fertility, data on incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis following gold standard definitions are dramatically lacking. The average time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis in industrialized countries still ranges from five to ten years. Using the regional centralized data linkage system, we calculated incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in the female population of Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy, for the years 2011-2013. Cases were defined as new diagnoses from hospital discharge records, following procedures allowing direct visualization for endometriosis and hysterectomy for adenomyosis, with or without histological confirmation. Diagnoses were considered "new" after verifying women had not been diagnosed in the previous ten years. Incidence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in women aged 15-50 years is 0.14%. Prevalence, estimated from incidence, is 2.00%. Adenomyosis, representing 28% of all diagnoses, becomes increasingly prevalent after the age of 50 years. Our results shows how the study of both endometriosis and adenomyosis should not be limited to women of premenopausal age. Further efforts are needed to sensitize women and health professional, and to find new data linkage possibilities to identify undiagnosed cases. PMID:27101396

  13. Incidence and Estimated Prevalence of Endometriosis and Adenomyosis in Northeast Italy: A Data Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Giuseppe; Barbone, Fabio; Ronfani, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Despite being quite frequent and having serious implications in terms of symptomatology and fertility, data on incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis following gold standard definitions are dramatically lacking. The average time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis in industrialized countries still ranges from five to ten years. Using the regional centralized data linkage system, we calculated incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in the female population of Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy, for the years 2011–2013. Cases were defined as new diagnoses from hospital discharge records, following procedures allowing direct visualization for endometriosis and hysterectomy for adenomyosis, with or without histological confirmation. Diagnoses were considered “new” after verifying women had not been diagnosed in the previous ten years. Incidence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in women aged 15–50 years is 0.14%. Prevalence, estimated from incidence, is 2.00%. Adenomyosis, representing 28% of all diagnoses, becomes increasingly prevalent after the age of 50 years. Our results shows how the study of both endometriosis and adenomyosis should not be limited to women of premenopausal age. Further efforts are needed to sensitize women and health professional, and to find new data linkage possibilities to identify undiagnosed cases. PMID:27101396

  14. Estimating the Global Prevalence of Inadequate Zinc Intake from National Food Balance Sheets: Effects of Methodological Assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Wessells, K. Ryan; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in a population can be estimated by comparing the zinc content of the food supply with the population’s theoretical requirement for zinc. However, assumptions regarding the nutrient composition of foods, zinc requirements, and zinc absorption may affect prevalence estimates. These analyses were conducted to: (1) evaluate the effect of varying methodological assumptions on country-specific estimates of the prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and (2) generate a model considered to provide the best estimates. Methodology and Principal Findings National food balance data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Zinc and phytate contents of these foods were estimated from three nutrient composition databases. Zinc absorption was predicted using a mathematical model (Miller equation). Theoretical mean daily per capita physiological and dietary requirements for zinc were calculated using recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake varied between 12–66%, depending on which methodological assumptions were applied. However, country-specific rank order of the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was conserved across all models (r = 0.57–0.99, P<0.01). A “best-estimate” model, comprised of zinc and phytate data from a composite nutrient database and IZiNCG physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, estimated the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake to be 17.3%. Conclusions and Significance Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in this method, caution must be taken in the interpretation of the estimated prevalence figures. However, the results of all models indicate that inadequate zinc intake may be fairly common globally. Inferences regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health

  15. National Malaria Prevalence in Cambodia: Microscopy Versus Polymerase Chain Reaction Estimates.

    PubMed

    Lek, Dysoley; Popovici, Jean; Ariey, Frederic; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Meek, Sylvia; Bruce, Jan; Taylor, Walter R J; Socheat, Duong; Menard, Didier; Rogers, William O

    2016-09-01

    Accurate information regarding malaria prevalence at national level is required to design and assess malaria control/elimination efforts. Although many comparisons of microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have been conducted, there is little published literature covering such comparisons in southeast Asia especially at the national level. Both microscopic examination and PCR detection were performed on blood films and dried blood spots samples collected from 8,067 individuals enrolled in a nationwide, stratified, multistage, cluster sampling malaria prevalence survey conducted in Cambodia in 2007. The overall malaria prevalence and prevalence rates of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium malariae infections estimated by microscopy (N = 8,067) were 2.74% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.39-3.12%), 1.81% (95% CI: 1.53-2.13%), 1.14% (95% CI: 0.92-1.40%), and 0.01% (95% CI: 0.003-0.07%), respectively. The overall malaria prevalence based on PCR detection (N = 7,718) was almost 2.5-fold higher (6.31%, 95% CI: 5.76-6.89%, P < 0.00001). This difference was significantly more pronounced for P. falciparum (4.40%, 95% CI: 3.95-4.90%, P < 0.00001) compared with P. vivax (1.89%, 95% CI: 1.60-2.22%, P < 0.001) and P. malariae infections (0.22%, 95% CI: 0.13-0.35%, P < 0.0001). The significant proportion of microscopy-negative but PCR-positive individuals (289/7,491, 3.85%) suggest microscopic examination frequently underestimated malaria infections and that active case detection based on microscopy may miss a significant reservoir of infection, especially in low-transmission settings. PMID:27402511

  16. A likelihood estimation of HIV incidence incorporating information on past prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Gabaitiri, Lesego; Mwambi, Henry G.; Lagakos, Stephen W.; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The prevalence and incidence of an epidemic are basic characteristics that are essential for monitoring its impact, determining public health priorities, assessing the effect of interventions, and for planning purposes. A direct approach for estimating incidence is to undertake a longitudinal cohort study where a representative sample of disease free individuals are followed for a specified period of time and new cases of infection are observed and recorded. This approach is expensive, time consuming and prone to bias due to loss-to-follow-up. An alternative approach is to estimate incidence from cross sectional surveys using biomarkers to identify persons recently infected as in (Brookmeyer and Quinn, 1995; Janssen et al., 1998). This paper builds on the work of Janssen et al. (1998) and extends the theoretical framework proposed by Balasubramanian and Lagakos (2010) by incorporating information on past prevalence and deriving maximum likelihood estimators of incidence. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated through a simulation study, and its use is illustrated using data from the Botswana AIDS Impact (BAIS) III survey of 2008. PMID:25197147

  17. Prevalence Estimation and Validation of New Instruments in Psychiatric Research: An Application of Latent Class Analysis and Sensitivity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Brian Wells; Miller, William C.; Gaynes, Bradley N.

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence and validation studies rely on imperfect reference standard (RS) diagnostic instruments that can bias prevalence and test characteristic estimates. The authors illustrate 2 methods to account for RS misclassification. Latent class analysis (LCA) combines information from multiple imperfect measures of an unmeasurable latent condition to…

  18. Estimating the number of helminthic infections in the Republic of Cameroon from data on infection prevalence in schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, S.; Donnelly, C. A.; Guyatt, H. L.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of infection with helminths is markedly dependent on age, yet estimates of the total number of infections are typically based on data only from school-aged children. Such estimates, although useful for advocacy, provide inadequate information for planning control programmes and for quantifying the burden of disease. Using readily available data on the prevalence of infection in schoolchildren, the relation between the prevalence of infection in school-aged children and prevalence in the wider community can be adequately described using species-specific models. This paper explores the reliability of this approach to predict the prevalence infection in the community and provides a model for estimating the total number of people infected in the Republic of Cameroon. METHODS: Using data on the prevalence of helminthic infection in school-aged children in Cameroon, the prevalence of infection in pre-school children and adults was estimated from species-specific linear and logistic regression models developed previously. The model predictions were then used to estimate the number of people infected in each district in each age group in Cameroon. RESULTS: For Cameroon, if only the prevalence of infection in schoolchildren is used, the number of people infected with each helminthic species will be overestimated by up to 32% when compared with the estimates provided by the species-specific models. The calculation of confidence intervals supports the statistical reliability of the model since a narrow range of parameter estimates is evident. Furthermore, this work suggests that estimation of national prevalence of infection and the number infected will be enhanced if data are stratified by age; this model represents a useful planning tool for obtaining more accurate estimates. Estimates based on data aggregated from three geographical levels (district, regional, and national) show that summarizing prevalence data at the national level will result

  19. Estimates of the world-wide prevalence of cancer for 25 sites in the adult population.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Paola; Bray, Freddie; Parkin, D Maxwell

    2002-01-01

    In health services planning, in addition to the basic measures of disease occurrence incidence and mortality, other indexes expressing the demand of care are also required to develop strategies for service provision. One of these is prevalence of the disease, which measures the absolute number, and relative proportion in the population, of individuals affected by the disease and that require some form of medical attention. For most cancer sites, cases surviving 5 years from diagnosis experience thereafter the same survival as the general population, so most of the workload is therefore due to medical acts within these first 5 years. This article reports world-wide estimates of 1-, 2-3- and 4-5-year point prevalence in 1990 in the population aged 15 years or over, and hence describes the number of cancer cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 who were still alive at the end of 1990. These estimates of prevalence at 1, 2-3 and 4-5 years are applicable to the evaluation of initial treatment, clinical follow-up and point of cure, respectively, for the majority of cancers. We describe the computational procedure and data sources utilised to obtain these figures and compare them with data published by 2 cancer registries. The highest prevalence of cancer is in North America with 1.5% of the population affected and diagnosed in the previous 5 years (about 0.5% of the population in years 4-5 and 2-3 of follow-up and 0.4% within the first year of diagnosis). This corresponds to over 3.2 million individuals. Western Europe and Australia and New Zealand show very similar percentages with 1.2% and 1.1% of the population affected (about 3.9 and 0.2 million cases respectively). Japan and Eastern Europe form the next batch with 1.0% and 0.7%, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean (overall prevalence of 0.4%), and all remaining regions are around 0.2%. Cancer prevalence in developed countries is very similar in men and women, 1.1% of the sex-specific population, while in

  20. Estimating family planning coverage from contraceptive prevalence using national household surveys

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Boerma, Ties; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad R.; Restrepo-Méndez, María C.; Wong, Kerry L. M.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contraception is one of the most important health interventions currently available and yet, many women and couples still do not have reliable access to modern contraceptives. The best indicator for monitoring family planning is the proportion of women using contraception among those who need it. This indicator is frequently called demand for family planning satisfied and we argue that it should be called family planning coverage (FPC). This indicator is complex to calculate and requires a considerable number of questions to be included in a household survey. Objectives We propose a model that can predict FPC from a much simpler indicator – contraceptive use prevalence – for situations where it cannot be derived directly. Design Using 197 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys from 82 countries, we explored least-squares regression models that could be used to predict FPC. Non-linearity was expected in this situation and we used a fractional polynomial approach to find the best fitting model. We also explored the effect of calendar time and of wealth on the models explored. Results Given the high correlation between the variables involved in FPC, we managed to derive a relatively simple model that depends only on contraceptive use prevalence but explains 95% of the variability of the outcome, with high precision for the estimated regression line. We also show that the relationship between the two variables has not changed with time. A concordance analysis showed agreement between observed and fitted results within a range of ±9 percentage points. Conclusions We show that it is possible to obtain fairly good estimates of FPC using only contraceptive prevalence as a predictor, a strategy that is useful in situations where it is not possible to estimate FPC directly. PMID:26562141

  1. National HIV prevalence estimates for sub-Saharan Africa: controlling selection bias with Heckman-type selection models

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Daniel R; Salomon, Joshua A; Canning, David; Hammitt, James K; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Bärnighausen, Till

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Population-based HIV testing surveys have become central to deriving estimates of national HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. However, limited participation in these surveys can lead to selection bias. We control for selection bias in national HIV prevalence estimates using a novel approach, which unlike conventional imputation can account for selection on unobserved factors. Methods For 12 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted from 2001 to 2009 (N=138 300), we predict HIV status among those missing a valid HIV test with Heckman-type selection models, which allow for correlation between infection status and participation in survey HIV testing. We compare these estimates with conventional ones and introduce a simulation procedure that incorporates regression model parameter uncertainty into confidence intervals. Results Selection model point estimates of national HIV prevalence were greater than unadjusted estimates for 10 of 12 surveys for men and 11 of 12 surveys for women, and were also greater than the majority of estimates obtained from conventional imputation, with significantly higher HIV prevalence estimates for men in Cote d'Ivoire 2005, Mali 2006 and Zambia 2007. Accounting for selective non-participation yielded 95% confidence intervals around HIV prevalence estimates that are wider than those obtained with conventional imputation by an average factor of 4.5. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that national HIV prevalence estimates for many countries in sub-Saharan African are more uncertain than previously thought, and may be underestimated in several cases, underscoring the need for increasing participation in HIV surveys. Heckman-type selection models should be included in the set of tools used for routine estimation of HIV prevalence. PMID:23172342

  2. Population-level prevalence estimate and characteristics of psychiatric disability among Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Chen, Gong; Du, Wei; Song, Xinming; Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2011-11-01

    Psychiatric disability is a population health problem, and understanding its magnitude is essential to informing population health policies. This paper aims to describe the prevalence rates, causes, and severity of psychiatric disability in Chinese adults, and to explore daily activities and social functions for people with psychiatric disability. We used the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, comprising 2,526,145 persons from 771,797 households. Identification and classification for psychiatric disability was based on consensus manuals. We used standard weighting procedures to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Population weighted prevalence and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were evaluated. An estimate of 8 million adults with psychiatric disability was identified. The weighted prevalence rate of psychiatric disability was 8.14 per 1000 people (95% CI, 7.95-8.33). More rural residents suffered from psychiatric disability than their urban counterparts, and more females had psychiatric disability than males. Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders accounted for more than half of the psychiatric disability in Chinese adults. People with psychiatric disability had more severe difficulties in most daily activities and social functions than in people with other disabilities. This study demonstrates psychiatric disability causes social burden to the Chinese communities. Strategies including case identification, treatment, and rehabilitation should be developed and countermeasures are warranted for females and rural residents to reduce the burden caused by psychiatric disability. PMID:21794875

  3. [Estimates and trends of obesity prevalence through mortality rates associated of chronic diseases in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Villa, Antonio R; Escobedo, Michelle H; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2004-01-01

    The pandemy of obesity is affecting more than 300 millions of adults in the world. The trend is increasing. Diabetes, coronary hearth disease, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and dyslipidemia are chronic diseases associated with obesity. The methodology of this paper is proposed as an alternative resource based in mortality data to quantify the magnitude of chronic diseases in developing countries. Deaths for Mexico registered in 2000, according to selected causes, were taken to derive indirectly the prevalence of obesity in years 2000, 2005, and 2010, both males and females > or = 35 years-old. In 2010, an estimation of 8 million of Mexican with obesity is made. This methodology is referred to be probed in the quantification and projection of chronic diseases. According with our estimation, we hope in Mexico at 2010 to have between 8 and 14 millions of people > or = 35 years-old with obesity. PMID:15641468

  4. Estimated BVDV-prevalence, -contact and -vaccine use in dairy herds in Northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Niza-Ribeiro, J; Pereira, Adelaide; Souza, João; Madeira, Helena; Barbosa, Abigaíl; Afonso, Carla

    2005-11-15

    A study to evaluate BVDV-prevalence, recent -contact and -vaccine use in dairy herds in the "Entre Douro e Minho" (EDM) region in North Portugal was carried out in 124 dairy herds in 2003. Herds were visited to ascertain BVDV-vaccine use and to collect a bulk tank milk (BTM) sample and serum from 1268 cattle to analyse BVDV-antibodies using an NS2-3 ELISA. Fifty-three percent of farmers used inactivated BVDV-vaccines whilst the remaining farmers were not presently using BVDV-vaccines. BMT-antibody results included 35% positives, 25% negative and 39% inconclusive, and were similar in vaccinated and non-vaccinated herds (p>0.05) and allowed estimating a 10% BVDV herd-prevalence from prior knowledge of the relationship between BMT-antibody results and probability of PI cattle in the herd. Overall individual seroprevalence was 27% and was 23% in non-vaccinated and 36% in vaccinated cattle (p<0.05). Contact of the herd with BVDV was assessed according to seroprevalence in young and adult cattle in the herd and it was estimated that 35% of herds were infected or had recent contact with BVDV, 40% were not infected and did not have recent contact with BVDV and the BVDV-infection and -contact status of remaining herds was undetermined. The results from this study indicate BVDV is endemic and BVDV-vaccines are widespread in the dairy-cattle population in EDM region in Portugal. PMID:16216353

  5. The 2005 Workbook: an improved tool for estimating HIV prevalence in countries with low level and concentrated epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Lyerla, R; Gouws, E; García‐Calleja, J M; Zaniewski, E

    2006-01-01

    Objective This paper describes improvements and updates to an established approach to making epidemiological estimates of HIV prevalence in countries with low level and concentrated epidemics. Methods The structure of the software used to make estimates is briefly described, with particular attention to changes and improvements. Discussion The approach focuses on identifying populations which, through their behaviour, are at high risk of infection with HIV or who are exposed through the risk behaviour of their sexual partners. Estimates of size and HIV prevalence of these populations allow the total number of HIV infected people in a country or region to be estimated. Major changes in the software focus on the move away from short term projections and towards developing an epidemiological curve that more accurately represents the change in prevalence of HIV over time. The software continues to provide an output file for use in the Spectrum software so as to estimate the demographic impact of HIV infection at country level. PMID:16735292

  6. Wide variation in estimates of global prevalence and burden of chronic hepatitis B and C infection cited in published literature.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, S K; Easterbrook, P J

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the extent of heterogeneity in global estimates of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) cited in the published literature, we undertook a systematic review of the published literature. We identified articles from 2010 to 2014 that had cited global estimates for at least one of ten indicators [prevalence and numbers infected with HBV, HCV, HIV-HBV or HIV-HCV co-infection, and mortality (number of deaths annually) for HBV and HCV]. Overall, 488 articles were retrieved: 239 articles cited a HBV-related global estimate [prevalence (n = 12), number infected (n = 193) and number of annual deaths (n = 82)]; 280 articles had HCV-related global estimates [prevalence (n = 86), number infected (n = 203) and number of annual deaths (n = 31)]; 31 had estimates on both HBV and HCV; 54 had HIV-HBV co-infection estimates [prevalence (n = 42) and number co-infected (n = 12)]; and 68 had estimates for HIV-HCV co-infection [prevalence (n = 40) and number co-infected (n = 28)]. There was considerable heterogeneity in the estimates cited and also a lack of consistency in the terminology used. Although 40% of 488 articles cited WHO as the source of the estimate, many of these were from outdated or secondary sources. Our findings highlight the importance of clear and consistent communication from WHO and other global health agencies on current consensus estimates of hepatitis B and C burden and prevalence, the need for standardisation in their citation, and for regular updates. PMID:27028545

  7. Comparison of Prevalence- and Smoking Impact Ratio-Based Methods of Estimating Smoking-Attributable Fractions of Deaths

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Kyoung Ae; Jung-Choi, Kyung-Hee; Lim, Dohee; Lee, Hye Ah; Lee, Won Kyung; Baik, Sun Jung; Park, Su Hyun; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for premature mortality. Estimating the smoking-attributable burden is important for public health policy. Typically, prevalence- or smoking impact ratio (SIR)-based methods are used to derive estimates, but there is controversy over which method is more appropriate for country-specific estimates. We compared smoking-attributable fractions (SAFs) of deaths estimated by these two methods. Methods To estimate SAFs in 2012, we used several different prevalence-based approaches using no lag and 10- and 20-year lags. For the SIR-based method, we obtained lung cancer mortality rates from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS) and from the United States-based Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II). The relative risks for the diseases associated with smoking were also obtained from these cohort studies. Results For males, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were similar to those obtained using prevalence-based methods. For females, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were markedly greater than all prevalence-based SAFs. Differences in prevalence-based SAFs by time-lag period were minimal among males, but SAFs obtained using longer-lagged prevalence periods were significantly larger among females. SAFs obtained using CPS-II-based SIRs were lower than KCPS-based SAFs by >15 percentage points for most diseases, with the exceptions of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions SAFs obtained using prevalence- and SIR-based methods were similar for males. However, neither prevalence-based nor SIR-based methods resulted in precise SAFs among females. The characteristics of the study population should be carefully considered when choosing a method to estimate SAF. PMID:26477995

  8. An estimate of hernia prevalence in Nepal from a countrywide community survey

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay; Pathak, John; Gupta, Shailvi; Shrestha, Sunil; Groen, Reinou S.; Nwomeh, Benedict C.; Kushner, Adam L; McIntyre, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Herniorrhaphy is one of the most frequently performed general surgical operations worldwide. However, most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are unable to provide this essential surgery to the general public, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, barriers to care and disability of untreated hernias in Nepal. Methods Nepal is a low-income country in South Asia with rugged terrain, infrastructure deficiencies and a severely under-resourced healthcare system resulting in substantial unmet surgical need. A cluster randomized, cross-sectional household survey was performed using the validated Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical (SOSAS) tool. Fifteen randomized clusters consisting of 30 households with two randomly selected respondents each were sampled to estimate surgical need. The prevalence of and disability from groin hernias and barriers to herniorrhaphy were assessed. Results The survey sampled 1,350 households, totaling 2,695 individuals (97% response rate). There were 1,434 males (53%) with 1.5% having a mass or swelling in the groin at time of survey (95% CI 0.8 – 3.0). The age-standardized rate for inguinal hernias in men ranged from 1,144 per 100,000 persons between age 5 and 49 years and 2,941 per 100,000 persons age ≥50 years. Extrapolating nationally, there are nearly 310,000 individuals with groin masses and 66,000 males with soft/reducible groin masses in need of evaluation in Nepal. Twenty-nine respondents were not able to have surgery due to lack of surgical services (31%), fear or mistrust of the surgical system (31%) and inability to afford care (21%). Twenty percent were unable to work as previous or perform self-care due to their hernia. Conclusions Despite the lower than expected prevalence of inguinal hernias, hundreds of thousands of people in Nepal are currently in need of surgical evaluation. Given that essential surgery is a necessary component in health

  9. Adjusting HIV prevalence estimates for non-participation: an application to demographic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Mark E.; Marra, Giampiero; Radice, Rosalba; Canning, David; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV testing is a cornerstone of efforts to combat the HIV epidemic, and testing conducted as part of surveillance provides invaluable data on the spread of infection and the effectiveness of campaigns to reduce the transmission of HIV. However, participation in HIV testing can be low, and if respondents systematically select not to be tested because they know or suspect they are HIV positive (and fear disclosure), standard approaches to deal with missing data will fail to remove selection bias. We implemented Heckman-type selection models, which can be used to adjust for missing data that are not missing at random, and established the extent of selection bias in a population-based HIV survey in an HIV hyperendemic community in rural South Africa. Methods We used data from a population-based HIV survey carried out in 2009 in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In this survey, 5565 women (35%) and 2567 men (27%) provided blood for an HIV test. We accounted for missing data using interviewer identity as a selection variable which predicted consent to HIV testing but was unlikely to be independently associated with HIV status. Our approach involved using this selection variable to examine the HIV status of residents who would ordinarily refuse to test, except that they were allocated a persuasive interviewer. Our copula model allows for flexibility when modelling the dependence structure between HIV survey participation and HIV status. Results For women, our selection model generated an HIV prevalence estimate of 33% (95% CI 27–40) for all people eligible to consent to HIV testing in the survey. This estimate is higher than the estimate of 24% generated when only information from respondents who participated in testing is used in the analysis, and the estimate of 27% when imputation analysis is used to predict missing data on HIV status. For men, we found an HIV prevalence of 25% (95% CI 15–35) using the selection model, compared to 16% among those who

  10. Estimating Prevalence of Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents in Small Geographic Areas Using Publicly Available Data

    PubMed Central

    Davila-Payan, Carlo; DeGuzman, Michael; Johnson, Kevin; Serban, Nicoleta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interventions for pediatric obesity can be geographically targeted if high-risk populations can be identified. We developed an approach to estimate the percentage of overweight or obese children aged 2 to 17 years in small geographic areas using publicly available data. We piloted our approach for Georgia. Methods We created a logistic regression model to estimate the individual probability of high body mass index (BMI), given data on the characteristics of the survey participants. We combined the regression model with a simulation to sample subpopulations and obtain prevalence estimates. The models used information from the 2001–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the 2010 Census, and the 2010 American Community Survey. We validated our results by comparing 1) estimates for adults in Georgia produced by using our approach with estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 2) estimates for children in Arkansas produced by using our approach with school examination data. We generated prevalence estimates for census tracts in Georgia and prioritized areas for interventions. Results In DeKalb County, the mean prevalence among census tracts varied from 27% to 40%. For adults, the median difference between our estimates and CDC estimates was 1.3 percentage points; for Arkansas children, the median difference between our estimates and examination-based estimates data was 1.7 percentage points. Conclusion Prevalence estimates for census tracts can be different from estimates for the county, so small-area estimates are crucial for designing effective interventions. Our approach validates well against external data, and it can be a relevant aid for planning local interventions for children. PMID:25764138

  11. An estimate of hernia prevalence in Sierra Leone from a nationwide community survey

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hiten D; Groen, Reinou S; Kamara, Thaim B; Samai, Mohamed; Farahzad, Mina M; Cassidy, Laura D; Kushner, Adam L; Wren, Sherry M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A large number of unrepaired inguinal hernias is expected in sub-Saharan Africa where late presentation often results in incarceration, strangulation, or giant scrotal hernias. However, no representative population-based data is available to quantify the prevalence of hernias. We present data on groin masses in Sierra Leone to estimate prevalence, barriers to care, and associated disability. Methods A cluster randomized, cross-sectional household survey of 75 clusters of 25 households with 2 respondents each was designed to calculate the prevalence of and disability caused by groin hernias in Sierra Leone using a verbal head-to-toe examination. Barriers to hernia repairs were assessed by asking participants the main reason for delay in surgical care. Results Information was obtained from 3645 respondents in 1843 households, of which 1669 (46%) were male and included in the study. In total, 117 males or 7.01% (95% CI 5.64-8.38) reported a soft or reducible swelling likely representing a hernia with four men having two masses. Of the 93.2% who indicated the need for health care, only 22.2% underwent a procedure, citing limited funds (59.0%) as the major barrier to care. On disability assessment, 20.2% were not able to work secondary to the groin swelling. Conclusions The results indicate groin masses represent a major burden for the male population in Sierra Leone. Improving access to surgical care for adult patients with hernias and early intervention for children will be vital to address the burden of disease and prevent complications or limitations of daily activity. PMID:24241327

  12. Problematic video game use: estimated prevalence and associations with mental and physical health.

    PubMed

    Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Molde, Helge; Myrseth, Helga; Skouverøe, Knut Joachim Mår; Hetland, Jørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2011-10-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of video game addiction and problematic video game use and their association with physical and mental health. An initial sample comprising 2,500 individuals was randomly selected from the Norwegian National Registry. A total of 816 (34.0 percent) individuals completed and returned the questionnaire. The majority (56.3 percent) of respondents used video games on a regular basis. The prevalence of video game addiction was estimated to be 0.6 percent, with problematic use of video games reported by 4.1 percent of the sample. Gender (male) and age group (young) were strong predictors for problematic use of video games. A higher proportion of high frequency compared with low frequency players preferred massively multiplayer online role-playing games, although the majority of high frequency players preferred other game types. Problematic use of video games was associated with lower scores on life satisfaction and with elevated levels of anxiety and depression. Video game use was not associated with reported amount of physical exercise. PMID:21342010

  13. Mobile teledermatology is a valid method to estimate prevalence of melanocytic naevi in children.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Maria A; Lindelöf, Bernt; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Wiklund, Kerstin; Rodvall, Ylva

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of melanocytic naevi in children correlates with sun exposure and may serve as an objective population risk indicator of future melanoma incidence. The aim was to investigate if mobile teledermatology could offer a valid methodology compared with standard manual, face-to-face counting of naevi on the back of children. Ninety-seven children aged 7-16 years were enrolled. One dermatologist performed manual naevi counting and imaging of the child's back using an iPhone 4S comprising a safe-coded mobile application. Two other dermatologists independently counted naevi from the images. Cohen's weighted kappa (κw) coefficient demonstrated substantial agreement for both dermatologists: κw = 0.69 (0.57-0.81 [95% confidence intervals]) and κw = 0.78 (0.70-0.86), compared with the manual assessment. Inter-rater reliability was also substantial (κw = 0.80 [0.73-0.87]). Use of mobile teledermatology proved valid for estimating naevi prevalence on the back and could provide a more feasible methodology following trends in sun exposure in children. PMID:25138480

  14. Systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the birth prevalence of five inherited metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Moorthie, Sowmiya; Cameron, Louise; Sagoo, Gurdeep S; Bonham, Jim R; Burton, Hilary

    2014-11-01

    Many newborn screening programmes now use tandem mass spectrometry in order to screen for a variety of diseases. However, countries have embraced this technology with a differing pace of change and for different conditions. This has been facilitated by the ability of this diagnostic method to limit analysis to specific metabolites of interest, enabling targeted screening for particular conditions. MS/MS was introduced in 2009 in England to implement newborn bloodspot screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) raising the possibility of screening for other inherited metabolic disorders. Recently, a pilot screening programme was conducted in order to evaluate the health and economic consequences of screening for five additional inherited metabolic disorders in England. As part of this study we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the birth prevalence of these conditions: maple syrup urine disease, homocystinuria (pyridoxine unresponsive), glutaric aciduria type I, isovaleric acidaemia and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency including trifunctional protein deficiency. We identified a total of 99 studies that were able to provide information on the prevalence of one or more of the disorders. The vast majority of studies were of screening programmes with some reporting on clinically detected cases. PMID:25022222

  15. [Estimation of the prevalence of bovine hydatid cyst in the south Pyrenees].

    PubMed

    Bichet, H; Dorchies, P

    1998-03-01

    Since 1994 "Réseau VEGA" (veterinary survey network) has organized a record of sanitary information in 14 slaughterhouses in the Midi-Pyrénées. Data about hydatidosis in cattle are centralized, analysed, then sent namely to each stockbreeder concerned. Estimation of the prevalence rate from 1994 to 1996 is 0.28% for animals and 2.5% for livestock. A marked decrease of rates was noticed during this three year monitoring period. Nevertheless, the Pyrenean area remains more affected than the North of the region. In an outbreak of hydatidosis, a few animals are carriers. Bovine infestation must be considered as revealing a rural cycle. Moreover, the link between bovine hydatidosis and ovine transhumance seems to be confirmed. Using livestock as epidemiological units is innovative in terms of hydatidosis. This approach allows a better adjustment of parasitism control and introduces the notions of the outbreak and the risk of human contamination. In the Midi-Pyrénées region, local human cases of hydatidosis are few. However, the absence of compulsory notification and of databases, on the one hand, and the extreme difficulty of confirming the autochthonous nature of the contamination, on the other hand, limit the reliability of data. A better collaboration between physicians and veterinarians would reduce animal prevalence and the risk of human contamination. PMID:9754298

  16. Estimation of the prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Meza, Benjamin P.L.; Lohrke, Britta; Wilkinson, Robert; Pitman, John P.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Bock, Naomi; Lowrance, David W.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute transfusion reactions are probably common in sub-Saharan Africa, but transfusion reaction surveillance systems have not been widely established. In 2008, the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia implemented a national acute transfusion reaction surveillance system, but substantial under-reporting was suspected. We estimated the actual prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia. Methods The percentage of transfusion events resulting in a reported acute transfusion reaction was calculated. Actual percentage and rates of acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units were estimated by reviewing patients’ records from six hospitals, which transfuse >99% of all blood in Windhoek. Patients’ records for 1,162 transfusion events occurring between 1st January – 31st December 2011 were randomly selected. Clinical and demographic information were abstracted and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network criteria were applied to categorize acute transfusion reactions1. Results From January 1 – December 31, 2011, there were 3,697 transfusion events (involving 10,338 blood units) in the selected hospitals. Eight (0.2%) acute transfusion reactions were reported to the surveillance system. Of the 1,162 transfusion events selected, medical records for 785 transfusion events were analysed, and 28 acute transfusion reactions were detected, of which only one had also been reported to the surveillance system. An estimated 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3–4.4) of transfusion events in Windhoek resulted in an acute transfusion reaction, with an estimated rate of 11.5 (95% CI: 7.6–14.5) acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units. Conclusion The estimated actual rate of acute transfusion reactions is higher than the rate reported to the national haemovigilance system. Improved surveillance and interventions to reduce transfusion-related morbidity and mortality

  17. Estimating the prevalence of multiple diseases from two-stage hierarchical pooling.

    PubMed

    Warasi, Md S; Tebbs, Joshua M; McMahan, Christopher S; Bilder, Christopher R

    2016-09-20

    Testing protocols in large-scale sexually transmitted disease screening applications often involve pooling biospecimens (e.g., blood, urine, and swabs) to lower costs and to increase the number of individuals who can be tested. With the recent development of assays that detect multiple diseases, it is now common to test biospecimen pools for multiple infections simultaneously. Recent work has developed an expectation-maximization algorithm to estimate the prevalence of two infections using a two-stage, Dorfman-type testing algorithm motivated by current screening practices for chlamydia and gonorrhea in the USA. In this article, we have the same goal but instead take a more flexible Bayesian approach. Doing so allows us to incorporate information about assay uncertainty during the testing process, which involves testing both pools and individuals, and also to update information as individuals are tested. Overall, our approach provides reliable inference for disease probabilities and accurately estimates assay sensitivity and specificity even when little or no information is provided in the prior distributions. We illustrate the performance of our estimation methods using simulation and by applying them to chlamydia and gonorrhea data collected in Nebraska. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27090057

  18. [Prevalence of neural tube defects and estimation of cases averted in the post-fortification period in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Bidondo, María P; Liascovich, Rosa; Barbero, Pablo; Groisman, Boris

    2015-12-01

    Periconceptional intake of folic acid has demonstrated to be effective to reduce the frequency of neural tube defects, and food fortification has been one of the strategies implemented to increase it. An update is herein presented on the reduced prevalence of neural tube defect cases in the post-fortification period in Argentina and an estimation of cases averted in the 2005-2013 period as a result of this intervention. When comparing the prevalence observed in the post-fortification period to that reported in the pre-fortification period, anencephaly and encephalocele decreased by 66%, and spina bifida, by 47%, which were significant reductions. The estimated number of cases averted was higher for anencephaly, followed by spina bifida; encephalocele showed the lowest number of cases averted given that the prevalence of this defect was smaller. The decrease observed in the prevalence supports findings from previous studies on the impact of fortification. PMID:26593794

  19. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell’Omo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. Data and Methods: The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996–2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices’ smoking behavior. Results: It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: −1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and −3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma. PMID:26287220

  20. Estimates of Prevalence and Risk Associated with Inattention and Distraction Based Upon In Situ Naturalistic Data

    PubMed Central

    Dingus, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    By using in situ naturalistic driving data, estimates of prevalence and risk can be made regarding driver populations’ secondary task distractions and crash rates. Through metadata analysis, three populations of drivers (i.e., adult light vehicle, teenaged light vehicle, and adult heavy vehicle) were compared regarding frequency of secondary task behavior and the associated risk for safety-critical incidents. Relative risk estimates provide insight into the risk associated with engaging in a single task. When such risk is considered in combination with frequency of use, it sheds additional light on those secondary tasks that create the greatest overall risk to driving safety. The results show that secondary tasks involving manual typing, texting, dialing, reaching for an object, or reading are dangerous for all three populations. Additionally, novice teen drivers have difficulty in several tasks that the other two populations do not, including eating and external distractions. Truck drivers also perform a number of risky “mobile office” types of tasks, including writing, not seen in the other populations. Implications are described for policy makers and designers of in-vehicle and nomadic, portable systems. PMID:24776227

  1. Using dietary reference intake-based methods to estimate prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among female students in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Juliana Masami; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate usual nutrient intake among female university students. This was a cross-sectional study in which 119 students at a public university in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, completed 3-day estimated food records. These were analyzed for nutrient content, and intake distributions were determined. Nutrient intake distributions were estimated using the National Research Council method. For nutrients for which an Estimated Average Requirement has been established, the Estimated Average Requirement cutpoint method was used to determine the proportion of students with inadequate intake. The students' food records indicated inadequate intakes of folate (99%), zinc (47%), and copper (33%). For approximately 95% of the students in this study, calcium was less than the Adequate Intake. The results showed the need for improvement in dietary choices to minimize the prevalence of inadequate intake of folate, zinc, copper, and calcium in this group. PMID:16647333

  2. National population based HIV prevalence surveys in sub‐Saharan Africa: results and implications for HIV and AIDS estimates

    PubMed Central

    García‐Calleja, J M; Gouws, E; Ghys, P D

    2006-01-01

    Background Sentinel surveillance among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) has been the main source of information on HIV trends in sub‐Saharan Africa. These data have also been used to generate national HIV and AIDS estimates. New technologies and resources have allowed many countries to conduct national population based surveys that include HIV prevalence measurement, as an additional source of information on the AIDS epidemic. Methods The authors reviewed the reports of 20 national population based surveys from 19 countries carried out in sub‐Saharan Africa since 2001. They examined the sampling methodology, HIV testing and response rates, and female:male and urban:rural prevalence ratios. They also constructed adjusted prevalence scenarios assuming different relative risks for survey non‐responders. Results The national population based surveys vary considerably in quality, as reflected in the household response rate (ranging from 75.4% to 99.7%), women's testing rate (ranging from 68.2% to 97.3%), and men's testing rate (ranging from 62.2% to 95.4%), while for some surveys detailed response information is lacking. While 95% confidence intervals around the female:male and urban:rural prevalence ratios in individual countries are large, the median female:male ratio of the combined set of surveys results is 1.5 and the median urban:rural ratio 1.7. A scenario assuming that non‐responders have twice the HIV prevalence of those who fully participated in the survey suggests that individual non‐response could result in an adjusted HIV prevalence 1.03 to 1.34 times higher than the observed prevalence. Conclusions Population based surveys can provide useful information on HIV prevalence levels and distribution. This information is being used to improve national HIV and AIDS estimates. Further refinements in data collection, analysis, and reporting, combined with high participation rates, can further improve HIV and AIDS estimates at national and

  3. Latent class regression models for simultaneously estimating test accuracy, true prevalence and risk factors for Brucella abortus.

    PubMed

    Campe, A; Abernethy, D; Menzies, F; Greiner, M

    2016-07-01

    In 2003/2004 a field trial was conducted in Northern Ireland to assess the diagnostic accuracy of six serological tests for bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus. Whereas between-test comparisons have been used to calculate test performances so far, the present study used a latent class approach to estimate diagnostic test accuracy parameters in the absence of a gold standard for these six tests simultaneously and to estimate the true prevalence, while accounting for clustering in the study population and risk factors for true prevalence. Results obtained in this study with regard to prevalence, sensitivity and specificity were largely in accordance with previous findings. Screening tests (SAT and EDTA) appeared to be the most sensitive; however, at low prevalences the EDTA and CFT showed the highest positive predictive values of all investigated tests. The specificities and negative predictive values of all diagnostic tests were found to be very high. Differences of prevalence between three groups of the study population with different risk of exposure could be attributed to the mode of sampling indicating that a more risk-based sampling will result in a higher prevalence than a cross-sectional sampling mode. Age, dairy status and history of abortion were shown to influence the prediction of the latent true infection status. PMID:27245291

  4. Applying a correction procedure to the prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity in the German part of the HBSC study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevalence rates for overweight and obesity based on self-reported height and weight are underestimated, whereas the prevalence rate for underweight is slightly overestimated. Therefore a correction is needed. Aim of this study is to apply correction procedures to the prevalence rates developed on basis of (self-reported and measured) data from the representative German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) to (self-reported) data from the German Health Behaviour in School Aged Children (HBSC) study to determine whether correction leads to higher prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity as well as lower prevalence rates for underweight. Methods BMI classifications based on self-reported and measured height and weight from a subsample of the KiGGS study (2,565 adolescents aged 11–15) were used to estimate two different correction formulas. The first and the second correction function are described. Furthermore, the both formulas were applied to the prevalence rates from the HBSC study (7,274 adolescents aged 11–15) which are based on self-reports collected via self-administered questionnaires. Results After applying the first correction function to self-reported data of the HBSC study, the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity increased from 5.5% to 7.8% (compared to 10.4% in the KiGGS study) and 2.7% to 3.8% (compared to 7.8% in the KiGGS study), respectively, whereas the corrected prevalence rates of underweight and severe underweight decreased from 8.0% to 6.7% (compared to 5.7% in the KiGGS study) and from 5.5% to 3.3% (compared to 2.4% in the KiGGS study), respectively. Application of the second correction function, which additionally considers body image, led to further slight corrections with an increase of the prevalence rates for overweight to 7.9% and for obese to 3.9%. Conclusion Subjective BMI can be used to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and

  5. Equipment Errors: A Prevalent Cause for Fallacy in Blood Pressure Recording - A Point Prevalence Estimate from an Indian Health University

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Badrinarayan; Sinha, Nidhi Dinesh; Gidwani, Hitesh; Shukla, Sushil Kumar; Kawatra, Abhishek; Mehta, SC

    2013-01-01

    Background: Blood pressure (BP) recording is the most commonly measured clinical parameter. Standing mercury sphygmomanometer is the most widely used equipment to record this. However, recording by sphygmomanometer is subject to observer and instrumental error. The different sources of equipment error are faulty manometer tube calibration, baseline deviations and improper arm bladder cuff dimensions. This is further compounded by a high prevalence of arm bladder miss-cuffing in the target population. Objectives: The study was designed to assess the presence of equipment malcalibrations, cuff miss-matching and their effect on BP recording. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional check of all operational sphygmomanometers in a health university was carried out for the length of the manometer tube, deviation of resting mercury column from “0” level, the width and length of arm bladder cuff and extent of bladder cuff-mismatch with respect to outpatient attending population. Results: From the total of 50 apparatus selected, 39 (78%) were from hospital setups and 11 (22%) from pre-clinical departments. A manometer height deficit of 13 mm was recorded in 36 (92.23%) of the equipment in hospital and 11 (100%) from pre-clinical departments. Instruments from both settings showed significant deviation from recommended dimensions in cuff bladder length, width and length to width ratio (P < 0.001). Significant number of apparatus from hospital setups showed presence of mercury manometer baseline deviation either below or above 0 mmHg at the resting state (χ2 = 5.61, D. F. = 1, P = 0.02). Positive corelationship was observed between manometer height deficit, baseline deviation and width of arm cuff bladder (Pearson correlation, P < 0.05). Bladder cuff mismatching in response to the target population was found at 48.52% for males and 36.76% for females. The cumulative effect of these factors can lead to an error in the range of 10-12 mmHg. Conclusion: Faulty equipments and

  6. SAME-GENDER SEX IN THE UNITED STATES IMPACT OF T-ACASI ON PREVALENCE ESTIMATES

    PubMed Central

    VILLARROEL, MARIA A.; TURNER, CHARLES F.; EGGLESTON, ELIZABETH; AL-TAYYIB, ALIA; ROGERS, SUSAN M.; ROMAN, ANTHONY M.; COOLEY, PHILIP C.; GORDEK, HARPER

    2011-01-01

    Well-conducted telephone surveys provide an economical means of estimating the prevalence of sexual and reproductive behaviors in a population. There is, however, a nontrivial potential for bias since respondents must report sensitive information to a human interviewer. The National STD and Behavior Measurement Experiment (NSBME) evaluates a new survey technology—telephone audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (T-ACASI)—that eliminates this requirement. The NSBME embedded a randomized experiment in a survey of probability samples of 1,543 U.S. and 744 Baltimore adults ages 18 to 45. Compared with NSBME respondents interviewed by human interviewers, respondents interviewed by T-ACASI were 1.5 to 1.6 times more likely to report same-gender sexual attraction, experience, and genital contact. The impact of T-ACASI was more pronounced (odds ratio = 2.5) for residents of locales that have historically been less tolerant of same-gender sexual behaviors and for respondents in households with children (odds ratio = 3.0). PMID:21998488

  7. Estimating the Prevalence of Anxiety and Mood Disorders in an Adolescent General Population: An Evaluation of the GHQ12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Robert E.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Adlaf, Edward M.; Beitchman, Joseph; Wolfe, David; Wekerle, Christine; Hamilton, Hayley A.; Rehm, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders (AMD) may be more common among adolescents than previously thought, and epidemiological research would benefit from an easily-administered measure of AMD. We assessed the ability of the GHQ12 to estimate the prevalence of AMD in a representative sample of Ontario adolescents. Data were based on self-administered…

  8. Social, Emotional, and Academic Competence among Children Who Have Had Contact with Child Protective Services: Prevalence and Stability Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Gallop, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence and stability of social, emotional, and academic competence in a nationally representative sample of children involved with child protective services. Method: Children were assessed as part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Children (N = 2,065) ranged in age from 8 to 16 years and were…

  9. Comparison of Paper-and-Pencil versus Web Administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS): Risk Behavior Prevalence Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kann, Laura; Denniston, Maxine M.; McManus, Tim; Kyle, Tonja M.; Roberts, Alice M.; Flint, Katherine H.; Ross, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined whether paper-and-pencil and Web surveys administered in the school setting yield equivalent risk behavior prevalence estimates. Data were from a methods study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in spring 2008. Intact classes of 9th- or 10th-grade students were assigned randomly to complete a…

  10. Bayesian estimation of prevalence of paratuberculosis in dairy herds enrolled in a voluntary Johne's Disease Control Programme in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McAloon, Conor G; Doherty, Michael L; Whyte, Paul; O'Grady, Luke; More, Simon J; Messam, Locksley L McV; Good, Margaret; Mullowney, Peter; Strain, Sam; Green, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    Bovine paratuberculosis is a disease characterised by chronic granulomatous enteritis which manifests clinically as a protein-losing enteropathy causing diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, emaciation and, eventually death. Some evidence exists to suggest a possible zoonotic link and a national voluntary Johne's Disease Control Programme was initiated by Animal Health Ireland in 2013. The objective of this study was to estimate herd-level true prevalence (HTP) and animal-level true prevalence (ATP) of paratuberculosis in Irish herds enrolled in the national voluntary JD control programme during 2013-14. Two datasets were used in this study. The first dataset had been collected in Ireland during 2005 (5822 animals from 119 herds), and was used to construct model priors. Model priors were updated with a primary (2013-14) dataset which included test records from 99,101 animals in 1039 dairy herds and was generated as part of the national voluntary JD control programme. The posterior estimate of HTP from the final Bayesian model was 0.23-0.34 with a 95% probability. Across all herds, the median ATP was found to be 0.032 (0.009, 0.145). This study represents the first use of Bayesian methodology to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in Irish dairy herds. The HTP estimate was higher than previous Irish estimates but still lower than estimates from other major dairy producing countries. PMID:27237395

  11. Effect of nutrition survey 'cleaning criteria' on estimates of malnutrition prevalence and disease burden: secondary data analysis.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Sonya; Seal, Andrew; Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos; Kerac, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Tackling childhood malnutrition is a global health priority. A key indicator is the estimated prevalence of malnutrition, measured by nutrition surveys. Most aspects of survey design are standardised, but data 'cleaning criteria' are not. These aim to exclude extreme values which may represent measurement or data-entry errors. The effect of different cleaning criteria on malnutrition prevalence estimates was unknown. We applied five commonly used data cleaning criteria (WHO 2006; EPI-Info; WHO 1995 fixed; WHO 1995 flexible; SMART) to 21 national Demographic and Health Survey datasets. These included a total of 163,228 children, aged 6-59 months. We focused on wasting (low weight-for-height), a key indicator for treatment programmes. Choice of cleaning criteria had a marked effect: SMART were least inclusive, resulting in the lowest reported malnutrition prevalence, while WHO 2006 were most inclusive, resulting in the highest. Across the 21 countries, the proportion of records excluded was 3 to 5 times greater when using SMART compared to WHO 2006 criteria, resulting in differences in the estimated prevalence of total wasting of between 0.5 and 3.8%, and differences in severe wasting of 0.4-3.9%. The magnitude of difference was associated with the standard deviation of the survey sample, a statistic that can reflect both population heterogeneity and data quality. Using these results to estimate case-loads for treatment programmes resulted in large differences for all countries. Wasting prevalence and caseload estimations are strongly influenced by choice of cleaning criterion. Because key policy and programming decisions depend on these statistics, variations in analytical practice could lead to inconsistent and potentially inappropriate implementation of malnutrition treatment programmes. We therefore call for mandatory reporting of cleaning criteria use so that results can be compared and interpreted appropriately. International consensus is urgently needed

  12. On the Assumption of Bivariate Normality in Selection Models: A Copula Approach Applied to Estimating HIV Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Mark E.; Bärnighausen, Till; Marra, Giampiero; Radice, Rosalba

    2015-01-01

    Background Heckman-type selection models have been used to control HIV prevalence estimates for selection bias, when participation in HIV testing and HIV status are correlated after controlling for observed variables. These models typically rely on the strong assumption that the error terms in the participation and the outcome equations that comprise the model are distributed as bivariate normal. Methods We introduce a novel approach for relaxing the bivariate normality assumption in selection models using non-linear copula functions. We apply this method to estimating HIV prevalence and new confidence intervals (CI) in the 2007 Zambian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), using interviewer identity as the selection variable that predicts participation (consent to test) but not the outcome (HIV status). Results We show in a simulation study that selection models can generate biased results when the bivariate normality assumption is violated. In the 2007 Zambia DHS, HIV prevalence estimates are similar irrespective of the structure of the association assumed between participation and outcome. For men, we estimate a population HIV prevalence of 21% (95% = CI 16% to 25%), compared with 12% (11% to 13%) among those who consented to be tested; for women, the corresponding figures are 19% (13% to 24%) and 16% (15% to 17%). Conclusions Copula approaches to Heckman-type selection models are a useful addition to the methodological toolkit of HIV epidemiology, and of epidemiology in general. We develop the use of this approach to systematically evaluate the robustness of HIV prevalence estimates based on selection models, both empirically and in a simulation study. PMID:25643102

  13. Hepatitis C in HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of estimated prevalence in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Tiago Castro Lopes; Zwahlen, Marcel; Rauch, Andri; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening is recommended for all HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy, data on epidemiologic characteristics of HCV infection in resource-limited settings are scarce. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies assessing the prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected individuals in Africa and extracted data on laboratory methods used. Prevalence estimates from individual studies were combined for each country using random-effects meta-analysis. The importance of study design, population and setting as well as type of test (anti-HCV antibody tests and polymerase chain reactions) was examined with meta-regression. Results Three randomized controlled trials, 28 cohort studies and 121 cross-sectional analyses with 108,180 HIV-infected individuals from 35 countries were included. The majority of data came from outpatient populations (55%), followed by blood donors (15%) and pregnant women (14%). Based on estimates from 159 study populations, anti-HCV positivity prevalence ranged between 3.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8–4.7) in Southern Africa and 42.3% (95% CI 4.1–80.5) in North Africa. Study design, type of setting and age distribution did not influence this prevalence significantly. The prevalence of replicating HCV infection, estimated from data of 29 cohorts, was 2.0% (95% CI 1.5–2.6). Ten studies from nine countries reported the HCV genotype of 74 samples, 53% were genotype 1, 24% genotype 2, 14% genotype 4 and 9% genotypes 3, 5 or 6. Conclusions The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies is high in HIV-infected patients in Africa, but replicating HCV infection is rare and varies widely across countries. PMID:27293220

  14. Estimating diabetes prevalence in the Military Health System population from 2006 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Chao, Susan Y; Zarzabal, Lee A; Walker, Sandra M; Herzog, Catherine M; Eilerman, Patricia A; Luce, Beverly K; Carnahan, David H

    2013-09-01

    Evidence-based articles have demonstrated an increase in diabetes prevalence, but diabetes prevalence in the enrolled Military Health System population was previously understudied. Variability in diabetes prevalence rates calculated from 5 groups of algorithms was examined in the Military Health System population (3 million enrollees per year) from fiscal years 2006 to 2010. Time trend analysis and rate comparisons to the U.S. population were also performed. Increasing linear trends in diabetes prevalence from 2006 to 2010 were seen in all algorithms, though considerable rate variation was observed within each study year. Prevalence increased with age, except for a slight decrease in those ≥75 years. Overall diagnosed diabetes prevalence ranged from 7.26% to 11.22% in 2006 and from 8.29% to 13.55% in 2010. Prevalence among active duty members remained stable, but a significant upward trend was observed among nonactive duty members across study years. Age-standardized rates among nonactive duty females were higher than the U.S. population rates from 2006 to 2010. This study demonstrates prevalence rate variability because of differing case algorithms and shows evidence of a growing diabetes population in the Military Health System, specifically within the nonactive duty 45 years and older demographic groups. Further research of this population should focus on validation of case definitions. PMID:24005548

  15. Comparison of Substance-Use Prevalence among Rhode Island and The Miriam Hospital Emergency Department Patients to State and National General Population Prevalence Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Bernardino, Vera L.; Baird, Janette R.; Liu, Tao; Merchant, Roland C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Compare the prevalence of recent alcohol, tobacco, and drug use among patients from two Rhode Island emergency departments (EDs) to Rhode Island state and United States national general population estimates between 2010 and 2012. Methods Secondary analysis of ED patient data and the National Survey of Drug Use and Health. Results Alcohol was the most commonly reported substance, and prevalence of its use was higher among ED patients than those in the national, but not the Rhode Island, general population. Drug use was higher among ED patients than in the state and national general population. For ED patients, tobacco and opioid use was highest among 26–34 year-olds, alcohol and marijuana highest among 18–25 years-olds, and cocaine highest among 35–49 years-olds. Conclusion Rhode Island Hospital and The Miriam Hospital ED patients report a greater prevalence of substance use than the national population and in many cases the state general population. PMID:25830171

  16. Multicohort model for prevalence estimation of advanced malignant melanoma in the USA: an increasing public health concern.

    PubMed

    Lin, Amy Y; Wang, Peter F; Li, Haojie; Kolker, Jennifer A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the current prevalence of advanced cutaneous malignant melanoma in 2010 in the USA and to project prevalence estimates to the year 2015. An excel-based, multicohort natural disease history model was developed. It used incidence, recurrence, all-cause mortality, and US population data from the up-to-date surveillance, epidemiology, and end results program, the US census, and the literature. The prevalence was stratified by tumor stage, sex, and age. The model estimated that there were 800 735 malignant melanoma cases (258 per 100 000 individuals) in the USA in 2010, of which 10.4% were in advanced stages including stage III (22 per 100 000 individuals) and stage IV (four per 100 000 individuals). Among these advanced cases, 58.8% were men. In total, 42.1% of patients with advanced malignant melanoma were 65 years of age and older. Of these elderly patients with an advanced stage of the disease, 65.7% were men. The total number of cases and number of advanced cases were projected to increase from 2010 to 2015 by 24.4 and 21.0%, respectively. There will be approximately one million malignant melanoma cases (306 per 100 000 individuals) in the USA in 2015. The prevalence of advanced malignant melanoma is expected to increase in the next few years. Advanced malignant melanoma disproportionately affects men and the elderly in the USA. PMID:22990665

  17. Incidence and prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women in France, 1980-2020: model-based estimation.

    PubMed

    Nogareda, F; Le Strat, Y; Villena, I; De Valk, H; Goulet, V

    2014-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis due to Toxoplasma gondii, a ubiquitous protozoan parasite of warm-blooded animals including humans. In pregnant women, primary infection can cause congenital toxoplasmosis resulting in severe malformations in the newborn. Since 1978, public health authorities in France have implemented a congenital toxoplasmosis prevention programme, including monthly serological screening of all seronegative pregnant women, and treatment in case of seroconversion. However, this programme does not produce systematic surveillance data on incidence and prevalence. Our objective was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of T. gondii infection, and the incidence of seroconversion during pregnancy in women in France. We used a catalytic model to estimate incidence and prevalence of Toxoplasma infection between 1980 and 2020 in women of childbearing age. We used age- and time-specific seroprevalence data obtained from the National Perinatal Surveys (NPS) conducted in 1995, 2003 and 2010. We assumed that incidence depends both on age and calendar time, and can be expressed as the product of two unknown functions. We also estimated incidence of seroconversion during pregnancy in 2010 from the NPS and the National Surveillance of Congenital Toxoplasmosis (ToxoSurv). We combined data of 42208 women aged 15-45 years with serology available from the three NPS. For women aged 30 years the modelled incidence decreased from 7·5/1000 susceptible women in 1980 to 3·5/1000 in 2000. In 2010 the incidence was 2·4/1000. The predicted incidence and prevalence for 2020 was 1·6/1000 and 27%, respectively. The incidence of seroconversion during pregnancy in 2010 was estimated at 2·1/1000 susceptible pregnant women (95% CI 1·3-3·1) from the NPS and 1·9 (95% CI 1·8-2·1) from ToxoSurv. Incidence and prevalence of Toxoplasma infection has decreased markedly during the last 30 years. This decrease may be explained by a lower exposure to the parasite by changes

  18. Childhood sexual abuse by representatives of the Roman Catholic Church: a prevalence estimate among the Dutch population.

    PubMed

    Langeland, Willemien; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; Mager, Daniel; Smit, Jan H; Draijer, Nel

    2015-08-01

    Estimates of the extent of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) within in the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) in the general population are difficult to find. The independent Commission of Inquiry into sexual abuse of minors in the RCC in the Netherlands collected population-based data to estimate its prevalence. A large random online population sample was surveyed using a two-phase stratified sampling procedure. In Phase 1, 34,267 subjects aged 40 years and older were screened for childhood exposure to sexual abuse by non-family members, a history of institutionalization and a Roman Catholic upbringing. In Phase 2, a stratified subset of 2,462 subjects was assessed to obtain more detailed target information about sexual abuse reports within the RCC. We employed multiple imputation for the estimation of RCC CSA in the original Phase 1 sample. The prevalence of non-familial CSA in general (14.0%) was higher among women (17.2%) than among men (10.6%). The prevalence of CSA within the Dutch RCC (1.7%) was higher among men (2.7%) than among women (0.7%). As expected, older subjects reported more often CSA in the RCC than their younger counterparts. Respondents who stayed for some time in RCC run institutions for education or child protection had a higher risk to report sexual abuse. Although sexual abuse of minors by representatives of the RCC was a structural problem during a period that the Church was highly influential in the Netherlands, the estimated prevalence of the phenomenon is only a fraction of the prevalence rate of non-familial CSA. PMID:26003819

  19. Estimated Prevalence of Venous Thromboembolism in Iran: Prophylaxis Still an Unmet Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sharif-Kashani, Babak; Mohebi-Nejad, Azin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inappropriate thromboprophylaxis is a serious problem in Iran. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the most important causes of morbidity in patients in surgical and obstetrics departments and intensive care units (ICUs). It is a leading preventable cause of mortality among in-patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of VTE and its epidemiology in an Iranian population for the first time. Materials and Methods: There is no national registry system for keeping VTE records in Iran. To statistically calculate the annual prevalence of VTE, we used the prevalence of VTE in presence of each VTE predisposing condition and the annual prevalence of each VTE predisposing condition in Iran. Results: The average annual number of total adult patients with predisposing conditions of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in Iran was 5,288,272 people. The mean annual prevalence of DVT in Iran was between 686,928 and 2,089,738 cases. The mean annual prevalence rate of DVT among the hospitalized Iranian adult patients with the risk of DVT was approximately between 129.90 and 395.16 cases per 1000 patients. Conclusion: The mean annual prevalence of DVT among the hospitalized Iranian adult patients not receiving prophylaxis is high. We also found that appropriate prophylaxis was provided for less than half the patients in need. PMID:26221149

  20. Estimating the Impact of Raising Prices and Eliminating Discounts on Cigarette Smoking Prevalence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marynak, Kristy L; Xu, Xin; Wang, Xu; Holmes, Carissa Baker; Tynan, Michael A; Pechacek, Terry

    2016-01-01

    The average retail price per pack of cigarettes is less than $6, which is substantially lower than the $10 per-pack target established in 2014 by the Surgeon General to reduce the smoking rate. We estimated the impact of three cigarette pricing scenarios on smoking prevalence among teens aged 12-17 years, young adults aged 18-25 years, and adults aged ≥26 years, by state: (1) $0.94 federal tax increase on cigarettes, as proposed in the fiscal year 2017 President's budget; (2) $10 per-pack retail price, allowing discounts; and (3) $10 per-pack retail price, eliminating discounts. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to generate point estimates of reductions in cigarette smoking prevalence by state. We found that each price scenario would substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence. A $10 per-pack retail price eliminating discounts could result in 637,270 fewer smokers aged 12-17 years; 4,186,954 fewer smokers aged 18-25 years; and 7,722,460 fewer smokers aged ≥26 years. Raising cigarette prices and eliminating discounts could substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence as well as smoking-related death and disease. PMID:27453597

  1. The Impact of Case Definition on ADHD Prevalence Estimates in Community-Based Samples of School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Robert E.; Holbrook, Joseph R.; Danielson, Melissa L.; Cuffe, Steven P.; Wolraich, Mark L.; Visser, Susanna N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of varying ADHD diagnostic criteria, including new DSM-5 criteria, on prevalence estimates. Method Parent and teacher reports identified ADHD high and low screen children from elementary schools in two states that produced a diverse overall sample. The parent interview stage included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children – IV (DISC-IV), and up to four additional follow-up interviews. Weighted prevalence estimates, accounting for complex sampling, quantified the impact of varying ADHD criteria using baseline and the final follow-up interview data. Results At baseline 1060 caregivers were interviewed; 656 had at least one follow-up interview. Teachers and parents reported six or more ADHD symptoms for 20.5% (95% CI: 18.1%–23.2%) and 29.8% (CI: 24.5%–35.6%) of children respectively, with criteria for impairment and onset by age seven (DSM-IV) reducing these proportions to 16.3% (CI: 14.7%–18.0%) and 17.5% (CI: 13.3%–22.8%); requiring at least four teacher-reported symptoms reduced the parent-reported prevalence to 8.9% (CI: 7.4%–10.6%). Revising age of onset to 12 years per DSM-5 increased this estimate to 11.3% (CI: 9.5%–13.3%), with a similar increase seen at follow-up: 8.2% with age seven onset (CI: 5.9%–11.2%) versus 13.0% (CI: 7.6%–21.4%) with onset by age 12. Reducing the number of symptoms required for those aged 17 and older increased the estimate to 13.1% (CI: 7.7%–21.5%). Conclusion These findings quantify the impact on prevalence estimates of varying case definition criteria for ADHD. Further research of impairment ratings and data from multiple informants is required to better inform clinicians conducting diagnostic assessments. DSM-5 changes in age of onset and number of symptoms required for older adolescents appear to increase prevalence estimates, although the full impact is uncertain due to the age of our sample. PMID:25524790

  2. Expanding vaccine efficacy estimation with dynamic models fitted to cross-sectional prevalence data post-licensure.

    PubMed

    Gjini, Erida; Gomes, M Gabriela M

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy of vaccines is typically estimated prior to implementation, on the basis of randomized controlled trials. This does not preclude, however, subsequent assessment post-licensure, while mass-immunization and nonlinear transmission feedbacks are in place. In this paper we show how cross-sectional prevalence data post-vaccination can be interpreted in terms of pathogen transmission processes and vaccine parameters, using a dynamic epidemiological model. We advocate the use of such frameworks for model-based vaccine evaluation in the field, fitting trajectories of cross-sectional prevalence of pathogen strains before and after intervention. Using SI and SIS models, we illustrate how prevalence ratios in vaccinated and non-vaccinated hosts depend on true vaccine efficacy, the absolute and relative strength of competition between target and non-target strains, the time post follow-up, and transmission intensity. We argue that a mechanistic approach should be added to vaccine efficacy estimation against multi-type pathogens, because it naturally accounts for inter-strain competition and indirect effects, leading to a robust measure of individual protection per contact. Our study calls for systematic attention to epidemiological feedbacks when interpreting population level impact. At a broader level, our parameter estimation procedure provides a promising proof of principle for a generalizable framework to infer vaccine efficacy post-licensure. PMID:26972516

  3. Tuberculosis Infection in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Miramontes, Roque; Hill, Andrew N.; Yelk Woodruff, Rachel S.; Lambert, Lauren A.; Navin, Thomas R.; Castro, Kenneth G.; LoBue, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reexamining the prevalence of persons infected with tuberculosis (TB) is important to determine trends over time. In 2011–2012 a TB component was included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the reservoir of persons infected with TB. Methods Civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population survey participants aged 6 years and older were interviewed regarding their TB history and eligibility for the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) blood test. Once eligibility was confirmed, both tests were conducted. Prevalence and numbers of TST positive (10 mm or greater), IGRA positive, and both TST and IGRA positive were calculated by adjusting for the complex survey design after applying corrections for item nonresponse and digit preference in TST induration measurements. To examine TST positivity over time, data from NHANES 1999–2000 were reanalyzed using the same statistical methods. The TST was performed using Tubersol, a commercially available purified protein derivative (PPD), rather than PPD-S, which was the antigen used in NHANES 1999–2000. Prior patient history of TB vaccination was not collected in this study nor were patients examined for the presence of a Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) vaccine scar. Results For NHANES 2011–2012, TST and IGRA results were available for 6,128 (78.4%) and 7,107 (90.9%) eligible participants, respectively. There was no significant difference between the percentage of the U.S. population that was TST positive in 2011–2012 (4.7% [95% CI 3.4–6.3]; 13,276,000 persons) compared with 1999–2000 (4.3%; 3.5–5.3). In 2011–2012 the percentage that was IGRA positive was 5.0% (4.2–5.8) and double TST and IGRA positivity was 2.1% (1.5–2.8). The point estimate of IGRA positivity prevalence in foreign-born persons (15.9%; 13.5–18.7) was lower than for TST (20.5%; 16.1–25.8) in 2011–2012. The point estimate of IGRA positivity

  4. The effects of positioning, reason for screening and the referring veterinarian on prevalence estimates of canine hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, B J G; Verhoeven, G; Coopman, F; Van Haeringen, W; Bosmans, T; Gielen, I; Henckens, S; Saunders, J H; van Bree, H; Van Ryssen, B; Verbeke, V; Van Steendam, K; Van Nieuwerburgh, F; Deforce, D

    2014-09-01

    Although the prevalence of canine hip dysplasia (HD) has been the subject of a number of published studies, estimates vary widely. This study evaluated several possible causes for these differences. Sixty Belgian, Dutch and German veterinarians were asked to submit all hip radiographs obtained for screening purposes (irrespective of HD status) over a 2-year period, resulting in a database of 583 dogs. Each set of radiographs was accompanied by information on the reason for screening (breeding soundness examination, clinical complaint, assistance dogs, or other reasons), and dog breed, date of birth and age. Dog positioning exerted an effect at multiple levels. The agreement among different observers regarding correct or incorrect positioning was limited and incorrect positioning itself reduced the inter-observer agreement for radiographic hip conformation. Dysplastic dogs were more commonly positioned incorrectly than non-dysplastic dogs. The clinical complaint population had a high prevalence of dysplastic dogs (>70%) compared with the breeding population (11%) and the assistance dogs (6%). There was a significantly lower prevalence of HD among cases referred by veterinarians who frequently submitted hip-extended radiographs for evaluation (P = 0.002) compared to those who refer less frequently. However, this was likely to be selection bias, as radiographs that were from dogs suspected to be dysplastic were not submitted by frequent senders. The prevalence of dysplastic dogs varied widely between breeds (16.7-71.4%). Dogs diagnosed with dysplasia were significantly older than dogs considered healthy (P = 0.001) and dogs classified as borderline dysplastic (P = 0.035). Inter-observer agreement for hip conformation was moderately low, resulting in >7% variation in prevalence estimates for dysplasia. PMID:24986314

  5. Household survey in two provinces in Viet Nam estimates HIV prevalence in an urban and a rural population.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Diep, Vu Thi Bich; Thang, Pham Hong; Long, Nguyen Thanh; Huong, Phan Thi Thu; Duc, Bui Hoang; Wilson, David; Oelrichs, Robert; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2008-08-01

    A household-based population study interviewed 2,553 women and 1,984 men aged 15-49 years in urban (Ho Chi Minh City) and rural (Thai Binh) provinces in Viet Nam between July and August 2005. The survey response rate was high--approximately 97% of households and 93% of adults overall, with a >92% acceptance of HIV testing among eligible adults. The unadjusted estimated population HIV prevalence was 0.3% (confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-0.6%) in Thai Binh and 0.7% (CI: 0.3-1.3) in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), compared with the national estimates and projections of 0.352% and 1.250%, respectively, for 2005. The ratio of male-to-female prevalence was 10.5:1 in Thai Binh and 1.3:1 in HCMC. A low level of men reported purchasing sex in the last 12 months (2.4%) and there were low self-reports of sexually transmitted infections in all adults (5%). A correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention methods was high in both provinces (83%), although only 24.8% of women knew of the use of antiretroviral therapy to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. The observed population prevalence was consistent with recent projections in Thai Binh, although lower than expected in HCMC, indicating the substantial downward revisions of projected population HIV prevalence may need to be extended. The unequal sex prevalence ratio is consistent with the projected trends of increasing male-to-female sexual transmission in urban areas. The results and experience of this study will inform future population based surveys in Viet Nam and the broader Asian region. PMID:18724801

  6. Analytical considerations in the use of capture-recapture to estimate prevalence: case studies of the estimation of opiate use in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Salvany, A; Hartnoll, R L; Maguire, A; Brugal, M T; Albertín, P; Caylà, J A; Casabona, J; Suelves, J M

    1998-10-15

    Capture-recapture, an indirect method widely used to estimate undetected populations, has been criticized because it causes problems due to a lack of compliance with several important assumptions and model selection strategies. This paper expands on the problems encountered when applying this methodology to drug abuse estimations, specifically the prevalence of opiate use in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain, in 1993. Three samples of opiate users (from hospital emergency rooms, treatment centers, and prisons) were available in the area studied; an additional sample (mortality data) was analyzed for the city of Barcelona. Log-linear models that provided a good fit were considered, to which further model selection strategies were applied. A total of 3,207 unique individuals aged 15-44 years were identified in the three samples from the greater Barcelona area; the mortality sample from the city of Barcelona contained an additional 83 individuals. Heterogeneity was observed in different age, sex, and residence area subgroups. Population estimates differed widely according to the log-linear model chosen. Minimum Akaike's information criterion model and saturated model estimates were used to produce population prevalence rates. The main problems the authors encountered in this study were related to population definition, source heterogeneity, and assessment of an adequate model, a problem associated with sample size. PMID:9786228

  7. A first-principles model for estimating the prevalence of annoyance with aircraft noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Mestre, Vincent; Schomer, Paul; Berry, Bernard; Gjestland, Truls; Vallet, Michel; Reid, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    Numerous relationships between noise exposure and transportation noise-induced annoyance have been inferred by curve-fitting methods. The present paper develops a different approach. It derives a systematic relationship by applying an a priori, first-principles model to the findings of forty three studies of the annoyance of aviation noise. The rate of change of annoyance with day-night average sound level (DNL) due to aircraft noise exposure was found to closely resemble the rate of change of loudness with sound level. The agreement of model predictions with the findings of recent curve-fitting exercises (cf. Miedma and Vos, 1998) is noteworthy, considering that other analyses have relied on different analytic methods and disparate data sets. Even though annoyance prevalence rates within individual communities consistently grow in proportion to duration-adjusted loudness, variability in annoyance prevalence rates across communities remains great. The present analyses demonstrate that 1) community-specific differences in annoyance prevalence rates can be plausibly attributed to the joint effect of acoustic and non-DNL related factors and (2) a simple model can account for the aggregate influences of non-DNL related factors on annoyance prevalence rates in different communities in terms of a single parameter expressed in DNL units-a "community tolerance level." PMID:21877795

  8. Problem drug use prevalence estimation revisited: heterogeneity in capture–recapture and the role of external evidence

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Nicky J.; Ades, A. E.; Pierce, Matthias; Davies, Wyn; Coleman, Barbara; Millar, Tim; Hickman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims Capture–recapture (CRC) analysis is recommended for estimating the prevalence of problem drug use or people who inject drugs (PWID). We aim to demonstrate how naive application of CRC can lead to highly misleading results, and to suggest how the problems might be overcome. Methods We present a case study of estimating the prevalence of PWID in Bristol, UK, applying CRC to lists in contact with three services. We assess: (i) sensitivity of results to different versions of the dominant (treatment) list: specifically, to inclusion of non‐incident cases and of those who were referred directly from one of the other services; (ii) the impact of accounting for a novel covariate, housing instability; and (iii) consistency of CRC estimates with drug‐related mortality data. We then incorporate formally the drug‐related mortality data and lower bounds for prevalence alongside the CRC into a single coherent model. Results Five of 11 models fitted the full data equally well but generated widely varying prevalence estimates, from 2740 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2670, 2840] to 6890 (95% CI = 3740, 17680). Results were highly sensitive to inclusion of non‐incident cases, demonstrating the presence of considerable heterogeneity, and were sensitive to a lesser extent to inclusion of direct referrals. A reduced data set including only incident cases and excluding referrals could be fitted by simpler models, and led to much greater consistency in estimates. Accounting for housing stability improved model fit considerably more than did the standard covariates of age and gender. External data provided validation of results and aided model selection, generating a final estimate of the number of PWID in Bristol in 2011 of 2770 [95% credible interval (Cr‐I) = 2570, 3110] or 0.9% (95% Cr‐I = 0.9, 1.0%) of the population aged 15–64 years. Conclusions Steps can be taken to reduce bias in capture–recapture analysis, including: careful

  9. Comfort in big numbers: Does over-estimation of doping prevalence in others indicate self-involvement?

    PubMed Central

    Petróczi, Andrea; Mazanov, Jason; Nepusz, Tamás; Backhouse, Susan H; Naughton, Declan P

    2008-01-01

    Background The 'False Consensus Effect' (FCE), by which people perceive their own actions as relatively common behaviour, might be exploited to gauge whether a person engages in controversial behaviour, such as performance enhancing drug (PED) use. Hypothesis It is assumed that people's own behaviour, owing to the FCE, affects their estimation of the prevalence of that behaviour. It is further hypothesised that a person's estimate of PED population use is a reliable indicator of the doping behaviour of that person, in lieu of self-reports. Testing the hypothesis Over- or underestimation is calculated from investigating known groups (i.e. users vs. non-users), using a short questionnaire, and a known prevalence rate from official reports or sample evidence. It is proposed that sample evidence from self-reported behaviour should be verified using objective biochemical analyses. In order to find proofs of concept for the existence of false consensus, a pilot study was conducted. Data were collected among competitive UK student-athletes (n = 124) using a web-based anonymous questionnaire. User (n = 9) vs. non-user (n = 76) groups were established using self-reported information on doping use and intention to use PEDs in hypothetical situations. Observed differences in the mean estimation of doping made by the user group exceeded the estimation made by the non-user group (35.11% vs. 15.34% for general doping and 34.25% vs. 26.30% in hypothetical situations, respectively), thus providing preliminary evidence in support of the FCE concept in relation to doping. Implications of the hypothesis The presence of the FCE in estimating doping prevalence or behaviour in others suggests that the FCE based approach may be an avenue for developing an indirect self-report mechanism for PED use behaviour. The method may be successfully adapted to the estimation of prevalence of behaviours where direct self-reports are assumed to be distorted by socially desirable responding. Thus this

  10. Estimation of canine Leishmania infection prevalence in six cities of the Algerian littoral zone using a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Adel, Amel; Abatih, Emmanuel; Speybroeck, Niko; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Bouguedour, Rachid; Boughalem, Karim; Bouhbal, Abdelmalek; Djerbal, Mouloud; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale study on canine Leishmania infection (CanL) was conducted in six localities along a west-east transect in the Algerian littoral zone (Tlemcen, Mostaganem, Tipaza, Boumerdes, Bejaia, Jijel) and covering two sampling periods. In total 2,184 dogs were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a direct agglutination test (DAT). Combined multiple-testing and several statistical methods were compared to estimate the CanL true prevalence and tests characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). The Bayesian full model showed the best fit and yielded prevalence estimates between 11% (Mostaganem, first period) and 38% (Bejaia, second period). Sensitivity of IFAT varied (in function of locality) between 86% and 88% while its specificity varied between 65% and 87%. DAT was less sensitive than IFAT but showed a higher specificity (between 80% and 95% in function of locality or/and season). A general increasing trend of the CanL prevalence was noted from west to east. A concordance between the present results and the incidence of human cases of visceral leishmaniasis was observed, where also a maximum was recorded for Bejaia. The results of the present study highlight the dangers when using IFAT as a gold standard. PMID:25793942

  11. Estimation of Canine Leishmania Infection Prevalence in Six Cities of the Algerian Littoral Zone Using a Bayesian Approach

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Amel; Abatih, Emmanuel; Speybroeck, Niko; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Bouguedour, Rachid; Boughalem, Karim; Bouhbal, Abdelmalek; Djerbal, Mouloud; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale study on canine Leishmania infection (CanL) was conducted in six localities along a west-east transect in the Algerian littoral zone (Tlemcen, Mostaganem, Tipaza, Boumerdes, Bejaia, Jijel) and covering two sampling periods. In total 2,184 dogs were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a direct agglutination test (DAT). Combined multiple-testing and several statistical methods were compared to estimate the CanL true prevalence and tests characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). The Bayesian full model showed the best fit and yielded prevalence estimates between 11% (Mostaganem, first period) and 38% (Bejaia, second period). Sensitivity of IFAT varied (in function of locality) between 86% and 88% while its specificity varied between 65% and 87%. DAT was less sensitive than IFAT but showed a higher specificity (between 80% and 95% in function of locality or/and season). A general increasing trend of the CanL prevalence was noted from west to east. A concordance between the present results and the incidence of human cases of visceral leishmaniasis was observed, where also a maximum was recorded for Bejaia. The results of the present study highlight the dangers when using IFAT as a gold standard. PMID:25793942

  12. Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic Kidney Disease Among Hypertensive Cameroonians According to Three Common Estimators of the Glomerular Filtration Rate.

    PubMed

    Kaze, Francois Folefack; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Magatsing, Carine Tchendjou; Halle, Marie-Patrice; Yiagnigni, Euloge; Ngu, Kathleen Blackett

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for renal diseases, which, in turn, are precursors of hypertension. The authors assessed the prevalence and determinants of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among 336 hypertensive adult Cameroonians (mean age, 60.9±11.3 years; 63.4% women) at Yaoundé. Any participant with an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) regardless of the equation used (Cockcroft-Gault [CG], Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [MDRD], and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration [CKD-EPI]) and/or dipstick proteinuria was reviewed 3 months later. Participants presented a high prevalence of diabetes (18.5%), dyslipidemia (17.6%), gout/hyperuricemia (10.7%), overweight/obesity (68.8%), self-medication (37.5%), and alcohol consumption (33.3%). Hypertension was uncontrolled in 265 patients (78.9%). The prevalence of CKD was 49.7%, 50.0%, and 52.1% according to MDRD, CKD-EPI, and CG equations, respectively. Advanced age, adiposity, and severity of hypertension were determinants of CKD. Nearly half of the hypertensive patients had CKD regardless of the estimators used, predicted by well-known risk factors. PMID:26791352

  13. How Initial Prevalence Moderates Network-based Smoking Change: Estimating Contextual Effects with Stochastic Actor-based Models.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jimi; Schaefer, David R

    2016-03-01

    We use an empirically grounded simulation model to examine how initial smoking prevalence moderates the effectiveness of potential interventions designed to change adolescent smoking behavior. Our model investigates the differences that result when manipulating peer influence and smoker popularity as intervention levers. We demonstrate how a simulation-based approach allows us to estimate outcomes that arise (1) when intervention effects could plausibly alter peer influence and/or smoker popularity effects and (2) across a sample of schools that match the range of initial conditions of smoking prevalence in U.S. schools. We show how these different initial conditions combined with the exact same intervention effects can produce substantially different outcomes-for example, effects that produce smoking declines in some settings can actually increase smoking in others. We explore the form and magnitude of these differences. Our model also provides a template to evaluate the potential effects of alternative intervention scenarios. PMID:26957133

  14. Estimating the prevalence of xenophobia and anti-Semitism in Germany: A comparison of randomized response and direct questioning.

    PubMed

    Krumpal, Ivar

    2012-11-01

    An experimental CATI-survey (N=2041), asking sensitive questions about xenophobia and anti-Semitism in Germany, was conducted to compare the randomized response technique (RRT) and the direct questioning technique. Unlike the vast majority of RRT surveys measuring the prevalence of socially undesirable behaviors, only few studies have explored the effectiveness of the RRT with respect to the disclosure of socially undesirable opinions. Results suggest that the RRT is an effective method eliciting more socially undesirable opinions and yielding more valid prevalence estimates of xenophobia and anti-Semitism than direct questioning ('more-is-better' assumption). Furthermore, the results indicate that with increasing topic sensitivity, the benefits of using the RRT also increase. Finally, adapted logistic regression analyses show that several covariates such as education and generalized trust are related to the likelihood of being prejudiced towards foreigners and Jews. PMID:23017963

  15. Estimating the Burden of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness: A Pilot Study of the Prevalence and Underreporting in Saint Lucia, Eastern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Jaime, Alina; Mckensie, Martin; Auguste, Ava; Pérez, Enrique; Indar, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Saint Lucia was the first country to conduct a burden of illness study in the Caribbean to determine the community prevalence and underreporting of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). A retrospective cross-sectional population survey on AGE-related illness was administered to a random sample of residents of Saint Lucia in 20 April–16 May 2008 and 6-13 December 2009 to capture the high- and low-AGE season respectively. Of the selected 1,150 individuals, 1,006 were administered the survey through face-to-face interviews (response rate 87.4%). The overall monthly prevalence of AGE was 3.9%. The yearly incidence rate was 0.52 episodes/person-year. The age-adjusted monthly prevalence was 4.6%. The highest monthly prevalence of AGE was among children aged <5 years (7.5%) and the lowest in persons aged 45-64 years (2.6%). The average number of days an individual suffered from diarrhoea was 3.8 days [range 1-21 day(s)]. Of the reported AGE cases, only seven (18%) sought medical care; however, 83% stayed at home due to the illness [(range 1-16 day(s), mean 2.5]; and 26% required other individuals to take care of them. The estimated underreporting of syndromic AGE and laboratory-confirmed foodborne disease pathogens was 81% and 99% respectively during the study period. The economic cost for treating syndromic AGE was estimated at US$ 3,892.837 per annum. This was a pilot study on the burden of illness (BOI) in the Caribbean. The results of the study should be interpreted within the limitations and challenges of this study. Lessons learnt were used for improving the implementation procedures of other BOI studies in the Caribbean.

  16. G6PD Deficiency Prevalence and Estimates of Affected Populations in Malaria Endemic Countries: A Geostatistical Model-Based Map

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Rosalind E.; Piel, Frédéric B.; Patil, Anand P.; Nyangiri, Oscar A.; Gething, Peter W.; Dewi, Mewahyu; Hogg, Mariana M.; Battle, Katherine E.; Padilla, Carmencita D.; Baird, J. Kevin; Hay, Simon I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Primaquine is a key drug for malaria elimination. In addition to being the only drug active against the dormant relapsing forms of Plasmodium vivax, primaquine is the sole effective treatment of infectious P. falciparum gametocytes, and may interrupt transmission and help contain the spread of artemisinin resistance. However, primaquine can trigger haemolysis in patients with a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDd). Poor information is available about the distribution of individuals at risk of primaquine-induced haemolysis. We present a continuous evidence-based prevalence map of G6PDd and estimates of affected populations, together with a national index of relative haemolytic risk. Methods and Findings Representative community surveys of phenotypic G6PDd prevalence were identified for 1,734 spatially unique sites. These surveys formed the evidence-base for a Bayesian geostatistical model adapted to the gene's X-linked inheritance, which predicted a G6PDd allele frequency map across malaria endemic countries (MECs) and generated population-weighted estimates of affected populations. Highest median prevalence (peaking at 32.5%) was predicted across sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Although G6PDd prevalence was generally lower across central and southeast Asia, rarely exceeding 20%, the majority of G6PDd individuals (67.5% median estimate) were from Asian countries. We estimated a G6PDd allele frequency of 8.0% (interquartile range: 7.4–8.8) across MECs, and 5.3% (4.4–6.7) within malaria-eliminating countries. The reliability of the map is contingent on the underlying data informing the model; population heterogeneity can only be represented by the available surveys, and important weaknesses exist in the map across data-sparse regions. Uncertainty metrics are used to quantify some aspects of these limitations in the map. Finally, we assembled a database of G6PDd variant occurrences to inform a national-level index of

  17. Clozapine-induced hypersalivation: an estimate of prevalence, severity and impact on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Senan; Cunningham, Aoife; O’Callaghan, Niamh; Byrne, Fintan; Mc Donald, Colm; McInerney, Shane; Hallahan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of clozapine-induced hypersalivation, and assess the impact hypersalivation has on global functioning. Methods: Participants attending a dedicated clozapine clinic were invited to undertake a structured interview regarding their experiences of clozapine-induced hypersalivation. Two psychometric instruments to measure hypersalivation, the Nocturnal Hypersalivation Rating Scale and the Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale were used. Results: Clozapine-induced hypersalivation was experienced by 92% of participants, with nocturnal hypersalivation more prevalent compared to daytime hypersalivation (85% versus 48%). Daytime drooling was severe in 18% of cases and was present on a frequent or constant basis for 20% of individuals. Hypersalivation had at least a moderate impact on the quality of life of 15% of study participants. Conclusions: Clozapine-induced hypersalivation is the most prevalent adverse effect experienced by patients treated with clozapine and negatively impacts on quality of life, particularly if daytime drooling is present. The development of further strategies to ameliorate this adverse effect is required given the demonstrated lack of success to date in managing this condition. PMID:27354906

  18. Cultivation and counter cultivation: does religiosity shape the relationship between television viewing and estimates of crime prevalence and assessment of victimization likelihood?

    PubMed

    Hetsroni, Amir; Lowenstein, Hila

    2013-02-01

    Religiosity may change the direction of the effect of TV viewing on assessment of the likelihood of personal victimization and estimates concerning crime prevalence. A content analysis of a representative sample of TV programming (56 hours of prime-time shows) was done to identify the most common crimes on television, followed by a survey of a representative sample of the adult public in a large urban district (778 respondents) who were asked to estimate the prevalence of these crimes and to assess the likelihood of themselves being victimized. People who defined themselves as non-religious increased their estimates of prevalence for crimes often depicted on TV, as they reported more time watching TV (ordinary cultivation effect), whereas estimates regarding the prevalence of crime and assessment of victimization likelihood among religious respondents were lower with reports of more time devoted to television viewing (counter-cultivation effect). PMID:23654044

  19. Use of diagnostic reports to estimate prevalence and distribution of skeletal lesions in young Thoroughbreds.

    PubMed

    Axling, J M; Castle, K; Velie, B D; Tammen, I; Thomson, P C; Hamilton, N A; Raadsma, H W; Lindgren, G; Jeffcott, L B; Nicholas, F W

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic reports written to assist stud managers in the sale of young Thoroughbreds have not previously been used as a data source for the study of skeletal lesions. However, analyses of these reports may provide efficient and cost-effective insights into the prevalence and distribution of skeletal lesions within a population. Diagnostic reports written by veterinarians were acquired from Thoroughbred stud managers in Australia and New Zealand. The reports were based on approximately 1300 sets of weanling and yearling radiographs taken between 2002 and 2007. The prevalence and anatomical distribution of skeletal lesions in weanlings (299 horses) and yearlings (1004 horses) were determined from these reports. Overall, 69.9% of weanlings and 64.5% of yearlings were reported as having one or more skeletal lesions. Diagnostic reports in weanlings were a strong indication of what was likely to be seen in subsequent yearling reports. These diagnostic reports are typically used by stud managers in the sales process and the potential drawback is that some categories of skeletal lesions may be under-reported. However, there was substantial agreement between the prevalence and distribution of several skeletal lesions reported in this study and those previously reported from direct evaluation of radiographs for Australian and New Zealand Thoroughbred yearlings. Strong agreement was found for osteophytes, enthesiophytes and other modelling in the hocks, and for lesions in the hind fetlocks and stifles. This indicates that written diagnostic reports are a useful and a reliable source of data for the study of some skeletal lesions in young Thoroughbred horses. PMID:27387729

  20. The PROBIT approach in estimating the prevalence of wasting: revisiting bias and precision

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The PROBIT methodology was presented in the 1995 World Health Organization Technical Report on Anthropometry as an alternative to the standard prevalence based method of measuring malnutrition in children. Theoretically the PROBIT method will always give a smaller standard error than the standard prevalence method in measuring malnutrition. A recent article by Dale et al. assessed the PROBIT method for measuring global acute malnutrition measure and found that the method was biased and the precision was superior only for sample sizes less than 150 when compared to the standard method. In a manner similar to Dale, our study further investigated the bias and precision of the PROBIT method for different sample sizes using simulated populations. Results The PROBIT method showed bias for each of the ten simulated populations, but the direction and magnitude of the average bias was changed depending on the simulated population. For a given simulated population, the average bias was relatively constant for all sample sizes drawn. The 95% half-width confidence interval was lower for the PROBIT method than the standard prevalence method regardless of the sample size or simulated population. The absolute difference in the confidence limits showed the most gains for the PROBIT method for the smaller samples sizes, but the ratio of confidence intervals was relatively constant across all sample sizes. Conclusions The PROBIT method will provide gains in precision regardless of the sample size, but the method may be biased. The direction and magnitude of the bias depends on the population it is drawn from. PMID:23981669

  1. Estimating Dengue Transmission Intensity from Sero-Prevalence Surveys in Multiple Countries

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Natsuko; Dorigatti, Ilaria; Cauchemez, Simon; Ferguson, Neil M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Estimates of dengue transmission intensity remain ambiguous. Since the majority of infections are asymptomatic, surveillance systems substantially underestimate true rates of infection. With advances in the development of novel control measures, obtaining robust estimates of average dengue transmission intensity is key for assessing both the burden of disease from dengue and the likely impact of interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings The force of infection (λ) and corresponding basic reproduction numbers (R0) for dengue were estimated from non-serotype (IgG) and serotype-specific (PRNT) age-stratified seroprevalence surveys identified from the literature. The majority of R0 estimates ranged from 1–4. Assuming that two heterologous infections result in complete immunity produced up to two-fold higher estimates of R0 than when tertiary and quaternary infections were included. λ estimated from IgG data were comparable to the sum of serotype-specific forces of infection derived from PRNT data, particularly when inter-serotype interactions were allowed for. Conclusions/Significance Our analysis highlights the highly heterogeneous nature of dengue transmission. How underlying assumptions about serotype interactions and immunity affect the relationship between the force of infection and R0 will have implications for control planning. While PRNT data provides the maximum information, our study shows that even the much cheaper ELISA-based assays would provide comparable baseline estimates of overall transmission intensity which will be an important consideration in resource-constrained settings. PMID:25881272

  2. Copro prevalence and estimated risk of Entamoeba histolytica in Diarrheic patients at Beni-Suef, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Shimaa S; El-Matarawy, Olfat M; Ghieth, Marwa A; Abu Sarea, Enas Y; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2015-02-01

    Amoebiasis diagnosis is usually based on microscopy that cannot differentiate pathogenic E. histolytica from morphologically identical non-pathogenic species. 194 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic &/or dysenteric patients and examined for Entamoeba complex microscopically, E. histolytica/E. dispar coproantigen using ICT and E. histolytica coproantigen using Tech lab E. histolytica II ELISA test. Entamoeba complex trophozoites/cysts, E. histolytica/E. dispar coproantigen and E. histolytica coproantigen were detected in 22.2, 14.4 and 3.6 % of samples, respectively. Microscopy and ICT method had limited sensitivity with poor PPV (9.3 and 7.1 %, respectively) and both slightly agree with ELISA test. The prevalence of E. histolytica was low (3.6 %) in studied individuals and was 14 times lower than non-pathogenic amoebae. E. histolytica detection studied individuals was positively associated with mucoid and bloody stool, which makes them disease predictors. E. histolytica fecal ELISA assay for E. histolytica detection surpassed microscopy and E. histolytica/E. dispar ICT assay. This has highlighted the need for practical non-microscopic detection methods that can differentiate between amoeba infections to avoid unnecessary and possibly harmful therapies and to determine the true prevalence and epidemiology of E. histolytica. PMID:25542044

  3. An approximate likelihood estimator for the prevalence of infections in vectors using pools of varying sizes.

    PubMed

    Santos, James D; Dorgam, Diana

    2016-09-01

    There are several arthropods that can transmit disease to humans. To make inferences about the rate of infection of these arthropods, it is common to collect a large sample of vectors, divide them into groups (called pools), and apply a test to detect infection. This paper presents an approximate likelihood point estimator to rate of infection for pools of different sizes, when the variability of these sizes is small and the infection rate is low. The performance of this estimator was evaluated in four simulated scenarios, created from real experiments selected in the literature. The new estimator performed well in three of these scenarios. As expected, the new estimator performed poorly in the scenario with great variability in the size of the pools for some values of the parameter space. PMID:27159117

  4. Hearing-Impaired/Developmentally Disabled Persons in the United States: Definitions, Causes, Effects, and Prevalence Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Larry G.

    1978-01-01

    Information is presented on the definition, causes, effects and population estimates for developmental disabilities; and a tentative hypothesis regarding the hearing impaired/developmentally disabled is set forth. (CL)

  5. Prevalence and allele frequency estimation of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Miura, T; Tagaki, K; Ohtake, M; Noda, H; Yasuda, T; Nioka, K

    1997-04-01

    Blood samples from 796 Holstein dairy cows in 20 herds from 6 districts in Japan from June 1994 to August 1995 were examined to determine whether they were BLAD-free, BLAD carriers, or BLAD-affected by use of DNA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The usage of semen of confirmed BLAD-carriers for artificial insemination in the Hokkaido district and two selected dairy farms was examined to estimate the gene frequency of BLAD carriers of sires. BLAD-carrier prevalence in 20 herds (796 cows, over 2.5 years old) ranged from 0 to 23.5%, and the mean BLAD-carrier prevalence was 8.1%. The BLAD-carrier prevalence in 10 herds (363 cows) in which the occurrence of BLAD was not detected by the DNA-PCR test ranged from 0 to 12.5% with a mean of 5.4%. The BLAD-carrier prevalence in 10 herds (433 cows) in which the occurrence of BLAD was confirmed by DNA-PCR analysis ranged from 2.6 to 23.5% with a mean of 10.8%, and these values were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of dairy herds in which the occurrence of BLAD was not detected. The age distribution in BLAD carriers in these cows ranged from 2.5 to 11 years. The mean gene frequencies of BLAD among 796 cows from 20 herds and 433 cows from 10 herds in which the occurrence of BLAD was detected were 0.041 and 0.054, respectively. The proportional usage of semen of BLAD carriers for artificial insemination in the Hokkaido district in 1992 was 12.6%, and its gene frequency was 0.058. On two selected farms in which higher BLAD-carrier rates were detected, the prevalences were 35.5% and 25.8%, and their gene frequencies were 0.177 and 0.129, respectively. The occurrence of BLAD-affected in Holstein dairy cattle was estimated to be 0.16-0.31% at birth in Japan without genetic control. PMID:9152929

  6. Use of cohort data to estimate national prevalence of transmitted drug resistance to antiretroviral drugs in Spain (2007-2012).

    PubMed

    Monge, S; Díez, M; Alvarez, M; Guillot, V; Iribarren, J A; Palacios, R; Delgado, R; Jaén, A; Blanco, J R; Domingo, P; Portilla, J; Pérez Elías, M J; Garcia, F

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (pTDR) to antiretroviral drugs in Spain (2007-2012) was estimated using the CoRIS cohort, adjusting its territorial distribution and transmission route to the reference population from the Spanish Information System on New human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses. A total of 2702 patients from ten autonomous communities and with naive FASTA sequence within 6 months of human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis were selected. Weighted pTDR, estimated using the inverse probability of selection in the sample by autonomous communities and transmission group, was 8.12% (95% CI 6.44-9.80), not significantly different from unweighted pTDR. We illustrate how proportional weighting can maximize representativeness of cohort-based data, and its value to monitor pTDR at country level. PMID:25636937

  7. How Many People have Alcohol Use Disorders? Using the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis to Reconcile Prevalence Estimates in Two Community Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Jerome C.; Schmitz, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Community prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) provided by epidemiological studies using DSM-based diagnostic criteria pose several challenges: the rates appear implausibly high to many epidemiologists; they do not converge across similar studies; and, due to low service utilization by those diagnosed as disordered, they yield estimates of unmet need for services so high that credibility for planning purposes is jeopardized. For example, two early community studies using DSM diagnostic criteria, the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), yielded lifetime AUD prevalence rates of 14 and 24%, respectively, with NCS unmet need for services 19% of the entire population. Attempts to address these challenges by adding clinical significance requirements to diagnostic criteria have proven unsuccessful. Hypothesizing that these challenges are due to high rates of false-positive diagnoses of problem drinking as AUDs, we test an alternative approach. We use the harmful dysfunction (HD) analysis of the concept of mental disorder as a guide to construct more valid criteria within the framework of the standard out-of-control model of AUD. The proposed HD criteria require harm and dysfunction, where harm can be any negative social, personal, or physical outcome, and dysfunction requires either withdrawal symptoms or inability to stop drinking. Using HD criteria, ECA and NCS lifetime prevalences converge to much-reduced rates of 6 and 6.8%, respectively. Due to higher service utilization rates, NCS lifetime unmet need is reduced to 3.4%. Service use and duration comparisons suggest that HD criteria possess increased diagnostic validity. Moreover, HD criteria eliminate 90% of transient teenage drinking from disorder status. The HD version of the out-of-control model thus potentially resolves the three classic prevalence challenges while offering a more rigorous approach to distinguishing AUDs from problematic drinking. PMID

  8. The estimation of prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Chengdu, China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Li; Xi, Guangxiang; Zhang, Lanjiang; Liu, Shuangli; Wan, Like; Yu, Lian; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Jie; He, Yi

    2016-02-01

    The reported positive rates of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) among Chinese blood donors generally do not include data from pre-donation rapid tests. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of serologic markers for HBsAg and risk factors among blood donors from Chengdu, China. From April 2010 to March 2011, a total of 16,875 blood donors were enrolled. Data from HBsAg tests before and after donations were collected to estimate the prevalence of HBsAg. A case-control study was conducted in 265 unique HBsAg-positive blood donors and 530 seronegative donors between January 2011 and October 2012. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. The population attributable risk (PAR) was estimated. The prevalence of HBsAg was 3.17% (95%CI, 2.91-3.43%). The following risk factors were associated with HBV infection: non-vaccination for HBV (OR = 4.236; 95%CI, 2.72-6.60%), razor sharing (OR = 2.370; 95%CI, 1.46-3.84%), dental treatment (OR = 1.714; 95%CI, 1.21-2.43%), acupuncture (OR = 1.983; 95%CI, 1.20-3.28%), a family history of HBV infection (OR = 2.257; 95%CI, 1.32-3.86%), and endoscopy (OR = 2.17; 95%CI, 1.04-4.51%). The PAR values of the risk factors were 42.77%, 31.78%, 13.68%, 6.18%, 6.09%, and 2.85%, respectively, and the total PAR was 68.78%. The prevalence of HBsAg among Chinese blood donors is still high. HBV vaccinations can provide protection. Blood contact from sharing instruments is still a high risk route of transmission for HBV. Immunization programs and behavioral interventions should be used to prevent blood donation infections and improve blood safety. PMID:26241150

  9. Estimates of the prevalence of anomalous signal losses in the Yellow Sea derived from acoustic and oceanographic computer model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin-Bing, Stanley A.; King, David B.; Warn-Varnas, Alex C.; Lamb, Kevin G.; Hawkins, James A.; Teixeira, Marvi

    2002-05-01

    The results from collocated oceanographic and acoustic simulations in a region of the Yellow Sea near the Shandong peninsula have been presented [Chin-Bing et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2577 (2000)]. In that work, the tidal flow near the peninsula was used to initialize a 2.5-dimensional ocean model [K. G. Lamb, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 843-864 (1994)] that subsequently generated internal solitary waves (solitons). The validity of these soliton simulations was established by matching satellite imagery taken over the region. Acoustic propagation simulations through this soliton field produced results similar to the anomalous signal loss measured by Zhou, Zhang, and Rogers [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 2042-2054 (1991)]. Analysis of the acoustic interactions with the solitons also confirmed the hypothesis that the loss mechanism involved acoustic mode coupling. Recently we have attempted to estimate the prevalence of these anomalous signal losses in this region. These estimates were made from simulating acoustic effects over an 80 hour space-time evolution of soliton packets. Examples will be presented that suggest the conditions necessary for anomalous signal loss may be more prevalent than previously thought. [Work supported by ONR/NRL and by a High Performance Computing DoD grant.

  10. Bayesian Estimation of the True Prevalence and of the Diagnostic Test Sensitivity and Specificity of Enteropathogenic Yersinia in Finnish Pig Serum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, M. J.; Ranta, J.; Virtanen, S.; Korkeala, H.

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian analysis was used to estimate the pig's and herd's true prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia in serum samples collected from Finnish pig farms. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test were also estimated for the commercially available ELISA which is used for antibody detection against enteropathogenic Yersinia. The Bayesian analysis was performed in two steps; the first step estimated the prior true prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia with data obtained from a systematic review of the literature. In the second step, data of the apparent prevalence (cross-sectional study data), prior true prevalence (first step), and estimated sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic methods were used for building the Bayesian model. The true prevalence of Yersinia in slaughter-age pigs was 67.5% (95% PI 63.2–70.9). The true prevalence of Yersinia in sows was 74.0% (95% PI 57.3–82.4). The estimates of sensitivity and specificity values of the ELISA were 79.5% and 96.9%. PMID:26539540

  11. Incidence estimation using a single cross-sectional age-specific prevalence survey with differential mortality.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth L; Sweeting, Michael J; Lindfield, Robert J; Deangelis, Daniela

    2014-02-10

    Here, we present a method for incidence estimation of a curable, non-recurring disease when data from a single cross-sectional survey are used together with population-level mortality rates and an assumption of differential mortality of diseased versus non-diseased individuals. The motivating example is cataract, and the VISION2020 goal to eliminate avoidable blindness globally by 2020. Reliable estimates of current and future cataract disease burden are required to predict how many surgeries would need to be performed to meet the VISION2020 goals. However, incidence estimates, needed to derive future burden, are not as easily available, due to the cost of conducting cohort studies. Disease is defined at the person-level in accordance with the WHO person-level definition of blindness. An extension of the standard time homogeneous illness-death model to a four-state model is described, which allows the disease to be cured, whereby surgery is performed on at least one diseased eye. Incidence is estimated, and the four-state model is used to predict disease burden assuming different surgical strategies whilst accounting for the competing risk of death. The method is applied to data from approximately 10,000 people from a survey of visual impairment in Nigeria. PMID:24009063

  12. Prevalence estimation of celiac disease in the general adult population of Latvia using serology and HLA genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Shums, Zakera; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Gavars, Mikus; Kikuste, Ilze; Milo, Jay; Daugule, Ilva; Pahomova, Jelena; Pirags, Valdis; Dzerve, Vilnis; Klovins, Janis; Erglis, Andrejs; Norman, Gary L

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence estimates for celiac disease (CD) depend on the method used. The role of deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) and genetic testing in epidemiological studies and diagnostic settings of celiac disease (CD) has still to be established. Objectives The objective of this article is to assess the prevalence of CD in Latvia by combining serological tests with DQ2.5/DQ8 testing. Methods A total of 1444 adults from a randomly selected cross-sectional general population sample were tested by ELISA for tTG IgA, DGP IgA and IgG antibodies (QUANTA Lite®, Inova Diagnostics Inc). Samples with tTG IgA ≥20U were tested for EMA IgA by indirect immunofluorescence assay, and all specimens with tTG IgA ≥15U were tested by QUANTA-Flash® chemiluminescent assays (CIA) (Inova Diagnostics Inc) for tTG IgA, DGP IgA and IgG. DQ2.5/8 was detected in individuals with any positive ELISA test and a subgroup of controls. Results Forty-three individuals (2.98%; 95% CI: 2.10–3.86%) tested positive by at least one ELISA test; 41.86% of the serology-positive individuals (any test above the cutoff) were DQ positive. Six individuals (0.42%; 95% CI: 0.09–0.75%) were triple ELISA positive, and DQ2.5 or DQ8 was positive in all; 0.35% (95% CI: 0.05–0.65%) were tTG IgA and EMA positive. Two tTG IgA-negative cases were both DGP IgG and IgA positive, both being DQ positive; including them in the “serology-positive” group would increase the prevalence to 0.49% (95% CI: 0.13–0.85%). CIA tests revealed 2 tTG IgA-positive and EMA-negative cases with a positive genotype. DQ2.5 or DQ8 genotype was positive in 28.6% of the serology-negative population. Conclusions Estimates of the prevalence of CD in Latvia based on the serogenetic testing approach range from 0.35% to 0.49% depending on the criteria used. There is a rationale for combining serological tests and DQ2.5/8 genotyping. PMID:25922680

  13. Estimating the Prevalence of Injection Drug Users in the U.S. and in Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas from 1992 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; Cooper, Hannah L.F.; Flom, Peter L.; Tempalski, Barbara; Gostnell, Karla

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the prevalence of current injection drug users (IDUs) in 96 large U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) annually from 1992 to 2002. Multiplier/allocation methods were used to estimate the prevalence of injectors because confidentiality restrictions precluded the use of other commonly used estimation methods, such as capture–recapture. We first estimated the number of IDUs in the U.S. each year from 1992 to 2002 and then apportioned these estimates to MSAs using multiplier methods. Four different types of data indicating drug injection were used to allocate national annual totals to MSAs, creating four distinct series of estimates of the number of injectors in each MSA. Each series was smoothed over time; and the mean value of the four component estimates was taken as the best estimate of IDUs for that MSA and year (with the range of component estimates indicating the degree of uncertainty in the estimates). Annual cross-sectional correlations of the MSA-level IDU estimates with measures of unemployment, hepatitis C mortality prevalence, and poisoning mortality prevalence were used to validate our estimates. MSA-level IDU estimates correlated moderately well with validators, demonstrating adequate convergence validity. Overall, the number of IDUs per 10,000 persons aged 15–64 years varied from 30 to 348 across MSAs (mean 126.9, standard deviation 65.3, median 106.6, interquartile range 78–162) in 1992 and from 37 to 336 across MSAs (mean 110.6, standard deviation 57.7, median 96.1, interquartile range 67–134) in 2002. A multilevel model showed that overall, across the 96 MSAs, the number of injectors declined each year until 2000, after which the IDU prevalence began to increase. Despite the variation in component estimates and methodological and component data set limitations, these local IDU prevalence estimates may be used to assess: (1) predictors of change in IDU prevalence; (2) differing IDU trends between localities; (3) the

  14. Global Estimates of the Prevalence and Incidence of Four Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections in 2012 Based on Systematic Review and Global Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Lori; Rowley, Jane; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; Wijesooriya, Nalinka Saman; Unemo, Magnus; Low, Nicola; Stevens, Gretchen; Gottlieb, Sami; Kiarie, James; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Quantifying sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and incidence is important for planning interventions and advocating for resources. The World Health Organization (WHO) periodically estimates global and regional prevalence and incidence of four curable STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis and syphilis. Methods and Findings WHO’s 2012 estimates were based upon literature reviews of prevalence data from 2005 through 2012 among general populations for genitourinary infection with chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and trichomoniasis, and nationally reported data on syphilis seroprevalence among antenatal care attendees. Data were standardized for laboratory test type, geography, age, and high risk subpopulations, and combined using a Bayesian meta-analytic approach. Regional incidence estimates were generated from prevalence estimates by adjusting for average duration of infection. In 2012, among women aged 15–49 years, the estimated global prevalence of chlamydia was 4.2% (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 3.7–4.7%), gonorrhoea 0.8% (0.6–1.0%), trichomoniasis 5.0% (4.0–6.4%), and syphilis 0.5% (0.4–0.6%); among men, estimated chlamydia prevalence was 2.7% (2.0–3.6%), gonorrhoea 0.6% (0.4–0.9%), trichomoniasis 0.6% (0.4–0.8%), and syphilis 0.48% (0.3–0.7%). These figures correspond to an estimated 131 million new cases of chlamydia (100–166 million), 78 million of gonorrhoea (53–110 million), 143 million of trichomoniasis (98–202 million), and 6 million of syphilis (4–8 million). Prevalence and incidence estimates varied by region and sex. Conclusions Estimates of the global prevalence and incidence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, and syphilis in adult women and men remain high, with nearly one million new infections with curable STI each day. The estimates highlight the urgent need for the public health community to ensure that well-recognized effective interventions for STI prevention, screening, diagnosis, and

  15. Estimating the prevalence of potential enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and intimin gene diversity in a human community by monitoring sanitary sewage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Pagaling, Eulyn; Yan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the understanding of bacterial enteric diseases in the community and their virulence factors relies almost exclusively on clinical disease reporting and examination of clinical pathogen isolates. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of an alternative approach that monitors potential enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) prevalence and intimin gene (eae) diversity in a community by directly quantifying and characterizing target virulence genes in the sanitary sewage. The quantitative PCR (qPCR) quantification of the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes in sanitary sewage samples collected over a 13-month period detected eae in all 13 monthly sewage samples at significantly higher abundance (93 to 7,240 calibrator cell equivalents [CCE]/100 ml) than stx1 and stx2, which were detected sporadically. The prevalence level of potential EPEC in the sanitary sewage was estimated by calculating the ratio of eae to uidA, which averaged 1.0% (σ = 0.4%) over the 13-month period. Cloning and sequencing of the eae gene directly from the sewage samples covered the majority of the eae diversity in the sewage and detected 17 unique eae alleles belonging to 14 subtypes. Among them, eae-β2 was identified to be the most prevalent subtype in the sewage, with the highest detection frequency in the clone libraries (41.2%) and within the different sampling months (85.7%). Additionally, sewage and environmental E. coli isolates were also obtained and used to determine the detection frequencies of the virulence genes as well as eae genetic diversity for comparison. PMID:24141131

  16. Estimating the Prevalence of Potential Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Intimin Gene Diversity in a Human Community by Monitoring Sanitary Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Pagaling, Eulyn

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the understanding of bacterial enteric diseases in the community and their virulence factors relies almost exclusively on clinical disease reporting and examination of clinical pathogen isolates. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of an alternative approach that monitors potential enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) prevalence and intimin gene (eae) diversity in a community by directly quantifying and characterizing target virulence genes in the sanitary sewage. The quantitative PCR (qPCR) quantification of the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes in sanitary sewage samples collected over a 13-month period detected eae in all 13 monthly sewage samples at significantly higher abundance (93 to 7,240 calibrator cell equivalents [CCE]/100 ml) than stx1 and stx2, which were detected sporadically. The prevalence level of potential EPEC in the sanitary sewage was estimated by calculating the ratio of eae to uidA, which averaged 1.0% (σ = 0.4%) over the 13-month period. Cloning and sequencing of the eae gene directly from the sewage samples covered the majority of the eae diversity in the sewage and detected 17 unique eae alleles belonging to 14 subtypes. Among them, eae-β2 was identified to be the most prevalent subtype in the sewage, with the highest detection frequency in the clone libraries (41.2%) and within the different sampling months (85.7%). Additionally, sewage and environmental E. coli isolates were also obtained and used to determine the detection frequencies of the virulence genes as well as eae genetic diversity for comparison. PMID:24141131

  17. Lobomycosis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: estimation of prevalence, temporal trends, and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, M Elizabeth; Reif, John S; Mazzoil, Marilyn; McCulloch, Stephen D; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D

    2008-09-01

    Lobomycosis (lacaziosis) is a chronic fungal disease of the skin that affects only dolphins and humans. Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of lobomycosis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida (IRL). We studied the occurrence and distribution of lobomycosis in the IRL using photo-identification survey data collected between 1996 and 2006. Our objectives were to (1) determine the sensitivity and specificity of photo-identification for diagnosis of lobomycosis in free-ranging dolphins; (2) determine the spatial distribution of lobomycosis in the IRL; and (3) assess temporal patterns of occurrence. Photographs from 704 distinctly marked dolphins were reviewed for skin lesions compatible with lobomycosis. The presumptive diagnosis was validated by comparing the results of photographic analysis with physical examination and histologic examination of lesion biopsies in 102 dolphins captured and released during a health assessment and 3 stranded dolphins. Twelve of 16 confirmed cases were identified previously by photography, a sensitivity of 75%. Among 89 dolphins without disease, all 89 were considered negative, a specificity of 100%. The prevalence of lobomycosis estimated from photographic data was 6.8% (48/704). Spatial distribution was determined by dividing the IRL into six segments based on hydrodynamics and geographic features. The prevalence ranged from <1% in the Mosquito Lagoon to 16.9% in the south Indian River. The incidence of the disease did not increase during the study period, indicating that the disease is endemic, rather than emerging. In summary, photo-identification is a useful tool to monitor the course of individual and population health for this enigmatic disease. PMID:18712442

  18. Population-Based Age Group Specific Annual Incidence Rates of Symptomatic Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Jukka M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the population-based annual incidence rates of exudative, dry and all cases of symptomatic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in different age and sex groups. Methods. This is a one year, prospective, population-based study on all consecutive new patients with AMD in the hospital district of Central Finland. The diagnosis was confirmed in all patients with slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a Spectralis HRA + OCT device, and the Heidelberg Eye Explorer 1.6.2.0 program. Fluorescein angiograms were taken when needed. Results. The population-based annual incidence rates of all cases of symptomatic AMD increased from 0.03% (95% CI, 0.01-0.05%) in the age group 50-59 years to 0.82% (95% CI, 0.55-1.09%) in the age group 85-89 years and were 0.2% (95% CI, 0.17-0.24%) in exudative, 0.11% (95% CI, 0.09-0.14%) in dry, and 0.32% (95% CI, 0.28-0.36%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. During the next 20 years in Central Finland the population-based annual incidence rates can be estimated to increase to 0.27% (95% CI, 0.24-0.30%) in exudative, to 0.13% (95% CI, 0.11-0.15%) in dry, and to 0.41% (95% CI, 0.37-0.45%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. The population-based annual incidence of AMD did not show statistically significant differences between males and females (p>0.1). Conclusion: The population-based age-group specific annual incidence rates of symptomatic AMD of this study may help to plan health care provision for patients of AMD. PMID:25674187

  19. Prevalence of HIV among MSM in Europe: comparison of self-reported diagnoses from a large scale internet survey and existing national estimates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Country level comparisons of HIV prevalence among men having sex with men (MSM) is challenging for a variety of reasons, including differences in the definition and measurement of the denominator group, recruitment strategies and the HIV detection methods. To assess their comparability, self-reported data on HIV diagnoses in a 2010 pan-European MSM internet survey (EMIS) were compared with pre-existing estimates of HIV prevalence in MSM from a variety of European countries. Methods The first pan-European survey of MSM recruited more than 180,000 men from 38 countries across Europe and included questions on the year and result of last HIV test. HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS was compared with national estimates of HIV prevalence based on studies using biological measurements or modelling approaches to explore the degree of agreement between different methods. Existing estimates were taken from Dublin Declaration Monitoring Reports or UNAIDS country fact sheets, and were verified by contacting the nominated contact points for HIV surveillance in EU/EEA countries. Results The EMIS self-reported measurements of HIV prevalence were strongly correlated with existing estimates based on biological measurement and modelling studies using surveillance data (R2=0.70 resp. 0.72). In most countries HIV positive MSM appeared disproportionately likely to participate in EMIS, and prevalences as measured in EMIS are approximately twice the estimates based on existing estimates. Conclusions Comparison of diagnosed HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS with pre-existing estimates based on biological measurements using varied sampling frames (e.g. Respondent Driven Sampling, Time and Location Sampling) demonstrates a high correlation and suggests similar selection biases from both types of studies. For comparison with modelled estimates the self-selection bias of the Internet survey with increased participation of men diagnosed with HIV has to be taken into account. For

  20. Prevalence, incidence estimations, and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Germany: a representative, cross-sectional, serological study

    PubMed Central

    Wilking, Hendrik; Thamm, Michael; Stark, Klaus; Aebischer, Toni; Seeber, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Representative data on the extent of endemicity, burden, and risk of human toxoplasmosis are scarce. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii among adult participants of a nationwide representative cross-sectional survey in Germany. Sera collected from a representative cohort of adults (age 18–79; n = 6,663) in Germany were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. Interview-derived data were used to evaluate associated factors. Multivariable logistic regression was applied using sampling weights and accounting for survey design cluster effects. Seroprevalence increased from 20% (95%-CI:17–23%) in the 18–29 age group to 77% (95%-CI:73–81%) in the 70–79 age group. Male gender, keeping cats and BMI ≥30 were independent risk factors for seropositivity, while being vegetarian and high socio-economic status were negatively associated. Based on these data, we estimate 1.1% of adults and 1.3% of women aged 18–49 to seroconvert each year. This implies 6,393 seroconversions annually during pregnancies. We conclude that T. gondii infection in Germany is highly prevalent and that eating habits (consuming raw meat) appear to be of high epidemiological relevance. High numbers of seroconversions during pregnancies pose substantial risks for unborn children. Efforts to raise awareness of toxoplasmosis in public health programs targeting to T. gondii transmission control are therefore strongly advocated. PMID:26936108

  1. Prevalence, incidence estimations, and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Germany: a representative, cross-sectional, serological study.

    PubMed

    Wilking, Hendrik; Thamm, Michael; Stark, Klaus; Aebischer, Toni; Seeber, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Representative data on the extent of endemicity, burden, and risk of human toxoplasmosis are scarce. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii among adult participants of a nationwide representative cross-sectional survey in Germany. Sera collected from a representative cohort of adults (age 18-79; n = 6,663) in Germany were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. Interview-derived data were used to evaluate associated factors. Multivariable logistic regression was applied using sampling weights and accounting for survey design cluster effects. Seroprevalence increased from 20% (95%-CI:17-23%) in the 18-29 age group to 77% (95%-CI:73-81%) in the 70-79 age group. Male gender, keeping cats and BMI ≥30 were independent risk factors for seropositivity, while being vegetarian and high socio-economic status were negatively associated. Based on these data, we estimate 1.1% of adults and 1.3% of women aged 18-49 to seroconvert each year. This implies 6,393 seroconversions annually during pregnancies. We conclude that T. gondii infection in Germany is highly prevalent and that eating habits (consuming raw meat) appear to be of high epidemiological relevance. High numbers of seroconversions during pregnancies pose substantial risks for unborn children. Efforts to raise awareness of toxoplasmosis in public health programs targeting to T. gondii transmission control are therefore strongly advocated. PMID:26936108

  2. A comparative study of prevalence-based incidence estimation techniques with application to dementia data in Germany.

    PubMed

    Landwehr, Sandra; Brinks, Ralph

    2016-02-28

    Dementia is becoming a major health burden, which is mainly due to the increasing life expectancy in many developed countries. To describe the disease progression of individuals, multistate models are generally appropriate tools. These models allow the individuals to move along a path consisting of a finite number of disease states. We consider a simplifying illness-death model in which the subjects progress through the states healthy, diseased and dead. We use this model to study analytic relationships between the prevalence, incidence and mortality rates of irreversible diseases that have been applied in the past. One of these approaches is a rather recently proposed technique based on an ordinary differential equation (ODE). We conduct a simulation study to compare the performance of two suggested numerical approximations of this ODE with three alternative techniques, the common goal of which is to estimate age-specific incidence from cross-sectional information. The quality of the estimation methods is further explored using data on dementia in Germany. In the simulation scenarios as well as in the dementia data setting, the ODE method turns out to be the predominant technique with regard to the quality of the estimation of the known incidence regimes. PMID:26376995

  3. Early Childhood Developmental Status in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: National, Regional, and Global Prevalence Estimates Using Predictive Modeling

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Danaei, Goodarz; Black, Maureen M.; Sudfeld, Christopher R.; Fawzi, Wafaie; Fink, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of cognitive and socioemotional skills early in life influences later health and well-being. Existing estimates of unmet developmental potential in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are based on either measures of physical growth or proxy measures such as poverty. In this paper we aim to directly estimate the number of children in LMICs who would be reported by their caregivers to show low cognitive and/or socioemotional development. Methods and Findings The present paper uses Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI) data collected between 2005 and 2015 from 99,222 3- and 4-y-old children living in 35 LMICs as part of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programs. First, we estimate the prevalence of low cognitive and/or socioemotional ECDI scores within our MICS/DHS sample. Next, we test a series of ordinary least squares regression models predicting low ECDI scores across our MICS/DHS sample countries based on country-level data from the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Nutrition Impact Model Study. We use cross-validation to select the model with the best predictive validity. We then apply this model to all LMICs to generate country-level estimates of the prevalence of low ECDI scores globally, as well as confidence intervals around these estimates. In the pooled MICS and DHS sample, 14.6% of children had low ECDI scores in the cognitive domain, 26.2% had low socioemotional scores, and 36.8% performed poorly in either or both domains. Country-level prevalence of low cognitive and/or socioemotional scores on the ECDI was best represented by a model using the HDI as a predictor. Applying this model to all LMICs, we estimate that 80.8 million children ages 3 and 4 y (95% CI 48.1 million, 113.6 million) in LMICs experienced low cognitive and/or socioemotional development in 2010, with the largest number of affected children in sub-Saharan Africa (29.4.1 million; 43.8% of children

  4. Using hepatitis C prevalence to estimate HIV epidemic potential among people who inject drugs in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Ghina R.; Weiss, Helen A.; Vickerman, Peter; Larke, Natasha; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to understand the association between HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to estimate HIV epidemic potential among PWIDs using HCV prevalence. Design/methods: Using data from a systematic review of HIV and HCV among PWID in MENA, we conducted two analyses, stratified by HIV epidemic state: a meta-analysis of the risk ratio of HCV to HIV prevalence (RRHCV/HIV) using DerSimonian-Laird random-effects models, and multivariable linear regression predicting log HIV prevalence. The HCV-HIV association from both analyses was used to estimate HIV prevalence at endemic equilibrium. We compared predicted with current HIV prevalence to classify HIV epidemic potential at country-level as low, medium or high, using predefined criteria. Results: The review identified 88 HCV prevalence measures among PWID in MENA, of which 54 had a paired HIV prevalence measure. The pooled RRHCV/HIV were 16, 4 and 3 in low-level, emerging and established HIV epidemics, respectively. There was a significant linear relationship between HCV and HIV at endemic equilibrium (P = 0.002). The predicted endemic HIV prevalence ranged between 8% (Tunisia) and 22% (Pakistan). Of the nine countries with data, five have high and three medium HIV epidemic potential. Only one country, Pakistan, appears to have reached saturation. Conclusion: HCV prevalence could be a predictor of future endemic HIV prevalence. In MENA, we predict that there will be further HIV epidemic growth among PWID. The proposed methodology can identify PWID populations that should be prioritized for HIV prevention interventions. PMID:26372281

  5. Estimated prevalence of mental disorders and the desire for social distance--results from population surveys in two large German cities.

    PubMed

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Mnich, Eva; Kofahl, Christopher; Makowski, Anna Christin; Lambert, Martin; Karow, Anne; Bock, Thomas; Härter, Martin; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2013-10-30

    The study is focused on two research questions: What are the public's estimates of the prevalence of depression, schizophrenia, bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa? What is the relationship between the estimated prevalence of the mental disorders and the public's desire for social distance? Analyses are based on a telephone survey in two large German cities (Hamburg and Munich, N=2014, response rate 51%). Vignettes with typical signs and symptoms suggestive of a depression, schizophrenia, bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa were presented. Respondents were asked about the lifetime prevalence of the mental disorders and their desire for social distance. Across all four disorders under study the respondents markedly overestimate the rates of lifetime prevalence. Increasing prevalence estimation is associated with a significant decrease in the desire for social distance in case of schizophrenia. As for depression, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa there are no significant associations. Many campaigns aimed at reducing stigma emphasize the high prevalence of mental disorders. The assumption of these campaigns is that reduction of the perceived distinction leads to a decrease of the desire for social distance towards those afflicted. Our results indicate that this may not generally be an effective way to reduce stigma. PMID:23623451

  6. The prevalence of inflammatory back pain: population-based estimates from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–10

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Michael H; Witter, James P; Reveille, John D

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the current US inflammatory back pain (IBP) prevalence using four published case definitions. Methods Analysis of an IBP data collection instrument specifically designed for the 2009–10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were 5103 US adults ages 20–69 with complete data. IBP prevalence as determined by Calin et al criteria, European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria, and Berlin criteria 8a and 7b. Results Age-adjusted US prevalence of IBP by Calin criteria was 5.0% (95% CI 4.2% to 5.8%). Prevalence of IBP was 5.6% (95% CI 4.7% to 6.5%) by ESSG criteria, and 5.8% (95% CI 5.2% to 6.4%) and 6.0% (95% CI 4.9% to 7.1%) by Berlin Criteria 8a and 7b, respectively. IBP prevalence did not differ significantly by age groups or between men and women. IBP prevalence was significantly lower among non-Hispanic black persons compared with non-Hispanic white persons for the Calin and ESSG IBP criteria. For the ESSG and Berlin 7b criteria, non-Hispanic white persons had significantly higher IBP prevalences compared with Mexican Americans. Conclusions IBP is associated with spondyloarthritis. Awareness of the prevalence of IBP may be useful for planning future epidemiological studies as well as development and validation of diagnostic and classification criteria for specific clinically defined diseases. PMID:22791746

  7. Estimating dietary micronutrient supply and the prevalence of inadequate intakes from national Food Balance Sheets in the South Asia regiona.

    PubMed

    Mark, Henry E; Houghton, Lisa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Monterrosa, Eva; Kraemer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies continue to be a major public health concern worldwide with many South Asian countries suffering a significant proportion of the global burden. A lack of nationally representative data on micronutrient deficiencies hampers sustained action to address the problem. Using data on the national food supply produced by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, and international food composition tables, the present study estimated the prevalence of inadequacy of seven micronutrients (vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B-12, zinc and calcium) in seven South Asian countries--Bangladesh, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The estimated average requirement cut-point method was employed to determine the likelihood of inadequate micronutrient intakes. We report multiple micronutrient inadequacies in the food supply in the region, especially in the low and lower-middle income countries. Of the seven micronutrients investigated, calcium had the highest risk levels of inadequacy. Folate, riboflavin, vitamin B-12 and zinc were also deemed to be at high risk of inadequacy, although results differed markedly between countries. Various strategies to combat micronutrient deficiencies are currently underway in these countries. In order to facilitate the implementation of these efforts, the collection of nationally representative nutritional assessment survey data are urgently required to ascertain the true burden of micronutrient malnutrition. PMID:27222421

  8. Sediment quality thresholds: Estimates from hockey stick regression of liver lesion prevalence in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus)

    SciTech Connect

    Horness, B.H.; Lomax, D.P.; Johnson, L.L.; Myers, M.S.; Pierce, S.M.; Collier, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    Comprehensive, integrative assessments of coastal sediment quality are best effected by using large, diverse data sets that include measures of biological dysfunction observed in association with chronic exposure to sediment contaminants. Under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s National Status and Trends Program, the National Benthic Surveillance Project accumulated a database of synoptic sediment contaminant concentrations and indices of biological effects that were measured in indigenous animals collected during field surveys conducted from 1984 to 1994. This compilation of data provided the opportunity to develop a new approach for determining sediment quality criteria to add to the current repertoire of environmental assessment tools. Using a two-segment hockey stick regression, statistically significant chemical thresholds of biological effects were estimated for hepatic lesion prevalences in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus, formerly Parophrys vetulus) in relation to sediment concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These threshold estimates are notably lower than many of those reported for other techniques. Application of this relatively simple dose-response model to subacute, chronic effects that are involved in pepatocarcinogenesis and associated with sediment toxicant content (1) reflects the link between toxicopathic disease progression and conditions observed in benthic fish exposed to contaminants and (2) provides endpoints for assessing sediment quality contaminant concentrations that are not necessarily acutely fatal but may have long-term health implications for populations that are chronically exposed.

  9. Alternative Methods for Defining Osteoarthritis and the Impact on Estimating Prevalence in a US Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cisternas, Miriam G.; Murphy, Louise; Sacks, Jeffrey J.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Pasta, David J.; Helmick, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Provide a contemporary estimate of osteoarthritis (OA) by comparing accuracy and prevalence of alternative definitions of OA. Methods The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) household component (HC) records respondent-reported medical conditions as open-ended responses; professional coders translate these responses into ICD-9-CM codes for the medical conditions files. Using these codes and other data from the MEPS-HC medical conditions files, we constructed three case definitions of OA and assessed them against medical provider diagnoses of ICD-9-CM 715 [osteoarthrosis and allied disorders] in a MEPS subsample. The three definitions were: 1) strict = ICD-9-CM 715; 2) expanded = ICD-9-CM 715, 716 [other and unspecified arthropathies], OR 719 [other and unspecified disorders of joint]); and 3) probable = strict OR expanded + respondent-reported prior diagnosis of OA or other arthritis excluding rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Results Sensitivity and specificity of the three definitions were: strict – 34.6% and 97.5%; expanded – 73.8% and 90.5%; and probable – 62.9% and 93.5%. Conclusion The strict definition for OA (ICD-9-CM 715) excludes many individuals with OA. The probable definition of OA has the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity relative to the two other MEPS-based definitions and yields a national annual estimate of 30.8 million adults with OA (13.4% of US adult population) for 2008 – 2011. PMID:26315529

  10. Hepatic and extra-hepatic sequelae, and prevalence of viral hepatitis C infection estimated from routine data in at-risk groups

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Concerns about the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are due to the high risk of chronic liver disease and poor treatment efficacy. Synthesizing evidence from multiple data sources is becoming widely used to estimate HCV-infection prevalence. This paper aims to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection, and the hepatic and extrahepatic sequelae in at-risk groups, using routinely collected data in the Lazio region, Italy. Methods HCV laboratory surveillance and dialysis, hospital discharge, and drug-user registers were used as information sources to identify at-risk groups and to estimate HCV prevalence and sequelae. Full name and birth date were used as linkage keys for the various health registries. Prevalence was estimated as the percentage of cases within the general population and the at-risk groups, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from 1997 to 2001. The risk of sequelae was estimated through a follow-up of hospital discharges up to December 31, 2004 and calculated as the prevalence ratio in HCV-positive and HCV-negative people, within each at-risk group, with 95% CI. Results There were 65,127 HCV-infected people in the study period; the prevalence was 1.24% (95%CI = 1.23%-1.25%) in the whole population, higher in males and older adults. Drug users (35.1%; 95%CI = 34.6-35.7) and dialysis patients (21.1%; 95%CI = 20.2%-22.0%) showed the highest values. Medical procedures with little exposure to blood resulted in higher estimates, ranging between 1.3% and 3.4%, which was not conclusively attributable to the surgical procedures. Cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and encephalopathy were the most frequent hepatic sequelae; cryoglobulinaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were the most frequent extrahepatic sequelae. Conclusions Synthesising data from multiple routine sources improved estimates of HCV prevalence and sequelae in dialysis patients and drug users, although prevalence validity should be assessed in survey and sequelae need a well

  11. Estimating hidden prevalence in Hansen's disease through diagnosis delay and grade of disability at time of diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J; Mengue, S S; Wagner, M B; Duncan, B B

    2000-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to propose a new method for the calculation of estimated hidden prevalence (EHP) in Hansen's disease (HD). We analyzed the records of 4142 HD patients diagnosed in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between 1970 and 1991. Out of these 4142 cases, 3291 patients had their grade of disability (GD) evaluated at the time of diagnosis and provided information about the time elapsed between the appearance of the symptoms and the moment when HD was identified by a physician (diagnosis delay, DD). Mean DD for the sample (in years) was 1.51 for disability grade 0, 2.14 for grade 1, 4.46 for grade 2, and 9.64 for grade 2. EHP was calculated taking into account only two strata of GD using the formula HP = [(NC-GD 0/1) x 2.0 + (CN-GD 2/3) x 5.0]/(CGE x PCP), where: NC-GD 0/1 = mean annual number of newly detected grades 0 or 1 cases; CN-GD 2/3 = mean annual number of newly detected grades 2 or 3 cases; CGE = proportion of newly detected cases with GD evaluated; PCP = proportion of the population covered by the state HD control program; 2.0 and 5.0 correspond to an approximation of the mean time in years of DD in each respective stratum of GD. Applying this model, we found an EHP of 529 cases which translates to an excess of 0.58 cases/10,000 population. We also conducted a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model. This analysis revealed that, in addition to DD, other variables such as clinical form, age group, sex and mode of detection were independent risk factors for the presence of disabilities. We also found two significant effect modification factors: DD versus clinical form and DD versus age group. Taking these findings into consideration, a more complex model was used to calculate the EHP with 16 strata (defined by clinical form of the disease, age group, and GD from 0 to 3). An EHP of 502 cases (excess of 0.55/10,000) was obtained with this more complex model. This result differs only 5% from that of the

  12. Comparing HIV prevalence estimates from prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme and the antenatal HIV surveillance in Addis Ababa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the absence of reliable data, antenatal HIV surveillance has been used to monitor the HIV epidemic since the late 1980s. Currently, routine data from Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes are increasingly available. Evaluating whether the PMTCT programme reports provide comparable HIV prevalence estimates with the antenatal surveillance reports is important. In this study, we compared HIV prevalence estimates from routine PMTCT programme and antenatal surveillance in Addis Ababa with the aim to come up with evidence based recommendation. Methods Summary data were collected from PMTCT programmes and antenatal surveillance reports within the catchment of Addis Ababa. The PMTCT programme data were obtained from routine monthly reports from 2004 to 2009 and from published antenatal HIV surveillance reports from 2003 to 2009. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results In Addis Ababa, PMTCT sites had increased from six in 2004 to 54 in 2009. The site expansion was accompanied by an increased number of women testing. There were marked increases in the rate of HIV testing following the introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing approach. Paralleling these increases, the HIV prevalence showed a steady decline from 10.0% in 2004 to 4.5% in 2009. There were five antenatal surveillance sites from 2003 to 2007 in Addis Ababa and they increased to seven by 2009. Four rounds of surveillance data from five sites showed a declining trend in HIV prevalence over the years. The overall antenatal surveillance data also showed that the HIV prevalence among antenatal attendees had declined from 12.4% in 2003 to 5.5% in 2009. The HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme were 6.2% and 4.5% and from antenatal surveillance 6.1 and 5.5% in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Conclusions There were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme and from antenatal surveillance reports. Both data sources showed a marked decline in

  13. Bayesian evidence synthesis to estimate HIV prevalence in men who have sex with men in Poland at the end of 2009.

    PubMed

    Rosinska, M; Gwiazda, P; De Angelis, D; Presanis, A M

    2016-04-01

    HIV spread in men who have sex with men (MSM) is an increasing problem in Poland. Despite the existence of a surveillance system, there is no direct evidence to allow estimation of HIV prevalence and the proportion undiagnosed in MSM. We extracted data on HIV and the MSM population in Poland, including case-based surveillance data, diagnostic testing prevalence data and behavioural data relating to self-reported prior diagnosis, stratified by age (⩽35, >35 years) and region (Mazowieckie including the capital city of Warsaw; other regions). They were integrated into one model based on a Bayesian evidence synthesis approach. The posterior distributions for HIV prevalence and the undiagnosed fraction were estimated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. To improve the model fit we repeated the analysis, introducing bias parameters to account for potential lack of representativeness in data. By placing additional constraints on bias parameters we obtained precisely identified estimates. This family of models indicates a high undiagnosed fraction [68·3%, 95% credibility interval (CrI) 53·9-76·1] and overall low prevalence (2·3%, 95% CrI 1·4-4·1) of HIV in MSM. Additional data are necessary in order to produce more robust epidemiological estimates. More effort is urgently needed to ensure timely diagnosis of HIV in Poland. PMID:26542091

  14. Hate Crimes and Stigma-Related Experiences among Sexual Minority Adults in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from a National Probability Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herek, Gregory M.

    2009-01-01

    Using survey responses collected via the Internet from a U.S. national probability sample of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this article reports prevalence estimates of criminal victimization and related experiences based on the target's sexual orientation. Approximately 20% of respondents reported having experienced a person or…

  15. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, V; Betson, M; Rabezanahary, H; Mboussou, Y; Zafindraibe, N J; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Costard, S; Pfeiffer, D U; Michault, A

    2016-03-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies. PMID:26342625

  16. Regression approaches to derive generic and fish group-specific probability density functions of bioconcentration factors for metals.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Taku; Ciffroy, Philippe; Stenberg, Kristofer; Capri, Ettore

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of environmental multimedia modeling studies dedicated to environmental and health risk assessments of chemicals, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) is a parameter commonly used, especially for fish. As for neutral lipophilic substances, it is assumed that BCF is independent of exposure levels of the substances. However, for metals some studies found the inverse relationship between BCF values and aquatic exposure concentrations for various aquatic species and metals, and also high variability in BCF data. To deal with the factors determining BCF for metals, we conducted regression analyses to evaluate the inverse relationships and introduce the concept of probability density function (PDF) for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and As. In the present study, for building the regression model and derive the PDF of fish BCF, two statistical approaches are applied: ordinary regression analysis to estimate a regression model that does not consider the variation in data across different fish family groups; and hierarchical Bayesian regression analysis to estimate fish group-specific regression models. The results show that the BCF ranges and PDFs estimated for metals by both statistical approaches have less uncertainty than the variation of collected BCF data (the uncertainty is reduced by 9%-61%), and thus such PDFs proved to be useful to obtain accurate model predictions for environmental and health risk assessment concerning metals. PMID:20886641

  17. An estimation of the prevalence of intellectual disabilities and its association with age in rural and urban populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Ram; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T.; Shahbazi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intellectual disability (ID) is a global public health concern. Prevalence of ID and its association with age and other demographic factors is required for planning purposes in India. Objective: This study analyzed the age-adjusted prevalence of ID in rural and urban populations and its correlation with age in children and adults. Materials and Methods: Disability data published in the report (2002) of National Sample Survey Organization were analyzed, using Z-test to measure differences in age-adjusted prevalence. Spearman rho was calculated to determine strength and direction of the association, and regression analysis was used to predict prevalence rate, based on age in rural and urban population settings. Results: Overall, India has a prevalence of 10.5/1000 in ID. Urban population has slightly higher rate (11/1000) than rural (10.08/1000; P = 0.044). Age was found to be highly correlated with prevalence of ID in rural children (ϱ =0.981, P = 0.019) as well as in children (ϱ = −0.954, P = 0.000) and adults (ϱ = −0.957, P = 0.000) in urban population. The possibility of confounding or the existence of covariates for children in urban settings was noted. Conclusion: Results of this study match findings in other epidemiological studies. However, multistage, large-scale studies are recommended for investigating prevalence rates with different severity levels of ID. PMID:26752897

  18. Population-Based Prevalence of Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Western Australia: A Comparison With Previous Estimates.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Smith, Timothy; Leonard, Helen

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Western Australia (WA).A cohort of children born from 1983 to 2010 in WA with an ID and/or ASD were identified using the population-based IDEA (Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers) database, which ascertains cases through the Disability Services Commission (DSC) as well as education sources. Information on race, gender, mother's residence at birth and deaths was obtained through linkage to the Midwives Notification System and the Mortality Register. Diagnostic information on the cause of ID was obtained through review of medical records where available and children were classified as biomedical cause, ASD, or unknown cause.An overall prevalence of ID of 17.0/1000 livebirths (95% CI: 16.7, 17.4) showed an increase from the 10-year previous prevalence of 14.3/1000. The prevalence for mild or moderate ID was 15.0 (95% CI: 14.6, 15.3), severe ID was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.3), and unknown level of ID was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)/1000 livebirths. The prevalence for Aboriginal children was 39.0/1000 compared with 15.7/1000 for non-Aboriginal children, giving a prevalence ratio of 2.5 (95% CI: 2.4, 2.6). Prevalence of all ASD was 5.1/1000 of which 3.8/1000 had ASD and ID.The prevalence of ID has risen in WA over the last 10 years with most of this increase due to mild or moderate ID. Whilst the prevalence of ASD has also increased over this time this does not fully explain the observed increase. Aboriginal children are at a 2.5-fold risk of ID but are less likely to be accessing disability services. PMID:27227936

  19. Group-Specific Multiplex PCR Detection Systems for the Identification of Flying Insect Prey

    PubMed Central

    Sint, Daniela; Niederklapfer, Bettina; Kaufmann, Ruediger; Traugott, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of species-specific primers to study feeding interactions is restricted to those ecosystems where the targeted prey species occur. Therefore, group-specific primer pairs, targeting higher taxonomic levels, are often desired to investigate interactions in a range of habitats that do not share the same species but the same groups of prey. Such primers are also valuable to study the diet of generalist predators when next generation sequencing approaches cannot be applied beneficially. Moreover, due to the large range of prey consumed by generalists, it is impossible to investigate the breadth of their diet with species-specific primers, even if multiplexing them. However, only few group-specific primers are available to date and important groups of prey such as flying insects have rarely been targeted. Our aim was to fill this gap and develop group-specific primers suitable to detect and identify the DNA of common taxa of flying insects. The primers were combined in two multiplex PCR systems, which allow a time- and cost-effective screening of samples for DNA of the dipteran subsection Calyptratae (including Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Muscidae), other common dipteran families (Phoridae, Syrphidae, Bibionidae, Chironomidae, Sciaridae, Tipulidae), three orders of flying insects (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Plecoptera) and coniferous aphids within the genus Cinara. The two PCR assays were highly specific and sensitive and their suitability to detect prey was confirmed by testing field-collected dietary samples from arthropods and vertebrates. The PCR assays presented here allow targeting prey at higher taxonomic levels such as family or order and therefore improve our ability to assess (trophic) interactions with flying insects in terrestrial and aquatic habitats. PMID:25525799

  20. Rabies Group-Specific Ribonucleoprotein Antigen and a Test System for Grouping and Typing of Rhabdoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, L. G.; Dietzschold, B.; Dierks, R. E.; Matthaeus, W.; Enzmann, P.-J.; Strohmaier, K.

    1973-01-01

    Cell-associated ribonucleoprotein (RNP) was isolated from BHK-21 cells infected with several strains of rabies and rabies-related viruses. The RNP-antigen from rabies and related viruses induced the formation of complement-fixing, precipitating, and immunofluorescent antibodies, and proved to be the group-specific antigen common to all rabies viruses. Antigens of the envelope which induce virus-neutralizing antibodies are apparently determinative for the serotype of a virus as evidenced by two-way neutralization tests. A combination of these methods seems to be a useful approach to the serological grouping and typing of rhabdoviruses. Images PMID:4196634

  1. Estimating the Size of the HCV Infection Prevalence: A Modeling Approach Using the Incidence of Cases Reported to an Official Notification System.

    PubMed

    Amaku, Marcos; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Mesquita, Fabio; Naveira, Marcelo Contardo Moscoso; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Santos, Melina Érica; Massad, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we propose two methods to give a first rough estimate of the actual number of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals (prevalence) taking into account the notification rate of newly diagnosed infections (incidence of notification) and the size of the liver transplantation waiting list (LTWL) of patients with liver failure due to chronic HCV infection. Both approaches, when applied to the Brazilian HCV situation converge to the same results, that is, the methods proposed reproduce both the prevalence of reported cases and the LTWL with reasonable accuracy. We use two methods to calculate the prevalence of HCV that, as a first, and very crude approximation, assumes that the actual prevalence of HCV in Brazil is proportional to the reported incidence to the official notification system with a constant denoted [Formula: see text]. In the paper we discuss the limitations and advantages of this assumption. With the two methods we calculated [Formula: see text], which reproduces both the reported incidence and the size of the LTWL. With the value of [Formula: see text] we calculated the prevalence I(a) (the integral of which resulted in 1.6 million people living with the infection in Brazil, most of whom unidentified). Other variables related to HCV infection (e.g., the distribution of the proportion of people aged a who got infected n years ago) can be easily calculated from this model. These new variables can then be measured and the model can be recursively updated, improving its accuracy. PMID:27160282

  2. Respondent-Driven Sampling of Injection Drug Users in Two U.S.–Mexico Border Cities: Recruitment Dynamics and Impact on Estimates of HIV and Syphilis Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Firestone Cruz, Michelle A.; Ramos, Rebeca; Ramos, Maria Elena; Lozada, Remedios M.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2006-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a chain referral sampling approach, is increasingly used to recruit participants from hard-to-reach populations, such as injection drug users (IDUs). Using RDS, we recruited IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juárez, two Mexican cities bordering San Diego, CA and El Paso, TX, respectively, and compared recruitment dynamics, reported network size, and estimates of HIV and syphilis prevalence. Between February and April 2005, we used RDS to recruit IDUs in Tijuana (15 seeds, 207 recruits) and Cd. Juárez (9 seeds, 197 recruits), Mexico for a cross-sectional study of behavioral and contextual factors associated with HIV, HCV and syphilis infections. All subjects provided informed consent, an anonymous interview, and a venous blood sample for serologic testing of HIV, HCV, HBV (Cd. Juárez only) and syphilis antibody. Log-linear models were used to analyze the association between the state of the recruiter and that of the recruitee in the referral chains, and population estimates of the presence of syphilis antibody were obtained, correcting for biased sampling using RDS-based estimators. Sampling of the targeted 200 recruits per city was achieved rapidly (2 months in Tijuana, 2 weeks in Cd. Juárez). After excluding seeds and missing data, the sample prevalence of HCV, HIV and syphilis were 96.6, 1.9 and 13.5% respectively in Tijuana, and 95.3, 4.1, and 2.7% respectively in Cd. Juárez (where HBV prevalence was 84.7%). Syphilis cases were clustered in recruitment trees. RDS-corrected estimates of syphilis antibody prevalence ranged from 12.8 to 26.8% in Tijuana and from 2.9 to 15.6% in Ciudad Juárez, depending on how recruitment patterns were modeled, and assumptions about how network size affected an individual’s probability of being included in the sample. RDS was an effective method to rapidly recruit IDUs in these cities. Although the frequency of HIV was low, syphilis prevalence was high, particularly in Tijuana. RDS

  3. Variations in Substance Use Prevalence Estimates and Need for Interventions among Adult Emergency Department Patients Based on Different Screening Strategies Using the ASSIST

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Roland C.; Liu, Tao; Baird, Janette R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Among adult emergency department (ED) patients, we sought to examine how estimates of substance use prevalence and the need for interventions can differ, based on the type of screening and assessment strategies employed. Methods We estimated the prevalence of substance use and the need for interventions using the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in a secondary analysis of data from two cross-sectional studies using random samples of English- or Spanish-speaking 18–64-year-old ED patients. In addition, the test performance characteristics of three simplified screening strategies consisting of selected questions from the ASSIST (lifetime use, past three-month use, and past three-month frequency of use) to identify patients in need of a possible intervention were compared against using the full ASSIST. Results Of 6,432 adult ED patients, the median age was 37 years-old, 56.6% were female, and 61.6% were white. Estimated substance use prevalence among this population differed by how it was measured (lifetime use, past three-month use, past three-month frequency of use, or need for interventions). As compared to using the full ASSIST, the predictive value and accuracy to identify patients in need of any intervention was best for a simplified strategy asking about past three-month substance use. A strategy asking about daily/near-daily use was better in identifying patients needing intensive interventions. However, some patients needing interventions were missed when using these simplified strategies. Conclusion Substance use prevalence estimates and identification of ED patients needing interventions differ by screening strategies used. EDs should carefully select strategies to identify patients in need of substance use interventions. PMID:27330663

  4. Estimating hidden populations: a new method of calculating the prevalence of drug-injecting and non-injecting female street prostitution.

    PubMed

    Bloor, M; Leyland, A; Barnard, M; McKeganey, N

    1991-11-01

    This paper outlines a new method we have developed for estimating the prevalence of streetworking prostitution and the proportions of female street-working prostitutes who are injecting drug users. This method is based on the capture/recapture approach and involves distinguishing new fieldwork contacts from repeat field work contacts. The size of the overall population can be modelled from records of the increasing ratio of repeat to new fieldwork contacts. The method may have a relevance beyond a concern with prostitution and drug injecting, and may be of value in estimating other hidden populations. PMID:1777742

  5. National sample survey organization survey report: An estimation of prevalence of mental illness and its association with age in India

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Ram; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Indian population suffers with significant burden of mental illness. The prevalence rate and its association with age and other demographic indicators are needed for planning purpose. Objective: This study attempted to calculate age-wise prevalence of mental illness for rural and urban settings, and its association with age. Materials and Methods: Data published in National Sample Survey Organization (2002) report on disability is used for the analysis. Spearman correlation for strength of association, z-test for difference in prevalence, and regression statistics for predicting the prevalence rate of mental illness are used. Result: Overall population have 14.9/1000 prevalence of mental illness. It is higher in rural setting 17.1/1000 than urban 12.7/1000 (P < 0.001). There is a strong correlation found with age in rural (ϱ = 0.910, P = 0.001) and urban (ϱ = 0.940, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Results of this study confirm other epidemiological research in India. Large-population epidemiological studies are recommended. PMID:25552851

  6. Evidence for a bacterial mechanism for group-specific social odors among hyenas.

    PubMed

    Theis, Kevin R; Schmidt, Thomas M; Holekamp, Kay E

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic microbes can benefit their animal hosts by enhancing the diversity of communication signals available to them. The fermentation hypothesis for chemical recognition posits that 1) fermentative bacteria in specialized mammalian scent glands generate odorants that mammals co-opt to communicate with one another, and 2) that variation in scent gland odors is due to underlying variation in the structure of bacterial communities within scent glands. For example, group-specific social odors are suggested to be due to members of the same social group harboring more similar bacterial communities in their scent glands than do members of different social groups. We used 16S rRNA gene surveys to show that 1) the scent secretions of spotted hyenas are densely populated by fermentative bacteria whose closest relatives are well-documented odor producers, and that 2) these bacterial communities are more similar among hyenas from the same social group than among those from different groups. PMID:22937224

  7. Estimation of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 prevalence and levels in naturally contaminated rocket and cucumber samples by deterministic and stochastic approaches.

    PubMed

    Hadjilouka, Agni; Mantzourani, Kyriaki-Sofia; Katsarou, Anastasia; Cavaiuolo, Marina; Ferrante, Antonio; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2015-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in rocket and cucumber samples by deterministic (estimation of a single value) and stochastic (estimation of a range of values) approaches. In parallel, the chromogenic media commonly used for the recovery of these microorganisms were evaluated and compared, and the efficiency of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based protocol was validated. L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 were detected and enumerated using agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti plus RAPID' L. mono medium and Fluorocult plus sorbitol MacConkey medium with cefixime and tellurite in parallel, respectively. Identity was confirmed with biochemical and molecular tests and the ELISA. Performance indices of the media and the prevalence of both pathogens were estimated using Bayesian inference. In rocket, prevalence of both L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 was estimated at 7% (7 of 100 samples). In cucumber, prevalence was 6% (6 of 100 samples) and 3% (3 of 100 samples) for L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. The levels derived from the presence-absence data using Bayesian modeling were estimated at 0.12 CFU/25 g (0.06 to 0.20) and 0.09 CFU/25 g (0.04 to 0.170) for L. monocytogenes in rocket and cucumber samples, respectively. The corresponding values for E. coli O157:H7 were 0.59 CFU/25 g (0.43 to 0.78) and 1.78 CFU/25 g (1.38 to 2.24), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the culture media differed for rocket and cucumber samples. The ELISA technique had a high level of cross-reactivity. Parallel testing with at least two culture media was required to achieve a reliable result for L. monocytogenes or E. coli O157:H7 prevalence in rocket and cucumber samples. PMID:25710146

  8. PRECISION IN ESTIMATES OF DISABILITY PREVALENCE FOR THE POPULATION AGED 65 AND OVER IN THE UNITED STATES BY RACE AND ETHNICITY

    PubMed Central

    SIORDIA, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Populations are aging worldwide. In the United States (US), the older adult (aged ≥65) population will increase rapidly in the decades to come. Identifying public health needs in older adults requires that sample-derived estimates of disability prevalence be produced using transparent methodologies. Objectives Produce estimates of disabilities for the US older adult population by race and ethnicity and present measures on the ‘level of precision’ in the estimates. Design Cross-sectional study used American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 3-year file collected during 2009-2011 survey period. Setting Community dwelling population aged ≥65 in US. Participants The 1,494,893 actual survey participants (unweighted count) are said to represent 40,496,512 individuals after population weights are applied (weighted count). From the weighted counts, the average age is 75, about 56% are females, and most (80%) are Non-Latino-Whites (NLW). Results Qualitative comparisons provide some evidence that except for hearing, disability prevalence is highest in Non-Latino-Blacks along the following disability items: independent living (25%); ambulatory (34%); self-care (15%); cognitive (11%); and vision (11%). Person inflation ratios, width of 95% confidence interval, and rates of allocations are smaller in NLWs than all the other race-ethnic groups—suggesting disability estimates for NLWs merit the highest level of confidence. Conclusions Improving measures of health in the older adult population requires that efforts continue to highlight how estimates of disability prevalence have the potential to vary in precision and as a function of various known and unknown factors. PMID:26258112

  9. Estimated Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Sample of Panamanian School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Emelyn Y.; Velarde, Silvia; Britton, Gabrielle B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of ADHD in a school sample of children ages 6-11 years in the city of Panama. The assessment battery included the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales, the Structured Developmental History of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2), and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children…

  10. Trends in Incidence Rates during 1999-2008 and Prevalence in 2008 of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in GERMANY – Model-Based National Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Kiess, Wieland; Kapellen, Thomas Michael; Stange, Thoralf; Manuwald, Ulf; Salzsieder, Eckhard; Holl, Reinhard Walter; Schoffer, Olaf; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Giani, Guido; Ehehalt, Stefan; Neu, Andreas; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Aims To estimate the national incidence rate and trend of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in Germany from 1999 to 2008 and the national prevalence in 2008 in the age group 0–14 years. Methods Data were taken from a nationwide registry for incident cases of T1DM in the ages 0–4 years and 3 regional registries (North-Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Wuerttemberg and Saxony) for incident cases of T1DM in the ages 0–14 years covering 41% of the child population in Germany. The degree of ascertainment was ≥ 97% in all registries. Incident and prevalent cases were grouped by region, sex, age (0–4, 5–9, 10–14 years), and, for incident data, additionally by two 5-year periods (1999–2003, 2004–2008). Poisson regression models were fitted to the data to derive national estimates of incidence rate trends and prevalence in the age groups 5–9, 10–14 and 0–14 years. We used direct age-standardization. Results The estimated national incidence rate in 0-14-year-olds increased significantly by 18.1% (95%CI: 11.6–25.0%, p<0.001) from 1999–2003 to 2004–2008, independent of sex, corresponding to an average annual increase of 3.4% (95%-CI: 2.2–4.6%). The overall incidence rate was estimated at 22.9 per 100,000 person-years and we identified a within-country west-east-gradient previously unknown. The national prevalence in the ages 0–14 years on 31/12/2008 was estimated to be 148.1 per 100,000 persons. Conclusions The national incidence rate of childhood T1DM in Germany is higher than in many other countries around the world. Importantly, the estimated trend of the incidence rate confirms the international data of a global increase of T1DM incidences. PMID:26181330

  11. Group-specific comparison of four lactobacilli isolated from human sources using differential blast analysis.

    PubMed

    Altermann, Eric; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2011-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used in fermentation processes for centuries. More recent applications including the use of LAB as probiotics have significantly increased industrial interest. Here we present a comparative genomic analysis of four completely sequenced Lactobacillus strains, isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract, versus 25 lactic acid bacterial genomes present in the public database at the time of analysis. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533, Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC33323, and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1are all considered probiotic and widely used in industrial applications. Using Differential Blast Analysis (DBA), each genome was compared to the respective remaining three other Lactobacillus and 25 other LAB genomes. DBA highlighted strain-specific genes that were not represented in any other LAB used in this analysis and also identified group-specific genes shared within lactobacilli. Initial comparative analyses highlighted a significant number of genes involved in cell adhesion, stress responses, DNA repair and modification, and metabolic capabilities. Furthermore, the range of the recently identified potential autonomous units (PAUs) was broadened significantly, indicating the possibility of distinct families within this genetic element. Based on in silico results obtained for the model organism L. acidophilus NCFM, DBA proved to be a valuable tool to identify new key genetic regions for functional genomics and also suggested re-classification of previously annotated genes. PMID:21484153

  12. Functional group-specific traits drive phytoplankton dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Harriet; Rouco, Mónica; Haley, Sheean T.; Wilson, Samuel T.; Karl, David M.; Dyhrman, Sonya T.

    2015-01-01

    A diverse microbial assemblage in the ocean is responsible for nearly half of global primary production. It has been hypothesized and experimentally demonstrated that nutrient loading can stimulate blooms of large eukaryotic phytoplankton in oligotrophic systems. Although central to balancing biogeochemical models, knowledge of the metabolic traits that govern the dynamics of these bloom-forming phytoplankton is limited. We used eukaryotic metatranscriptomic techniques to identify the metabolic basis of functional group-specific traits that may drive the shift between net heterotrophy and autotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean. Replicated blooms were simulated by deep seawater (DSW) addition to mimic nutrient loading in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, and the transcriptional responses of phytoplankton functional groups were assayed. Responses of the diatom, haptophyte, and dinoflagellate functional groups in simulated blooms were unique, with diatoms and haptophytes significantly (95% confidence) shifting their quantitative metabolic fingerprint from the in situ condition, whereas dinoflagellates showed little response. Significantly differentially abundant genes identified the importance of colimitation by nutrients, metals, and vitamins in eukaryotic phytoplankton metabolism and bloom formation in this system. The variable transcript allocation ratio, used to quantify transcript reallocation following DSW amendment, differed for diatoms and haptophytes, reflecting the long-standing paradigm of phytoplankton r- and K-type growth strategies. Although the underlying metabolic potential of the large eukaryotic phytoplankton was consistently present, the lack of a bloom during the study period suggests a crucial dependence on physical and biogeochemical forcing, which are susceptible to alteration with changing climate. PMID:26460011

  13. Functional group-specific traits drive phytoplankton dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Harriet; Rouco, Mónica; Haley, Sheean T; Wilson, Samuel T; Karl, David M; Dyhrman, Sonya T

    2015-11-01

    A diverse microbial assemblage in the ocean is responsible for nearly half of global primary production. It has been hypothesized and experimentally demonstrated that nutrient loading can stimulate blooms of large eukaryotic phytoplankton in oligotrophic systems. Although central to balancing biogeochemical models, knowledge of the metabolic traits that govern the dynamics of these bloom-forming phytoplankton is limited. We used eukaryotic metatranscriptomic techniques to identify the metabolic basis of functional group-specific traits that may drive the shift between net heterotrophy and autotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean. Replicated blooms were simulated by deep seawater (DSW) addition to mimic nutrient loading in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, and the transcriptional responses of phytoplankton functional groups were assayed. Responses of the diatom, haptophyte, and dinoflagellate functional groups in simulated blooms were unique, with diatoms and haptophytes significantly (95% confidence) shifting their quantitative metabolic fingerprint from the in situ condition, whereas dinoflagellates showed little response. Significantly differentially abundant genes identified the importance of colimitation by nutrients, metals, and vitamins in eukaryotic phytoplankton metabolism and bloom formation in this system. The variable transcript allocation ratio, used to quantify transcript reallocation following DSW amendment, differed for diatoms and haptophytes, reflecting the long-standing paradigm of phytoplankton r- and K-type growth strategies. Although the underlying metabolic potential of the large eukaryotic phytoplankton was consistently present, the lack of a bloom during the study period suggests a crucial dependence on physical and biogeochemical forcing, which are susceptible to alteration with changing climate. PMID:26460011

  14. Estimating minimum adult HIV prevalence: a cross-sectional study to assess the characteristics of people living with HIV in Italy.

    PubMed

    Camoni, Laura; Raimondo, Mariangela; Dorrucci, Maria; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Suligoi, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    In 2012, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to assess the number of people living with HIV linked to care and, among these, the number of people on antiretroviral therapy. The health authority in each of the 20 Italian Regions provided the list of Public Infectious Diseases Clinics providing antiretroviral therapy and monitoring people with HIV infection. We asked every Public Infectious Diseases Clinic to report the number of HIV-positive people diagnosed and linked to care and the number of those on antiretroviral therapy during 2012. In 2012, 94,146 people diagnosed with HIV and linked to care were reported. The majority were males (70.1%), Italians (84.4%), and aged between 25 and 49 years (63.4%); the probable route of transmission was heterosexual contact in 37.5% of cases, injecting drug use in 28.1%, and male-to-male contact in 27.9%. Among people in care, 20.1% had less than 350 CD4 cells/μl, 87.6% received antiretroviral therapy, and among these, 62.4% had a CD4 cell count higher than 350 cells/μl. The overall estimated prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care in 2012 in Italy was 0.16 per 100 residents (all ages). Adding the estimated proportion of undiagnosed people, the estimated HIV prevalence would range between 0.19 and 0.26 per 100 residents. In Italy, the majority of people diagnosed and linked to care receive antiretroviral therapy. A higher prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care was observed in Northern Italy and among males. More information for developing the HIV care continuum is necessary to improve the entire engagement in care, focusing on test-and-treat strategies to substantially reduce the proportion of people still undiagnosed or with a detectable viral load. PMID:25432098

  15. Estimating Minimum Adult HIV Prevalence: A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess the Characteristics of People Living with HIV in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Mariangela; Dorrucci, Maria; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Suligoi, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2012, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to assess the number of people living with HIV linked to care and, among these, the number of people on antiretroviral therapy. The health authority in each of the 20 Italian Regions provided the list of Public Infectious Diseases Clinics providing antiretroviral therapy and monitoring people with HIV infection. We asked every Public Infectious Diseases Clinic to report the number of HIV-positive people diagnosed and linked to care and the number of those on antiretroviral therapy during 2012. In 2012, 94,146 people diagnosed with HIV and linked to care were reported. The majority were males (70.1%), Italians (84.4%), and aged between 25 and 49 years (63.4%); the probable route of transmission was heterosexual contact in 37.5% of cases, injecting drug use in 28.1%, and male-to-male contact in 27.9%. Among people in care, 20.1% had less than 350 CD4 cells/μl, 87.6% received antiretroviral therapy, and among these, 62.4% had a CD4 cell count higher than 350 cells/μl. The overall estimated prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care in 2012 in Italy was 0.16 per 100 residents (all ages). Adding the estimated proportion of undiagnosed people, the estimated HIV prevalence would range between 0.19 and 0.26 per 100 residents. In Italy, the majority of people diagnosed and linked to care receive antiretroviral therapy. A higher prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care was observed in Northern Italy and among males. More information for developing the HIV care continuum is necessary to improve the entire engagement in care, focusing on test-and-treat strategies to substantially reduce the proportion of people still undiagnosed or with a detectable viral load. PMID:25432098

  16. Cross sectional study estimating prevalence of heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction in community patients at risk

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, O; Hilden, J; Larsen, C; Hansen, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine a general practice population to measure the prevalence of signs and symptoms of heart failure (SSHF) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD).
DESIGN—Cross sectional screening study in three general practices followed by echocardiography.
SETTING AND PATIENTS—All patients ⩾ 50 years in two general practices and ⩾ 40 years in one general practice were screened by case record reviews and questionnaires (n = 2158), to identify subjects with some evidence of heart disease. Among these, subjects were sought who had SSHF (n = 115). Of 357 subjects with evidence of heart disease, 252 were eligible for examination, and 126 underwent further cardiological assessment, including 43 with SSHF.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of SSHF as defined by a modified Boston index, LVSD defined as an indirectly measured left ventricular ejection fraction ⩽ 0.45, and numbers of subjects needing an echocardiogram to detect one case with LVSD.
RESULTS—SSHF afflicted 0.5% of quadragenarians and rose to 11.7% of octogenarians. Two thirds were handled in primary care only. At ⩾ 50 years of age 6.4% had SSHF, 2.9% had LVSD, and 1.9% (95% confidence interval 1.3% to 2.5%) had both. To detect one case with LVSD in primary care, 14 patients with evidence of heart disease without SSHF and 5.5 patients with SSHF had to be examined.
CONCLUSION—SSHF is extremely prevalent in the community, especially in primary care, but more than two thirds do not have LVSD. The number of subjects with some evidence of heart disease needing an echocardiogram to detect one case of LVSD is 14.


Keywords: heart failure; left ventricular systolic dysfunction PMID:11454835

  17. Predicting mortality from burns: the need for age-group specific models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra L; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-09-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000 to 2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. "One size fits all" models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  18. Using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing and Interactive Voice Response to Measure Elder Mistreatment in Older Adults: Feasibility and Effects on Prevalence Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Scott R.; Schulz, Richard; Degenholtz, Howard B.; Castle, Nicholas G.; Rosen, Jules; Fox, Andrea R.; Morycz, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Demographic trends indicate an aging population, highlighting the importance of collecting valid survey data from older adults. One potential issue when surveying older adults is use of technology to collect data on sensitive topics. Survey technologies like A-CASI and IVR have not been used with older adults to measure elder mistreatment. We surveyed 903 adults age 60 and older in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania (U.S.) with random assignment to one of four survey modes: (1) CAPI, (2) A-CASI, (3) CATI; and (4) IVR. We assessed financial, psychological, and physical mistreatment, and examined feasibility of A-CASI and IVR, and effects on prevalence estimates relative to CAPI and CATI. Approximately 83% of elders randomized to A-CASI/IVR used each technology, although 28% of respondents in the A-CASI condition refused to use headphones and read the questions instead. A-CASI produced higher six month prevalence rates of financial and psychological mistreatment than CAPI. IVR produced higher six month prevalence rates of psychological mistreatment than CATI. We conclude that, while IVR may be useful, A-CASI offers a more promising approach to the measurement of elder mistreatment. PMID:21113391

  19. The Impact of DSM-IV Symptom and Clinical Significance Criteria on the Prevalence Estimates of Subthreshold and Threshold Anxiety in the Older Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, Sébastien; Préville, Michel; Boyer, Richard; O’Connor, Kieron; Béland, Sarah-Gabrielle; Potvin, Olivier; Hudon, Carol; Brassard, Joëlle

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Subthreshold anxiety refers to a condition where individuals do not meet the full symptom criteria (i.e., the number of symptoms required for a formal diagnosis is not reached) and/or do not report significant impairment or distress in functioning (i.e., the clinical significance criterion is not met). The purpose of this study was to examine how the symptom and the clinical significance criteria may affect the prevalence estimates of anxiety problems in the older adult population and whether applying these criteria results in an identifiable older group showing more severe anxiety. Setting and Participants Data came from a large representative sample of community-dwelling older adults age 65 years and older (N = 2,784). Results Results showed that the 12-month prevalence rate of any anxiety problem varied from 5.6% when DSM-IV criteria for anxiety disorders were used to 26.2% when all subthreshold manifestations of anxiety were considered. Findings also indicated that when compared with respondents without anxiety, older adults presenting different manifestations of subthreshold or threshold anxiety appear to be more similar than different in their health and health behavior characteristics. Conclusions Subthreshold anxiety has a high prevalence and may cause significant impairment. Both symptom and clinical significance criteria do not perfectly discriminate between older adults with or without a severe anxiety problem presenting comorbid disorders and needing psychiatric help. PMID:21427640

  20. Cost and sensitivity of on-farm versus slaughterhouse surveys for prevalence estimation and substantiating freedom from disease.

    PubMed

    Schärrer, Sara; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Presi, Patrick; Lindberg, Ann; Zinsstag, Jakob; Reist, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Within the framework of Swiss surveillance for epizootic diseases, dairy cattle are sampled using bulk tank milk while non-dairy cattle are sampled on the farm. The latter method is costly, time-demanding and dangerous for the personnel. However, slaughterhouses could be an alternative sampling point for this population. To assess the cost-effectiveness and sensitivity of such an approach, surveillance using slaughterhouse sampling was modelled with data from the 2012 Swiss animal movement database (AMD). We simulated a cross-sectional study for bluetongue (BT), and surveillance programmes to substantiate freedom from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) (combined) to compare the outcome of random on-farm sampling versus slaughterhouse sampling. We found that, under Swiss conditions, slaughterhouse sampling results in low herd-level sensitivities because animals are sent by owners to slaughter individually and not in large groups, restricting the number of samples per herd. This makes slaughterhouse sampling inappropriate for prevalence surveys at the herd-level. However, for prevalence surveys at the animal-level and for substantiation of freedom from disease, slaughterhouse surveillance is equally or more cost-efficient than on-farm sampling. PMID:25724077

  1. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In South and Southeast Asian countries, tobacco is consumed in diverse forms, and smoking among women is very low. We aimed to provide national estimates of prevalence and social determinants of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men and women separately. Methods Data from Demographic and Health Surveys completed in nine countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Timor Leste) were analyzed. Current smoking or smokeless tobacco use was assessed as response “yes” to one or more of three questions, such as “Do you currently smoke cigarettes?” Weighted country-level prevalence rates for socio-economic subgroups were calculated for smoking and smokeless tobacco use. Binary logistic regression analyses were done on STATA/IC (version 10) by ‘svy’ command. Results Prevalence and type of tobacco use among men and women varied across the countries and among socio-economic sub groups. Smoking prevalence was much lower in women than men in all countries. Smoking among men was very high in Indonesia, Maldives, and Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco (mainly chewable) was used in diverse forms, particularly in India, among both men and women. Chewing tobacco was common in Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Cambodia. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with higher age, lower education, and poverty, but their association with place of residence and marital status was not uniform between men and women across the countries. Conclusion Policymakers should consider type of tobacco consumption and their differentials among various population subgroups to implement country-specific tobacco control policies and target the vulnerable groups. Smokeless tobacco use should also be prioritized in tobacco control efforts. PMID:25183954

  2. Exonic Splicing Mutations Are More Prevalent than Currently Estimated and Can Be Predicted by Using In Silico Tools

    PubMed Central

    Soukarieh, Omar; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Hamieh, Mohamad; Drouet, Aurélie; Baert-Desurmont, Stéphanie; Frébourg, Thierry; Tosi, Mario; Martins, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a causal mutation is essential for molecular diagnosis and clinical management of many genetic disorders. However, even if next-generation exome sequencing has greatly improved the detection of nucleotide changes, the biological interpretation of most exonic variants remains challenging. Moreover, particular attention is typically given to protein-coding changes often neglecting the potential impact of exonic variants on RNA splicing. Here, we used the exon 10 of MLH1, a gene implicated in hereditary cancer, as a model system to assess the prevalence of RNA splicing mutations among all single-nucleotide variants identified in a given exon. We performed comprehensive minigene assays and analyzed patient’s RNA when available. Our study revealed a staggering number of splicing mutations in MLH1 exon 10 (77% of the 22 analyzed variants), including mutations directly affecting splice sites and, particularly, mutations altering potential splicing regulatory elements (ESRs). We then used this thoroughly characterized dataset, together with experimental data derived from previous studies on BRCA1, BRCA2, CFTR and NF1, to evaluate the predictive power of 3 in silico approaches recently described as promising tools for pinpointing ESR-mutations. Our results indicate that ΔtESRseq and ΔHZEI-based approaches not only discriminate which variants affect splicing, but also predict the direction and severity of the induced splicing defects. In contrast, the ΔΨ-based approach did not show a compelling predictive power. Our data indicates that exonic splicing mutations are more prevalent than currently appreciated and that they can now be predicted by using bioinformatics methods. These findings have implications for all genetically-caused diseases. PMID:26761715

  3. Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

  4. Wikipedia Usage Estimates Prevalence of Influenza-Like Illness in the United States in Near Real-Time

    PubMed Central

    McIver, David J.; Brownstein, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating levels of both seasonal and pandemic influenza require constant surveillance to ensure the health and safety of the population. While up-to-date information is critical, traditional surveillance systems can have data availability lags of up to two weeks. We introduce a novel method of estimating, in near-real time, the level of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States (US) by monitoring the rate of particular Wikipedia article views on a daily basis. We calculated the number of times certain influenza- or health-related Wikipedia articles were accessed each day between December 2007 and August 2013 and compared these data to official ILI activity levels provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We developed a Poisson model that accurately estimates the level of ILI activity in the American population, up to two weeks ahead of the CDC, with an absolute average difference between the two estimates of just 0.27% over 294 weeks of data. Wikipedia-derived ILI models performed well through both abnormally high media coverage events (such as during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic) as well as unusually severe influenza seasons (such as the 2012–2013 influenza season). Wikipedia usage accurately estimated the week of peak ILI activity 17% more often than Google Flu Trends data and was often more accurate in its measure of ILI intensity. With further study, this method could potentially be implemented for continuous monitoring of ILI activity in the US and to provide support for traditional influenza surveillance tools. PMID:24743682

  5. Estimating prevalence and burden of major disorders of the brain in Nepal: cultural, geographic, logistic and philosophical issues of methodology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Headache, anxiety and depression are major disorders of the brain in terms of their prevalence and the burdens and costs they impose on society. Nationwide population-based studies of these disorders are necessary to inform health policy but, in research-naïve and resource-poor countries such as Nepal, a host of methodological problems are encountered: cultural, geographic, logistic and philosophical. Methods Expert consensus was sought among researchers from different professional and cultural backgrounds in planning and conceptualizing an epidemiological study and adapting established methods to the special situation and circumstances of Nepal. Results The methodological problems were sorted into different themes: study design; climate; geography, access and transport; sociocultural issues; safety of interviewers. Each of these was dealt with separately, and their inter-relationships explored, in finding solutions that were sometimes pragmatic. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study, with teams of interviewers visiting households across the three physiographic divisions (with extremes in altitude) in each of the five development regions of the country, would enable national sampling with sociocultural representativeness. However, the study instruments and interviews would be in Nepali only. Transport and access challenges were considerable, and their solutions combined travel by air, bus, river and foot, with allowances for rain-damaged roads, collapsed bridges and cancelled scheduled flights. The monsoon would render many routes impassable, and therefore set an absolute time limitation. Engaging participants willingly in the enquiry would be the key to success, and several tactics would be employed to enhance the success of this, most importantly enlisting the support of local community volunteers in each study site. Conclusion Anticipating problems in advance of investing substantial resources in a large nationwide epidemiological study in

  6. Hate crimes and stigma-related experiences among sexual minority adults in the United States: prevalence estimates from a national probability sample.

    PubMed

    Herek, Gregory M

    2009-01-01

    Using survey responses collected via the Internet from a U.S. national probability sample of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this article reports prevalence estimates of criminal victimization and related experiences based on the target's sexual orientation. Approximately 20% of respondents reported having experienced a person or property crime based on their sexual orientation; about half had experienced verbal harassment, and more than 1 in 10 reported having experienced employment or housing discrimination. Gay men were significantly more likely than lesbians or bisexuals to experience violence and property crimes. Employment and housing discrimination were significantly more likely among gay men and lesbians than among bisexual men and women. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. PMID:18391058

  7. Data from frequency-volume charts versus filling cystometric estimated capacities and prevalence of instability in men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    van Venrooij, Ger E P M; Eckhardt, Mardy D; Gisolf, Karel W H; Boon, Tom A

    2002-01-01

    The aim was to examine associations of filling cystometric estimated compliance, capacities, and prevalence of bladder instability with data from frequency-volume charts in a well-defined group of men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Men with LUTS suggestive of BPH were included if they met the criteria of the International Consensus Committee on BPH, i.e., they voided more than 150 mL during uroflowmetry, their residual volume and prostate size were estimated, and they completed frequency-volume charts correctly. From the frequency-volume charts, voiding habits, and fluid intake in the daytime and at night were evaluated. Filling cystometric studies were performed in these men as well. Decreased compliance was an exceptional finding. Cystometric capacity and especially effective capacity (cystometric capacity minus residual volume) corresponded significantly with the maximum voided volume on the frequency-volume charts. Effective capacity was almost twice as high as the average voided volume. Minimum voided volume on frequency-volume charts was not related to filling cystometric data. The presence of instability in the supine or sitting position or in both positions was not significantly associated with smaller voided volumes, higher nocturia, or diuria. Filling cystometric capacities were strongly associated with maximal and mean voided volumes derived from frequency-volume charts. The presence of detrusor instability during filling cystometry did not significantly affect voided volumes, diuria, or nocturia PMID:11857662

  8. Higher Estimated Net Endogenous Acid Production May Be Associated with Increased Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Adults in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ruth; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Chu, Winnie Chiu-Wing; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Li, Liz Sin; Leung, Jason; Chim, Angel Mei-Ling; Yeung, David Ka-Wai; Sea, Mandy Man-Mei; Woo, Jean; Chan, Francis Ka-Leung; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been associated with reduced growth hormone levels and signaling. Such hormonal changes also occur in metabolic acidosis. Since mild metabolic acidosis can be diet induced, diet-induced acid load may constitute a nutritional factor with possible influence on NAFLD development. This study explored whether a higher diet-induced acid load is associated with an increased likelihood of NAFLD. Apparently healthy Chinese adults (330 male, 463 female) aged 19-72 years were recruited through population screening between 2008 and 2010 in a cross-sectional population-based study in Hong Kong. Estimated net endogenous acid production (NEAP) was calculated using Frassetto’s method and potential renal acid load (PRAL) was calculated using Remer’s method based on dietary data from a food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as intrahepatic triglyceride content at >5% by proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Possible advanced fibrosis was defined as liver stiffness at >7.9 kPa by transient elastography. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between each measure of dietary acid load and prevalent NAFLD or possible advanced fibrosis with adjustment for potential anthropometric and lifestyle factors. 220 subjects (27.7%) were diagnosed with NAFLD. Estimated NEAP was positively associated with the likelihood of having NAFLD after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, current drinker status and the presence of metabolic syndrome [OR (95% CI) = 1.25 (1.02-1.52), p = 0.022]. The association was slightly attenuated but remained significant when the model was further adjusted for other dietary variables. No association between PRAL and NAFLD prevalence was observed. Both estimated NEAP and PRAL were not associated with the presence of possible advance fibrosis. Our findings suggest that there may be a modest association between diet-induced acid load and NAFLD. More studies are needed to

  9. Multi-scale occupancy approach to estimate Toxoplasma gondii prevalence and detection probability in tissues: an application and guide for field sampling.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Stacey A; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Bailey, Larissa L; Iqbal, Asma; Su, Chunlei; Dixon, Brent R; Alisauskas, Ray T; Gajadhar, Alvin A; Jenkins, Emily J

    2016-08-01

    Increasingly, birds are recognised as important hosts for the ubiquitous parasite Toxoplasma gondii, although little experimental evidence exists to determine which tissues should be tested to maximise the detection probability of T. gondii. Also, Arctic-nesting geese are suspected to be important sources of T. gondii in terrestrial Arctic ecosystems, but the parasite has not previously been reported in the tissues of these geese. Using a domestic goose model, we applied a multi-scale occupancy framework to demonstrate that the probability of detection of T. gondii was highest in the brain (0.689, 95% confidence interval=0.486, 0.839) and the heart (0.809, 95% confidence interval=0.693, 0.888). Inoculated geese had an estimated T. gondii infection probability of 0.849, (95% confidence interval=0.643, 0.946), highlighting uncertainty in the system, even under experimental conditions. Guided by these results, we tested the brains and hearts of wild Ross's Geese (Chen rossii, n=50) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens, n=50) from Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. We detected 51 suspected positive tissue samples from 33 wild geese using real-time PCR with melt-curve analysis. The wild goose prevalence estimates generated by our multi-scale occupancy analysis were higher than the naïve estimates of prevalence, indicating that multiple PCR repetitions on the same organs and testing more than one organ could improve T. gondii detection. Genetic characterisation revealed Type III T. gondii alleles in six wild geese and Sarcocystis spp. in 25 samples. Our study demonstrates that Arctic nesting geese are capable of harbouring T. gondii in their tissues and could transport the parasite from their southern overwintering grounds into the Arctic region. We demonstrate how a multi-scale occupancy framework can be used in a domestic animal model to guide resource-limited sample collection and tissue analysis in wildlife. Secondly, we confirm the value of traditional occupancy in

  10. The Use of Innovative Two-Component Cluster Analysis and Serodiagnostic Cut-Off Methods to Estimate Prevalence of Pertussis Reinfections.

    PubMed

    van Twillert, Inonge; Bonačić Marinović, Axel A; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A M; Kuipers, Betsy; Berbers, Guy A M; van der Maas, Nicoline A T; Verheij, Theo J M; Versteegh, Florens G A; Teunis, Peter F M; van Els, Cécile A C M

    2016-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis circulates even in highly vaccinated countries affecting all age groups. Insight into the scale of concealed reinfections is important as they may contribute to transmission. We therefore investigated whether current single-point serodiagnostic methods are suitable to estimate the prevalence of pertussis reinfection. Two methods based on IgG-Ptx plasma levels alone were used to evaluate the proportion of renewed seroconversions in the past year in a cohort of retrospective pertussis cases ≥ 24 months after a proven earlier symptomatic infection. A Dutch population database was used as a baseline. Applying a classical 62.5 IU/ml IgG-Ptx cut-off, we calculated a seroprevalence of 15% in retrospective cases, higher than the 10% observed in the population baseline. However, this method could not discriminate between renewed seroconversion and waning of previously infection-enhanced IgG-Ptx levels. Two-component cluster analysis of the IgG-Ptx datasets of both pertussis cases and the general population revealed a continuum of intermediate IgG-Ptx levels, preventing the establishment of a positive population and the comparison of prevalence by this alternative method. Next, we investigated the complementary serodiagnostic value of IgA-Ptx levels. When modelling datasets including both convalescent and retrospective cases we obtained new cut-offs for both IgG-Ptx and IgA-Ptx that were optimized to evaluate renewed seroconversions in the ex-cases target population. Combining these cut-offs two-dimensionally, we calculated 8.0% reinfections in retrospective cases, being below the baseline seroprevalence. Our study for the first time revealed the shortcomings of using only IgG-Ptx data in conventional serodiagnostic methods to determine pertussis reinfections. Improved results can be obtained with two-dimensional serodiagnostic profiling. The proportion of reinfections thus established suggests a relatively increased period of protection to renewed

  11. The Use of Innovative Two-Component Cluster Analysis and Serodiagnostic Cut-Off Methods to Estimate Prevalence of Pertussis Reinfections

    PubMed Central

    van Twillert, Inonge; Bonačić Marinović, Axel A.; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A. M.; Kuipers, Betsy; Berbers, Guy A. M.; van der Maas, Nicoline A. T.; Verheij, Theo J. M.; Versteegh, Florens G. A.; Teunis, Peter F. M.; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis circulates even in highly vaccinated countries affecting all age groups. Insight into the scale of concealed reinfections is important as they may contribute to transmission. We therefore investigated whether current single-point serodiagnostic methods are suitable to estimate the prevalence of pertussis reinfection. Two methods based on IgG-Ptx plasma levels alone were used to evaluate the proportion of renewed seroconversions in the past year in a cohort of retrospective pertussis cases ≥ 24 months after a proven earlier symptomatic infection. A Dutch population database was used as a baseline. Applying a classical 62.5 IU/ml IgG-Ptx cut-off, we calculated a seroprevalence of 15% in retrospective cases, higher than the 10% observed in the population baseline. However, this method could not discriminate between renewed seroconversion and waning of previously infection-enhanced IgG-Ptx levels. Two-component cluster analysis of the IgG-Ptx datasets of both pertussis cases and the general population revealed a continuum of intermediate IgG-Ptx levels, preventing the establishment of a positive population and the comparison of prevalence by this alternative method. Next, we investigated the complementary serodiagnostic value of IgA-Ptx levels. When modelling datasets including both convalescent and retrospective cases we obtained new cut-offs for both IgG-Ptx and IgA-Ptx that were optimized to evaluate renewed seroconversions in the ex-cases target population. Combining these cut-offs two-dimensionally, we calculated 8.0% reinfections in retrospective cases, being below the baseline seroprevalence. Our study for the first time revealed the shortcomings of using only IgG-Ptx data in conventional serodiagnostic methods to determine pertussis reinfections. Improved results can be obtained with two-dimensional serodiagnostic profiling. The proportion of reinfections thus established suggests a relatively increased period of protection to renewed

  12. [ASRS v.1.1., a tool for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder screening in adults treated for addictive behaviors: psychometric properties and estimated prevalence].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Puerta García, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    ASRS v.1.1. is a self-applied brief instrument for the screening of individuals presenting symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and proposed by the WHO. The purpose of the present work was to test the instrument and examine the results of its application to a sample of 280 individuals in treatment for substance-related disorders (cross-sectional descriptive study). We administered simultaneously in the initial phases of treatment the ASRS v.1.1. (short form) and the MCMI-II to the full sample and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), ADHD-Rating Scale-IV and ASRS v.1.1. (complete form) to various sub-samples. Diagnostic interviews were also carried out and the psychometric properties and factorial structure of ASRS v.1.1. were explored. Good convergent validity, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic capability were obtained for the six-item version of ASRS v.1.1., even though 4 out of 6 items did not discriminate between Axis I and II disorders assessed through the MCMI-II and diagnostic interviews. According to DSM-IV-TR criteria the estimated prevalence of ADHD in the sample of addicts was 8.2%. ASRS v.1.1. is criticized as a specific instrument for ADHD detection, since most of its items appear to measure a non-specific dimension of compulsiveness/impulsiveness, common to Axis-I and Axis-II disorders. Other criticisms made in the discussion concern the lack of specificity of DSM criteria and the confusion they generate among the concepts of symptom, sign and trait (including the impact on study results), the general use of the A criterion but the omission of the B, C, D and E criteria of the DSM category, differences in samples (with regard to both severity and selection criteria), and the artifactual increases in prevalence found in many studies. PMID:18173102

  13. Optimal Cut-Off Points of Fasting Plasma Glucose for Two-Step Strategy in Estimating Prevalence and Screening Undiagnosed Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes in Harbin, China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Lan, Li; Cui, Wenxiu; Xu, Guohua; Sui, Conglan; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yashuang; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongyuan

    2015-01-01

    To identify optimal cut-off points of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for two-step strategy in screening abnormal glucose metabolism and estimating prevalence in general Chinese population. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 7913 people aged 20 to 74 years in Harbin. Diabetes and pre-diabetes were determined by fasting and 2 hour post-load glucose from the oral glucose tolerance test in all participants. Screening potential of FPG, cost per case identified by two-step strategy, and optimal FPG cut-off points were described. The prevalence of diabetes was 12.7%, of which 65.2% was undiagnosed. Twelve percent or 9.0% of participants were diagnosed with pre-diabetes using 2003 ADA criteria or 1999 WHO criteria, respectively. The optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy were 5.6 mmol/l for previously undiagnosed diabetes (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of FPG 0.93; sensitivity 82.0%; cost per case identified by two-step strategy ¥261), 5.3 mmol/l for both diabetes and pre-diabetes or pre-diabetes alone using 2003 ADA criteria (0.89 or 0.85; 72.4% or 62.9%; ¥110 or ¥258), 5.0 mmol/l for pre-diabetes using 1999 WHO criteria (0.78; 66.8%; ¥399), and 4.9 mmol/l for IGT alone (0.74; 62.2%; ¥502). Using the two-step strategy, the underestimates of prevalence reduced to nearly 38% for pre-diabetes or 18.7% for undiagnosed diabetes, respectively. Approximately a quarter of the general population in Harbin was in hyperglycemic condition. Using optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy in Chinese population may be more effective and less costly for reducing the missed diagnosis of hyperglycemic condition. PMID:25785585

  14. Optimal cut-off points of fasting plasma glucose for two-step strategy in estimating prevalence and screening undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes in Harbin, China.

    PubMed

    Bao, Chundan; Zhang, Dianfeng; Sun, Bo; Lan, Li; Cui, Wenxiu; Xu, Guohua; Sui, Conglan; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yashuang; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongyuan

    2015-01-01

    To identify optimal cut-off points of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for two-step strategy in screening abnormal glucose metabolism and estimating prevalence in general Chinese population. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 7913 people aged 20 to 74 years in Harbin. Diabetes and pre-diabetes were determined by fasting and 2 hour post-load glucose from the oral glucose tolerance test in all participants. Screening potential of FPG, cost per case identified by two-step strategy, and optimal FPG cut-off points were described. The prevalence of diabetes was 12.7%, of which 65.2% was undiagnosed. Twelve percent or 9.0% of participants were diagnosed with pre-diabetes using 2003 ADA criteria or 1999 WHO criteria, respectively. The optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy were 5.6 mmol/l for previously undiagnosed diabetes (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of FPG 0.93; sensitivity 82.0%; cost per case identified by two-step strategy ¥261), 5.3 mmol/l for both diabetes and pre-diabetes or pre-diabetes alone using 2003 ADA criteria (0.89 or 0.85; 72.4% or 62.9%; ¥110 or ¥258), 5.0 mmol/l for pre-diabetes using 1999 WHO criteria (0.78; 66.8%; ¥399), and 4.9 mmol/l for IGT alone (0.74; 62.2%; ¥502). Using the two-step strategy, the underestimates of prevalence reduced to nearly 38% for pre-diabetes or 18.7% for undiagnosed diabetes, respectively. Approximately a quarter of the general population in Harbin was in hyperglycemic condition. Using optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy in Chinese population may be more effective and less costly for reducing the missed diagnosis of hyperglycemic condition. PMID:25785585

  15. Isolation of a Bluetongue virus group-specific monoclonal antibody and application to a diagnostic competitive ELISA.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Y; Sun, E C; Yang, T; Feng, Y F; Geng, H W; Wei, T; Li, J P; Sun, L; Sun, J; Xi, N; Zhang, Q; Wang, H X; Liu, E Z; Bu, Z G; Wu, D L

    2015-01-01

    The Bluetongue virus (BTV) VP7 protein represents an important group-specific antigen that can serve as a basis for diagnostic tests. Here, we report the generation of a novel BTV group-specific monoclonal antibody (Mab; herein named 4H7) that recognizes a conformational epitope in the VP7 protein. We used a phage-displayed peptide screen and site-directed mutagenesis to define the VP7 amino acid residues that most strongly contribute to the conformational epitope recognized by Mab 4H7. Amino acid residues at positions 175, 185, 186, and 278 of the BTV VP7 protein strongly contributed to Mab 4H7 binding. These key amino acid residues are conserved among all BTV serotypes, whereas related Orbiviruses possess at least one amino acid substitution at these positions. We developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) using Mab 4H7 and recombinant BTV VP7 protein to detect serum antibodies against this BTV group-specific VP7 epitope. The c-ELISA was used to screen 833 clinical samples collected from animals in three provinces of China. BTV seroprevalence in the three provinces ranged from 25.42 to 47.45 %. This work provides the foundation for a new diagnostic c-ELISA that can be further applied to BTV surveillance activities and informs our understanding of the structure of the BTV VP7 protein. PMID:25038929

  16. Estimating the incidence, prevalence and true cost of asthma in the UK: secondary analysis of national stand-alone and linked databases in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales—a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Mome; Gupta, Ramyani; Farr, Angela; Heaven, Martin; Stoddart, Andrew; Nwaru, Bright I; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Chamberlain, George; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Fischbacher, Colin; Dibben, Christopher; Shields, Michael; Phillips, Ceri; Strachan, David; Davies, Gwyneth; McKinstry, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Asthma is now one of the most common long-term conditions in the UK. It is therefore important to develop a comprehensive appreciation of the healthcare and societal costs in order to inform decisions on care provision and planning. We plan to build on our earlier estimates of national prevalence and costs from asthma by filling the data gaps previously identified in relation to healthcare and broadening the field of enquiry to include societal costs. This work will provide the first UK-wide estimates of the costs of asthma. In the context of asthma for the UK and its member countries (ie, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales), we seek to: (1) produce a detailed overview of estimates of incidence, prevalence and healthcare utilisation; (2) estimate health and societal costs; (3) identify any remaining information gaps and explore the feasibility of filling these and (4) provide insights into future research that has the potential to inform changes in policy leading to the provision of more cost-effective care. Methods and analysis Secondary analyses of data from national health surveys, primary care, prescribing, emergency care, hospital, mortality and administrative data sources will be undertaken to estimate prevalence, healthcare utilisation and outcomes from asthma. Data linkages and economic modelling will be undertaken in an attempt to populate data gaps and estimate costs. Separate prevalence and cost estimates will be calculated for each of the UK-member countries and these will then be aggregated to generate UK-wide estimates. Ethics and dissemination Approvals have been obtained from the NHS Scotland Information Services Division's Privacy Advisory Committee, the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Collaboration Review System, the NHS South-East Scotland Research Ethics Service and The University of Edinburgh's Centre for Population Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee. We will produce a report for Asthma-UK, submit papers to

  17. Micronutrient Deficiencies Are Common in 6- to 8-Year-Old Children of Rural Nepal, with Prevalence Estimates Modestly Affected by Inflammation12

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Kerry J.; Christian, Parul; Wu, Lee S.-F.; Arguello, Margia; Cui, Hongjie; Nanayakkara-Bind, Ashika; Stewart, Christine P.; Khatry, Subarna K.; LeClerq, Steven; West, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    Subclinical micronutrient deficiencies remain a hidden aspect of malnutrition for which comprehensive data are lacking in school-aged children. We assessed the micronutrient status of Nepalese children, aged 6 to 8 y, born to mothers who participated in a community-based antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial from 1999 to 2001. Of 3305 participants, plasma indicators were assessed in a random sample of 1000 children. Results revealed deficiencies of vitamins A (retinol <0.70 μmol/L, 8.5%), D (25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nmol/L, 17.2%), E (α-tocopherol <9.3 μmol/L, 17.9%), K (decarboxy prothombin >2 μg/L, 20%), B-12 (cobalamin <150 pmol/L, 18.1%), B-6 [pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) <20 nmol/L, 43.1%], and β-carotene (41.5% <0.09 μmol/L), with little folate deficiency (6.2% <13.6 nmol/L). Deficiencies of iron [ferritin <15 μg/L, 10.7%; transferrin receptor (TfR) >8.3 mg/L, 40.1%; TfR:ferritin >500 μg/μg, 14.3%], iodine (thyroglobulin >40 μg/L, 11.4%), and selenium (plasma selenium <0.89 μmol/L, 59.0%) were observed, whereas copper deficiency was nearly absent (plasma copper <11.8 μmol/L, 0.7%). Hemoglobin was not assessed. Among all children, 91.7% experienced at least 1 micronutrient deficiency, and 64.7% experienced multiple deficiencies. Inflammation (α-1 acid glycoprotein >1 g/L, C-reactive protein >5 mg/L, or both) was present in 31.6% of children, affecting the prevalence of deficiency as assessed by retinol, β-carotene, PLP, ferritin, TfR, selenium, copper, or having any or multiple deficiencies. For any nutrient, population deficiency prevalence estimates were altered by ≤5.4% by the presence of inflammation, suggesting that the majority of deficiencies exist regardless of inflammation. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies coexist in school-aged children in rural Nepal, meriting more comprehensive strategies for their assessment and prevention. PMID:24744314

  18. Micronutrient deficiencies are common in 6- to 8-year-old children of rural Nepal, with prevalence estimates modestly affected by inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Kerry J; Christian, Parul; Wu, Lee S F; Arguello, Margia; Cui, Hongjie; Nanayakkara-Bind, Ashika; Stewart, Christine P; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven; West, Keith P

    2014-06-01

    Subclinical micronutrient deficiencies remain a hidden aspect of malnutrition for which comprehensive data are lacking in school-aged children. We assessed the micronutrient status of Nepalese children, aged 6 to 8 y, born to mothers who participated in a community-based antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial from 1999 to 2001. Of 3305 participants, plasma indicators were assessed in a random sample of 1000 children. Results revealed deficiencies of vitamins A (retinol <0.70 μmol/L, 8.5%), D (25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nmol/L, 17.2%), E (α-tocopherol <9.3 μmol/L, 17.9%), K (decarboxy prothombin >2 μg/L, 20%), B-12 (cobalamin <150 pmol/L, 18.1%), B-6 [pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) <20 nmol/L, 43.1%], and β-carotene (41.5% <0.09 μmol/L), with little folate deficiency (6.2% <13.6 nmol/L). Deficiencies of iron [ferritin <15 μg/L, 10.7%; transferrin receptor (TfR) >8.3 mg/L, 40.1%; TfR:ferritin >500 μg/μg, 14.3%], iodine (thyroglobulin >40 μg/L, 11.4%), and selenium (plasma selenium <0.89 μmol/L, 59.0%) were observed, whereas copper deficiency was nearly absent (plasma copper <11.8 μmol/L, 0.7%). Hemoglobin was not assessed. Among all children, 91.7% experienced at least 1 micronutrient deficiency, and 64.7% experienced multiple deficiencies. Inflammation (α-1 acid glycoprotein >1 g/L, C-reactive protein >5 mg/L, or both) was present in 31.6% of children, affecting the prevalence of deficiency as assessed by retinol, β-carotene, PLP, ferritin, TfR, selenium, copper, or having any or multiple deficiencies. For any nutrient, population deficiency prevalence estimates were altered by ≤5.4% by the presence of inflammation, suggesting that the majority of deficiencies exist regardless of inflammation. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies coexist in school-aged children in rural Nepal, meriting more comprehensive strategies for their assessment and prevention. PMID:24744314

  19. Rhinovirus-induced VP1-specific Antibodies are Group-specific and Associated With Severity of Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Cabauatan, Clarissa R.; Jackson, David J.; Gallerano, Daniela; Trujillo-Torralbo, Belen; del Rosario, Ajerico; Mallia, Patrick; Valenta, Rudolf; Johnston, Sebastian L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhinoviruses (RVs) are a major cause of common colds and induce exacerbations of asthma and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Methods We expressed and purified recombinant RV coat proteins VP1-4, non-structural proteins as well as N-terminal fragments of VP1 from four RV strains (RV14, 16, 89, C) covering the three known RV groups (RV-A, RV-B and RV-C) and measured specific IgG-subclass-, IgA- and IgM-responses by ELISA in subjects with different severities of asthma or without asthma before and after experimental infection with RV16. Findings Before infection subjects showed IgG1 > IgA > IgM > IgG3 cross-reactivity with N-terminal fragments from the representative VP1 proteins of the three RV groups. Antibody levels were higher in the asthmatic group as compared to the non-asthmatic subjects. Six weeks after infection with RV16, IgG1 antibodies showed a group-specific increase towards the N-terminal VP1 fragment, but not towards other capsid and non-structural proteins, which was highest in subjects with severe upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Interpretation Our results demonstrate that increases of antibodies towards the VP1 N-terminus are group-specific and associated with severity of respiratory symptoms and suggest that it may be possible to develop serological tests for identifying causative RV groups. PMID:26137535

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of women at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) in the United States: estimates from the National Survey of Family Growth.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Michael J; Guo, Jing; Denny, Clark H; Green, Patricia P; Miracle, Heidi; Sniezek, Joseph E; Floyd, R Louise

    2015-04-01

    Non-pregnant women can avoid alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEPs) by modifying drinking and/or contraceptive practices. The purpose of this study was to estimate the number and characteristics of women in the United States who are at risk of AEPs. We analyzed data from in-person interviews obtained from a national probability sample (i.e., the National Survey of Family Growth) of reproductive-aged women conducted from January 2002 to March 2003. To be at risk of AEP, a woman had to have met the following criteria in the last month: (1) was drinking; (2) had vaginal intercourse with a man; and (3) did not use contraception. During a 1-month period, nearly 2 million U.S. women were at risk of an AEP (95 % confidence interval 1,760,079-2,288,104), including more than 600,000 who were binge drinking. Thus, 3.4 %, or 1 in 30, of all non-pregnant women were at risk of an AEP. Most demographic and behavioral characteristics were not clearly associated with AEP risk. However, pregnancy intention was strongly associated with AEP risk (prevalence ratio = 12.0, P < 0.001) because women often continued to drink even after they stopped using contraception. Nearly 2 million U.S. women are at AEP risk and therefore at risk of having children born with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. For pregnant women and women intending a pregnancy, there is an urgent need for wider implementation of prevention programs and policy approaches that can reduce the risk for this serious public health problem. PMID:24996954

  1. Comparison of the information provided by electronic health records data and a population health survey to estimate prevalence of selected health conditions and multimorbidity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health surveys (HS) are a well-established methodology for measuring the health status of a population. The relative merit of using information based on HS versus electronic health records (EHR) to measure multimorbidity has not been established. Our study had two objectives: 1) to measure and compare the prevalence and distribution of multimorbidity in HS and EHR data, and 2) to test specific hypotheses about potential differences between HS and EHR reporting of diseases with a symptoms-based diagnosis and those requiring diagnostic testing. Methods Cross-sectional study using data from a periodic HS conducted by the Catalan government and from EHR covering 80% of the Catalan population aged 15 years and older. We determined the prevalence of 27 selected health conditions in both data sources, calculated the prevalence and distribution of multimorbidity (defined as the presence of ≥2 of the selected conditions), and determined multimorbidity patterns. We tested two hypotheses: a) health conditions requiring diagnostic tests for their diagnosis and management would be more prevalent in the EHR; and b) symptoms-based health problems would be more prevalent in the HS data. Results We analysed 15,926 HS interviews and 1,597,258 EHRs. The profile of the EHR sample was 52% women, average age 47 years (standard deviation: 18.8), and 68% having at least one of the selected health conditions, the 3 most prevalent being hypertension (20%), depression or anxiety (16%) and mental disorders (15%). Multimorbidity was higher in HS than in EHR data (60% vs. 43%, respectively, for ages 15-75+, P <0.001, and 91% vs. 83% in participants aged ≥65 years, P <0.001). The most prevalent multimorbidity cluster was cardiovascular. Circulation disorders (other than varicose veins), chronic allergies, neck pain, haemorrhoids, migraine or frequent headaches and chronic constipation were more prevalent in the HS. Most symptomatic conditions (71%) had a higher prevalence in

  2. Discordance between Prevalent Vertebral Fracture and Vertebral Strength Estimated by the Finite Element Method Based on Quantitative Computed Tomography in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Bone fragility is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but a useful method to estimate bone fragility in T2DM patients is lacking because bone mineral density alone is not sufficient to assess the risk of fracture. This study investigated the association between prevalent vertebral fractures (VFs) and the vertebral strength index estimated by the quantitative computed tomography-based nonlinear finite element method (QCT-based nonlinear FEM) using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) for clinical practice use. Research Design and Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 54 postmenopausal women and 92 men over 50 years of age, all of whom had T2DM. The vertebral strength index was compared in patients with and without VFs confirmed by spinal radiographs. A standard FEM procedure was performed with the application of known parameters for the bone material properties obtained from nondiabetic subjects. Results A total of 20 women (37.0%) and 39 men (42.4%) with VFs were identified. The vertebral strength index was significantly higher in the men than in the women (P<0.01). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the vertebral strength index was significantly and positively correlated with the spinal bone mineral density (BMD) and inversely associated with age in both genders. There were no significant differences in the parameters, including the vertebral strength index, between patients with and without VFs. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, spine BMD, BMI, HbA1c, and duration of T2DM did not indicate a significant relationship between the vertebral strength index and the presence of VFs. Conclusion The vertebral strength index calculated by QCT-based nonlinear FEM using material property parameters obtained from nondiabetic subjects, whose risk of fracture is lower than that of T2DM patients, was not significantly associated with bone fragility in patients with T2DM. This discordance

  3. The Prevalence of Syphilis in England and Wales on the Eve of the Great War: Re-visiting the Estimates of the Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases 1913-1916.

    PubMed

    Szreter, Simon

    2014-08-01

    Public fears of widespread venereal disease led in 1913 to the appointment of The Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases (RCVD). In 1916 its Final Report offered only a single cautious and somewhat imprecise summary statement about the likely prevalence of venereal diseases in England and Wales. Although the significance of contemporary attitudes to venereal disease has attracted a good deal of historiographic attention, no historian or demographer has since investigated this aspect of the Royal Commission's work. This article critically re-examines the most important quantitative evidence presented to the Royal Commission relating to the years immediately prior to the First World War. It utilises this evidence to produce new estimates of the probable prevalence of syphilis among adult males, both nationally and among certain geographical divisions and social groups in the national population; and also to offer a comment on the likely prevalence of gonorrhoea. PMID:25067890

  4. The Prevalence of Syphilis in England and Wales on the Eve of the Great War: Re-visiting the Estimates of the Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases 1913–1916

    PubMed Central

    Szreter, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Public fears of widespread venereal disease led in 1913 to the appointment of The Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases (RCVD). In 1916 its Final Report offered only a single cautious and somewhat imprecise summary statement about the likely prevalence of venereal diseases in England and Wales. Although the significance of contemporary attitudes to venereal disease has attracted a good deal of historiographic attention, no historian or demographer has since investigated this aspect of the Royal Commission's work. This article critically re-examines the most important quantitative evidence presented to the Royal Commission relating to the years immediately prior to the First World War. It utilises this evidence to produce new estimates of the probable prevalence of syphilis among adult males, both nationally and among certain geographical divisions and social groups in the national population; and also to offer a comment on the likely prevalence of gonorrhoea. PMID:25067890

  5. Diversity of Methane-Cycling Archaea in Hydrothermal Sediment Investigated by General and Group-Specific PCR Primers

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Andreas P.

    2014-01-01

    The zonation of anaerobic methane-cycling Archaea in hydrothermal sediment of Guaymas Basin was studied by general primer pairs (mcrI, ME1/ME2, mcrIRD) targeting the alpha subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase gene (mcrA) and by new group-specific mcrA and 16S rRNA gene primer pairs. The mcrIRD primer pair outperformed the other general mcrA primer pairs in detection sensitivity and phylogenetic coverage. Methanotrophic ANME-1 Archaea were the only group detected with group-specific primers only. The detection of 14 mcrA lineages surpasses the diversity previously found in this location. Most phylotypes have high sequence similarities to hydrogenotrophs, methylotrophs, and anaerobic methanotrophs previously detected at Guaymas Basin or at hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, and oil reservoirs worldwide. Additionally, five mcrA phylotypes belonging to newly defined lineages are detected. Two of these belong to deeply branching new orders, while the others are new species or genera of Methanopyraceae and Methermicoccaceae. Downcore diversity decreases from all groups detected in the upper 6 cm (∼2 to 40°C, sulfate measurable to 4 cm) to only two groups below 6 cm (>40°C). Despite the presence of hyperthermophilic genera (Methanopyrus, Methanocaldococcus) in cooler surface strata, no genes were detected below 10 cm (≥60°C). While mcrA-based and 16S rRNA gene-based community compositions are generally congruent, the deeply branching mcrA cannot be assigned to specific 16S rRNA gene lineages. Our study indicates that even among well-studied metabolic groups and in previously characterized model environments, major evolutionary branches are overlooked. Detecting these groups by improved molecular biological methods is a crucial first step toward understanding their roles in nature. PMID:25527539

  6. Carrier frequency of the c.525delT mutation in the SGCG gene and estimated prevalence of limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C among the Moroccan population.

    PubMed

    El Kerch, Fatiha; Ratbi, Ilham; Sbiti, Aziza; Laarabi, Fatima-Zohra; Barkat, Amina; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2014-04-01

    Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (AR-LGMDs) are characterized by clinical and genetic heterogeneity. LGMD type 2C, or γ-sarcoglycanopathy, is the most frequent in North African populations as a result of the founder c.525delT mutation in the SGCG gene. Its epidemiology is poorly known in Morocco, and its prevalence among the Moroccan population has never been evaluated. This study screened 26 patients with a LGMD2C and 45 patients with an AR-LGMD phenotype for the c.525delT mutation. DNA extracted from umbilical cord blood samples of 250 newborns was tested for the same mutation. Molecular epidemiologic methods were used to calculate the frequency of heterozygotes for this mutation in Moroccan newborns and to estimate the prevalence of LGMD2C in the Moroccan population. The carrier frequency was estimated to be 1/250, which would imply that the prevalence of LGMD2C would be approximately 1/20,492 considering the effect of consanguinity. The homozygous c.525delT mutation was found in 65% of all patients with AR-LGMDs. These findings suggest that AR-LGMDs are prevalent in the Moroccan population and LGMD2C is one of the most common forms. This information might be useful for the development of diagnostic strategies on a large scale for better management of patients with AR-LGMD and genetic counseling of families. PMID:24552312

  7. Detection in human breast carcinomas of an antigen immunologically related to a group-specific antigen of mouse mammary tumor virus

    PubMed Central

    Mesa-Tejada, R.; Keydar, I.; Ramanarayanan, M.; Ohno, T.; Fenoglio, C.; Spiegelman, S.

    1978-01-01

    An antigen immunologically related to a group-specific antigen (gp52, a 52,000-dalton glycoprotein) of the mouse mammary tumor virus has been identified in paraffin sections of human breast cancers by means of the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. The specificity of the reaction with antibody against mouse mammary tumor virus was examined by absorption of the IgG with the following: (a) purified gp52; (b) a number of virus preparations (mouse mammary tumor virus, Rauscher leukemia virus, simian sarcoma virus, baboon endogenous virus, and Mason—Pfizer monkey virus); (c) normal plasma, leukocytes, breast tissue, milk, actin, collagen, and hyaluronic acid, all of human origin; (d) sheep erythrocytes and mucin. Only mouse mammary tumor virus (from C3H or Paris RIII strains and grown in either murine or feline cells) and purified gp52 eliminated the immunohistochemical reaction in the human breast tumors. Positive reactions were seen in 51 of 131 (39%) breast carcinomas of various histologic types, a minimal estimate in view of the limited number of sections from each tumor that could be examined. Negative reactions were obtained in all 119 benign breast lesions (cystic disease, fibroadenoma, papilloma, gynecomastia) and in all 18 normal breast tissues. With one exception, 99 carcinomas from 13 organs other than breast and 8 cystosarcomas were all negative. Images PMID:206905

  8. Changes in smoking prevalence among U.S. adults by state and region: Estimates from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, 1992-2007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco control policies at the state level have been a critical impetus for reduction in smoking prevalence. We examine the association between recent changes in smoking prevalence and state-specific tobacco control policies and activities in the entire U.S. Methods We analyzed the 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2006-07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) by state and two indices of state tobacco control policies or activities [initial outcome index (IOI) and the strength of tobacco control (SOTC) index] measured in 1998-1999. The IOI reflects cigarette excise taxes and indoor air legislation, whereas the SOTC reflects tobacco control program resources and capacity. Pearson Correlation coefficient between the proportionate change in smoking prevalence from 1992-93 to 2006-07 and indices of tobacco control activities or programs was the main outcome measure. Results Smoking prevalence decreased from 1992-93 to 2006-07 in both men and women in all states except Wyoming, where no reduction was observed among men, and only a 6.9% relative reduction among women. The percentage reductions in smoking in men and women respectively were the largest in the West (average decrease of 28.5% and 33.3%) and the smallest in the Midwest (18.6% and 20.3%), although there were notable exceptions to this pattern. The decline in smoking prevalence by state was correlated with the state's IOI in both women and men (r = -0.49, p < 0.001; r = -0.31, p = 0.03; respectively) and with state's SOTC index in women(r = -0.30, p = 0.03 0), but not men (r = -0.21, p = 0.14). Conclusion State level policies on cigarette excise taxes and indoor air legislation correlate strongly with reductions in smoking prevalence since 1992. Strengthening and systematically implementing these policies could greatly accelerate further reductions in smoking. PMID:21714876

  9. Comparison of Respondent Driven Sampling Estimators to Determine HIV Prevalence and Population Characteristics among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Moscow, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Andrea L.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Latkin, Carl; Zelaya, Carla E.; Galai, Noya; Peryshkina, Alena; Mogilnyi, Vladimir; Dzhigun, Petr; Kostetskaya, Irina; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Analytically distinct estimators have been proposed for the calculation of population-based estimates derived from respondent-driven sampling (RDS), yet there have been few comparisons of the inferences from these estimators using empirical data. We compared estimates produced by unweighted analysis used to calculate sample proportions and by three available estimators that are used to calculate population proportions, RDS-I, RDS-II (Volz-Heckathorn), and Gile’s RDS-SS. Data were derived from a cross-sectional, RDS study of men who have sex with men (MSM) conducted from October 2010 to April 2013 in Moscow, Russia (N = 1,376, recruitment depth: 31 waves). Analyses investigated the influence of key parameters: recruitment depth, homophily, and network size on sample and population estimates. Variability in results produced by the estimators and recruitment depth were statistically compared using the coefficient of variation (CV). Sample proportions had the least variability across different recruitment depths, compared to the RDS estimators. Population estimates tended to differ at lower recruitment depth but were approximately equal after reaching sampling equilibrium, highlighting the importance of sampling to greater recruitment depth. All estimators incorporate inverse probability weighting using self-reported network size, explaining the similarities in across population estimates and the difference of these estimates relative to sample proportions. Current biases and limitations associated with RDS estimators are discussed. PMID:27248818

  10. Group-specific small-subunit rRNA hybridization probes to characterize filamentous foaming in activated sludge systems.

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, F L; Ritter, W; Raskin, L

    1997-01-01

    Foaming in activated sludge systems is characterized by the formation of a thick, chocolate brown-colored scum that floats on the surface of aeration basins and secondary clarifiers. These viscous foams have been associated with the presence of filamentous mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes. To aid in evaluating the microbial representation in foam, we developed and characterized group-, genus-, and species-specific oligonucleotide probes targeting the small subunit rRNA of the Mycobacterium complex, Gordona spp., and Gordona (Nocardia) amarae, respectively. The use of a universal base analog, 5-nitroindole, in oligonucleotide probe design was evaluated by comparing the characteristics of two different versions of the Mycobacterium complex probe. The temperature of dissociation of each probe was determined. Probe specificity studies with a diverse collection of 67 target and nontarget rRNAs demonstrated the specificity of the probes to the target groups. Whole-cell hybridizations with fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled probes were performed with pure cultures of various members of the Mycobacterium complex as well as with environmental samples from a full-scale activated sludge plant which experienced foaming. Quantitative membrane hybridizations with activated sludge and anaerobic digester foam showed that 15.0 to 18.3% of the total small-subunit rRNAs could be attributed to members of the Mycobacterium complex, of which a vast majority consisted of Gordona rRNA. Several G. amarae strains made up only a very small percentage of the Gordona strains present. We demonstrated that group-specific rRNA probes are useful tools for the in situ monitoring and identification of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge systems. PMID:9055425

  11. Group-specific small-subunit rRNA hybridization probes to characterize filamentous foaming in activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    de los Reyes, F L; Ritter, W; Raskin, L

    1997-03-01

    Foaming in activated sludge systems is characterized by the formation of a thick, chocolate brown-colored scum that floats on the surface of aeration basins and secondary clarifiers. These viscous foams have been associated with the presence of filamentous mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes. To aid in evaluating the microbial representation in foam, we developed and characterized group-, genus-, and species-specific oligonucleotide probes targeting the small subunit rRNA of the Mycobacterium complex, Gordona spp., and Gordona (Nocardia) amarae, respectively. The use of a universal base analog, 5-nitroindole, in oligonucleotide probe design was evaluated by comparing the characteristics of two different versions of the Mycobacterium complex probe. The temperature of dissociation of each probe was determined. Probe specificity studies with a diverse collection of 67 target and nontarget rRNAs demonstrated the specificity of the probes to the target groups. Whole-cell hybridizations with fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled probes were performed with pure cultures of various members of the Mycobacterium complex as well as with environmental samples from a full-scale activated sludge plant which experienced foaming. Quantitative membrane hybridizations with activated sludge and anaerobic digester foam showed that 15.0 to 18.3% of the total small-subunit rRNAs could be attributed to members of the Mycobacterium complex, of which a vast majority consisted of Gordona rRNA. Several G. amarae strains made up only a very small percentage of the Gordona strains present. We demonstrated that group-specific rRNA probes are useful tools for the in situ monitoring and identification of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge systems. PMID:9055425

  12. Prenatal detection of birth defects in a Malaysian population: estimation of the influence of termination of pregnancy on birth prevalence in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jacqueline J; Thong, Meow Keong; Nurani, Noor Khatijah

    2006-02-01

    We studied 253 women with a pregnancy complicated by a birth defect and 506 controls to determine the frequency and type of prenatal tests and the types of defects detected antenatally. Most women had at least one ultrasound examination, but the frequency of other screening tests was low. Only 38 (15%) of defects were detected antenatally (37 by ultrasound). Birth prevalence is unlikely to be affected by pregnancy termination. PMID:16441696

  13. Measuring IPDE-SQ personality disorder prevalence in pre-sentence and early-stage prison populations, with sub-type estimates.

    PubMed

    Slade, Karen; Forrester, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the prevalence and type of personality disorder within prison systems allows for the effective targeting of resources to implement strategies to alleviate symptoms, manage behaviour and attempt to reduce re-offending. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of personality disorder (PD) traits within a local urban high-turnover adult male prison with a remand/recently sentenced population in London, UK. The International Personality Disorder Examination - Screening Questionnaire (IPDE-SQ) self-administered questionnaire (ICD-10 version) was completed by 283 prisoners (42% completion rate). 77% of respondents reached the threshold for one or more PDs. The most common PD types were Paranoid PD (44.5%), Anankastic PD (40.3%), Schizoid PD (35%) and Dissocial PD (25.8%). These results confirm and extend existing knowledge regarding the prevalence of PD in prison populations into a high-turnover, urban, remand population. The stark comparison with community samples indicates that a more equitable standard of service delivery within the criminal justice system, focussing on preventive and early intervention services, is now required. PMID:23627987

  14. Production of Group Specific Monoclonal Antibody to Aflatoxins and its Application to Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Cha, Sang-Ho; Karyn, Bischoff; Park, Sung-Won; Son, Seong-Wan; Kang, Hwan-Goo

    2011-06-01

    Through the present study, we produced a monoclonal antibody against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using AFB1- carboxymethoxylamine BSA conjugates. One clone showing high binding ability was selected and it was applied to develop a direct competitive ELISA system. The epitope densities of AFB1-CMO against BSA and KLH were about 1 : 6 and 1 : 545, respectively. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) from cloned hybridoma cell was the IgG1 subclass with λ-type light chains. The IC50s of the monoclonal antibody developed for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 4.36, 7.22, 6.61 and 29.41 ng/ml, respectively, based on the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA system and 15.28, 26.62, 32.75 and 56.67 ng/ml, respectively, based on the mAb coated ELISA. Cross-relativities of mAb to AFB1 for AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 60.47, 65.97 and 14.83% in the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA, and 59.41, 46.66 and 26.97% in the mAb coated ELISA, respectively. Quantitative calculations for AFB1 from the AFB1-Ab ELISA and AFB1-Ag ELISA ranged from 0.25 to 25 ng/ml (R(2) > 0.99) and from 1 to 100 ng/ml (R(2) > 0.99), respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precision CVs were < 10% in both ELISA assay, representing good reproducibility of developed assay. Recoveries ranged from 79.18 to 91.27%, CVs ranged from 3.21 to 7.97% after spiking AFB1 at concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 ng/ml and following by extraction with 70% methanol solution in the Ab-coated ELISA. In conclusion, we produced a group specific mAb against aflatoxins and developed two direct competitive ELISAs for the detection of AFB1 in feeds based on a monoclonal antibody developed. PMID:24278561

  15. Production of Group Specific Monoclonal Antibody to Aflatoxins and its Application to Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Cha, Sang-Ho; Karyn, Bischoff; Park, Sung-Won; Son, Seong-Wan

    2011-01-01

    Through the present study, we produced a monoclonal antibody against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using AFB1- carboxymethoxylamine BSA conjugates. One clone showing high binding ability was selected and it was applied to develop a direct competitive ELISA system. The epitope densities of AFB1-CMO against BSA and KLH were about 1 : 6 and 1 : 545, respectively. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) from cloned hybridoma cell was the IgG1 subclass with λ-type light chains. The IC50s of the monoclonal antibody developed for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 4.36, 7.22, 6.61 and 29.41 ng/ml, respectively, based on the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA system and 15.28, 26.62, 32.75 and 56.67 ng/ml, respectively, based on the mAb coated ELISA. Cross-relativities of mAb to AFB1 for AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 60.47, 65.97 and 14.83% in the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA, and 59.41, 46.66 and 26.97% in the mAb coated ELISA, respectively. Quantitative calculations for AFB1 from the AFB1-Ab ELISA and AFB1-Ag ELISA ranged from 0.25 to 25 ng/ml (R2 > 0.99) and from 1 to 100 ng/ml (R2 > 0.99), respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precision CVs were < 10% in both ELISA assay, representing good reproducibility of developed assay. Recoveries ranged from 79.18 to 91.27%, CVs ranged from 3.21 to 7.97% after spiking AFB1 at concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 ng/ml and following by extraction with 70% methanol solution in the Ab-coated ELISA. In conclusion, we produced a group specific mAb against aflatoxins and developed two direct competitive ELISAs for the detection of AFB1 in feeds based on a monoclonal antibody developed. PMID:24278561

  16. Multi-test analysis and model-based estimation of the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in naturally infected dairy cows in the absence of a 'gold standard' reference test.

    PubMed

    Eichenberger, R M; Lewis, F; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Torgerson, P R; Deplazes, P

    2013-09-01

    The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic 'gold standard' reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the "true" prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on excretory/secretory antigens showed highest sensitivity and specificity with 81.6% (95% credible interval: 70-92) and 96.3% (95% credible interval: 94-99), respectively. The Bayesian model estimated the specificity of the ELISA, based on the synthetic peptide Ts45S-10 as 55.2% (95% credible interval: 46-65) and sensitivity as 84.7% (95% credible interval: 82-88). The sensitivity of the ELISA based on mAbs, detecting circulating antigen, was 14.3% (95% credible interval: 9-23) with a specificity of 93.7% (95% credible interval: 92-96). The diagnostic sensitivity of the obligatory standard European Union meat inspection procedure for the detection of T. saginata cysticercus infection at the abattoir was estimated to be 15.6% (95% credible interval: 10-23). Based on these data, the modelled prevalence of cysticercosis in dairy cows presented at abattoirs in Switzerland was estimated to be 16.5% (95% credible interval: 13-21). These cattle also had a high prevalence of infection with

  17. A Questionnaire-Based Survey of Indian ENT Surgeons to Estimate Clinic Prevalence of Acute Otitis Media, Diagnostic Practices, and Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    D'silva, Liesel; Parikh, Raunak; Nanivadekar, Arun; Joglekar, Sadhna

    2013-12-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is common in Indian children, but there is limited published information on its clinic prevalence, clinicians' diagnostic practices, and their management strategies. We approached 649 ear-nose-throat (ENT) surgeons to assess these aspects of AOM. We conducted the survey between May 2010 and February 2011 with the same set of ENT surgeons practising across India, once each during summer, monsoon and winter, using a validated 36-item questionnaire to record their reflective recall. 78 % (506/649) of approached ENT surgeons responded. The clinic prevalence of AOM was 43 % with peaks reported in July and December. 96 % (486/506) of the surgeons used otoscopy to diagnose AOM. 86 % (435/506) prescribed analgesics, and 89 % (449/506) prescribed decongestants. 98 % (495/506) treated AOM with an antibiotic at initial consultation: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 78 % (395/506), amoxicillin 29 % (144/506), cefpodoxime 29 % (149/506), cefixime 28 % (141/506) and azithromycin 27 % (134/506). Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 32 % (162/506) and cefpodoxime 27% (137/506) were mostly prescribed for relapse. The average reported duration of initial antibiotic therapy was 7 days and for relapse was 9 days. The reported clinic prevalence of AOM was higher (43 %) than anticipated (about 10 %) in ENT practice. Almost all the ENT surgeons used an otoscope to diagnose AOM. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was the preferred antibiotic for treating AOM either initially or for relapse. Most surgeons also used analgesics and decongestants for symptomatic relief. PMID:24427717

  18. Tests on the centrifugal flotation technique and its use in estimating the prevalence of Toxocara in soil samples from urban and suburban areas of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Loh, A G; Israf, D A

    1998-03-01

    The influence of soil texture (silt, sand and laterite) and flotation solutions (saturated NaCl, sucrose, NaNO3, and ZnSO4) upon the recovery of Toxocara ova from seeded soil samples with the centrifugal flotation technique was investigated. Soil samples of different texture were artificially seeded with Toxocara spp. ova and subjected to a centrifugal flotation technique which used various flotation solutions. The results showed significant (P < 0.001) interactions between the soil types and the flotation solutions. The highest percentage of ova recovery was obtained with silty soil (34.9-100.8%) with saturated NaCl as the flotation solution (45.3-100.8%). A combination of washing of soil samples with 0.1% Tween 80, and flotation using saturated NaCl and a 30 min coverslip recovery period was used to study the prevalence of contamination of soil samples. Forty-six soil samples were collected from up to 24 public parks/playgrounds in urban areas of Petaling Jaya and suburban areas of Serdang. The prevalence of Toxocara species in the urban and suburban areas was 54.5% and 45.8% respectively. PMID:9639899

  19. First evidence of Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1) in spiny lobster from Cuba and clinical estimation of its prevalence.

    PubMed

    Cruz Quintana, Yanis; Rodríguez Canul, Rossanna; Vidal Martínez, Victor M

    2011-01-21

    The present study documents the first finding of Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1) in spiny lobster Panulirus argus from Cuba. Samples originated from 2 nursery sites, Matias Keys and Bocas de Alonso Keys, and 2 fishing sites, La Grifa and El Ramajo. Lobsters from the nursery sites (artificial reefs) were collected by SCUBA diving, while those from the fishing sites were collected from artificial shelters known as 'casitas cubanas'. In these shelters it was observed that healthy lobsters tended to avoid infected lobsters. Prevalence of PaV1 in the sampling sites was assessed by using clinical signs such as lethargy, an opaque reddish shell coloration, and milky white hemolymph with loss of clotting activity. The presence of PaV1 was subsequently confirmed by histology and PCR of tissues and hemolymph samples from suspected individuals. Histological sections of the hepatopancreas, gills, gonads, and gut showed infected hemocytes with hypertrophied nuclei and eosinophilic intranuclear Cowdry type A inclusions. A 499 bp band was observed by PCR. The sequence of the amplified fragments was 96% similar to the PaV1 sequence in GenBank. The overall mean prevalence of PaV1 was 4.48% (range: 0 to 9.3%) after pooling the results of the 4 sampling sites. PMID:21381520

  20. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus group-specific open reading frames encode nonessential functions for replication in cell cultures and mice.

    PubMed

    Yount, Boyd; Roberts, Rhonda S; Sims, Amy C; Deming, Damon; Frieman, Matthew B; Sparks, Jennifer; Denison, Mark R; Davis, Nancy; Baric, Ralph S

    2005-12-01

    SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes several unique group-specific open reading frames (ORFs) relative to other known coronaviruses. To determine the significance of the SARS-CoV group-specific ORFs in virus replication in vitro and in mice, we systematically deleted five of the eight group-specific ORFs, ORF3a, OF3b, ORF6, ORF7a, and ORF7b, and characterized recombinant virus replication and gene expression in vitro. Deletion of the group-specific ORFs of SARS-CoV, either alone or in various combinations, did not dramatically influence replication efficiency in cell culture or in the levels of viral RNA synthesis. The greatest reduction in virus growth was noted following ORF3a deletion. SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein does not encode a rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)/Golgi retention signal, and it has been suggested that ORF3a interacts with and targets S glycoprotein retention in the rER/Golgi apparatus. Deletion of ORF3a did not alter subcellular localization of the S glycoprotein from distinct punctuate localization in the rER/Golgi apparatus. These data suggest that ORF3a plays little role in the targeting of S localization in the rER/Golgi apparatus. In addition, insertion of the 29-bp deletion fusing ORF8a/b into the single ORF8, noted in early-stage SARS-CoV human and civet cat isolates, had little if any impact on in vitro growth or RNA synthesis. All recombinant viruses replicated to wild-type levels in the murine model, suggesting that either the group-specific ORFs play little role in in vivo replication efficiency or that the mouse model is not of sufficient quality for discerning the role of the group-specific ORFs in disease origin and development. PMID:16282490

  1. Pathogen group specific risk factors at herd, heifer and quarter levels for intramammary infections in early lactating dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Piepers, S; Peeters, K; Opsomer, G; Barkema, H W; Frankena, K; De Vliegher, S

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for intramammary infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, contagious major pathogens and environmental major pathogens in early lactating heifers were evaluated at the herd, heifer and quarter levels. In total, 764 quarters of 191 dairy heifers in 20 randomly selected farms in Flanders (Belgium) were sampled. Quarter milk samples were collected between 1 and 4 days in milk and between 5 and 8 days in milk for bacteriological culture. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel logistic regression analysis. Higher average herd milk somatic cell count (>200,000 cells/mL), not having an effective fly control strategy, contact with lactating cows prior to calving and moderate to severe udder edema prior to calving increased the odds of intramammary infections caused by contagious major pathogens. Poor heifer hygiene and lack of mineral/vitamin supplementation prior to calving were risk factors for intramammary infection caused by environmental major pathogens. Teat apex colonization with coagulase-negative staphylococci prior to calving seemed to protect quarters against intramammary infections caused by major pathogens. Poor heifer hygiene before calving, a non-clipped udder and not practicing of teat dipping prior to calving increased the odds of intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci. Although management is important in the prevention and control of intramammary infections in early lactating heifers, most variation in the prevalence of intramammary infections resided at the heifer and quarter levels, indicating that the susceptibility for intramammary infections around calving is mainly determined by heifer and quarter characteristics. PMID:21411160

  2. Patient-reported side effects, concerns and adherence to corticosteroid treatment for asthma, and comparison with physician estimates of side-effect prevalence: a UK-wide, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Vanessa; Metcalf, Leanne; Versnel, Jenny; Upton, Jane; Walker, Samantha; Horne, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-adherence to corticosteroid treatment has been shown to reduce treatment efficacy, thus compromising asthma control. Aims: To examine the experiences of treatment side effects, treatment concerns and adherence to inhaled (ICS) and oral corticosteroids (OCS) among people with asthma and to identify the degree of concordance between clinician estimates of side effects and the prevalence reported by patients. Methods: Asthma UK members were sent validated questionnaires assessing treatment concerns, experiences of side effects and adherence. Questionnaires measuring clinicians’ estimates of the prevalence of corticosteroid side effects were completed online. Results: Completed questionnaires were returned by 1,524 people taking ICS, 233 taking OCS and 244 clinicians (67% of clinicians were primary care nurses). Among people with asthma, 64% of those taking ICS and 88% of those taking OCS reported ⩾1 side effect. People reporting high adherence to ICS (t=−3.09, P<0.005) and those reporting low adherence to OCS (t=1.86, P<0.05; one-tailed test) reported more side effects. There was a disparity between clinicians’ estimates of the frequency of side effects and the frequency reported by people with asthma: e.g., although 46% of people taking ICS reported sore throat, clinicians estimated that this figure would be 10%. Patients who reported side effects had stronger concerns about both ICS (r=0.46, P<0.0001) and OCS (r=0.50, P<0.0001). Concerns about corticosteroids were associated with low adherence to ICS (t=6.90, P<0.0001) and OCS (t=1.71; P<0.05; one-tailed test). Conclusions: An unexpectedly large proportion of people with asthma experienced side effects and had strong concerns about their treatment, which compromised adherence. These findings have implications for the design of interventions to optimise asthma control through improved adherence. PMID:26158805

  3. Estimating trematode prevalence in snail hosts using a single-step duplex PCR: how badly does cercarial shedding underestimate infection rates?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trematode communities often consist of different species exploiting the same host population, with two or more trematodes sometimes co-occuring in the same host. A commonly used diagnostic method to detect larval trematode infections in snails has been based on cercarial shedding, though it is often criticized as inaccurate. In the present study we compare infection prevalences determined by cercarial emission with those determined, for the first time, by molecular methods, allowing us to quantify the underestimation of single and double infections based on cercarial emission. We thus developed a duplex PCR for two host-parasite systems, to specifically differentiate between single and double infections. The Ebro samples include two morphologically similar opecoelids, whereas the Otago samples include two morphologically different larval trematodes. Methods Snails were screened for infections by incubating them individually to induce cercarial emission, thus determining infection following the “classical” detection method. Snail tissue was then removed and fixed for the duplex PCR. After obtaining ITS rDNA sequences, four species-specific primers were designed for each snail-trematode system, and duplex PCR prevalence was determined for each sample. Results from both methods were statistically compared using the McNemar’s Chi-squared test and Cohen’s Kappa Statistic for agreement between outcomes. Results Overall infection prevalences determined by duplex PCR were consistently and substantially higher than those based on cercarial shedding: among Ebro samples, between 17.9% and 60.1% more snails were found infected using the molecular method, whereas in the Otago samples, the difference was between 9.9% and 20.6%. Kappa values generally indicated a fair to substantial agreement between both detection methods, showing a lower agreement for the Ebro samples. Conclusions We demonstrate that molecular detection of single and double infections by

  4. Multilevel regression and poststratification for small-area estimation of population health outcomes: a case study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence using the behavioral risk factor surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingyou; Holt, James B; Lu, Hua; Wheaton, Anne G; Ford, Earl S; Greenlund, Kurt J; Croft, Janet B

    2014-04-15

    A variety of small-area statistical models have been developed for health surveys, but none are sufficiently flexible to generate small-area estimates (SAEs) to meet data needs at different geographic levels. We developed a multilevel logistic model with both state- and nested county-level random effects for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using 2011 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We applied poststratification with the (decennial) US Census 2010 counts of census-block population to generate census-block-level SAEs of COPD prevalence which could be conveniently aggregated to all other census geographic units, such as census tracts, counties, and congressional districts. The model-based SAEs and direct survey estimates of COPD prevalence were quite consistent at both the county and state levels. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.99 at the state level and ranged from 0.88 to 0.95 at the county level. Our extended multilevel regression modeling and poststratification approach could be adapted for other geocoded national health surveys to generate reliable SAEs for population health outcomes at all administrative and legislative geographic levels of interest in a scalable framework. PMID:24598867

  5. Estimating the prevalence and burden of major disorders of the brain in Nepal: methodology of a nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The major disorders of the brain (MDBs), in terms of their prevalence and the burdens of ill health, disability and financial cost that they impose on individuals and society, are headache, depression and anxiety. No population-based studies have been conducted in Nepal. Aim Our purpose was to assess the prevalence and burden attributable to MDBs in Nepal in order to inform health policy. Here we report the methodology. Methods The unusual sociocultural diversity and extreme geographical variation of the country required adaptation of standard methodology. We ran pre-pilot and pilot studies before embarking on the main study. The study design was cross-sectional. The population of interest were adults aged 18–65 years who were Nepali speaking and living in Nepal. We selected, employed and trained groups of interviewers to visit randomly selected households by cold-calling. Households were selected from 15 representative districts out of 75 in the country through multistage cluster sampling. One participant was selected randomly from each household. We used structured questionnaires (the HARDSHIP questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire -Neuroticism), culturally adapted and translated into Nepali. We recorded blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference, and altitude of each household. We implemented various quality-assurances measures. Results We completed the survey in one month, prior to onset of the monsoon. Among 2,210 selected households, all were contacted, 2,109 were eligible for the study and, from these, 2,100 adults participated. The participation rate was 99.6%. Conclusion Standard methodology was successfully applied in Nepal, with some adaptations. The sociocultural and extraordinary geographic diversity were challenging, but did not require us to compromise the scientific quality of the study. PMID:25146939

  6. Trends in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Prevalence and Estimated 10-Year Cardiovascular Risk Scores in a Large Untreated French Urban Population: The CARVAR 92 Study

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Carma; Beauchet, Alain; Czernichow, Sebastien; de Roquefeuil, Florence; Bourez, Alain; Mansencal, Nicolas; Dubourg, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveys measuring effectiveness of public awareness campaigns in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence have yielded equivocal findings. The aim of this study was to describe cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) changes over the years in an untreated population-based study. Methods Between 2007 and 2012, we conducted a screening campaign for CVRFs in men aged 40 to 65 yrs and women aged 50 to 70 yrs in the western suburbs of Paris. Data were complete for 20,324 participants of which 14,709 were untreated. Results The prevalence trend over six years was statistically significant for hypertension in men from 25.9% in 2007 to 21.1% in 2012 (p=0.002) and from 23% in 2007 to 12.7% in 2012 in women (p<0.0001). The prevalence trend of tobacco smoking decreased from 38.6% to 27.7% in men (p=0.0001) and from 22.6% to 16.8% in women (p=0.113). The Framingham 10-year risk for CVD decreased from 13.3 ± 8.2 % in 2007 to 11.7 ± 9.0 % in 2012 in men and from 8.0 ± 4.1 % to 5.9 ± 3.4 % in women. The 10-year risk of fatal CVD based on the European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) decreased in men and in women (p <0.0001). Conclusions Over a 6-year period, several CVRFs have decreased in our screening campaign, leading to decrease in the 10-year risk for CVD and the 10-year risk of fatal CVD. Cardiologists should recognize the importance of community prevention programs and communication policies, particularly tobacco control and healthier diets to decrease the CVRFs in the general population. PMID:25906186

  7. Increasing Autism Prevalence in Metropolitan New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-01-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder,…

  8. Using Small-Area Estimation to Calculate the Prevalence of Smoking by Subcounty Geographic Areas in King County, Washington, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Laina; Wakefield, Jon; Laurent, Amy; Solet, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction King County, Washington, fares well overall in many health indicators. However, county-level data mask disparities among subcounty areas. For disparity-focused assessment, a demand exists for examining health data at subcounty levels such as census tracts and King County health reporting areas (HRAs). Methods We added a “nearest intersection” question to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and geocoded the data for subcounty geographic areas, including census tracts. To overcome small sample size at the census tract level, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to obtain smoothed estimates in cigarette smoking rates at the census tract and HRA levels. We also used multiple imputation to adjust for missing values in census tracts. Results Direct estimation of adult smoking rates at the census tract level ranged from 0% to 56% with a median of 10%. The 90% confidence interval (CI) half-width for census tract with nonzero rates ranged from 1 percentage point to 37 percentage points with a median of 13 percentage points. The smoothed-multiple–imputation rates ranged from 5% to 28% with a median of 12%. The 90% CI half-width ranged from 4 percentage points to 13 percentage points with a median of 8 percentage points. Conclusion The nearest intersection question in the BRFSS provided geocoded data at subcounty levels. The Bayesian model provided estimation with improved precision at the census tract and HRA levels. Multiple imputation can be used to account for missing geographic data. Small-area estimation, which has been used for King County public health programs, has increasingly become a useful tool to meet the demand of presenting data at more granular levels. PMID:27149070

  9. Prevalence and safety of off-label use of chemotherapeutic agents in older breast cancer patients: estimates from SEER-Medicare data

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Anne A.; Sima, Camelia S.; Panageas, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The practice of prescribing oncology drugs outside of the label indication is legal and may reflect standard practice. However, some off-label use is against practice guidelines and may be inappropriate. We aimed to measure the prevalence and safety of off-label use in accordance with NCCN guidelines and off-label use inconsistent with guidelines in older breast cancer patients. Patients and Methods The SEER-Medicare dataset was used to identify women diagnosed with a first primary breast cancer between 2000-2007. Intravenous chemotherapy agents were identified using Medicare claims and classified as on-label, off-label/NCCN supported or off-label/unsupported using contemporary FDA approvals and NCCN guidelines. Off-label/unsupported regimens were matched to off-label/supported and on-label regimens using 1:1:1 matching on patient factors, and hospitalization/ER admission rates were compared across indication categories using conditional logistic regression. Results 13,347 women were treated with 16,127 regimens (12% of women switched to a new regimen during followup). Sixty-four percent (10,391) of regimens were off-label/supported, 25% (3,987) were on-label and 11% (1,749) were off-label/unsupported. Drugs never supported for breast cancer accounted for 19% of off-label/unsupported use and 1% of total use. Hospitalization/ER admission occurred in 32% of off-label/unsupported regimens, compared to 27% of off-label/supported and 25% of on-label regimens (p<.0001). Conclusions Off-label use of chemotherapy without scientific support was not common in this cohort. Off-label/supported use accounted for 64% of use, reflecting the fact that widely-accepted indications are often not tested in registration trials. Off-label/supported use will likely increase as more drugs are expected to have activity across cancer sites, and understanding the safety implications of such use is critical. PMID:26733555

  10. Cardiovascular risk estimated after 13 years of follow-up in a low-incidence Mediterranean region with high-prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Murcia (south-east Spain) shows increased cardiovascular (CV) morbimortality as compared to other Spanish regions. Our objective was to assess the CV risk associated with major risk factors (RF) among adult population of Murcia. Methods A cohort of 2314 subjects (18-70 years) with full biochemical and questionnaire data was followed-up for 13 years. Incident cases of ischemic heart disease and stroke were identified by record linkage, individual questionnaires and revision of medical records. Relative risks were obtained by multivariate Cox regression stratified by age and sex, and ischemic risk attributable to CVRF was calculated. Results After more than 26276 person-years of follow-up, 57 incident ischemic events (77% men) and 37 stroke cases (62% men) were identified. Independent risk factors of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all CV events combined, with RR ranging from 1.6 to 2.6, were total serum cholesterol ≥ 240 mg/dl (HR = 2.6, 95%CI:1.3-5.1), blood pressure levels ≥ 140/90 mmHg (HR = 2.6, 95%CI:1.4-4.8), ever tobacco smoking (HR = 2.2; 95%CI:1.1-4.5), and diabetes (HR = 2.0; 95%CI: 1.0-3.8). No increased CV risk was detected for known participants under treatment who showed cholesterol and blood pressure values below the clinical risk threshold. Smoking was significantly associated with stroke. For all events combined, the major risk factors were hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and ever use of tobacco. Despite its high prevalence, obesity was not associated to CV risk. Most of the IHD cases were attributable to smoking (44%), hypertension (38%) and hypercholesterolemia (26%). Conclusions In the Region of Murcia, smoking accounted for the largest proportion of cardiovascular risk, whereas hypertension displaced hypercholesterolemia as the second leading cause of CV disease. Our study deepens in our understanding of the cardiovascular epidemiology in Spanish areas of Mediterranean Europe with relatively high cardiovascular morbimortality

  11. Trends in cancer prevalence in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Louchini, Rabia; Beaupré, Michel; Demers, Alain A; Goggin, Patricia; Bouchard, Clermont

    2006-01-01

    Cancer prevalence is of prime interest in public health because of its use in estimating the disease's burden on the heath care system. This study's objective was to estimate five-year prevalence of tumours from 1989 to 1999 and ten-year prevalence of tumours from 1994 to 1999 in the Province of Quebec (Canada). Five-year prevalence was used to represent tumours for which people are more likely to obtain primary treatment; ten-year prevalence included those tumours in addition to tumours that can be considered cured but still need follow-up. Information was extracted from the Quebec Cancer Registry. Prostate cancer was the most prevalent malignancy among males (25 percent, five-year prevalent tumours), while breast cancer was most prevalent among females (38 percent, five-year prevalent tumours). For both sexes, the greatest observed prevalence increase was for endocrine glands. On average, five-year prevalence proportions were 16 percent higher in men than in women; those of ten year were 14 percent higher in men. Furthermore, the largest differences were observed for bladder and lung cancer. The change in cancer prevalence in Quebec was dependent on the tumour site. PMID:17306062

  12. Estimating the Prevalence and Predictors of Incorrect Condom Use Among Sexually Active Adults in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Michael A.; Schwarcz, Sandra; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Musyoki, Helgar; Kambona, Caroline; Kellogg, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Condom use continues to be an important primary prevention tool to reduce the acquisition and transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. However, incorrect use of condoms can reduce their effectiveness. Methods Using data from a 2012 nationally representative cross-sectional household survey conducted in Kenya, we analyzed a subpopulation of sexually active adults and estimated the percent that used condoms incorrectly during sex, and the type of condom errors. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine variables to be independently associated with incorrect condom use. Results Among 13,720 adolescents and adults, 8014 were sexually active in the previous 3 months (60.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 59.0–61.7). Among those who used a condom with a sex partner, 20% (95% CI, 17.4–22.6) experienced at least one instance of incorrect condom use in the previous 3 months. Of incorrect condom users, condom breakage or leakage was the most common error (52%; 95% CI, 44.5–59.6). Factors found to be associated with incorrect condom use were multiple sexual partnerships in the past 12 months (2 partners: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0–2.0; P = 0.03; ≥3: aOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5–3.5; P < 0.01) and reporting symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.8–4.3; P < 0.01). Conclusions Incorrect condom use is frequent among sexually active Kenyans and this may translate into substantial HIV transmission. Further understanding of the dynamics of condom use and misuse, in the broader context of other prevention strategies, will aid program planners in the delivery of appropriate interventions aimed at limiting such errors. PMID:26766524

  13. Bayesian modeling of animal- and herd-level prevalences.

    PubMed

    Branscum, A J; Gardner, I A; Johnson, W O

    2004-12-15

    We reviewed Bayesian approaches for animal-level and herd-level prevalence estimation based on cross-sectional sampling designs and demonstrated fitting of these models using the WinBUGS software. We considered estimation of infection prevalence based on use of a single diagnostic test applied to a single herd with binomial and hypergeometric sampling. We then considered multiple herds under binomial sampling with the primary goal of estimating the prevalence distribution and the proportion of infected herds. A new model is presented that can be used to estimate the herd-level prevalence in a region, including the posterior probability that all herds are non-infected. Using this model, inferences for the distribution of prevalences, mean prevalence in the region, and predicted prevalence of herds in the region (including the predicted probability of zero prevalence) are also available. In the models presented, both animal- and herd-level prevalences are modeled as mixture distributions to allow for zero infection prevalences. (If mixture models for the prevalences were not used, prevalence estimates might be artificially inflated, especially in herds and regions with low or zero prevalence.) Finally, we considered estimation of animal-level prevalence based on pooled samples. PMID:15579338

  14. ADHD Prevalence in Adult Outpatients with Nonpsychotic Psychiatric Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida Montes, Luis Guillermo; Hernandez Garcia, Ana Olivia; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of ADHD in the general adult population has been estimated to be about 4.4%. However, few studies exist in which the prevalence of ADHD in psychiatric adult outpatient samples has been estimated. These studies suggest that the prevalence is higher than in the general population. The objective of this study is to estimate…

  15. Generation of blood group specificity: new insights from structural studies on the complexes of A- and B-reactive saccharides with basic winged bean agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Kiran A; Katiyar, Samiksha; Surolia, Avadhesha; Vijayan, Mamannamana; Suguna, Kaza

    2007-08-15

    Basic winged bean agglutinin binds A-blood group substance with higher affinity and B-blood group substance with lesser affinity. It does not bind the O substance. The crystal structures of the lectin, complexed with A-reactive and B-reactive di and tri saccharides, have been determined. In addition, the complexes of the lectin with fucosylated A-trisaccharides and B-trisaccharides and with a variant of the A-trisaccharide have been modeled. These structures and models provide valuable insights into the structural basis of blood group specificities. All the four carbohydrate binding loops of the lectin contribute to the primary combining site while the loop of variable length contributes to the secondary binding site. In a significant advance to the current understanding, the interactions at the secondary binding site also contribute substantially, albeit in a subtle manner, to determine the blood group specificity. Compared with the interactions of the B-trisaccharide with the lectin, the third sugar residue of the A-reactive trisacharide forms an additional hydrogen bond with a lysine residue in the variable loop. In the former, the formation of such a hydrogen bond is prevented by a shift in the orientation of third sugar resulting from an internal hydrogen bond in it. The formation of this bond is also facilitated by an interaction dependent change in the rotamer conformation of the lysyl residue of the variable loop. Thus, the difference in the interactions at the secondary site is generated by coordinated movements in the ligand as well as the protein. A comparison of the crystal structure and the model of the complex involving the variant of the A-trisaccharide results in the delineation of the relative contributions of the interactions at the primary and the secondary sites in determining blood group specificity. PMID:17510954

  16. Quantifying Listeria monocytogenes prevalence and concentration in minced pork meat and estimating performance of three culture media from presence/absence microbiological testing using a deterministic and stochastic approach.

    PubMed

    Andritsos, Nikolaos D; Mataragas, Marios; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2013-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes poses a serious threat to public health, and the majority of cases of human listeriosis are associated with contaminated food. Reliable microbiological testing is needed for effective pathogen control by food industry and competent authorities. The aims of this work were to estimate the prevalence and concentration of L. monocytogenes in minced pork meat by the application of a Bayesian modeling approach, and also to determine the performance of three culture media commonly used for detecting L. monocytogenes in foods from a deterministic and stochastic perspective. Samples (n = 100) collected from local markets were tested for L. monocytogenes using in parallel the PALCAM, ALOA and RAPID'L.mono selective media according to ISO 11290-1:1996 and 11290-2:1998 methods. Presence of the pathogen was confirmed by conducting biochemical and molecular tests. Independent experiments (n = 10) for model validation purposes were performed. Performance attributes were calculated from the presence-absence microbiological test results by combining the results obtained from the culture media and confirmative tests. Dirichlet distribution, the multivariate expression of a Beta distribution, was used to analyze the performance data from a stochastic perspective. No L. monocytogenes was enumerated by direct-plating (<10 CFU/g), though the pathogen was detected in 22% of the samples. L. monocytogenes concentration was estimated at 14-17 CFU/kg. Validation showed good agreement between observed and predicted prevalence (error = -2.17%). The results showed that all media were best at ruling in L. monocytogenes presence than ruling it out. Sensitivity and specificity varied depending on the culture-dependent method. None of the culture media was perfect in detecting L. monocytogenes in minced pork meat alone. The use of at least two culture media in parallel enhanced the efficiency of L. monocytogenes detection. Bayesian modeling may reduce the time needed to draw

  17. Evidence of Bacillus thuringiensis intra-serovar diversity revealed by Bacillus cereus group-specific repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR genomic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Sauka, Diego H; Basile, Juan I; Benintende, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is classified into serovars on the basis of H-flagellar antigens. Several alternative typing methods have been described. Among them, a B. cereus group-specific repetitive extragenic palindromic (Rep)-PCR fingerprinting technique was shown to be discriminative and able to identify B. thuringiensis serovars. The aim of this study was to investigate the genomic diversity and relationship among B. thuringiensis strains collected from different Argentinean ecosystems. Thirty-seven B. thuringiensis reference strains and 131 Argentinean isolates were analyzed using a B. cereus group-specific Rep-PCR. Fourteen different patterns were identified among the Argentinean isolates. Eight could not be associated to any pattern obtained from a reference strain. The pattern identical to the serovar kurstaki HD-1 strain was the most frequently identified in 68 native isolates. The profiles allowed tracing a single dendrogram with two groups and eight main lineages. Some strains showed distinctive patterns despite belonging to the same serovar. An intraspecific diversity resulted from this analysis that was highlighted by this technique since strains from a given serovar showed distinct profiles. This study may help to establish a system of B. thuringiensis classification with a higher discrimination level than established by the H antigen serotyping. PMID:22286045

  18. Evaluation of a Genus- and Group-Specific Rapid PCR Assay Panel on Synovial Fluid for Diagnosis of Prosthetic Knee Infection

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Dante P.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Berbari, Elie F.; Osmon, Douglas R.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Hanssen, Arlen D.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a genus- and group-specific PCR assay panel using 284 prosthetic knee synovial fluid samples collected from patients presenting to our institution with implant failure. Using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society diagnostic criteria, 88 and 196 samples were classified as showing prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and aseptic failure (AF), respectively. Sensitivities of the synovial fluid PCR panel and culture were 55.6% and 76.1% (P ≤ 0.001), respectively, and specificities were 91.8% and 97.4% (P = 0.016), respectively. Among the 70 subjects who had received antibiotics within the month preceding synovial fluid aspiration (48 of whom had PJI), PCR panel and synovial fluid culture sensitivities were 64.5% and 85.4%, respectively (P < 0.0001). In this group, the PCR panel detected Staphylococcus aureus in two culture-negative PJI cases. Overall, the evaluated molecular diagnostic tool had low sensitivity when applied to synovial fluid. PMID:26537446

  19. Prevalence of food allergy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Charlotte

    2005-11-01

    At present the only cure for food allergy is to avoid eating the food responsible for the allergy. Thus, food allergy or food hypersensitivity is a disease that is not only of concern to the individual who is affected but also to those involved directly and indirectly in supplying and preparing food for the food-allergic individual, and its impact on society should be evaluated on this basis. It is generally assumed that questionnaire-based studies vastly overestimate the prevalence of food hypersensitivity. The reported perceived prevalence of food hypersensitivity varies from 3.24% to 34.9%, which may be explained partly by the difference in reporting lifetime prevalence compared with point prevalence. However, of more importance is the apparent inverse correlation between response rate and prevalence (the higher the response rate, the lower the perceived prevalence). The three most-recent prevalence studies on food hypersensitivity (one on perceived food hypersensitivity and two on confirmed food hypersensitivity) all report estimates for prevalence of approximately 3%, but their criteria for including subjects as being positive are not identical, although they do overlap. Furthermore, because of differences in methodology there is no definitive information to indicate whether the prevalence of food allergy is increasing. However, the high prevalence of pollen-related food allergy in younger adults in the population suggests that the increase in pollen allergy is also being accompanied by an increase in pollen-related food allergy. PMID:16313682

  20. Pathogen group-specific risk factors for intramammary infection in treated and untreated dairy heifers participating in a prepartum antimicrobial treatment trial.

    PubMed

    Passchyn, P; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

    2014-10-01

    Heifer mastitis is a well-known problem, with several pathogens being involved. Several generic risk factors associated with the likelihood of intramammary infections (IMI) in fresh dairy heifers have been identified before. Yet, a need exists to identify pathogen group-specific factors, as the effect of (groups of) pathogens on udder health and milk yield is different. The aim of the present study was to identify pathogen group-specific risk factors for IMI in heifers participating in a prepartum antimicrobial treatment trial, allowing us to test the hypothesis that different factors are of importance between treated and untreated control heifers as well. Data from a clinical trial in which end-term heifers were treated systemically (over 3 consecutive days) 2 wk before calving with penethamate hydriodide (n=76) or remained untreated (n=73), were available. Several potential risk factors at the herd, heifer, and quarter level were recorded in the first 3 d in milk. Quarters from untreated heifers supplemented with ≥4 mg of selenium/d prepartum were significantly less likely to be infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), whereas quarters were more likely to be infected with CNS when assistance during calving was needed. Udder edema before calving significantly decreased the odds of IMI with major pathogens. In treated heifers, no factors were detected that were associated with the likelihood of CNS IMI, whereas quarters from heifers were significantly more likely to be infected with major pathogens when they were housed in the calving pen more than 1 d and when they had been in contact with the lactating cows before calving. The risk factors for IMI that were identified in treated heifers were different than those in untreated heifers, independent of the pathogen group that was considered. It looks as if prepartum treatment not only changed the likelihood of infection, but also the factors that were associated with infection. However, except for

  1. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Understanding the prevalence of schizophrenia has important implications for both health service planning and risk factor epidemiology. The aims of this review are to systematically identify and collate studies describing the prevalence of schizophrenia, to summarize the findings of these studies, and to explore selected factors that may influence prevalence estimates. Methods and Findings Studies with original data related to the prevalence of schizophrenia (published 1965–2002) were identified via searching electronic databases, reviewing citations, and writing to authors. These studies were divided into “core” studies, “migrant” studies, and studies based on “other special groups.” Between- and within-study filters were applied in order to identify discrete prevalence estimates. Cumulative plots of prevalence estimates were made and the distributions described when the underlying estimates were sorted according to prevalence type (point, period, lifetime, and lifetime morbid risk). Based on combined prevalence estimates, the influence of selected key variables was examined (sex, urbanicity, migrant status, country economic index, and study quality). A total of 1,721 prevalence estimates from 188 studies were identified. These estimates were drawn from 46 countries, and were based on an estimated 154,140 potentially overlapping prevalent cases. We identified 132 core studies, 15 migrant studies, and 41 studies based on other special groups. The median values per 1,000 persons (10%–90% quantiles) for the distributions for point, period, lifetime, and lifetime morbid risk were 4.6 (1.9–10.0), 3.3 (1.3–8.2), 4.0 (1.6–12.1), and 7.2 (3.1–27.1), respectively. Based on combined prevalence estimates, we found no significant difference (a) between males and females, or (b) between urban, rural, and mixed sites. The prevalence of schizophrenia in migrants was higher compared to native-born individuals: the migrant-to-native-born ratio

  2. Age-Group-Specific Associations between the Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Relevant Risk Factors in Male and Female Patients

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xingqi; Gu, Wei; Li, Yanyan; Liu, Mei; Li, Yan; Gao, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Aim To seek accurate and credible correlation manner between gender, age, and obesity; and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in large-scale population. Methods Totals of 1,975 male and 378 female OSA patients were sequentially recruited. Centralized covariant tendencies between age, body mass index (BMI), and waist hip ratio (WHR); and OSA severity, were explored in a gender-specific manner via multiple statistical analyses. The accuracies of observed correlations were further evaluated by adaptive multiple linear regression. Results All of age, BMI, WHR, smoking, drinking, and OSA severity differed between males and females. BMI and WHR were positively and (approximately) linearly associated with OSA severity in both males and females. Restricted cubic spline analysis was more effective than was the Pearson correlation approach in correlating age with AHI, and provided age crossover points allowing further piecewise linear modeling for both males and females. Multiple linear regression showed that increasing age was associated with OSA exacerbation in males aged ≤40 years and in females aged 45–53 years. BMI, WHR, and diabetes were independently associated with OSA severity in males with age-group-specific pattern. In females, only BMI was associated with OSA severity at all ages. Conclusions In male patients, BMI and WHR are prominent risk factors for OSA exacerbation. Age and diabetes are associated with OSA severity in males of particular ages. In females, BMI is also a prominent risk factor for severe OSA, and OSA severity increased with age in the range 45–53 years. PMID:25211035

  3. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in France: 2001

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, F; Saraux, A; Guggenbuhl, P; Roux, C; Fardellone, P; Le Bihan, E; Cantagrel, A; Chary-Valckenaere, I; Euller-Ziegler, L; Flipo, R; Juvin, R; Behier, J; Fautrel, B; Masson, C; Coste, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prevalence estimates of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) vary across Europe. Recent estimates in southern European countries showed a lower prevalence than in northern countries. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of RA in France in a multiregional representative sample in the year 2001. Methods: A two stage random sample was constituted in seven areas (20 counties) from the national telephone directory of households and by the next birthday method in each household. Patient-interviewers, member of self help groups, were trained to administer telephone surveys using a validated questionnaire for case detection of inflammatory rheumatism, and conducted the survey under quality control. All suspected cases of RA were confirmed by their rheumatologist or by clinical examination. Prevalence estimates after probability sampling correction were standardised for age and sex (national census 1999). Results: An average response rate of 64.7% (two stages combined) led to a total of 9395 respondents. Standardised prevalence was 0.31% (95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.48) for RA, 0.51% in women and 0.09% in men, with a higher age-specific prevalence in the 65–74 year age band. A geographical analysis of county clustering showed significant variation across the country. Conclusion: This national multiregional cooperative study demonstrates the usefulness of working in association with patients of self help groups. It showed a similar prevalence of RA to that of the spondyloarthropathies estimated concomitantly during the survey. It provides a reliable basis for definition of population targets for healthcare delivery and drug treatments. PMID:15800010

  4. Prevalence of prediabetes and its association with obesity among college students in Kuwait: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ben Haider, Nour Y; Ziyab, Ali H

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional study sought to estimate the prevalence of prediabetes and assess its association with obesity among young adults in Kuwait; a country with a high prevalence of obesity and diabetes. The estimated prevalence of prediabetes was 6.3% (95% CI: 4.8-8.1) and obesity was associated with elevated prediabetes prevalence. PMID:27484296

  5. High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

  6. A Review of the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Electronic databases and bibliographies were searched for English language articles on the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Asia over time to estimate prevalence. The overall reported prevalence of ASD in recent studies was higher than the previously reported in Asia. The average prevalence of ASD before 1980 was around 1.9/10,000 while…

  7. Single-Cell Genome and Group-Specific dsrAB Sequencing Implicate Marine Members of the Class Dehalococcoidia (Phylum Chloroflexi) in Sulfur Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Myriel; Schreiber, Lars; Lloyd, Karen G.; Baker, Brett J.; Petersen, Dorthe G.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Reinhardt, Richard; Schramm, Andreas; Loy, Alexander; Adrian, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The marine subsurface sediment biosphere is widely inhabited by bacteria affiliated with the class Dehalococcoidia (DEH), phylum Chloroflexi, and yet little is known regarding their metabolisms. In this report, genomic content from a single DEH cell (DEH-C11) with a 16S rRNA gene that was affiliated with a diverse cluster of 16S rRNA gene sequences prevalent in marine sediments was obtained from sediments of Aarhus Bay, Denmark. The distinctive gene content of this cell suggests metabolic characteristics that differ from those of known DEH and Chloroflexi. The presence of genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr) suggests that DEH could respire oxidized sulfur compounds, although Chloroflexi have never been implicated in this mode of sulfur cycling. Using long-range PCR assays targeting DEH dsr loci, dsrAB genes were amplified and sequenced from various marine sediments. Many of the amplified dsrAB sequences were affiliated with the DEH Dsr clade, which we propose equates to a family-level clade. This provides supporting evidence for the potential for sulfite reduction by diverse DEH species. DEH-C11 also harbored genes encoding reductases for arsenate, dimethyl sulfoxide, and halogenated organics. The reductive dehalogenase homolog (RdhA) forms a monophyletic clade along with RdhA sequences from various DEH-derived contigs retrieved from available metagenomes. Multiple facts indicate that this RdhA may not be a terminal reductase. The presence of other genes indicated that nutrients and energy may be derived from the oxidation of substituted homocyclic and heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Together, these results suggest that marine DEH play a previously unrecognized role in sulfur cycling and reveal the potential for expanded catabolic and respiratory functions among subsurface DEH. PMID:27143384

  8. [Tuberculosis prevalence survey in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shimao, Tadao

    2009-11-01

    epidemiological figures obtained from vital registration, namely incidence of TB, prevalence of active TB at the end of the year and TB mortality. In analyzing the results, we have to take note of the difference in bacteriological examination methods. As laryngeal swab method was used in 1963 and 1968, culture positive rate was lower and no information about smear examination, however, from 1958 to 1973, all indices had declined exponentially with similar speed including prevalence of smear +PTB and bacillary TB if results in 1958 and 1973 were connected directly. Based on this results and the fact that marked decline in the prevalence of active TB requiring much larger sample size for the survey, TB prevalence survey was stopped, and data from vital register has been used since then to evaluate the TB situation. Results of 3 incidence surveys were shown in Fig. 3. Shift of higher incidence from younger age groups to higher age groups was clearly shown from 1954 survey to 1964 survey. The results of routine follow-up by vital registration of 1968 survey population excluding TB cases found in 1968 survey were shown in Table 2, and high risk groups were clearly shown in this table. As routine X-ray examination was done by radiography in 1963 survey, it was possible to pick up any slight TB pathology, and the age-specific prevalence of any TB finding, that of healed findings and of calcified lesions were shown together with BCG vaccination coverage in Fig. 4. In the age groups above 40, the prevalence of any TB finding, as well as of healed and calcified findings was very high, while the coverage of BCG vaccination was below 20%. BCG vaccination was started in Japan in 1943, and those above 40 years of age in 1963 were then already 20 years of age or above, and only few were vaccinated with BCG when BCG vaccination was expanded to cover higher age groups thereafter. TB prevalence survey has now come to be used as one of methods to estimate the incidence of TB under the impact of HIV

  9. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  10. The Prevalence of Sexual Abuse among Adolescents in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Pettingell, Sandra; Magee, Lara L.

    2003-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77,374; 1998: N = 81,247).…

  11. Prevalence of diabetes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shera, A S; Jawad, F; Maqsood, A

    2007-05-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and the contributing risk factors were estimated by performing a cross-sectional survey conducted earlier in the rural and urban areas of all the four provinces of Pakistan. The statistical analysis was performed from the obtained results by using SPSS version 12.0. The total number of subjects examined were 5433 which included 1893 males (1208 in rural and 685 in urban areas) and 3540 females (2243 in rural and 1297 in urban areas). The prevalence of diabetes in the urban versus the rural areas was 6.0% in men and 3.5% in women against 6.9% in men and 2.5% in women, respectively. Newly diagnosed diabetes was 5.1% in men and 6.8% in women in urban areas and 5.0% in men and 4.8% in women in rural areas. IGT in the urban versus the rural areas was 6.3% in men and 14.2% in women against 6.9% in men and 10.9% in women, respectively. Overall glucose intolerance (DM+IGT) was 22.04% in urban and 17.15% in rural areas. The major risk factors identified were age, positive family history and obesity especially central obesity. PMID:17005289

  12. High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity. PMID:23181629

  13. The Prevalence of Limited Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Parker, Ruth M; Gazmararian, Julie A; Nielsen-Bohlman, Lynn T; Rudd, Rima R

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To systematically review U.S. studies examining the prevalence of limited health literacy and to synthesize these findings by evaluating demographic associations in pooled analyses. DESIGN We searched the literature for the period 1963 through January 2004 and identified 2,132 references related to a set of specified search terms. Of the 134 articles and published abstracts retrieved, 85 met inclusion criteria, which were 1) conducted in the United States with ≥25 adults, 2) addressed a hypothesis related to health care, 3) identified a measurement instrument, and 4) presented primary data. The authors extracted data to compare studies by population, methods, and results. MAIN RESULTS The 85 studies reviewed include data on 31,129 subjects, and report a prevalence of low health literacy between 0% and 68%. Pooled analyses of these data reveal that the weighted prevalence of low health literacy was 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22% to 29%) and of marginal health literacy was 20% (95% CI, 16% to 23%). Most studies used either the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) or versions of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA). The prevalence of low health literacy was not associated with gender (P =.38) or measurement instrument (P =.23) but was associated with level of education (P =.02), ethnicity (P =.0003), and age (P =.004). CONCLUSIONS A pooled analysis of published reports on health literacy cannot provide a nationally representative prevalence estimate. This systematic review exhibits that limited health literacy, as depicted in the medical literature, is prevalent and is consistently associated with education, ethnicity, and age. It is essential to simplify health services and improve health education. Such changes have the potential to improve the health of Americans and address the health disparities that exist today. PMID:15836552

  14. Prevalence estimation of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies in dogs from Finland using novel dog anti-TBEV IgG MAb-capture and IgG immunofluorescence assays based on recombinant TBEV subviral particles.

    PubMed

    Levanov, Lev; Vera, Cristina Pérez; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most dangerous human neurological infections occurring in Europe and Northern parts of Asia with thousands of cases and millions vaccinated against it. The risk of TBE might be assessed through analyses of the samples taken from wildlife or from animals which are in close contact with humans. Dogs have been shown to be a good sentinel species for these studies. Serological assays for diagnosis of TBE in dogs are mainly based on purified and inactivated TBEV antigens. Here we describe novel dog anti-TBEV IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb)-capture assay which is based on TBEV prME subviral particles expressed in mammalian cells from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon as well as IgG immunofluorescence assay (IFA) which is based on Vero E6 cells transfected with the same SFV replicon. We further demonstrate their use in a small-scale TBEV seroprevalence study of dogs representing different regions of Finland. Altogether, 148 dog serum samples were tested by novel assays and results were compared to those obtained with a commercial IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA), hemagglutination inhibition test and IgG IFA with TBEV infected cells. Compared to reference tests, the sensitivities of the developed assays were 90-100% and the specificities of the two assays were 100%. Analysis of the dog serum samples showed a seroprevalence of 40% on Åland Islands and 6% on Southwestern archipelago of Finland. In conclusion, a specific and sensitive EIA and IFA for the detection of IgG antibodies in canine sera were developed. Based on these assays the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies in dogs from different regions of Finland was assessed and was shown to parallel the known human disease burden as the Southwestern archipelago and Åland Islands in particular had considerable dog TBEV antibody prevalence and represent areas with high risk of TBE for humans. PMID:27189583

  15. CKD Prevalence Varies across the European General Population.

    PubMed

    Brück, Katharina; Stel, Vianda S; Gambaro, Giovanni; Hallan, Stein; Völzke, Henry; Ärnlöv, Johan; Kastarinen, Mika; Guessous, Idris; Vinhas, José; Stengel, Bénédicte; Brenner, Hermann; Chudek, Jerzy; Romundstad, Solfrid; Tomson, Charles; Gonzalez, Alfonso Otero; Bello, Aminu K; Ferrieres, Jean; Palmieri, Luigi; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Van Biesen, Wim; Zoccali, Carmine; Gansevoort, Ron; Navis, Gerjan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Nitsch, Dorothea; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J

    2016-07-01

    CKD prevalence estimation is central to CKD management and prevention planning at the population level. This study estimated CKD prevalence in the European adult general population and investigated international variation in CKD prevalence by age, sex, and presence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. We collected data from 19 general-population studies from 13 European countries. CKD stages 1-5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), as calculated by the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation, or albuminuria >30 mg/g, and CKD stages 3-5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) CKD prevalence was age- and sex-standardized to the population of the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU27). We found considerable differences in both CKD stages 1-5 and CKD stages 3-5 prevalence across European study populations. The adjusted CKD stages 1-5 prevalence varied between 3.31% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.30% to 3.33%) in Norway and 17.3% (95% CI, 16.5% to 18.1%) in northeast Germany. The adjusted CKD stages 3-5 prevalence varied between 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7% to 1.3%) in central Italy and 5.9% (95% CI, 5.2% to 6.6%) in northeast Germany. The variation in CKD prevalence stratified by diabetes, hypertension, and obesity status followed the same pattern as the overall prevalence. In conclusion, this large-scale attempt to carefully characterize CKD prevalence in Europe identified substantial variation in CKD prevalence that appears to be due to factors other than the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. PMID:26701975

  16. Rethinking HIV prevalence determination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan A; Oyediran, Kolawole A

    2015-01-01

    The process for HIV prevalence determination using antenatal clinic (ANC) sentinel surveillance data has been plagued by criticisms of its biasness. Exploring other means of HIV prevalence determination is necessary to validate that estimates are near actual values or to replace the current system. We propose a data collection model that leverages the increasing adoption and penetration of the Internet and mobile technology to collect and archive routine data from HIV counseling and testing (HCT) client intake forms from all HCT centers and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) sites in a country. These data will then be mined to determine prevalence rates and risk factors at the community level. The need to improve the method for the generation of HIV prevalence rates has been repeatedly echoed by researchers though no one has been able to fashion out a better and more reliable way to the current ANC sentinel surveillance method at a reasonable cost. The chance of using routinely generated data during HCT and PMTCT is appealing and needs to be envisioned as the technology to achieve this is increasingly becoming available and affordable in countries worst hit by the pandemic. Triangulating data generated from routine HCT and PMTCT sites with data from sentinel surveillance and where the confidence of its quality is assured, as the sole source of HIV prevalence rate determination and behavioral risk assessment will improve the acceptance by communities and drive evidence-based interventions at the community level. PMID:25174731

  17. Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Kraijer, Dirk; Minderaa, Ruud

    2005-01-01

    Background: Insight into the prevalence of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) in children and adolescents with mental retardation (MR) is known to be of clinical importance. However, estimating this prevalence is complicated. The literature reports prevalence rates ranging from 3% through 50%. This variation seems to be related to the concepts…

  18. Characterization of polybacterial clinical samples using a set of group-specific broad-range primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene followed by DNA sequencing and RipSeq analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lekang, Katrine; Langeland, Nina; Wiker, Harald G.

    2011-01-01

    The standard use of a single universal broad-range PCR in direct 16S rDNA sequencing from polybacterial samples leaves the minor constituents at risk of remaining undetected because all bacterial DNA will be competing for the same reagents. In this article we introduce a set of three broad-range group-specific 16S rDNA PCRs that together cover the clinically relevant bacteria and apply them in the investigation of 25 polybacterial clinical samples. Mixed DNA chromatograms from samples containing more than one species per primer group were analysed using RipSeq Mixed (iSentio, Norway), a web-based application for the interpretation of chromatograms containing up to three different species. The group-specific PCRs reduced complexity in the resulting DNA chromatograms and made the assay more sensitive in situations with unequal species concentrations. Together this allowed for identification of a significantly higher number of bacterial species than did standard direct sequencing with a single universal primer pair and RipSeq analysis (95 vs 51). The method could improve microbiological diagnostics for important groups of patients and can be established in any laboratory with experience in direct 16S rDNA sequencing. PMID:21436365

  19. Migraine prevalence, socioeconomic status, and social causation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Jason; Lipton, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the known higher prevalence of migraine in lower household (HH) income groups is explained by a higher incidence rate or a lower remission rate. Methods: We used data from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study, a US national sample of 132,674 females (with a 64.3% response rate) and 124,665 males (with a 62.0% response rate) 12 years of age and older. Data were previously collected on migraine symptoms, onset age, and demographics. Previously validated methods applied to the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study data were used to simulate a cohort study. Incidence and remission rates were estimated within 3 sex-specific HH income groups (<$22,500, $22,500–$59,999, and ≥$60,000). The χ2 test was used to determine whether the incidence or remission rates differed by HH income group as an explanation for differences in migraine prevalence by HH income. Results: Migraine prevalence increased as HH income decreased for females (χ2, p < 0.01) and males (χ2, p < 0.01). Differences were not explained by race and other known confounders. Variation in prevalence was explained, in large part, by a higher incidence rate in the lower HH income groups for both females (χ2, p < 0.01) and males (χ2, p < 0.01). Migraine remission rates did not differ by HH income. Conclusions: The higher incidence of migraine in lower HH income groups is compatible with the social causation hypothesis. Once initiated, migraine remission is independent of HH income. Onset and remission may have etiologically distinct causes. PMID:23990405

  20. A 9-year Trend in the Prevalence of Allergic Disease Based on National Health Insurance Data

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byoungin; Park, Yoonhyung; Park, Kwanjun; Kim, Hoseob

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate trends in the prevalence of allergic disease over a 9-year period. Methods: Using National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) data, the annual number of patients with allergic disease was obtained for each regional subdivisions (small cities, counties, and districts) from 2003 to 2011. Annual populations for each sub-region were obtained and used to calculate the standardized prevalence. To compare prevalence within the study period, data was standardized spatially and temporally. For standardization, demographic data was used to obtain the registered population and demographic structure for 2010, which was used to perform direct standardization of previous years. In addition, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to visualize prevalence for individual sub-regions, and allergic diseases were categorized into five groups according to prevalence. Results: The nationwide outpatient prevalence of allergic rhinitis increased approximately 2.3-fold, from 1.27% in 2003 to 2.97% in 2013, while inpatient prevalence also increased approximately 2.4-fold,. The outpatient prevalence of asthma increased 1.2-fold, and inpatient prevalence increased 1.3-fold. The outpatient prevalence of atopic dermatitis decreased approximately 12%, and inpatient prevalence decreased 5%. Conclusions: There was a large difference between prevalence estimated from actual treatment data and prevalence based on patients’ self-reported data, particularly for allergic rhinitis. Prevalence must continually be calculated and trends should be analyzed for the efficient management of allergic diseases. To this end, prevalence studies using NHIS claims data may be useful. PMID:26639744

  1. The Incidence and Prevalence of Neuromyelitis Optica

    PubMed Central

    Gryba, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Interest in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has increased substantially over the last few years, but it is not known whether NMO has the same geographic and temporal variations in disease risk as multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to evaluate the worldwide incidence and prevalence of NMO through a systematic review of published peer-reviewed studies. We performed a search of the English-language literature using MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1985 to March 2012. Search terms included “neuromyelitis optica,” “Devic's,” “opticospinal,” “incidence,” “prevalence,” and “epidemiology.” We assessed study quality using a standardized instrument. A total of five studies met the inclusion criteria. Three of the studies were from North America, and all studies were published between 2005 and 2012. All studies were of good quality, but only one study reported standardized rates, and subgroup-specific estimates were rarely reported. The incidence of NMO per 100,000 population ranged from 0.053 to 0.40, while the prevalence per 100,000 population ranged from 0.52 to 4.4. Heterogeneity was high among the incidence (I2 = 68.0%) and prevalence studies (I2 = 94.0%). This review highlights the limited knowledge regarding the epidemiology of NMO and the importance of obtaining estimates standardized to common populations to enhance comparability of studies from different jurisdictions. Future studies would also benefit from reporting age-, sex-, and race- or ethnicity-specific estimates. PMID:24453773

  2. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira da; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young people

  3. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  4. Prevalence of blood parasites in seabirds - a review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction While blood parasites are common in many birds in the wild, some groups seem to be much less affected. Seabirds, in particular, have often been reported free from blood parasites, even in the presence of potential vectors. Results From a literature review of hemosporidian prevalence in seabirds, we collated a dataset of 60 species, in which at least 15 individuals had been examined. These data were included in phylogenetically controlled statistical analyses of hemosporidian prevalence in relation to ecological and life-history parameters. Haemoproteus parasites were common in frigatebirds and gulls, while Hepatozoon occurred in albatrosses and storm petrels, and Plasmodium mainly in penguins. The prevalence of Haemoproteus showed a geographical signal, being lower in species with distribution towards polar environments. Interspecific differences in Plasmodium prevalence were explained by variables that relate to the exposure to parasites, suggesting that prevalence is higher in burrow nesters with long fledgling periods. Measures of Plasmodium, but not Haemoproteus prevalences were influenced by the method, with PCR-based data resulting in higher prevalence estimates. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that, as in other avian taxa, phylogenetic, ecological and life-history parameters determine the prevalence of hemosporidian parasites in seabirds. We discuss how these relationships should be further explored in future studies. PMID:22035144

  5. Short-term predictions of HIV prevalence and AIDS incidence.

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, J. C.; Medley, G. F.; Heisterkamp, S. H.; Van Griensven, G. J.; Bindels, P. J.; Coutinho, R. A.; Van Druten, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Reports of AIDS cases in Amsterdam up to February 1990 were used to make predictions of future cases up to 1993. Two published methods were applied, which make extrapolations from current cases and simultaneously estimate the extent of delay in reporting. The choice of the exact model greatly influenced the predictions, as did predictions for distinct transmission groups. We present results for the homo/bisexual male group, and the total population of Amsterdam. The AIDS case predictions are used to predict the HIV prevalence using the ratio of HIV prevalence to AIDS incidence and through 'back calculation'. We suggest that the ratio is a simple technique that may be used to estimate HIV prevalence. The estimated number of cumulative HIV infected homo/bisexual males in Amsterdam in January 1990 was between 2100 and 4100 in a total of 2200-4600 infected people. PMID:1499669

  6. Prevalence of lethal osteochondrodysplasias in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Andersen, P E

    1989-04-01

    The point prevalence at birth of lethal osteochondrodysplasias in a subregion of Denmark was estimated by a study of all children born January 1970 through December 1983. Two cases of thanatophoric dysplasia, one case of thanatophoric dysplasia with cloverleaf skull, two cases of micromelic bone dysplasia with cloverleaf skull, two cases of achondrogenesis type III, and three cases of achondrogenesis type IV were found. Two cases were unclassifiable due to lack of radiographs. In total, the point prevalence at birth was 15.4 per 100,000. Thus lethal osteochondrodysplasias seem to be more common than is generally assumed. The clinical and radiographic findings in micromelic bone dysplasia with cloverleaf skull are discussed in relation to thanatophoric dysplasia and achondrogenesis type IV. PMID:2789000

  7. Depression in athletes: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wolanin, Andrew; Gross, Michael; Hong, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects an estimated 6.7% of today's adult population in a 12-month period. The prevalence rates for certain age groups, such as young adults and older adults, are higher. There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association student athletes competing each year and 5 to 7 million high school student athletes involved in competitive interscholastic sports. Given such a high prevalence rate in certain age groups and a large denominator pool of athletes, past notions that athletes are devoid of mental health issues have come under scrutiny by sports medicine providers. Initial data suggest that athletes are far from immune to depression. The purpose of this article was to review the current research on athletes and depression; particularly this article will provide an overview of studies, which have investigated the rate of depression among athletes, and discuss relevant risk factors, which may contribute to depression among athletes. PMID:25574886

  8. The prevalence of stillbirths: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Say, Lale; Donner, Allan; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Taljaard, Monica; Piaggio, Gilda

    2006-01-01

    Background Stillbirth rate is an important indicator of access to and quality of antenatal and delivery care. Obtaining overall estimates across various regions of the world is not straightforward due to variation in definitions, data collection methods and reporting. Methods We conducted a systematic review of a range of pregnancy-related conditions including stillbirths and performed meta-analysis of the subset of studies reporting stillbirth rates. We examined variation across rates and used meta-regression techniques to explain observed variation. Results We identified 389 articles on stillbirth prevalence among the 2580 included in the systematic review. We included 70 providing 80 data sets from 50 countries in the meta-analysis. Pooled prevalence rates show variation across various subgroup categories. Rates per 100 births are higher in studies conducted in less developed country settings as compared to more developed (1.17 versus 0.50), of inadequate quality as compared to adequate (1.12 versus 0.66), using sub-national sample as compared to national (1.38 versus 0.68), reporting all stillbirths as compared to late stillbirths (0.95 versus 0.63), published in non-English as compared to English (0.91 versus 0.59) and as journal articles as compared to non-journal (1.37 versus 0.67). The results of the meta-regression show the significance of two predictor variables – development status of the setting and study quality – on stillbirth prevalence. Conclusion Stillbirth prevalence at the community level is typically less than 1% in more developed parts of the world and could exceed 3% in less developed regions. Regular reviews of stillbirth rates in appropriately designed and reported studies are useful in monitoring the adequacy of care. Systematic reviews of prevalence studies are helpful in explaining sources of variation across rates. Exploring these methodological issues will lead to improved standards for assessing the burden of reproductive ill

  9. Is asthma prevalence still increasing?

    PubMed

    Lundbäck, Bo; Backman, Helena; Lötvall, Jan; Rönmark, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Increased awareness of asthma in society and altered diagnostic practices makes evaluation of data on prevalence change difficult. In most parts of the world the asthma prevalence seems to still be increasing. The increase is associated with urbanization and has been documented particularly among children and teenagers in urban areas of middle- and low-level income countries. Use of validated questionnaires has enabled comparisons of studies. Among adults there are few studies based on representative samples of the general population which allow evaluation of time trends of prevalence. This review focuses mainly on studies of asthma prevalence and symptoms among adults. Parallel with increased urbanization, we can assume that the increase in asthma prevalence in most areas of the world will continue. However, in Australia and North-West Europe studies performed, particularly among children and adolescents, indicate that the increase in asthma prevalence may now be leveling off. PMID:26610152

  10. The Role of Partial Recording Protocols in reporting prevalence and severity of Dental Fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Akinkugbe, Aderonke; Iafolla, Timothy; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Garcia, Isabel; Adams, Amy; Kingman, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the role of partial recording protocols (PRPs) in reporting prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and assess whether prevalence/severity estimates derived from PRPs differ by race/ethnicity. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2004 were analyzed with Stata® v.11. Prevalence of dental fluorosis obtained from a full mouth examination (28 teeth gold standard) was compared to estimates derived from four subsets of teeth (maxillary canine-to-canine; maxillary 1st premolar to 1st premolar; allpremolars; all-molars). Sensitivity, Negative Predictive Value (NPV), absolute bias, and correction factors were calculated against gold standard estimate. Analysis was stratified according to race/ethnicity to assess differences in estimates derived from PRPs. Results All subsets underestimated prevalence albeit to varying degrees. Two subsets (allpremolars and all-molars) had prevalence and severity estimates closest to gold standard estimates. The all-molar subset (8 teeth) recorded the highest sensitivity (84.5%) and the lowest absolute bias (3.5%) of all subsets relative to gold standard. Subsets derived from aesthetically relevant teeth produced the lowest fluorosis prevalence. For instance, the maxillary canine-to-canine subset underestimated prevalence by 9.5%; incorporating the maxillary first premolars in the span improved prevalence estimate by 31%. Among non-Hispanic Whites, the all-premolars subset produced estimates closest to gold standard while the all-molars subset produced estimates closest to the gold standard among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics. Conclusion While the majority of dental fluorosis in the United States is very mild, concerns regarding its growing prevalence underscore the need for careful monitoring. The use of PRPs offers an alternative method of assessment, with validity of reported prevalence and severity dependent on choice of subset. PMID:24995860

  11. Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-16

    Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve

  12. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation in Chinese College Students: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhan-Zhan; Li, Ya-Ming; Lei, Xian-Yang; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Li; Tang, Si-Yuan; Chen, Lizhang

    2014-01-01

    Background About 1 million people worldwide commit suicide each year, and college students with suicidal ideation are at high risk of suicide. The prevalence of suicidal ideation in college students has been estimated extensively, but quantitative syntheses of overall prevalence are scarce, especially in China. Accurate estimates of prevalence are important for making public policy. In this paper, we aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students. Objective and Methods Databases including PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wangfang (Chinese database) and Weipu (Chinese database) were systematically reviewed to identify articles published between 2004 to July 2013, in either English or Chinese, reporting prevalence estimates of suicidal ideation among Chinese college students. The strategy also included a secondary search of reference lists of records retrieved from databases. Then the prevalence estimates were summarized using a random effects model. The effects of moderator variables on the prevalence estimates were assessed using a meta-regression model. Results A total of 41 studies involving 160339 college students were identified, and the prevalence ranged from 1.24% to 26.00%. The overall pooled prevalence of suicidal ideation among Chinese college students was 10.72% (95%CI: 8.41% to 13.28%). We noted substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates. Subgroup analyses showed that prevalence of suicidal ideation in females is higher than in males. Conclusions The prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students is relatively high, although the suicide rate is lower compared with the entire society, suggesting the need for local surveys to inform the development of health services for college students. PMID:25285890

  13. Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wadhera, Rishi K.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a premalignant plasma cell disorder that is associated with a lifelong risk of multiple myeloma. We conducted a systematic review of all studies investigating the prevalence and incidence of MGUS in the online database PubMed. The review was conducted from January 6, 2009, through January 15, 2010. The following MeSH search headings were used: monoclonal gammopathy, benign and prevalence; monoclonal gammopathy, benign and incidence; paraproteinemia and prevalence; and paraproteinemia and incidence. Articles were limited to those written in English and published by January 2009. Fourteen studies that met prespecified criteria were included and systematically assessed to identify the most accurate prevalence estimates of MGUS based on age, sex, and race. On the basis of our systematic review, we estimate that the crude prevalence of MGUS in those older than 50 years is 3.2% in a predominantly white population. Studies in white and Japanese populations demonstrate a clear increase in prevalence with age. The prevalence is also affected by sex: 3.7% and 2.9% in white men and women, respectively; and 2.8% and 1.6% in Japanese men and women, respectively. Additionally, MGUS is significantly more prevalent in black people (5.9%-8.4%) than in white people (3.0%-3.6%). We conclude that MGUS is a common premalignant plasma cell disorder in the general population of those older than 50 years. The prevalence increases with age and is affected by race, sex, family history, immunosuppression, and pesticide exposure. These results are important for counseling, clinical care, and the design of clinical studies in high-risk populations. PMID:20713974

  14. [HCV prevalence in health workers].

    PubMed

    Vassia, M A; Curciarello, J O; Bologna, A; De Barrio, S; Belloni, P; Jmelnitzky, C A

    1999-01-01

    The risk of HBV infections in health workers and the different prevalence according to the hospital activities has been shown in a great number of papers. In order to establish the prevalence of serological HBV markers in health workers fron high complexity hospital, we have analyzed 730 inquiries refilled in the period 1994-1995 before receiving the antihepatitis B vaccine. We studied 730 health workers, 282 (38.8%) males and 447 (61.2%) females with a mean age of 40.1 years old. We found 75/730 (10.2) serums antiçHBc reactives. The found prevalence was significantly larger than the one found in blood donors. The analysis of the prevalence according to the hospital activities showed that the infirmary personnel is the only with anti-HBc prevalence significantly superior to the blood donors, and the other health workers prevalence. Differences in the anti-HBc prevalence between the physicians specialties were not found. Our results agree with other publications that clearly show that health workers are a risk group for HBV infection. However, what attracts attention in the analyzed population is that the only ones with anti-HBc prevalence significantly superior to the blood donors' and the other health workers prevalence were the nurses, suggesting that nurses are the only health workers that have risk of HBV infections. PMID:10599401

  15. Bias From Using Occupational Smoking Prevalence to Adjust Occupational Incidence Cohort Lung Cancer Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how smoking correction factors based on comparing worker smoking prevalence with population smoking prevalence are biased if applied to an occupational incidence cohort. Methods: Relative rates of smoking for shorter-tenure workers derived from occupational cohort lung cancer studies were applied to incidence and prevalence population tenure distributions to calculate relative smoking estimates. Results: High smoking rates in short-tenure workers have little effect on prevalent worker rates (relative smoking estimates, 1.04 and 1.02) and much larger effect in occupational incidence populations (relative smoking estimates, 1.58 and 1.21), which have a much higher proportion of short tenure-workers. Conclusions: Smoking correction estimates derived from surveys of smoking habits in prevalent workers may introduce bias when applied to incidence workers because of very different proportions of short-tenure workers (length-time biased sampling). PMID:25427172

  16. Snacking Is Prevalent in Mexico123

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Rivera, Juan A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Snacking has increased globally, but little is known about how Mexicans consume foods outside meals. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and patterns of snacking behavior among Mexicans. Methods: We used data from children and adults (aged ≥2 y; n = 9937) from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 and the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) 2012 to examine the prevalence of snacking as well as amount (kcal) and contribution of snacks to total energy intake per day. Snacking was defined as eating outside of the 3 main meals. We calculated per capita (among the total population) and per consumer (“snackers”) estimates of the number of snacks per day, kilocalories per snack, kilocalories per day from snacks, and the percentage of energy from snacks. Top foods consumed during snack occasions were also examined for the NHNS 2012. All results were weighted to account for survey design and to be nationally representative. Results: In 2012, an estimated 73% of the population consumed snacks on a given day, with estimates ranging from 70% among ≥59 y olds to 77% among 2–11 y olds. An average of 1.6 snacks/d were consumed by the population. This value was slightly higher (2.1 snacks/d) among snackers. Snacks provided an average of 343 kcal/d per snacker (17% of total energy/d). Fruit was the most commonly consumed snack food by all ages except for 12–18 y olds. Salty snacks, sweet snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and milk were frequently in the top 5 categories across age groups. Differences were observed between age groups. Conclusions: Snacking is prevalent in the Mexican population. Many, but not all, of the foods consumed during snack occasions are foods considered “foods to limit” in the United States. PMID:25332484

  17. PREVALENCE OF OVERWEIGHT AMONG ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS IN MISSISSIPPI COMPARED WITH PREVALENCE DATA FROM THE YOUTH RISK BEHAVIOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the Child and Youth Prevalence of Overweight Survey was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and at risk for becoming overweight among children in Mississippi (grades 1-8) using height and weight measures instead of self-report and to compare the findings for grades 6 through 8 wi...

  18. A global systematic review of Chagas disease prevalence among migrants.

    PubMed

    Conners, Erin E; Vinetz, Joseph M; Weeks, John R; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2016-04-01

    Human migration has been identified as a potential factor for increased Chagas disease risk and has transformed the disease from a Latin American problem to a global one. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature between 2004-2014 in order to: summarize recent seroprevalence estimates of Chagas disease among Latin American migrants, in both endemic and non-endemic settings; compare seroprevalence estimates in migrants to countrywide prevalence estimates; and identify risk factors for Chagas disease among migrants. A total of 320 studies were screened and 23 studies were included. We found evidence that the prevalence of Chagas disease is higher than expected in some migrant groups and that reliance on blood donor screening prevalence estimates underestimates the burden of disease. Overall there is a dearth of high quality epidemiologic studies on the prevalence of Chagas disease in migrants, especially among intra-regional migrants within Latin America. Given that this zoonotic disease cannot likely be eradicated, improved surveillance and reporting is vital to continuing control efforts. More accurate health surveillance of both Latin American migrants and the Chagas disease burden will help countries appropriately scale up their response to this chronic disease. Overall, improved estimates of Chagas disease among migrants would likely serve to highlight the real need for better screening, diagnostics, and treatment of individuals living with the disease. PMID:26777312

  19. Prevalence of paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pozzato, N; Capello, K; Comin, A; Toft, N; Nielsen, S S; Vicenzoni, G; Arrigoni, N

    2011-10-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that affects multiple ruminant species causing important economic losses. Therefore, control programmes at herd and regional levels have been established worldwide and prevalence estimates are needed for their implementation. Although different herd-level prevalence estimations for paratuberculosis have been reported in Europe, very few studies provided comparable and interpretable values, due to poor study designs and lack of knowledge about the accuracy of the diagnostic tests used. To overcome these problems we applied a latent class analysis to the results of two prevalence studies carried out in two neighbouring Northern Italian regions (Lombardy and Veneto) that account for over 50% of the Italian dairy cattle population. Serum samples from a randomly selected number of farms in the two regions were analyzed by different ELISA tests. The herd-level Apparent Prevalences (AP) were 48% (190/391) for Lombardy and 65% (272/419) for Veneto. Median within-herd APs were 2.6% and 4.0% for Lombardy and Veneto, respectively. Posterior estimates for the herd-level True Prevalences (TP) based on a Bayesian model were very similar between the two regions (70% for Lombardy and 71% for Veneto) and close to previous estimates of infected herds in Europe. The two 95% credibility intervals overlap each other, virtually showing only one distribution of the herd-level true prevalence for both regions. On the contrary, estimates of the within-herd TP distributions differed between the two regions (mean values: 6.7% for Lombardy and 14.3% for Veneto), possibly due to the different age distribution within the herds from the two regions. PMID:21807432

  20. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Kenya, 2007.

    PubMed

    Ly, Kathleen N; Kim, Andrea A; Umuro, Mamo; Drobenuic, Jan; Williamson, John M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fields, Barry S; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2016-08-01

    Current estimates put the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Kenya at 5-8%. We determined the HBV infection prevalence in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative Kenyan adult and adolescent population based on samples collected from a national survey. We analyzed data from HIV-negative participants in the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey to estimate the HBV infection prevalence. We defined past or present HBV infection as presence of total hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), and chronic HBV infection (CHBI) as presence of both total HBcAb and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). We calculated crude and adjusted odds of HBV infection by demographic characteristics and risk factors using logistic regression analyses. Of 1,091 participants aged 15-64 years, approximately 31.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 28.0-35.3%) had exposure to HBV, corresponding to approximately 6.1 million (CI = 5.4-6.8 million) with past or present HBV infection. The estimated prevalence of CHBI was 2.1% (95% CI = 1.4-3.1%), corresponding to approximately 398,000 (CI = 261,000-602,000) with CHBI. CHBI is a major public health problem in Kenya, affecting approximately 400,000 persons. Knowing the HBV infection prevalence at baseline is important for planning and public health policy decision making and for monitoring the impact of viral hepatitis prevention programs. PMID:27273644

  1. Towards establishing MS prevalence in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Melcon, M O; Melcon, C M; Bartoloni, L; Cristiano, E; Duran, J C; Grzesiuk, A K; Fragoso, Y D; Brooks, J B Bidin; Díaz, V; Romero García, K M; Cabrera Gomez, J A; Abad, P; Islas, M A Macías; Gracia, F; Diaz de Bedoya, V F Hamuy; Ruiz, M E Córdova; Hackembruch, J H; Oehninger, C; Ketzoian, C N; Soto, A

    2013-02-01

    A very high prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been reported in some Western European and North American countries. The few surveys of MS epidemiology in South America reveal lower prevalence rates, implying that susceptibility varies between distinct ethnic groups, thus forming an important determinant of the geographic distribution of the disease. The objective of this study is to review MS prevalence estimates in different Latin American and Caribbean countries. We reviewed surveys of regional MS prevalence from 1991 to 2011. Sources included an online database, authors' reports and proceedings or specific lectures from regional conferences. We obtained a total of 30 prevalence surveys from 15 countries, showing low/medium MS prevalence rates. Both the number and the quality of prevalence surveys have greatly improved in this region over recent decades. This is the first collaborative study to map the regional frequency of MS. Establishment of standardized methods and joint epidemiological studies will advance future MS research in Latin America and the Caribbean. PMID:22492129

  2. [Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in nursing professionals].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Natália Fonseca; Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Solla, Davi Jorge Fontoura; Santos Junior, Anivaldo Costa; de Sena Junior, Antonio Santos

    2012-06-01

    A cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among nursing assistants in Salvador, Bahia. Three hundred and eight workers, randomly selected, answered a questionnaire applied by trained interviewers during working hours. The majority of respondents worked the day shift and did not usually work overtime. About 34% reported having another regular job. Average time in the formal or informal labor market was 19 years. There was high occupational exposure to repetitive hand movements, standing posture, walking, inadequate postures of the trunk and manual handling of loads. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in at least one body segment was 83.4%.The most affected body segments were: low back (53.9%), legs (51.9%), neck (36.4%), upper back (35.7%) and shoulders (33.8%). There was high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the studied population, which points out to the need for improvements in the working conditions of those professionals. PMID:22782108

  3. Prevalence of Zygomatic Air Cell Defect using Orthopantomogram

    PubMed Central

    Panat, Sunil R.; Kishore, Abhinav; Aggarwal, Ashish; Upadhyay, Nitin; Agarwal, Nupur

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence, radiographic appearance, variations, characteristics and establishing dominant location and type of zygomatic air cell defect (ZACD) among the North Indian population. Materials and Methods The panoramic radiographs of 2500 dental clinic outpatients were examined for the presence of ZACD for estimating the prevalence and characteristics of the ZACD. Results ZACD was found in 63 patients with a prevalence of 2.5% with male predominance. Unilateral (70%) and unilocular appearance (78%) of ZACD were the dominant patterns. Patients with ZACD had a mean age of 37.4 years and a range of 19-78 years. Conclusion The prevalence of ZACD among the Indian population is in accordance with the other studies carried out in other populations of the world. So it is important for surgeons to assess location of ZACD before planning any surgical procedure in order to avoid intraoperative complications. PMID:26501003

  4. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies. PMID:27075031

  5. Preparation of recombinant African horse sickness virus VP7 antigen via a simple method and validation of a VP7-based indirect ELISA for the detection of group-specific IgG antibodies in horse sera.

    PubMed

    Maree, Sonja; Paweska, Janusz T

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the production and purification of a group-specific recombinant protein VP7 of African horse sickness virus serotype 3 (AHSV-3) and validation of an I-ELISA for the detection of IgG-antibodies to VP7 in horse sera. Baculovirus-expressed VP7 crystals were purified from infected insect cells. Analytical accuracy of the I-ELISA was examined using sera (n = 38) from an experimentally infected horse, from foals born to vaccinated mares, from guinea-pigs immunized with nine serotypes of AHSV, and from sera of animals infected with other orbiviruses. Compared to traditional serological assays, the I-ELISA was more sensitive in detection of the earliest immunological response in an infected horse and declining levels of maternal immunity in foals. Antibodies to all nine serotypes of AHSV could be detected. Cross-reactivity to related orbiviruses was not observed. Diagnostic accuracy of the I-ELISA was assessed by testing sera from vaccinated horses (n = 358) residing in AHS-enzootic areas and from unvaccinated horses (n = 481) residing in an AHS-free area. Sera were categorised as positive or negative for antibodies to AHSV using virus neutralisation tests. The TG-ROC analysis was used for the selection of the cut-off value. At a cut-off of 11.9 of the high positive control serum (percentage positivity), the I-ELISA specificity was 100%, sensitivity 99.4%, and the Jouden index was 0.99. PMID:15737417

  6. Characterization of mutants of the vitamin-D-binding protein/group specific component: GC aborigine (1A1) from Australian aborigines and South African blacks, and 2A9 from south Germany.

    PubMed

    Kofler, A; Braun, A; Jenkins, T; Serjeantson, S W; Cleve, H

    1995-01-01

    The structure and organization of the human vitamin-D-binding protein gene (DBP, group-specific component, GC) have recently been determined. Each exon may now be amplified by the PCR method using oligonucleotide primers deduced from the intron sequences near their 5' ends and 3' ends. In this study we examined the anodal GC variants 1A1 and 2A9. Genomic DNA of the variant 1A1 was obtained from Australian Aborigines and from South African Bantu-speaking Blacks. Amplification and sequencing of exon 11 of 1A1 revealed a point mutation in codon 429 at the second position. It is remarkable that this mutation was found in the Australian 1A1 variant and in the African 1A1 variant, and raises the question whether the mutation in these two ethnic groups has a common origin. Genomic DNA of the 2A variant called 2A9 was obtained from South Germany and a point mutation also concerning position 429 in exon 11 was found. The nucleotide exchange in this case, however, was at the first position of the codon. The widely distributed genetic polymorphism of DBP/GC is located in exon 11 and is characterized by substitution at amino acid positions 416 and 420. Variant 1A1 is due to a second site mutation of the allele GC*1F; variant 2A9 is due to a mutation in the GC*2 allele. PMID:7725672

  7. Asthma in an Urban Population in Portugal: A prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence and incidence of asthma are believed to be increasing but research on the true incidence, prevalence and mortality from asthma has met methodological obstacles since it has been difficult to define and diagnose asthma in epidemiological terms. New and widely accepted diagnostic criteria for asthma present opportunities for progress in this field. Studies conducted in Portugal have estimated the disease prevalence between 3% and 15%. Available epidemiological data present a significant variability due to methodological obstacles. Aim To estimate the true prevalence of asthma by gender and age groups in the population of the area covered by one urban Health Centre in Portugal. Method An observational study was conducted between February and July 2009 at the Horizonte Family Health Unit in Matosinhos, Portugal. A random sample of 590 patients, stratified by age and gender was obtained from the practice database of registered patients. Data was collected using a patient questionnaire based on respiratory symptoms and the physician's best knowledge of the patient's asthma status. The prevalence of asthma was calculated by age and gender. Results Data were obtained from 576 patients (97.6% response rate). The mean age for patients with asthma was 27.0 years (95% CI: 20.95 to 33.16). This was lower than the mean age for non-asthmatics but the difference was not statistically significant. Asthma was diagnosed in 59 persons giving a prevalence of 10.24% (95% CI: 8.16 to 12.32). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of asthma by gender. Conclusion The prevalence of asthma found in the present study was higher than that found in some studies, though lower than that found in other studies. Further studies in other regions of Portugal are required to confirm these findings. PMID:21595928

  8. Changes in smoking prevalence in Ukraine in 2001–5

    PubMed Central

    Andreeva, Tatiana I; Krasovsky, Konstantin S

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To analyse trends in smoking prevalence in Ukraine from three surveys conducted in 2001–5, and to explore correlates of observed changes, in order to estimate the stage of tobacco epidemic in Ukraine. Design Repeated national interview surveys in Ukraine in 2001, 2002 and 2005. Main outcome measure Prevalence of current smoking among the population aged ⩾15 years. Results The age‐standardised prevalence of current smoking in Ukrainian men was 54.8% in 2001 and 66.8% in 2005. Among Ukrainian women, prevalence increased from 11.5% in 2001 to 20.0% in 2005. ORs for yearly increase in prevalence were estimated as 1.164 (95% CI 1.111 to 1.220) for men and 1.187 (1.124 to 1.253) for women, which implies that, on average, 3–4% of men and 1.5–2% of women living in Ukraine join the smoking population each year. Conclusions In Ukraine, smoking prevalence is increasing in most population groups. Among men, the medium deprivation group with secondary education has the highest smoking prevalence. Among women, while the most educated, young and those living in larger cities are the leading group for tobacco use, other groups are also increasing their tobacco use. Tobacco promotion efforts appear to have been significantly more effective in Ukraine than smoking control efforts. The decrease in real cigarette prices in Ukraine in 2001–5 could be the main factor explaining the recent growth in smoking prevalence. PMID:17565141

  9. Prevalence of anemia among women: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bobdey, Saurabh; Sinha, Shruti

    2012-01-01

    Background The WHO estimates that more than 1/3rd of world population is anemic, of which iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is most common and serious problem of public health significance. Prevalence of anemia in India is among the highest in the world but within the country prevalence rates differ substantially between different regions. Indian Armed Forces personnel and families form a special class as it includes people from all regions. However, reliable data on the prevalence of anemia in families of naval personnel is scanty. The present study highlights the problem of anemia in non-pregnant wives of serving enrolled personnel of the Indian Navy in the reproductive age group. Methods A community based, cross sectional study was carried out at a Naval Base. Physical examination and hemoglobin estimation was done for 257 (100% sample) non-pregnant/non-lactating wives of serving enrolled personnel of the Indian Navy of age between 18 and 45years. Statistical analysis was carried out to estimate the prevalence of anemia. Results & Conclusion The prevalence of anemia was found to be 31.90%. Literacy status and Mean BMI of women with anemia was found to be significantly less than subjects without anemia. In conclusion this was a small study conducted to simply access the prevalence of anemia in wives of naval personnel, which though found much lower than national average is still high at 31.90%. Hence a larger multicentric study is being planned to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with anemia in families of Armed Forces personnel. PMID:24532919

  10. Active Asthma and the Prevalence of Physician-Diagnosed COPD

    PubMed Central

    Beavers, Suzanne F.; Chatterjee, Arjun B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the considerable overlap of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the extent to which the two diagnoses are the manifestations of the same disease remains unresolved. We conducted these analyses to evaluate the role of active asthma in the prevalence of physician-diagnosed COPD. Methods From 2006 through 2010, 74,209 adults aged 18–99 years and with a history of asthma participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Asthma Call-back Survey and responded to interview-administered questionnaires via telephone. We used publicly available data from 71,639 (97%) participants to identify respondents with and without active manifestations of asthma and self-reported, physician-diagnosed COPD. We generated population-weighted estimates of physician-diagnosed COPD prevalence and conducted linear regression to estimate associations between active asthma status and the prevalence of COPD among current smokers, former smokers, and lifetime nonsmokers separately. Results Physician-diagnosed COPD was reported in an estimated 29% of the population with any history of asthma, including both active and inactive asthma. Age-specific prevalences of physician-diagnosed COPD were consistently higher among adults with active asthma than adults without active asthma. Compared to inactive asthma, active asthma was associated with an 8.3% [95 % confidence interval (CI) 6.1, 10.5] higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed COPD among lifetime nonsmokers, a 20.6% (95 % CI 18.0, 23.3) higher prevalence among former smokers, and a 26.7% (95 % CI 22.5, 30.9) higher prevalence among current smokers. Conclusions Among adults with a history of asthma, active manifestations of asthma may play an important role in the epidemiology of COPD. PMID:24952247

  11. Global Distribution and Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Jane P; Humphreys, Isla; Flaxman, Abraham; Brown, Anthony; Cooke, Graham S; Pybus, Oliver G; Barnes, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) exhibits high genetic diversity, characterized by regional variations in genotype prevalence. This poses a challenge to the improved development of vaccines and pan-genotypic treatments, which require the consideration of global trends in HCV genotype prevalence. Here we provide the first comprehensive survey of these trends. To approximate national HCV genotype prevalence, studies published between 1989 and 2013 reporting HCV genotypes are reviewed and combined with overall HCV prevalence estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project. We also generate regional and global genotype prevalence estimates, inferring data for countries lacking genotype information. We include 1,217 studies in our analysis, representing 117 countries and 90% of the global population. We calculate that HCV genotype 1 is the most prevalent worldwide, comprising 83.4 million cases (46.2% of all HCV cases), approximately one-third of which are in East Asia. Genotype 3 is the next most prevalent globally (54.3 million, 30.1%); genotypes 2, 4, and 6 are responsible for a total 22.8% of all cases; genotype 5 comprises the remaining <1%. While genotypes 1 and 3 dominate in most countries irrespective of economic status, the largest proportions of genotypes 4 and 5 are in lower-income countries. Conclusion: Although genotype 1 is most common worldwide, nongenotype 1 HCV cases—which are less well served by advances in vaccine and drug development—still comprise over half of all HCV cases. Relative genotype proportions are needed to inform healthcare models, which must be geographically tailored to specific countries or regions in order to improve access to new treatments. Genotype surveillance data are needed from many countries to improve estimates of unmet need. (Hepatology 2015;61:77–87) PMID:25069599

  12. Prevalence and Clustering of Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Cheng, Xinqi; Qiu, Ling; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Guangjin; Han, Jianhua; Xia, Liangyu; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the Chinese population. Although general prevalence estimates of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) are available for Chinese adults, prevalence estimates covering all adult age groups by race/ethnicity have not been reported. The aim of this study is to estimate the current prevalence and clustering of major CVRFs in Chinese adults, including a plurality of ethnic minorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 23,010 adults aged 18 years and older from 2007 to 2011. Questionnaires and physical examinations were performed, and fasting blood was collected for laboratory measurements. The prevalence of traditional CVRFs, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight, and current smoking, were determined. The prevalence of the major CVRFs, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight, and current smoking were 24.3%, 4.3%, 49.3%, 32.0%, and 21.7%, respectively. These risk factors were significantly associated with sex, age, region, ethnicity, and education levels. Overall, 70.3%, 40.3%, and 16.7% of Chinese adults had ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 CVRFs, respectively. Men, northern and rural residents were more likely to have clustered CVRFs compared with women, southern and urban residents, respectively. Compared with Han residents, Hui and Mongolian residents were more likely, and Tujia and Miao residents were less likely, to have ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 risk factors. The prevalence of Chinese women having ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 CVRFs decreased with increasing levels of education. The prevalence and clustering of CVRFs is still high in Chinese adults ≥18 years old, especially in men and in individuals living in the northern and rural areas. Of note, there are differences in cardiovascular risk among different ethnic groups. Therefore, targeted and enhanced intervention measures are required to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and the

  13. Teachers' Screening Estimations of Speech-Language Impairments in Primary School Children in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Krishna Bahadur; Okalidou, Areti; Anastasiadou, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of speech-language impairments in children have been estimated for several languages, primarily in developed countries. However, prevalence data is lacking for developing countries, such as Nepal. Aims: (1) To obtain teacher estimates of incidence and overall prevalence of speech-language impairments and its subtypes as…

  14. Prevalence and Trends in Smoking: A National Rural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doescher, Mark P.; Jackson, J. Elizabeth; Jerant, Anthony; Hart, L. Gary

    2006-01-01

    Context: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of and recent trends in smoking among adults by type of rural location and by state. Methods: Random-digit telephone survey of adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance…

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Injury among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollust, Sarah Elizabeth; Eisenberg, Daniel; Golberstein, Ezra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this research was to establish estimates of the prevalence and correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury among university students. Participants: The authors recruited participants (N = 2, 843) from a random sample of 5, 021 undergraduate and graduate students attending a large midwestern public university. Methods:…

  16. Global Prevalence of Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Elsabbagh, Mayada; Divan, Gauri; Koh, Yun-Joo; Kim, Young Shin; Kauchali, Shuaib; Marcín, Carlos; Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Patel, Vikram; Paula, Cristiane S; Wang, Chongying; Yasamy, Mohammad Taghi; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We provide a systematic review of epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) worldwide. A secondary aim was to consider the possible impact of geographic, cultural/ethnic, and socioeconomic factors on prevalence estimates and on clinical presentation of PDD. Based on the evidence reviewed, the median of prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorders was 62/10 000. While existing estimates are variable, the evidence reviewed does not support differences in PDD prevalence by geographic region nor of a strong impact of ethnic/cultural or socioeconomic factors. However, power to detect such effects is seriously limited in existing data sets, particularly in low-income countries. While it is clear that prevalence estimates have increased over time and these vary in different neighboring and distant regions, these findings most likely represent broadening of the diagnostic concets, diagnostic switching from other developmental disabilities to PDD, service availability, and awareness of autistic spectrum disorders in both the lay and professional public. The lack of evidence from the majority of the world's population suggests a critical need for further research and capacity building in low- and middle-income countries. Autism Res 2012, 5: 160–179. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22495912

  17. Accelerometer Cut-Points and Youth Physical Activity Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Jorge; Valente, Monica; Aires, Luisa; Silva, Pedro; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Jose Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the effects of specific cut-off scoring points (on the estimated prevalence of meeting health-related guidelines for physical activity in youth) and, second, to document the differences in gender physical activity patterns according to two different cut-off points. The sample comprised 62…

  18. The Prevalence and Special Educational Requirements of Dyscompetent Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Betsy W.

    2006-01-01

    Underperformance among physicians is not well studied or defined; yet, the identification and remediation of physicians who are not performing up to acceptable standards is central to quality care and patient safety. Methods for estimating the prevalence of dyscompetence include evaluating available data on medical errors, malpractice claims,…

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Autism in a State Psychiatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Lawer, Lindsay J.; Branch, Kira; Brodkin, Edward S.; Healey, Kristin; Witalec, Robert; Johnson, Donielle N.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimated the ASD prevalence in a psychiatric hospital and evaluated the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) combined with other information for differential diagnosis. Chart review, SRS and clinical interviews were collected for 141 patients at one hospital. Diagnosis was determined at case conference. Receiver operating characteristic…

  20. The Prevalence of Tree Nut Allergy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Vicki; Koplin, Jennifer; Lodge, Caroline; Tang, Mimi; Dharmage, Shyamali; Allen, Katrina

    2015-09-01

    Tree nuts are one of the most common foods causing acute allergic reactions and nearly all tree nuts have been associated with fatal allergic reactions. Despite their clinical importance, tree nut allergy epidemiology remains understudied and the prevalence of tree nut allergy in different regions of the world has not yet been well characterised. We aimed to systematically review the population prevalence of tree nut allergy in children and adults. We searched three electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed) from January 1996 to December 2014. Eligible studies were categorised by age, region and method of assessment of tree nut allergy. Of the 36 studies identified most were in children (n = 24) and from Europe (n = 18), UK (n = 8) or USA (n = 5). Challenge-confirmed IgE-mediated tree nut allergy prevalence was less than 2 % (although only seven studies used this gold standard) while probable tree nut allergy prevalence ranged from 0.05 to 4.9 %. Prevalence estimates that included oral allergy syndrome (OAS) reactions to tree nut were significantly higher (8-11.4 %) and were predominantly from Europe. Prevalence of individual tree nut allergies varied significantly by region with hazelnut the most common tree nut allergy in Europe, walnut and cashew in the USA and Brazil nut, almond and walnut most commonly reported in the UK. Monitoring time trends of tree nut allergy prevalence (both overall and by individual nuts) as well as the prevalence of OAS should be considered given the context of the overall recent rise in IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence in the developed world. PMID:26233427

  1. Cigarette smoking prevalence in US counties: 1996-2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a leading risk factor for morbidity and premature mortality in the United States, yet information about smoking prevalence and trends is not routinely available below the state level, impeding local-level action. Methods We used data on 4.7 million adults age 18 and older from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from 1996 to 2012. We derived cigarette smoking status from self-reported data in the BRFSS and applied validated small area estimation methods to generate estimates of current total cigarette smoking prevalence and current daily cigarette smoking prevalence for 3,127 counties and county equivalents annually from 1996 to 2012. We applied a novel method to correct for bias resulting from the exclusion of the wireless-only population in the BRFSS prior to 2011. Results Total cigarette smoking prevalence varies dramatically between counties, even within states, ranging from 9.9% to 41.5% for males and from 5.8% to 40.8% for females in 2012. Counties in the South, particularly in Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia, as well as those with large Native American populations, have the highest rates of total cigarette smoking, while counties in Utah and other Western states have the lowest. Overall, total cigarette smoking prevalence declined between 1996 and 2012 with a median decline across counties of 0.9% per year for males and 0.6% per year for females, and rates of decline for males and females in some counties exceeded 3% per year. Statistically significant declines were concentrated in a relatively small number of counties, however, and more counties saw statistically significant declines in male cigarette smoking prevalence (39.8% of counties) than in female cigarette smoking prevalence (16.2%). Rates of decline varied by income level: counties in the top quintile in terms of income experienced noticeably faster declines than those in the bottom quintile. Conclusions County-level estimates of cigarette

  2. Prevalence effect in haptic search

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Kazuya; Watanabe, Ken; Takaoka, Yutaka; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Kita, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    In visual search tasks, the ratio of target-present to target-absent trials has important effects on miss rates. In this study, we examined whether the target prevalence effect occurs in a haptic search task by using artificial tactile maps. The results indicated that target prevalence has effects on miss rates, sensitivity, and criterion. Moreover, an increase in miss rates in the low-prevalence condition (10%) was strongly correlated with a decrease in search termination times (target-absent reaction times). These results suggest that the prevalence effect on haptic search is caused by a decrease in the search termination time and a shift in decision criterion and a decrease in sensitivity. PMID:23145300

  3. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder and diabetes: a meta-analysis of prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Zreik, Nasri Hani; Malik, Rayaz A.; Charalambous, Charalambos P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background adhesive capsulitis (AC) results in progressive painful restriction in range of movement and can reduce function and quality of life. Whilst it has been associated with diabetes mellitus (DM), there is considerable variation in the reported prevalence of AC in the diabetic population. The aim of this study is to determine through meta-analysis the prevalence of AC in DM and examine whether it is influenced by type of DM or insulin therapy. We also aim to further establish the prevalence of DM in patients presenting with AC. Methods we conducted a literature search for terms regarding AC and DM on Embase and Pubmed NCBI. Results of 5411 articles identified, 18 were selected. Meta-analysis showed that patients with DM were 5 (95% CI 3.2–7.7) times more likely than controls to have AC. The overall prevalence of AC in DM was estimated at 13.4% (95% CI 10.2–17.2%). Comparison of prevalence in patients on insulin vs other treatments showed no significant difference between the two. Meta-analysis estimated the prevalence of DM in AC at 30% (95% CI 24–37%). Conclusion to our knowledge this is the first meta-analysis to estimate the overall prevalence of diabetes in a population with AC. A high prevalence of AC exists in DM and equally a high prevalence of DM is present in AC. Screening for DM should be considered in patients presenting with AC. PMID:27331029

  4. Prevalence of hypercalcemia among cancer patients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gastanaga, Victor M; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Jain, Rajul K; Pirolli, Melissa; Quach, David; Quigley, Jane M; Mu, George; Scott Stryker, W; Liede, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) is a serious metabolic complication whose population-based prevalence has not been quantified. Rates of HCM differ by tumor type, with highest rates reported in multiple myeloma and lowest among colorectal and prostate cancer patients. This analysis estimates HCM prevalence in the US. This retrospective study used the Oncology Services Comprehensive Electronic Records (OSCER) warehouse of electronic health records (EHR) including laboratory values from 569000 patients treated at 565 oncology outpatient sites. OSCER data were projected to the national level by linking EHR to claims data. Cancer patients included were ≥18 years, and had serum calcium (Ca) and albumin (for corrected serum Ca [CSC]) records. Period prevalence was estimated by HCM CTCAE grade, tumor type, and year (2009-2013). Estimates were adjusted to capture patients diagnosed with HCM outside oncology practices based on a subset of patients linkable to office and hospital data. The analysis included 68023 (2009) to 121482 (2013) cancer patients. In 2013, patients with HCM had a median of six Ca tests, 69.7% had chemotherapy, and 34% received bone modifying agents. HCM rates were highest for multiple myeloma patients (7.5% [2012]-10.2% [2010]), lowest for prostate cancer (1.4% [2012]-2.1% [2011]).The estimated adjusted annual prevalence of HCM from 2009 to 2013 was 95441, 96281, 89797, 70158, and 71744, respectively. HCM affected 2.0-2.8% of all cancer patients. EHR data from oncology clinics were critical for this study because these data contain results from laboratory studies (i.e., serum calcium values) that are routinely ordered in that setting. We estimated that the prevalence of HCM in the US in 2013 is 71744, affecting approximately 2% of cancer patients overall. This percentage differs by tumor type and appears to have decreased over the five-year study period. PMID:27263488

  5. Cumulative Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders by Young Adulthood: A Prospective Cohort Analysis From the Great Smoky Mountains Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: No longitudinal studies beginning in childhood have estimated the cumulative prevalence of psychiatric illness from childhood into young adulthood. The objective of this study was to estimate the cumulative prevalence of psychiatric disorders by young adulthood and to assess how inclusion of not otherwise specified diagnoses affects…

  6. Prevalence and Characteristics of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability in a French County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, M.; Dieterich, K.; Billette de Villemeur, A.; Jouk, P.-S.; Counillon, J.; Larroque, B.; Bloch, J.; Cans, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies conducted on mild intellectual disability (MID) in children are infrequent and the prevalence rates vary widely. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MID in children in a French county (Isère), to describe the clinical signs and associated comorbidities, and to specify the aetiologies of this disability. Methods: The…

  7. The Prevalence of Stuttering, Voice, and Speech-Sound Disorders in Primary School Students in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, David H.; McLeod, Sharynne; Reilly, Sheena

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were threefold: to report teachers' estimates of the prevalence of speech disorders (specifically, stuttering, voice, and speech-sound disorders); to consider correspondence between the prevalence of speech disorders and gender, grade level, and socioeconomic status; and to describe the level of support provided to…

  8. Educational Attainment and HIV/AIDS Prevalence: A Cross-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhanpal, Manisha; Ram, Rati

    2008-01-01

    Using data for a large cross-country sample, a reasonable model is estimated to judge the effect of adult educational attainment on prevalence of HIV. Three main points are noted. First, there is an indication of a significantly negative effect of educational attainment on HIV prevalence. Second, magnitude of the impact appears sizable. Third, a…

  9. Disability in the United States: Prevalence and Causes, 1992. Disability Statistics Report 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPlante, Mitchell P.; Carlson, Dawn

    This report presents, in text and 13 tables, data obtained from 128,412 paricipants in the 1992 National Health Interview Survey concerning the prevalence of disability, as measured by limitation in activity caused by chronic health disorders, injuries, and impairments. Prevalence estimates are presented in tables for various population subgroups,…

  10. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  11. The Croydon Assessment of Learning Study: Prevalence and Educational Identification of Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Chadwick, Oliver; Gringras, Paul; Wood, Nicky; Higgins, Siobhan; Maney, Julie-Ann; Karia, Nisha; Iqbal, Huma; Moore, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Background: Mild mental retardation is an enduring and impairing condition. Its prevalence has varied widely across different studies from 0.5 to over 8%, with higher rates in completely ascertained samples. The current study estimates the prevalence of low IQ in the mental retardation range (intellectual disability) in a population sample and…

  12. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  13. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Associated Features among Children in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecendreux, Michel; Konofal, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Earlier studies point to the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be similar around the world. There is, however, a wide variety in estimates. The prevalence of ADHD in youth has never been examined in France. Method: Starting with 18 million telephone numbers, 7,912 numbers are randomly selected. Among the…

  14. Prevalence of Anaemia among Postnatal Mothers in Coastal Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwan, Darshan; Kumar, Ashwini; Kamath, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum is the most neglected period in reproductive cycle of woman. Prevalence of anaemia in developing countries ranges from 50-95%. Aim To estimate the prevalence of anaemia among postnatal mothers. Setting and design A community based cross-sectional study among recently delivered mothers residing in field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India. Materials and Methods The study sample included 401 respondents who were selected using stratified random sampling with proportionate allocation from all rural health centres. Data was collected by personal interviews followed by haemoglobin estimation by indirect cyanomethaemoglobin method. Results The prevalence of postnatal anaemia was 26.5% (Anaemia = Hb<12gm/dl). There were no cases of severe anaemia. Postnatal anaemia was predominantly seen in mothers of age < 20 years and half of the mothers with inter-pregnancy intervals less than two years were found to be anaemic. Illiteracy was identified as a significant variable (OR=11.23, 95% CI = 1.90-65.08) for postpartum anaemia. Conclusion The prevalence of anaemia was significantly lower in the present study; however sustained efforts have to be made to further lower the prevalence of postnatal anaemia in order to promote the health and well-being of women. PMID:26894096

  15. Handedness prevalence in the deaf: Meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Sáfár, Anna

    2016-01-01

    An under-investigated aspect of handedness, a biological proxy for cerebral laterality for language, is its prevalence amongst deaf individuals. We present four sets of meta-analyses on studies measuring handedness prevalence in deaf individuals, comprising 31 data sets and totaling 5,392 participants (4,606 deaf, 786 hearing). Deaf individuals were found to be 2.61 times more likely to be non-right-handed and 2.25 times more likely to be left-handed compared to their hearing counterparts. When handedness was measured by means of manipulative actions, the weighted estimates of handedness prevalence for deaf populations were 17.70% and 14.70% for non-right- and left-handedness respectively; when handedness was measured by means of sign actions, the prevalence was 10.60% and 9.70%, respectively. Yet, when comparing studies that measured handedness in the same deaf individuals using both manipulative and sign actions, no difference was found in their handedness prevalence. This pattern is taken to suggest that the higher prevalence of atypical handedness in the deaf population may be linked to delayed language acquisition. PMID:26631717

  16. Prevalence of Obesity by Occupation Among US Workers

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ja K.; Charles, Luenda E.; Bang, Ki Moon; Ma, Claudia C.; Andrew, Michael E.; Violanti, John M.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of obesity and the change of prevalence of obesity between 2004–2007 and 2008–20011 by occupation among US workers in the National Health Interview Survey. Methods Self-reported weight and height were collected and used to assess obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2). Gender-, race/ethnicity-, and occupation-specific prevalence of obesity were calculated. Results Prevalence of obesity steadily increased from 2004 through 2008 across gender and race/ethnicity but leveled off from 2008 through 2011. Non-Hispanic black female workers in health care support (49.2%) and transportation/material moving (46.6%) had the highest prevalence of obesity. Prevalence of obesity in relatively low-obesity (white-collar) occupations significantly increased between 2004–2007 and 2008–2011, whereas it did not change significantly in high-obesity (blue-collar) occupations. Conclusions Workers in all occupational categories are appropriate targets for health promotion and intervention programs to reduce obesity. PMID:24682108

  17. Meta-analysis of Smoking Prevalence in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Ziaaddini, Hassan; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Ashrafi-Asgarabad, Ahad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Background There are numerous studies and documents regarding the prevalence of smoking in Iran. Thus, to provide suitable information for decision-making and policy-making in this regard, the prevalence of smoking in Iran was evaluated using the meta-analysis of the results of the existing researches. Methods Data were collected by searching the keywords cigarette, smoking, tobacco, and nicotine in English databases, searching their Persian equivalents in Persian Databases, and in non-electronic resources. After studying the titles and texts of collected articles, the repeated and irrelevant cases were excluded. Cases which had the inclusion criteria of this meta-analysis were entered into the Stata software. According to heterogeneity results, random effect model was used to estimate the prevalence of smoking. Findings In initial studies and non-communicable surveillance system, 274992 Iranian adults were studied regarding daily smoking. Among initial studies, smoking prevalence varied from 12.3% to 38.5% in men, and from 0.6% to 9.8% in women. Based on the meta-analysis of initial studies and risk factors of non-communicable disease surveillance system, smoking prevalence was estimated 21.7% and 19.8% in men and 3.6% and 0.94% in women, respectively. Moreover, smoking prevalence in all subjects was estimated 13.9% according to the meta-analysis of the initial study. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis revealed that a significant part of the general population over 15 years of age, and one fifth of Iranian male adults smoke. Thus, concerning causal relationship confirmed between smoking and most diseases, if suitable guidelines are not employed the diseases related to this factor will increase in Iran. PMID:24494171

  18. Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex. METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed), LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pain as an outcome. We also assessed the quality of the selected studies as well as the chronic low back pain prevalence according to age and sex. RESULTS The review included 28 studies. Based on our qualitative evaluation, around one third of the studies had low scores, mainly due to high non-response rates. Chronic low back pain prevalence was 4.2% in individuals aged between 24 and 39 years old and 19.6% in those aged between 20 and 59. Of nine studies with individuals aged 18 and above, six reported chronic low back pain between 3.9% and 10.2% and three, prevalence between 13.1% and 20.3%. In the Brazilian older population, chronic low back pain prevalence was 25.4%. CONCLUSIONS Chronic low back pain prevalence increases linearly from the third decade of life on, until the 60 years of age, being more prevalent in women. Methodological approaches aiming to reduce high heterogeneity in case definitions of chronic low back pain are essential to consistency and comparative analysis between studies. A standard chronic low back pain definition should include the precise description of the anatomical area, pain duration and limitation level. PMID:26487293

  19. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Comorbidities of Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Miller, Iben Marie; McAndrew, Rachel J; Hamzavi, Iltefat

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to estimate a true prevalence of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) because it is underdiagnosed and misdiagnosed. Prevalences have been reported from 0.00033% to 4.1%. The incidence seems to be rising. In addition to dermatologic symptoms, HS is associated with metabolic syndrome, and increased cardiovascular risk. The majority of HS patients are smokers. Additional somatic comorbidities complicating HS include autoimmune conditions, follicular syndromes, rheumatologic conditions, and malignancies. HS patients are troubled by psychological comorbidities. When treating HS patients it is imperative not only to treat the skin symptoms, but also address the screening and treatment of possible comorbidities. PMID:26617352

  20. Prevalence of Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophies in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Romitti, Paul A.; Zhu, Yong; Puzhankara, Soman; James, Katherine A.; Nabukera, Sarah K.; Zamba, Gideon K.D.; Ciafaloni, Emma; Cunniff, Christopher; Druschel, Charlotte M.; Mathews, Katherine D.; Matthews, Dennis J.; Meaney, F. John; Andrews, Jennifer G.; Caspers Conway, Kristin M.; Fox, Deborah J.; Street, Natalie; Adams, Melissa M.; Bolen, Julie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate prevalence of childhood-onset Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DBMD) in 6 sites in the United States by race/ethnicity and phenotype (Duchenne muscular dystrophy [DMD] or Becker muscular dystrophy [BMD]). METHODS In 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network (MD STARnet) to conduct longitudinal, population-based surveillance and research of DBMD in the United States. Six sites conducted active, multiple-source case finding and record abstraction to identify MD STARnet cases born January 1982 to December 2011. We used cross-sectional analyses to estimate prevalence of DBMD per 10 000 boys, ages 5 to 9 years, for 4 quinquennia (1991–1995, 1996–2000, 2001–2005, and 2006–2010) and prevalence per 10 000 male individuals, ages 5 to 24 years, in 2010. Prevalence was also estimated by race/ethnicity and phenotype. RESULTS Overall, 649 cases resided in an MD STARnet site during $1 quinquennia. Prevalence estimates per 10 000 boys, ages 5 to 9 years, were 1.93, 2.05, 2.04, and 1.51, respectively, for 1991–1995, 1996–2000, 2001–2005, and 2006–2010. Prevalence tended to be higher for Hispanic individuals than non-Hispanic white or black individuals, and higher for DMD than BMD. In 2010, prevalence of DBMD was 1.38 per 10 000 male individuals, ages 5 to 24 years. CONCLUSIONS We present population-based prevalence estimates for DBMD in 6 US sites. Prevalence differed by race/ethnicity, suggesting potential cultural and socioeconomic influences in the diagnosis of DBMD. Prevalence also was higher for DMD than BMD. Continued longitudinal surveillance will permit us to examine racial/ethnic and socioeconomic differences in treatment and outcomes for MD STARnet cases. PMID:25687144

  1. FMR1 CGG allele size and prevalence ascertained through newborn screening in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Population screening for FMR1 mutations has been a topic of considerable discussion since the FMR1 gene was identified in 1991. Advances in understanding the molecular basis of fragile X syndrome (FXS) and in genetic testing methods have led to new, less expensive methodology to use for large screening endeavors. A core criterion for newborn screening is an accurate understanding of the public health burden of a disease, considering both disease severity and prevalence rate. This article addresses this need by reporting prevalence rates observed in a pilot newborn screening study for FXS in the US. Methods Blood spot screening of 14,207 newborns (7,312 males and 6,895 females) was conducted in three birthing hospitals across the United States beginning in November 2008, using a PCR-based approach. Results The prevalence of gray zone alleles was 1:66 females and 1:112 males, while the prevalence of a premutation was 1:209 females and 1:430 males. Differences in prevalence rates were observed among the various ethnic groups; specifically higher frequency for gray zone alleles in males was observed in the White group compared to the Hispanic and African-American groups. One full mutation male was identified (>200 CGG repeats). Conclusions The presented pilot study shows that newborn screening in fragile X is technically feasible and provides overall prevalence of the premutation and gray zone alleles in the USA, suggesting that the prevalence of the premutation, particularly in males, is higher than has been previously reported. PMID:23259642

  2. Prevalence of tuberculosis, brucellosis and trypanosomiasis in cattle in Tanzania: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Silvia; Dohoo, Ian; Lindahl, Johanna; Verdugo, Cristobal; Akuku, Isaiah; Grace, Delia

    2016-06-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to derive prevalence estimates for Brucella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Trypanosoma spp. in cattle in Tanzania using data derived from a systematic review of zoonotic hazards in cattle production systems. Articles published before 2012 reporting prevalence and considered at least moderate in quality were included in the analysis. Results showed high heterogeneity between studies, with wide ranges in the reported prevalence: Brucella (0.3-60.8%), Mycobacterium (0.1-13.2%) and Trypanosoma (0.82-33.3%). Overall meta-analytic mean prevalence estimates were 8.2% (95% CI 6.5-10.2), 1.28% (95% CI 0.35-4.58) and 10.3% (95% CI 6.20-16.70) respectively, for Brucella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Trypanosoma spp. Time and region were predictors of variability of Brucella spp. prevalence, while diagnostic test was a strong predictor of Mycobacterium spp. prevalence, with higher prevalence estimates given by skin tests compared with post-mortem inspection. None of the studied factors were associated with prevalence of Trypanosoma spp. The small sample sizes, range of study locations, study designs and diagnostics used, contributed to high variability among prevalence estimates. Larger and more robust prevalence studies are needed to adequately support risk assessment and management of animal and public health threats. PMID:27427190

  3. Prevalence and Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis, Prevalence of Malaria and Nutritional Status of School Going Children in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Background Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Conclusions Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease. PMID:25330010

  4. The prevalence of epigastric bruit.

    PubMed

    McSherry, J A

    1979-03-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of an epigastric bruit in a family practice population.Auscultation of the abdomen in the supine position was carried out on 567 consecutive unselected patients. A systolic bruit, localized to the epigastrium, was heard in 80 patients, none of whom had symptoms of intra-abdominal vascular disorder.The results are tabulated by age and sex, and show statistically significant differences in prevalence between males and females of similar ages, and also between different age groups of the same sex. The highest prevalence is in females aged between 10 and 34 years and no significant difference is found between pregnant and non-pregnant females of comparable age. PMID:541792

  5. Sex prevalence of focal dystonias.

    PubMed Central

    Soland, V L; Bhatia, K P; Marsden, C D

    1996-01-01

    The sex prevalence of idiopathic focal dystonia is reported from a data base review of all patients seen at the National Hospital of Neurology, Queen Square and King's College, London up to 1993. There was a higher prevalence of females to males in all categories of focal dystonia involving the craniocervical region. The female to male ratio for cranial dystonia was 1.92:1 (P < 0.01) and 1.6:1 (P < 0.001) for spasmodic torticollis. On the other hand, twice as many men than women had writer's cramp (M:F = 2.0:1, P < 0.01). At present, there is no clear explanation to account for this differences in the sex prevalence of different types of focal dystonia. PMID:8708656

  6. Clinical risk factors for fracture in postmenopausal Canadian women: a population-based prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Leslie, William D; Anderson, William A; Metge, Colleen J; Manness, Lori-Jean

    2007-04-01

    Clinical risk factor assessment can be used to enhance fracture risk estimation based upon bone densitometry alone. Population- and age-specific risk factor prevalence data are required for the construction of these risk models. Our objective was to derive population-based prevalence estimates of specific clinical risk factors for postmenopausal women resident in the Province of Manitoba, Canada. A random sample of 40,300 women age 50 or older identified from the provincial health plan was mailed a validated self-report risk factor survey. The response rate was 8747 (21.7%) with a final study population of 8027 women after exclusions. The individual prevalence for each clinical risk factor ranged from 5.8% for hyperthyroidism to 33.0% for a fall in the preceding 12 months. Most point prevalence estimates were similar to other large cohort studies, though the prevalences of inactivity and poor mobility were higher than expected while height at age 25 and the prevalence of any fracture after age 50 were lower than expected. Most of the respondents (86.9%) had at least one non-age clinical risk factor, 60.6% had two or more, and 33.5% had three or more. Age affected risk factor prevalence, and older age was associated with a higher rate of multiple risk factors. The availability of age-specific risk factor prevalence rates in this population may allow for more accurate fracture risk modeling. PMID:17182296

  7. Prevalence of intimate partner violence across medical and surgical health care settings: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Sheila; Goslings, J Carel; Hogentoren, Celine; de Milliano, Simone; Simunovic, Nicole; Madden, Kim; Bhandari, Mohit

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious health problem and a leading cause of nonfatal injury in North American females. Prevalence of IPV has ranged from less than 20% to more than 50% across primary care, emergency medicine, and family medicine. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to examine best estimates of IPV prevalence as opportunities for targeted interventions in health care specialties. We included 37 articles in this study. Based on our pooled data, best estimates of the lifetime prevalence of any type of IPV were 38% in family medicine and 40% in emergency medicine. PMID:24476759

  8. Does the Prevalence of CD and ODD Vary across Cultures?

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Rohde, Luis A.; Frick, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is presented in order to examine the first of four criteria used in other studies to determine the validity of psychiatric disorders across cultures. The authors searched Medline and PsycINFO from 1987 to 2008. Studies were included if they were representative of specific communities or countries and reported point prevalence of CD or ODD according to DSM-III-R or DSM-IV criteria for children 18 years or younger. Only methodological and not geographic factors were associated with variability of the prevalence estimates. The results are discussed in terms of their significance for the classification of disorders and the need for further research to establish the validity of these two disorders across cultures. PMID:20532864

  9. The birth prevalence rates for the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Orioli, I M; Castilla, E E; Barbosa-Neto, J G

    1986-08-01

    This study was undertaken to establish the prevalence rates at birth of the skeletal dysplasias that can be recognised in the perinatal period. Using the data base of the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), for the years 1978 to 1983, on 349 470 births (live and stillbirths), a crude prevalence rate of 2.3/10 000 was observed. However, several indications of under-registration suggest that the real value is about twice that observed. The most frequent types of skeletal dysplasia were achondroplasia, with a prevalence rate between 0.5 and 1.5/10 000 births, the thanatophoric dysplasia/achondrogenesis group (0.2 and 0.5/10 000 births), and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.4/10 000 births). The mutation rate for autosomal dominant achondroplasia was estimated at between 1.72 and 5.57 X 10(-5) per gamete per generation. PMID:3746832

  10. Urbanization and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Southern Asia: A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, Arsalan; Adeloye, Davies; Sidhu, Simrita; Sridhar, Devi; Chan, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is one of the diseases considered to be the main constituents of the global non–communicable disease (NCD) pandemic. Despite the large impact that NCDs are predicted to have, particularly in developing countries, estimates of disease burden are sparse and inconsistent. This systematic review transparently estimates prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Southern Asia, its association with urbanization and provides insight into the policy challenges facing the region. Methods The databases Medline and PubMed were searched for population–based studies providing estimates of diabetes prevalence in the Southern Asia region. Studies using WHO diagnostic criteria of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥7.0mmol/L and/or 2h–plasma glucose (2hPG) ≥11.1mmol/L were included. Data from eligible studies was extracted into bubble graphs, and trend lines were applied to UNPD figures to estimate age–specific prevalence in the regional population. Estimates specific to sex, area of residency, and diagnostic method were compared and trends analysed. Results A total of 151 age–specific prevalence estimates were extracted from 39 studies. Diabetes prevalence was estimated to be 7.47% for 2005 and 7.60% for 2010. Prevalence was strongly associated with increased age, male gender and urban residency (P < 0.001). Conclusion Diabetes prevalence in Southern Asia is high and predicted to increase in the future as life expectancy rises and the region continues to urbanise. Countries in this region need to improve NCD surveillance and monitoring so policies can be informed with the best evidence. Programs for prevention need to be put in place, and health system capacity and access needs to be assessed and increased to deal with the predicted rise in NCD prevalence. PMID:24976963

  11. Estimating Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Margaret; Scott, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss mass as one of the three fundamental measurements (the others being length and time), noting that estimation of mass is little taught and assessed in primary schools. This article briefly explores the reasons for this in terms of culture, practice, and the difficulty of assessing estimation of mass. An activity using the…

  12. The prevalence of delusional disorder in prison.

    PubMed

    Tamburello, Anthony C; Bajgier, Joanna; Reeves, Rusty

    2015-03-01

    Delusional disorder has important implications for forensic psychiatrists, as delusions are not infrequently related to criminal behavior. Thus, we hypothesized that delusional disorder is over-represented in correctional populations. We conducted a retrospective chart review of the electronic medical records from 2000 to 2012 of New Jersey Department of Corrections inmates who remained incarcerated as of March 2012. Potential cases of delusional disorder were initially identified by using a search for current or past diagnoses of such disorders or other diagnoses that could be misdiagnosed cases. After an initial chart review identified an inmate as having probable delusional disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria, the diagnosis was confirmed by at least one concurring independent review. We estimate a point prevalence of 0.24 percent for delusional disorder in our population, which is eight times higher than that expected in the community. PMID:25770283

  13. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Veiga, Gloria Valeria da; Schaan, Beatriz; Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira da; Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite de

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates that the

  14. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Schaan, Beatriz; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates

  15. The Prevalence of Tic Disorders and Clinical Characteristics in Children

    PubMed Central

    Scahill, Lawrence; Specht, Matthew; Page, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevalence is a simple statement about the frequency of a disease in the population. For many medical conditions, including Tourette syndrome, there are true cases that have not been previously diagnosed due to problems of access to appropriate clinical services. Therefore, to obtain a trustworthy estimate of prevalence, it is necessary to go beyond cases identified in clinical settings and evaluate community samples. Method We reviewed 11 community surveys in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) published since 2000. We also examined the frequency of co-occurring psychiatric conditions in community samples and large clinically-ascertained samples. Results Transient tics are relatively common affecting as many as 20% of school-age children. The 11 studies reviewed here offer a wide range of estimates from 2.6 to 38 per 1000 children for TS. Six studies provide estimates in a narrower range from 4.3 to 7.6 per 1000, but the confidence interval around this narrower range remains wide. Six studies provided results on chronic tic disorders ranging from 3 to 50 per 1000 for Chronic Motor Tic Disorder and 2.5 to 9.4 per 1000 for Chronic Vocal Tic Disorder. Community samples and large clinically-ascertained samples consistently show high rates of ADHD, disruptive behavior and anxiety disorders in children with TS. Conclusions The wide range of prevalence estimates for TS and chronic tic disorders is likely due to differences in sample size and assessment methods. The best estimate of prevalence for TS in school-age children is likely to fall between 4 and 8 cases per 1000. Clinical assessment of children with chronic tic disorders warrants examination of other problems such as ADHD, disruptive behavior and anxiety. PMID:25436183

  16. Current Prevalence Pattern of Hypertension in Nigeria: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Akinlua, James Tosin; Meakin, Richard; Umar, Aminu Mahmoud; Freemantle, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rapidly increasing, and the African continent seems to be the most affected region in the world. The prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria forms a substantial portion of the total burden in Africa because of the large population of the country currently estimated to be over 170 million. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise up to date data on the prevalence and distribution of hypertension in Nigeria from prevalence studies. Methods A search of the following databases: PubMed, EMBase and WHO cardiovascular InfoBase from 1968 till date was conducted to identify studies which provide estimates of prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria. Results The search yielded a total of 1748 hits from which 45 relevant studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The overall crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 0.1% (95%CI:-0.1 to 0.3) to 17.5% (95% CI: 13.6 to 21.4) in children and 2.1% (95%CI: 1.4 to 2.8) to 47.2% (95%CI: 43.6 to 50.8) in adults depending on the benchmark used for diagnosis of hypertension, the setting in which the study was conducted, sex and ethnic group. The crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 6.2% (95%CI: 4.0 to 8.4) to 48.9% (95%CI: 42.3 to 55.5) for men and 10% (95%CI: 8.1 to 12) to 47.3% (95%CI: 43 to 51.6%) for women. In most studies, prevalence of hypertension was higher in males than females. In addition, prevalence across urban and rural ranged from 9.5% (95%CI: 13.6 to 21.4) to 51.6% (95%CI: 49.8 to 53.4) and 4.8% (95%CI: 2.9 to 6.7) to 43% (95%CI: 42.1 to 43.9) respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension is high among the Nigerian population. Appropriate interventions need to be developed and implemented to reduce the preventable burden of hypertension especially at Primary Health Care Centres which is the first point of call for over 55% of the Nigerian population. PMID:26461923

  17. Prevalence, characteristics, and survival of frontotemporal lobar degeneration syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Katrina M.; Patterson, Karalyn; Vázquez Rodríquez, Patricia; Wehmann, Eileen; Wilcox, Alicia; Lansdall, Claire J.; Dawson, Kate E.; Wiggins, Julie; Mead, Simon; Brayne, Carol; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the lifetime risk, prevalence, incidence, and mortality of the principal clinical syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) using revised diagnostic criteria and including intermediate clinical phenotypes. Methods: Multisource referral over 2 years to identify all diagnosed or suspected cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) in 2 UK counties (population 1.69 million). Diagnostic confirmation used current consensus diagnostic criteria after interview and reexamination. Results were adjusted to the 2013 European standard population. Results: The prevalence of FTD, PSP, and CBS was 10.8/100,000. The incidence and mortality were very similar, at 1.61/100,000 and 1.56/100,000 person-years, respectively. The estimated lifetime risk is 1 in 742. Survival following diagnosis varied widely: from PSP 2.9 years to semantic variant FTD 9.1 years. Age-adjusted prevalence peaked between 65 and 69 years at 42.6/100,000: the age-adjusted prevalence for persons older than 65 years is double the prevalence for those between 40 and 64 years. Fifteen percent of those screened had a relevant genetic mutation. Conclusions: Key features of this study include the revised diagnostic criteria with improved specificity and sensitivity, an unrestricted age range, and simultaneous assessment of multiple FTLD syndromes. The prevalence of FTD, PSP, and CBS increases beyond 65 years, with frequent genetic causes. The time from onset to diagnosis and from diagnosis to death varies widely among syndromes, emphasizing the challenge and importance of accurate and timely diagnosis. A high index of suspicion for FTLD syndromes is required by clinicians, even for older patients. PMID:27037234

  18. Challenging Behaviours: Prevalence and Topographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, K.; Allen, D.; Jones, E.; Brophy, S.; Moore, K.; James, W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Variations in reported prevalence of challenging behaviour indicate the need for further epidemiological research to support accurate planning of future service provision. Methods: All services providing for people with learning disabilities across seven unitary authorities, with a total population of 1.2 million, were screened to…

  19. Birth Defects Prevalence and Mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the prevalence of birth defects present at birth and mortality rates among infants in the United States between from 1999-2008 and 1979-2007, respectively. Some scientific studies have linked birth defects with environmental exposures. This indicator p...

  20. Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence and Mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes data on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence and deaths across the U.S. for the time periods 1997–2009 and 1979–2007, respectively. Cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death and disability in the U.S., may be partly...

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Dyslipidemia in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Li; Ding, Xianbin; Tang, Wenge; Li, Qin; Mao, Deqiang; Wang, Yulin

    2015-10-01

    The increasing prevalence of dyslipidemia has become a worldwide public health problem, and the prevalence varies widely according to socioeconomic, cultural and ethnic characteristics. Chongqing has experienced rapid economic development and is now the economic center of Southwestern China. There are scant data on serum lipid profile of residents in Chongqing, the largest municipality directly under the Central Government in China. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a representative sample of 5375 residents of Chongqing, aged ≥18 years, and estimated the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its associated risk factors. According to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, the age-standardized prevalence of dyslipidemia was 35.5% (34.4% among men and 37.6% among women). Among the 2009 patients with dyslipidemia, 44.2% had isolated hypertriglyceridemia, 14.7% had isolated hypercholesterolemia, 13.2% had mixed hyperlipidemia, and 28.0% had isolated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The peak prevalence of dyslipidemia in men was between 30 and 39 years (48.2%), and then declined gradually; in women, the prevalence of dyslipidemia increased with age, with the peak prevalence occurring after age 60 (46.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that dyslipidemia was associated with age, education level, physical activity, obesity and central obesity for both men and women. In conclusion, the results indicated dyslipidemia, particularly hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, are very common in Chongqing. To prevent dyslipidemia, it is essential to conduct appropriate intervention programs aimed at risk factor reduction and implement routine screening programs for blood lipid levels in Chongqing, China. PMID:26516874

  2. Prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle patterns among overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Robert F; Choi, Seung W

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the prevalence of unhealthy eating, exercise, and coping pattern traits among a large sample of overweight and obese adults. We analyzed responses to a 53-item lifestyle pattern questionnaire posted on a commercial weight loss program Web site collected from 2004 through 2008. Subjects included 446,608 healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults, 18-65 years old, average age 31.9 (s.d. = 11.8), average BMI 30.5 kg/m(2) (s.d. = 7.5). Categorically, 25.5% were healthy weight, 29.0% were overweight, 33.7% were class I-II obesity, and 11.8% class III obesity. A stratified random sample was used to estimate the prevalence of the 21 lifestyle patterns (7 eating, 7 exercise, and 7 coping) in the general population, and the prevalence of patterns in the complete dataset was further analyzed by gender, age, and BMI. Finally, we analyzed the odds ratio of the pattern prevalence for each BMI category. We found that unhealthy lifestyle patterns in diet, exercise, and coping were highly prevalent among this population. In general, the prevalence of these patterns rose with increasing BMI and is correlated with advancing age. Gender differences were seen with many of the patterns, most noticeably among the coping patterns. The odds ratio for 18 of the 21 patterns was >1.0 and steadily increased with higher BMI categories. We conclude that unhealthy lifestyle patterns in diet, exercise, and coping are highly prevalent among the overweight and obese population. Pattern recognition represents a new method to analyze the cluster of behaviors, attitudes, and traits seen among this population. PMID:19875995

  3. Prevalence and Costs of Five Chronic Conditions in Children.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gabrielle F; Coffield, Edward; Leroy, Zanie; Wallin, Robin

    2016-10-01

    The objective is to examine the prevalence and health-care costs associated with asthma, epilepsy, hypertension, food allergies, and diabetes in children aged 0-18 years. Prevalence was calculated using 2005-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, a population-based, nationally representative sample. Using MEPS, two-part models estimated the cost of each condition for all children while controlling for sociodemographic categories. Prevalence rates varied by race and ethnicity across conditions. Females had higher prevalence of all chronic conditions, except epilepsy. An additional US$1,377.60-US$9,059.49 annually were spent on medical expenses for children aged 0-18 years, with asthma, diabetes, or epilepsy compared to children without these conditions. This is the first study to examine the costs and prevalence of chronic health conditions in children and adolescents using a single data set. Understanding the odds of having a condition by sociodemographic categories highlights disparities that can potentially inform school nurses on the best allocation of resources to serve students. PMID:27044668

  4. Variation in the Prevalence of Domestic Violence between Neighboring Areas

    PubMed Central

    Nouhjah, Sedigheh; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is an important health issue, but few studies have focused on city of residence and ethnic differences. To estimate the prevalence of various forms of domestic violence and certain related factors, with a specific focus on city of residence and ethnicity, we studied 1820 married women attending public health centers in 4 large cities in Khuzestan Province, southwestern Islamic Republic of Iran. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. The prevalence of some forms of lifetime domestic violence against women was 47.3%. The prevalence of physical, psychological, and any form of lifetime violence was the highest in Dezful (25.7%, 54.8%, and 57.7%, resp.). For sexual violence, the highest prevalence was reported in Ahvaz (17.7%). The highest prevalence of physical and sexual violence during any point of life was reported by Arab women (25.1% and 16.7%). The experience of all forms of violence was significantly associated with city of residence. Results of regression logistic analysis revealed that all of the forms of violence except psychological violence were statistically significantly associated with ethnicity (P < 0.05). PMID:27433514

  5. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Isfahan Province.

    PubMed

    Nokhodian, Zary; Adibi, Peyman; Ataei, Behrooz

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious global health problem. It is estimated that 1.5-2.5 million people are suffering from this infection in Iran. A review on HBV infection prevalence in Isfahan, Iran is conducted in this article. It will help researchers for further studies and also will be helpful for control the infection. Medline, Embase, Ovid, Google Scholar, Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex, Magiran and Scientific Journal of Iran Blood Transfusion Organization and also students' thesis and projects of Isfahan and Kashan universities of medical sciences were searched for key words "HBV," "HBsAg," "prevalence," "Isfahan," "Esfahan," and "Kashan in titles and/or abstracts. Overall, 24 articles, including 4, 14, 5 and 1 were assessed in Isfahan province, and Isfahan, Kashan, and Foulad-shahr cities, respectively. The highest and lowest participants were 542705 and 73, respectively. The highest prevalence of HBsAg was reported in HIV-infected patients and the lowest one was seen in the thalassemic patients. We collected the articles about the prevalence of HBV in Isfahan to help researchers and determine prevalence HBV in Isfahan province. The similar studies in other province of Iran are necessary for marking decision. PMID:26622989

  6. Prevalence of Myopia in France

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Emilie; Ingrand, Pierre; Pelen, François; Bentaleb, Yacine; Weber, Michel; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Souied, Eric; Leveziel, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Refractive error (RE), particularly myopia, is the first cause of visual impairment throughout the world. This study aimed to depict the prevalence of myopia in a multicentric series of French individuals. This cross-sectional analysis was carried out between January 2012 and November 2013 in eye clinics dedicated to REs. Data collection included age, gender, best-corrected visual acuity, RE, and any relevant medical history involving laser refractive surgery and cataract surgery. Exclusion criteria consisted of monophthalm patients or those with incomplete demographic data. Prevalences in the overall population, by gender and by age groups were reported for mild myopia (−0.50 to −2.75 diopter [D]), moderate myopia (−3 to −5.75 D), high myopia (less than −6 D), and very high myopia (less than −10 D). The analysis included 100,429 individuals, mean age 38.5 years (± 16.9). Overall prevalence of myopia was 39.1% (95% CI 38.8-39.4). Prevalences of mild, moderate, high and very high myopia were respectively 25.1% (95% CI 25.4-24.9), 10.6% (95% CI 10.4-10.8), 3.4% (95% CI 3.3-3.5) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.48-0.57). Even if possible bias occurred in recruitment, our results are similar to RE data collected in nationally representative samples of Caucasians in other studies. This is to our knowledge, one of the largest European series of individuals dedicated to myopia prevalences in different age groups. These results confirm the importance of myopia as a major health issue in Western countries. PMID:26559276

  7. Prevalence of Cerebral Amyloid Pathology in Persons Without Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Willemijn J.; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Knol, Dirk L.; Tijms, Betty M.; Scheltens, Philip; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies. OBJECTIVE To use individual participant data meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of amyloid pathology as measured with biomarkers in participants with normal cognition, subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DATA SOURCES Relevant biomarker studies identified by searching studies published before April 2015 using the MEDLINE and Web of Science databases and through personal communication with investigators. STUDY SELECTION Studies were included if they provided individual participant data for participants without dementia and used an a priori defined cutoff for amyloid positivity. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Individual records were provided for 2914 participants with normal cognition, 697 with SCI, and 3972 with MCI aged 18 to 100 years from 55 studies. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence of amyloid pathology on positron emission tomography or in cerebrospinal fluid according to AD risk factors (age, apolipoprotein E [APOE] genotype, sex, and education) estimated by generalized estimating equations. RESULTS The prevalence of amyloid pathology increased from age 50 to 90 years from 10% (95% CI, 8%-13%) to 44% (95% CI, 37%-51%) among participants with normal cognition; from 12% (95% CI, 8%-18%) to 43% (95% CI, 32%-55%) among patients with SCI; and from 27% (95% CI, 23%-32%) to 71% (95% CI, 66%-76%) among patients with MCI. APOE-ε4 carriers had 2 to 3 times higher prevalence estimates than noncarriers. The age at which 15% of the participants with normal cognition were amyloid positive was approximately 40 years for APOEε4ε4 carriers, 50 years for ε2ε4 carriers, 55 years for ε3ε4 carriers, 65 years for ε3ε3 carriers, and

  8. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the Lazio region, Italy: use of an algorithm based on health information systems.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, Anna Maria; Colais, Paola; Agabiti, Nera; Mayer, Flavia; Buttari, Fabio; Centonze, Diego; Di Folco, Marta; Filippini, Graziella; Francia, Ada; Galgani, Simonetta; Gasperini, Claudio; Giuliani, Manuela; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Nociti, Viviana; Pozzilli, Carlo; Davoli, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Compared with other areas of the country, very limited data are available on multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence in Central Italy. We aimed to estimate MS prevalence in the Lazio region and its geographical distribution using regional health information systems (HIS). To identify MS cases we used data from drug prescription, hospital discharge and ticket exemption registries. Crude, age- and gender-specific prevalence estimates on December 31, 2011 were calculated. To compare MS prevalence between different areas within the region, we calculated age- and gender-adjusted prevalence and prevalence ratios using a multivariate Poisson regression model. Crude prevalence rate was 130.5/100,000 (95 % CI 127.5-133.5): 89.7/100,000 for males and 167.9/100,000 for females. The overall prevalence rate standardized to the European Standard Population was 119.6/100,000 (95 % CI 116.8-122.4). We observed significant differences in MS prevalence within the region, with estimates ranging from 96.3 (95 % CI 86.4-107.3) for Latina to 169.6 (95 % CI 147.6-194.9) for Rieti. Most districts close to the coast showed lower prevalence estimates compared to those situated in the eastern mountainous area of the region. In conclusion, this study produced a MS prevalence estimate at regional level using population-based health administrative databases. Our results showed the Lazio region is a high-risk area for MS, although with an uneven geographical distribution. While some limitations must be considered including possible prevalence underestimation, HIS represent a valuable source of information to measure the burden of SM, useful for epidemiological surveillance and healthcare planning. PMID:26886201

  9. Attitude Estimation or Quaternion Estimation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    2003-01-01

    The attitude of spacecraft is represented by a 3x3 orthogonal matrix with unity determinant, which belongs to the three-dimensional special orthogonal group SO(3). The fact that all three-parameter representations of SO(3) are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to the use of higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterizations, especially the four-component quaternion. In attitude estimation, we are faced with the alternatives of using an attitude representation that is either singular or redundant. Estimation procedures fall into three broad classes. The first estimates a three-dimensional representation of attitude deviations from a reference attitude parameterized by a higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterization. The deviations from the reference are assumed to be small enough to avoid any singularity or discontinuity of the three-dimensional parameterization. The second class, which estimates a higher-dimensional representation subject to enough constraints to leave only three degrees of freedom, is difficult to formulate and apply consistently. The third class estimates a representation of SO(3) with more than three dimensions, treating the parameters as independent. We refer to the most common member of this class as quaternion estimation, to contrast it with attitude estimation. We analyze the first and third of these approaches in the context of an extended Kalman filter with simplified kinematics and measurement models.

  10. Caries prevalence and restorative dental services in some Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Speake, J D

    1980-08-01

    Caries prevalence rates at eight and eleven years of age were estimated according to WHO criteria in six Pacific Island countries and territories during the period 1975 to 1977. The components of the dental caries index (DIMF(T)) on a country or territory basis were examined and the dental care index calculated. Factors influencing the delivery of dental services in the region are discussed. PMID:6934741

  11. Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiei, M.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran) neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classified as LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight…

  12. A tuberculosis nationwide prevalence survey in Gambia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Lindsay; Bashorun, Adedapo; Linda, Christopher; Omoleke, Semeeh; Jeffries, David; Maane, Rahmatulai; Alorse, Beatrice Dei; Alorse, William Dei; Okoi, Catherine Bi; Mlaga, Kodjovi D; Kinteh, Ma Ansu; Donkor, Simon; de Jong, Bouke C; Antonio, Martin; d’Alessandro, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the population prevalence of active pulmonary tuberculosis in Gambia. Methods Between December 2011 and January 2013, people aged ≥ 15 years participating in a nationwide, multistage cluster survey were screened for active pulmonary tuberculosis with chest radiography and for tuberculosis symptoms. For diagnostic confirmation, sputum samples were collected from those whose screening were positive and subjected to fluorescence microscopy and liquid tuberculosis cultures. Multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting were used to estimate tuberculosis prevalence. Findings Of 100 678 people enumerated, 55 832 were eligible to participate and 43 100 (77.2%) of those participated. A majority of participants (42 942; 99.6%) were successfully screened for symptoms and by chest X-ray. Only 5948 (13.8%) were eligible for sputum examination, yielding 43 bacteriologically confirmed, 28 definite smear-positive and six probable smear-positive tuberculosis cases. Chest X-ray identified more tuberculosis cases (58/69) than did symptoms alone (43/71). The estimated prevalence of smear-positive and bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis were 90 (95% confidence interval, CI: 53–127) and 212 (95% CI: 152–272) per 100 000 population, respectively. Tuberculosis prevalence was higher in males (333; 95% CI: 233–433) and in the 35–54 year age group (355; 95% CI: 219–490). Conclusion The burden of tuberculosis remains high in Gambia but lower than earlier estimates of 490 per 100 000 population in 2010. Less than half of all cases would have been identified based on smear microscopy results alone. Successful control efforts will require interventions targeting men, increased access to radiography and more accurate, rapid diagnostic tests. PMID:27274595

  13. HIV Prevalence Rates among Injection Drug Users in 96 Large US Metropolitan Areas, 1992–2002

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Spencer; Cleland, Charles M.; Cooper, Hannah; Brady, Joanne E.; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2008-01-01

    This research presents estimates of HIV prevalence rates among injection drug users (IDUs) in large US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) during 1992–2002. Trend data on HIV prevalence rates in geographic areas over time are important for research on determinants of changes in HIV among IDUs. Such data also provide a foundation for the design and implementation of structural interventions for preventing the spread of HIV among IDUs. Our estimates of HIV prevalence rates among IDUs in 96 US MSAs during 1992–2002 are derived from four independent sets of data: (1) research-based HIV prevalence rate estimates; (2) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing data (CDC CTS); (3) data on the number of people living with AIDS compiled by the CDC (PLWAs); and (4) estimates of HIV prevalence in the US. From these, we calculated two independent sets of estimates: (1) calculating CTS-based Method (CBM) using regression adjustments to CDC CTS; and (2) calculating the PLWA-based Method (PBM) by taking the ratio of the number of injectors living with HIV to the numbers of injectors living in the MSA. We take the mean of CBM and PBM to calculate over all HIV prevalence rates for 1992–2002. We evaluated trends in IDU HIV prevalence rates by calculating estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) for each MSA. During 1992–2002, HIV prevalence rates declined in 85 (88.5%) of the 96 MSAs, with EAPCs ranging from −12.9% to −2.1% (mean EAPC = −6.5%; p < 0.01). Across the 96 MSAs, collectively, the annual mean HIV prevalence rate declined from 11.2% in 1992 to 6.2 in 2002 (EAPC, −6.4%; p < 0.01). Similarly, the median HIV prevalence rate declined from 8.1% to 4.4% (EAPC, −6.5%; p < 0.01). The maximum HIV prevalence rate across the 11 years declined from 43.5% to 22.8% (EAPC, −6.7%; p < 0.01). Declining HIV prevalence rates may reflect high continuing mortality among infected IDUs, as well as primary HIV

  14. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J.; Mauri-Llerda, Jose Angel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Parejo-Carbonell, Beatriz; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Vázquez-Gutierrez, Fernando; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Mendez-Lucena, Carolina; Redondo-Verge, Luis; Tejero-Juste, Carlos; Morandeira-Rivas, Clara; Sancho-Rieger, Jerónimo; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy's diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. PMID:26783554

  15. [Prevalence of depression among firefighters].

    PubMed

    Lima, Eduardo de Paula; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-04-01

    Depression burder is high worldwide. Socioeconomic factors and exposure to extreme situations at work may be associated with the illness. This study focused on the prevalence of depression and associated factors among firefighters in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted among male firefighters in Belo Horizonte (n = 711). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depression. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to study the association between socio-demographic characteristics, occupational stressors, health status, and depression. Prevalence of depression in the sample was 5.5%. The likelihood of developing depression was higher among firefighters who reported post-traumatic stress symptoms (OR = 12.47; 95%CI: 5.64-27.57) and alcohol abuse (OR = 5.30; 95%CI: 2.35-11.96). The results are discussed considering the interrelationships between mental disorders, the healthy worker effect, and social recognition of firefighters' work. PMID:25945983

  16. The Prevalence of Mental Disorders Among Children and Adolescents in the Child Welfare System

    PubMed Central

    Bronsard, Guillaume; Alessandrini, Marine; Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Tordjman, Sylvie; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It remains unclear whether children and adolescents in the child welfare system (CWS) exhibit a higher prevalence of mental disorders compared with the general population. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in the CWS. All of the epidemiological surveys assessing the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents in the CWS were included. The pooled prevalence was estimated with random effect models. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored using meta-regression analyses. Eight studies provided prevalence estimates that were obtained from 3104 children and adolescents. Nearly 1 child or adolescent of every 2 (49%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 43–54) was identified as meeting criteria for a current mental disorder. The most common mental disorder was disruptive disorder (27%; 95% CI 20–34), including conduct disorder (20%; 95% CI 13–27) and oppositional defiant disorder (12%; 95% CI 10–14). The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was estimated to be 11% (95% CI 6–15). The prevalence estimates of anxiety and depressive disorders were 18% (95% CI 12–24) and 11% (95% CI 7–15). Posttraumatic stress disorder had the lowest prevalence (4%; 95% CI 2–6). High prevalences of mental disorders in the CWS were reported, which highlights the need for the provision of qualified service. The substantial heterogeneity of our findings is indicative of the need for accurate epidemiological data to effectively guide public policy. PMID:26886603

  17. Prevalence of dermographism in children.

    PubMed

    Martorell, A; Sanz, J; Ortiz, M; Julve, N; Cerdá, J C; Ferriols, E; Alvarez, V

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of dermographism in our pediatric population was studied in 238 children of both sexes (128 boys and 110 girls) aged 2-14 years, randomly selected from a health care center. Skin reaction was evaluated after 5 min pressure (3,200 g/cm2) applied with a dermatographometer on a 5-cm length of dorsal skin. The reaction was considered positive when a wheal of more than 2 mm was observed. The prevalence of dermographism was found to be 24%, with a significant female predominance (33%) over males (16%). Forty-one percent of the children with dermographism reported exanthema in response to friction and pressure, which was compatible with symptomatic dermographism, compared with only 5% of those who yielded negative reactions. In order to assess the prevalence of dermographism in the atopic population, 100 patients in the 4-14 age range with respiratory disease (perennial allergic rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma) involving sensitization to aeroallergens (house dust mites and/or Alternaria) were studied. A positive response to the application of pressure (3,200 g/cm2) was observed in 47% of cases, this figure being significantly higher than in the general pediatric population. PMID:10923592

  18. Developmental dyscalculia: prevalence and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Shalev, R S; Auerbach, J; Manor, O; Gross-Tsur, V

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia (DC) in the school population ranges from 3-6 %, a frequency similar to that of developmental dyslexia and ADHD. These studies fulfilled the criteria for an adequate prevalence study, i.e., were population based, using standardized measures to evaluate arithmetic function. Although the variation in prevalence is within a narrow range, the differences are probably due to which definition of dyscalculia was used, the age the diagnosis was made and the instrument chosen to test for DC. The relative predominance of girls with DC may reflect a greater vulnerability to environmental influences alone or in addition to a biological predisposition. DC is not only encountered as a specific learning disability but also in diverse neurological disorders, examples of which include ADHD, developmental language disorder, epilepsy, treated phenylketonuria and Fragile X syndrome. Although the long-term prognosis of DC is as yet unknown, current data indicate that DC is a stable learning disability persisting, at least for the short term, in about half of affected children. The long-term consequences of DC and its impact on education, employment and psychological well-being have yet to be determined. PMID:11138905

  19. Estimating risk.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A free mobile phone app has been launched providing nurses and other hospital clinicians with a simple way to identify high-risk surgical patients. The app is a phone version of the Surgical Outcome Risk Tool (SORT), originally developed for online use with computers by researchers from the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death and the University College London Hospital Surgical Outcomes Research Centre. SORT uses information about patients' health and planned surgical procedures to estimate the risk of death within 30 days of an operation. The percentages are only estimates, taking into account the general risks of the procedures and some information about patients, and should not be confused with patient-specific estimates in individual cases. PMID:27369709

  20. Rates of Prevalent HIV Infection, Prevalent Diagnoses, and New Diagnoses Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in US States, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Counties, 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Travis Howard; Sullivan, Patrick Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) increasingly represent the majority of people living with and acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Local and federal surveillance programs estimate the number of persons living with an HIV diagnosis, persons living with HIV infection, and new diagnoses. Given the absence of population-based estimates of the number of MSM for US states, metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), or counties, it is not possible to accurately estimate rates using these indicators at these levels, inhibiting the ability to understand HIV burden and to direct prevention efforts. Objective To synthesize recently published estimates of MSM population size with publicly available HIV surveillance data, in order to estimate the prevalence of HIV diagnosis and infection and the rate of new diagnoses, at the national, state, MSA, and county levels. Methods The number of MSM living with HIV infection in 2012 (prevalence), living with an HIV diagnosis in 2012 (diagnosed prevalence), and newly diagnosed with HIV infection in 2013 (new diagnosis), at state, MSA, and county levels, were obtained from publicly available data from AIDSVu.org and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The estimated number of MSM living in every US county was calculated using recently published methodology that utilized data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and American Community Survey. Estimated county-level MSM counts were aggregated to form MSA- and state-level totals. From this, we estimated HIV prevalence, diagnosed prevalence, and new diagnosis rates. Results The estimated HIV prevalence among MSM in the United States in 2012 was 15.0% (666,900/4,452,772), the diagnosed HIV prevalence in 2012 was 11.1% (493,453/4,452,772), and the new diagnosis rate for 2013 was 0.7 per 100 MSM. For diagnosed prevalence at the state level, 6 states had both <15,000 cases and diagnosed prevalence rates of ≥15

  1. ERICA: prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício T L

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some

  2. ERICA: prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; Veiga, Gloria Valeria da; Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira da; Vasconcellos, Maurício T L de

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some components

  3. Prevalence and types of birth defects in Ontario swine determined by mail survey.

    PubMed Central

    Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R; Page, P D; MacMillan, K; Walker, A F

    1993-01-01

    Preweaning mortality in piglets constitutes a major loss to the swine industry. Congenital defects account for a small but significant proportion of these losses. To implement appropriate strategies to reduce such losses, it is necessary to identify the specific causes and their relative importance. Consequently, a mail survey of swine production in Ontario was carried out to determine the prevalence and types of birth defects. Statistical comparisons of the prevalence of overall defects were made between accurate and estimate records, breeds (cross vs. purebred), size of operation (number of sows) and geographic location. The mean litter size of 11 pigs born per sow was not significantly different for those with accurate versus estimate records, but the difference in the prevalence of defective pigs (live and dead) was significant (accurate 3.1% vs. estimate 4.1%). Splayleg (spraddleleg) was the most common defect. The next four defects for both groups were belly rupture, other rupture, ridglings and other, but not in the same ranking. Purebred and small farm operations (< 25 sows) had a significantly higher prevalence of birth defects for estimated data only. Geographic location had no effect. Further work is required to determine whether recording prevalence of birth defects in Ontario swine will provide a useful monitor of environmental stress. The study provides a baseline for the prevalence and type of defects in Ontario swine. PMID:8490809

  4. Prevalence of asthma in Portugal - The Portuguese National Asthma Survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a frequent chronic respiratory disease in both children and adults. However, few data on asthma prevalence are available in Portugal. The Portuguese National Asthma Survey is the first nationwide study that uses standardized methods. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of current asthma in the Portuguese population and to assess the association between ‘Current asthma’ and comorbidities such as upper airways disease. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based, telephone interview survey including all municipalities of Portugal was undertaken. Participants were randomly selected to answer a questionnaire based on the Portuguese version of the GA2LEN survey. ‘Current asthma’ was defined as self-reported lifetime asthma and at least one of 3 symptoms in the last 12 months: wheezing, waking with breathlessness or having an asthma attack. Results Data were obtained for 6 003 respondents, with mean age of 38.9 (95%CI 38.2-39.6) years and 57.3% females. In the Portuguese population, the prevalence of ‘Current asthma’ was 6.8% (95%CI 6.0-7.7) and of ‘Lifetime asthma’ was 10.5% (95%CI 9.5-11.6) Using GA2LEN definition for asthma, our prevalence estimate was 7.8% (95%CI 7.0-8.8). Rhinitis had a strong association with asthma (Adjusted OR 3.87, 95%CI 2.90-5.18) and the association between upper airway diseases and asthma was stronger in patients with both rhinitis and sinusitis (Adjusted OR 13.93, 95%CI 6.60-29.44). Conclusions Current asthma affects 695 000 Portuguese, with a prevalence of 6.8%. People who reported both rhinitis and sinusitis had the highest risk of having asthma. PMID:22931550

  5. Prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in Newfoundland.

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, S; Hogan, K; Hankins, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in Newfoundland. DESIGN: Anonymous unlinked seroprevalence study. SETTING: Newfoundland. PATIENTS: A total of 14911 women receiving prenatal care or undergoing an abortion, representing nearly all pregnancies in Newfoundland from Nov. 1, 1991, to Oct. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV antibody status, as determined by enzyme immunoassay of leftover serum samples (initially obtained for routine screening) and confirmation of reactive samples by the Western blot technique, health region of residence, and age group. RESULTS: Of the 14911 serum samples 13 were positive for HIV, for an overall crude prevalence rate of 1 per 1147 or 8.7 per 10000 pregnant women (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7 to 14.9). Seven of the positive samples were from women residing in the Eastern Health Region of the province, for a crude prevalence rate of 1 per 376 or 26.6 per 10000 pregnant women (95% CI 10.7 to 54.8) for that region. All women found to be HIV positive were 15 to 29 years of age, the peak prevalence (20.8 per 10000 pregnant women [95% CI 9.5 to 39.4]) was observed among those 20 to 24 years. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence rate of 8.7 per 10 000 pregnant women in Newfoundland is the highest provincial rate recorded among those from similar studies in Canada. Although it may be concluded that there are an estimated 125 HIV-positive women of childbearing age in Newfoundland (95% CI 67 to 213), the age-adjusted estimate is 84 (95% CI 36 to 131). This study provides an independent confirmation of an outbreak of HIV infection among women in the Eastern Health Region of the province. PMID:8625023

  6. Prevalence of Chagas Disease in Latin-American Migrants Living in Europe: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Requena-Méndez, Ana; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; de Lazzari, Elisa; Sicuri, Elisa; Brown, Michael; Moore, David A. J.; Gascon, Joaquim; Muñoz, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have assessed the burden of Chagas disease in non-endemic countries and most of them are based on prevalence estimates from Latin American (LA) countries that likely differ from the prevalence in migrants living in Europe. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing data informing current understanding of the prevalence of Chagas disease in LA migrants living in European countries. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting prevalence of Chagas disease in European countries belonging to the European Union (EU) before 2004 in accordance with the MOOSE guidelines and based on the database sources MEDLINE and Global Health. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. The pooled prevalence was estimated using random effect models based on DerSimonian & Laird method. Results We identified 18 studies conducted in five European countries. The random effect pooled prevalence was 4.2% (95%CI:2.2-6.7%); and the heterogeneity of Chagas disease prevalence among studies was high (I2 = 97%,p<0.001). Migrants from Bolivia had the highest prevalence of Chagas disease (18.1%, 95%CI:13.9–22.7%). Conclusions Prevalence of Chagas in LA migrants living in Europe is high, particularly in migrants from Bolivia and Paraguay. Data are highly heterogeneous dependent upon country of origin and within studies of migrants from the same country of origin. Country-specific prevalence differs from the estimates available from LA countries. Our meta-analysis provides prevalence estimates of Chagas disease that should be used to estimate the burden of disease in European countries. PMID:25680190

  7. The Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Zambia: Results from the First National TB Prevalence Survey, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Kapata, Nathan; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Ngosa, William; Metitiri, Mine; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Kalisvaart, Nico; Sunkutu, Veronica; Shibemba, Aaron; Chabala, Chishala; Chongwe, Gershom; Tembo, Mathias; Mulenga, Lutinala; Mbulo, Grace; Katemangwe, Patrick; Sakala, Sandra; Chizema-Kawesha, Elizabeth; Masiye, Felix; Sinyangwe, George; Onozaki, Ikushi; Mwaba, Peter; Chikamata, Davy; Zumla, Alimuddin; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis in Zambia is a major public health problem, however the country does not have reliable baseline data on the TB prevalence for impact measurement; therefore it was among the priority countries identified by the World Health Organization to conduct a national TB prevalence survey Objective To estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis among the adult Zambian population aged 15 years and above, in 2013–2014. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in 66 clusters across all the 10 provinces of Zambia. Eligible participants aged 15 years and above were screened for TB symptoms, had a chest x-ray (CXR) performed and were offered an HIV test. Participants with TB symptoms and/or CXR abnormality underwent an in-depth interview and submitted one spot- and one morning sputum sample for smear microscopy and liquid culture. Digital data collection methods were used throughout the process. Results Of the 98,458 individuals who were enumerated, 54,830 (55.7%) were eligible to participate, and 46,099 (84.1%) participated. Of those who participated, 45,633/46,099 (99%) were screened by both symptom assessment and chest x-ray, while 466/46,099 (1.01%) were screened by interview only. 6,708 (14.6%) were eligible to submit sputum and 6,154/6,708 (91.7%) of them submitted at least one specimen for examination. MTB cases identified were 265/6,123 (4.3%). The estimated national adult prevalence of smear, culture and bacteriologically confirmed TB was 319/100,000 (232-406/100,000); 568/100,000 (440-697/100,000); and 638/100,000 (502-774/100,000) population, respectively. The risk of having TB was five times higher in the HIV positive than HIV negative individuals. The TB prevalence for all forms was estimated to be 455 /100,000 population for all age groups. Conclusion The prevalence of tuberculosis in Zambia was higher than previously estimated. Innovative approaches are required to accelerate the control of TB. PMID:26771588

  8. Prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan: a review.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Ehtisham; Bilal, Saira; Kiani, Adnan; Haque, Uzma

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies of rheumatoid arthritis worldwide suggest that prevalence of arthritis is higher in Europe and North America than in developing countries. Prevalence data for major arthritis disorders have been compiled in West for several decades, but figures from the third world are just emerging. A coordinated effort by WHO and ILAR (International League Against Rheumatism) has resulted in collecting data for countries like Philippines, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and rural South Africa but the information about prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan is scarce. Since both countries, i.e., India and Pakistan, share some ethnic identity, we reviewed published literature to examine the prevalence of arthritis in these countries. Medline and Pubmed were searched for suitable articles about arthritis from 1980 and onwards. Findings from these articles were reviewed and summarized. The prevalence, clinical features, and laboratory findings of rheumatoid arthritis are compiled for both India and Pakistan. Data collected from these two countries were compared with each other, and some of the characteristics of the disease were compared with Europe and North America. It is found to be quite similar to developed countries. Additionally, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is of different variety than reported in West. It is more of polyarticular onset type while in West pauciarticular predominates. Additionally, in systemic onset, JRA uveitis and ANA are common finding in developed countries; on the other hand, they are hardly seen in this region. Although the prevalence of arthritis in Pakistan and India is similar to Western countries, there are inherent differences (clinical features, laboratory findings) in the presentation of disease. The major strength of the study is that it is the first to pool reports to provide an estimate of the disease in the Indian subcontinent. Scarcity of data is one of the major limitations. This study helps to understand the pattern of

  9. Estimation Destinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threewit, Fran

    This book leads students through a journey of hands-on investigations of skill-based estimation. The 30 lessons in the book are grouped into four units: Holding Hands, The Real Scoop, Container Calculations, and Estimeasurements. In each unit children work with unique, real materials intended to build an awareness of number, quantity, and…

  10. Onchocerciasis: The Pre-control Association between Prevalence of Palpable Nodules and Skin Microfilariae

    PubMed Central

    O'Hanlon, Simon; Cousens, Simon; Abiose, Adenike O.; Fischer, Peter U.; Remme, Jan H. F.; Dadzie, K. Yankum; Murdoch, Michele E.; de Vlas, Sake J.; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Stolk, Wilma A.; Boussinesq, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background The prospect of eliminating onchocerciasis from Africa by mass treatment with ivermectin has been rejuvenated following recent successes in foci in Mali, Nigeria and Senegal. Elimination prospects depend strongly on local transmission conditions and therefore on pre-control infection levels. Pre-control infection levels in Africa have been mapped largely by means of nodule palpation of adult males, a relatively crude method for detecting infection. We investigated how informative pre-control nodule prevalence data are for estimating the pre-control prevalence of microfilariae (mf) in the skin and discuss implications for assessing elimination prospects. Methods and Findings We analyzed published data on pre-control nodule prevalence in males aged ≥20 years and mf prevalence in the population aged ≥5 years from 148 African villages. A meta-analysis was performed by means of Bayesian hierarchical multivariate logistic regression, accounting for measurement error in mf and nodule prevalence, bioclimatic zones, and other geographical variation. There was a strong positive correlation between nodule prevalence in adult males and mf prevalence in the general population. In the forest-savanna mosaic area, the pattern in nodule and mf prevalence differed significantly from that in the savanna or forest areas. Significance We provide a tool to convert pre-control nodule prevalence in adult males to mf prevalence in the general population, allowing historical data to be interpreted in terms of elimination prospects and disease burden of onchocerciasis. Furthermore, we identified significant geographical variation in mf prevalence and nodule prevalence patterns warranting further investigation of geographical differences in transmission patterns of onchocerciasis. PMID:23593528

  11. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions among Inmates in the Texas Prison System

    PubMed Central

    Baillargeon, Jacques G.; Pruitt, Sandi L.; Pulvino, John S.; Paar, David P.; Kelley, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Given the rapid growth and aging of the US prison population in recent years, the disease profile and health care needs of inmates portend to have far-reaching public health implications. Although numerous studies have examined infectious disease prevalence and treatment in incarcerated populations, little is known about the prevalence of non-infectious chronic medical conditions in US prison populations. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected non-infectious chronic medical conditions among inmates in the Texas prison system. The study population consisted of the total census of inmates who were incarcerated in the Texas Department of Criminal Justice for any duration from September 1, 2006 through August 31, 2007 (N = 234,031). Information on medical diagnoses was obtained from a system-wide electronic medical record system. Overall crude prevalence estimates for the selected conditions were as follows: hypertension, 18.8%; asthma, 5.4%; diabetes, 4.2%; ischemic heart disease, 1.7%; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 0.96%; and cerebrovascular disease, 0.23%. Nearly one quarter (24.5%) of the study population had at least one of the selected conditions. Except for asthma, crude prevalence estimates of the selected conditions increased monotonically with age. Nearly two thirds (64.6%) of inmates who were ≥55 years of age had at least one of the selected conditions. Except for diabetes, crude prevalence estimates for the selected conditions were lower among Hispanic inmates than among non-Hispanic White inmates and African American inmates. Although age-standardized prevalence estimates for the selected conditions did not appear to exceed age-standardized estimates from the US general population, a large number of inmates were affected by one or more of these conditions. As the prison population continues to grow and to age, the burden of these conditions on correctional and community health care systems can be expected to

  12. Age- and gender-related prevalence of multimorbidity in primary care: the swiss fire project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background General practitioners often care for patients with several concurrent chronic medical conditions (multimorbidity). Recent data suggest that multimorbidity might be observed more often than isolated diseases in primary care. We explored the age- and gender-related prevalence of multimorbidity and compared these estimates to the prevalence estimates of other common specific diseases found in Swiss primary care. Methods We analyzed data from the Swiss FIRE (Family Medicine ICPC Research using Electronic Medical Record) project database, representing a total of 509,656 primary care encounters in 98,152 adult patients between January 1, 2009 and July 31, 2011. For each encounter, medical problems were encoded using the second version of the International Classification of primary Care (ICPC-2). We defined chronic health conditions using 147 pre-specified ICPC-2 codes and defined multimorbidity as 1) two or more chronic health conditions from different ICPC-2 rubrics, 2) two or more chronic health conditions from different ICPC-2 chapters, and 3) two or more medical specialties involved in patient care. We compared the prevalence estimates of multimorbidity defined by the three methodologies with the prevalence estimates of common diseases encountered in primary care. Results Overall, the prevalence estimates of multimorbidity were similar for the three different definitions (15% [95%CI 11-18%], 13% [95%CI 10-16%], and 14% [95%CI 11-17%], respectively), and were higher than the prevalence estimates of any specific chronic health condition (hypertension, uncomplicated 9% [95%CI 7-11%], back syndrome with and without radiating pain 6% [95%CI 5-7%], non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus 3% [95%CI 3-4%]), and degenerative joint disease 3% [95%CI 2%-4%]). The prevalence estimates of multimorbidity rose more than 20-fold with age, from 2% (95%CI 1-2%) in those aged 20–29 years, to 38% (95%CI 31-44%) in those aged 80 or more years. The prevalence estimates of

  13. Comparison of adult HIV prevalence from national population-based surveys and antenatal clinic surveillance in countries with generalised epidemics: implications for calibrating surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Gouws, E; Mishra, V; Fowler, T B

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates of the impact of HIV in countries with generalised epidemics are generally based on antenatal clinic surveillance data collected over time. In an attempt to obtain geographically more representative estimates of HIV prevalence, many countries are now also conducting national population-based surveys in which HIV testing is included. We compare adult HIV prevalence estimates from antenatal clinic surveillance to those from national population-based surveys to assess the implications for calibrating surveillance data. Methods: HIV prevalence estimates derived from fitting prevalence curves to antenatal clinic surveillance data are statistically compared to prevalence from national population-based surveys using data from 26 countries with generalised epidemics for the year in which the survey was conducted. Appropriate transformations are applied to inform the correction factors needed to adjust prevalence in countries where population-based surveys have not been conducted. Results: HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data generally overestimate population-based survey prevalence by about 20% (95% confidence interval: 10% to 30%) in both urban and rural areas. Conclusions: In countries where national population-based HIV surveys have been conducted, survey estimates of HIV prevalence (adjusted for potential survey biases as appropriate) can be used directly to calibrate antenatal clinic surveillance data. In countries where national HIV surveys have not been conducted, HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data should be multiplied by about 0.8 to adjust for overestimation. PMID:18647861

  14. The recent prevalence of Osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral ...

  15. Change in prevalence status for children with developmental delay in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Huang-Tsung; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Chin-Kai

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of children aged 0–6 years with developmental delay (DD) and to examine age-period trends in the prevalence of DD diagnosis in Taiwan. For the study population, we selected children aged <6 years at baseline (in 1997–2002, N=2,308,790) from the National Health Insurance Research Database (a longitudinal database with annual medical records of children in Taiwan) to estimate the prevalence of DD. All study subjects were followed up until they were 5 years old; the study period was from 1997 to 2008. The prevalence of DD by year gradually increased from 0.16% to 3.25% from 1997 to 2008 with an increasing ratio of prevalence of 20% over the 12-year study period. The prevalence of DD in boys was 2.13 times (2.09–2.18 from 1997 to 2008) that in girls. The prevalence of DD increased by year of study. The effect of sex on the prevalence of DD was significant. Understanding the trend of prevalence in the study period and the gap between the rate of early treatment and DD prevalence are critical concerns for future research. PMID:26203248

  16. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  17. The Co-Occurrence of Autism and Birth Defects: Prevalence and Risk in a Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, Diana E.; Autry, Andrew; Wines, Roberta; Moore, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of major birth defects among children with autism, the prevalence of autism in children with birth defects, and the risk for autism associated with having birth defects. Method: Retrospective cohort including all children born in Atlanta, GA, USA, 1986 to 1993, who survived to age 3 years and were identified through…

  18. Prevalence of DSM-IV Disorder in a Representative, Healthy Birth Cohort at School Entry: Sociodemographic Risks and Social Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Alice S.; Wagmiller, Robert J.; Gray, Sarah A. O.; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this paper are as follows: to present past-year prevalence data for DSM-IV disorders in the early elementary school years; to examine the impact of impairment criteria on prevalence estimates; to examine the relation of sociodemographic and psychosocial risk factors to disorders; and to explore associations between…

  19. Prevalence of Suicide Risk Factors and Suicide-Related Outcomes in the National Mental Health Study, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada-Villa, Jose; Camacho, Juan Camilo; Valenzuela, Jose Ignacio; Arguello, Arturo; Cendales, Juan Gabriel; Fajardo, Roosevelt

    2009-01-01

    A community survey in 4,426 adults was undertaken as part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative reporting the prevalence and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes in Colombia. Lifetime prevalence estimates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes were assessed. Retrospective reports of…

  20. Health Behaviors in a Representative Sample of Older Canadians: Prevalences, Reported Change, Motivation to Change, and Perceived Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsom, Jason T.; Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Prevalence estimates of healthy behaviors and preventive care among older adults have not received sufficient attention, despite important health benefits such as longevity and better quality of life. Moreover, little is known about general population prevalences of older adults' efforts to change behavior, motivations to improve health…

  1. Human land use influences chronic wasting disease prevalence in mule deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Wolfe, L.L.; Hobbs, N.T.; Burnham, K.P.; Williams, E.S.; Theobald, D.M.; Conner, M.M.; Miller, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Human alteration of landscapes can affect the distribution, abundance, and behavior of wildlife. We explored the effects of human land use on the prevalence of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations residing in north-central Colorado. We chose best approximating models estimating CWD prevalence in relation to differences in human land use, sex, and geographic location. Prevalence was higher in developed areas and among male deer, suggesting anthropogenic influences on the occurrence of disease. We also found a relatively high degree of variation in prevalence across the three study sites, suggesting that spatial patterns in disease may be influenced by other factors operating at a broader, landscape scale. Our results suggest that multiple factors, including changes in land use, differences in exposure risk between sexes, and landscape-scaled heterogeneity, are associated with CWD prevalence in north-central Colorado.

  2. Is there a socioeconomic gradient in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus?

    PubMed

    Cullinan, J; Gillespie, P; Owens, L; Avalos, G; Dunne, F P

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have shown an association between Type 2 diabetes and lower socioeconomic status. This link is less clear in those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We test for a socioeconomic gradient in the prevalence of GDM by analysing data on 9,842 pregnant women who were offered testing for GDM in the Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy universal screening programme. A bivariate probit model relating GDM prevalence to socioeconomic status was estimated, controlling for variation in screening uptake rates across socioeconomic groups. The estimated increased prevalence of GDM is 8.6% [95% CI 2.7%-12.0%] for women in the lowest socioeconomic group when compared to the highest, suggesting a strong socioeconomic gradient in the prevalence of GDM. This gradient is found to be driven by differences in personal, clinical and lifestyle factors across socioeconomic groups. PMID:22838104

  3. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices in the northwest United States

    PubMed Central

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Wataha, John C.; Heaton, Lisa J.; Rothen, Marilynn; Sobieraj, Martin; Scott, JoAnna; Berg, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity is uncertain, yet appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dentin hypersensitivity require accurate knowledge regarding its prevalence. The authors conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices and to investigate associated risk factors. Methods The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of 787 adult patients from 37 general dental practices within Northwest Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT). Dentin hypersensitivity was diagnosed by means of participants’ responses to a question regarding pain in their teeth and gingivae, and practitioner-investigators conducted a clinical examination to rule out alternative causes of pain. Participants recorded their pain level on a visual analog scale and the Seattle Scales in response to a one-second air blast. The authors used generalized estimating equation log-linear models to estimate the prevalence and the prevalence ratios. Results The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was 12.3 percent; patients with hypersensitivity had, on average, 3.5 hypersensitive teeth. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was higher among 18- to 44-year olds than among participants 65 years or older; it also was higher in women than in men, in participants with gingival recession than in those without gingival recession and in participants who underwent at-home tooth whitening than in those who did not. Hypersensitivity was not associated with obvious occlusal trauma, noncarious cervical lesions or aggressive toothbrushing habits. Conclusions One in eight participants from general practices had dentin hypersensitivity, which was a chronic condition causing intermittent, low-level pain. Patients with hypersensitivity were more likely to be younger, to be female and to have a high prevalence of gingival recession and at-home tooth whitening. Practical Implications Given dentin

  4. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration among the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rasoulinejad, Seyed Ahmad; Zarghami, Amin; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Rajaee, Neda; Rasoulinejad, Seyed Elahe; Mikaniki, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in elderly population in the developing countries. Previous epidemiological studies revealed various potential modifiable risk factors for this disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of AMD among elderly living in Babol, North of Iran. Methods: The study population of this cross-sectional study came from the Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP), the first comprehensive cohort study of the health of people aged 60 years and over in Amirkola, North of Iran. The prevalence of AMD was estimated and its risk was determined using logistic regression analysis (LRA) with regard to variables such as smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes. Results: Five hundred and five participants with mean age of 71.55±5.9 (ranged 60-89) years entered the study. The prevalence of AMD was 17.6%. There was a significant association between AMD and smoking (P<0.001) but no association was seen with AMD and age, level of education, history of hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes. Multiple LRAs revealed that smoking increased AMD by odds ratio of 5.03 (95% confidence interval 2.47-10.23 p<0.001) as compared to nonsmokers Conclusion: According to our findings, the prevalence of AMD was relatively high and smoking increased the risk of AMD in the elderly population. PMID:26644880

  5. Sexting prevalence and correlates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David J; Mellor, David J

    2014-02-01

    Despite considerable controversy and speculation regarding sexting behaviour and its associated risks, to date there has been no integration and analysis of empirical literature on this topic. To collect and synthesise findings of the prevalence of sexting, its correlates, and the context in which it occurs, a systematic search of databases was conducted. Thirty-one studies, reporting on sexting prevalence and a diverse range of related variables, met inclusion criteria. The estimated mean prevalence weighted by sample size was calculated, with trends indicating sexting is more prevalent amongst adults than adolescents, older age is predictive of sexting for adolescents but not adults, and more individuals report receiving sexts than sending them. The correlates of sexting behaviour were grouped in terms of demographic variables, sexual and sexual risk behaviours, attitudes towards sexting, perceived outcomes of sexting, motivations for sexting, mental health and well-being variables, and attachment dimensions. Findings are discussed in terms of the trends indicated by the data, which provided substantiation that sexting behaviour is associated with numerous behavioural, psychological, and social factors. Limitations of the current research literature and future directions are also presented. PMID:24370714

  6. Dyspepsia and celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnostic tools and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Petrarca, Laura; Nenna, Raffaella; Mastrogiorgio, Gerarda; Florio, Matteo; Brighi, Manuela; Pontone, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of dyspepsia is up to 40% in population-based study. Functional dyspepsia is an exclusion diagnosis and it is classified as a chronic abdominal pain-related functional disorder, characterized by the presence of persistent or recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen, neither relief by defecation, nor association with the onset of a change in stool frequency or form. Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune enteropathy, with a prevalence around 1% in the general population. Its diagnosis includes a serological screening and an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with multiple biopsies. Gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment. CD diagnosis is often delayed in asymptomatic patients or in individuals with less clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. Several studies performed coeliac disease screening in patients with symptoms suggestive of dyspepsia, showing a biopsy-proved prevalence that ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The typical endoscopic markers of villous atrophy are not sufficiently sensitive, so some endoscopic techniques, such as “water immersion” and confocal endomicroscopy were proposed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and target biopsies. A recent meta-analysis estimated that the prevalence of CD was higher in patients with dyspepsia, but not in a statistically significant way. However this assumption should be confirmed further larger studies. PMID:25332916

  7. Dyspepsia and celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnostic tools and therapy.

    PubMed

    Petrarca, Laura; Nenna, Raffaella; Mastrogiorgio, Gerarda; Florio, Matteo; Brighi, Manuela; Pontone, Stefano

    2014-09-26

    The prevalence of dyspepsia is up to 40% in population-based study. Functional dyspepsia is an exclusion diagnosis and it is classified as a chronic abdominal pain-related functional disorder, characterized by the presence of persistent or recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen, neither relief by defecation, nor association with the onset of a change in stool frequency or form. Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune enteropathy, with a prevalence around 1% in the general population. Its diagnosis includes a serological screening and an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with multiple biopsies. Gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment. CD diagnosis is often delayed in asymptomatic patients or in individuals with less clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. Several studies performed coeliac disease screening in patients with symptoms suggestive of dyspepsia, showing a biopsy-proved prevalence that ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The typical endoscopic markers of villous atrophy are not sufficiently sensitive, so some endoscopic techniques, such as "water immersion" and confocal endomicroscopy were proposed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and target biopsies. A recent meta-analysis estimated that the prevalence of CD was higher in patients with dyspepsia, but not in a statistically significant way. However this assumption should be confirmed further larger studies. PMID:25332916

  8. Prevalence Rates of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a School Sample of Venezuelan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montiel, Cecilia; Pena, Joaquin A.; Montiel-Barbero, Isabel; Polanczyk, Guilherme

    2008-01-01

    A total of 1,535 4-12 year-old children were screened with the Conners' rating scales, followed by diagnostic confirmation by the diagnostic interview schedule for children-IV-parent version. The prevalence of ADHD was estimated to be 10.03%, and only 3.9% of children had received medication for the treatment of ADHD symptoms. Prevalence rates and…

  9. Prevalence and treatment patterns of psoriatic arthritis in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Ogdie, Alexis; Langan, Sinéad; Love, Thorvardur; Haynes, Kevin; Shin, Daniel; Seminara, Nicole; Mehta, Nehal N.; Troxel, Andrea; Choi, Hyon; Gelfand, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of PsA in The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a large population-based medical records database in the UK, to examine factors associated with prevalent PsA among patients with psoriasis and to describe the use of DMARDs in patients with PsA. Methods. Two cohorts were derived from THIN to examine the prevalence of PsA in a cross-sectional study among all patients aged 18–90 years and among a subcohort of 4900 psoriasis patients aged 45–65 years. Prescription codes were used to describe therapies after the diagnosis of PsA. Associations for prevalent PsA among psoriasis patients were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results. Among 4.8 million patients in THIN between the ages of 18 and 90 years, 9045 patients had at least one medical code for PsA, giving an overall prevalence of 0.19% (95% CI 0.19%, 0.19%). Of those patients, 45.9% with PsA have been prescribed DMARDs. Among the 4064 confirmed psoriasis patients, the prevalence of PsA was 8.6% (95% CI 7.7%, 9.5%). PsA was more prevalent among patients with severe psoriasis [odds ratio (OR) 3.34; 95% CI 2.40, 4.65], obesity (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.30, 2.41) and duration of psoriasis for ≥10 years (OR 7.42; 95% CI 3.86, 14.25) in the fully adjusted model. Conclusion. The prevalence of PsA in THIN is consistent with previous population-based estimates. Limitations include a definition of PsA based on a diagnostic code rather than Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) criteria. Given the large population of PsA patients, THIN is an important resource for the study of PsA. PMID:23221331

  10. Prevalence of autism in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is 1% in developed countries, but little data are available from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. This study synthesizes evidence relating to the prevalence of ASC in these areas and assesses the effects of research methodology on prevalence estimates. Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, China Web of Knowledge and Weipu databases, as well as relevant papers published from 1987 to 2011, reporting prevalence estimates of ASC or childhood autism in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Summary estimates of prevalence were calculated with a random effects model. The effects of research methodology on the prevalence estimates were assessed using a meta-regression model. Results There were 25 studies eligible for review, 18 of which were suitable for inclusion in a meta-analysis. Pooled prevalence of childhood autism was 11.8 per 10,000 individuals (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2, 15.3) in mainland China. Pooled prevalence of ASC was 26.6 per 10,000 (95% CI: 18.5, 34.6) in three areas. Substantial heterogeneity was identified between studies (I2>75%). The prevalence estimate of childhood autism was most strongly associated with the choice of screening instrument. After adjustment for age group, the odds ratio for prevalence estimates when using the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) as the screening instrument compared with those using the Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABS) was 0.29 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.69), and 1.79 (95% CI: 0.70, 4.55; P= 0.20) when using the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) compared to the CABS. Conclusions The available studies investigating the prevalence of ASC in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan have focused mainly on childhood autism rather than the whole spectrum. The prevalence estimates are lower than estimates from developed countries. Studies using more recently developed screening instruments reported higher prevalence than older

  11. Prevalence of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS): A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Varun; Alikhan, Ali; Vazquez, Benjamin G.; Weaver, Amy L.; Davis, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a follicular occlusion disorder occurring in apocrine-rich regions of the skin. Estimates of the prevalence of this disorder have not been population-based. We sought to provide population-based information on the prevalence of HS in Olmsted County, Minnesota as of 1/1/2009. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project, a unique infrastructure that combines and makes accessible all medical records in Olmsted County since the 1960s, was used to collect population-based data on the prevalence of HS. RESULTS We identified 178 confirmed cases of HS that included 135 females and 43 males, and estimated the total sex- and age-adjusted prevalence in Olmsted County to be 127.8 per 100,000 or 0.13%. The total prevalence was significantly higher among women than men. CONCLUSION This study represents the first population-based investigation on the prevalence of HS. In this population-based cohort, HS was less prevalent than previous reports have suggested. PMID:25228133

  12. Incident and prevalent cohorts with pulmonary arterial hypertension: insight from SERAPHIN

    PubMed Central

    Channick, Richard N.; Delcroix, Marion; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir; Jansa, Pavel; Le Brun, Franck-Olivier; Mehta, Sanjay; Perchenet, Loic; Pulido, Tomás; Sastry, B.K.S.; Sitbon, Olivier; Souza, Rogério; Torbicki, Adam; Rubin, Lewis J.

    2015-01-01

    In SERAPHIN, a long-term, randomised, controlled trial (NCT00660179) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), macitentan significantly reduced the risk of morbidity/mortality and PAH-related death/hospitalisation. We evaluated disease progression and the effect of macitentan in treatment-naïve incident and prevalent cohorts. Patients allocated to placebo, or macitentan 3 mg or 10 mg were classified by time from diagnosis to enrolment as incident (≤6 months; n=110) or prevalent (>6 months; n=157). The risk of morbidity/mortality and PAH-related death/hospitalisation was determined using Cox regression. The risk of morbidity/mortality (Kaplan–Meier estimates at month 12: 54.4% versus 26.7%; p=0.006) and PAH-related death/hospitalisation (Kaplan–Meier estimates at month 12: 47.3% versus 19.9%; p=0.006) were significantly higher for incident versus prevalent patients receiving placebo, respectively. There was no significant difference in the risk of all-cause death between incident and prevalent cohorts (p=0.587). Macitentan 10 mg significantly reduced the risk of morbidity/mortality and PAH-related death/hospitalisation versus placebo in incident and prevalent cohorts. Incident patients had a higher risk for PAH progression compared with prevalent patients but not a higher risk of death. Macitentan delayed disease progression in both incident and prevalent PAH patients. PMID:26493786

  13. What is the impact of disease prevalence upon health technology assessment?

    PubMed

    Rotily, Michel; Roze, Stéphane

    2013-12-01

    As national budgets for health care will remain under stress for the foreseeable future, health technology assessment (HTA) aimed at offering guidance to policy-making will have an increasing role to play in optimizing resources. The emergence of new treatment paradigms and health technologies, and the prevalence studies which determine when a disease is a current or future burden for patients and the community are in the roots of the HTA process. Analysing studies on screening test strategies and health care policy, this paper revisits two key concepts in epidemiology, prevalence and incidence, in order to show their major impact upon HTA. Utilization of the predictive values of screening tests that include prevalence in their calculations, and analysing all options for screening strategies are necessary in HTA. Cost-effectiveness analyses and statistical models should include potential externalities, especially the impact of prevention and treatment on infectious disease prevalence. Beyond estimates of cost-effectiveness ratios, decision makers also need to know by how much their annual health care budget is likely to increase or decrease in the years following the emergence of new technologies: hence the importance of incidence- or prevalence-based economic evaluations. As new paradigms are occurring, especially in the field of oncology, with treatments targeted to 'small' groups of patients identified through genetic testing, prevalence data are strongly needed. Precise estimates of disease prevalence, in general populations as well as in risk or targeted groups, will therefore be necessary to improve HTA process. PMID:24182606

  14. Global Prevalence of Small for Gestational Age Births.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction is found both in babies who are preterm or full-term, and in either case has important adverse effects on subsequent survival, health, growth and development. Fetal growth restriction is usually assessed by comparing the weight of the newborn with the expected weight for the child's gestational age using less than the 10th centile of a reference population for fetal growth as the threshold for being called small for gestational age (SGA). We estimate that in 2010 32.4 million babies were born SGA in low- and middle-income countries, constituting 27% of all live births. The estimated prevalence of SGA is highest in South Asia and in Sahelian countries of Africa. India has the world's largest number of SGA births, 12.8 million in 2010, due to the large number of births and the high proportion, 46.9%, of births that are SGA. The prevalence of SGA births is approximately double the prevalence of low-birthweight births (using the common indicator of <2,500 g birthweight) globally and in the world's regions. Thus, given the adverse effects of being born SGA, even weighing 2,500 g or more, it is important that maternal, neonatal and child health programs seek and use information on gestational age as well as birthweight to appropriately assess the newborn's risks and direct care. PMID:26111558

  15. Assessment of prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Korner, P I; Jennings, G L

    1998-06-01

    The reported prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in human hypertension is much lower than that among animals with experimental hypertension. With current methods of determining left ventricular mass by M-mode echocardiography, the standard error of a single estimate is high and consequently so is the SD of the population distribution. This accounts for the large overlap in individual values of left ventricular mass index (LVMI) between hypertensive and normotensive groups. The high SD is due to the use of the cube algorithm for relating measurements made in a single plane to the whole left ventricle, and to the difference between actual and assumed left ventricular geometries. These are not problems with nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, which provides information about the entire left ventricle without assumptions about geometry. M-mode echocardiography is well suited for estimating differences between mean LVMI values for groups of subjects but it underestimates the prevalence of LVH. In most series only about 30% of hypertensives have been reported to have LVH. The estimated prevalence of structural remodelling is increased to 50-60% of the same group of subjects when 'low-SD' measurements such as wall thickness and the wall thickness: internal radius ratio are employed. The estimated prevalence of LVH and remodelling is still greater with multivariate discriminant function analysis, with which it is found in about 70% of hypertensives. Overall, the data suggest that prevalence of LVH in established hypertension is high. The 30% of subjects reported to have LVH on the basis of LVMI measurements that are beyond the limits of the control group probably have the most severe changes. The inability to detect lesser grades of left ventricular remodelling reliably is due to the way LVMI is derived by echocardiography, rather than to intrinsic inaccuracies. It suggests that existing approaches should be supplemented by greater use of 'low-SD' variables

  16. Lifetime Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Two American Indian Reservation Populations

    PubMed Central

    Beals, Janette; Manson, Spero M.; Croy, Calvin; Klein, Suzell A.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been found to be more common among American Indian populations than among other Americans. A complex diagnosis, the assessment methods for PTSD have varied across epidemiological studies, especially in terms of the trauma criteria. Here, we examined data from the American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP) to estimate the lifetime prevalence of PTSD in two culturally distinct American Indian reservation communities, using two formulas for calculating PTSD prevalence. The AI-SUPERPFP was a cross-sectional probability sample survey conducted between 1997 and 2000. Southwest (n = 1,446) and Northern Plains (n = 1,638) tribal members living on or near their reservations, aged 15–57 years at time of interview, were randomly sampled from tribal rolls. PTSD estimates were derived based on both the single worst and 3 worst traumas. Prevalence estimates varied by ascertainment method: single worst trauma (lifetime: 5.9% to 14.8%) versus 3 worst traumas (lifetime, 8.9% to 19.5%). Use of the 3-worst-event approach increased prevalence by 28.3% over the single-event method. PTSD was prevalent in these tribal communities. These results also serve to underscore the need to better understand the implications for PTSD prevalence with the current focus on a single worst event. PMID:23900893

  17. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in rural Mapuche population from Chile.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Carrasco, E; Santos, J L; Calvillán, M; Larenas, G; Albala, C

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and obesity in the Mapuche natives from rural areas in Chile. This cross-sectional study involved men (n = 95) and women (n = 224) older than 20 y from an aboriginal ethnic group (Mapuches), residing in rural communities from the south of Chile. Prevalence of Type 2 diabetes and IGT was calculated according to the World Health Organization criteria. Data on age, degree of ancestral purity, obesity, and hypertension were also obtained. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in rural Mapuche natives was estimated as 3.2% (95% CI: 0.7--9.0) in men and 4.5% (95% CI: 2.2--8.1) in women. The overall prevalence of obesity was 56.1% (95% CI: 50.5--61.6): 40.0% (95% CI: 30.1--40.8) in men and 62.9% (95% CI: 56.3--69.3) in women (P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the prevalence of obesity and Type 2 diabetes has been increasing during recent years in the Mapuche communities. The prevalence estimated in this study is higher than that reported 15 y ago. This suggests an important role of lifestyle changes as a possible explanation for epidemiologic transition. PMID:11312066

  18. A meta-analysis of child physical abuse prevalence in China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kai; Finkelhor, David

    2015-05-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of child physical abuse in China, compared Chinese prevalence with international and Asian estimates, and ascertained whether some differences in sample characteristics and methodological factors (e.g., time prevalence, definitional or regional difference) help explain variations in Chinese rates. Based on a meta-analysis of 47 studies found in English- and Chinese-language peer-reviewed journals that involved general populations of students or residents reporting child physical abuse prior to age 18, the life time prevalence of any child physical abuse in China was estimated at 36.6% (95% CI: 30.4-42.7), which was significantly higher than either the international or the Asian estimate in Stoltenborgh et al.'s (2013) study. Chinese prevalence was estimated at 43.1% (95% CI: 36.6-52.5) for minor physical abuse, 26.6% (95% CI: 21.4-31.8) for severe physical abuse, and 7.8% (95% CI: 5.0-10.5) for very severe physical abuse. Subgroup analysis found a significant difference between lifetime and 12-month or less prevalence only for minor physical abuse. The prevalence of any and minor child physical abuse in mainland China was significantly higher than that in non-mainland China. The mainland and non-mainland difference was significant even controlling for definitional and methodological factors as well as sample characteristics. The findings suggested the need to develop educational programs to promote non-violent parenting particularly in mainland China. PMID:25498804

  19. Prevalence of Hidden Gastroparesis in the Community: The Gastroparesis "Iceberg"

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Enrique; Choung, Rok Seon; Schleck, Cathy D; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Talley, Nicholas J

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims The prevalence of diagnosed gastroparesis is 24.2/100,000 inhabitants, but a large group of people with gastroparesis-like symptoms have never had a gastric emptying (GE) test. Some of them may have undiagnosed gastroparesis. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of hidden gastroparesis in the community. Methods The study was conducted in 2 parts: (1) Patients referred for a scintigraphic GE test completed a validated questionnaire (Bowel Disease Questionnaire). Multiple linear regression models to predict 2 hours and 4 hours GE rates were developed. (2) A revised Bowel Disease Questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 4,194 Olmsted County residents. GE rates were estimated with the models for each subject and delayed GE was considered when they were lower than normal values. Hidden gastroparesis was defined in community subjects with predicted delayed GE that had not been diagnosed with gastroparesis prior to the survey. Results The regression models for GE rates were constructed using data from 450 patients. In addition to age and gender, the symptoms found significant were nausea/vomiting, early satiety, upper abdominal pain, bloating, loss of appetite and weight loss more than 7 pounds. 2,298 (55%) community subjects returned a questionnaire. Five subjects were excluded due to a prior diagnosis of gastroparesis. When models were applied to the community survey data, 42 (1.8%) subjects were estimated to have delayed GE. Conclusions Delayed GE was estimated to occur in 1.8% of community subjects. Since the prevalence of diagnosed gastroparesis is low (0.02%), many subjects with gastroparesis may remain undiagnosed. PMID:22323986

  20. The prevalence of pain at pressure areas and pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with pressure ulcers (PUs) report that pain is their most distressing symptom, but there are few PU pain prevalence studies. We sought to estimate the prevalence of unattributed pressure area related pain (UPAR pain) which was defined as pain, soreness or discomfort reported by patients, on an “at risk” or PU skin site, reported at a patient level. Methods We undertook pain prevalence surveys in 2 large UK teaching hospital NHS Trusts (6 hospitals) and a district general hospital NHS Trust (3 hospitals) during their routine annual PU prevalence audits. The hospitals provide secondary and tertiary care beds in acute and elective surgery, trauma and orthopaedics, burns, medicine, elderly medicine, oncology and rehabilitation. Anonymised individual patient data were recorded by the ward nurse and PU prevalence team. The analysis of this prevalence survey included data summaries; no inferential statistical testing was planned or undertaken. Percentages were calculated using the total number of patients from the relevant population as the denominator (i.e. including all patients with missing data for that variable). Results A total of 3,397 patients in 9 acute hospitals were included in routine PU prevalence audits and, of these, 2010 (59.2%) patients participated in the pain prevalence study. UPAR pain prevalence was 16.3% (327/2010). 1769 patients had no PUs and of these 223 patients reported UPAR pain, a prevalence of 12.6%. Of the 241 people with pressure ulcers, 104 patients reported pain, a UPAR pain prevalence of 43.2% (104/241). Conclusion One in six people in acute hospitals experience UPAR pain on ‘at risk’ or PU skin sites; one in every 8 people without PUs and, more than 2 out of every five people with PUs. The results provide a clear indication that all patients should be asked if they have pain at pressure areas even when they do not have a PU. PMID:23902583

  1. Meta-analysis of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in mainland China from 2000 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaojing; Meng, Zhen; Huang, Guifeng; Fan, Jingyuan; Zhou, Wenwen; Ling, Weijun; Jiang, Juan; Long, Jianxiong; Su, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although anxiety disorders (ADs) have been recognized as one of the most prevalent mental disorders in mainland China, the prevalence of ADs has not been reported until now. The lack of a consolidated and comparable review on the prevalence of ADs in mainland China necessitated this meta-analysis to measure the prevalence. To identify the relevant studies on ADs for the analysis, we searched published studies in electronic databases up to July 2015. The pooled prevalence in the overall population and the prevalences by gender and location were estimated. A total of 21 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled current/lifetime prevalences of ADs, generalized AD, non-specific AD, panic disorder, social phobia, agoraphobia, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder were 24.47‰/41.12‰, 5.17‰/4.66‰, 8.30‰/6.89‰, 1.08‰/3.44‰, 0.70‰/4.11‰, 0.19‰/2.15‰, 0.63‰/19.61‰, 0.49‰/1.83‰, and 0.90‰/3.17‰, respectively. Subgroup analyses indicated that compared with males, females had a consistently significantly higher prevalence of ADs. However, no difference was observed between those in urban and rural areas. The pooled prevalence of ADs was relatively lower than those of some other countries. A higher prevalence of ADs in women than in men was commonly observed, whereas the prevalences in urban and rural areas were nearly the same. PMID:27306280

  2. Meta-analysis of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in mainland China from 2000 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaojing; Meng, Zhen; Huang, Guifeng; Fan, Jingyuan; Zhou, Wenwen; Ling, Weijun; Jiang, Juan; Long, Jianxiong; Su, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although anxiety disorders (ADs) have been recognized as one of the most prevalent mental disorders in mainland China, the prevalence of ADs has not been reported until now. The lack of a consolidated and comparable review on the prevalence of ADs in mainland China necessitated this meta-analysis to measure the prevalence. To identify the relevant studies on ADs for the analysis, we searched published studies in electronic databases up to July 2015. The pooled prevalence in the overall population and the prevalences by gender and location were estimated. A total of 21 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled current/lifetime prevalences of ADs, generalized AD, non-specific AD, panic disorder, social phobia, agoraphobia, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder were 24.47‰/41.12‰, 5.17‰/4.66‰, 8.30‰/6.89‰, 1.08‰/3.44‰, 0.70‰/4.11‰, 0.19‰/2.15‰, 0.63‰/19.61‰, 0.49‰/1.83‰, and 0.90‰/3.17‰, respectively. Subgroup analyses indicated that compared with males, females had a consistently significantly higher prevalence of ADs. However, no difference was observed between those in urban and rural areas. The pooled prevalence of ADs was relatively lower than those of some other countries. A higher prevalence of ADs in women than in men was commonly observed, whereas the prevalences in urban and rural areas were nearly the same. PMID:27306280

  3. The High Prevalence of Diabetes in a Large Cohort of Patients Drawn From Safety Net Clinics

    PubMed Central

    McBurnie, MaryAnn; Paul, Ludmilla; Potter, Jennifer E.; McCann, Sheila; Mayer, Kenneth; Melgar, Gerardo; D’Amato, Sele; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Underserved populations have been overlooked or underrepresented in research based on data from diabetes registries. We estimated diabetes prevalence using a cohort developed from the electronic health records of 3 networks of safety net clinics that provide care to underserved populations. Methods ADVANCE (Accelerating Data Value Across a National Community Health Center Network) is a partnership of the OCHIN Community Health Information Network (OCHIN), the Health Choice Network (HCN), and the Fenway Health Institute (FHI), representing 97 federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) and 744 clinic sites in 22 US states. Among 952,316 adults with a body mass index (BMI) measurement and at least 2 outpatient visits in 2012 to 2014, we calculated diabetes prevalence using outpatient diagnoses, diagnostic laboratory results, or dispenses of anti-hyperglycemic agents no more than 730 days apart. We calculated prevalence by age, sex, race, Hispanic ethnicity, and BMI class. Results The crude prevalence of diabetes was 14.4%. Men had a higher prevalence than women (16.5% vs 13.2%); diabetes prevalence increased across age categories. White patients had the lowest prevalence (11.4%) and Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, the highest prevalence (21.9%), with prevalence ranging from 15.2% to 16.5% for other race/ethnicities. The association between BMI class and diabetes prevalence was similar across all racial/ethnic groups. Conclusion The ADVANCE diabetes cohort offers an opportunity to conduct epidemiologic and comparative effectiveness research on underserved and underrepresented individuals, who have a higher prevalence of diabetes than the general US population. PMID:27309415

  4. Prevalence of Toxoplasma Infection in Mexican Newborns and Children: A Systematic Review from 1954 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Galvan-Ramírez, Ma. de la Luz; Troyo-Sanroman, Rogelio; Roman, Sonia; Bernal-Redondo, Rosamaría; Vázquez Castellanos, José Luís

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Recent studies in Mexico have shown that from 20/10,000 to 58/10,000 newborns with Toxoplasma infection could be undetected. The aim of this study was to determine the weighed prevalence of T. gondii infection and describe the epidemiological transition of infection in newborns. Methods. Research literature reporting Toxoplasma infection prevalence in Mexican newborns and children were searched in five international databases. Weighted prevalence was calculated by inverse variance-weighted method in asymptomatic and symptomatic study groups, and the epidemiological transition was estimated by a lineal regression analysis. Results. The weighed prevalence in 4833 asymptomatic newborns was 0.616%, CI95% (0.396%–0.835%) (P < 0.001), whereas, among 895 symptomatic newborns, the weighed prevalence was 3.02%, CI 95% (1.91%–4.1%) (P < 0.001). A downward trend of 0.25%/year represented an accumulated decrease of −13,75% in the prevalence in the symptomatic newborns throughout 55 years, whereas, in the asymptomatic children, the prevalence was similar over the course of the years. Conclusion. The high-weighted prevalence of congenital Toxoplasma infection in newborns justifies that Toxoplasma gondii testing be included in the screening programs for women during pregnancy and newborns in Mexico. A rapid diagnosis and treatment strategy could aid in limiting a potential damage to the newborns. PMID:23050161

  5. Prevalence of atopic dermatitis in Korea: analysis by using national statistics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jung-Seok; Lee, Chang-Jong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin; Ahn, Kangmo; Lee, Sang-Il

    2012-06-01

    We attempted to investigate the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Korea by using national statistics. Data on AD patients who received medical service at least once a year from 2003 through 2008 were collected from health insurance research team of National Health Insurance Corporation. Data of estimated populations during the same period were obtained from the Statistics Korea. In 2008, the prevalence of AD was 26.5% in aged 12-23 months and decreased substantially to 7.6% at age 6 yr, 3.4% at age 12 yr and to 2.4% at age 18 yr. In males, the prevalence was higher than females until 2 yr of age, while the opposite was shown in children aged 2 yr or older. In children aged less than 24 months, the prevalence of AD has increased from 19.8% to 23.8% between the years 2003 and 2008, while the prevalence showed no increase in the older age group. In conclusion, the prevalence of AD in 2008 peaked during infancy up to 26.5% and decreased thereafter. Our findings also suggest that increasing prevalence of AD in children less than 24 months might be responsible for the recent increase in the prevalence of AD in Korean children. PMID:22690101

  6. Celiac disease: prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Naiyana; Freeman, Hugh J; Thomson, Alan B R

    2012-11-14

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common diseases, resulting from both environmental (gluten) and genetic factors [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes]. The prevalence of CD has been estimated to approximate 0.5%-1% in different parts of the world. However, the population with diabetes, autoimmune disorder or relatives of CD individuals have even higher risk for the development of CD, at least in part, because of shared HLA typing. Gliadin gains access to the basal surface of the epithelium, and interact directly with the immune system, via both trans- and para-cellular routes. From a diagnostic perspective, symptoms may be viewed as either "typical" or "atypical". In both positive serological screening results suggestive of CD, should lead to small bowel biopsy followed by a favourable clinical and serological response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) to confirm the diagnosis. Positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody or anti-endomysial antibody during the clinical course helps to confirm the diagnosis of CD because of their over 99% specificities when small bowel villous atrophy is present on biopsy. Currently, the only treatment available for CD individuals is a strict life-long GFD. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CD allows alternative future CD treatments to hydrolyse toxic gliadin peptide, prevent toxic gliadin peptide absorption, blockage of selective deamidation of specific glutamine residues by tissue, restore immune tolerance towards gluten, modulation of immune response to dietary gliadin, and restoration of intestinal architecture. PMID:23155333

  7. Celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gujral, Naiyana; Freeman, Hugh J; Thomson, Alan BR

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common diseases, resulting from both environmental (gluten) and genetic factors [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes]. The prevalence of CD has been estimated to approximate 0.5%-1% in different parts of the world. However, the population with diabetes, autoimmune disorder or relatives of CD individuals have even higher risk for the development of CD, at least in part, because of shared HLA typing. Gliadin gains access to the basal surface of the epithelium, and interact directly with the immune system, via both trans- and para-cellular routes. From a diagnostic perspective, symptoms may be viewed as either “typical” or “atypical”. In both positive serological screening results suggestive of CD, should lead to small bowel biopsy followed by a favourable clinical and serological response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) to confirm the diagnosis. Positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody or anti-endomysial antibody during the clinical course helps to confirm the diagnosis of CD because of their over 99% specificities when small bowel villous atrophy is present on biopsy. Currently, the only treatment available for CD individuals is a strict life-long GFD. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CD allows alternative future CD treatments to hydrolyse toxic gliadin peptide, prevent toxic gliadin peptide absorption, blockage of selective deamidation of specific glutamine residues by tissue, restore immune tolerance towards gluten, modulation of immune response to dietary gliadin, and restoration of intestinal architecture. PMID:23155333

  8. Insights into the Prevalence of Software Project Defects

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-Cendón, Javier; Castejón Limas, Manuel; Ordieres Meré, Joaquín B.; Pavón, Juan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of the effort distribution along the software development lifecycle on the prevalence of software defects. This analysis is based on data that was collected by the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group (ISBSG) on the development of 4,106 software projects. Data mining techniques have been applied to gain a better understanding of the behaviour of the project activities and to identify a link between the effort distribution and the prevalence of software defects. This analysis has been complemented with the use of a hierarchical clustering algorithm with a dissimilarity based on the likelihood ratio statistic, for exploratory purposes. As a result, different behaviours have been identified for this collection of software development projects, allowing for the definition of risk control strategies to diminish the number and impact of the software defects. It is expected that the use of similar estimations might greatly improve the awareness of project managers on the risks at hand. PMID:25276846

  9. The prevalence of sexual abuse among adolescents in school.

    PubMed

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Pettingell, Sandra; Magee, Lara L

    2003-10-01

    Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77374; 1998: N = 81247). Findings indicate that sexual abuse was reported by both boys and girls and among students of all ethnic groups. Approximately 10% of adolescents reported sexual abuse in each cohort, with girls 5 times more likely to report abuse than boys. Ethnic variation was minor, with African American, Native American, and Hispanic teens slightly more likely to report abuse than White or Asian American youth. School nurses should routinely assess for a history of sexual abuse in adolescents and should be prepared to provide support and referral for abused students and their families. PMID:14498771

  10. Incidence and prevalence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in an HMO of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Mariela; Vicens, Jimena; Giunta, Diego Hernán; Rugiero, Marcelo; Cristiano, Edgardo

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) ranges from 1.7 to 2.3 per 100,000 persons worldwide. Few epidemiological studies have been published in Latin America. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of ALS in an HMO (Health Maintenance Organization) of Buenos Aires, capital city of Argentina. The population studied was affiliates of the Italian Hospital Medical Care Program, whose distribution across age and gender strata is similar to the population of Buenos Aires. Cases were detected from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2010. Incidence density (ID) and prevalence for ALS were estimated for the whole period and at 31 December 2010, respectively. During the seven-year study period, the crude ID estimated was 3.17 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 2.24-4.48) and the age-adjusted ID for the Buenos Aires population was 2.23 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.45-3.01). Point prevalence at 31 December 2010 was 8.86 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 4.05-13.68). Mean age at diagnosis was 72.29 years (SD 8.5). In conclusion, estimated age-adjusted ID and prevalence of ALS were similar to the incidence and prevalence rates found in other geographical areas. PMID:23834086

  11. Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of congenital cataract: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohang; Long, Erping; Lin, Haotian; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract (CC) is the primary cause of treatable childhood blindness worldwide. The establishment of reliable, epidemiological estimates is an essential first step towards management strategies. We undertook an initial systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence and other epidemiological characteristics of CC. PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched before January 2015. A meta-analysis with random-effects model based on a proportions approach was performed to determine the population-based prevalence of CC and to describe the data regarding the laterality, morphology, associated comorbidities and etiology. Heterogeneity was analyzed using the meta-regression method, and subgroup analyses were performed. 27 studies were selected from 2,610 references. The pooled prevalence estimate was 4.24 per 10,000 people, making it a rare disease based on WHO standards. Subgroup analyses revealed the highest CC prevalence in Asia, and an increasing prevalence trend through 2000. Other epidemiological characteristics showed CC tended to be bilateral, isolated, hereditary and in total/nuclear morphology. Huge heterogeneity was identified across most estimates (I(2) > 75%). Most of the variations could be explained by sample size, research period and age at diagnosis. The findings provide suggestions for etiology of CC, improvements in screening techniques and development of public health strategies. PMID:27334676

  12. Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of congenital cataract: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaohang; Long, Erping; Lin, Haotian; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract (CC) is the primary cause of treatable childhood blindness worldwide. The establishment of reliable, epidemiological estimates is an essential first step towards management strategies. We undertook an initial systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence and other epidemiological characteristics of CC. PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched before January 2015. A meta-analysis with random-effects model based on a proportions approach was performed to determine the population-based prevalence of CC and to describe the data regarding the laterality, morphology, associated comorbidities and etiology. Heterogeneity was analyzed using the meta-regression method, and subgroup analyses were performed. 27 studies were selected from 2,610 references. The pooled prevalence estimate was 4.24 per 10,000 people, making it a rare disease based on WHO standards. Subgroup analyses revealed the highest CC prevalence in Asia, and an increasing prevalence trend through 2000. Other epidemiological characteristics showed CC tended to be bilateral, isolated, hereditary and in total/nuclear morphology. Huge heterogeneity was identified across most estimates (I2 > 75%). Most of the variations could be explained by sample size, research period and age at diagnosis. The findings provide suggestions for etiology of CC, improvements in screening techniques and development of public health strategies. PMID:27334676

  13. The Prevalence of Headache Among Athletic University Students

    PubMed Central

    Jahani, Pegah; Salesi, Mohsen; Marzban, Maral; Abdollahifard, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Headache is certainly one of the most common medical complaints of general population and one of the important causes of consumption of drugs. Despite its high overall prevalence, the epidemiology of exertional headache is not clear enough. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of headache in athletic and non-athletic university students and also estimating its variation between different sports fields including concussion prone sports. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 739 subjects (367 athletes and 372 non-athletes). The present study was carried out on athletic and non-athletic university students aging between 18 to 28 years. An athlete was defined as a person who had at least one year of experience in sports including football, volleyball, basketball, wrestling, boxing, martial arts, track and field, chess, handball and swimming for three sessions a week each lasting at least 2 hours. The random selection of these participants was done by an independent statistical consultant. A questionnaire was used for data collection which was then analyzed by statistical methods. Results: Our study comprised 739 subjects (367 athletes and 372 non-athletes). Among athletic university students, 152 (41.2%) participants complained of headache. Such a complaint was present in 217 (58.3%) non-athletic university students. This lower prevalence of headache in athletes was statistically significant (P value < 0.001). Among ten different sports fields, the prevalence of headache among wrestlers was significantly higher than others (P value < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of headache is seemingly lower in athletic university students than non-athletic ones. In addition, among athletes, those who are participating in concussion prone sports especially wrestling experience headache more than athletes of other fields. PMID:27231525

  14. Cataract and Cataract Surgery: Nationwide Prevalence and Clinical Determinants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical determinants of cataract and cataract surgery in Korean population. The 2008–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed, which included 20,419 participants aged ≥ 40 years. The survey is a multistage, probability-cluster survey, which can produce nationally representative estimates. Prevalence of cataract and cataract surgery was estimated. Clinical determinants for those were investigated using logistic regression analyses (LRAs). The prevalence of cataract was 42.28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.67–43.89); 40.82% (95% CI, 38.97–42.66) for men and 43.62% (95% CI, 41.91–45.33) for women (P = 0.606). The prevalence of cataract surgery was 7.75% (95% CI, 7.30–8.20); 6.38% (95% CI, 5.80–6.96) for men and 9.01% (95% CI, 8.41–9.61) for women (P < 0.001). Cataract was associated with older age (P < 0.001), men (P = 0.032), lower household income (P = 0.031), lower education (P < 0.001), hypertension (P < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (P < 0.001). Cataract surgery was consistently associated with older age, occupation, DM, asthma, and anemia in two LRAs, which compared participants with cataract surgery to those without cataract surgery and those having a cataract but without any cataract surgery, respectively. Hypertension, arthritis, and dyslipidemia were associated with cataract surgery at least in one of these LRAs. These results suggest that there are 9.4 million individuals with cataract and 1.7 million individuals with cataract surgery in Korea. Further studies are warranted to reveal the causality and its possible mechanism of developing/exacerbating cataract in novel determinants (i.e., anemia, asthma, and arthritic conditions) as well as well-known determinants. PMID:27247507

  15. Nationwide HIV prevalence survey in general population in Niger.

    PubMed

    Boisier, P; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, O N; Amadou Hamidou, A; Sidikou, F; Ibrahim, M L; Elhaj Mahamane, A; Mamadou, S; Sanda Aksenenkova, T; Hama Modibo, B; Chanteau, S; Sani, A; Louboutin-Croc, J-P

    2004-11-01

    A national population-based survey was carried out in Niger in 2002 to assess HIV prevalence in the population aged 15-49 years. A two-stage cluster sampling was used and the blood specimens were collected on filter paper and tested according to an algorithm involving up to three diagnostic tests whenever appropriate. Testing was unlinked and anonymous. The refusal rate was 1.1% and 6056 blood samples were available for analysis. The adjusted prevalence of HIV was 0.87% (95% CI, 0.5-1.3%) and the 95% CI of the estimated number of infected individuals was 22 864-59 640. HIV-1 and HIV-2 represented, respectively, 95.6% and 2.9% of infections while dual infections represented 1.5%. HIV positivity rate was 1.0% in women and 0.7% in men. It was significantly higher among urban populations than among rural ones (respectively, 2.1% and 0.6%, P < 10(-6)). Using logistic regression, the variables significantly related to the risk of being tested positive for HIV were urban housing, increasing age and being either widowed or divorced. The estimate from the national survey was lower than the prevalence assessed from antenatal clinic data (2.8% in 2001). In the future, the representativeness of sentinel sites should be improved by increasing the representation of rural areas accounting for more than 80% of the population. Compared with other sub-Saharan countries, the HIV prevalence in Niger is still moderate. This situation represents a strong argument for enhancing prevention programmes and makes realistic the projects promoting an access to potent antiretroviral therapies for the majority. PMID:15548311

  16. Cataract and Cataract Surgery: Nationwide Prevalence and Clinical Determinants.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Ju Hyun; Kang, Se Woong; Hyon, Joon Young; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical determinants of cataract and cataract surgery in Korean population. The 2008-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed, which included 20,419 participants aged ≥ 40 years. The survey is a multistage, probability-cluster survey, which can produce nationally representative estimates. Prevalence of cataract and cataract surgery was estimated. Clinical determinants for those were investigated using logistic regression analyses (LRAs). The prevalence of cataract was 42.28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.67-43.89); 40.82% (95% CI, 38.97-42.66) for men and 43.62% (95% CI, 41.91-45.33) for women (P = 0.606). The prevalence of cataract surgery was 7.75% (95% CI, 7.30-8.20); 6.38% (95% CI, 5.80-6.96) for men and 9.01% (95% CI, 8.41-9.61) for women (P < 0.001). Cataract was associated with older age (P < 0.001), men (P = 0.032), lower household income (P = 0.031), lower education (P < 0.001), hypertension (P < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (P < 0.001). Cataract surgery was consistently associated with older age, occupation, DM, asthma, and anemia in two LRAs, which compared participants with cataract surgery to those without cataract surgery and those having a cataract but without any cataract surgery, respectively. Hypertension, arthritis, and dyslipidemia were associated with cataract surgery at least in one of these LRAs. These results suggest that there are 9.4 million individuals with cataract and 1.7 million individuals with cataract surgery in Korea. Further studies are warranted to reveal the causality and its possible mechanism of developing/exacerbating cataract in novel determinants (i.e., anemia, asthma, and arthritic conditions) as well as well-known determinants. PMID:27247507

  17. Microbial prevalence in domestic humidifiers.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Solomon, W R; Boise, J R

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of viable thermophilic bacteria and actinomycetes and mesophilic fungi was examined in 145 samples from 110 domestic humidifiers. A total of 72 and 43% of furnace and console humidifier samples, respectively, contained viable thermophilic bacteria, whereas 60 and 72% of these samples produced mesophilic fungal growth. Thermophilic actinomycetes were recovered from seven humidifier samples. Efforts to detect thermophilic actinomycete antigens in 15 humidifier fluid samples were not successful. Antifoulants added to humidifier fluid reservoirs had no apparent effect on microbial frequency. Airborne microbial recoveries did not reflect patterns of humidifier contamination with respect to either kinds or numbers of microorganisms in 20 homes in which volumetric air samples were obtained during humidifier operation. PMID:7377779

  18. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Adults in a North Indian District

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Ashutosh N.; Gupta, Dheeraj; Agarwal, Ritesh; Sethi, Sunil; Thakur, Jarnail S.; Anjinappa, Sharada M.; Chadha, Vineet K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Meera; Behera, Digambar; Jindal, Surinder K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent population prevalence estimates of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are not available for several areas in India. We conducted a field-based population survey at a north Indian district to estimate point prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB. Methods A stratified cluster sampling design was used to conduct the survey in both urban and rural areas within the district. All adults aged more than 15 years, in 18 rural and 12 urban clusters of 3000 subjects each, were interviewed using a symptom card. Two sputum samples were collected from all persons having symptoms suggestive of PTB, or history of antitubercular treatment, for smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli and mycobacterial culture. Those having at least one sputum specimen positive on microscopy and/or culture were categorized as having PTB. Prevalence was estimated after adjusting for cluster sampling and incomplete data (through individual level analysis with robust standard error). Results Of 91,030 eligible adult participants (47,714 men and 43,316 women), 85,770 (94.2%) completed the symptom cards. Of them, 2,898 persons were considered eligible for sputum examination and 2,839 (98.0%) provided at least one sample. Overall, 21 persons had bacteriologically positive PTB, and cluster level prevalence was estimated at 24.5 per 100,000 population (95% CI 12.8–36.2). Individual level analysis with robust standard error yielded a prevalence estimate of 24.1 per 100,000 populations (95% CI 12.8–35.4). Conclusion The observed prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB in this district is lower than empiric national estimates, probably as a result of successful implementation of tuberculosis control measures in the area. PMID:25695761

  19. Survivors of Childhood Cancer in the United States: Prevalence and Burden of Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Siobhan M.; Padgett, Lynne S.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Stratton, Kayla K.; Bishop, Ken; Krull, Kevin R.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Gibson, Todd M.; de Moor, Janet S.; Hartigan, Danielle Blanch; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Rowland, Julia H.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Mariotto, Angela B.

    2015-01-01

    Background No studies have estimated the population-level burden of morbidity in individuals diagnosed with cancer as children (ages 0-19 years). We updated prevalence estimates of childhood cancer survivors as of 2011 and burden of morbidity in this population reflected by chronic conditions, neurocognitive dysfunction, compromised health-related quality of life and health status (general health, mental health, functional impairment, functional limitations, pain and fear/anxiety). Methods Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program data from 1975 to 2011 were used to update the prevalence of survivors of childhood cancers in the US. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study data were used to obtain estimates of morbidity burden indicators which were then extrapolated to SEER data to obtain population-level estimates. Results There were an estimated 388,501 survivors of childhood cancer in the US as of January 1, 2011, of whom 83.5% are ≥5 years post-diagnosis. The prevalence of any chronic condition among ≥5-year survivors ranged from 66% (ages 5-19) to 88% (ages 40-49). Estimates for specific morbidities ranged from 12% (pain) to 35% (neurocognitive dysfunction). Generally, morbidities increased by age. However, mental health and anxiety remained fairly stable and neurocognitive dysfunction exhibited initial decline and then remained stable by time since diagnosis. Conclusions The estimated prevalence of survivors of childhood cancer is increasing, as is the estimated prevalence of morbidity in those ≥5 years post-diagnosis. Impact Efforts to understand how to effectively decrease morbidity burden and incorporate effective care coordination and rehabilitation models to optimize longevity and well-being in this population should be a priority. PMID:25834148

  20. Accuracy and Importance of Projections From a Dynamic Simulation Model of Smoking Prevalence in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, David

    2012-01-01

    We compared projections from a dynamic model of US adult smoking prevalence with official estimates of prevalence from the National Health Interview Survey. Ten years after they were made, the model projections closely fit the National Health Interview Survey estimates for 2005 and 2010. We conclude that a verified model of adult smoking prevalence can assist governmental authorities in establishing aspirational but feasible targets for tobacco control. By extension, carefully crafted models can help in goal setting in multiple areas of public health. PMID:22994165

  1. Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease – A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fatoba, Samuel T.; Oke, Jason L.; Hirst, Jennifer A.; O’Callaghan, Christopher A.; Lasserson, Daniel S.; Hobbs, F. D. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden with a high economic cost to health systems and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). All stages of CKD are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity, premature mortality, and/or decreased quality of life. CKD is usually asymptomatic until later stages and accurate prevalence data are lacking. Thus we sought to determine the prevalence of CKD globally, by stage, geographical location, gender and age. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies estimating CKD prevalence in general populations was conducted through literature searches in 8 databases. We assessed pooled data using a random effects model. Of 5,842 potential articles, 100 studies of diverse quality were included, comprising 6,908,440 patients. Global mean(95%CI) CKD prevalence of 5 stages 13·4%(11·7–15·1%), and stages 3–5 was 10·6%(9·2–12·2%). Weighting by study quality did not affect prevalence estimates. CKD prevalence by stage was Stage-1 (eGFR>90+ACR>30): 3·5% (2·8–4·2%); Stage-2 (eGFR 60–89+ACR>30): 3·9% (2·7–5·3%); Stage-3 (eGFR 30–59): 7·6% (6·4–8·9%); Stage-4 = (eGFR 29–15): 0·4% (0·3–0·5%); and Stage-5 (eGFR<15): 0·1% (0·1–0·1%). CKD has a high global prevalence with a consistent estimated global CKD prevalence of between 11 to 13% with the majority stage 3. Future research should evaluate intervention strategies deliverable at scale to delay the progression of CKD and improve CVD outcomes. PMID:27383068

  2. Prevalence of Depression among Chinese University Students: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xian-Yang; Xiao, La-Mei; Liu, Ya-Nan; Li, Ya-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression is a major mental health issue worldwide, and university students with heavy burdens of study are at a high risk for depression. While a number of studies have been conducted regarding depression among university students in China, there is a lack of information regarding the national prevalence of depression among Chinese university students. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to statistically pool the prevalence of depression among Chinese university students. Methods A systematic search of scientific databases was conducted, including Chinese Web of Knowledge, Embase, PubMed, Wanfang (a Chinese database) and Weipu (a Chinese database) to find relevant publications published between 1995 and December 2015. This was supplemented by a secondary review of the reference lists of all retrieved papers to find additional relevant citations. Studies published in either English or Chinese that provided prevalence estimates of depression in Chinese university students were considered. Prevalence estimates of each eligible study were extracted and pooled in our meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Results A total of 39 studies conducted between 1997 and 2015 including 32,694 university students were analyzed. Our results indicate that the overall prevalence of depression among Chinese university students is 23.8% (95% CI: 19.9%–28.5%). Substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates was noted. Subgroup analysis revealed that the prevalence of depression among medical students is higher than among other students. Conclusions Overall, the prevalence of depression among Chinese university students is exceedingly high. This suggests that it is imperative that more attention be given to the development of appropriate mental healthcare strategies for university students in China. PMID:27070790

  3. Methodology used in studies reporting chronic kidney disease prevalence: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Brück, Katharina; Jager, Kitty J.; Dounousi, Evangelia; Kainz, Alexander; Nitsch, Dorothea; Ärnlöv, Johan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Ferrieres, Jean; Gambaro, Giovanni; Guessous, Idris; Hallan, Stein; Kastarinen, Mika; Navis, Gerjan; Gonzalez, Alfonso Otero; Palmieri, Luigi; Romundstad, Solfrid; Spoto, Belinda; Stengel, Benedicte; Tomson, Charles; Tripepi, Giovanni; Völzke, Henry; Wiȩcek, Andrzej; Gansevoort, Ron; Schöttker, Ben; Wanner, Christoph; Vinhas, Jose; Zoccali, Carmine; Van Biesen, Wim; Stel, Vianda S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many publications report the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Comparisons across studies are hampered as CKD prevalence estimations are influenced by study population characteristics and laboratory methods. Methods For this systematic review, two researchers independently searched PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify all original research articles that were published between 1 January 2003 and 1 November 2014 reporting the prevalence of CKD in the European adult general population. Data on study methodology and reporting of CKD prevalence results were independently extracted by two researchers. Results We identified 82 eligible publications and included 48 publications of individual studies for the data extraction. There was considerable variation in population sample selection. The majority of studies did not report the sampling frame used, and the response ranged from 10 to 87%. With regard to the assessment of kidney function, 67% used a Jaffe assay, whereas 13% used the enzymatic assay for creatinine determination. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry calibration was used in 29%. The CKD-EPI (52%) and MDRD (75%) equations were most often used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). CKD was defined as estimated GFR (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in 92% of studies. Urinary markers of CKD were assessed in 60% of the studies. CKD prevalence was reported by sex and age strata in 54 and 50% of the studies, respectively. In publications with a primary objective of reporting CKD prevalence, 39% reported a 95% confidence interval. Conclusions The findings from this systematic review showed considerable variation in methods for sampling the general population and assessment of kidney function across studies reporting CKD prevalence. These results are utilized to provide recommendations to help optimize both the design and the reporting of future CKD prevalence studies, which will enhance comparability of study results

  4. Model-Based Geostatistical Mapping of the Prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    O’Hanlon, Simon J.; Slater, Hannah C.; Cheke, Robert A.; Boatin, Boakye A.; Coffeng, Luc E.; Pion, Sébastien D. S.; Boussinesq, Michel; Zouré, Honorat G. M.; Stolk, Wilma A.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background The initial endemicity (pre-control prevalence) of onchocerciasis has been shown to be an important determinant of the feasibility of elimination by mass ivermectin distribution. We present the first geostatistical map of microfilarial prevalence in the former Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) before commencement of antivectorial and antiparasitic interventions. Methods and Findings Pre-control microfilarial prevalence data from 737 villages across the 11 constituent countries in the OCP epidemiological database were used as ground-truth data. These 737 data points, plus a set of statistically selected environmental covariates, were used in a Bayesian model-based geostatistical (B-MBG) approach to generate a continuous surface (at pixel resolution of 5 km x 5km) of microfilarial prevalence in West Africa prior to the commencement of the OCP. Uncertainty in model predictions was measured using a suite of validation statistics, performed on bootstrap samples of held-out validation data. The mean Pearson’s correlation between observed and estimated prevalence at validation locations was 0.693; the mean prediction error (average difference between observed and estimated values) was 0.77%, and the mean absolute prediction error (average magnitude of difference between observed and estimated values) was 12.2%. Within OCP boundaries, 17.8 million people were deemed to have been at risk, 7.55 million to have been infected, and mean microfilarial prevalence to have been 45% (range: 2–90%) in 1975. Conclusions and Significance This is the first map of initial onchocerciasis prevalence in West Africa using B-MBG. Important environmental predictors of infection prevalence were identified and used in a model out-performing those without spatial random effects or environmental covariates. Results may be compared with recent epidemiological mapping efforts to find areas of persisting transmission. These methods may be extended to areas where

  5. Prevalence of disorders recorded in cats attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D G; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C

    2014-11-01

    Improved understanding of absolute and relative prevalence values for common feline disorders could support clinicians when listing differential diagnoses and also assist prioritisation of breeding, research and health control strategies. This study aimed to analyse primary-care veterinary clinical data within the VetCompass project to estimate the prevalence of the most common disorders recorded in cats in England and to evaluate associations with purebred status. It was hypothesised that common disorders would be more prevalent in purebred than in crossbred cats. From a study population of 142,576 cats attending 91 clinics across Central and South-East England from 1 September 2009 to 15 January 2014, a random sample of 3584 was selected for detailed clinical review to extract information on all disorders recorded. The most prevalent diagnosis-level disorders were periodontal disease (n = 499; prevalence, 13.9%, 95% confidence intervals [CI], 12.5-15.4), flea infestation (n = 285; prevalence, 8.0%; 95% CI, 7.0-8.9) and obesity (n = 239; prevalence, 6.7%; 95% CI, 5.7-7.6). The most prevalent disorder groups recorded were dental conditions (n = 540; prevalence, 15.1%, 95% CI, 13.6-16.6), traumatic injury (n = 463; prevalence, 12.9%; 95% CI, 11.6-14.3) and dermatological disorders (n = 373; prevalence, 10.4%; 95% CI, 9.2-11.7). Crossbred cats had a higher prevalence of abscesses (excluding cat bite abscesses) (P = 0.009) and hyperthyroidism (P = 0.002) among the 20 most common disorders recorded. Purebreds had a higher prevalence for coat disorders (P <0.001). Veterinarians could use these results to focus their diagnostic and prophylactic efforts towards the most prevalent feline disorders. The study did not show an increased prevalence of common disorders in purebred cats compared with crossbred cats. Primary-care veterinary clinical data were versatile and useful for demographic and clinical feline studies. PMID:25178688

  6. Systematic review on the primary and secondary reporting of the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature

    PubMed Central

    Stretton, Serina

    2014-01-01

    Background Ghostwriting of industry-sponsored articles is unethical and is perceived to be common practice. Objective To systematically review how evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting is reported in the medical literature. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed 1966+, EMBASE 1966+, The Cochrane Library 1988+, Medical Writing 1998+, The American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) Journal 1986+, Council of Science Editors Annual Meetings 2007+, and the Peer Review Congress 1994+ were searched electronically (23 May 2013) using the search terms ghostwrit*, ghostauthor*, ghost AND writ*, ghost AND author*. Eligibility criteria All publication types were considered; only publications reporting a numerical estimate of possible ghostwriting prevalence were included. Data extraction Two independent reviewers screened the publications; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data to be collected included a numerical estimate of the prevalence of possible ghostwriting (primary outcome measure), definitions of ghostwriting reported, source of the reported prevalence, publication type and year, study design and sample population. Results Of the 848 publications retrieved and screened for eligibility, 48 reported numerical estimates for the prevalence of possible ghostwriting. Sixteen primary publications reported findings from cross-sectional surveys or descriptive analyses of published articles; 32 secondary publications cited published or unpublished evidence. Estimates on the prevalence of possible ghostwriting in primary and secondary publications varied markedly. Primary estimates were not suitable for meta-analysis because of the various definitions of ghostwriting used, study designs and types of populations or samples. Secondary estimates were not always reported or cited correctly or appropriately. Conclusions Evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature is limited and can be outdated, misleading or mistaken. Researchers should not inflate

  7. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Shelagh M.; Alexander-Kisslig, Karin; Woodhall, Sarah C.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Uusküla, Anneli; Herrmann, Björn; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore M.; Sfetcu, Otilia; Low, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate information about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is needed to assess national prevention and control measures. Methods We systematically reviewed population-based cross-sectional studies that estimated chlamydia prevalence in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response rates 52–71%). In women, chlamydia point prevalence estimates ranged from 3.0–5.3%; the pooled average of these estimates was 3.6% (95% CI 2.4, 4.8, I2 0%). In men, estimates ranged from 2.4–7.3% (pooled average 3.5%; 95% CI 1.9, 5.2, I2 27%). Estimates in EU/EEA Member States were statistically consistent with those in other high income countries (I2 0% for women, 6% for men). There was statistical evidence of an association between survey response rate and estimated chlamydia prevalence; estimates were higher in surveys with lower response rates, (p = 0.003 in women, 0.018 in men). Conclusions Population-based surveys that estimate chlamydia prevalence are at risk of participation bias owing to low response rates. Estimates obtained in nationally representative samples of the general population of EU/EEA Member States are similar to estimates from other high income countries. PMID:25615574

  8. Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders in musicians: a systematic review of incidence and prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Zaza, C

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders cause pain, disability and loss of employment for many workers, including musicians. Although performing arts medicine is a growing field, the health problems of musicians remain under-recognized and under-researched. Therefore, the author undertook a systematic review of published information on the incidence and prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) in classical musicians. METHODS: Seven databases were searched for the period 1980 to 1996. The main textbook and performing arts medicine journals were searched manually, as were reference lists of all relevant papers. The author also contacted individuals familiar with the literature of performing arts medicine. Studies were included for review if they reported PRMD incidence or prevalence in classical musicians. Of the 24 studies identified, 18 cross-sectional surveys and cohort studies were reviewed. The author subjectively assessed the studies using criteria modified from an existing evaluation scale and used 4 criteria for data combination. On the basis of prevalence values from the eligible studies, chi 2 tests for heterogeneity were performed. RESULTS: Only one study estimated PRMD incidence. Ten of the 17 prevalence studies were ineligible for data combination, because of low response rates and other methodological problems. In the 7 eligible studies, PRMD point prevalence ranged from 39% to 87% in adult musicians and from 34% to 62% in secondary school music students. The best estimates of PRMD prevalence were derived from the 3 studies that excluded mild complaints; these studies indicated that PRMD prevalence was 39% and 47% in adults and 17% in secondary school music students respectively. Statistical combination of data across studies within each demographic category was not possible. INTERPRETATION: Available data indicate that the prevalence of PRMD in adult classical musicians is comparable to the prevalence of work

  9. HIV/AIDS in Russia: determinants of regional prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Dominique; Jordaan, Jacob A

    2007-01-01

    Background The motivation for this paper is to inform the selection of future policy directions for tackling HIV/AIDS in Russia. The Russian Federation has more people living with HIV/AIDS than any other country in Europe, and nearly 70% of the known infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The epidemic is particularly young, with 80% of those infected aged less than thirty, and no Russian region has escaped the detection of infections. However, measures to address the epidemic in Russia have been hampered by late recognition of the scale of the problem, poor data on HIV prevalence, potentially counterproductive narcotics legislation, and competing health priorities. An additional complication has been the relative lack of research into the spatial heterogeneity of the Russian HIV/AIDS epidemic, investigating the variety of prevalence rates in the constituent regions and questioning assumptions about the links between the epidemic and the circumstances of post-Soviet transformation. In the light of these recent developments, this paper presents research into the determinants of regional HIV prevalence levels in Russia. Results Statistical empirical research on HIV and other infectious diseases has identified a variety of factors that influence the spread and development of these diseases. In our empirical analysis of determinants of HIV prevalence in Russia at the regional level, we identify factors that are statistically related to the level of HIV prevalence in Russian regions, and obtain some indication of the relative importance of these factors. We estimate an empirical model that includes factors which describe economic and socio-cultural characteristics. Conclusion Our analysis statistically identifies four main factors that influence HIV prevalence in Russian regions. Given the different nature of the factors that we identify to be of importance, we conclude that successful HIV intervention policies will need to be multidisciplinary in nature. Finally

  10. National, regional, and global trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity prevalence are commonly used for public and policy communication of the extent of the obesity epidemic, yet comparable estimates of trends in overweight and obesity prevalence by country are not available. Methods We estimated trends between 1980 and 2008 in overweight and obesity prevalence and their uncertainty for adults 20 years of age and older in 199 countries and territories. Data were from a previous study, which used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate mean body mass index (BMI) based on published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiologic studies. Here, we used the estimated mean BMIs in a regression model to predict overweight and obesity prevalence by age, country, year, and sex. The uncertainty of the estimates included both those of the Bayesian hierarchical model and the uncertainty due to cross-walking from mean BMI to overweight and obesity prevalence. Results The global age-standardized prevalence of obesity nearly doubled from 6.4% (95% uncertainty interval 5.7-7.2%) in 1980 to 12.0% (11.5-12.5%) in 2008. Half of this rise occurred in the 20 years between 1980 and 2000, and half occurred in the 8 years between 2000 and 2008. The age-standardized prevalence of overweight increased from 24.6% (22.7-26.7%) to 34.4% (33.2-35.5%) during the same 28-year period. In 2008, female obesity prevalence ranged from 1.4% (0.7-2.2%) in Bangladesh and 1.5% (0.9-2.4%) in Madagascar to 70.4% (61.9-78.9%) in Tonga and 74.8% (66.7-82.1%) in Nauru. Male obesity was below 1% in Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Ethiopia, and was highest in Cook Islands (60.1%, 52.6-67.6%) and Nauru (67.9%, 60.5-75.0%). Conclusions Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased since 1980, and the increase has accelerated. Although obesity increased in most countries, levels and trends varied substantially. These data on trends in overweight and obesity may be used to set targets for obesity

  11. Standardization in software conversion of (ROM) estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roat, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    Technical problems and their solutions comprise by far the majority of work involved in space simulation engineering. Fixed price contracts with schedule award fees are becoming more and more prevalent. Accurate estimation of these jobs is critical to maintain costs within limits and to predict realistic contract schedule dates. Computerized estimating may hold the answer to these new problems, though up to now computerized estimating has been complex, expensive, and geared to the business world, not to technical people. The objective of this effort was to provide a simple program on a desk top computer capable of providing a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) estimate in a short time. This program is not intended to provide a highly detailed breakdown of costs to a customer, but to provide a number which can be used as a rough estimate on short notice. With more debugging and fine tuning, a more detailed estimate can be made.

  12. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Pakistan: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed Asad; Donahue, Rafe M.J.; Qureshi, Huma; Vermund, Sten H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Pakistan carries one of the world’s highest burdens of chronic hepatitis and mortality due to liver failure and hepatocellular carcinomas. However, national level estimates of the prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis B and hepatitis C are currently not available. Methods We reviewed the medical and public health literature over a 13-year period ([Au?1] 1994–September 2007) to estimate the prevalence of active hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C in Pakistan, analyzing data separately for the general and high-risk populations and for each of the four provinces. We included 84 publications with 139 studies (42 studies had two or more sub-studies). Results Methodological differences in studies made it inappropriate to conduct a formal meta-analysis to determine accurate national prevalence estimates, but we estimated the likely range of prevalence in different population sub-groups. A weighted average of hepatitis B antigen prevalence in pediatric populations was 2.4% (range 1.7–5.5%) and for hepatitis C antibody was 2.1% (range 0.4–5.4%). A weighted average of hepatitis B antigen prevalence among healthy adults (blood donors and non-donors) was 2.4% (range 1.4–11.0%) and for hepatitis C antibody was 3.0% (range 0.3–31.9% [Au?2]). Rates in the high-risk subgroups were far higher. Conclusions Data suggest a moderate to high prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in different areas of Pakistan. The published literature on the modes of transmission of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Pakistan implicate contaminated needle use in medical care and drug abuse and unsafe blood and blood product transfusion as the major causal factors. PMID:18835208

  13. Point Prevalence and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in captive elephants in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Melissa; Isaza, Ramiro; Prins, Cindy; Hernandez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Background Captive elephants infected with tuberculosis are implicated as an occupational source of zoonotic tuberculosis. However, accurate estimates of prevalence and incidence of elephant tuberculosis from well-defined captive populations are lacking in the literature. Studies published in recent years contain a wide range of prevalence estimates calculated from summary data. Incidence estimates of elephant tuberculosis in captive elephants are not available. Objective This study estimated the annual point prevalence, annual incidence, cumulative incidence, and incidence density of tuberculosis in captive elephants within the USA during the past 52 years. Animals and Methods We combined existing elephant census records from captive elephants in the USA with tuberculosis culture results obtained from trunk washes or at necropsy. This data set included 15 years where each elephant was screened annually. Results Between 1960 and 1996, the annual point prevalence of tuberculosis complex mycobacteria for both species was 0. From 1997 through 2011, the median point prevalence within the Asian elephant population was 5.1%, with a range from 0.3% to 6.7%. The incidence density was 9.7 cases/1000 elephant years (95% CI: 7.0–13.4). In contrast, the annual point prevalence during the same time period within the African elephant population remained 0 and the incidence density was 1.5 cases/1000 elephant years (95% CI: 0.7–4.0). Conclusions The apparent increase in new cases noted after 1996 resulted from a combination of both index cases and the initiation of mandatory annual tuberculosis complex (MTBC) screening in 1997 for all the elephants. This study found lower annual point prevalence estimates than previously reported in the literature. These discrepancies in prevalence estimates are primarily due to differences in terminology and calculation methods. Using the same intensive testing regime, the incidence of tuberculosis differed significantly between Asian and

  14. Prevalence and predictors of adult hypertension in Kabul, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension is rising worldwide with an estimated one billion people now affected globally and is of near epidemic proportions in many parts of South Asia. Recent turmoil has until recently precluded estimates in Afghanistan so we sought, therefore, to establish both prevalence predictors in our population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults ≥40 years of age in Kabul from December 2011-March 2012 using a multistage sampling method. Additional data on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were collected as well as an estimate of glycaemic control. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were undertaken to explore the association between hypertension and potential predictors. Results A total of 1183 adults (men 396, women 787) of ≥ 40years of age were assessed. The prevalence of hypertension was 46.2% (95% CI 43.5 – 49.3). Independent predictors of hypertension were found to be: age ≥50 (OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 2.86 – 5.21); illiteracy (OR = 1.90, 1.05 – 1.90); the consumption of rice >3 times per week (OR = 1.43, 1.07 – 1.91); family history of diabetes (OR = 2.20, 1.30 – 3.75); central obesity (OR = 1.67, 1.23 – 2.27); BMI ≥ 30 Kg/meter squared (OR = 2.08, 1.50 – 2.89). The consumption of chicken and fruit more than three times per week were protective with ORs respectively of 0.73 (0.55-0.97) and 0.64 (0.47 – 0.86). Conclusions Hypertension is a major public health problem in Afghan adults. We have identified a number of predictors which have potential for guiding interventions. PMID:24754870

  15. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Population Estimates 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC.

    This report presents population estimates of drug use prevalence for the civilian non-institutionalized population of the United States. Information is provided on the methodology of the 1991 National Household Survey. Population estimates are presented separately for the total population and for Whites, Hispanics, and Blacks. These data are also…

  16. Methods for Estimating Medical Expenditures Attributable to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Derek S.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Mercy, James A.

    2008-01-01

    This article compares three methods for estimating the medical cost burden of intimate partner violence against U.S. adult women (18 years and older), 1 year postvictimization. To compute the estimates, prevalence data from the National Violence Against Women Survey are combined with cost data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the…

  17. The global prevalence of common mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis 1980–2013

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Zachary; Marnane, Claire; Iranpour, Changiz; Chey, Tien; Jackson, John W; Patel, Vikram; Silove, Derrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since the introduction of specified diagnostic criteria for mental disorders in the 1970s, there has been a rapid expansion in the number of large-scale mental health surveys providing population estimates of the combined prevalence of common mental disorders (most commonly involving mood, anxiety and substance use disorders). In this study we undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of this literature. Methods: We applied an optimized search strategy across the Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE and PubMed databases, supplemented by hand searching to identify relevant surveys. We identified 174 surveys across 63 countries providing period prevalence estimates (155 surveys) and lifetime prevalence estimates (85 surveys). Random effects meta-analysis was undertaken on logit-transformed prevalence rates to calculate pooled prevalence estimates, stratified according to methodological and substantive groupings. Results: Pooling across all studies, approximately 1 in 5 respondents (17.6%, 95% confidence interval:16.3–18.9%) were identified as meeting criteria for a common mental disorder during the 12-months preceding assessment; 29.2% (25.9–32.6%) of respondents were identified as having experienced a common mental disorder at some time during their lifetimes. A consistent gender effect in the prevalence of common mental disorder was evident; women having higher rates of mood (7.3%:4.0%) and anxiety (8.7%:4.3%) disorders during the previous 12 months and men having higher rates of substance use disorders (2.0%:7.5%), with a similar pattern for lifetime prevalence. There was also evidence of consistent regional variation in the prevalence of common mental disorder. Countries within North and South East Asia in particular displayed consistently lower one-year and lifetime prevalence estimates than other regions. One-year prevalence rates were also low among Sub-Saharan-Africa, whereas English speaking counties returned the highest lifetime prevalence

  18. Occupancy Modeling for Improved Accuracy and Understanding of Pathogen Prevalence and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Michael E.; Peterson, James T.; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    Most pathogen detection tests are imperfect, with a sensitivity < 100%, thereby resulting in the potential for a false negative, where a pathogen is present but not detected. False negatives in a sample inflate the number of non-detections, negatively biasing estimates of pathogen prevalence. Histological examination of tissues as a diagnostic test can be advantageous as multiple pathogens can be examined and providing important information on associated pathological changes to the host. However, it is usually less sensitive than molecular or microbiological tests for specific pathogens. Our study objectives were to 1) develop a hierarchical occupancy model to examine pathogen prevalence in spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and their distribution among host tissues 2) use the model to estimate pathogen-specific test sensitivities and infection rates, and 3) illustrate the effect of using replicate within host sampling on sample sizes required to detect a pathogen. We examined histological sections of replicate tissue samples from spring Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha collected after spawning for common pathogens seen in this population: Apophallus/echinostome metacercariae, Parvicapsula minibicornis, Nanophyetus salmincola/ metacercariae, and Renibacterium salmoninarum. A hierarchical occupancy model was developed to estimate pathogen and tissue-specific test sensitivities and unbiased estimation of host- and organ-level infection rates. Model estimated sensitivities and host- and organ-level infections rates varied among pathogens and model estimated infection rate was higher than prevalence unadjusted for test sensitivity, confirming that prevalence unadjusted for test sensitivity was negatively biased. The modeling approach provided an analytical approach for using hierarchically structured pathogen detection data from lower sensitivity diagnostic tests, such as histology, to obtain unbiased pathogen prevalence estimates with associated uncertainties

  19. Occupancy modeling for improved accuracy and understanding of pathogen prevalence and dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvin, Michael E.; Peterson, James T.; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    Most pathogen detection tests are imperfect, with a sensitivity < 100%, thereby resulting in the potential for a false negative, where a pathogen is present but not detected. False negatives in a sample inflate the number of non-detections, negatively biasing estimates of pathogen prevalence. Histological examination of tissues as a diagnostic test can be advantageous as multiple pathogens can be examined and providing important information on associated pathological changes to the host. However, it is usually less sensitive than molecular or microbiological tests for specific pathogens. Our study objectives were to 1) develop a hierarchical occupancy model to examine pathogen prevalence in spring Chinook salmonOncorhynchus tshawytscha and their distribution among host tissues 2) use the model to estimate pathogen-specific test sensitivities and infection rates, and 3) illustrate the effect of using replicate within host sampling on sample sizes required to detect a pathogen. We examined histological sections of replicate tissue samples from spring Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha collected after spawning for common pathogens seen in this population:Apophallus/echinostome metacercariae, Parvicapsula minibicornis, Nanophyetus salmincola/metacercariae, and Renibacterium salmoninarum. A hierarchical occupancy model was developed to estimate pathogen and tissue-specific test sensitivities and unbiased estimation of host- and organ-level infection rates. Model estimated sensitivities and host- and organ-level infections rates varied among pathogens and model estimated infection rate was higher than prevalence unadjusted for test sensitivity, confirming that prevalence unadjusted for test sensitivity was negatively biased. The modeling approach provided an analytical approach for using hierarchically structured pathogen detection data from lower sensitivity diagnostic tests, such as histology, to obtain unbiased pathogen prevalence estimates with associated

  20. Occupancy modeling for improved accuracy and understanding of pathogen prevalence and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Michael E; Peterson, James T; Kent, Michael L; Schreck, Carl B

    2015-01-01

    Most pathogen detection tests are imperfect, with a sensitivity < 100%, thereby resulting in the potential for a false negative, where a pathogen is present but not detected. False negatives in a sample inflate the number of non-detections, negatively biasing estimates of pathogen prevalence. Histological examination of tissues as a diagnostic test can be advantageous as multiple pathogens can be examined and providing important information on associated pathological changes to the host. However, it is usually less sensitive than molecular or microbiological tests for specific pathogens. Our study objectives were to 1) develop a hierarchical occupancy model to examine pathogen prevalence in spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and their distribution among host tissues 2) use the model to estimate pathogen-specific test sensitivities and infection rates, and 3) illustrate the effect of using replicate within host sampling on sample sizes required to detect a pathogen. We examined histological sections of replicate tissue samples from spring Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha collected after spawning for common pathogens seen in this population: Apophallus/echinostome metacercariae, Parvicapsula minibicornis, Nanophyetus salmincola/ metacercariae, and Renibacterium salmoninarum. A hierarchical occupancy model was developed to estimate pathogen and tissue-specific test sensitivities and unbiased estimation of host- and organ-level infection rates. Model estimated sensitivities and host- and organ-level infections rates varied among pathogens and model estimated infection rate was higher than prevalence unadjusted for test sensitivity, confirming that prevalence unadjusted for test sensitivity was negatively biased. The modeling approach provided an analytical approach for using hierarchically structured pathogen detection data from lower sensitivity diagnostic tests, such as histology, to obtain unbiased pathogen prevalence estimates with associated uncertainties

  1. Forced Displacement From Rental Housing: Prevalence and Neighborhood Consequences.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Matthew; Shollenberger, Tracey

    2015-10-01

    Drawing on novel survey data of Milwaukee renters, this study documents the prevalence of involuntary displacement from housing and estimates its consequences for neighborhood selection. More than one in eight Milwaukee renters experienced an eviction or other kind of forced move in the previous two years. Multivariate analyses suggest that renters who experienced a forced move relocate to poorer and higher-crime neighborhoods than those who move under less-demanding circumstances. By providing evidence implying that involuntary displacement is a critical yet overlooked mechanism of neighborhood inequality, this study helps to clarify why some city dwellers live in much worse neighborhoods than their peers. PMID:26286885

  2. Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Paul S.

    The current prevailing professional opinion is that the prevalence rates of alcohol abuse among the elderly are low compared to the general population. The prevalence of alcohol abuse among the elderly was examined through a review of the empirical research. This review revealed a number of serious methodological problems. The most important of…

  3. Relative prevalence of different fetishes.

    PubMed

    Scorolli, C; Ghirlanda, S; Enquist, M; Zattoni, S; Jannini, E A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the relative frequency of Fetishes in a large sample of individuals. Using the Internet as a data source, we examined 381 discussion groups. We estimate, very conservatively, that at least 5000 individuals were targeted. The relative frequency of each preference category was estimated considering (a) the number of groups devoted to the category, (b) the number of individuals participating in the groups and (c) the number of messages exchanged. The three measures agree both parametrically (Cronbach's alpha=0.91) and non-parametrically (Kendall's W=0.94, P<0.01). Preferences for body parts or features and for objects usually associated with the body were most common (33 and 30%, respectively), followed by preferences for other people's behavior (18%), own behavior (7%), social behavior (7%) and objects unrelated to the body (5%). Feet and objects associated with feet were the most common target of preferences. These findings provide the first large database in an area, where the knowledge is particularly scarce. PMID:17304204

  4. Diabetes prevalence and diagnosis in US states: analysis of health surveys

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Current US surveillance data provide estimates of diabetes using laboratory tests at the national level as well as self-reported data at the state level. Self-reported diabetes prevalence may be biased because respondents may not be aware of their risk status. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes by state. Methods We estimated undiagnosed diabetes prevalence as a function of a set of health system and sociodemographic variables using a logistic regression in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006). We applied this relationship to identical variables from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2003-2007) to estimate state-level prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes by age group and sex. We assumed that those who report being diagnosed with diabetes in both surveys are truly diabetic. Results The prevalence of diabetes in the U.S. was 13.7% among men and 11.7% among women ≥ 30 years. Age-standardized diabetes prevalence was highest in Mississippi, West Virginia, Louisiana, Texas, South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia (15.8 to 16.6% for men and 12.4 to 14.8% for women). Vermont, Minnesota, Montana, and Colorado had the lowest prevalence (11.0 to 12.2% for men and 7.3 to 8.4% for women). Men in all states had higher diabetes prevalence than women. The absolute prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, as a percent of total population, was highest in New Mexico, Texas, Florida, and California (3.5 to 3.7 percentage points) and lowest in Montana, Oklahoma, Oregon, Alaska, Vermont, Utah, Washington, and Hawaii (2.1 to 3 percentage points). Among those with no established diabetes diagnosis, being obese, being Hispanic, not having insurance and being ≥ 60 years old were significantly associated with a higher risk of having undiagnosed diabetes. Conclusion Diabetes prevalence is highest in the Southern and Appalachian states and lowest in the Midwest and the Northeast. Better diabetes

  5. Rescuers at risk: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of the worldwide current prevalence and correlates of PTSD in rescue workers

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Marques-Portella, Carla; Luz, Mariana Pires; Neylan, Thomas C.; Marmar, Charles R.; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We sought to estimate the pooled current prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among rescue workers and to determine the variables implicated in the heterogeneity observed among the prevalences of individual studies. Methods A systematic review covering studies reporting on the PTSD prevalence in rescue teams was conducted following four sequential steps: (1) research in specialized online databases, (2) review of abstracts and selection of studies, (3) review of reference list, and (4) contact with authors a