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Sample records for groupings usingbranched dna

  1. Directed assembly of discrete gold nanoparticle groupings usingbranched DNA scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Claridge, Shelley A.; Goh, Sarah L.; Frechet, Jean M.J.; Williams, Shara C.; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2004-09-14

    The concept of self-assembled dendrimers is explored for the creation of discrete nanoparticle assemblies. Hybridization of branched DNA trimers and nanoparticle-DNA conjugates results in the synthesis of nanoparticle trimer and tetramer complexes. Multiple tetramer architectures are investigated, utilizing Au-DNA conjugates with varying secondary structural motifs. Hybridization products are analyzed by gel electrophoresis, and discrete bands are observed corresponding to structures with increasing numbers of hybridization events. Samples extracted from each band are analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, and statistics compiled from micrographs are used to compare assembly characteristics for each architecture. Asymmetric structures are also produced in which both 5 and 10 nm Au particles are assembled on branched scaffolds.

  2. DNA Topoisomerase/Integrase Group, LMP

    Cancer.gov

    Welcome to the DNA Topoisomerase/Integrase Group's Wiki Home page. This web site provides additional information on the research performed by the DNA Topoisomerase/Integrase Group, LMP, which focuses on Topoisomerase, HIV-1 integrase and Tdp1 inhibitors.

  3. DNA homology among diverse spiroplasma strains representing several serological groups.

    PubMed

    Lee, I M; Davis, R E

    1980-11-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) homology among 10 strains of spiroplasma associated with plants and insects was assessed by analysis of DNA-DNA hybrids with single strand specific S1 nuclease. Based on DNA homology, the spiroplasmas could be divided into three genetically distinct groups (designated I, II, and III), corresponding to three separate serogroups described previously. DNA sequence homology between the three groups was less than or equal to 5%. Based on DNA homology, group I could be divided into three subgroups (A, B, and C) that corresponded to three serological subgroups of serogroup I. Subgroup A contained Spiroplasma citri strains Maroc R8A2 and C 189; subgroup B contained strains AS 576 from honey bee and G 1 from flowers; subgroup C contained corn stunt spiroplasma strains I-747 and PU 8-17. There was 27-54% DNA sequence homology among these three subgroups. Group II contained strains 23-6 and 27-31 isolated from flowers of tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Group III contained strains SR 3 and SR 9, other isolates from flowers of tulip tree. Based on thermal denaturation, guanine plus cytosine contents of DNA from five type strains representing all groups and subgroups were estimated to be close to 26 mol% for group I strains, close to 25 mol% for group II strains, and close to 29 mol% for group III strains. The genome molecular weights of these five type strains were all estimated to bae about 10(9). PMID:7214225

  4. Group II Introns: Mobile Ribozymes that Invade DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lambowitz, Alan M.; Zimmerly, Steven

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Group II introns are mobile ribozymes that self-splice from precursor RNAs to yield excised intron lariat RNAs, which then invade new genomic DNA sites by reverse splicing. The introns encode a reverse transcriptase that stabilizes the catalytically active RNA structure for forward and reverse splicing, and afterwards converts the integrated intron RNA back into DNA. The characteristics of group II introns suggest that they or their close relatives were evolutionary ancestors of spliceosomal introns, the spliceosome, and retrotransposons in eukaryotes. Further, their ribozyme-based DNA integration mechanism enabled the development of group II introns into gene targeting vectors (targetrons), which have the unique feature of readily programmable DNA target specificity. PMID:20463000

  5. Group C adenovirus DNA sequences in human lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.; Palkonyay, L.; Weber, J.

    1986-07-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy adults, cord blood lymphocytes, and lymphoblastoid cell lines were screened by hybridization for the presence of group C adenovirus DNA sequences. In 13 of 17 peripheral blood lymphocyte samples from adults, 1 of 10 cord blood samples, and seven of seven lymphoblastoid cell lines tested, results were positive for Group C adenovirus DNA (adenovirus 1 (Ad1), Ad2, Ad5, or Ad6). About 1 to 2% of the lymphocytes carried 50 to 100 viral genome copies per positive cell, as estimated by in situ hybridization. Infectious virus representing all members of group C were recovered, but cultivation in the presence of adenovirus antibody did not cure the cells of free viral genomes. Viral DNA was found in B, T, and N cells but only in 1 of 10 cord blood samples. The results suggest that group C adenovirus infectious in childhood result in the persistence of the viral genome in circulating lymphocytes.

  6. Flexible automated platform for blood group genotyping on DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Paris, Sandra; Rigal, Dominique; Barlet, Valérie; Verdier, Martine; Coudurier, Nicole; Bailly, Pascal; Brès, Jean-Charles

    2014-05-01

    The poor suitability of standard hemagglutination-based assay techniques for large-scale automated screening of red blood cell antigens severely limits the ability of blood banks to supply extensively phenotype-matched blood. With better understanding of the molecular basis of blood antigens, it is now possible to predict blood group phenotype by identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genomic DNA. Development of DNA-typing assays for antigen screening in blood donation qualification laboratories promises to enable blood banks to provide optimally matched donations. We have designed an automated genotyping system using 96-well DNA microarrays for blood donation screening and a first panel of eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms to identify 16 alleles in four blood group systems (KEL, KIDD, DUFFY, and MNS). Our aim was to evaluate this system on 960 blood donor samples with known phenotype. Study data revealed a high concordance rate (99.92%; 95% CI, 99.77%-99.97%) between predicted and serologic phenotypes. These findings demonstrate that our assay using a simple protocol allows accurate, relatively low-cost phenotype prediction at the DNA level. This system could easily be configured with other blood group markers for identification of donors with rare blood types or blood units for IH panels or antigens from other systems. PMID:24726279

  7. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the Anaxyrus boreas species group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goebel, A.M.; Ranker, T.A.; Corn, P.S.; Olmstead, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The Anaxyrus boreas species group currently comprises four species in western North America including the broadly distributed A. boreas, and three localized species, Anaxyrus nelsoni, Anaxyrus exsul and Anaxyrus canorus. Phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA 12S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase I, control region, and restriction sites data, identified three major haplotype clades. The Northwest clade (NW) includes both subspecies of A. boreas and divergent minor clades in the middle Rocky Mountains, coastal, and central regions of the west and Pacific Northwest. The Southwest (SW) clade includes A. exsul, A. nelsoni, and minor clades in southern California. Anaxyrus canorus, previously identified as paraphyletic, has populations in both the NW and SW major clades. The Eastern major clade (E) includes three divergent lineages from southern Utah, the southern Rocky Mountains, and north of the Great Basin at the border of Utah and Nevada. These results identify new genetic variation in the eastern portion of the toad's range and are consistent with previous regional studies from the west coast. Low levels of control region sequence divergence between major clades (2.2-4.7% uncorrected pair-wise distances) are consistent with Pleistocene divergence and suggest that the phylogeographic history of the group was heavily influenced by dynamic Pleistocene glacial and climatic changes, and especially pluvial changes, in western North America. Results reported here may impact conservation plans in that the current taxonomy does not reflect the diversity in the group. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the Anaxyrus boreas species group.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Anna M; Ranker, Tom A; Corn, Paul Stephen; Olmstead, Richard G

    2009-02-01

    The Anaxyrus boreas species group currently comprises four species in western North America including the broadly distributed A. boreas, and three localized species, Anaxyrus nelsoni, Anaxyrusexsul and Anaxyrus canorus. Phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA 12S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase I, control region, and restriction sites data, identified three major haplotype clades. The Northwest clade (NW) includes both subspecies of A. boreas and divergent minor clades in the middle Rocky Mountains, coastal, and central regions of the west and Pacific Northwest. The Southwest (SW) clade includes A. exsul, A. nelsoni, and minor clades in southern California. Anaxyrus canorus, previously identified as paraphyletic, has populations in both the NW and SW major clades. The Eastern major clade (E) includes three divergent lineages from southern Utah, the southern Rocky Mountains, and north of the Great Basin at the border of Utah and Nevada. These results identify new genetic variation in the eastern portion of the toad's range and are consistent with previous regional studies from the west coast. Low levels of control region sequence divergence between major clades (2.2-4.7% uncorrected pair-wise distances) are consistent with Pleistocene divergence and suggest that the phylogeographic history of the group was heavily influenced by dynamic Pleistocene glacial and climatic changes, and especially pluvial changes, in western North America. Results reported here may impact conservation plans in that the current taxonomy does not reflect the diversity in the group. PMID:18662792

  9. Genetic Kinship Investigation from Blood Groups to DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    Geserick, Gunther; Wirth, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The forensic application of hereditary characteristics became possible after the discovery of human blood groups by Karl Landsteiner in 1901. The foundation for their use in kinship investigation was laid by Emil von Dungern and Ludwig Hirschfeld in 1910 by clarification of the inheritance of the ABO groups. Up to the middle of the 20th century further red cell membrane systems were discovered. From the 1920s Fritz Schiff and Georg Strassmann fought for the introduction of blood groups into forensic kinship investigation. A new era of hemogenetics was opened from 1955 as genetic polymorphisms were described in serum proteins. Starting in 1958 there followed the complex HLA system of white blood cells, which from 1963 was joined by polymophisms in erythrocyte enzymes. Therefore, from the 1980s, it was possible to clarify the majority of kinship cases with a combination of conventional markers. From 1990 to 2000 the conventional markers were gradually replaced by the more effective DNA markers. Simultaneously typing shifted from the phenotype level to the genotype level. The genomic structure of conventional genetic markers could also now be explained. As a reflection of scientific progress the legal situation also changed, particularly in the form of the official guidelines for kinship investigation. PMID:22851931

  10. Ribosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Analyses of Xiphinema americanum-Group Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lazarova, Stela S.; Malloch, Gaynor; Oliveira, Claudio M.G.; Hübschen, Judith; Neilson, Roy

    2006-01-01

    The 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and cytochrome oxidase I region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were sequenced for 24 Xiphinema americanum-group populations sourced from a number of geographically disparate locations. Sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and compared. 18S rDNA strongly suggested that only X. pachtaicum, X. simile (two populations) and a X. americanum s.l. population from Portugal were different from the other 20 populations studied, whereas mtDNA indicated some heterogeneity between populations. Phylogenetically, based on mtDNA, an apparent dichotomy existed amongst X. americanum-group populations from North America and those from Asia, South America and Oceania. Analyses of 18S rDNA and mtDNA sequences underpin the classical taxonomic issues of the X. americanum-group and cast doubt on the degree of speciation within the X. americanum-group. PMID:19259456

  11. Short-step chemical synthesis of DNA by use of MMTrS group for protection of 5'-hydroxyl group.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Miyuki; Utagawa, Eri; Ohkubo, Akihiro; Sekine, Mitsuo; Seio, Kohji

    2007-01-01

    4-methoxytrithylthio (MMTrS) group was applied for the appropriately protected four canonical nucleosides. We prepared the phosphoroamidite units by use of these nucleosides and developed the synthesis of oligodeoxynucleotides without any acidic treatment. Moreover, the new DNA synthesis protocol was applied to an automated DNA synthesizer for the synthesis of longer oligodeoxynucleotides. PMID:18029620

  12. Hands on Group Work Paper Model for Teaching DNA Structure, Central Dogma and Recombinant DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altiparmak, Melek; Nakiboglu Tezer, Mahmure

    2009-01-01

    Understanding life on a molecular level is greatly enhanced when students are given the opportunity to visualize the molecules. Especially understanding DNA structure and function is essential for understanding key concepts of molecular biology such as DNA, central dogma and the manipulation of DNA. Researches have shown that undergraduate…

  13. The Leaving Group Strongly Affects H2O2-Induced DNA Cross-Linking by Arylboronates

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Sheng; Wang, Yibin; Peng, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of the benzylic leaving group and core structure of arylboronates on H2O2-induced formation of bisquinone methides for DNA interstrand cross-linking. The mechanism of DNA cross-linking induced by these arylboronates involves generation of phenol intermediates followed by departure of benzylic leaving group leading to QMs which directly cross-link DNA via alkylation. The QM formation is the rate-determining step for DNA cross-linking. A better leaving group (Br) and stepwise bisquinone methide formation increased interstrand cross-linking efficiency. These findings provide essential guidelines for designing novel anticancer prodrugs. PMID:24378073

  14. Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez-Giraldo, R.; Acosta-Reyes, F. J.; Malarkey, C. S.; Saperas, N.; Churchill, M. E. A.; Campos, J. L.

    2015-06-30

    The crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an unmodified AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. A new mode of DNA recognition for HMG box proteins is found in which two box A domains bind in an unusual configuration generating a highly kinked DNA structure. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1–DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA.

  15. Identification of two groups of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis strains by restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, D M; Gabric, D M; de Lisle, G W

    1990-01-01

    Genomic DNA was prepared from four reference strains of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and 46 isolates of this organism from New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and Norway and also from two mycobactin-dependent "wood pigeon" strains. The DNA was characterized by restriction endonuclease analysis, both with and without DNA hybridization, with a probe specific to a repetitive DNA sequence in M. paratuberculosis. Both techniques differentiated M. paratuberculosis strains into two groups, but DNA hybridization revealed more differences between strains within the larger group. All the strains from cattle and many strains from other animals belonged to this group. The second group of nine strains included the Faroe Islands strain, all New Zealand sheep strains, and one New Zealand goat strain. Primary isolation of strains belonging to this group was difficult to achieve. DNA from acid-fast organisms harvested directly from intestinal tissues of sheep with Johne's disease was shown to have restriction and hybridization patterns identical to those of DNA obtained from M. paratuberculosis isolates cultured from the same tissues. Two Norwegian goat strains and the wood pigeon strains did not hybridize to the M. paratuberculosis probe and had restriction patterns very different from those of other M. paratuberculosis strains. The wood pigeon strains had restriction patterns very similar to those of strains of Mycobacterium avium, indicating that they should be classified as that species. The presence of two distinct groups of M. paratuberculosis strains and their predominant distribution in different host animals may be significant in management of mixed-animal farming operations. Images PMID:2166089

  16. Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA.

    PubMed

    Snchez-Giraldo, R; Acosta-Reyes, F J; Malarkey, C S; Saperas, N; Churchill, M E A; Campos, J L

    2015-07-01

    High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1-DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2?. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA. PMID:26143914

  17. Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA

    PubMed Central

    Snchez-Giraldo, R.; Acosta-Reyes, F. J.; Malarkey, C. S.; Saperas, N.; Churchill, M. E. A.; Campos, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2?. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA. PMID:26143914

  18. Larger mitochondrial DNA than Y-chromosome differences between matrilocal and patrilocal groups from Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen Dröfn; Nandineni, Madhusudan R; Li, Mingkun; Myles, Sean; Gil, David; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Stoneking, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Genetic differences between human populations are typically larger for the Y-chromosome than for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which has been attributed to the ubiquity of patrilocality across human cultures. However, this claim has been disputed, and previous analyses of matrilocal groups give conflicting results. Here we analyse mtDNA variation (complete mtDNA genome sequences via next-generation sequencing) and non-recombining regions of the Y-chromosome variation (Y-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms and Y-short-tandem-repeats (STR)) in a matrilocal group (the Semende) and a patrilocal group (the Besemah) from Sumatra. We find in the Semende significantly lower mtDNA diversity than in the Besemah as expected for matrilocal groups, but unexpectedly we find no difference in Y-chromosome diversity between the groups. We highlight the importance of using complete mtDNA sequences for such analyses, as using only partial sequences (as done in previous studies) can give misleading results. PMID:21407194

  19. Preferential Inhibition of Herpes-Group Viruses by Phosphonoacetic Acid: Effect on Virus DNA Synthesis and Virus-Induced DNA Polymerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Eng-Shang; Huang, Chien-Hui; Huong, Shu-Mei; Selgrade, Maryjane

    1976-01-01

    In tissue culture phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) specifically inhibited DNA synthesis of human cytomegalovirus (CMV), murine CMV, simian CMV, Epstein-Barr virus, and Herpesvirus saimiri. Fifty to one hundred micrograms per milliliter PAA completely inhibited viral DNA synthesis with no significant damage to host cell DNA synthesis. In vitro DNA polymerization assays showed that 10 μg/ml of PAA specifically inhibited partially purified human CMV-induced DNA polymerase, while little inhibition of host-cell DNA polymerase activity was found. The specific inhibition of herpes-group virus DNA synthesis with little toxicity to host cells suggests that PAA has great potential as an antiherpesvirus therapeutic agent. PMID:960726

  20. Molecular basis of xeroderma pigmentosum group C DNA recognition by engineered meganucleases.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Pilar; Prieto, Jesús; Muñoz, Inés G; Alibés, Andreu; Stricher, Francois; Serrano, Luis; Cabaniols, Jean-Pierre; Daboussi, Fayza; Arnould, Sylvain; Perez, Christophe; Duchateau, Philippe; Pâques, Frédéric; Blanco, Francisco J; Montoya, Guillermo

    2008-11-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a monogenic disease characterized by hypersensitivity to ultraviolet light. The cells of xeroderma pigmentosum patients are defective in nucleotide excision repair, limiting their capacity to eliminate ultraviolet-induced DNA damage, and resulting in a strong predisposition to develop skin cancers. The use of rare cutting DNA endonucleases-such as homing endonucleases, also known as meganucleases-constitutes one possible strategy for repairing DNA lesions. Homing endonucleases have emerged as highly specific molecular scalpels that recognize and cleave DNA sites, promoting efficient homologous gene targeting through double-strand-break-induced homologous recombination. Here we describe two engineered heterodimeric derivatives of the homing endonuclease I-CreI, produced by a semi-rational approach. These two molecules-Amel3-Amel4 and Ini3-Ini4-cleave DNA from the human XPC gene (xeroderma pigmentosum group C), in vitro and in vivo. Crystal structures of the I-CreI variants complexed with intact and cleaved XPC target DNA suggest that the mechanism of DNA recognition and cleavage by the engineered homing endonucleases is similar to that of the wild-type I-CreI. Furthermore, these derivatives induced high levels of specific gene targeting in mammalian cells while displaying no obvious genotoxicity. Thus, homing endonucleases can be designed to recognize and cleave the DNA sequences of specific genes, opening up new possibilities for genome engineering and gene therapy in xeroderma pigmentosum patients whose illness can be treated ex vivo. PMID:18987743

  1. [Variability of mitochondrial DNA in three groups of indigenous inhabitants of Northern Asia].

    PubMed

    Derenko, M V; Shields, G F

    1998-05-01

    Sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 125 individuals from three aboriginal population groups of northern Asia (Yakuts, Evens, and Koryaks) were analyzed. Unique types of mtDNA (mitotypes) were discovered in 80% of Koryaks, 78% of Evens, and 59% of Yakuts. The mitotypes observed were clustered into nine phylogenetically related groups, two of which, according to the data on the comparative analysis of Siberian and east Asian populations, were Koryak-specific, and one was Even-specific. Koryaks and Evens exhibited mtDNAs that were highly frequent in Ainu. The results are discussed in terms of genetic differentiation and the ethnogenesis of ethnic groups of northern Asia. PMID:9719916

  2. Report of the Working Group on Integrated Translational Research in DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Reinlib, Leslie; Friedberg, Errol C

    2007-01-01

    On September 28-29, 2006, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences led a team from the National Institutes of Health in hosting a Working Group on Integrated Translational Research in DNA Repair, in Berkeley, CA. In recognition of the far-reaching goals for this area of investigation, the Working Group was charged with conceiving a vision to facilitate projects that would apply the lessons of DNA Repair research to clinical application and public health. The participants included basic and physician scientists working in the various areas of DNA Repair and genome stability, as well as agency representatives of the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences. In constructing this vision of practical research recommendations, the Working Group was asked to identify roadblocks to progress, suggest enabling technologies, and to consider areas that are ripe for translation. This report summarizes the rationale for this initiative and the recommendations that emerged. PMID:17283494

  3. A mitochondrial DNA based phylogeny of weakfish species of the Cynoscion group (Pisces: Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Vergara-Chen, Carlos; Aguirre, Windsor E; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2009-11-01

    We infer the phylogeny of fishes in the New World Cynoscion group (Cynoscion, Isopisthus, Macrodon, Atractoscion, Plagioscion) using 1603bp of DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial genes. With the exception of Plagioscion, whose position was ambiguous, the Cynoscion group is monophyletic. However, several genera examined are not monophyletic. Atlantic and Pacific species of Cynoscion are interspersed in the tree and geminate species pairs are identified. Intergeneric relationships in the group are clarified. Our analysis is the first comprehensive phylogeny for the Cynoscion group based on molecular data and provides a baseline for future comparative studies of this important group. PMID:19573613

  4. Spy: a new group of eukaryotic DNA transposons without target site duplications.

    PubMed

    Han, Min-Jin; Xu, Hong-En; Zhang, Hua-Hao; Feschotte, Cédric; Zhang, Ze

    2014-07-01

    Class 2 or DNA transposons populate the genomes of most eukaryotes and like other mobile genetic elements have a profound impact on genome evolution. Most DNA transposons belong to the cut-and-paste types, which are relatively simple elements characterized by terminal-inverted repeats (TIRs) flanking a single gene encoding a transposase. All eukaryotic cut-and-paste transposons so far described are also characterized by target site duplications (TSDs) of host DNA generated upon chromosomal insertion. Here, we report a new group of evolutionarily related DNA transposons called Spy, which also include TIRs and DDE motif-containing transposase but surprisingly do not create TSDs upon insertion. Instead, Spy transposons appear to transpose precisely between 5'-AAA and TTT-3' host nucleotides, without duplication or modification of the AAATTT target sites. Spy transposons were identified in the genomes of diverse invertebrate species based on transposase homology searches and structure-based approaches. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Spy transposases are distantly related to IS5, ISL2EU, and PIF/Harbinger transposases. However, Spy transposons are distinct from these and other DNA transposon superfamilies by their lack of TSD and their target site preference. Our findings expand the known diversity of DNA transposons and reveal a new group of eukaryotic DDE transposases with unusual catalytic properties. PMID:24966181

  5. Spy: A New Group of Eukaryotic DNA Transposons without Target Site Duplications

    PubMed Central

    Han, Min-Jin; Xu, Hong-En; Zhang, Hua-Hao; Feschotte, Cédric; Zhang, Ze

    2014-01-01

    Class 2 or DNA transposons populate the genomes of most eukaryotes and like other mobile genetic elements have a profound impact on genome evolution. Most DNA transposons belong to the cut-and-paste types, which are relatively simple elements characterized by terminal-inverted repeats (TIRs) flanking a single gene encoding a transposase. All eukaryotic cut-and-paste transposons so far described are also characterized by target site duplications (TSDs) of host DNA generated upon chromosomal insertion. Here, we report a new group of evolutionarily related DNA transposons called Spy, which also include TIRs and DDE motif-containing transposase but surprisingly do not create TSDs upon insertion. Instead, Spy transposons appear to transpose precisely between 5′-AAA and TTT-3′ host nucleotides, without duplication or modification of the AAATTT target sites. Spy transposons were identified in the genomes of diverse invertebrate species based on transposase homology searches and structure-based approaches. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Spy transposases are distantly related to IS5, ISL2EU, and PIF/Harbinger transposases. However, Spy transposons are distinct from these and other DNA transposon superfamilies by their lack of TSD and their target site preference. Our findings expand the known diversity of DNA transposons and reveal a new group of eukaryotic DDE transposases with unusual catalytic properties. PMID:24966181

  6. High mobility group (HMG) proteins: Modulators of chromatin structure and DNA repair in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Raymond

    2015-12-01

    It has been almost a decade since the last review appeared comparing and contrasting the influences that the different families of High Mobility Group proteins (HMGA, HMGB and HMGN) have on the various DNA repair pathways in mammalian cells. During that time considerable progress has been made in our understanding of how these non-histone proteins modulate the efficiency of DNA repair by all of the major cellular pathways: nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, double-stand break repair and mismatch repair. Although there are often similar and over-lapping biological activities shared by all HMG proteins, members of each of the different families appear to have a somewhat 'individualistic' impact on various DNA repair pathways. This review will focus on what is currently known about the roles that different HMG proteins play in DNA repair processes and discuss possible future research areas in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26411874

  7. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Suppresses Mutagenesis Caused by Clustered Oxidative DNA Adducts in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Sassa, Akira; Kamoshita, Nagisa; Kanemaru, Yuki; Honma, Masamitsu; Yasui, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Clustered DNA damage is defined as multiple sites of DNA damage within one or two helical turns of the duplex DNA. This complex damage is often formed by exposure of the genome to ionizing radiation and is difficult to repair. The mutagenic potential and repair mechanisms of clustered DNA damage in human cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the involvement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in clustered oxidative DNA adducts. To identify the in vivo protective roles of NER, we established a human cell line lacking the NER gene xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). XPA knockout (KO) cells were generated from TSCER122 cells derived from the human lymphoblastoid TK6 cell line. To analyze the mutagenic events in DNA adducts in vivo, we previously employed a system of tracing DNA adducts in the targeted mutagenesis (TATAM), in which DNA adducts were site-specifically introduced into intron 4 of thymidine kinase genes. Using the TATAM system, one or two tandem 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) adducts were introduced into the genomes of TSCER122 or XPA KO cells. In XPA KO cells, the proportion of mutants induced by a single 8-oxoG (7.6%) was comparable with that in TSCER122 cells (8.1%). In contrast, the lack of XPA significantly enhanced the mutant proportion of tandem 8-oxoG in the transcribed strand (12%) compared with that in TSCER122 cells (7.4%) but not in the non-transcribed strand (12% and 11% in XPA KO and TSCER122 cells, respectively). By sequencing the tandem 8-oxoG-integrated loci in the transcribed strand, we found that the proportion of tandem mutations was markedly increased in XPA KO cells. These results indicate that NER is involved in repairing clustered DNA adducts in the transcribed strand in vivo. PMID:26559182

  8. Effects of trehalose polycation end-group functionalization on plasmid DNA uptake and transfection.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kevin; Sizovs, Antons; Cortez, Mallory; Waldron, Chris; Haddleton, D M; Reineke, Theresa M

    2012-08-13

    In this study, we have synthesized six analogs of a trehalose-pentaethylenehexamine glycopolymer (Tr4) that contain (1A) adamantane, (1B) carboxy, (1C) alkynyl-oligoethyleneamine, (1D) azido trehalose, (1E) octyl, or (1F) oligoethyleneamine end groups and evaluated the effects of polymer end group chemistry on the ability of these systems to bind, compact, and deliver pDNA to cultured HeLa cells. The polymers were synthesized in one-pot azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions with an adaptation of the Carothers equation for step-growth polymerization to produce a series of polymers with similar degrees of polymerization. An excess of end-capping monomer was added at the end of the polymerizations to maximize functionalization efficiency, which was evaluated with GPC, NMR, and MALDI-TOF. The polymers were all found to bind and compact pDNA at similarly low N/P ratios and form polyplexes with plasmid DNA. The effects of the different end group structures were most evident in the polyplex internalization and transfection assays in the presence of serum as determined by flow cytometry and luciferase gene expression, respectively. The Tr4 polymers end-capped with carboxyl groups (1B) (N/P = 7), octyne (1E) (N/P = 7), and oligoethyleneamine (1F) (N/P = 7), were taken into cells as polyplex and exhibited the highest levels of fluorescence, resulting from labeled plasmid. Similarly, the polymers end-functionalized with carboxyl groups (1E at N/P = 7), octyl groups (1E at N/P = 15), and in particular oligoethyleneamine groups (1F at N/P = 15) yielded dramatically higher reporter gene expression in the presence of serum. This study yields insight into how very subtle structural changes in polymer chemistry, such as end groups can yield very significant differences in the biological delivery efficiency and transgene expression of polymers used for pDNA delivery. PMID:22616977

  9. Methyl group acceptance assay for the determination of global DNA methylation levels.

    PubMed

    Nephew, Kenneth P; Balch, Curt; Skalnik, David G

    2009-01-01

    DNA methylation levels are affected by numerous environmental influences, including diet and xenobiotic exposure, and neoplasia has been firmly associated with genomic hypomethylation and localized hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes. To reverse methylation-induced gene repression, DNA hypomethylating agents are currently in clinical trials for various malignancies, with two of these now approved for the therapy of myelodysplastic syndrome, and the efficacy of these drugs can be assessed by the monitoring of global DNA methylation levels. Herein, we outline a simple, well-established method for the evaluation of genomic DNA methylation levels, based on the ability of isolated DNA to "accept" radiolabeled methyl groups from S-[3H-methyl] adenosylmethionine, using the bacterial CpG methyltransferase SssI. As this enzyme methylates all unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in the genome, radiolabeled methyl group acceptance is inversely proportional to the level of preexisting methylation. This assay is applicable to a number of translational and basic research questions. PMID:18987804

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from Argentina and Chile grouped with the aid of DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Macina, R A; Arauzo, S; Reyes, M B; Sanchez, D O; Basombrio, M A; Montamat, E E; Solari, A; Frasch, A C

    1987-08-01

    Fifty-two isolates and several clones from Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, were analyzed using cloned minicircles or total kinetoplast DNA as probes. Isolates were obtained from triatomines, guinea pigs and infected humans in the Central and Northern regions of Argentina and the North of Chile. 35% of all the randomly selected isolates could be identified with one cloned minicircle probe. This widely distributed T. cruzi group was detected on both sides of the Andes mountain range (Argentina and Chile) in Triatoma infestans as well as in human infections. Most of the other isolates could be grouped with four kinetoplast DNAs as probes, but their geographical distribution seems to be restricted as compared with the one mentioned above. These results confirm the heterogeneity of T. cruzi subspecies in nature and the usefulness of DNA probes to group them. PMID:2823134

  11. DNA polymerization catalysed by a group II intron RNA in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hetzer, M; Schweyen, R J; Mueller, M W

    1997-05-01

    The excised group II intron bI1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae can act as a ribozyme catalysing various chemical reactions with different substrate RNAs in vitro . Recently, we have described an editing-like RNA polymerization reaction catalysed by the bI1 intron lariat that proceeds in the 3'-->5'direction. Here we show that the bI1 lariat RNA can also catalyse successive deoxyribonucleotide polymerization reactions on exogenous substrate molecules. The basic mechanism of the reaction involved interacting cycles between an alternative version of partial reverse splicing (lariat charging) and canonical forward splicing (lariat discharging by exon ligation). With an overall chain growth in the 3'-->5' direction, the 5' exon RNAs (IBS1dN) were elongated by successive insertion of deoxyribonucleotides derived from single deoxyribonucleotide substitutions (dA, dG, dC or dT). All four deoxyribonucleotides were used as substrates, although with different efficiencies. Our findings extend the catalytic repertoire of group II intron RNAs not only by a novel DNA polymerization activity, but also by a DNA-DNA ligation capacity, supporting the idea that ribozymes might have been part of the first primordial polymerization machinery for both RNA and DNA. PMID:9108167

  12. Targeting radiosensitizers to DNA by attachment of an intercalating group: Nitroimidazole-linked phenanthridines

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, D.S.; Panicucci, R.; McClelland, R.A.; Rauth, A.M. )

    1991-07-01

    The nitroimidazole-linked phenanthridine series of compounds (NLP-1, 2, and 3) were synthesized under the assumption that it should be possible to enhance the molar efficiency of 2-nitroimidazoles as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers and cytotoxins by targeting them to their likely site of action, DNA. The targeting group chosen was the phenanthridine moiety, the major component of the classical DNA intercalating compound, ethidium bromide. The sole difference between the compounds is the length of the hydrocarbon chain linking the nitroimidazole to the phenanthridine. The phenanthridine group with a three-carbon side chain, P-1, was also synthesized to allow studies on the effect of the targeting group by itself. The ability of the compounds to bind to DNA is inversely proportional to their linker chain length with binding constant values ranging from approximately 1 {times} 10(5) mol-1 for NLP-2 to 6 {times} 10(5) mol-1 for NLP-3. The NLP compounds show selective toxicity to hypoxic cells at 37 degrees C at external drug concentrations 10-40 times lower than would be required for untargeted 2-nitroimidazoles such as misonidazole in vitro. Toxicity to both hypoxic and aerobic cells is dependent on the linker chain: the shorter the chain, the greater the toxicity. In addition, the NLP compounds radiosensitize hypoxic cells at external drug concentrations as low as 0.05 mM with almost the full oxygen effect being observed at a concentration of 0.5 mM. These concentrations are 10-100 times lower than would be required for similar radiosensitization using misonidazole. Radiosensitizing ability is independent of linker chain length. The present compounds represent prototypes for further studies of the efficacy and mechanism of action of 2-nitroimidazoles targeted to DNA by linkage to an intercalating group.

  13. Conservation of DNA photolyase genes in group II nucleopolyhedroviruses infecting plusiine insects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang; Vlak, Just M; van Oers, Monique M

    2008-09-01

    DNA photolyase genes (phr) encode photoreactive enzymes, which are involved in the repair of UV-damaged DNA. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) specific photolyase genes are present in nucleopolyhedroviruses isolated from Chrysodeixis chalcites (ChchNPV) and Trichoplusia ni (TnSNPV), insects belonging to the Plusiinae (Noctuidae). To better understand the occurrence and evolution of these genes in baculoviruses, we investigated their possible conservation in other group II NPVs, which infect plusiine insects. A PCR based strategy using degenerate phr-specific primers was designed to detect and analyze possible photolyase genes. Six additional Plusiinae-infecting NPVs were analyzed and all, except Thysanoplusia oricalcea NPV A28-1, which is a group I NPV, contained one or more phr-like sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all photolyase genes of the tested Plusiinae-infecting baculoviruses group in a single clade, separated into three subgroups. The phylogeny of the polyhedrin sequences of these viruses confirmed that the analyzed viruses also formed a single clade in group II NPVs. We hypothesize that all plusiine group II NPVs contain one or more photolyase genes and that these have a common ancestor. PMID:18513819

  14. DNA barcodes from four loci provide poor resolution of taxonomic groups in the genus Crataegus.

    PubMed

    Zarrei, Mehdi; Talent, Nadia; Kuzmina, Maria; Lee, Jeanette; Lund, Jensen; Shipley, Paul R; Stefanović, Saša; Dickinson, Timothy A

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcodes can facilitate identification of organisms especially when morphological characters are limited or unobservable. To what extent this potential is realized in specific groups of plants remains to be determined. Libraries of barcode sequences from well-studied authoritatively identified plants represented by herbarium voucher specimens are needed in order for DNA barcodes to serve their intended purpose, where this is possible, and to understand the reasons behind their failure to do so, when this occurs. We evaluated four loci, widely regarded as universal DNA barcodes for plants, for their utility in hawthorn species identification. Three plastid regions, matK, rbcLa and psbA-trnH, and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA discriminate only some of the species of Crataegus that can be recognized on the basis of their morphology etc. This is, in part, because in Rosaceae tribe Maleae most individual plastid loci yield relatively little taxonomic resolution and, in part, because the effects of allopolyploidization have not been eliminated by concerted evolution of the ITS regions. Although individual plastid markers provided generally poor resolution of taxonomic groups in Crataegus, a few species were notable exceptions. In contrast, analyses of concatenated sequences of the 3 plastid barcode loci plus 11 additional plastid loci gave a well-resolved maternal phylogeny. In the ITS2 tree, different individuals of some species formed groups with taxonomically unrelated species. This is a sign of lineage sorting due to incomplete concerted evolution in ITS2. Incongruence between the ITS2 and plastid trees is best explained by hybridization between different lineages within the genus. In aggregate, limited between-species variation in plastid loci, hybridization and a lack of concerted evolution in ITS2 all combine to limit the utility of standard barcoding markers in Crataegus. These results have implications for authentication of hawthorn materials in natural health products. PMID:25926325

  15. DNA barcodes from four loci provide poor resolution of taxonomic groups in the genus Crataegus

    PubMed Central

    Zarrei, Mehdi; Talent, Nadia; Kuzmina, Maria; Lee, Jeanette; Lund, Jensen; Shipley, Paul R.; Stefanović, Saša; Dickinson, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcodes can facilitate identification of organisms especially when morphological characters are limited or unobservable. To what extent this potential is realized in specific groups of plants remains to be determined. Libraries of barcode sequences from well-studied authoritatively identified plants represented by herbarium voucher specimens are needed in order for DNA barcodes to serve their intended purpose, where this is possible, and to understand the reasons behind their failure to do so, when this occurs. We evaluated four loci, widely regarded as universal DNA barcodes for plants, for their utility in hawthorn species identification. Three plastid regions, matK, rbcLa and psbA-trnH, and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA discriminate only some of the species of Crataegus that can be recognized on the basis of their morphology etc. This is, in part, because in Rosaceae tribe Maleae most individual plastid loci yield relatively little taxonomic resolution and, in part, because the effects of allopolyploidization have not been eliminated by concerted evolution of the ITS regions. Although individual plastid markers provided generally poor resolution of taxonomic groups in Crataegus, a few species were notable exceptions. In contrast, analyses of concatenated sequences of the 3 plastid barcode loci plus 11 additional plastid loci gave a well-resolved maternal phylogeny. In the ITS2 tree, different individuals of some species formed groups with taxonomically unrelated species. This is a sign of lineage sorting due to incomplete concerted evolution in ITS2. Incongruence between the ITS2 and plastid trees is best explained by hybridization between different lineages within the genus. In aggregate, limited between-species variation in plastid loci, hybridization and a lack of concerted evolution in ITS2 all combine to limit the utility of standard barcoding markers in Crataegus. These results have implications for authentication of hawthorn materials in natural health products. PMID:25926325

  16. Specialization of the DNA-Cleaving Activity of a Group I Ribozyme Through In Vitro Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, Joyce; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1996-01-01

    In an earlier study, an in vitro evolution procedure was applied to a large population of variants of the Tetrahymena group 1 ribozyme to obtain individuals with a 10(exp 5)-fold improved ability to cleave a target single-stranded DNA substrate under simulated physiological conditions. The evolved ribozymes also showed a twofold improvement, compared to the wild-type, in their ability to cleave a single-stranded RNA substrate. Here, we report continuation of the in vitro evolution process using a new selection strategy to achieve both enhanced DNA and diminished RNA-cleavage activity. Our strategy combines a positive selection for DNA cleavage with a negative selection against RNA binding. After 36 "generations" of in vitro evolution, the evolved population showed an approx. 100-fold increase in the ratio of DNA to RNA-cleavage activity. Site-directed mutagenesis experiment confirmed the selective advantage of two covarying mutations within the catalytic core of ribozyme that are largely responsible for this modified behavior. The population of ribozymes has now undergone a total of 63 successive generations of evolution, resulting in an average 28 mutations relative to the wild-type that are responsible for the altered phenotype.

  17. SUMOylation of xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein regulates DNA damage recognition during nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Akita, Masaki; Tak, Yon-Soo; Shimura, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Syota; Okuda-Shimizu, Yuki; Shimizu, Yuichiro; Nishi, Ryotaro; Saitoh, Hisato; Iwai, Shigenori; Mori, Toshio; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Wataru; Hanaoka, Fumio; Sugasawa, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    The xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) protein complex is a key factor that detects DNA damage and initiates nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammalian cells. Although biochemical and structural studies have elucidated the interaction of XPC with damaged DNA, the mechanism of its regulation in vivo remains to be understood in more details. Here, we show that the XPC protein undergoes modification by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins and the lack of this modification compromises the repair of UV-induced DNA photolesions. In the absence of SUMOylation, XPC is normally recruited to the sites with photolesions, but then immobilized profoundly by the UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (UV-DDB) complex. Since the absence of UV-DDB alleviates the NER defect caused by impaired SUMOylation of XPC, we propose that this modification is critical for functional interactions of XPC with UV-DDB, which facilitate the efficient damage handover between the two damage recognition factors and subsequent initiation of NER. PMID:26042670

  18. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Protein Loads as a Separate Factor onto DNA Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rademakers, Suzanne; Volker, Marcel; Hoogstraten, Deborah; Nigg, Alex L.; Moné, Martijn J.; van Zeeland, Albert A.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.; Vermeulen, Wim

    2003-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the main DNA repair pathway in mammals for removal of UV-induced lesions. NER involves the concerted action of more than 25 polypeptides in a coordinated fashion. The xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein (XPA) has been suggested to function as a central organizer and damage verifier in NER. How XPA reaches DNA lesions and how the protein is distributed in time and space in living cells are unknown. Here we studied XPA in vivo by using a cell line stably expressing physiological levels of functional XPA fused to green fluorescent protein and by applying quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The majority of XPA moves rapidly through the nucleoplasm with a diffusion rate different from those of other NER factors tested, arguing against a preassembled XPA-containing NER complex. DNA damage induced a transient (∼5-min) immobilization of maximally 30% of XPA. Immobilization depends on XPC, indicating that XPA is not the initial lesion recognition protein in vivo. Moreover, loading of replication protein A on NER lesions was not dependent on XPA. Thus, XPA participates in NER by incorporation of free diffusing molecules in XPC-dependent NER-DNA complexes. This study supports a model for a rapid consecutive assembly of free NER factors, and a relatively slow simultaneous disassembly, after repair. PMID:12897146

  19. A group I intron in the nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA of Gaeumannomyces graminis.

    PubMed

    Fouly, H M; Wilkinson, H T

    2000-05-01

    The length of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) differs among isolates of species and varieties of Gaeumannomyces. The sequence of the 3' region of the SSU rDNA revealed 340-, 365-, and 520-bp insertions for G. graminis varieties avenae, tritici, and graminis, respectively. The intron sequences from varities tritici and avenae were similar, except there was an insert of 23 nucleotides at base 328 from the 5' end of the G. g. var. tritici intron. The G. g. var. graminis intron sequences had 92.4% homology compared with the intron sequences of varieties tritici and avenae. In addition, the intron sequence of variety graminis is larger, having an insert of 155 nucleotides at base 365 of the 5' end of the intron. Little variation in the DNA sequences flanking the introns has been detected among the isolates of Gaeumannomyces that either have or lack an intron. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) indicated the absence of the intron in the mature rRNA. The intron sequence had both a conserved sequence and secondary structural elements classifying it as a group I intron. PMID:10706657

  20. Mitochondrial DNA variability among six South American Amerindian villages from the Pano linguistic group.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Simoes, Aguinaldo L

    2014-01-01

    Although scattered throughout a large geographic area, the members of the Pano linguistic group present strong ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity, a feature that causes them to be considered components of a same "Pano" tribe. Nevertheless, the genetic homogeneity between Pano villages has not yet been examined. To study the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group, four major Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) founder haplogroups were analyzed in 77 Amerindians from six villages of four Pano tribes (Katukina, Kaxináwa, Marúbo, and Yaminawa) located in the Brazilian Amazon. The central position of these tribes in the continent makes them relevant for attempts to reconstruct population movements in South America. Except for a single individual that presented an African haplogroup L, all remaining individuals presented one of the four Native American haplogroups. Significant heterogeneity was observed across the six Pano villages. Although Amerindian populations are usually characterized by considerable interpopulational diversity, the high heterogeneity level observed is unexpected if the strong ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity of the Pano linguistic group is taken into account. The present findings indicate that the ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity does not imply genetic homogeneity. Even though the genetic heterogeneity uncovered may be a female-specific process, the most probable explanation for that is the joint action of isolation and genetic drift as major factors influencing the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group. PMID:25397700

  1. An unusual case of Streptococcus anginosus group pyomyositis diagnosed using direct 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Walkty, Andrew; Embil, John M; Nichol, Kim; Karlowsky, James

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Streptococcus anginosus group (Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus) are capable of causing serious pyogenic infections, with a tendency for abscess formation. The present article reports a case of S anginosus group pyomyositis in a 47-year-old man. The pathogen was recovered from one of two blood cultures obtained from the patient, but speciation was initially not performed because the organism was considered to be a contaminant (viridans streptococci group). The diagnosis was ultimately confirmed using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing of purulent fluid obtained from a muscle abscess aspirate. The present case serves to emphasize that finding even a single positive blood culture of an organism belonging to the S anginosus group should prompt careful evaluation of the patient for a pyogenic focus of infection. It also highlights the potential utility of 16S ribosomal DNA amplification and sequencing in direct pathogen detection from aspirated fluid in cases of pyomyositis in which antimicrobial therapy was initiated before specimen collection. PMID:24634686

  2. Conformational influence of the ribose 2'-hydroxyl group: crystal structures of DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egli, M.; Usman, N.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have crystallized three double-helical DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes and determined their structures by X-ray crystallography at resolutions between 2 and 2.25 A. The two self-complementary duplexes [r(G)d(CGTATACGC)]2 and [d(GCGT)r(A)d(TACGC)]2, as well as the Okazaki fragment d(GGGTATACGC).r(GCG)d(TATACCC), were found to adopt A-type conformations. The crystal structures are non-isomorphous, and the crystallographic environments for the three chimeras are different. A number of intramolecular interactions of the ribose 2'-hydroxyl groups contribute to the stabilization of the A-conformation. Hydrogen bonds between 2'-hydroxyls and 5'-oxygens or phosphate oxygens, in addition to the previously observed hydrogen bonds to 1'-oxygens of adjacent riboses and deoxyriboses, are observed in the DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes. The crystalline chimeric duplexes do not show a transition between the DNA A- and B-conformations. CD spectra suggest that the Okazaki fragment assumes an A-conformation in solution as well. In this molecule the three RNA residues may therefore lock the complete decamer in the A-conformation. Crystals of an all-DNA strand with the same sequence as the self-complementary chimeras show a morphology which is different from those of the chimera crystals. Moreover, the oligonucleotide does not match any of the sequence characteristics of DNAs usually adopting the A-conformation in the crystalline state (e.g., octamers with short alternating stretches of purines and pyrimidines). In DNA-RNA chimeric duplexes, it is therefore possible that a single RNA residue can drive the conformational equilibrium toward the A-conformation.

  3. Increased levels of chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage in a group of workers exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Costa, Solange; Carvalho, Sandra; Costa, Carla; Coelho, Patrícia; Silva, Susana; Santos, Luís S; Gaspar, Jorge F; Porto, Beatriz; Laffon, Blanca; Teixeira, João P

    2015-07-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a commonly used chemical in anatomy and pathology laboratories as a tissue preservative and fixative. Because of its sensitising properties, irritating effects and cancer implication, FA accounts probably for the most important chemical-exposure hazard concerning this professional group. Evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting, particularly in regard to the ability of inhaled FA to induce toxicity on other cells besides first contact tissues, such as buccal and nasal cells. To evaluate the effects of exposure to FA in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, a group of 84 anatomy pathology laboratory workers exposed occupationally to FA and 87 control subjects were tested for chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and DNA damage (comet assay). The level of exposure to FA in the workplace air was evaluated. The association between genotoxicity biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic-metabolising and DNA repair enzymes were also assessed. The estimated mean level of FA exposure was 0.38±0.03 ppm. All cytogenetic endpoints assessed by CAs test and comet assay % tail DNA (%TDNA) were significantly higher in FA-exposed workers compared with controls. Regarding the effect of susceptibility biomarkers, results suggest that polymorphisms in CYP2E1 and GSTP1 metabolic genes, as well as, XRCC1 and PARP1 polymorphic genes involved in DNA repair pathways are associated with higher genetic damage in FA-exposed subjects. Data obtained in this study show a potential health risk situation of anatomy pathology laboratory workers exposed to FA (0.38 ppm). Implementation of security and hygiene measures may be crucial to decrease risk. The obtained information may also provide new important data to be used by health care programs and by governmental agencies responsible for occupational health and safety. PMID:25711496

  4. Capture-recapture of white-tailed deer using DNA from fecal pellet-groups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Matthew J; Beaver, Jared T; Muller, Lisa I; Clark, Joseph D.; van Manen, Frank T.; Harper, Craig T; Basinger, P Seth

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods for estimating white-tailed deer population size and density are affected by behavioral biases, poor detection in densely forested areas, and invalid techniques for estimating effective trapping area. We evaluated a noninvasive method of capture—recapture for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) density estimation using DNA extracted from fecal pellets as an individual marker and for gender determination, coupled with a spatial detection function to estimate density (spatially explicit capture—recapture, SECR). We collected pellet groups from 11 to 22 January 2010 at randomly selected sites within a 1-km2 area located on Arnold Air Force Base in Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee. We searched 703 10-m radius plots and collected 352 pellet-group samples from 197 plots over five two-day sampling intervals. Using only the freshest pellets we recorded 140 captures of 33 different animals (15M:18F). Male and female densities were 1.9 (SE = 0.8) and 3.8 (SE = 1.3) deer km-2, or a total density of 5.8 deer km-2 (14.9 deer mile-2). Population size was 20.8 (SE = 7.6) over a 360-ha area, and sex ratio was 1.0 M: 2.0 F (SE = 0.71). We found DNA sampling from pellet groups improved deer abundance, density and sex ratio estimates in contiguous landscapes which could be used to track responses to harvest or other management actions.

  5. A Dynamic Combinatorial Approach for Identifying Side Groups that Stabilize DNA-Templated Supramolecular Self-Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Paolantoni, Delphine; Cantel, Sonia; Dumy, Pascal; Ulrich, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    DNA-templated self-assembly is an emerging strategy for generating functional supramolecular systems, which requires the identification of potent multi-point binding ligands. In this line, we recently showed that bis-functionalized guanidinium compounds can interact with ssDNA and generate a supramolecular complex through the recognition of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA. In order to probe the importance of secondary interactions and to identify side groups that stabilize these DNA-templated self-assemblies, we report herein the implementation of a dynamic combinatorial approach. We used an in situ fragment assembly process based on reductive amination and tested various side groups, including amino acids. The results reveal that aromatic and cationic side groups participate in secondary supramolecular interactions that stabilize the complexes formed with ssDNA. PMID:25667976

  6. Role of Polycomb Group Proteins in the DNA Damage Response – A Reassessment

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Hollie; Patel, Harshil; Palermo, Richard; Brookes, Sharon; Matthews, Nik; Peters, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, key regulators of lineage specific gene expression, also participate in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) but evidence for direct recruitment of PcG proteins at specific breaks remains limited. Here we explore the association of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) components with DSBs generated by inducible expression of the AsiSI restriction enzyme in normal human fibroblasts. Based on immunofluorescent staining, the co-localization of PRC1 proteins with components of the DNA damage response (DDR) in these primary cells is unconvincing. Moreover, using chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing (ChIP-seq), which detects PRC1 proteins at common sites throughout the genome, we did not find evidence for recruitment of PRC1 components to AsiSI-induced DSBs. In contrast, the S2056 phosphorylated form of DNA-PKcs and other DDR proteins were detected at a subset of AsiSI sites that are predominantly at the 5′ ends of transcriptionally active genes. Our data question the idea that PcG protein recruitment provides a link between DSB repairs and transcriptional repression. PMID:25057768

  7. Genetic Variation Among Vegetative Compatibility Groups of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Analyzed by DNA Fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Bentley, S; Pegg, K G; Moore, N Y; Davis, R D; Buddenhagen, I W

    1998-12-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic variation within a worldwide collection of 208 isolates of Fu-sarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, representing physiological races 1, 2, 3, and 4 and the 20 reported vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), was analyzed using modified DNA amplification fingerprinting. Also characterized were 133 isolates that did not belong to any of the reported VCGs of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense including race 3 isolates from a Heliconia species and isolates from a symptomatic wild banana species growing in the jungle in peninsular Malaysia. The DNA fingerprint patterns were generally VCG specific, irrespective of geographic or host origin. A total of 33 different genotypes were identified within F. oxysporum f. sp. cu-bense; 19 genotypes were distinguished among the isolates that belonged to the 20 reported VCGs, and 14 new genotypes were identified among the isolates that did not belong to any of the existing VCGs. DNA fingerprinting analysis also allowed differentiation of nine clonal lineages within F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Five of these lineages each contained numerous closely related VCGs and genotypes, and the remaining four lineages each contained a single genotype. The genetic diversity and geographic distribution of several of these lineages of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense suggests that they have coevolved with edible bananas and their wild diploid progenitors in Asia. DNA fingerprinting analysis of isolates from the wild pathosystem provides further evidence for the coevolution hypothesis. The genetic isolation and limited geographic distribution of four of the lineages of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense suggests that the pathogen has also arisen independently, both within and outside of the center of origin of the host. PMID:18944830

  8. Proanthocyanidins inhibit photocarcinogenesis through enhancement of DNA repair and xeroderma pigmentosum group A-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Mudit; Sharma, Som D; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2010-12-01

    Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) inhibit photocarcinogenesis in mice; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. As ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) has been implicated in skin cancer risk, we studied whether dietary GSPs enhance repair of UVB-induced DNA damage and, if so, what is the potential mechanism? Supplementation of GSPs (0.5%, w/w) with AIN76A control diet significantly reduced the levels of CPD(+) cells in UVB-exposed mouse skin; however, GSPs did not significantly reduce UVB-induced CPD(+) cells in the skin of interleukin-12p40 (IL-12) knockout (KO) mice, suggesting that IL-12 is required for the repair of CPDs by GSPs. Using IL-12 KO mice and their wild-type counterparts and standard photocarcinogenesis protocol, we found that supplementation of control diet with GSPs (0.5%, w/w) significantly reduced UVB-induced skin tumor development in wild-type mice, which was associated with the elevated mRNA levels of nucleotide excision repair genes, such as XPA, XPC, DDB2, and RPA1; however, this effect of GSPs was less pronounced in IL-12 KO mice. Cytostaining analysis revealed that GSPs repaired UV-induced CPD(+) cells in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA)-proficient fibroblasts from a healthy individual but did not repair in XPA-deficient fibroblasts from XPA patients. Furthermore, GSPs enhance nuclear translocation of XPA and enhanced its interactions with other DNA repair protein ERCC1. Together, our findings reveal that prevention of photocarcinogenesis by GSPs is mediated through enhanced DNA repair in epidermal cells by IL-12- and XPA-dependent mechanisms. PMID:20947490

  9. Conducting polymer based DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus group species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Arshak, Khalil; Korostynska, Olga; Oliwa, Kamila; Adley, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Biosensor designs are emerging at a significant rate and play an increasingly important role in foodborne pathogen detection. Conducting polymers are excellent tools for the fabrication of biosensors and polypyrrole has been used in the detection of biomolecules due to its unique properties. The prime intention of this paper was to pioneer the design and fabrication of a single-strand (ss) DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus (B.cereus) group species. Growth of B. cereus, results in production of several highly active toxins. Therefore, consumption of food containing >106 bacteria/gm may results in emetic and diarrhoeal syndromes. The most common source of this bacterium is found in liquid food products, milk powder, mixed food products and is of particular concern in the baby formula industry. The electrochemical deposition technique, such as cyclic voltammetry, was used to develop and test a model DNA-based biosensor on a gold electrode electropolymerized with polypyrrole. The electrically conducting polymer, polypyrrole is used as a platform for immobilizing DNA (1μg) on the gold electrode surface, since it can be more easily deposited from neutral pH aqueous solutions of pyrrolemonomers. The average current peak during the electrodeposition event is 288μA. There is a clear change in the current after hybridization of the complementary oligonucleotide (6.35μA) and for the noncomplementary oligonucleotide (5.77μA). The drop in current after each event was clearly noticeable and it proved to be effective.

  10. Genetic analysis of 15 mtDNA SNP loci in Chinese Yi ethnic group using SNaPshot minisequencing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chun-Ting; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Qing-Xia; Wang, Hong-Dan; Yin, Cai-Yong; Fan, Han-Ting; Hu, Ling-Li; Shen, Chun-Mei; Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2016-01-15

    SNaPshot minisequencing is a rapid and robust methodology based on a single base extension with a labeled ddNTP. The present study detected 15 selected SNPs in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control and coding regions by minisequencing methodology using SNaPshot for forensic purpose. The samples were collected from 99 unrelated individuals of the Yi ethnic minority group in Yunnan Province. We have predominantly found high-frequency transitions (91.7%) and a significantly lower frequency of transversions (8.3%). The nt152, 489, 8701, 10,398, 16,183, and 16,362 loci were highly polymorphic, while the nt231, 473 and 581 loci were not polymorphic in the studied population. Based on these 15 SNPs, a total of 28 mtDNA haplotypes were defined in 99 individuals with the haplotype diversity of 0.9136. Also, we compared the mtDNA sequences of Yi group and other 9 populations worldwide and drew a Neighbor-Joining tree based on the shared 12 mtDNA SNP loci, which demonstrated a close relationship between Yi and Bai groups. In conclusion, the analysis of the 15 selected SNPs increases considerably the discrimination power of mtDNA. Moreover, the SNaPshot minisequencing method could quickly detect mtDNA SNPs, and is economical and sensitive. The set of selected 15 SNPs is highly informative and is capable for anthropology genetic analysis. PMID:26432004

  11. DNA barcoding for effective biodiversity assessment of a hyperdiverse arthropod group: the ants of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. Alex; Fisher, Brian L; Hebert, Paul D.N

    2005-01-01

    The role of DNA barcoding as a tool to accelerate the inventory and analysis of diversity for hyperdiverse arthropods is tested using ants in Madagascar. We demonstrate how DNA barcoding helps address the failure of current inventory methods to rapidly respond to pressing biodiversity needs, specifically in the assessment of richness and turnover across landscapes with hyperdiverse taxa. In a comparison of inventories at four localities in northern Madagascar, patterns of richness were not significantly different when richness was determined using morphological taxonomy (morphospecies) or sequence divergence thresholds (Molecular Operational Taxonomic Unit(s); MOTU). However, sequence-based methods tended to yield greater richness and significantly lower indices of similarity than morphological taxonomy. MOTU determined using our molecular technique were a remarkably local phenomenon—indicative of highly restricted dispersal and/or long-term isolation. In cases where molecular and morphological methods differed in their assignment of individuals to categories, the morphological estimate was always more conservative than the molecular estimate. In those cases where morphospecies descriptions collapsed distinct molecular groups, sequence divergences of 16% (on average) were contained within the same morphospecies. Such high divergences highlight taxa for further detailed genetic, morphological, life history, and behavioral studies. PMID:16214741

  12. Genetic correction of DNA repair-deficient/cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum group C keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Arnaudeau-Bégard, Catherine; Brellier, Florence; Chevallier-Lagente, Odile; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Bernerd, Françoise; Sarasin, Alain; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2003-07-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare photosensitive and cancer-prone syndrome transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. Most cancers developed by XP patients are basal and squamous cell carcinoma strikingly restricted to sun-exposed parts of the skin. Cells from patients with classic XP are deficient in nucleotide excision repair, a versatile biochemical mechanism for removal of ultraviolet-induced DNA lesions. Among the seven classic XP complementation groups known to date (XP-A to XP-G), XP-C is the most common one in Europe and North Africa and XP-C patients remain free of neurologic problems often seen in other XP complementation groups. This has prompted us to undertake genetic correction of XP-C fibroblasts and particularly keratinocytes, which are the most relevant cells in relation to skin cancer and have proven recently to be capable of reconstructing XP-C skin in vitro. In this study, we demonstrate that DNA repair capacity, cell survival properties, and transition from proliferative to abortive keratinocyte colonies toward UVB irradiation can be fully recovered in keratinocytes from patients with XPC transduced with a retroviral vector stably driving the expression of the wild-type XPC protein. In addition, we show that in the absence of UV, XP-C keratinocytes exhibit intrinsic cell cycle abnormalities, and beta(1)-integrin overexpression, defects that are also both fully reversed after genetic correction. Together with full correction of the defects in XP-C corrected keratinocytes, in vitro reconstruction of skin from these cells open a rational perspective to XP tissue therapy. PMID:12869216

  13. Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. (formerly DNA group 15 sensu Tjernberg & Ursing), isolated from humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Krizova, Lenka; McGinnis, Jana; Maixnerova, Martina; Nemec, Matej; Poirel, Laurent; Mingle, Lisa; Sedo, Ondrej; Wolfgang, William

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to define the taxonomic status of 16 strains which were phenetically congruent with Acinetobacter DNA group 15 described by Tjernberg & Ursing in 1989. The strains were isolated from a variety of human and animal specimens in geographically distant places over the last three decades. Taxonomic analysis was based on an Acinetobacter-targeted, genus-wide approach that included the comparative sequence analysis of housekeeping, protein-coding genes, whole-cell profiling based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), an array of in-house physiological and metabolic tests, and whole-genome comparative analysis. Based on analyses of the rpoB and gyrB genes, the 16 strains formed respective, strongly supported clusters clearly separated from the other species of the genus Acinetobacter. The distinctness of the group at the species level was indicated by average nucleotide identity values of ≤82 % between the whole genome sequences of two of the 16 strains (NIPH 2171T and NIPH 899) and those of the known species. In addition, the coherence of the group was also supported by MALDI-TOF MS. All 16 strains were non-haemolytic and non-gelatinase-producing, grown at 41 °C and utilized a rather limited number of carbon sources. Virtually every strain displayed a unique combination of metabolic and physiological features. We conclude that the 16 strains represent a distinct species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. is proposed to reflect its marked phenotypic heterogeneity. The type strain is NIPH 2171T ( = CIP 110486T = CCUG 26390T = CCM 8555T). PMID:25510976

  14. The Q motif of Fanconi anemia group J protein (FANCJ) DNA helicase regulates its dimerization, DNA binding, and DNA repair function.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuliang; Sommers, Joshua A; Loiland, Jason A; Kitao, Hiroyuki; Kuper, Jochen; Kisker, Caroline; Brosh, Robert M

    2012-06-22

    The Q motif, conserved in a number of RNA and DNA helicases, is proposed to be important for ATP binding based on structural data, but its precise biochemical functions are less certain. FANCJ encodes a Q motif DEAH box DNA helicase implicated in Fanconi anemia and breast cancer. A Q25A mutation of the invariant glutamine in the Q motif abolished its ability to complement cisplatin or telomestatin sensitivity of a fancj null cell line and exerted a dominant negative effect. Biochemical characterization of the purified recombinant FANCJ-Q25A protein showed that the mutation disabled FANCJ helicase activity and the ability to disrupt protein-DNA interactions. FANCJ-Q25A showed impaired DNA binding and ATPase activity but displayed ATP binding and temperature-induced unfolding transition similar to FANCJ-WT. Size exclusion chromatography and sedimentation velocity analyses revealed that FANCJ-WT existed as molecular weight species corresponding to a monomer and a dimer, and the dimeric form displayed a higher specific activity for ATPase and helicase, as well as greater DNA binding. In contrast, FANCJ-Q25A existed only as a monomer, devoid of helicase activity. Thus, the Q motif is essential for FANCJ enzymatic activity in vitro and DNA repair function in vivo. PMID:22582397

  15. Pyramidal and Chiral Groupings of Gold Nanocrystals Assembled Using DNA Scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Mastroianni, Alexander; Claridge, Shelley; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-03-30

    Nanostructures constructed from metal and semiconductor nanocrystals conjugated to, and organized by DNA are an emerging class of material with collective optical properties. We created discrete pyramids of DNA with gold nanocrystals at the tips. By taking small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurments from solutions of these pyramids we confirmed that this pyramidal geometry creates structures which are more rigid in solution than linear DNA. We then took advantage of the tetrahedral symmetry to demonstrate construction of chiral nanostructures.

  16. The dnaJ gene as a molecular discriminator to differentiate among species and strain within the Lactobacillus casei group.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Chang, Mu-Tzu; Huang, Lina; Chu, Wen-Shen

    2015-12-01

    Identifying Lactobacillus casei and its closely related taxa at the species and strain level using only phenotypic and genotypic (16S rDNA sequence homology analysis) techniques often yields inaccurate results. In this study, the dnaJ chaperone gene was investigated as a molecular target for inter- and intraspecies discrimination within the Lb. casei group as well as for the development of specific primers for species identification. The results showed that most of the examined strains could be clearly distinguished from closely related species based on the sequenced fragments. At the interspecies level, the dnaJ sequence similarities were 81.7%-85.5%. However, at the intraspecies level, the dnaJ sequence similarities were 96.2-100% and could be assigned to different haplotypes in Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, respectively. Compared to the 16S rRNA gene, the dnaJ sequence showed greater variation at both the species and strain level. Thus, the dnaJ gene can be proposed as an alternative marker for the Lb. casei group that provides higher discriminatory power than the 16S rRNA gene. In addition, species-specific primers were developed and subsequently employed in two-plex minisequencing analysis and shown to be specific for Lb. paracasei and Lb. rhamnosus. Our data indicate that phylogenetic relationships in the Lb. casei group can be resolved using comparative sequence analysis of the dnaJ gene and that the Lb. paracasei and Lb. rhamnosus species can be simultaneously identified using a novel species-specific minisequencing assay. PMID:26050941

  17. Additional data for nuclear DNA give new insights into the phylogenetic position of Sorex granarius within the Sorex araneus group.

    PubMed

    Yannic, G; Dubey, S; Hausser, J; Basset, P

    2010-12-01

    Many species contain genetic lineages that are phylogenetically intermixed with those of other species. In the Sorex araneus group, previous results based on mtDNA and Y chromosome sequence data showed an incongruent position of Sorex granarius within this group. In this study, we explored the relationship between species within the S. araneus group, aiming to resolve the particular position of S. granarius. In this context, we sequenced a total of 2447 base pairs (bp) of X-linked and nuclear genes from 47 individuals of the S. araneus group. The same taxa were also analyzed within a Bayesian framework with nine autosomal microsatellites. These analyses revealed that all markers apart from mtDNA showed similar patterns, suggesting that the problematic position of S. granarius is best explained by an incongruent behavior by mtDNA. Given their close phylogenetic relationship and their close geographic distribution, the most likely explanation for this pattern is past mtDNA introgression from S. araneus race Carlit to S. granarius. PMID:20883802

  18. DNA FINGERPRINTING ANALYSIS OF VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY GROUPS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS FROM A PEANUT FEILD IN GEORGIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of a species specific DNA probe pAF28 to correctly match 75 strains of A. flavus isolated from a peanut field in Georgia with one of 44 distinct VCGs was assessed. Multiple strains belonging to the same VCG typically produced identical DNA fingerprints with the exception of VCG 17 and V...

  19. DNA Barcoding Will Frequently Fail in Complicated Groups: An Example in Wild Potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA barcoding has been proposed as a rapid and practical molecular tool to identify species using short orthologous DNA sequences from one or a small number of universal regions. It seeks to overcome the “taxonomic impediment” of a greater need to identify organisms than the availability of competen...

  20. DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenfeld, Gary

    1985-01-01

    Structural form, bonding scheme, and chromatin structure of and gene-modification experiments with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are described. Indicates that DNA's double helix is variable and also flexible as it interacts with regulatory and other molecules to transfer hereditary messages. (DH)

  1. Crystal structure of the trithorax group protein ASH2L reveals a forkhead-like DNA binding domain

    SciTech Connect

    Sarvan, Sabina; Avdic, Vanja; Tremblay, Véronique; Chaturvedi, Chandra-Prakash; Zhang, Pamela; Lanouette, Sylvain; Blais, Alexandre; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Brand, Marjorie; Couture, Jean-François

    2012-05-02

    Absent, small or homeotic discs-like 2 (ASH2L) is a trithorax group (TrxG) protein and a regulatory subunit of the SET1 family of lysine methyltransferases. Here we report that ASH2L binds DNA using a forkhead-like helix-wing-helix (HWH) domain. In vivo, the ASH2L HWH domain is required for binding to the {beta}-globin locus control region, histone H3 Lys4 (H3K4) trimethylation and maximal expression of the {beta}-globin gene (Hbb-1), validating the functional importance of the ASH2L DNA binding domain.

  2. Aeromonas jandaei (formerly genospecies DNA group 9 A. sobria), a new sucrose-negative species isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Carnahan, A; Fanning, G R; Joseph, S W

    1991-03-01

    A large numerical taxonomy study conducted in 1988 of 165 mostly clinical Aeromonas strains from diverse geographic sources produced a cluster (S = 84%, SSM) of four sucrose-negative strains that included the DNA definition strain for DNA group 9 A. sobria (CDC 0787-80). These four strains, together with five additional strains received in 1989, were subjected to DNA-DNA hybridization (hydroxyapatite, 32P, 60 and 75 degrees C), and all eight strains were closely related to the ninth labeled DNA group 9 definition strain CDC 0787-80 (73 to 86% relatedness at 60 degrees C and 68 to 80% relatedness at 75 degrees C; percent divergence, 2.0 to 3.5). Type strains and DNA definition strains for all other established Aeromonas species were only 35 to 72% related (60 degrees C) to CDC 0787-80. We propose the name Aeromonas jandaei for this highly related group of nine strains, formerly known as DNA group 9 A. sobria. The type strain was designated ATCC 49568 (CDC 0787-80). The nine strains were examined at 36 degrees C and were found to be resistant to 0/129 (vibriostatic agent) and uniformly positive for oxidase, gas production from glucose, indole, lysine decarboxylase, arginine dihydrolase, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, motility (25 degrees C), nitrate reduction, citrate utilization, hemolysis on sheep blood agar, and growth in Trypticase soy broth with no added NaCl. They all fermented D-glucose, D-mannitol, and mannose but did not ferment sucrose, cellobiose, L-arabinose, inositol, salicin, or D-sorbitol. They were uniformly negative for esculin and urea hydrolysis, elastase production, ornithine decarboxylation, and the string test. The antibiogram of A. jandaei resembled that of other aeromonads (resistance to ampicillin and cephalothin), but it differed from most other aeromonads because of resistance to single dilution of colistin and differed from clinical A. veronii biogroup sorbria (formerly A. sobria) by its nearly uniform resistance to cephalothin. The esculin-, sucrose-, and cellobiose-negative and colistin-resistant profile distinguished A. jandaei from other Aeromonas species. These A. jandaei strains were isolated from blood (two strains), wounds (two strains), diarrheal stools (four strains), and a prawn (one strain). The blood and wound isolates, in particular, suggest that there is a possible clinical significance for this species and justify identification of and further research on this group of motile aeromonads. PMID:2037673

  3. Efimov-like phase of a three-stranded DNA and the renormalization-group limit cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Tanmoy; Sadhukhan, Poulomi; Bhattacharjee, Somendra M.

    2015-04-01

    A three-stranded DNA with short range base pairings only is known to exhibit a classical analog of the quantum Efimov effect, viz., a three-chain bound state at the two-chain melting point where no two are bound. By using a nonperturbative renormalization-group method for a rigid duplex DNA and a flexible third strand, with base pairings and strand exchange, we show that the Efimov-DNA is associated with a limit cycle type behavior of the flow of an effective three-chain interaction. The analysis also shows that thermally generated bubbles play an essential role in producing the effect. A toy model for the flow equations shows the limit cycle in an extended three-dimensional parameter space of the two-chain coupling and a complex three-chain interaction.

  4. Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer corrects DNA repair defect of xeroderma pigmentosum cells of complementation groups A, B and C.

    PubMed

    Zeng, L; Quilliet, X; Chevallier-Lagente, O; Eveno, E; Sarasin, A; Mezzina, M

    1997-10-01

    With the aim to devise a long-term gene therapy protocol for skin cancers in individuals affected by the inherited autosomal recessive xeroderma pigmentosum we transferred the human DNA repair XPA, XPB/ERCC3 and XPC cDNAs, by using the recombinant retroviral vector LXSN, into primary and immortalized fibroblasts obtained from two XP-A, one XP-B (associated with Cockayne's syndrome) and two XP-C patients. After transduction, the complete correction of DNA repair deficiency and functional expression of the transgenes were monitored by UV survival, unscheduled DNA synthesis and recovery of RNA synthesis, and Western blots. The results show that the recombinant retroviruses are highly efficient vectors to transfer and stably express the human DNA repair genes in XP cells and correct the defect of DNA repair of group A, B and C. With our previous results with XPD/ERCC2, the present work extends further promising issues for the gene therapy strategy for most patients suffering from this cancer-prone syndrome. PMID:9415314

  5. Nuclear Quadrupole Interaction Study as a Probe of Interaction between Nucleobases and Suger Rings and Phosphate Groups in DNA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, T. P.; Dubey, Archana; Scheicher, R. H.; Badu, S. R.; Pink, R. H.; Nagamine, K.; Torikai, E.; Saha, H. P.; Chow, Lee; Huang, M. B.

    2008-03-01

    We have been investigating the influence of the interaction between the nucleobases and sugar rings and phosphate groups in DNA using Nuclear Quadrupole interactions (NQI) of ^14N and ^17O and ^2H nuclei as probes. We have first simulated the influence of the interaction between a nucleobase and a sugar ring using a CH3 group attached to the former. For our electronic structure investigations, we have employed the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan procedure using the Gaussian set of programs. Our preliminary investigations have shown that there are comparable indirect and direct effects on the NQI parameters, the former effect referring to the influence of changes in molecular geometries produced by the CH3 group and the direct effect is due to the electronic interaction between the CH3 group and the nucleobase. More quantitative results from our current investigations using the actual sugar rings and phosphate groups will be presented as in earlier work by our group[1] for hyperfine interactions of trapped muonium atoms in DNA.[1] R.H. Scheicher et al Physica B 374-375, 448(2006)

  6. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker Specific for the Bacillus cereus Group Is Diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara; Frova, Giuseppe; Gallo, Romina; Mori, Elena; Fani, Renato; Sorlini, Claudia

    1999-01-01

    Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. mycoides was identified. This fragment included a putative (366-nucleotide) open reading frame highly homologous to the ypuA gene of Bacillus subtilis. The restriction analysis of the SG-850 fragment with AluI distinguished B. anthracis from the other species of the B. cereus group. PMID:10049896

  7. The DNA polymerase genes of several HMU-bacteriophages have similar group I introns with highly divergent open reading frames.

    PubMed Central

    Goodrich-Blair, H; Shub, D A

    1994-01-01

    A previous report described the discovery of a group I, self-splicing intron in the DNA polymerase gene of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPO1 (1). In this study, the DNA polymerase genes of three close relatives of SPO1: SP82, 2C and phi e, were also found to be interrupted by an intron. All of these introns have group I secondary structures that are extremely similar to one another in primary sequence. Each is interrupted by an open reading frame (ORF) that, unlike the intron core or exon sequences, are highly diverged. Unlike the relatives of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T4, most of which do not have introns (2), this intron seems to be common among the relatives of SPO1. Images PMID:7937082

  8. Lay perceptions of predictive testing for diabetes based on DNA test results versus family history assessment: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study assessed lay perceptions of issues related to predictive genetic testing for multifactorial diseases. These perceived issues may differ from the "classic" issues, e.g. autonomy, discrimination, and psychological harm that are considered important in predictive testing for monogenic disorders. In this study, type 2 diabetes was used as an example, and perceptions with regard to predictive testing based on DNA test results and family history assessment were compared. Methods Eight focus group interviews were held with 45 individuals aged 35-70 years with (n = 3) and without (n = 1) a family history of diabetes, mixed groups of these two (n = 2), and diabetes patients (n = 2). All interviews were transcribed and analysed using Atlas-ti. Results Most participants believed in the ability of a predictive test to identify people at risk for diabetes and to motivate preventive behaviour. Different reasons underlying motivation were considered when comparing DNA test results and a family history risk assessment. A perceived drawback of DNA testing was that diabetes was considered not severe enough for this type of risk assessment. In addition, diabetes family history assessment was not considered useful by some participants, since there are also other risk factors involved, not everyone has a diabetes family history or knows their family history, and it might have a negative influence on family relations. Respect for autonomy of individuals was emphasized more with regard to DNA testing than family history assessment. Other issues such as psychological harm, discrimination, and privacy were only briefly mentioned for both tests. Conclusion The results suggest that most participants believe a predictive genetic test could be used in the prevention of multifactorial disorders, such as diabetes, but indicate points to consider before both these tests are applied. These considerations differ with regard to the method of assessment (DNA test or obtaining family history) and also differ from monogenic disorders. PMID:21729316

  9. DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1970-01-01

    This history for molecular genetics and its explanation of DNA begins with an analysis of the Golden Jubilee essay papers, 1955. The paper ends stating that the higher nervous system is the one major frontier of biological inquiry which still offers some romance of research. (Author/VW)

  10. [Kinetics of formaldehyde splitting off from the hydroxymethylated amino groups of nitrogen bases incorporated into double-helical DNA].

    PubMed

    Demidov, V V; Lazurkin, Iu S

    1980-01-01

    We studied the kinetics of formaldehyde dissociation from hydroxymethylated amino groups of nitrous bases on native DNA. Compared with monomers, the rate constant of formaldehyde dissociation from such bases integrate in the double helix proved to be 20 times smaller for adenine and 4 times smaller for cytidine within the temperature range of 15 to 40 degrees C. The kinetic pattern suggests that the dissociation of formaldehyde from hydroxymethylated amino groups does not occur in the direction of the base plane nor through a full fluctuational opening of base pairs. It is presumed that formaldehyde dissociation from modified amino groups is due to softer fluctuational changes which however, make it possible for formaldehyde to attack amino groups perpendicularly to the base plane. PMID:7383035

  11. A novel virus genome discovered in an extreme environment suggests recombination between unrelated groups of RNA and DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Viruses are known to be the most abundant organisms on earth, yet little is known about their collective origin and evolutionary history. With exceptionally high rates of genetic mutation and mosaicism, it is not currently possible to resolve deep evolutionary histories of the known major virus groups. Metagenomics offers a potential means of establishing a more comprehensive view of viral evolution as vast amounts of new sequence data becomes available for comparative analysis. Results Bioinformatic analysis of viral metagenomic sequences derived from a hot, acidic lake revealed a circular, putatively single-stranded DNA virus encoding a major capsid protein similar to those found only in single-stranded RNA viruses. The presence and circular configuration of the complete virus genome was confirmed by inverse PCR amplification from native DNA extracted from lake sediment. The virus genome appears to be the result of a RNA-DNA recombination event between two ostensibly unrelated virus groups. Environmental sequence databases were examined for homologous genes arranged in similar configurations and three similar putative virus genomes from marine environments were identified. This result indicates the existence of a widespread but previously undetected group of viruses. Conclusions This unique viral genome carries implications for theories of virus emergence and evolution, as no mechanism for interviral RNA-DNA recombination has yet been identified, and only scant evidence exists that genetic exchange occurs between such distinct virus lineages. Reviewers This article was reviewed by EK, MK (nominated by PF) and AM. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section. PMID:22515485

  12. DNA barcoding reveals both known and novel taxa in the Albitarsis Group (Anopheles: Nyssorhynchus) of Neotropical malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes belonging to the Albitarsis Group (Anopheles: Nyssorhynchus) are of importance as malaria vectors across the Neotropics. The Group currently comprises six known species, and recent studies have indicated further hidden biodiversity within the Group. DNA barcoding has been proposed as a highly useful tool for species recognition, although its discriminatory utility has not been verified in closely related taxa across a wide geographic distribution. Methods DNA barcodes (658 bp of the mtDNA Cytochrome c Oxidase - COI) were generated for 565 An. albitarsis s.l. collected in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay, Trinidad and Venezuela over the past twenty years, including specimens from type series and type localities. Here we test the utility of currently advocated barcoding methodologies, including the Kimura-two-parameter distance model (K2P) and Neighbor-joining analysis (NJ), for determining species delineation within mosquitoes of the Neotropical Albitarsis Group of malaria vectors (Anopheles: Nyssorhynchus), and compare results with Bayesian analysis. Results Species delineation through barcoding analysis and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, fully concur. Analysis of 565 sequences (302 unique haplotypes) resolved nine NJ tree clusters, with less than 2% intra-node variation. Mean intra-specific variation (K2P) was 0.009 (range 0.002 - 0.014), whereas mean inter-specific divergence were several-fold higher at 0.041 (0.020 - 0.056), supporting the reported "barcoding gap". These results show full support for separate species status of the six known species in the Albitarsis Group (An. albitarsis s.s., An. albitarsis F, An. deaneorum, An. janconnae, An. marajoara and An. oryzalimnetes), and also support species level status for two previously detected lineages - An. albitarsis G &An. albitarsis I (designated herein). In addition, we highlight the presence of a unique mitochondrial lineage close to An. deaneorum and An. marajoara (An. albitarsis H) from Rondônia and Mato Grosso in southwestern Brazil. Further integrated studies are required to confirm the status of this lineage. Conclusions DNA barcoding provides a reliable means of identifying both known and undiscovered biodiversity within the closely related taxa of the Albitarsis Group. We advocate its usage in future studies to elucidate the vector competence and respective distributions of all eight species in the Albitarsis Group and the novel mitochondrial lineage (An. albitarsis H) recovered in this study. PMID:22353437

  13. The Polycomb Group Protein EZH2 Impairs DNA Damage Repair Gene Expression in Human Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Nair, Sangeeta; Laknaur, Archana; Ismail, Nahed; Diamond, Michael P; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2016-03-01

    Uterine fibroids are benign, smooth muscle tumors that occur in approximately 70%-80% of women by age 50 yr. The cellular and molecular mechanism(s) by which uterine fibroids (UFs) develop are not fully understood. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that several genetic abnormalities, including deletions, rearrangements, translocations, as well as mutations, have been found in UFs. These genetic anomalies suggest that low DNA damage repair capacity may be involved in UF formation. The objective of this study was to determine whether expression levels of DNA damage repair-related genes were altered, and how they were regulated in the pathogenesis of UFs. Expression levels of DNA repair-related genesRAD51andBRCA1were deregulated in fibroid tissues as compared to adjacent myometrial tissues. Expression levels of chromatin protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) were higher in a subset of fibroids as compared to adjacent myometrial tissues by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Treatment with an inhibitor of EZH2 markedly increased expression levels ofRAD51andBRCA1in fibroid cells and inhibited cell proliferation paired with cell cycle arrest. Restoring the expression ofRAD51andBRCA1by treatment with EZH2 inhibitor was dependent on reducing the enrichment of trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 epigenetic mark in their promoter regions. This study reveals the important role of EZH2-regulated DNA damage-repair genes via histone methylation in fibroid biology, and may provide novel therapeutic targets for the medical treatment of women with symptomatic UFs. PMID:26888970

  14. Cockayne syndrome group B protein regulates DNA double-strand break repair and checkpoint activation.

    PubMed

    Batenburg, Nicole L; Thompson, Elizabeth L; Hendrickson, Eric A; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2015-05-12

    Mutations of CSB account for the majority of Cockayne syndrome (CS), a devastating hereditary disorder characterized by physical impairment, neurological degeneration and segmental premature aging. Here we report the generation of a human CSB-knockout cell line. We find that CSB facilitates HR and represses NHEJ. Loss of CSB or a CS-associated CSB mutation abrogating its ATPase activity impairs the recruitment of BRCA1, RPA and Rad51 proteins to damaged chromatin but promotes the formation of 53BP1-Rif1 damage foci in S and G2 cells. Depletion of 53BP1 rescues the formation of BRCA1 damage foci in CSB-knockout cells. In addition, knockout of CSB impairs the ATM- and Chk2-mediated DNA damage responses, promoting a premature entry into mitosis. Furthermore, we show that CSB accumulates at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a transcription-dependent manner. The kinetics of DSB-induced chromatin association of CSB is distinct from that of its UV-induced chromatin association. These results reveal novel, important functions of CSB in regulating the DNA DSB repair pathway choice as well as G2/M checkpoint activation. PMID:25820262

  15. 28s rDNA group-I introns: a powerful tool for identifying strains of Beauveria brongniartii.

    PubMed

    Neuvéglise, C; Brygoo, Y; Riba, G

    1997-04-01

    The nuclear ribosomal DNA of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria brongniartii is polymorphic in terms of both restriction site and length. Insertions of 350-450 bp long, identified as group-I introns, were detected in the 28s rDNA. A panel of 47 strains of B. brongniartii, two B. bassiana and one Metarhizium anisopliae of various geographical and biological origins were found to contain 14 variant forms of intron differing in size and restriction pattern, at four different positions. Twelve types of ribosomal large subunit were defined on the basis of variant distribution and compared with strain clustering based on internal transcribed spacers analysis. There was a correlation between the characteristic introns and isolates collected from the sugar cane pest Hoplochelus marginalis. Primers for polymerase chain reaction amplification were chosen from these variants, and used to develop a specific method for detecting strains pathogenic towards Hoplochelus. PMID:9131812

  16. Three Group-I introns in 18S rDNA of Endosymbiotic Algae of Paramecium bursaria from Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshina, Ryo; Kamako, Shin-ichiro; Imamura, Nobutaka

    2004-08-01

    In the nuclear encoded small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) of symbiotic alga of Paramecium bursaria (F36 collected in Japan) possesses three intron-like insertions (Hoshina et al., unpubl. data, 2003). The present study confirmed these exact lengths and insertion sites by reverse transcription-PCR. Two of them were inserted at Escherichia coli 16S rRNA genic position 943 and 1512 that are frequent intron insertion positions, but another insertion position (nearly 1370) was the first finding. Their secondary structures suggested they belong to Group-I intron; one belongs to subgroup IE, others belong to subgroup IC1. Similarity search indicated these introns are ancestral ones.

  17. Development of cDNA probes for typing group A bovine rotaviruses on the basis of VP4 specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Parwani, A V; Rosen, B I; McCrae, M A; Saif, L J

    1992-01-01

    Dot and Northern (RNA) blot hybridization assays were developed for the P typing of group A bovine rotaviruses (BRV) by using cDNA probes prepared from gene segment 4. The probes were prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification of hyperdivergent regions (nucleotides 211 to 686) of BRV strain UK, IND, NCDV, and Cr VP4 cDNA by using specific oligonucleotide primers. The probes were P type specific (VP4) and exhibited little or no cross-reactivity with double-stranded RNA from heterologous rotavirus P types. Our studies indicate that at least three P types, as defined by polymerase chain reaction-derived VP4 gene probes from the UK, NCDV, and Cr strains, exist among the seven BRV isolates tested. Images PMID:1383267

  18. Complete mtDNA genomes of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups: a melting pot of recent and ancient lineages in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Delfin, Frederick; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Li, Mingkun; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen D; Tabbada, Kristina A; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Calacal, Gayvelline C; Sagum, Minerva S; Datar, Francisco A; Padilla, Sabino G; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines is a strategic point in the Asia-Pacific region for the study of human diversity, history and origins, as it is a cross-road for human migrations and consequently exhibits enormous ethnolinguistic diversity. Following on a previous in-depth study of Y-chromosome variation, here we provide new insights into the maternal genetic history of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups by surveying complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from a total of 14 groups (11 groups in this study and 3 groups previously published) including previously published mtDNA hypervariable segment (HVS) data from Filipino regional center groups. Comparison of HVS data indicate genetic differences between ethnolinguistic and regional center groups. The complete mtDNA genomes of 14 ethnolinguistic groups reveal genetic aspects consistent with the Y-chromosome, namely: diversity and heterogeneity of groups, no support for a simple dichotomy between Negrito and non-Negrito groups, and different genetic affinities with Asia-Pacific groups that are both ancient and recent. Although some mtDNA haplogroups can be associated with the Austronesian expansion, there are others that associate with South Asia, Near Oceania and Australia that are consistent with a southern migration route for ethnolinguistic group ancestors into the Asia-Pacific, with a timeline that overlaps with the initial colonization of the Asia-Pacific region, the initial colonization of the Philippines and a possible separate post-colonization migration into the Philippine archipelago. PMID:23756438

  19. DNA duplexes with reactive dialdehyde groups as novel reagents for cross-linking to restriction- modification enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Brevnov, M G; Gritsenko, O M; Mikhailov, S N; Efimtseva, E V; Ermolinsky, B S; Van Aerschot, A; Herdewijn, P; Repyk, A V; Gromova, E S

    1997-01-01

    To create new, effective reagents for affinity modification of restriction-modification (R-M) enzymes, a regioselective method for reactive dialdehyde group incorporation into oligonucleotides, based on insertion of a 1-beta-D-galactopyranosylthymine residue, has been developed. We synthesized DNA duplex analogs of the substrates of the Eco RII and Mva I R-M enzymes that contained a galactose or periodate-oxidized galactose residue as single substituents either in the center of the Eco RII (Mva I) recognition site or in the flanking nucleotide sequence. The dependence of binding, cleavage and methylation of these substrate analogs on the modified sugar location in the duplex was determined. Cross-linking of the reagents to the enzymes under different conditions was examined. M. Eco RII covalent attachment to periodate-oxidized substrate analogs proceeded in a specific way and to a large extent depended on the location of the reactive dialdehyde group in the substrate. The yield of covalent attachment to a DNA duplex with a dialdehyde group in the flanking sequence with Eco RII or Mva I methylases was 9-20% and did not exceed 4% for R. Eco RII. PMID:9241245

  20. Rapid Plant Identification Using Species- and Group-Specific Primers Targeting Chloroplast DNA

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

  1. Rapid plant identification using species- and group-specific primers targeting chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Wallinger, Corinna; Juen, Anita; Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

  2. Variation in the small subunit ribosomal DNA confirms that Udonella (Monogenea: Udonellidae) is a species-rich group.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Mark A; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2010-02-01

    Numerous global reports of the species Udonella caligorum, currently thought to be a species complex, suggests that the group may be species-rich. Herein we describe Udonella fugu n. sp., previously described as U. caligorum, found on the parasitic copepod Pseudocaligus fugu infecting Takifugu spp. from Japan. Using morphological data U. fugu can be distinguished from the current valid species by at least one of the traditionally used characters in udonellid taxonomy, and phylogenetic analyses of ssrDNA sequence data for U. fugu and other udonellids confirm that U. fugu forms a distinct clade from other udonellids including U. caligorum. Variable regions in the ssrDNA demonstrated a range of between 2.75 and 5.5% difference between currently recognized species of Udonella. These differences in ssrDNA sequences are phylogenetically useful when distinguishing between morphologically similar udonellids and can be used in conjunction with other data (morphology, phylogeography and fish host) to help clarify udonellid systematics. Udonella fugu was also found to cause significant damage to farmed tiger puffers through their feeding activities. Individual skin lesions were round in shape but merged with adjoining lesions to form more extensive lacerations. In some of the specimens from P. fugu infecting Takifugu niphobles, the protozoan ciliate Trichodina was found on the udonellid body surface and in their intestinal contents. We conclude that the udonellids are a more species-rich group than currently recognized, that early descriptions of new species may have been synonymized with U. caligorum in error and that the frequent global reports of U. caligorum may actually represent new species. This has led to a wide range of morphological descriptions for U. caligorum, blurring the usefulness of morphological data for the group. PMID:19715695

  3. Are clownfish groups composed of close relatives? An analysis of microsatellite DNA variation in Amphiprion percula.

    PubMed

    Buston, Peter M; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Wong, Alex; Harrison, Richard G

    2007-09-01

    A central question of evolutionary ecology is: why do animals live in groups? Answering this question requires that the costs and benefits of group living are measured from the perspective of each individual in the group. This, in turn, requires that the group's genetic structure is elucidated, because genetic relatedness can modulate the individuals' costs and benefits. The clown anemonefish, Amphiprion percula, lives in groups composed of a breeding pair and zero to four nonbreeders. Both breeders and nonbreeders stand to gain by associating with relatives: breeders might prefer to tolerate nonbreeders that are relatives because there is little chance that relatives will survive to breed elsewhere; nonbreeders might prefer to associate with breeders that are relatives because of the potential to accrue indirect genetic benefits by enhancing anemone and, consequently, breeder fitness. Given the potential benefits of associating with relatives, we use microsatellite loci to investigate whether or not individuals within groups of A. percula are related. We develop seven polymorphic microsatellite loci, with a number of alleles (range 2-24) and an observed level of heterozygosity (mean = 0.5936) sufficient to assess fine-scale genetic structure. The mean coefficient of relatedness among group members is 0.00 +/- 0.10 (n = 9 groups), and there are no surprising patterns in the distribution of pairwise relatedness. We conclude that A. percula live in groups of unrelated individuals. This study lays the foundation for further investigations of behavioural, population and community ecology of anemonefishes which are emerging as model systems for evolutionary ecology in the marine environment. PMID:17845439

  4. Effect of multifold charge groups and imidazole-4-carboxaldehyde on physicochemical characteristics and transfection of cationic polyphosphazenes/DNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Zhang, Zhiwen; Chen, Lingli; Li, Yaping

    2010-05-10

    To understand the dual influence of multifold charge groups and conjugation of imidazole moiety on the physicochemical characteristics and the transfection activity of polymer complexes, a series of cationic polyphosphazenes based on poly(2-(2-aminoethyoxy)ethoxy) phosphazene (PAEP) with different components of multifold charge groups was synthesized by means of introducing imidazole-4-carboxaldehyde (IC) into PAEP through the formation of Schiff base. Though the polymers with primary amino groups (1 degree) alone or with abundant primary amino groups could bind DNA more efficiently than the ones with mainly or totally secondary (2 degrees) and tertiary (3 degrees) amino groups, all of the polymers could condense DNA into small particles within 100nm at the N/P ratio of 24. The cell viability of complexes and the pH buffering capacity of polymers increased with substitution degree of IC increasing. Among all the PAEP-based polymers, the highest transfection activity was found for poly(2-(2-aminoethyoxy)ethoxy/IC)phosphazene (PAEIC) 18 complexes containing 1 degree, 2 degrees and 3 degrees amines at a ratio of 3.5:1:1 with 18% substitution degree of IC, which indicated that either the coexistence of 1 degree, 2 degrees and 3 degrees amines or the conjugation of imidazole moiety played an important role in transfection activity. These results suggested that the most efficient gene carrier could be these polymers with 1 degree, 2 degrees and 3 degrees amines at an appropriate ratio, together with the presence of imidazole moiety in a small fraction. PMID:20074628

  5. Identification of group-I introns in the 28s rDNA of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria brongniartii.

    PubMed

    Neuvéglise, C; Brygoo, Y

    1994-12-01

    The length of the 28s ribosomal DNA differs significantly between two strains (Bt102 and Bt114) of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria brongniartii. RFLP analysis on PCR products revealed the presence of three insertional elements of 350-450 bp in strain Bt114. One of the insertions has been cloned and sequenced and shown to possess all the characteristic sequences and secondary structures of a group-IC intron. Its length is 428 bp and it is devoid of any long open reading frame. The distribution of this intron elsewhere in the genome of Bt114, as well as in the chromosomal ribosomal DNA, was studied. It seems to be present as seven copies in different genes not corresponding to the mitochondrial DNA. The presence of the intron in other strains of B. brongniartii was examined by the hybridization method. Some of them seemed to possess introns with a similar core although others presented no homology with the cloned fragment. PMID:7750145

  6. Testing the validity of Northern European species in the Chrysis ignita species group (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) with DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Soon, Villu; Budrys, Eduardas; Orlovskytė, Svetlana; Paukkunen, Juho; Odegaard, Frode; Ljubomirov, Toshko; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Containing more than a hundred species, the Chrysis ignita species group is the largest and one of the most taxonomically challenging groups in its genus. It has not been possible to resolve the taxonomy of the group using traditional methods due to the lack of robust diagnostic morphological characters. Here we present the results of a molecular analysis designed to delimit species in the Chrysis ignita group for the first time; using mitochondrial sequence data for 364 in-group specimens consisting of all 18 species known to occur in Northern Europe. Two mitochondrial loci were analysed: a COI gene fragment, and a continuous DNA sequence consisting of 16S rRNA, tRNAVal, 12S rRNA and ND4. Two approaches were employed for delimiting species: (1) genetic distance analysis based on the standard COI barcode sequences and; (2) phylogenetic analysis of the COI fragment together with rRNA genes. Both analyses yielded trees with similar topology, but support values for nodes were higher using the second approach. Fifteen species were distinguished in all analyses: Chrysis angustula Schenck, 1856, C. brevitarsis Thomson, 1870, C. clarinicollis Linsenmaier, 1951, C. corusca Valkeila, 1971, C. fulgida Linnaeus, 1761, C. ignita (Linnaeus, 1758), C. impressa Schenck, 1856, C. iris Christ, 1791, C. leptomandibularis Niehuis, 2000, C. longula Abeille de Perrin, 1879, C. ruddii Shuckard, 1837, C. schencki Linsenmaier, 1968, C. subcoriacea Linsenmaier, 1959, C. terminata Dahlbom, 1854 and C. vanlithi Linsenmaier, 1959. The specific status of C. mediata Linsenmaier, 1951 and C. solida Haupt, 1957 was not resolved. Included unidentified specimens grouped in three clusters, two of which are distinctly delimited and apparently represent cryptic species. The specific status of the unidentified samples in the third cluster remained unclear. Moreover, our data suggest the existence of additional cryptic species currently lumped under the names C. pseudobrevitarsis Linsenmaier, 1951 and C. schencki Linsenmaier, 1968. In conclusion, our results derived from analysis of mitochondrial loci strongly support the specific status of the majority of currently recognised species in the Chrysis ignita species group, and suggest the existence of additional cryptic species in Northern Europe. Thus, considering the difficulties that often arise during species determination based on morphological characters, the mtDNA loci used here appear highly suitable for assisting species delimitation in this group as well as identification of specimens.  PMID:24869539

  7. Species discrimination in the subfamily Ostertagiinae of Northern China: assessment of DNA barcode in a taxonomically challenging group.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jizhou; Zhang, Yongning; Feng, Chunyan; Yuan, Xiangfen; Sun, Degang; Deng, Junhua; Wang, Caixia; Wu, Shaoqiang; Lin, Xiangmei

    2016-03-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes within the subfamily Ostertagiinae (Teladorsagia, Ostertagia, and Marshallagia et al.) are among the most common infections of domesticated livestock. These parasites are of particular interest, as many of the species within this group are of economic importance worldwide. Traditionally, nematode species designations have been based on morphological criteria. However, this group possesses poorly defined species. There is an urgent need to develop a reliable technique that can distinguish species of Ostertagiinae. DNA barcoding has been proved to be a powerful tool to identify species of birds, mammals, and arthropods, but this technique has not yet been examined for identifying species of Ostertagiinae. In this study, a total of 138 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences from individuals representing 11 species of Ostertagiinae were acquired by PCR for the first time. The specimens were collected from pastoral area of northern China. Genetic divergence analyses showed that mean interspecific Kimura two-parameter distances of COI (13.61 %) were about four times higher than the mean value of the intraspecific divergence (3.69 %). Then, the performance of the COI to identify species of Ostertagiinae was evaluated by identification success rates using nearest neighbor (NN) and BLASTn. The results indicated that the rates of correct sequence identification for COI were high (>80 %) when using the NN and BLASTn methods. Besides, the deep lineage divergences are detected in Teladorsagia circumcincta. Meanwhile, the analyses also detected no genetic differentiation between some species such as Ostertagia hahurica and Ostertagia buriatica. These results indicate that the traditional status of species within Ostertagiinae should be closely examined based on the molecular data. PMID:26584827

  8. DNA fingerprinting and anastomosis grouping reveal similar genetic diversity in Rhizoctonia species infecting turfgrasses in the transition zone of USA.

    PubMed

    Amaradasa, B S; Horvath, B J; Lakshman, D K; Warnke, S E

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoctonia blight is a common and serious disease of many turfgrass species. The most widespread causal agent, Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph: R. solani), consists of several genetically different subpopulations. In addition, Waitea circinata varieties zeae, oryzae and circinata (anamorph: Rhizoctonia spp.) also can cause the disease. Accurate identification of the causal pathogen is important for effective management of the disease. It is challenging to distinguish the specific causal pathogen based on disease symptoms or macroscopic and microscopic morphology. Traditional methods such as anastomosis reactions with tester isolates are time consuming and sometimes difficult to interpret. In the present study universally primed PCR (UP-PCR) fingerprinting was used to assess genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia spp. infecting turfgrasses. Eighty-four Rhizoctonia isolates were sampled from diseased turfgrass leaves from seven distinct geographic areas in Virginia and Maryland. Rhizoctonia isolates were characterized by ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) region and UP-PCR. The isolates formed seven clusters based on ITS sequences analysis and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering of UP-PCR markers, which corresponded well with anastomosis groups (AGs) of the isolates. Isolates of R. solani AG 1-IB (n = 18), AG 2-2IIIB (n = 30) and AG 5 (n = 1) clustered separately. Waitea circinata var. zeae (n = 9) and var. circinata (n = 4) grouped separately. A cluster of six isolates of Waitea (UWC) did not fall into any known Waitea variety. The binucleate Rhizoctonia-like fungi (BNR) (n = 16) clustered into two groups. Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2IIIB was the most dominant pathogen in this study, followed by AG 1-IB. There was no relationship between the geographic origin of the isolates and clustering of isolates based on the genetic associations. To our knowledge this is the first time UP-PCR was used to characterize Rhizoctonia, Waitea and Ceratobasidium isolates to their infra-species level. PMID:23709576

  9. Group I introns in small subunit ribosomal DNA of several Phaeosphaeria species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a study of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene sequences in Phaeosphaeria species, group I introns were found in 9 of 10 P. avenaria f.sp. avenaria (Paa) isolates, 1 of 2 Phaeosphaeria sp. (P-rye) isolates from Polish rye (Sn48-1), 1 Phaeosphaeria sp. from dallis grass (P-dg) (S-93-48) an...

  10. Japanese Wolves are Genetically Divided into Two Groups Based on an 8-Nucleotide Insertion/Deletion within the mtDNA Control Region.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo; Yanai, Tokuma; Sasaki, Motoki; Matsui, Akira; Kikuchi, Hiroki; Maruyama, Masashi; Hongo, Hitomi; Vostretsov, Yuri E; Gasilin, Viatcheslav; Kosintsev, Pavel A; Quanjia, Chen; Chunxue, Wang

    2016-02-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (198- to 598-bp) of four ancient Canis specimens (two Canis mandibles, a cranium, and a first phalanx) was examined, and each specimen was genetically identified as Japanese wolf. Two unique nucleotide substitutions, the 78-C insertion and the 482-G deletion, both of which are specific for Japanese wolf, were observed in each sample. Based on the mtDNA sequences analyzed, these four specimens and 10 additional Japanese wolf samples could be classified into two groups- Group A (10 samples) and Group B (4 samples)-which contain or lack an 8-bp insertion/deletion (indel), respectively. Interestingly, three dogs (Akita-b, Kishu 25, and S-husky 102) that each contained Japanese wolf-specific features were also classified into Group A or B based on the 8-bp indel. To determine the origin or ancestor of the Japanese wolf, mtDNA control regions of ancient continental Canis specimens were examined; 84 specimens were from Russia, and 29 were from China. However, none of these 113 specimens contained Japanese wolf-specific sequences. Moreover, none of 426 Japanese modern hunting dogs examined contained these Japanese wolf-specific mtDNA sequences. The mtDNA control region sequences of Groups A and B appeared to be unique to grey wolf and dog populations. PMID:26853868

  11. ISC, a Novel Group of Bacterial and Archaeal DNA Transposons That Encode Cas9 Homologs

    PubMed Central

    Kapitonov, Vladimir V.; Makarova, Kira S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial genomes encode numerous homologs of Cas9, the effector protein of the type II CRISPR-Cas systems. The homology region includes the arginine-rich helix and the HNH nuclease domain that is inserted into the RuvC-like nuclease domain. These genes, however, are not linked to cas genes or CRISPR. Here, we show that Cas9 homologs represent a distinct group of nonautonomous transposons, which we denote ISC (insertion sequences Cas9-like). We identify many diverse families of full-length ISC transposons and demonstrate that their terminal sequences (particularly 3′ termini) are similar to those of IS605 superfamily transposons that are mobilized by the Y1 tyrosine transposase encoded by the TnpA gene and often also encode the TnpB protein containing the RuvC-like endonuclease domain. The terminal regions of the ISC and IS605 transposons contain palindromic structures that are likely recognized by the Y1 transposase. The transposons from these two groups are inserted either exactly in the middle or upstream of specific 4-bp target sites, without target site duplication. We also identify autonomous ISC transposons that encode TnpA-like Y1 transposases. Thus, the nonautonomous ISC transposons could be mobilized in trans either by Y1 transposases of other, autonomous ISC transposons or by Y1 transposases of the more abundant IS605 transposons. These findings imply an evolutionary scenario in which the ISC transposons evolved from IS605 family transposons, possibly via insertion of a mobile group II intron encoding the HNH domain, and Cas9 subsequently evolved via immobilization of an ISC transposon. IMPORTANCE Cas9 endonucleases, the effectors of type II CRISPR-Cas systems, represent the new generation of genome-engineering tools. Here, we describe in detail a novel family of transposable elements that encode the likely ancestors of Cas9 and outline the evolutionary scenario connecting different varieties of these transposons and Cas9. PMID:26712934

  12. DNA polymerase gene sequences indicate western and forest tent caterpillar viruses form a new taxonomic group within baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Cydney B; Cooper, Dawn; Short, Steven M; Myers, Judith H; Suttle, Curtis A

    2002-11-01

    Baculoviruses infect larval lepidopterans, and thus have potential value as microbial controls of agricultural and forest pests. Understanding their genetic relatedness and host specificity is relevant to the risk assessment of viral insecticides if non-target impacts are to be avoided. DNA polymerase gene sequences have been demonstrated to be useful for inferring genetic relatedness among dsDNA viruses. We have adopted this approach to examine the relatedness among natural isolates of two uncharacterized caterpillar-infecting baculoviruses, Malacosoma californicum pluviale nucleopolyhedrovirus (McplMNPV) and Malacosoma disstria nucleopolyhedrovirus (MadiMNPV), which infect two closely related host species with little to no cross-infectivity. We designed two degenerate primers (BVP1 and BVP2) based on protein motifs conserved among baculoviruses. McplMNPV and MadiMNPV viral DNA was obtained from naturally infected caterpillars collected from geographically distinct sites in the Southern Gulf Islands and Prince George regions of British Columbia, Canada. Sequencing of 0.9 kb PCR amplicons from six McplMNPV and six MadiMNPV isolates obtained from a total of eight sites, revealed very low nucleotide variation among McplMNPV isolates (99.2-100% nucleotide identity) and among MadiMNPV isolates (98.9-100% nucleotide identity). Greater nucleotide variation was observed between viral isolates from the two different caterpillar species (only 84.7-86.1% nucleotide identity). Both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses support placement of McplMNPV and MadiMNPV in a clade that is distinct from other groups of baculoviruses. PMID:12507483

  13. DNA topoisomerase I affects polycomb group protein-mediated epigenetic regulation and plant development by altering nucleosome distribution in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xigang; Gao, Lei; Dinh, Thanh Theresa; Shi, Ting; Li, Dongming; Wang, Ruozhong; Guo, Lin; Xiao, Langtao; Chen, Xuemei

    2014-07-01

    It has been perplexing that DNA topoisomerases, enzymes that release DNA supercoils, play specific roles in development. In this study, using a floral stem cell model in Arabidopsis thaliana, we uncovered a role for TOPOISOMERASE1α (TOP1α) in Polycomb Group (PcG) protein-mediated histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) at, and transcriptional repression of, the stem cell maintenance gene WUSCHEL (WUS). We demonstrated that H3K27me3 deposition at other PcG targets also requires TOP1α. Intriguingly, the repression of some, as well as the expression of many, PcG target genes requires TOP1α. The mechanism that unifies the opposing effects of TOP1α appears to lie in its role in decreasing nucleosome density, which probably allows the binding of factors that either recruit PcG, as we demonstrated for AGAMOUS at the WUS locus, or counteract PcG-mediated regulation. Although TOP1α reduces nucleosome density at all genes, the lack of a 5' nucleosome-free region is a feature that distinguishes PcG targets from nontargets and may condition the requirement for TOP1α for their expression. This study uncovers a connection between TOP1α and PcG, which explains the specific developmental functions of TOP1α. PMID:25070639

  14. Multicenter clinical evaluation of the illumigene group A Streptococcus DNA amplification assay for detection of group A Streptococcus from pharyngeal swabs.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Neil W; Buchan, Blake W; Mayne, Donna; Mortensen, Joel E; Mackey, Tami-Lea A; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2013-05-01

    Acute pharyngitis is a nonspecific symptom that can result from a number of viral or bacterial infections. For most etiologies, symptoms are self-limited and resolve without lasting effects; however, pharyngitis resulting from infection with Streptococcus pyogenes (a group A Streptococcus [GAS]) can be associated with serious sequelae, including acute rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis. Rapid accurate detection of GAS in pharyngeal specimens from individuals suffering from pharyngitis aids in the management and selection of antibiotic therapy for these patients. A total of 796 pharyngeal swabs were collected at three separate clinical centers. Each specimen was analyzed using the illumigene group A strep DNA amplification assay (Meridian Bioscience Inc., Cincinnati, OH). To confirm GAS identification, the results were compared to those from direct and extracted culture methods using Gram staining and a GAS-specific latex agglutination test. Discrepant results were resolved using an alternative nucleic acid amplification test. The prevalence of culture-detected GAS in this study was 12.8% (102/796 specimens). The illumigene assay detected GAS in 74/74 direct culture-positive specimens (100% sensitivity) and 100/102 extracted culture-positive specimens (98.0% sensitivity). GAS was detected by the illumigene assay in an additional 42 specimens that were direct culture negative (94.2% specificity) and 16 specimens that were extracted culture negative (97.7% specificity). Discrepant analysis using an alternative molecular assay detected GAS nucleic acid in 13/16 (81.3%) false-positive specimens and 1/2 false-negative specimens, resulting in a final sensitivity of 99.0% and a specificity of 99.6% for the detection of GAS in pharyngeal swabs using the illumigene assay. PMID:23447639

  15. Detection of Bovine Group A Rotavirus Using Rapid Antigen Detection Kits, RT-PCR and Next-Generation DNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    MINAMI-FUKUDA, Fujiko; NAGAI, Makoto; TAKAI, Hikaru; MURAKAMI, Toshiaki; OZAWA, Tadashi; TSUCHIAKA, Shinobu; OKAZAKI, Sachiko; KATAYAMA, Yukie; OBA, Mami; NISHIURA, Naomi; SASSA, Yukiko; OMATSU, Tsutomu; FURUYA, Tetsuya; KOYAMA, Satoshi; SHIRAI, Junsuke; TSUNEMITSU, Hiroshi; FUJII, Yoshiki; KATAYAMA, Kazuhiko; MIZUTANI, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated the sensitivity of human rotavirus rapid antigen detection (RAD) kits, RT-PCR and next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) for detection of bovine group A rotavirus (RVA). The Dipstick ‘Eiken’ Rota (Dipstick) showed the highest sensitivity out of the seven RAD kits against all selected strains in limited dilution analyses, which was consistent with the results for equine rotavirus previously reported. RT-PCR had 100–103-fold higher sensitivity than the Dipstick. NGS using thirteen RT-PCR-negative fecal samples revealed that all samples yielded RVA reads and especially that two of them covered all 11 genome segments. Moreover, mapping reads to reference sequences allowed genotyping. The NGS would be sensitive and useful for analysis of less dependent on specific primers and screening of genotypes. PMID:23912876

  16. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in two ethnic groups in southeastern Kenya: perspectives from the northeastern periphery of the Bantu expansion

    PubMed Central

    Batai, Ken; Babrowski, Kara B.; Arroyo, Juan Pablo; Kusimba, Chapurukha M.; Williams, Sloan R.

    2013-01-01

    The Bantu languages are widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic research supports linguists and historians who argue that migration played an important role in the spread of this language family, but the genetic data also indicates a more complex process involving substantial gene flow with resident populations. In order to understand the Bantu expansion process in east Africa, mtDNA hypervariable region I variation in 352 individuals from the Taita and Mijikenda ethnic groups was analyzed, and we evaluated the interactions that took place between the Bantu- and non-Bantu-speaking populations in east Africa. The Taita and Mijikenda are Bantu-speaking agropastoralists from southeastern Kenya, at least some of whose ancestors probably migrated into the area as part of Bantu migrations that began around 3,000 BCE. Our analyses indicate that they show some distinctive differences that reflect their unique cultural histories. The Taita are genetically more diverse than the Mijikenda with larger estimates of genetic diversity. The Taita cluster with other east African groups, having high frequencies of haplogroups from that region, while the Mijikenda have high frequencies of central African haplogroups and cluster more closely with central African Bantu-speaking groups. The non-Bantu speakers who lived in southeastern Kenya before Bantu speaking groups arrived were at least partially incorporated into what are now Bantu-speaking Taita groups. In contrast, gene flow from non-Bantu speakers into the Mijikenda was more limited. These results suggest a more complex demographic history where the nature of Bantu and non-Bantu interactions varied throughout the area. PMID:23382080

  17. The 2-amino group of guanine is absolutely required for specific binding of the anti-cancer antibiotic echinomycin to DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, C; Bailly, C; McLean, M J; Moroney, S E; Waring, M J

    1992-01-01

    The 2-amino group of guanine is believed to be a critical determinant of potential DNA binding sites for echinomycin and related quinoxaline antibiotics. In order to probe its importance directly we have studied the interaction between echinomycin and DNA species in which guanine N(2) is deleted by virtue of substitution of inosine for guanosine residues. The polymerase chain reaction was used to prepare inosine-substituted DNA. Binding of echinomycin, assessed by DNAse I footprinting, was practically abolished by incorporation of inosine into one or both strands of DNA. We conclude that both the purines in the preferred CpG binding site need to bear a 2-amino group to interact with echinomycin. Images PMID:1454525

  18. Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase 1 in dermal fibroblasts from DNA repair-deficient/cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum group C patients.

    PubMed

    Fréchet, M; Warrick, E; Vioux, C; Chevallier, O; Spatz, A; Benhamou, S; Sarasin, A; Bernerd, F; Magnaldo, T

    2008-09-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare, recessively inherited genetic disease characterized by skin cancer proneness and premature aging in photoexposed area. The disease results from defective nucleotide excision repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA lesions. Reconstruction of group C (XP-C) skin in vitro previously suggested that patients' dermal fibroblasts might be involved in promoting skin cancer development, as they elicited microinvasions of both control and XP-C keratinocytes within dermal equivalents. Here we show that in the absence of UV exposure XP-C fibroblasts exhibit aged-like features such as an elongated and dendritic shape. We analysed the repertoire of expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) involved in skin aging and cancer. All XP-C fibroblasts tested in this study overexpressed specifically and significantly MMP1. MMP1 expression was also found increased in the dermis of XP-C skin sections suggesting the active contribution of XP-C mesenchymal cells to skin aging and exacerbated carcinogenesis. Increased MMP1 expression in cultured XP-C fibroblasts resulted from MMP1 mRNA accumulation and enhanced transcriptional activity of the MMP1 gene promoter. Deletion analysis revealed the essential role of AP-1 activation in constitutive MMP1 overexpression in XP-C primary fibroblasts. In parallel, levels of reactive oxygen species and FOSB DNA-binding activity were found increased in XP-C fibroblasts. Altogether, these observations suggest that beyond its role in nucleotide excision repair the XPC protein may be important in cell metabolism and fate in the absence of UV. PMID:18469853

  19. High mobility group protein-B1 interacts with sterol regulatory element-binding proteins to enhance their DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Najima, Yuho; Yahagi, Naoya; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Sekiya, Motohiro; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Amemiya-Kudo, Michiyo; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Okazaki, Sachiko; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Iizuka, Yoko; Ohashi, Ken; Harada, Kenji; Gotoda, Takanari; Nagai, Ryozo; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ishibashi, Shun; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Osuga, Jun-ichi; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2005-07-29

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that are predominately involved in the regulation of lipogenic and cholesterogenic enzyme gene expression. To identify unknown proteins that interact with SREBP, we screened nuclear extract proteins with 35S-labeled SREBP-1 bait in Far Western blotting analysis. Using this approach, high mobility group protein-B1 (HMGB1), a chromosomal protein, was identified as a novel SREBP interacting protein. In vitro glutathione S-transferase pull-down and in vivo coimmunoprecipitation studies confirmed an interaction between HMGB1 and both SREBP-1 and -2. The protein-protein interaction was mediated through the helix-loop-helix domain of SREBP-1, residues 309-344, and the A box of HMGB1. Furthermore, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that HMGB1 enhances SREBPs binding to their cognate DNA sequences. Moreover, luciferase reporter analyses, including RNA interference technique showed that HMGB1 potentiates the transcriptional activities of SREBP in cultured cells. These findings raise the intriguing possibility that HMGB1 is potentially involved in the regulation of lipogenic and cholesterogenic gene transcription. PMID:16040616

  20. A novel phylogenetic group within Thozetella (Chaetosphaeriaceae): a new taxon based on morphology and DNA sequence analyses.

    PubMed

    Jeewon, R; Yeung, S Y Q; Hyde, K D

    2009-06-01

    A new species, Thozetella pinicola, was isolated from leaf litter of Pinus elliottii Engelm. in Hong Kong. This taxon is described and compared with existing species in the genus. It occurs on the substrate as creamy white sporodochia and has short black conidiophores. Morphological characters are typical of Thozetella and it most closely resembles Thozetella falcata, Thozetella gigantea and Thozetella nivea, but may be distinguished by its distinct microawns and different conidial size. To gain further taxonomic insight into the phylogenetic relationships of our new taxon and its allies, we sequenced and analysed 6 different regions of 3 genes (ribosomal DNA and protein coding genes: RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RBP2) and b-tubulin). Resulting phylogenies are compared with existing morphological information. Molecular data support the relationship between Thozetella species and the Chaetosphaeriaceae (Chaetosphaeriales, Sordariomycetes). In addition, we recovered a new phylogenetic lineage (or group) within the existing phylogenetic framework of Thozetella as previously proposed. In particular, there is a close association between T. pinicola and T. nivea, which is strongly supported. The affinities of these 2 newly sequenced taxa are discussed in light of morphological and molecular characters. PMID:19767838

  1. Previously unknown evolutionary groups dominate the ssDNA gokushoviruses in oxic and anoxic waters of a coastal marine environment

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Jessica M.; Hallam, Steven J.; Suttle, Curtis A.

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic studies have revealed that ssDNA phages from the family Microviridae subfamily Gokushovirinae are widespread in aquatic ecosystems. It is hypothesized that gokushoviruses occupy specialized niches, resulting in differences among genotypes traversing water column gradients. Here, we use degenerate primers that amplify a fragment of the gene encoding the major capsid protein to examine the diversity of gokushoviruses in Saanich Inlet (SI), a seasonally anoxic fjord on the coast of Vancouver Island, BC, Canada. Amplicon sequencing of samples from the mixed oxic surface (10 m) and deeper anoxic (200 m) layers indicated a diverse assemblage of gokushoviruses, with greater richness at 10 m than 200 m. A comparison of amplicon sequences with sequences selected on the basis of RFLP patterns from eight surface samples collected over a 1-year period revealed that gokushovirus diversity was higher in spring and summer during stratification and lower in fall and winter after deep-water renewal, consistent with seasonal variability within gokushovirus populations. Our results provide persuasive evidence that, while specific gokushovirus genotypes may have a narrow host range, hosts for gokushoviruses in SI consist of a wide range of bacterial taxa. Indeed, phylogenetic analysis of clustered amplicons revealed at least five new phylogenetic groups of previously unknown sequences, with the most abundant group associated with viruses infecting SUP05, a ubiquitous and abundant member of marine oxygen minimum zones. Relatives of SUP05 dominate the anoxic SI waters where they drive coupled carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur transformations along the redoxline; thus, gokushoviruses are likely important mortality agents of these bacteria with concomittant influences on biogeochemical cycling in marine oxygen minimum zones. PMID:25954254

  2. A mobile group I intron from Physarum polycephalum can insert itself and induce point mutations in the nuclear ribosomal DNA of saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Muscarella, D E; Vogt, V M

    1993-01-01

    Pp LSU3 is a mobile group I intron in the extrachromosomal nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of Physarum polycephalum. As found for other mobile introns, Pp LSU3 encodes a site-specific endonuclease, I-Ppo, which mediates "homing" to unoccupied target sites in Physarum rDNA. The recognition sequence for this enzyme is conserved in all eucaryotic nuclear rDNAs. We have introduced this intron into a heterologous species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which nuclear group I introns have not been detected. The expression of Pp LSU3, under control of the inducible GAL10 promoter, was found to be lethal as a consequence of double-strand breaks in the rDNA. However, surviving colonies that are resistant to the lethal effects of I-Ppo because of alterations in the rDNA at the cleavage site were recovered readily. These survivors are of two classes. The first comprises cells that acquired one of three types of point mutations. The second comprises cells in which Pp LSU3 became inserted into the rDNA. In both cases, each resistant survivor appears to carry the same alterations in all approximately 150 rDNA repeats. When it is embedded in yeast rDNA, Pp LSU3 leads to the synthesis of I-Ppo and appears to be mobile in appropriate genetic crosses. The existence of yeast cells carrying a mobile intron should allow dissection of the steps that allow expression of the highly unusual I-Ppo gene. Images PMID:8380887

  3. Cloning and analysis of the K1 capsule biosynthesis genes of Escherichia coli: lack of homology with Neisseria meningitidis group B DNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Echarti, C; Hirschel, B; Boulnois, G J; Varley, J M; Waldvogel, F; Timmis, K N

    1983-01-01

    Genes coding for production of the K1 polysaccharide capsule of Escherichia coli have been cloned. Complementation, insertion, and deletion analyses were used to localize the K1 genes and demonstrated that a minimum of 9 kilobases of DNA split into at least two gene blocks is involved in synthesis and assembly of the capsule. One of the gene blocks is responsible for biosynthesis of the polysaccharide, and the other is responsible for extracellular appearance of capsular material. Using cloned K1 genes as probes in Southern blot experiments, we detected homology to DNA from strains of E. coli capsular types K92, K7, and K100. In contrast, no homology was apparent between K1 genes and DNA from meningococcus group B, although the K1 and group B capsules are chemically and immunologically identical. Images PMID:6408005

  4. New pyridinium-based fluorescent dyes: A comparison of symmetry and side-group effects on G-Quadruplex DNA binding selectivity and application in live cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Jing; Hu, Dong-Ping; Zhang, Kun; Wong, Wing-Leung; Chow, Cheuk-Fai

    2016-07-15

    A series of C1-, C2-and C3-symmetric pyridinium conjugates with different styrene-like side groups were synthesized and were utilized as G-quadruplex selective fluorescent probes. The new compounds were well-characterized. Their selectivity, sensitivity, and stability towards G-quadruplex were studied by fluorescence titration, native PAGE experiments, FRET and circular dichroism (CD) analyses. These new compounds investigated in the fluorescence assays were preferentially bound with G-quadruplex DNA compared with other type of nucleic acids and it is fascinating to realize the effects of molecular symmetry and associated side groups showing unexpectedly great influence on the fluorescent signal enhancement for the discrimination of G-quadruplexes DNA from other nucleic acids. This may correlate with the pocket symmetry and shape of the G-quadruplex DNA inherently. Among the compounds, a C2-symmetric dye (2,6-bis-((E)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-vinyl)-1-methylpyridin-1-ium iodide) with indolyl-groups substituted was screened out from the series giving the best selectivity and sensitivity towards G-quadruplexes DNA, particularly telo21, due to its high equilibrium binding constant (K=2.17×10(5)M(-1)). In addition, the limit of detection (LOD) of the dye to determine telo21 DNA in bioassays was found as low as 33nM. The results of the study give insight and certain crucial factors, such as molecular symmetry and the associated side groups, on developing of effective fluorescent dyes for G-quadruplex DNA applications including G-quadruplex structure stabilization, biosensing and clinical applications. The compound was also demonstrated as a very selective G-quadruplex fluorescent agent for living cell staining and imaging. PMID:26994364

  5. Conjugative plasmids of enteric bacteria from many different incompatibility groups have similar genes for single-stranded DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Golub, E I; Low, K B

    1985-01-01

    Among 30 conjugative plasmids of enteric bacteria from 23 incompatibility (Inc) groups, we found 19 (from 12 Inc groups) which can complement defects caused by a defective single-stranded DNA-binding protein of Escherichia coli K-12. The genes which are responsible for the complementation from three of these plasmids (Inc groups I1, Y, and 9) were cloned. These genes showed extensive homology with each other and with the E. coli F factor ssb gene (formerly denoted ssf), which codes for a single-stranded DNA binding protein. The proteins coded for by the cloned genes bound tightly to single-stranded DNA. Six other ssb- -complementing plasmids were tested for homology to the F factor ssb gene, and all of these showed homology, as did one of the ssb- -noncomplementing plasmids. Plasmids from a total of 13 different Inc groups of enteric bacteria were found to be likely to have genes with some homology to the ssb gene of the F factor. For plasmids from several different Inc groups, we found no evidence for strong homology with ssb of the F factor. Images PMID:3884590

  6. DNA barcoding of the ichthyofauna of Pánuco-Tamesí complex: evidence for taxonomic conflicts in some groups.

    PubMed

    Mejía, Omar; León-Romero, Yatzil; Soto-Galera, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    The Pánuco-Tamesí complex in eastern Mexico is globally recognized as an important ecoregion due to its high level of endemism. In this study, DNA barcodes were generated for 152 individuals of 31 species. Additionally, 170 DNA barcodes for the related species available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) system were included to test the ability of barcoding technique to discriminate between the closely related species. DNA barcoding allowed the discrimination of 79.2% of the analyzed species; poor resolution was observed in four genera in which the levels of resolution ranged from 16.6% in the genus Herichthys to 77.7% in the genus Xiphophorus. The results of this study demonstrate that DNA barcoding is a useful exploratory tool but fails to discriminate between closely related species. PMID:22917217

  7. Polyphyletic origin of the genus Physarum (Physarales, Myxomycetes) revealed by nuclear rDNA mini-chromosome analysis and group I intron synapomorphy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physarales represents the largest taxonomic order among the plasmodial slime molds (myxomycetes). Physarales is of particular interest since the two best-studied myxomycete species, Physarum polycephalum and Didymium iridis, belong to this order and are currently subjected to whole genome and transcriptome analyses. Here we report molecular phylogeny based on ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences that includes 57 Physarales isolates. Results The Physarales nuclear rDNA sequences were found to be loaded with 222 autocatalytic group I introns, which may complicate correct alignments and subsequent phylogenetic tree constructions. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences depleted of introns confirmed monophyly of the Physarales families Didymiaceae and Physaraceae. Whereas good correlation was noted between phylogeny and taxonomy among the Didymiaceae isolates, significant deviations were seen in Physaraceae. The largest genus, Physarum, was found to be polyphyletic consisting of at least three well supported clades. A synapomorphy, located at the highly conserved G-binding site of L2449 group I intron ribozymes further supported the Physarum clades. Conclusions Our results provide molecular relationship of Physarales genera, species, and isolates. This information is important in further interpretations of comparative genomics nd transcriptomics. In addition, the result supports a polyphyletic origin of the genus Physarum and calls for a reevaluation of current taxonomy. PMID:22938158

  8. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA recombination and repair functions of the RAD52 epistasis group inhibit Ty1 transposition.

    PubMed Central

    Rattray, A J; Shafer, B K; Garfinkel, D J

    2000-01-01

    RNA transcribed from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae retrotransposon Ty1 accumulates to a high level in mitotically growing haploid cells, yet transposition occurs at very low frequencies. The product of reverse transcription is a linear double-stranded DNA molecule that reenters the genome by either Ty1-integrase-mediated insertion or homologous recombination with one of the preexisting genomic Ty1 (or delta) elements. Here we examine the role of the cellular homologous recombination functions on Ty1 transposition. We find that transposition is elevated in cells mutated for genes in the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway, such as RAD50, RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, or RAD57, or in the DNA ligase I gene CDC9, but is not elevated in cells mutated in the DNA repair functions encoded by the RAD1, RAD2, or MSH2 genes. The increase in Ty1 transposition observed when genes in the RAD52 recombinational pathway are mutated is not associated with a significant increase in Ty1 RNA or proteins. However, unincorporated Ty1 cDNA levels are markedly elevated. These results suggest that members of the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway inhibit Ty1 post-translationally by influencing the fate of Ty1 cDNA. PMID:10655210

  9. Synthesis of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Analogs with Extended Transferable Groups for Methyltransferase-Directed Labeling of DNA and RNA.

    PubMed

    Masevi?ius, Viktoras; Nainyt?, Milda; Klimaauskas, Saulius

    2016-01-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) is a ubiquitous methyl donor for a variety of biological methylation reactions catalyzed by methyltransferases (MTases). AdoMet analogs with extended propargylic chains replacing the sulfonium-bound methyl group can serve as surrogate cofactors for many DNA and RNA MTases enabling covalent deposition of these linear chains to their cognate targets sites in DNA or RNA. Here we describe synthetic procedures for the preparation of two representative examples of AdoMet analogs with a transferable hex-2-ynyl group carrying a terminal azide or amine functionality. Our approach is based on direct chemoselective alkylation of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine at sulfur with corresponding nosylates under acidic conditions. We also describe synthetic routes to 6-substituted hex-2-yn-1-ols and their conversion to the corresponding nosylates. Using these protocols, synthetic AdoMet analogs can be prepared within 1 to 2 weeks. 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26967468

  10. Identification of a group of cryptic marine limpet species, Cellana karachiensis (Mollusca: Patellogastropoda) off Veraval coast, India, using mtDNA COI sequencing.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sneha; Poriya, Paresh; Vakani, Bhavik; Singh, S P; Kundu, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Present communication reports the phylogenetic relationship between three groups of a marine limpet having different color banding patterns using COI sequencing. Samples were sequenced for mtDNA COI gene using universal primer. Comparative BLAST revealed that all three types were around 99.59% identical with Cellana karachiensis, first record of this species from Indian coasts. Apart from the morphological variations, the mtDNA COI gene analysis revealed around 1% nucleotide variations between these three types. The observed dissimilarity in COI sequences was possibly too little to consider these types as three different species. The derivation of amino acid positions indicated that these types could possibly be a complex of three cryptic species of C. karachiensis. The study proposes that the Oman and Indian populations of C. karachiensis might have derived by allopatric speciation due to geographical isolation. The group of these three cryptic species, sharing same habitat between themselves, possibly showed sympatric speciation. PMID:25109628

  11. Efficient Condensation of DNA into Environmentally Responsive Polyplexes Produced from Block Catiomers Carrying Amine or Diamine Groups.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Lindomar J C; Annes, Kelly; Milazzotto, Marcella P; Mattei, Bruno; Riske, Karin A; Jäger, Eliézer; Pánek, Jiří; Štěpánek, Petr; Kapusta, Peter; Muraro, Paulo I R; De Freitas, Augusto G O; Schmidt, Vanessa; Giacomelli, Cristiano; Bonvent, Jean-Jacques; Giacomelli, Fernando C

    2016-01-19

    The intracellular delivery of nucleic acids requires a vector system as they cannot diffuse across lipid membranes. Although polymeric transfecting agents have been extensively investigated, none of the proposed gene delivery vehicles fulfill all of the requirements needed for an effective therapy, namely, the ability to bind and compact DNA into polyplexes, stability in the serum environment, endosome-disrupting capacity, efficient intracellular DNA release, and low toxicity. The challenges are mainly attributed to conflicting properties such as stability vs efficient DNA release and toxicity vs efficient endosome-disrupting capacity. Accordingly, investigations aimed at safe and efficient therapies are still essential to achieving gene therapy clinical success. Taking into account the mentioned issues, herein we have evaluated the DNA condensation ability of poly(ethylene oxide)113-b-poly[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate]50 (PEO113-b-PDPA50), poly(ethylene oxide)113-b-poly[2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]50 (PEO113-b-PDEA50), poly[oligo(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate]70-b-poly[oligo(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate10-co-2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate47-co-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate47] (POEGMA70-b-P(OEGMA10-co-DEA47-co-DPA47), and poly[oligo(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate]70-b-poly{oligo(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate10-co-2-methylacrylic acid 2-[(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)methylamino]ethyl ester44} (POEGMA70-b-P(OEGMA10-co-DAMA44). Block copolymers PEO113-b-PDEA50 and POEGMA70-b-P(OEGMA10-co-DEA47-co-DPA47) were evidenced to properly condense DNA into particles with a desirable size for cellular uptake via endocytic pathways (R(H) ≈ 65-85 nm). The structure of the polyplexes was characterized in detail by scattering techniques and atomic force microscopy. The isothermal titration calorimetric data revealed that the polymer/DNA binding is endothermic; therefore, the process in entropically driven. The combination of results supports that POEGMA70-b-P(OEGMA10-co-DEA47-co-DPA47) condenses DNA more efficiently and with higher thermodynamic outputs than does PEO113-b-PDEA50. Finally, circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the conformation of DNA remained the same after complexation and that the polyplexes are very stable in the serum environment. PMID:26677726

  12. mtDNA G10398A variation provides risk to type 2 diabetes in population group from the Jammu region of India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Varun; Sharma, Indu; Singh, Vishav Pratap; Verma, Sonali; Pandita, Anil; Singh, Vinod; Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Swarkar

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrion plays an integral role in glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Mitochondrial electron-transport chain (ETC) is involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation and ATP mediated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. β-cell dysfunction is a critical component in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The mtDNA G10398A variation (amino acid change: Alanine → Threonine) within the NADH dehydrogenase (ND3) subunit of complex I of mtDNA ETC, has emerged as a variation of clinical significance in various disorders including T2D. This variation is supposed to result in altered complex I function, leading to an increased rate of electron leakage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which might cause β-cell damage and impaired insulin secretion. The aim of the study was to explore the association of mtDNA G10398A variation with T2D in a total of 439 samples (196 T2D cases and 243 healthy controls) belonging to the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K). The candidate gene association analyses showed significant association of mtDNA G10398A variant with T2D and the estimated odds ratio (OR) was 2.83 (1.64–4.90 at 95% CI) in the studied population group. The extent of genetic heterogeneity in T2D and diversity of the Indian population groups, make such replication studies pertinent to understand the etiology of T2D in these population groups. PMID:25606409

  13. European Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups and Metabolic Changes during Antiretroviral Therapy in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5142

    PubMed Central

    Hulgan, Todd; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon A.; Tebas, Pablo; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; McComsey, Grace A.; Haas, David W.; Canter, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) influences metabolic diseases and perhaps antiretroviral therapy (ART) complications. We explored associations between European mtDNA haplogroups and metabolic changes among A5142 participants. Methods 757 ART-naïve subjects were randomized to one of three class-sparing ART regimens including efavirenz and/or lopinavir/ritonavir with or without nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Non-randomized NRTIs included stavudine, tenofovir, or zidovudine, each with lamivudine. Fasting lipid profiles and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were performed. Nine European mtDNA haplogroups were determined for 231 self-identified non-Hispanic white subjects. Metabolic changes from baseline to 96 weeks were analyzed by haplogroup. Results Median age was 39 years, 9% were female, and 37%, 32%, and 30% were randomized to NRTI-containing regimens with either efavirenz or lopinavir/ritonavir, and an NRTI-sparing regimen respectively. Among NRTI-containing regimens, 51% included zidovudine, 28% tenofovir, and 21% stavudine. Compared with other haplogroups, mtDNA haplogroup I (N=10) had higher baseline non-HDL cholesterol (160 mg/dL [interquartile range 137–171] vs. 120 mg/dL [104–136]; p=0.005), a decrease in non-HDL cholesterol over 96 weeks (−14% [−20-+6] vs. +25% [+8-+51]; p<0.001), tended to have more baseline extremity fat, and had more extremity fat loss by DEXA (−13% [−31-+12] vs. +9% [−13-+26]; p=0.08) and lipoatrophy (50% vs. 20%; p=0.04). Haplogroup W (N=5; all randomized to NRTI-sparing regimens) had the greatest increase in extremity fat (+35.5% [+26.8 - +54.9]; P=0.02). Conclusions Lipids and extremity fat were associated with European mtDNA haplogroups in this HIV-infected population. These preliminary results suggest that mitochondrial genomics may influence metabolic parameters before and during ART. PMID:20871389

  14. A novel regulation mechanism of DNA repair by damage-induced and RAD23-dependent stabilization of xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Jessica M.Y.; Vermeulen, Wim; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T.J.; Bergink, Steven; Sugasawa, Kaoru; Vrieling, Harry; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Primary DNA damage sensing in mammalian global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) is performed by the xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC)/HR23B protein complex. HR23B and HR23A are human homologs of the yeast ubiquitin-domain repair factor RAD23, the function of which is unknown. Knockout mice revealed that mHR23A and mHR23B have a fully redundant role in NER, and a partially redundant function in embryonic development. Inactivation of both genes causes embryonic lethality, but appeared still compatible with cellular viability. Analysis of mHR23A/B double-mutant cells showed that HR23 proteins function in NER by governing XPC stability via partial protection against proteasomal degradation. Interestingly, NER-type DNA damage further stabilizes XPC and thereby enhances repair. These findings resolve the primary function of RAD23 in repair and reveal a novel DNA-damage-dependent regulation mechanism of DNA repair in eukaryotes, which may be part of a more global damage-response circuitry. PMID:12815074

  15. Synthesis, cytotoxic activity and DNA-interaction studies of novel anthraquinone-thiosemicarbazones with tautomerizable methylene group.

    PubMed

    Marković, Violeta; Janićijević, Ana; Stanojković, Tatjana; Kolundžija, Branka; Sladić, Dušan; Vujčić, Miroslava; Janović, Barbara; Joksović, Ljubinka; Djurdjević, Predrag T; Todorović, Nina; Trifunović, Snežana; Joksović, Milan D

    2013-06-01

    A series of novel anthraquinone-thiosemicarbazone derivatives in a tautomerizable keto-imine form was synthesized and tested for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells (HeLa, MDA-MB-361, MDA-MB-453, K562, A549) and human normal MRC-5 cells. Several compounds efficiently inhibited cancer cell growth at micromolar concentrations, especially against K562 and HeLa cells. As determined by flow cytometric analysis, anthraquinone-thiosemicarbazone caused significant increase in the number of sub-G1 phase of HeLa cells and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Also, inhibition of caspase-3, -8, and -9 with specific caspase inhibitors reduced the apoptosis mediated by the tested compounds in HeLa cells. All anthraquinone-thiosemicarbazones exhibit calf thymus DNA-binding activity, but no cleavage of plasmid DNA was observed. PMID:23644206

  16. The ATPase Domain but Not the Acidic Region of Cockayne Syndrome Group B Gene Product Is Essential for DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Brosh, Robert M.; Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Selzer, Rebecca R.; Sunesen, Morten; De Santis, Luca Proietti; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    1999-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a human genetic disorder characterized by UV sensitivity, developmental abnormalities, and premature aging. Two of the genes involved, CSA and CSB, are required for transcription-coupled repair (TCR), a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair that removes certain lesions rapidly and efficiently from the transcribed strand of active genes. CS proteins have also been implicated in the recovery of transcription after certain types of DNA damage such as those lesions induced by UV light. In this study, site-directed mutations have been introduced to the human CSB gene to investigate the functional significance of the conserved ATPase domain and of a highly acidic region of the protein. The CSB mutant alleles were tested for genetic complementation of UV-sensitive phenotypes in the human CS-B homologue of hamster UV61. In addition, the CSB mutant alleles were tested for their ability to complement the sensitivity of UV61 cells to the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), which introduces bulky DNA adducts repaired by global genome repair. Point mutation of a highly conserved glutamic acid residue in ATPase motif II abolished the ability of CSB protein to complement the UV-sensitive phenotypes of survival, RNA synthesis recovery, and gene-specific repair. These data indicate that the integrity of the ATPase domain is critical for CSB function in vivo. Likewise, the CSB ATPase point mutant failed to confer cellular resistance to 4-NQO, suggesting that ATP hydrolysis is required for CSB function in a TCR-independent pathway. On the contrary, a large deletion of the acidic region of CSB protein did not impair the genetic function in the processing of either UV- or 4-NQO-induced DNA damage. Thus the acidic region of CSB is likely to be dispensable for DNA repair, whereas the ATPase domain is essential for CSB function in both TCR-dependent and -independent pathways. PMID:10564257

  17. Evidence for chromosome and Pst I satellite DNA family evolutionary stasis in the Bufo viridis group (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Odierna, Gaetano; Aprea, Gennaro; Capriglione, Teresa; Castellano, Sergio; Balletto, Emilio

    2004-01-01

    The West Palearctic green toads, Bufo viridis , represent a species complex. Apart from tetraploid populations, which form at least one separate species, evidence exists for relevant differentiation among diploid populations. We present the results of a chromosomal (C-, Ag-NOR-, Replication pattern, DAPI and CMA3 banding) and molecular study (isolation and characterization of a satellite DNA family) carried out on a number of Central Asian, European and North African populations. For comparative purposes, our molecular analysis was also extended to specimens of three additional Bufo species (B. bufo, B. mauritanicus and B. cf. regularis ), as well as two rare African bufonids (Werneria mertensis and Wolterstoffina sp.). Our results demonstrate a remarkable karyological and molecular evolutionary stasis in the Bufo viridis complex. In fact, all chromatinic markers showed the same pattern and/or composition in all specimens, independently of their origin and ploidy levels. Even the NOR loci were invariably two and located on the telomeric regions of two chromosomes of the sixth pair, or quartet. Furthermore, very similar patterns of genomic hybridization of a monomeric unit of the Pst I satellite DNA family (named pBv) were observed in all diploid and tetraploid populations, as well as in B. bufo and B. mauritanicus . Finally, pBv hybridizes with monomeric units of Pst I satellite DNA in all species studied, including Werneria and Wolterstorffina, which are thought to have separated from Bufo as early as in the Mesozoic. PMID:15505402

  18. Both the folate cycle and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase contribute methyl groups for DNA methylation in mouse blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baohua; Denomme, Michelle M; White, Carlee R; Leung, Kit-Yi; Lee, Martin B; Greene, Nicholas D E; Mann, Mellissa R W; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Baltz, Jay M

    2015-03-01

    The embryonic pattern of global DNA methylation is first established in the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst. The methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is produced in most cells through the folate cycle, but only a few cell types generate SAM from betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) via betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), which is expressed in the mouse ICM. Here, mean ICM cell numbers decreased from 18-19 in controls to 11-13 when the folate cycle was inhibited by the antifolate methotrexate and to 12-14 when BHMT expression was knocked down by antisense morpholinos. Inhibiting both pathways, however, much more severely affected ICM development (7-8 cells). Total SAM levels in mouse blastocysts decreased significantly only when both pathways were inhibited (from 3.1 to 1.6 pmol/100 blastocysts). DNA methylation, detected as 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC) immunofluorescence in isolated ICMs, was minimally affected by inhibition of either pathway alone but decreased by at least 45-55% when both BHMT and the folate cycle were inhibited simultaneously. Effects on cell numbers and 5-MeC levels in the ICM were completely rescued by methionine (immediate SAM precursor) or SAM. Both the folate cycle and betaine/BHMT appear to contribute to a methyl pool required for normal ICM development and establishing initial embryonic DNA methylation. PMID:25466894

  19. DNA Barcoding of Rhodiola (Crassulaceae): A Case Study on a Group of Recently Diversified Medicinal Plants from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Qiang; Meng, Shi-Yong; Wen, Jun; Rao, Guang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding, the identification of species using one or a few short standardized DNA sequences, is an important complement to traditional taxonomy. However, there are particular challenges for barcoding plants, especially for species with complex evolutionary histories. We herein evaluated the utility of five candidate sequences — rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA, trnL-F and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) — for barcoding Rhodiola species, a group of high-altitude plants frequently used as adaptogens, hemostatics and tonics in traditional Tibetan medicine. Rhodiola was suggested to have diversified rapidly recently. The genus is thus a good model for testing DNA barcoding strategies for recently diversified medicinal plants. This study analyzed 189 accessions, representing 47 of the 55 recognized Rhodiola species in the Flora of China treatment. Based on intraspecific and interspecific divergence and degree of monophyly statistics, ITS was the best single-locus barcode, resolving 66% of the Rhodiola species. The core combination rbcL+matK resolved only 40.4% of them. Unsurprisingly, the combined use of all five loci provided the highest discrimination power, resolving 80.9% of the species. However, this is weaker than the discrimination power generally reported in barcoding studies of other plant taxa. The observed complications may be due to the recent diversification, incomplete lineage sorting and reticulate evolution of the genus. These processes are common features of numerous plant groups in the high-altitude regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25774915

  20. Thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptase fusion proteins and their use in cDNA synthesis and next-generation RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sabine; Ghanem, Eman; Smith, Whitney; Sheeter, Dennis; Qin, Yidan; King, Olga; Polioudakis, Damon; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Hunicke-Smith, Scott; Swamy, Sajani; Kuersten, Scott; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2013-07-01

    Mobile group II introns encode reverse transcriptases (RTs) that function in intron mobility ("retrohoming") by a process that requires reverse transcription of a highly structured, 2-2.5-kb intron RNA with high processivity and fidelity. Although the latter properties are potentially useful for applications in cDNA synthesis and next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), group II intron RTs have been difficult to purify free of the intron RNA, and their utility as research tools has not been investigated systematically. Here, we developed general methods for the high-level expression and purification of group II intron-encoded RTs as fusion proteins with a rigidly linked, noncleavable solubility tag, and we applied them to group II intron RTs from bacterial thermophiles. We thus obtained thermostable group II intron RT fusion proteins that have higher processivity, fidelity, and thermostability than retroviral RTs, synthesize cDNAs at temperatures up to 81C, and have significant advantages for qRT-PCR, capillary electrophoresis for RNA-structure mapping, and next-generation RNA sequencing. Further, we find that group II intron RTs differ from the retroviral enzymes in template switching with minimal base-pairing to the 3' ends of new RNA templates, making it possible to efficiently and seamlessly link adaptors containing PCR-primer binding sites to cDNA ends without an RNA ligase step. This novel template-switching activity enables facile and less biased cloning of nonpolyadenylated RNAs, such as miRNAs or protein-bound RNA fragments. Our findings demonstrate novel biochemical activities and inherent advantages of group II intron RTs for research, biotechnological, and diagnostic methods, with potentially wide applications. PMID:23697550

  1. Characterization of I-Ppo, an intron-encoded endonuclease that mediates homing of a group I intron in the ribosomal DNA of Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed Central

    Muscarella, D E; Ellison, E L; Ruoff, B M; Vogt, V M

    1990-01-01

    A novel and only recently recognized class of enzymes is composed of the site-specific endonucleases encoded by some group I introns. We have characterized several aspects of I-Ppo, the endonuclease that mediates the mobility of intron 3 in the ribosomal DNA of Physarum polycephalum. This intron is unique among mobile group I introns in that it is located in nuclear DNA. We found that I-Ppo is encoded by an open reading frame in the 5' half of intron 3, upstream of the sequences required for self-splicing of group I introns. Either of two AUG initiation codons could start this reading frame, one near the beginning of the intron and the other in the upstream exon, leading to predicted polypeptides of 138 and 160 amino acid residues. The longer polypeptide was the major form translated in vitro in a reticulocyte extract. From nuclease assays of proteins synthesized in vitro with partially deleted DNAs, we conclude that both polypeptides possess endonuclease activity. We also have expressed I-Ppo in Escherichia coli, using a bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase expression system. The longer polypeptide also was the predominant form made in this system. It showed enzymatic activity in bacteria in vivo, as demonstrated by the cleavage of a plasmid carrying the target site. Like several other intron-encoded endonucleases, I-Ppo makes a four-base staggered cut in its ribosomal DNA target sequence, very near the site where intron 3 becomes integrated in crosses of intron 3-containing and intron 3-lacking Physarum strains. Images PMID:2355911

  2. Ampelomyces mycoparasites from apple powdery mildew identified as a distinct group based on single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis of the rDNA ITS region.

    PubMed

    Szentiványi, Orsolya; Kiss, Levente; Russell, John C; Kovács, Gábor M; Varga, Krisztina; Jankovics, Tünde; Lesemann, Silke; Xu, Xiang-Ming; Jeffries, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Pycnidial fungi belonging to the genus Ampelomyces are the most common natural antagonists of powdery mildews worldwide. During a study of the interactions between apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and Ampelomyces mycoparasites, 52 new Ampelomyces isolates were obtained from P. leucotricha and, in addition, 13 new isolates from other species of the Erysiphaceae in four European countries. Their genetic diversity was screened using single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). For comparison, 24 isolates obtained from genetic resource collections or other sources were included in this study. Based on the ITS-SSCP patterns, the isolates were placed in eight groups. The isolates belonged to two types based on their growth in culture. The faster-growing and the slower-growing isolates were included in different SSCP groups. A phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences of representatives of these groups confirmed the results obtained with the SSCP method, and showed that the faster-growing isolates do not belong to Ampelomyces as suggested by earlier studies. All the isolates from P. leucotricha fell into a distinct SSCP group of genetically homogeneous isolates. This suggests that Ampelomyces mycoparasites which occur in apple powdery mildew are slightly different from the other Ampelomyces groups which contain mycoparasites from various powdery mildew species. This may be because the main growth period of Ampelomyces mycoparasites in apple powdery mildew is isolated in time from that of Ampelomyces isolates that occur in other species of the Erysiphaceae. P. leucotricha starts its life-cycle early in the season, usually in March-April, while most powdery mildews are active in the same environments only late in the year. PMID:15912930

  3. Synthesis and Structure of a New Copper(II) Coordination Polymer Alternately Bridged by Oxamido and Carboxylate Groups: Evaluation of DNA/BSA Binding and Cytotoxic Activities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao-Ting; Zheng, Kang; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei

    2015-08-01

    A new one-dimensional (1D) copper(II) coordination polymer {[Cu2 (dmaepox)(dabt)](NO3) · 0.5 H2 O}n , where H3 dmaepox and dabt denote N-benzoato-N'-(3-methylaminopropyl)oxamide and 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-bithiazole, respectively, was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and other methods. The crystal structure analysis revealed that the two copper(II) ions are bridged alternately by cis-oxamido and carboxylato groups to form a 1-D coordination polymer with the corresponding Cu · · · Cu separations of 5.1946(19) and 5.038(2) Å. There is a three-dimensional supramolecular structure constructed by hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions in the crystal. The reactivity towards herring sperm DNA (HS-DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) indicated that the copper(II) polymer can interact with the DNA in the mode of intercalation, and bind to BSA responsible for quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by the static quenching mechanism. The in vitro cytotoxicity suggested that the copper(II) polymer exhibits cytotoxic effects against the selected tumor cell lines. PMID:25940657

  4. Universal Plant DNA Barcode Loci May Not Work in Complex Groups: A Case Study with Indian Berberis Species

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sribash; Tyagi, Antariksh; Shukla, Virendra; Kumar, Anil; Singh, Uma M.; Chaudhary, Lal Babu; Datt, Bhaskar; Bag, Sumit K.; Singh, Pradhyumna K.; Nair, Narayanan K.; Husain, Tariq; Tuli, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Background The concept of DNA barcoding for species identification has gained considerable momentum in animals because of fairly successful species identification using cytochrome oxidase I (COI). In plants, matK and rbcL have been proposed as standard barcodes. However, barcoding in complex genera is a challenging task. Methodology and Principal Findings We investigated the species discriminatory power of four reportedly most promising plant DNA barcoding loci (one from nuclear genome- ITS, and three from plastid genome- trnH-psbA, rbcL and matK) in species of Indian Berberis L. (Berberidaceae) and two other genera, Ficus L. (Moraceae) and Gossypium L. (Malvaceae). Berberis species were delineated using morphological characters. These characters resulted in a well resolved species tree. Applying both nucleotide distance and nucleotide character-based approaches, we found that none of the loci, either singly or in combinations, could discriminate the species of Berberis. ITS resolved all the tested species of Ficus and Gossypium and trnH-psbA resolved 82% of the tested species in Ficus. The highly regarded matK and rbcL could not resolve all the species. Finally, we employed amplified fragment length polymorphism test in species of Berberis to determine their relationships. Using ten primer pair combinations in AFLP, the data demonstrated incomplete species resolution. Further, AFLP analysis showed that there was a tendency of the Berberis accessions to cluster according to their geographic origin rather than species affiliation. Conclusions/Significance We reconfirm the earlier reports that the concept of universal barcode in plants may not work in a number of genera. Our results also suggest that the matK and rbcL, recommended as universal barcode loci for plants, may not work in all the genera of land plants. Morphological, geographical and molecular data analyses of Indian species of Berberis suggest probable reticulate evolution and thus barcode markers may not work in this case. PMID:21060687

  5. Ancient DNA from Hunter-Gatherer and Farmer Groups from Northern Spain Supports a Random Dispersion Model for the Neolithic Expansion into Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hervella, Montserrat; Izagirre, Neskuts; Alonso, Santos; Fregel, Rosa; Alonso, Antonio; Cabrera, Vicente M.; de la Rúa, Concepción

    2012-01-01

    Background/Principal Findings The phenomenon of Neolithisation refers to the transition of prehistoric populations from a hunter-gatherer to an agro-pastoralist lifestyle. Traditionally, the spread of an agro-pastoralist economy into Europe has been framed within a dichotomy based either on an acculturation phenomenon or on a demic diffusion. However, the nature and speed of this transition is a matter of continuing scientific debate in archaeology, anthropology, and human population genetics. In the present study, we have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA diversity in hunter-gatherers and first farmers from Northern Spain, in relation to the debate surrounding the phenomenon of Neolithisation in Europe. Methodology/Significance Analysis of mitochondrial DNA was carried out on 54 individuals from Upper Paleolithic and Early Neolithic, which were recovered from nine archaeological sites from Northern Spain (Basque Country, Navarre and Cantabria). In addition, to take all necessary precautions to avoid contamination, different authentication criteria were applied in this study, including: DNA quantification, cloning, duplication (51% of the samples) and replication of the results (43% of the samples) by two independent laboratories. Statistical and multivariate analyses of the mitochondrial variability suggest that the genetic influence of Neolithisation did not spread uniformly throughout Europe, producing heterogeneous genetic consequences in different geographical regions, rejecting the traditional models that explain the Neolithisation in Europe. Conclusion The differences detected in the mitochondrial DNA lineages of Neolithic groups studied so far (including these ones of this study) suggest different genetic impact of Neolithic in Central Europe, Mediterranean Europe and the Cantabrian fringe. The genetic data obtained in this study provide support for a random dispersion model for Neolithic farmers. This random dispersion had a different impact on the various geographic regions, and thus contradicts the more simplistic total acculturation and replacement models proposed so far to explain Neolithisation. PMID:22563371

  6. HPV E6/E7 mRNA versus HPV DNA biomarker in cervical cancer screening of a group of Macedonian women.

    PubMed

    Duvlis, Sotirija; Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Arsova, Zorica Sarafinovska; Memeti, Shaban; Popeska, Zaneta; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2015-09-01

    High risk types of human papillomaviruses E6/E7 oncogenes and their association with tumor suppressor genes products are the key factors of cervical carcinogenesis. This study proposed them as specific markers for cervical dysplasia screening. The aim of the study is to compare the clinical and prognostic significance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA as an early biomarker versus HPV DNA detection and cytology in triage of woman for cervical cancer. The study group consists of 413 women: 258 NILM, 26 ASC-US, 81 LSIL, 41 HSIL, and 7 unsatisfactory cytology. HPV4AACE screening, real-time multiplex PCR and MY09/11 consensus PCR primers methods were used for the HPV DNA detection. The real-time multiplex nucleic acid sequence-based assay (NucliSENS EasyQ HPV assay) was used for HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection of the five most common high risk HPV types in cervical cancer (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45). The results show that HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing had a higher specificity 50% (95% CI 32-67) and positive predictive value (PPV) 62% (95% CI 46-76) for CIN2+ compared to HPV DNA testing that had specificity of 18% (95% CI 7-37) and PPV 52% (95% CI 39-76) respectively. The higher specificity and PPV of HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing are valuable in predicting insignificant HPV DNA infection among cases with borderline cytological finding. It can help in avoiding aggressive procedures (biopsies and over-referral of transient HPV infections) as well as lowering patient's anxiety and follow up period. PMID:25880030

  7. Repair of damaged DNA by extracts from a xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A revertant and expression of a protein absent in its parental cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C J; Cleaver, J E; Wood, R D

    1992-01-01

    Cells derived from individuals with mutations in the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A gene (XP-A gene) are hypersensitive to UV light and have a severe defect in nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. UV-resistant revertant cell lines can arise from XP-A cells in culture. Cells of one such revertant, XP129, were previously shown to remove (6-4) photoproducts from irradiated DNA, but to have poor repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. To analyze the biochemical nature of the reversion, whole cell extracts were prepared from the SV40-immortalized fibroblast cell lines XP12RO (an XP-A cell line), the revertant XP129 (derived from XP12RO), and 1BR.3N (from a normal individual). The ability of extracts to carry out repair synthesis in UV-irradiated DNA was examined, and immunoblots were performed using antiserum that recognizes XP-A protein. XP12RO extracts exhibited a very low level of repair and no detectable XP-A protein, but repair activity could be conferred by adding purified XP-A protein to the reaction mixture. XP129 extracts have essentially normal repair synthesis consistent with the observation that most repair of UV-irradiated DNA by extracts appears to occur at (6-4) photoproducts. An XP-A polypeptide of normal size was present in XP129, but in reduced amounts. The results indicate that in XP129 a mutational event has converted the inactive XP12RO XP-A gene into a form which expresses an active XP-A protein. Images PMID:1549511

  8. Analysis of the distribution and evolution of the ATP-dependent DNA ligases of bacteria delineates a distinct phylogenetic group 'Lig E'.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Adele; Hjerde, Erik; Kahlke, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Prior to the discovery of a minimal ATP-dependent DNA ligase in Haemophilus influenzae, bacteria were thought to only possess a NAD-dependent ligase, which was involved in sealing of Okazaki fragments. We now know that a diverse range of bacterial species possess up to six of these accessory bacterial ATP-dependent DNA ligases (b-ADLs), which vary in size and enzymatic domain associations. Here we compare the domain structure of different types of b-ADLs and investigate their distribution among the bacterial domain to describe possible evolutionary trajectories that gave rise to the sequence and structural diversity of these enzymes. Previous biochemical and genetic analyses have delineated three main classes of these enzymes: Lig B, Lig C and Lig D, which appear to have descended from a common ancestor within the bacterial domain. In the present study, we delineate a fourth group of b-ADLs, Lig E, which possesses a number of unique features at the primary and tertiary structural levels. The biochemical characteristics, domain structure and inferred extracellular location sets this group apart from the other b-ADLs. The results presented here indicate that the Lig E type ligases were horizontally transferred into bacteria in a separate event from other b-ADLs possibly from a bacteriophage. PMID:26412580

  9. MtDNA Haplogroup A10 Lineages in Bronze Age Samples Suggest That Ancient Autochthonous Human Groups Contributed to the Specificity of the Indigenous West Siberian Population

    PubMed Central

    Pilipenko, Aleksandr S.; Trapezov, Rostislav O.; Zhuravlev, Anton A.; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Romaschenko, Aida G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The craniometric specificity of the indigenous West Siberian human populations cannot be completely explained by the genetic interactions of the western and eastern Eurasian groups recorded in the archaeology of the area from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. Anthropologists have proposed another probable explanation: contribution to the genetic structure of West Siberian indigenous populations by ancient human groups, which separated from western and eastern Eurasian populations before the final formation of their phenotypic and genetic features and evolved independently in the region over a long period of time. This hypothesis remains untested. From the genetic point of view, it could be confirmed by the presence in the gene pool of indigenous populations of autochthonous components that evolved in the region over long time periods. The detection of such components, particularly in the mtDNA gene pool, is crucial for further clarification of early regional genetic history. Results and Conclusion We present the results of analysis of mtDNA samples (n = 10) belonging to the A10 haplogroup, from Bronze Age populations of West Siberian forest-steppe (V—I millennium BC), that were identified in a screening study of a large diachronic sample (n = 96). A10 lineages, which are very rare in modern Eurasian populations, were found in all the Bronze Age groups under study. Data on the A10 lineages’ phylogeny and phylogeography in ancient West Siberian and modern Eurasian populations suggest that A10 haplogroup underwent a long-term evolution in West Siberia or arose there autochthonously; thus, the presence of A10 lineages indicates the possible contribution of early autochthonous human groups to the genetic specificity of modern populations, in addition to contributions of later interactions of western and eastern Eurasian populations. PMID:25950581

  10. DNA fingerprinting and anastomosis grouping reveal similar genetic diversity in Rhizoctonia species infecting turfgrasses in the transition zone of USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia blight (sensu lato) is a common and serious disease of many turfgrass species. The most widespread causal agent, R. solani, consists of several genetically different subpopulations. Though hyphal anastomosis reactions have been used to group Rhizoctonia species, they are time consuming a...

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of LSU and SSU rDNA group I introns of lichen photobionts associated with the genera Xanthoria and Xanthomendoza (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes)

    PubMed Central

    Nyati, Shyam; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Werth, Silke; Honegger, Rosmarie

    2013-01-01

    We studied group I introns in sterile cultures of selected groups of lichen photobionts, focusing on Trebouxia species associated with Xanthoria s. lat. (including Xanthomendoza spp.; lichen-forming ascomycetes). Group I introns were found inserted after position 798 (Escherichia coli numbering) in the large subunit (LSU) rRNA in representatives of the green algal genera Trebouxia and Asterochloris. The 798 intron was found in about 25% of Xanthoria photobionts including several reference strains obtained from algal culture collections. An alignment of LSU-encoded rDNA intron sequences revealed high similarity of these sequences allowing their phylogenetic analysis. The 798 group I intron phylogeny was largely congruent with a phylogeny of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Region (ITS), indicating that the insertion of the intron most likely occurred in the common ancestor of the genera Trebouxia and Asterochloris. The intron was vertically inherited in some taxa, but lost in others. The high sequence similarity of this intron to one found in Chlorella angustoellipsoidea suggests that the 798 intron was either present in the common ancestor of Trebouxiophyceae, or that its present distribution results from more recent horizontal transfers, followed by vertical inheritance and loss. Analysis of another group I intron shared by these photobionts at small subunit (SSU) position 1512 supports the hypothesis of repeated lateral transfers of this intron among some taxa, but loss among others. Our data confirm that the history of group I introns is characterized by repeated horizontal transfers, and suggests that some of these introns have ancient origins within Chlorophyta. PMID:24415800

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of LSU and SSU rDNA group I introns of lichen photobionts associated with the genera Xanthoria and Xanthomendoza (Teloschistaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Nyati, Shyam; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Werth, Silke; Honegger, Rosmarie

    2013-12-01

    We studied group I introns in sterile cultures of selected groups of lichen photobionts, focusing on Trebouxia species associated with Xanthoria s. lat. (including Xanthomendoza spp.; lichen-forming ascomycetes). Group I introns were found inserted after position 798 (Escherichia coli numbering) in the large subunit (LSU) rRNA in representatives of the green algal genera Trebouxia and Asterochloris. The 798 intron was found in about 25% of Xanthoria photobionts including several reference strains obtained from algal culture collections. An alignment of LSU-encoded rDNA intron sequences revealed high similarity of these sequences allowing their phylogenetic analysis. The 798 group I intron phylogeny was largely congruent with a phylogeny of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Region (ITS), indicating that the insertion of the intron most likely occurred in the common ancestor of the genera Trebouxia and Asterochloris. The intron was vertically inherited in some taxa, but lost in others. The high sequence similarity of this intron to one found in Chlorella angustoellipsoidea suggests that the 798 intron was either present in the common ancestor of Trebouxiophyceae, or that its present distribution results from more recent horizontal transfers, followed by vertical inheritance and loss. Analysis of another group I intron shared by these photobionts at small subunit (SSU) position 1512 supports the hypothesis of repeated lateral transfers of this intron among some taxa, but loss among others. Our data confirm that the history of group I introns is characterized by repeated horizontal transfers, and suggests that some of these introns have ancient origins within Chlorophyta. PMID:24415800

  13. High-Mobility Group 1/2 Proteins Are Essential for Initiating Rolling-Circle-Type DNA Replication at a Parvovirus Hairpin Origin

    PubMed Central

    Cotmore, Susan F.; Tattersall, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Rolling-circle replication is initiated by a replicon-encoded endonuclease which introduces a single-strand nick into specific origin sequences, becoming covalently attached to the 5? end of the DNA at the nick and providing a 3? hydroxyl to prime unidirectional, leading-strand synthesis. Parvoviruses, such as minute virus of mice (MVM), have adapted this mechanism to amplify their linear single-stranded genomes by using hairpin telomeres which sequentially unfold and refold to shuttle the replication fork back and forth along the genome, creating a continuous, multimeric DNA strand. The viral initiator protein, NS1, then excises individual genomes from this continuum by nicking and reinitiating synthesis at specific origins present within the hairpin sequences. Using in vitro assays to study ATP-dependent initiation within the right-hand (5?) MVM hairpin, we have characterized a HeLa cell factor which is absolutely required to allow NS1 to nick this origin. Unlike parvovirus initiation factor (PIF), the cellular complex which activates NS1 endonuclease activity at the left-hand (3?) viral origin, the host factor which activates the right-hand hairpin elutes from phosphocellulose in high salt, has a molecular mass of around 25 kDa, and appears to bind preferentially to structured DNA, suggesting that it might be a member of the high-mobility group 1/2 (HMG1/2) protein family. This prediction was confirmed by showing that purified calf thymus HMG1 and recombinant human HMG1 or murine HMG2 could each substitute for the HeLa factor, activating the NS1 endonuclease in an origin-specific nicking reaction. PMID:9765384

  14. Antigenic analysis of group I house dust mite allergens using random fragments of Der p I expressed by recombinant DNA libraries.

    PubMed

    Greene, W K; Chua, K Y; Stewart, G A; Thomas, W R

    1990-01-01

    Antigenic regions of a major house dust mite allergen, Der p I, were identified by a recombinant DNA strategy employing the technique of random fragmentation. Fragments of cDNA coding for Der p I were produced by sonication and used to construct lambda gt 11 expression libraries. Analyses of recombinant fragments reactive with a rabbit anti-Der p I antiserum showed that the B cell determinants expressed in Escherichia coli were limited, with the majority (86%) of antigenic clones isolated mapping to the region comprising amino acid sequence position 60-80. To define antigenic regions of Der p I more precisely, selected overlapping fragments were subcloned into the expression vector pGEX-1. Dot blot immunoassay and immunoabsorption studies using individual fusion proteins revealed five regions - 34-47, 60-72, 82-99, 112-140, and 166-194 - to contain B cell determinants responsible for the antigenicity of recombinant Der p I. Absorption of the antiserum with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract removed reactivity to all fragments, whereas absorption with an extract from the related mite Dermatophagoides farinae removed reactivity to peptides containing residues 34-47, 60-72, and 166-194, but not 82-99 and 112-140. Similarly, rabbit anti-D.farinae reacted strongly with peptides containing residues 34-47, 60-72, and 166-194, but not residues 82-99 and 112-140 which again showed antigenic differences in these residues between the group I allergens. PMID:2246073

  15. Synthesis and structure of a new tetracopper(II) complex bridged both by oxamido and phenolato groups: Cytotoxic activity, and reactivity towards DNA and BSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Li, Xue-Jie; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei

    2013-05-01

    A new tetracopper(II) complex bridged both by oxamido and phenolato groups, namely [Cu4(chmpoxd)2(dabt)2](ClO4)2, where H3chmpoxd and dabt stand for N-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyl-phenyl)-N'-[3-(methylamino)propyl]oxamide and 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-bithiazole, respectively, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, IR and electronic spectra studies, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure reveals a centrosymmetric circular tetranuclear cation [Cu4(chmpoxd)2(dabt)2]2+ assembled by a pair of cis-oxamido-bridged bicopper(II) units via μ2-phenolato bridges, in which one copper(II) atom is located in a slightly distorted square-planar environment, while the other is in a square-pyramidal geometry. The Cu⋯Cu separations through the oxamido and the phenolato bridges are 5.2217(12) and 3.7042(11) Å, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity experiment shows that the tetracopper(II) complex exhibits cytotoxic activity against the SMMC7721 and A549 cell lines. The reactivities towards HS-DNA and protein BSA revealed that the tetracopper(II) complex can interact with HS-DNA in the mode of intercalation, and the complex binds to BSA responsible for quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by static quenching mechanism.

  16. Structural studies on two high-mobility-group proteins from calf thymus, HMG-14 and HMG-20 (ubiquitin), and their interaction with DNA.

    PubMed

    Cary, P D; King, D S; Crane-Robinson, C; Bradbury, E M; Rabbani, A; Goodwin, G H; Johns, E W

    1980-12-01

    High mobility group (HMG) protein 14, which, like HMG-17, has been implicated in the structure of 'active chromatin' is shown by 270-MHz NMR and by circular dichroism to be in a disordered conformation in free solution. At low ionic strength protein HMG-14 binds to DNA by weak attachment of the N-terminal half of the molecule and is released by 0.3 M NaCl, the ionic strength at which the protein is extracted from chromatin. The protein HMG-20 (ubiquitin), a constituent of the conjugate protein A 24, is shown to be a highly stable compact globular protein that remains folded over a pH range of 1--13 and has a half-denaturation temperature of 85 degrees C when thermally denatured. Circular dichroism indicates 28% helix and 12% beta sheet. Despite having 15% basic residues it binds only very weakly to DNA. A detailed study of the folding of ubiquitin has been made by a combination of several NMR approaches, including decoupling, nuclear Overhauser enhancement and titration. Several line assignments have been made and it is shown that, although the tyrosine and histidine are buried residues, they are not adjacent to one another nor are they close to either of the phenylalanines, of which at least one is also a buried residue. PMID:6257511

  17. Functional constraints and evolutionary dynamics of the repeats in the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 of members of the Anopheles barbirostris group

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Anopheles barbirostris group is widely distributed in Southeast Asia. Although seven species have been formally described, a molecular analysis of the rDNA ITS2 and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene suggests that the group includes species that are morphologically very similar or identical. We have previously shown that species in the Anopheles barbirostris Subgroup have an exceptionally large ITS2 (>1.5kb), greater than in any other Anopheline group. However, the molecular processes responsible for generating such a large ITS2 have not previously been explored. Methods To determine the processes by which this large ITS2 is generated, we examined the sequence and secondary structure of the ITS2 of 51 specimens from five species of the Anopheles barbirostris Subgroup. These include the anthropophilic species An. campestris and three morphospecies of the Barbirostris Complex: An. vanderwulpi, An. barbirostris I and III, together with a previously undescribed member of this group (Clade IV). Results and conclusions All the specimens were found to have an ITS2 greater than 1.5kb in length. The possibility that the spacer sequences amplified were pseudogenes was examined and discarded. The large size of ITS2 in the species studied is due to the presence of internal repeats of approximately 110bp in length, confined to the central region of the spacer. Repeats varied markedly between the species examined, with respect to their organization, number and sequence similarity. The nucleotide diversity increased in direct relation to size variation and the presence of non-repeated elements. A secondary structure analysis showed that the repeats form hairpin structures with a wide range of free energy values. These hairpin structures are known to facilitate the subsequent processing of mature rRNA. An analysis of the repeats from the different species suggests they originate from a common ancestor, with the repeats appearing before speciation of the Barbirostris Group. PMID:24646478

  18. Design, synthesis, and DNA binding characteristics of a group of orthogonally positioned diamino, N-formamido, pyrrole- and imidazole-containing polyamides.

    PubMed

    Chavda, Sameer; Babu, Balaji; Patil, Pravin; Plaunt, Adam; Ferguson, Amanda; Lee, Megan; Tzou, Samuel; Sjoholm, Robert; Rice, Toni; Mackay, Hilary; Ramos, Joseph; Wang, Shuo; Lin, Shicai; Kiakos, Konstantinos; Wilson, W David; Hartley, John A; Lee, Moses

    2013-07-01

    Orthogonally positioned diamino/dicationic polyamides (PAs) have good water solubility and enhanced binding affinity, whilst retaining DNA minor groove and sequence specificity compared to their monoamino/monocationic counterparts. The synthesis and DNA binding properties of the following diamino PAs: f-IPI (3a), f-IPP (4), f-PIP (5), and f-PPP (6) are described. P denotes the site where a 1-propylamino group is attached to the N1-position of the heterocycle. Binding of the diamino PAs to DNA was assessed by DNase I footprinting, thermal denaturation, circular dichroism titration, biosensor surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies. According to SPR studies, f-IPI (3a) bound more strongly (K(eq)=2.4×10(8) M(-1)) and with comparable sequence selectivity to its cognate sequence 5'-ACGCGT-3' when compared to its monoamino analog f-IPI (1). The binding of f-IPI (3a) to 5'-ACGCGT-3' via the stacked dimer motif was balanced between enthalpy and entropy, and that was quite different from the enthalpy-driven binding of its monoamino parent f-IPI (1). f-IPP (4) also bound more strongly to its cognate sequence 5'-ATGCAT-3' (K(eq)=7.4×10(6) M(-1)) via the side-by-side stacked motif than its monoamino analog f-IPP (2a). Although f-PPP (6) bound via a 1:1 motif, it bound strongly to its cognate sequence 5'-AAATTT-3' (K(eq)=4.8×10(7) M(-1)), 15-times higher than the binding of its monoamino analog f-PPP (2c), albeit f-PPP bound via the stacked motif. Finally, f-PIP (5) bound to its target sequence 5'-ATCGAT-3' as a stacked dimer and it has the lowest affinity among the diamino PAs tested (Keq <1×10(5) M(-1)). This was about two times lower in affinity than the binding of its monoamino analog f-PIP (2b). The results further demonstrated that the 'core rules' of DNA recognition by monoamino PAs also apply to their diamino analogs. Specifically, PAs that contain a stacked IP core structure bind most strongly (highest binding constants) to their cognate GC doublet, followed by the binding of PAs with a stacked PP structure to two degenerate AT base pairs, and finally the binding of PAs with a PI core to their cognate CG doublet. PMID:23647824

  19. Characterization of polybacterial clinical samples using a set of group-specific broad-range primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene followed by DNA sequencing and RipSeq analysis.

    PubMed

    Kommedal, Oyvind; Lekang, Katrine; Langeland, Nina; Wiker, Harald G

    2011-07-01

    The standard use of a single universal broad-range PCR in direct 16S rDNA sequencing from polybacterial samples leaves the minor constituents at risk of remaining undetected because all bacterial DNA will be competing for the same reagents. In this article we introduce a set of three broad-range group-specific 16S rDNA PCRs that together cover the clinically relevant bacteria and apply them in the investigation of 25 polybacterial clinical samples. Mixed DNA chromatograms from samples containing more than one species per primer group were analysed using RipSeq Mixed (iSentio, Norway), a web-based application for the interpretation of chromatograms containing up to three different species. The group-specific PCRs reduced complexity in the resulting DNA chromatograms and made the assay more sensitive in situations with unequal species concentrations. Together this allowed for identification of a significantly higher number of bacterial species than did standard direct sequencing with a single universal primer pair and RipSeq analysis (95 vs 51). The method could improve microbiological diagnostics for important groups of patients and can be established in any laboratory with experience in direct 16S rDNA sequencing. PMID:21436365

  20. Differentiation among spotted fever group rickettsiae species by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Eremeeva, M; Yu, X; Raoult, D

    1994-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified genes was used to study spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, extending the previous work of Regnery et al. (R.L. Regnery, C.L. Spruill, and B.D. Plikaytis, J. Bacteriol. 173:1576-1589, 1991). Twenty-six strains of SFG rickettsia were studied, including several recognized species which have never been studied (R. parkeri, R. helvetica, and R. japonica) as well as strains which are not currently classified. Two previously used primer pairs derived from the R. prowazekii citrate syntase gene and the R. rickettsii 190-kDa protein antigen gene were studied, as were primer pairs obtained from the R. rickettsii 120-kDa protein antigen gene. By using three amplifications and three enzyme digestions, it was possible to differentiate between almost all of the known SFG rickettsia species and to differentiate between several strains of the R. conorii complex. Two human pathogens, "R. africae" and the Israeli tick typhus rickettsia, were first separated by using BG-12 pair primer amplification and then RsaI restriction endonuclease digestion. The proposed simplified model of identification may be useful in studying the geographical distributions of SFG rickettsiae. Images PMID:7910831

  1. A study of genetic polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions I and II of the five major ethnic groups and Vedda population in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Ruwandi; Tennekoon, Kamani H; Karunanayake, Eric H; Lembring, Maria; Allen, Marie

    2015-11-01

    Diversity of the hypervariable regions (HV) I and II of the mitochondrial genome was studied in maternally unrelated Sri Lankans (N=202) from six ethnic groups (i.e.: Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamil, Muslim, Malay, Indian Tamil and Vedda). DNA was extracted from blood and buccal swabs and HVI and HVII regions were PCR amplified and sequenced. Resulting sequences were aligned and edited between 16024-16365 and 73-340 regions and compared with revised Cambridge reference sequences (rCRS). One hundred and thirty-five unique haplotypes and 22 shared haplotypes were observed. A total of 145 polymorphic sites and 158 polymorphisms were observed. Hypervariable region I showed a higher polymorphic variation than hypervariable region II. Nucleotide diversities were quite low and similar for all ethnicities apart from a slightly higher value for Indian Tamils and a much lower value for the Vedda population compared to the other groups. When the total population was considered South Asian (Indian) haplogroups were predominant, but there were differences in the distribution of phylo-geographical haplogroups between ethnic groups. Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamil and Vedda populations had a considerable presence of West Eurasian haplogroups. About 2/3rd of the Vedda population comprised of macro-haplogroup N or its subclades R and U, whereas macro-haplogroup M was predominant in all other populations. The Vedda population clustered separately from other groups and Sri Lankan Tamils showed a closer genetic affiliation to Sinhalese than to Indian Tamils. Thus this study provides useful information for forensic analysis and anthropological studies of Sri Lankans. PMID:26065620

  2. SOXE transcription factors form selective dimers on non-compact DNA motifs through multifaceted interactions between dimerization and high-mobility group domains

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong-Heng; Jankowski, Aleksander; Cheah, Kathryn S. E.; Prabhakar, Shyam; Jauch, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The SOXE transcription factors SOX8, SOX9 and SOX10 are master regulators of mammalian development directing sex determination, gliogenesis, pancreas specification and neural crest development. We identified a set of palindromic SOX binding sites specifically enriched in regulatory regions of melanoma cells. SOXE proteins homodimerize on these sequences with high cooperativity. In contrast to other transcription factor dimers, which are typically rigidly spaced, SOXE group proteins can bind cooperatively at a wide range of dimer spacings. Using truncated forms of SOXE proteins, we show that a single dimerization (DIM) domain, that precedes the DNA binding high mobility group (HMG) domain, is sufficient for dimer formation, suggesting that DIM : HMG rather than DIM:DIM interactions mediate the dimerization. All SOXE members can also heterodimerize in this fashion, whereas SOXE heterodimers with SOX2, SOX4, SOX6 and SOX18 are not supported. We propose a structural model where SOXE-specific intramolecular DIM:HMG interactions are allosterically communicated to the HMG of juxtaposed molecules. Collectively, SOXE factors evolved a unique mode to combinatorially regulate their target genes that relies on a multifaceted interplay between the HMG and DIM domains. This property potentially extends further the diversity of target genes and cell-specific functions that are regulated by SOXE proteins. PMID:26013289

  3. DNA barcodes confirm the presence of a single member of the Anopheles maculipennis group in Morocco and Algeria: An. sicaulti is conspecific with An. labranchiae.

    PubMed

    Laboudi, Majda; Faraj, Chafika; Sadak, Abderrahim; Harrat, Zoubir; Boubidi, Said Chawki; Harbach, Ralph E; El Aouad, Rajae; Linton, Yvonne-Marie

    2011-04-01

    Anopheles labranchiae Falleroni is the only member of the Maculipennis Group known to occur in northern Africa; however, confusion exists as to the taxonomic status of its junior synonym, An. sicaulti Roubaud (type locality: near Rabat, Morocco). Based on morphological and behavioural distinctions, it has been suggested that Moroccan populations have been isolated from other North African populations by the Atlas Mountains, and that Moroccan populations may represent An. sicaulti, originally described as a variety of An. maculipennis Meigen. DNA barcodes (658bp of the mitochondrial COI gene) obtained from 89 An. maculipennis s.l. collected in Morocco (n=79) and Algeria (n=10) in 2007 and 2008 were used to determine if Moroccan populations are genetically isolated from those east of the Atlas Mountains (Algeria), and whether there is molecular evidence to support the presence of more than one member of the Maculipennis Group in the region. No evidence for speciation was found between Moroccan and Algerian populations, or within populations in northern Morocco. Moreover shared COI haplotypes between Algeria and Morocco indicate ongoing gene flow between populations in these countries, suggesting that the Atlas Mountains are not a boundary to gene flow in An. labranchiae. The synonymy of An. sicaulti with An. labranchiae is confirmed. That An. labranchiae comprises the same species in these North African countries is important for malaria control. PMID:21172298

  4. DNA content analysis of colorectal cancer defines a distinct microsatellite and chromosome stable group but does not predict response to radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fadhil, Wakkas; Kindle, Karin; Jackson, Darryl; Zaitoun, Abed; Lane, Nina; Robins, Adrian; Ilyas, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRC) are thought to have genetic instability in the form of either microsatellite instability (MSI) or chromosomal instability (CIN). Recently, tumours have been described without either MSI or CIN, that is, microsatellite and chromosome stable (MACS) CRCs. We investigated the (i) frequency of the MACS-CRCs and (ii) whether this genotype predicted responsiveness to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. To examine the frequency of MACS-CRCs, DNA content (ploidy) was examined in 89 sporadic microsatellite-stable CRCs using flow cytometry. The tumours were also screened for mutations in KRAS/BRAF/TP53/PIK3CA by QMC-PCR. To examine the value of tumour ploidy in predicting response to chemoradiotherapy, DNA content was tested in a separate group of 62 rectal cancers treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Fifty-one of 89 CRCs (57%) were aneuploid and 38 (43%) were diploid. There was no significant association between mutations in TP53/KRAS/BRAF/PIK3CA and ploidy. Testing of association between mutations revealed only mutual exclusivity of KRAS/BRAF mutation (P?

  5. Molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of a human GDP-L-fucose:. beta. -D-galactoside 2-. alpha. -L-fucosyltransferase cDNA that can form the H blood group antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.D.; Ernst, L.K.; Nair, R.P.; Lowe, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The authors have previously used a gene-transfer scheme to isolate a human genomic DNA fragment that determines expression of a GDP-L-fucose:{beta}D-galactoside 2-{alpha}-L-fucosyltransferase. Although this fragment determined expression of an {alpha}(1,2)FT whose kinetic properties mirror those of the human H blood group {alpha}(1,2)FT, their precise nature remained undefined. They describe here the molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of a human of cDNA corresponding to these human genomic sequences. When expressed in COS-1 cells, the cDNA directs expression of cell surface H structures and a cognate {alpha}(1,2)FT activity with properties analogous to the human H blood group {alpha}(1,2)FT. The cDNA sequence predicts a 365-amino acid polypeptide characteristic of a type II transmembrane glycoprotein with a domain structure analogous to that of other glycosyltransferases but without significant primary sequence similarity to these or other known proteins. To directly demonstrate that the cDNA encodes an {alpha}(1,2)FT, the COOH-terminal domain predicted to be Golgi-resident was expressed in COS-1 cells as a catalytically active, secreted, and soluble protein A fusion peptide. Southern blot analysis showed that this cDNA identified DNA sequences syntenic to the human H locus on chromosome 19. These results strongly suggest that this cloned {alpha}(1,2)FT cDNA represents the product of the human H blood group locus.

  6. A novel trimeric Zn (II) complex based on 8-hydroxyquinoline with trifluoromethylbenzene group: Synthesis, crystal structure, photophysical properties and DNA binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Yanping; Wang, Chunquan; Lu, Jiguo; Hu, Sheng; Li, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Li

    2015-10-01

    A novel 2-substituted-8-hydroxyquinoline ligand (E)-2-[2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)ethenyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline (3, HL) was synthesized and characterized by ESI-MS, NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Using solvothermal method, a trimeric complex [Zn3L6] (4) was fabricated by self-assembly of Zn(II) ions with 3. X-ray structural analysis shows that 4 exhibits a trinuclear core, which was bridged and encapsulated by six 8-hydroxyquinolinate-based ligands. The supramolecular structure of 4 features a lamellar solid constructed by aromatic stacking interactions and nonclassical C-H···F hydrogen bonds derived from 4-trifluoromethylphenyl group of the 3. The coordination behavior of zinc salt and 3 in solution was performed by 1H NMR, UV-vis and Photoluminescence (PL). The experimental results show that the complex 4 emits yellow luminescence in the solid state. To investigate its properties further, we also studied the thermal stability, photophysical properties (fluorescent emission, lifetime) of complex 4, and the interactions between 4 and C60 or EtBr-DNA system.

  7. Maturase and endonuclease functions depend on separate conserved domains of the bifunctional protein encoded by the group I intron aI4 alpha of yeast mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Henke, R M; Butow, R A; Perlman, P S

    1995-01-01

    Intron 4 alpha (aI4 alpha) of the yeast mitochondrial COXI gene is a mobile group I intron that contains a reading frame encoding both the homing endonuclease I-SceII and a latent maturase capable of splicing both aI4 alpha and the fourth intron of the cytochrome b (COB) gene (bI4). The aI4 alpha reading frame is a member of a large gene family recognized by the presence of related dodecapeptide sequence motifs called P1 and P2. In this study, missense mutations of P1 and P2 were placed in mitochondrial DNA by biolistic transformation. The effects of the mutations on intron mobility, endonuclease I-SceII activity and maturase function were tested. The mutations of P1 strongly affected mobility and endonuclease I-SceII activity, but had little or no effect on maturase function; mutations of P2 affected splicing but not mobility or endonuclease I-SceII activity. Surprisingly, the conditional (temperature-sensitive) mutations at P1 and P2 block one or the other function of the protein but not both. This study indicates that the two functions depend on separate domains of the intron-encoded protein. Images PMID:7588637

  8. Low-Energy Electron Interaction with the Phosphate Group in DNA Molecule and the Characteristics of Single-Strand Break Pathways.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, Renjith; Sarma, Manabendra

    2015-10-01

    We modeled the low-energy electron attachment to the sugar-phosphate-sugar (SPS) molecule for investigating the single-strand break (3' C-O and 5' C-O) at the DNA backbone. In particular, we predicted the electron capture at the phosphate center. We found that 0.6 eV electron can attach to the phosphate group, and the lifetime (∼40-55 fs) of the resulting temporary negative ion state is more than what we found for the lifetime of the metastable species (∼18-20 fs) formed at the cytosine base center. We treated the two competing dissociation channels in SPS molecule, that is, both the 3' C-O and 5' C-O lesions, separately. The activation energy barrier calculated for 5' C-O bond rupture is found to be less than that for 3' C-O bond dissociation. The overall low-energy electron transfer process is found to be mediated through a "shape resonance state" formed at the phosphate center. PMID:26372673

  9. Sperm DNA oxidative damage and DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong; Lin, Wen-Yi

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate DNA damage and adducts in sperm from coke oven workers who have been exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A longitudinal study was conducted with repeated measurements during spermatogenesis. Coke-oven workers (n=112) from a coke-oven plant served the PAH-exposed group, while administrators and security personnel (n=67) served the control. Routine semen parameters (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) were analyzed simultaneously; the assessment of sperm DNA integrity endpoints included DNA fragmentation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). The degree of sperm DNA fragmentation was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The PAH-exposed group had a significant increase in bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo compared to the control subjects (Ps=0.002 and 0.045, respectively). Coke oven workers' percentages of DNA fragmentation and denaturation from the PAH-exposed group were not significantly different from those of the control subjects (Ps=0.232 and 0.245, respectively). Routine semen parameters and DNA integrity endpoints were not correlated. Concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo were positively correlated with percentages of DNA fragmentation measured by both TUNEL and SCSA (Ps=0.045 and 0.034, respectively). However, the concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo and percentages of DNA fragmentation did not correlate with concentrations of bulky DNA adducts. In summary, coke oven workers with chronic exposure to PAHs experienced decreased sperm DNA integrity. Oxidative stress could contribute to the degree of DNA fragmentation. Bulky DNA adducts may be independent of the formation of DNA fragmentation and oxidative adducts in sperm. Monitoring sperm DNA integrity is recommended as a part of the process of assessing the impact of occupational and environmental toxins on sperm. PMID:26653986

  10. Long-range repression by multiple polycomb group (PcG) proteins targeted by fusion to a defined DNA-binding domain in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Roseman, R R; Morgan, K; Mallin, D R; Roberson, R; Parnell, T J; Bornemann, D J; Simon, J A; Geyer, P K

    2001-01-01

    A tethering assay was developed to study the effects of Polycomb group (PcG) proteins on gene expression in vivo. This system employed the Su(Hw) DNA-binding domain (ZnF) to direct PcG proteins to transposons that carried the white and yellow reporter genes. These reporters constituted naive sensors of PcG effects, as bona fide PcG response elements (PREs) were absent from the constructs. To assess the effects of different genomic environments, reporter transposons integrated at nearly 40 chromosomal sites were analyzed. Three PcG fusion proteins, ZnF-PC, ZnF-SCM, and ZnF-ESC, were studied, since biochemical analyses place these PcG proteins in distinct complexes. Tethered ZnF-PcG proteins repressed white and yellow expression at the majority of sites tested, with each fusion protein displaying a characteristic degree of silencing. Repression by ZnF-PC was stronger than ZnF-SCM, which was stronger than ZnF-ESC, as judged by the percentage of insertion lines affected and the magnitude of the conferred repression. ZnF-PcG repression was more effective at centric and telomeric reporter insertion sites, as compared to euchromatic sites. ZnF-PcG proteins tethered as far as 3.0 kb away from the target promoter produced silencing, indicating that these effects were long range. Repression by ZnF-SCM required a protein interaction domain, the SPM domain, which suggests that this domain is not primarily used to direct SCM to chromosomal loci. This targeting system is useful for studying protein domains and mechanisms involved in PcG repression in vivo. PMID:11333237

  11. Phosphorus-nitrogen compounds: Part 28. Syntheses, structural characterizations, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, and DNA interactions of new phosphazenes bearing vanillinato and pendant ferrocenyl groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tümer, Yasemin; Asmafiliz, Nuran; Kılıç, Zeynel; Hökelek, Tuncer; Yasemin Koç, L.; Açık, Leyla; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Solak, Ali Osman; Öner, Yağmur; Dündar, Devrim; Yavuz, Makbule

    2013-10-01

    The gradually Cl replacement reactions of spirocyclic mono (1 and 2) and bisferrocenyl cyclotriphosphazenes (3-5) with the potassium salt of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (potassium vanillinate) gave mono (1a-5a), geminal (gem-1b-5b), non-geminal (cis-1b, cis-5b and trans-2b-5b), tri (1c-5c) and tetra-substituted phosphazenes (1d-5d). Some phosphazenes have stereogenic P-center(s). The chirality of 4c was verified using chiral HPLC column. Electrochemical behaviors were influenced only by the number of ferrocene groups, but not the length of the amine chains and the substituent(s). The structures of the new phosphazenes were determined by FTIR, MS, 1H, 13C and 31P NMR, HSQC and HMBC spectral data. The solid-state structures of cis-1b and 4d were examined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The twelve phosphazene derivatives were screened for antimicrobial activity and the compounds 5a, cis-1b and 2c exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against G(+) and G(-) bacteria. In addition, it was found that overall gem-1b inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The compounds 1d, 2d and 4d were tested in HeLa cancer cell lines. Among these compounds, 2d had cytotoxic effect on HeLa cell in the first 48 h. Moreover, interactions between compounds 2a, gem-1b, gem-2b, cis-1b, 2c, 3c, 4c, 5c, 1d, 2d and 4d, and pBR322 plasmid DNA were investigated.

  12. DNA Barcoding the Dioscorea in China, a Vital Group in the Evolution of Monocotyledon: Use of matK Gene for Species Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Qin; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Guo, Jian-Lin; Peng, Bin; Bai, Ming-Ming; Hang, Yue-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Background Dioscorea is an important plant genus in terms of food supply and pharmaceutical applications. However, its classification and identification are controversial. DNA barcoding is a recent aid to taxonomic identification and uses a short standardized DNA region to discriminate plant species. In this study, the applicability of three candidate DNA barcodes (rbcL, matK, and psbA-trnH) to identify species within Dioscorea was tested. Methodology/Principal Findings One-hundred and forty-eight individual plant samples of Dioscorea, encompassing 38 species, seven varieties and one subspecies, representing majority species distributed in China of this genus, were collected from its main distributing areas. Samples were assessed by PCR amplification, sequence quality, extent of specific genetic divergence, DNA barcoding gap, and the ability to discriminate between species. matK successfully identified 23.26% of all species, compared with 9.30% for rbcL and 11.63% for psbA-trnH. Therefore, matK is recommended as the best DNA barcoding candidate. We found that the combination of two or three loci achieved a higher success rate of species discrimination than one locus alone. However, experimental cost would be much higher if two or three loci, rather than a single locus, were assessed. Conclusions We conclude that matK is a strong, although not perfect, candidate as a DNA barcode for Dioscorea identification. This assessment takes into account both its ability for species discrimination and the cost of experiments. PMID:22363795

  13. Complementation of the DNA repair deficiency in human xeroderma pigmentosum group a and C cells by recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Muotri, Alysson Renato; Marchetto, Maria Carolina Nasser; Zerbini, Luiz Fernando Celidonio; Libermann, Towia A; Ventura, Armando Morais; Sarasin, Alain; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins

    2002-10-10

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is one of the most versatile DNA repair mechanisms, ensuring the proper functioning and trustworthy transmission of genetic information in all living cells. The phenotypic consequences caused by NER defects in humans are autosomal recessive diseases such as xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). This syndrome is the most sun-sensitive disorder leading to a high frequency of skin cancer. The majority of patients with XP carry mutations in the XPA or XPC genes that encode proteins involved in recognition of DNA damage induced by UV light at the beginning of the NER process. Cells cultured from XPA and XPC patients are hypersensitive to UV light, as a result of malfunctioning DNA repair. So far there is no effective long-term treatment for these patients. Skin cancer prevention can only be achieved by strict avoidance of sunlight exposure or by the use of sunscreen agents. We have constructed recombinant adenoviruses carrying the XPA and XPC genes that were used to infect XP-A and XP-C immortalized and primary fibroblast cell lines. UV survival curves and unscheduled DNA synthesis confirmed complete phenotypic reversion in XP DNA repair deficient cells with no trace of cytotoxicity. Moreover, transgene expression is stable for at least 60 days after infection. This efficient adenovirus gene delivery approach may be an important tool to better understand XP deficiency and the causes of DNA damage induced skin cancer. PMID:12396616

  14. Performance Characteristics and Utilization of Rapid Antigen Test, DNA Probe, and Culture for Detection of Group A Streptococci in an Acute Care Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Chapin, Kimberle C.; Blake, Patricia; Wilson, Claire D.

    2002-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) antigen testing has become a routine point-of-care (POC) test in acute care settings. Concern about performance parameters (PP) of these tests as well as inappropriate antibiotic use has resulted in various recommendations regarding diagnosis of GAS. There were two objectives in this study. The first was to evaluate the rapid GAS antigen test presently in use (Thermo BioStar, Boulder, Colo.) and the GAS Direct probe test (Gen-Probe, San Diego, Calif.) compared to culture. The second was to define the optimal use of these technologies in a large acute care pediatric clinic. A total of 520 consecutive pediatric patients presenting with symptoms of pharyngitis at any of three Lahey Clinic acute care facilities were evaluated. Pharyngeal specimens were collected using a double-swab collection device (Copan, Corona, Calif.). One swab was used for the antigen test, the second was used for the probe test, and the pledget was placed in the collection device for culture on 5% sheep blood agar, incubated for 48 h anaerobically, and subsequently placed in Todd-Hewitt broth. After discrepant analysis, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were as follows: 94.8, 100, 100, and 96.9% for the probe test and 86.1, 97.1, 93.7, and 93.4% for the antigen test, respectively. Sensitivity using an enhanced culture technique was 99.4% (163 of 164). False-positive (FP) antigen results were often seen from patients previously diagnosed and/or treated for GAS. No FP results were seen with the probe test. Colony counts for the false-negative (FN) antigen tests were higher than those for the FN probe tests. Compared to culture and DNA probe, the rapid antigen test (RAT) offered a result at the time of the patient's visit, with acceptable PP when prevalence of disease is high. Follow-up testing with the RAT of GAS patients who previously tested as positive should be avoided due to increased FP results. The probe test was comparable to culture in performance. Results indicate the probe test can be used as the primary test or as a backup to negative antigen tests. The probe test offers the advantage over culture of same-day reporting of a final result but, in contrast to a POC test, necessitates follow-up communication to the patient. Preliminary data show the specificity of the probe test to be greater than that of the RAT for patients previously diagnosed with GAS. PMID:12409399

  15. Evolution of eukaryotic single-stranded DNA viruses of the Bidnaviridae family from genes of four other groups of widely different viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupovic, Mart; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2014-06-01

    Single-stranded (ss)DNA viruses are extremely widespread, infect diverse hosts from all three domains of life and include important pathogens. Most ssDNA viruses possess small genomes that replicate by the rolling-circle-like mechanism initiated by a distinct virus-encoded endonuclease. However, viruses of the family Bidnaviridae, instead of the endonuclease, encode a protein-primed type B DNA polymerase (PolB) and hence break this pattern. We investigated the provenance of all bidnavirus genes and uncover an unexpected turbulent evolutionary history of these unique viruses. Our analysis strongly suggests that bidnaviruses evolved from a parvovirus ancestor from which they inherit a jelly-roll capsid protein and a superfamily 3 helicase. The radiation of bidnaviruses from parvoviruses was probably triggered by integration of the ancestral parvovirus genome into a large virus-derived DNA transposon of the Polinton (polintovirus) family resulting in the acquisition of the polintovirus PolB gene along with terminal inverted repeats. Bidnavirus genes for a receptor-binding protein and a potential novel antiviral defense modulator are derived from dsRNA viruses (Reoviridae) and dsDNA viruses (Baculoviridae), respectively. The unusual evolutionary history of bidnaviruses emphasizes the key role of horizontal gene transfer, sometimes between viruses with completely different genomes but occupying the same niche, in the emergence of new viral types.

  16. Methylation of Histone H3 on Lysine 79 Associates with a Group of Replication Origins and Helps Limit DNA Replication Once per Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Haiqing; Maunakea, Alika K.; Martin, Melvenia M.; Huang, Liang; Zhang, Ya; Ryan, Michael; Kim, RyangGuk; Lin, Chii Meil; Zhao, Keji; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian DNA replication starts at distinct chromosomal sites in a tissue-specific pattern coordinated with transcription, but previous studies have not yet identified a chromatin modification that correlates with the initiation of DNA replication at particular genomic locations. Here we report that a distinct fraction of replication initiation sites in the human genome are associated with a high frequency of dimethylation of histone H3 lysine K79 (H3K79Me2). H3K79Me2-containing chromatin exhibited the highest genome-wide enrichment for replication initiation events observed for any chromatin modification examined thus far (23.39% of H3K79Me2 peaks were detected in regions adjacent to replication initiation events). The association of H3K79Me2 with replication initiation sites was independent and not synergistic with other chromatin modifications. H3K79 dimethylation exhibited wider distribution on chromatin during S-phase, but only regions with H3K79 methylation in G1 and G2 were enriched in replication initiation events. H3K79 was dimethylated in a region containing a functional replicator (a DNA sequence capable of initiating DNA replication), but the methylation was not evident in a mutant replicator that could not initiate replication. Depletion of DOT1L, the sole enzyme responsible for H3K79 methylation, triggered limited genomic over-replication although most cells could continue to proliferate and replicate DNA in the absence of methylated H3K79. Thus, prevention of H3K79 methylation might affect regulatory processes that modulate the order and timing of DNA replication. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that dimethylated H3K79 associates with some replication origins and marks replicated chromatin during S-phase to prevent re-replication and preserve genomic stability. PMID:23754963

  17. Influence of the linkage type and functional groups in the carcinogenic moiety on the conformational preferences of damaged DNA: structural and energetic characterization of carbon- and oxygen-linked C(8)-phenolic-guanine adducts.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Purshotam; Majdi Yazdi, Mohadeseh; Merriman, Ashlyn; Manderville, Richard A; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2015-04-20

    Computational (DFT, MD, and free energy) methods are used to systematically compare the structural and energetic properties of C(8)-bonded 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts derived from phenolic toxins, namely, the oxygen-linked (unsubstituted) adduct ((PhO)dG) and carbon-linked adducts ((ortho-PhOH)dG or (para-PhOH)dG) that contain a hydroxyl group in the bulky moiety. Despite restricted rotation at the C(8)-X bond due to the presence of the oxygen linker, the (PhO)dG adduct likely possesses the greatest glycosidic (anti/syn) conformational flexibility at the 5'-terminus of DNA. However, the anti/syn energy difference is the smallest for the (para-PhOH)dG nucleotide at other helical positions, which correlates with the greatest conformational heterogeneity for the corresponding (NarI) adducted DNA. Most importantly, the total number of accessible conformations of adducted DNA depend on the phenolic adduct considered. Specifically, although the only conformations accessible to (PhO)dG adducted DNA correspond to the anti adduct glycosidic orientation, the C-linked adducts can also adopt the syn orientation in the double helix. Moreover, the number of accessible conformations for DNA containing the C-linked adducts depends on the nature of discrete interactions involving the hydroxyl group in the C(8)-moiety. In fact, such interactions lead to a novel (intercalated) conformational theme in the case of the (para-PhOH)dG adduct. Together, these results indicate that the type of C(8)-linkage, and the presence and location of additional functional groups in the bulky moiety affect the conformational outcomes, which adds to the list of previously established effects including the size of the carcinogenic moiety, adduct ionization state, and sequence context on the conformational preferences of damaged DNA. Most importantly, our study provides valuable structural information that explains the experimentally observed mutagenic potential of DNA phenolic adducts and predicts the relative repair propensity of the three phenolic lesions. PMID:25658653

  18. The effects of linear assembly of two carbazole groups on acid-base and DNA-binding properties of a ruthenium(II) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Xue, Long-Xin; Ju, Chun-Chuan; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2013-07-01

    A novel Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(Hbcpip)](ClO4)2 {where bpy = 2,2-bipyridine, Hbcpip = 2-(4-(9H-3,9'-bicarbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} is synthesized and characterized. Calf-thymus DNA-binding properties of the complex were studied by UV-vis absorption and luminescence titrations, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6]4-, DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, thermal denaturation and DNA viscosity measurements. The results indicate that the complex partially intercalated into the DNA with a binding constant of (5.5 ± 1.4) × 105 M-1 in buffered 50 mM NaCl. The acid-base properties of the complex were also studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectrophotometric pH titrations, and ground- and excited-state acidity ionization constant values were derived.

  19. Functional regulation of the DNA damage-recognition factor DDB2 by ubiquitination and interaction with xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Syota; Fischer, Eric S.; Yasuda, Takeshi; Dohmae, Naoshi; Iwai, Shigenori; Mori, Toshio; Nishi, Ryotaro; Yoshino, Ken-ichi; Sakai, Wataru; Hanaoka, Fumio; Thomä, Nicolas H.; Sugasawa, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian nucleotide excision repair, the DDB1–DDB2 complex recognizes UV-induced DNA photolesions and facilitates recruitment of the XPC complex. Upon binding to damaged DNA, the Cullin 4 ubiquitin ligase associated with DDB1–DDB2 is activated and ubiquitinates DDB2 and XPC. The structurally disordered N-terminal tail of DDB2 contains seven lysines identified as major sites for ubiquitination that target the protein for proteasomal degradation; however, the precise biological functions of these modifications remained unknown. By exogenous expression of mutant DDB2 proteins in normal human fibroblasts, here we show that the N-terminal tail of DDB2 is involved in regulation of cellular responses to UV. By striking contrast with behaviors of exogenous DDB2, the endogenous DDB2 protein was stabilized even after UV irradiation as a function of the XPC expression level. Furthermore, XPC competitively suppressed ubiquitination of DDB2 in vitro, and this effect was significantly promoted by centrin-2, which augments the DNA damage-recognition activity of XPC. Based on these findings, we propose that in cells exposed to UV, DDB2 is protected by XPC from ubiquitination and degradation in a stochastic manner; thus XPC allows DDB2 to initiate multiple rounds of repair events, thereby contributing to the persistence of cellular DNA repair capacity. PMID:25628365

  20. A biosensing of Toxoplasma gondii DNA with CdTe/Fe3O4 dual functional quantum dot as reporter group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chu; Xu, Shichao; Yang, Juan; Zhang, Jimei; Dai, Zhao; Sun, Bo; Sun, Shuqing; Feng, Tielin; Zi, Yan; Liu, Jingwei; Luo, Hao

    2009-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intestinal coccidium that parasitizes members of the cat family as definitive hosts and has a wide range of intermediate hosts. Infection is common in many warm-blooded animals, including humans, the early detection of Toxoplasma gondii was concerned in recent years. In the current research, we presented a fast, specific, and sensitive sensing probe to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA based on mechanism of fluorescence energy transfer (FRET), and a magnetic-fluorescent CdTe/Fe3O4 core-shell quantum dots (mQDs) was utilized as energy donor, and a commercial quencher (BHQ-2) was used as energy acceptor, respectively. The CdTe/Fe3O4 mQDs were prepared by layer-by-layer (LBL) process at ambient temperature. The sensing probe was fabricated through labeling a stem-loop Toxoplasma gondii DNA oligonucleotide with mQDs at the 5' end and BHQ-2 at 3' end, respectively, and the resulting sensing probe can be simply isolated and purified from the reactant with a common magnet. Properties of mQDs and sensing probe were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence spectrum (FS). The TEM data demonstrated that the size of mQDs was ~20nm. the FS data indicated fluorescence intensity (FI) was doubled after the complete complimentary target Toxoplasma gondii DNA was introduced comparing with the FI before addition of target Toxoplasma gondii DNA. Moreover, only weak FI change was observed when the target DNA with one-mismatch base pair was added, this result revealed the sensing probe has high sensitivity and specificity. The current sensing probe will has great potential applications in the life science and related research.

  1. Detection of potentially valuable polymorphisms in four group I intron insertion sites at the 3'-end of the LSU rDNA genes in biocontrol isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, Marcela; Iturriaga, Enrique A; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; Santiago-Álvarez, Cándido; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa

    2006-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic anamorphic fungus Metarhizum anisopliae is currently used as a biocontrol agent (BCA) of insects. In the present work, we analyzed the sequence data obtained from group I introns in the large subunit (LSU) of rDNA genes with a view to determining the genetic diversity present in an autochthonous collection of twenty-six M. anisopliae isolates selected as BCAs. Results DNA fragments corresponding to the 3'-end of the nuclear LSU rDNA genes of 26 M. anisopliae isolates were amplified by PCR. The amplicon sizes ranged from 0.8 to 3.4-kb. Four intron insertion sites, according to Escherichia coli J01695 numbering, were detected- Ec1921, Ec2066, Ec2449 and Ec2563- after sequencing and analysis of the PCR products. The presence/absence of introns allowed the 26 isolates to be distributed into seven genotypes. Nine of the isolates tested showed no introns, 4 had only one, 3 two, and 10 displayed three introns. The most frequent insertion sites were Ec1921 and Ec2449. Of the 26 isolates, 11 showed insertions at Ec2563 and a 1754-bp sequence was observed in ten of them. The most-parsimonious (MP) tree obtained from parsimony analysis of the introns revealed a main set containing four-groups that corresponded to the four insertion sites. Conclusion Four insertion sites of group I introns in the LSU rDNA genes allowed the establishment of seven genotypes among the twenty-six biocontrol isolates of M. anisopliae. Intron insertions at the Ec2563 site were observed for first time in this species. PMID:16978412

  2. DNA-barcoding of perch-like fishes (Actinopterygii: Perciformes) from far-eastern seas of Russia with taxonomic remarks for some groups.

    PubMed

    Turanov, S V; Kartavtsev, Yu Ph; Lipinsky, V V; Zemnukhov, V V; Balanov, A A; Lee, Y-H; Jeong, D

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of variation among 203 nucleotide sequences of Co-1 gene (DNA-barcode) for 45 species, 31 genera and 7 families of the order Perciformes from the Far Eastern seas of Russia has been performed. As a result, 42 species (93.3%) can be unambiguously identified using molecular DNA-barcode at Co-1, whereas more variable markers are required for other species (6.7%): Stichaeus grigorjewi, S. nozawae, and Lumpenus sagitta. The latter includes as well 2 morphologically distinct (by number of vertebrae) but genetically unresolved species, L. sagitta (Sea of Okhotsk) and L. fabricii (Bering Sea). In addition, within this genus morphologically poorly characterized but genetically well-distinguished cryptic species has been detected. Amphi-Pacific distribution is in question relative to L. sagitta. Cryptic diversity was observed in the genus Ammodytes. PMID:25121832

  3. Plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA predicts outcome in advanced Hodgkin lymphoma: correlative analysis from a large North American cooperative group trial

    PubMed Central

    Kanakry, Jennifer A.; Li, Hailun; Gellert, Lan L.; Lemas, M. Victor; Hsieh, Wen-son; Hong, Fangxin; Tan, King L.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Gordon, Leo I.; Fisher, Richard I.; Bartlett, Nancy L.; Stiff, Patrick; Cheson, Bruce D.; Advani, Ranjana; Miller, Thomas P.; Kahl, Brad S.; Horning, Sandra J.

    2013-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and can be detected by in situ hybridization (ISH) of viral nucleic acid (EBER) in tumor cells. We sought to determine whether plasma EBV-DNA could serve as a surrogate for EBER-ISH and to explore its prognostic utility in HL. Specimens from the Cancer Cooperative Intergroup Trial E2496 were used to compare pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA quantification with EBV tumor status by EBER-ISH. A cutoff of >60 viral copies/100 µL plasma yielded 96% concordance with EBER-ISH. Pretreatment and month 6 plasma specimens were designated EBV(-) or EBV(+) by this cutoff. Patients with pretreatment EBV(+) plasma (n = 54) had inferior failure-free survival (FFS) compared with those with pretreatment EBV(-) plasma (n = 274), log-rank P = .009. By contrast, no difference in FFS was observed when patients were stratified by EBER-ISH. Pretreatment plasma EBV positivity was an independent predictor of treatment failure on multivariate analyses. At month 6, plasma EBV(+) patients (n = 7) had inferior FFS compared with plasma EBV(-) patients (n = 125), log-rank P = .007. These results confirm that plasma EBV-DNA is highly concordant with EBER-ISH in HL and suggest that it may have prognostic utility both at baseline and after therapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00003389. PMID:23386127

  4. Transcriptional Response of Human Neurospheres to Helper-Dependent CAV-2 Vectors Involves the Modulation of DNA Damage Response, Microtubule and Centromere Gene Groups

    PubMed Central

    Licursi, Valerio; Brito, Catarina; La Torre, Mattia; Alves, Paula M.; Simao, Daniel; Mottini, Carla; Salinas, Sara; Negri, Rodolfo; Tagliafico, Enrico; Kremer, Eric J.; Saggio, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Brain gene transfer using viral vectors will likely become a therapeutic option for several disorders. Helper-dependent (HD) canine adenovirus type 2 vectors (CAV-2) are well suited for this goal. These vectors are poorly immunogenic, efficiently transduce neurons, are retrogradely transported to afferent structures in the brain and lead to long-term transgene expression. CAV-2 vectors are being exploited to unravel behavior, cognition, neural networks, axonal transport and therapy for orphan diseases. With the goal of better understanding and characterizing HD-CAV-2 for brain therapy, we analyzed the transcriptomic modulation induced by HD-CAV-2 in human differentiated neurospheres derived from midbrain progenitors. This 3D model system mimics several aspects of the dynamic nature of human brain. We found that differentiated neurospheres are readily transduced by HD-CAV-2 and that transduction generates two main transcriptional responses: a DNA damage response and alteration of centromeric and microtubule probes. Future investigations on the biochemistry of processes highlighted by probe modulations will help defining the implication of HD-CAV-2 and CAR receptor binding in enchaining these functional pathways. We suggest here that the modulation of DNA damage genes is related to viral DNA, while the alteration of centromeric and microtubule probes is possibly enchained by the interaction of the HD-CAV-2 fibre with CAR. PMID:26207738

  5. DNA-cell conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  6. Immobilization of DNA in polyacrylamide gel for the manufacture of DNA and DNA-oligonucleotide microchips.

    SciTech Connect

    Proudnikov, D.; Timofeev, E.; Mirzabekov, A.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology

    1998-05-15

    Activated DNA was immobilized in aldehyde-containing polyacrylamide gel for use in manufacturing the MAGIChip (microarrays of gel-immobilized compounds on a chip). First, abasic sites were generated in DNA by partial acidic depurination. Amino groups were then introduced into the abasic sites by reaction with ethylenediamine and reduction of the aldimine bonds formed. It was found that DNA could be fragmented at the site of amino group incorporation or preserved mostly unfragmented. In similar reactions, both amino-DNA and amino-oligonucleotides were attached through their amines to polyacrylamide gel derivatized with aldehyde groups. Single- and double-stranded DNA of 40 to 972 nucleotides or base pairs were immobilized on the gel pads to manufacture a DNA microchip. The microchip was hybridized with fluorescently labeled DNA-specific oligonucleotide probes. This procedure for immobilization of amino compounds was used to manufacture MAGIChips containing both DNA and oligonucleotides.

  7. DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Friedberg, E.C.; Hanawalt, P.C. )

    1988-01-01

    Topics covered in this book included: Eukaryote model systems for DNA repair study; Sensitive detection of DNA lesions and their repair; and Defined DNA sequence probes for analysis of mutagenesis and repair.

  8. Comparison between vaginal tampon and cervicovaginal lavage specimen collection for detection of human papillomavirus DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. The Canadian Women's HIV Study Group.

    PubMed

    Coutlée, F; Hankins, C; Lapointe, N

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the accuracy of self-administered vaginal tampon (VT) specimens for the detection of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) with that of cervicovaginal lavage specimens (CVL). Two hundred seventy-four paired VT and CVL specimens were collected prospectively from women at risk of sexually transmitted diseases. Specimens were treated and amplified with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Each woman served as her own control. One hundred and forty-four of 272 (52.9%) CVLs and 159 of 271 (58.7%) VTs contained HPV DNA sequences (correlation of 88%). The sensitivity and specificity of vaginal tampons reached 93.9% (138/147) and 80.5% (99/123), respectively. HPV typing results were concordant for 99 negative paired samples and 114 paired samples positive for the same type(s) (correlation of 78.9%). It is concluded that these sampling methods collect cells from different areas of the genital epithelium, highlighting the importance of further assessment of the comparative predictive value of HPV detection in each sample. PMID:8986948

  9. DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Tabor, S.; Richardson, C.C.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a method for determining the nucleotide base sequence of a DNA molecule. It comprises: providing the DNA molecule annealed with a primer molecule able to hybridize to the DNA molecule; incubating the annealed molecules in a vessel containing four different deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a processive DNA polymerase, wherein the polymerase is able to remain bound for at least 500 bases to the DNA molecule in an environmental condition used in the extension reaction of a DNA sequencing reaction, the polymerase having less than 500 units of exonuclease activity per mg of the polymerase, and one of four DNA synthesis terminating agents which terminate DNA synthesis at a specific nucleotide base, wherein each the agent terminates DNA synthesis at a different nucleotide base, and separating the DNA products of the incubating reaction according to their size, whereby at least a part of the nucleotide base sequence of the DNA molecule can be determined.

  10. Development of a DNA vaccine for chicken infectious anemia and its immunogenicity studies using high mobility group box 1 protein as a novel immunoadjuvant indicated induction of promising protective immune responses.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Pradeep Mahadev; Dhama, Kuldeep; Rawool, Deepak Bhiva; Wani, Mohd Yaqoob; Tiwari, Ruchi; Singh, Shambhu Dayal; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is an economically important and emerging poultry disease reported worldwide. Current CIA vaccines have limitations like, the inability of the virus to grow to high titres in embryos/cell cultures, possession of residual pathogenicity and a risk of reversion to virulence. In the present study, a DNA vaccine, encoding chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) VP1 and VP2 genes, was developed and co-administered with truncated chicken high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1ΔC) protein in young chicks for the evaluation of vaccine immune response. CIAV VP1 and VP2 genes were cloned in pTARGET while HMGB1ΔC in PET32b vector. In vitro expression of these gene constructs was evaluated by Western blotting. Further, recombinant HMGB1ΔC was evaluated for its biological activity. The CIAV DNA vaccine administration in specific pathogen free chicks resulted in moderately protective ELISA antibody titres in the range of 4322.87 ± 359.72 to 8288.19 ± 136.38, increased CD8(+) cells, and a higher titre was observed by co-administration of novel adjuvant (HMGB1ΔC) and booster immunizations. The use of vaccine with adjuvant showed achieving antibody titres nearly 8500, titre considered as highly protective, which indicates that co-immunization of HMGB1ΔC may have a strong adjuvant activity on CIAV DNA vaccine induced immune responses. The able potential of HMGB1 protein holding strong adjuvant activity could be exploited further with trials with vaccines for other important pathogens for achieving the required protective immune responses. PMID:25448094

  11. Functional α-fragment of β-galactosidase can be expressed from the mobile group I intron PpLSU3 embedded in yeast pre-ribosomal RNA derived from the chromosomal rDNA locus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jue; Vogt, Volker M.

    2000-01-01

    PpLSU3, a mobile group I intron found in the ribosomal RNA genes of Physarum polycephalum, encodes the I-PpoI homing endonuclease. This enzyme represents one of the rare cases in nature where a protein is expressed from an RNA polymerase I transcript. Our previous results showed that the full length intron, but not a further processed species, is the messenger for I-PpoI, implying a role of the untranslated region (UTR) in gene expression. To study the function of the 3′-UTR in expression of the endonuclease and in splicing of the intron, we replaced the I-PpoI gene in PpLSU3 with the gene for the α-fragment of Escherichia coli β-galactosidase, and then integrated this chimeric intron into all the chromosomal rDNA repeats of yeast. The resulting cells synthesized functional α-fragment, as evidenced by a complementation assay analogous to that used in E.coli. The β-galactosidase activity thus provides an unusual and potentially valuable readout for Pol I transcription from chromosomal rDNA. This is the first example in which a eucaryotic homing endonuclease gene has been successfully replaced by a heterologous gene. Using deletion mutagenesis and a novel randomization approach with the α-fragment as a reporter, we found that a small segment of the 3′-UTR dramatically influences both splicing and protein expression. PMID:10684939

  12. Ten polymorphic DNA loci, including five in the rat MHC (RT1) region, form a single linkage group on rat chromosome 20

    SciTech Connect

    Remmers, E.F.; Du, Y.; Zha, H.; Goldmuntz, E.A.; Wilder, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    We have described ten markers for polymorphic loci on rat chromosome 20, including five in the rat MHC (RT1) region. These markers formed a single linkage group spanning a recombination distance of 0.40. The markers identified five expressed gene loci - RT1.N1 (thymus leukemia antigen 1), Tnfa (tumor necrosis factor {alpha}), Hspa1 (heat shock protein 70), Ggt1 ({gamma} glutamyl-transferase 1), and Prkacn2 (protein kinase C catalytic subunit binding inhibitor 2), two loci with sequences that are related to expressed genes - RT1.Aw2 (sequence related to a non-RT1A class I {alpha} chain) and Mt21 (sequence related to metallothionein 2), and three anonymous loci - D20Arb548, D20Arb234, and D20Arb249. These polymorphic markers should facilitate mapping studies and genetic monitoring of inbred rat strains. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Wrinkled DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Arnott, S; Chandrasekaran, R; Puigjaner, L C; Walker, J K; Hall, I H; Birdsall, D L; Ratliff, R L

    1983-01-01

    The B form of poly d(GC):poly d(GC) in orthorhombic microcrystallites in oriented fibers has a secondary structure in which a dinucleotide is the repeated motif rather than a mononucleotide as in standard, smooth B DNA. One set of nucleotides (probably GpC) has the same conformations as the smooth form but the alternate (CpG) nucleotides have a different conformation at C3'-O3'. This leads to a distinctive change in the orientation of the phosphate groups. Similar perturbations can be detected in other poly d(PuPy):poly d(PuPy) DNAs such as poly d(IC):poly d(IC) and poly d(AT):poly d(AT) in their D forms which have tetragonal crystal environments. This suggests that such perturbations are intrinsic to all stretches of duplex DNA where purines and pyrimidines alternate and may play a role in the detection and exploitation of such sequences by regulatory proteins. Images PMID:6572358

  14. Forensic analysis of dog (Canis lupus familiaris) mitochondrial DNA sequences: an inter-laboratory study of the GEP-ISFG working group.

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Albarran, Cristina; Alonso, Antonio; Angulo, Ramón; Alves, Cíntia; Betancor, Eva; Catanesi, Cecilia I; Corach, Daniel; Crespillo, Manuel; Doutremepuich, Christian; Estonba, Andone; Fernandes, Ana Teresa; Fernandez, Eugenia; Garcia, Ana Maria; Garcia, Miguel Angel; Gilardi, Patricia; Gonçalves, Rita; Hernández, Alexis; Lima, Gabriela; Nascimento, Eugênio; de Pancorbo, Marian M; Parra, David; Pinheiro, Maria de Fátima; Prat, Elena; Puente, Jorge; Ramírez, José Luis; Rendo, Fernando; Rey, Isabel; Di Rocco, Florencia; Rodríguez, Anayanci; Sala, Andrea; Salla, Joel; Sanchez, Juan J; Solá, Dácil; Silva, Sandra; Pestano Brito, José Juan; Amorim, António

    2009-12-01

    A voluntary collaborative exercise aiming at the mitochondrial analysis of canine biological samples was carried out in 2006-2008 by the Non-Human Forensic Genetics Commission of the Spanish and Portuguese Working Group (GEP) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG). The participating laboratories were asked to sequence two dog samples (one bloodstain and one hair sample) for the mitochondrial D-loop region comprised between positions 15,372 and 16,083 using suggested primers and PCR conditions, and to compare their results against a reference sequence. Twenty-one participating laboratories reported a total of 67.5% concordant results, 15% non-concordant results, and 17.5% no results. The hair sample analysis presented more difficulty to the participants than the bloodstain analysis, with a high percentage (29%) failing to obtain a result. The high level of participation showed the interest of the community in the analysis of dog forensic samples but the results reveal that crucial methodological issues need to be addressed and further training is required in order to respond proficiently to the demands of forensic casework. PMID:19948334

  15. New DNA-based PCR approaches for rapid real-time detection and prevention of group B streptococcal infections in newborns and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, M G; Ke, D

    2001-11-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are an important cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, and maternal infection. Although the pathogenesis of GBS infection is not well understood, several virulence factors have been identified. Two prevention strategies have been proposed: chemoprophylaxis and immunoprophylaxis. Implementation of selective intrapartum chemoprophylaxis on the basis of either screening or risk assessment has led to a substantial decrease in the morbidity and mortality of GBS disease in both mothers and infants. Penicillin remains the antibiotic of choice with no reported resistant GBS so far, whereas resistance of 10-20% of GBS to erythromycin and clindamycin has been reported in North America. Chemoprophylaxis based on screening requires optimal detection methods for GBS, which involve selective broth culture of combined vaginal and anal samples. Other conventional methods are useful for rapid identification of heavily colonised women, but are unreliable for the detection of light GBS colonisation because of poor sensitivity. GBS-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using real-time PCR coupled with fluorescence-labelling technology offer powerful tools for sensitive and specific, yet rapid (less than 1 h), detection of GBS directly from clinical specimens at the time of delivery. The application of these assays to the current prevention strategies will simplify the prevention practice and rationalise the use of antibiotics. Immunoprophylaxis relies on the development of new vaccines against GBS, and active research is being conducted in this area. PMID:14585149

  16. Nanoparticle bridge DNA biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong-Wen

    A new DNA sensing method is demonstrated in which DNA hybridization events lead to the formation of nanoparticle satellites that bridge two electrodes and are detected electrically. The hybridization events are exclusively carried out only on specific locations, the surfaces of C-ssDNA modified 50 nm GNPs. The uniqueness of this work is that only a small number of T-ccDNA molecules (<10) is required to form the nanoparticle satellites, allowing ultra-sensitive DNA sensing. The principle of this new DNA sensing technique has been demonstrated using target DNA and three-base-pair-mismatched DNA in 20nM concentrations. Three single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) system is used in our experiment which includes Capture-ssDNA (C-ssDNA), Target-ssDNA (T-ssDNA) and Probe-ssDNA (P-ssDNA). Both C-ssDNA and P-ssDNA are modified by a thiol group and can hybridize with different portions of T-ssDNA. T-ssDNA requires no modification in three ssDNA system, which is beneficial in many applications. C-ssDNA modified 50nm gold nanoparticle (C-50au) and P-ssDNA modified 30nm gold nanoparticle (P-30au) are prepared through the reaction of thiol-gold chemical bonding between thiolated ssDNA and gold nanoparticle (GNP) (C-ssDNA with 50nm GNP, P-ssDNA with 30nm GNP). We controllably place the C-50au only on the SiO2 band surface (˜ 90nm width) between two gold electrodes (source and drain electrodes) by forming positively- and negatively-charged self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on SiO2 and gold surface, respectively. DNA modified GNP is negatively charged due to ionization of phosphate group on DNA back bone. C-50au therefore is negatively charged and can only be attracted toward SiO2 area (repelled by negatively charged gold electrode surface). The amine group of positively-charged SAMs on SiO2 surface is then passivated by converting to non-polar methyl functional group after C-50au placement. P-30au is first hybridized with T-ssDNA in the solution phase (T-P- 30au formed) and is introduced into DNA detection device in which C-50au are immobilized on ˜90nm width SiO2 band (between two gold electrodes). The passivation step ensures every TP-30au are attached only to C-50au through hybridization (T-P-30au will not be attracted toward SiO2 surface or gold electrodes). GNP bridges are formed across the electrodes and provide an electrical path between two gold electrodes. We ensure that every T-P-30au only hybridizes on the surface of C-50au by (1) accurately controlling C-50au placement between two gold electrodes, (2) passivating positively-charged SAMs on SiO2 surface after C-50au immobilization. When T-P-30au hybridize with C-50au on ˜90nm wide SiO 2 surface, GNP bridges form and provide an electrical path between two gold electrodes even with only a few hybridization events. Experimental results show that even a few GNP bridges formed on SiO2 band can provide a significant conductance change from an open circuit to a conductive circuit (current = 0.5 uA at voltage = 0.1 V with four GNP bridge). We also used 3-base-pair-mismatched ssDNA (3mm-ssDNA) as a control experiment, which always resulted in an open circuit (no GNP bridge formed). Our detection device is compatible with current CMOS fabrication technology and can be manufactured on a wafer scale. The direct electrical output of this DNA detection technique provides a promising basis for high-throughput screening (can be fabricated on a wafer scale) with no expensive equipment required.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.; Bottino, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on mitochondrial DNA, pointing out that it may have once been a free-living organism. Includes a ready-to-duplicate exercise titled "Using Microchondrial DNA to Measure Evolutionary Distance." (JN)

  18. Conformation-dependent DNA attraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2014-06-21

    Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg(2+) ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg(2+) or Na(+), benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg(2+) bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription. PMID:24847505

  19. Dna Sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1995-04-25

    A method for sequencing a strand of DNA, including the steps off: providing the strand of DNA; annealing the strand with a primer able to hybridize to the strand to give an annealed mixture; incubating the mixture with four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, a DNA polymerase, and at least three deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in different amounts, under conditions in favoring primer extension to form nucleic acid fragments complementory to the DNA to be sequenced; labelling the nucleic and fragments; separating them and determining the position of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates by differences in the intensity of the labels, thereby to determine the DNA sequence.

  20. DNA vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Coban, Cevayir; Kobiyama, Kouji; Jounai, Nao; Tozuka, Miyuki; Ishii, Ken J

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of DNA vaccines two decades ago, this attractive strategy has been hampered by its low immunogenicity in humans. Studies conducted to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines have shown that understanding the mechanism of action of DNA vaccines might be the key to successfully improving their immunogenicity. Our current understanding is that DNA vaccines induce innate and adaptive immune responses in two ways: (1) encoded protein (or polypeptide) antigen(s) by the DNA plasmid can be expressed in stromal cells (i.e., muscle cells) as well as DCs, where these antigens are processed and presented to naïve CD4 or CD8 T cells either by direct or cross presentation, respectively; and (2) the transfected DNA plasmid itself may bind to an un-identified cytosolic DNA sensor and activate the TBK1-STING pathway and the production of type I interferons (IFNs) which function as an adjuvant. Recent studies investigating double-stranded cytosolic DNA sensor(s) have highlighted new mechanisms in which cytosolic DNA may release secondary metabolites, which are in turn recognized by a novel DNA sensing machinery. Here, we discuss these new metabolites and the possibilities of translating this knowledge into improved immunogenicity for DNA vaccines. PMID:23912600

  1. Designer DNA Nanoarchitectures†

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chenxiang; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Naturally existing biological systems, from the simplest unicellular diatom to the most sophisticated organ such as human brain, are functional self-assembled architectures. Scientists have long been dreaming about building artificial nanostructures that can mimic such elegance in nature. Structural DNA nanotechnology, which uses DNA as blueprint and building material to organize matter with nanometer precision, represents an appealing solution to this challenge. Based on the knowledge of helical DNA structure and Watson-Crick base pairing rules, scientists have constructed a number of DNA nanoarchitectures with a large variety of geometries, topologies and periodicities with considerably high yields. Modified by functional groups, those DNA nanostructures can serve as scaffolds to control the positioning of other molecular species, which opens opportunities to study intermolecular synergies, such as protein-protein interactions, as well as to build artificial multi-component nano-machines. In this review, we summarize the principle of DNA self-assembly, describe the exciting progress of structural DNA nanotechnology in recent years and discuss the current frontier. PMID:19199428

  2. Cinnamate-based DNA photolithography

    PubMed Central

    Romulus, Joy; Li, Minfeng; Sha, Ruojie; Royer, John; Wu, Kun-Ta; Xu, Qin

    2013-01-01

    As demonstrated by means of DNA nanoconstructs[1], as well as DNA functionalization of nanoparticles[2-4] and micrometre-scale colloids[5-8], complex self-assembly processes require components to associate with particular partners in a programmable fashion. In many cases the reversibility of the interactions between complementary DNA sequences is an advantage[9]. However, permanently bonding some or all of the complementary pairs may allow for flexibility in design and construction[10]. Here, we show that the substitution of a pair of complementary bases by a cinnamate group provides an efficient, addressable, UV light-based method to covalently bond complementary DNA. To show the potential of this approach, we wrote micrometre-scale patterns on a surface via UV light and demonstrate the reversible attachment of conjugated DNA and DNA-coated colloids. Our strategy enables both functional DNA photolithography and multi-step, specific binding in self-assembly processes. PMID:23685865

  3. Radiation damage to DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.

    1992-04-01

    Our goal is to calculate the probability to eject electrons from DNA by charged particles that pass near the macromolecule as they slow down in an aqueous medium that contains DNA in low concentration. This process is illustrated for a particle of charge Ze and velocity v, where impact parameters b{sub 1}, b{sub 2}, and b{sub 3} indicate the distances between the trajectory and a phosphate group, a base, and a sugar moiety, respectively. In the present state of our theoretical development, we must treat each of these components of DNA as an independent impurity site occupied by electrons in a Slater-type orbital with a characteristic orbital radius and band gap. Determination of these parameters will be discussed below; however, before we turn to that part of the discussion, it is interesting to address the question of multiple ionizations of DNA by the passage of a single charged particle.

  4. Molecular and cellular analysis of the DNA repair defect in a patient in Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D who has the clinical features of Xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, B.C.; Thompson, A.F.; Harcourt, S.A.; Cole, J.; Arlett, C.F.; Lehmann, A.R.; Vermeulen, W.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.; Botta, E.; Stefanini, M.

    1995-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are quite distinct genetic disorders that are associated with defects in excision repair of UV-induced DNA damage. A few patients have been described previously with the clinical features of both disorders. In this paper we describe an individual in this category who has unusual cellular responses to UV light. We show that his cultured fibroblasts and lymphocytes are extremely sensitive to irradiation with UV-C, despite a level of nucleotide excision repair that is 30%-40% that of normal cells. The deficiency is assigned to the XP-D complementation group, and we have identified two causative mutations in the XPD gene: a gly{yields}arg change at amino acid 675 in the allele inherited from the patient`s mother and a -1 frameshift at amino acid 669 in the allele inherited from his father. These mutations are in the C-terminal 20% of the 760-amino-acid XPD protein, in a region where we have recently identified several mutations in patients with trichothiodystrophy. 44 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. DNA Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2013-01-01

    DNA immunization was discovered in early 1990s and its use has been expanded from vaccine studies to a broader range of biomedical research, such as the generation of high quality polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as research reagents. In this unit, three common DNA immunization methods are described: needle injection, electroporation and gene gun. In addition, several common considerations related to DNA immunization are discussed. PMID:24510291

  6. [Ancient DNA].

    PubMed

    Chelomina, G N

    2006-03-01

    The review is devoted to molecular genetic studies of ancient DNA. The problems of DNA preservation and modification after cell death, as well as techniques of working with ancient DNA, including its retrieval, removal of inhibitors, PCR amplification, and phylogenetic analysis, are discussed in detail. The possibilities are considered of using ancient DNA in resolving issues of systematics and evolution of various animal taxa, population genetics of humans and rare species, taxonomic identification and paleontological reconstructions, geographic origin of populations, microbiological analysis of paleontological and archeological finds, as well as some humanitarian aspects of its use. PMID:16649656

  7. Patterning nanocrystals using DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Shara Carol

    2003-09-01

    One of the goals of nanotechnology is to enable programmed self-assembly of patterns made of various materials with nanometer-sized control. This dissertation describes the results of experiments templating arrangements of gold and semiconductor nanocrystals using 2'-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Previously, simple DNA-templated linear arrangements of two and three nanocrystals structures have been made.[1] Here, we have sought to assemble larger and more complex nanostructures. Gold-DNA conjugates with 50 to 100 bases self-assembled into planned arrangements using strands of DNA containing complementary base sequences. We used two methods to increase the complexity of the arrangements: using branched synthetic doublers within the DNA covalent backbone to create discrete nanocrystal groupings, and incorporating the nanocrystals into a previously developed DNA lattice structure [2][3] that self-assembles from tiles made of DNA double-crossover molecules to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. In the first project, the introduction of a covalently-branched synthetic doubler reagent into the backbone of DNA strands created a branched DNA ''trimer.'' This DNA trimer templated various structures that contained groupings of three and four gold nanoparticles, giving promising, but inconclusive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Due to the presence of a variety of possible structures in the reaction mixtures, and due to the difficulty of isolating the desired structures, the TEM and gel electrophoresis results for larger structures having four particles, and for structures containing both 5 and 10 nm gold nanoparticles were inconclusive. Better results may come from using optical detection methods, or from improved sample preparation. In the second project, we worked toward making two-dimensional ordered arrays of nanocrystals. We replicated and improved upon previous results for making DNA lattices, increasing the size of the lattices to a length greater than 20 {micro}m, and collecting atomic force microscopy (AFM) images up to 30 {micro}m. We found the lattices' requirement of divalent magnesium cations to stabilize Holliday junctions to be incompatible with the stability of charge-stabilized gold nanoparticles used for the experiments here, and gold particles added indiscriminately to the lattice surface through non-specific binding. Redesigning the lattices to avoid magnesium may improve results.

  8. Evaluation of a Group-Specific 16S Ribosomal DNA-Based PCR for Detection of Helicobacter bizzozeronii, Helicobacter felis, and Helicobacter salomonis in Fresh and Paraffin-Embedded Gastric Biopsy Specimens

    PubMed Central

    De Groote, Dominic; Haesebrouck, Freddy; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Vandamme, Peter; Ducatelle, Richard

    2001-01-01

    A new specific and sensitive 16S ribosomal DNA-based PCR assay was developed. The assay targets a 78-bp DNA fragment unique to Helicobacter bizzozeronii, Helicobacter felis, and Helicobacter salomonis and can be used with freshly frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens. PMID:11230459

  9. DNA ALTERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposure of an organism to genotoxic chemicals may induce a cascade of genetic events. nitially, structural alterations to DNA are formed. ext, the DNA damage is processed and subsequently expressed in mutant gene products. inally, diseases result from the genetic damage. he ...

  10. Recombinant DNA means and method

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, B.L.; Mao, J.I.; Moir, D.T.; Taunton-Rigby, A.; Vovis, G.F.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes a transformed living cell selected from the group consisting of fungi, yeast and bacteria, and containing genetic material derived from recombinant DNA material and coding for bovine rennin.

  11. DNA nanomachines.

    PubMed

    Bath, Jonathan; Turberfield, Andrew J

    2007-05-01

    We are learning to build synthetic molecular machinery from DNA. This research is inspired by biological systems in which individual molecules act, singly and in concert, as specialized machines: our ambition is to create new technologies to perform tasks that are currently beyond our reach. DNA nanomachines are made by self-assembly, using techniques that rely on the sequence-specific interactions that bind complementary oligonucleotides together in a double helix. They can be activated by interactions with specific signalling molecules or by changes in their environment. Devices that change state in response to an external trigger might be used for molecular sensing, intelligent drug delivery or programmable chemical synthesis. Biological molecular motors that carry cargoes within cells have inspired the construction of rudimentary DNA walkers that run along self-assembled tracks. It has even proved possible to create DNA motors that move autonomously, obtaining energy by catalysing the reaction of DNA or RNA fuels. PMID:18654284

  12. The action of DNA ligase at abasic sites in DNA.

    PubMed

    Bogenhagen, D F; Pinz, K G

    1998-04-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites occur frequently in DNA as a result of spontaneous base loss or following removal of a damaged base by a DNA glycosylase. The action of many AP endonuclease enzymes at abasic sites in DNA leaves a 5'-deoxyribose phosphate (dRP) residue that must be removed during the base excision repair process. This 5'-dRP group may be removed by AP lyase enzymes that employ a beta-elimination mechanism. This beta-elimination reaction typically involves a transient Schiff base intermediate that can react with sodium borohydride to trap the DNA-enzyme complex. With the use of this assay as well as direct 5'-dRP group release assays, we show that T4 DNA ligase, a representative ATP-dependent DNA ligase, contains AP lyase activity. The AP lyase activity of T4 DNA ligase is inhibited in the presence of ATP, suggesting that the adenylated lysine residue is part of the active site for both the ligase and lyase activities. A model is proposed whereby the AP lyase activity of DNA ligase may contribute to the repair of abasic sites in DNA. PMID:9525883

  13. Differentiation of spotted fever group rickettsiae by sequencing and analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified DNA of the gene encoding the protein rOmpA.

    PubMed

    Roux, V; Fournier, P E; Raoult, D

    1996-09-01

    Currently, the genotypic identification of the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae is based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified genes coding for the enzyme citrate synthase and the surface proteins rOmpA and rOmpB. A set of useful restriction endonucleases was found following comparison of Rickettsia rickettsii and R. prowazekii sequences. However, by using three PCR amplifications and four enzyme digestions with this set, it was impossible to differentiate between all of the known serotypes of the SFG rickettsiae. We amplified by PCR and sequenced using an automated laser fluorescent DNA sequencer a fragment of the gene encoding the protein rOmpA from 21 serotypes of the SFG rickettsiae. A 632-bp amplification product was obtained for most of the strains, although no product could be obtained by using R. akari, R. australis, R. helvetica, and R. bellii DNAs. We found a characteristic sequence for all strains studied except the two isolates of R. massiliae, isolates GS and Mtul. Using the software package BISANCE, we determined the restriction map of this fragment and identified five potentially useful endonucleases, RsaI, AluI, PstI, XbaI, and AvaII. We confirmed the computer analysis-derived profiles by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The combination of the profiles obtained after digestion of the PCR product by RsaI and PstI allowed for the differentiation of 16 strains. The use of AluI and XbaI allowed for the characterization of R. parkeri and strain HA-91, respectively. R. africae and strain S were differentiated by AvaII digestion. Thus, using a single PCR amplification, we were able to differentiate all of the SFG rickettsiae whose ompA gene was amplified by PCR. PMID:8862558

  14. Chilean Pitavia more closely related to Oceania and Old World Rutaceae than to Neotropical groups: evidence from two cpDNA non-coding regions, with a new subfamilial classification of the family

    PubMed Central

    Groppo, Milton; Kallunki, Jacquelyn A.; Pirani, José Rubens; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The position of the plant genus Pitavia within an infrafamilial phylogeny of Rutaceae (rue, or orange family) was investigated with the use of two non-coding regions from cpDNA, the trnL-trnF region and the rps16 intron. The only species of the genus, Pitavia punctata Molina, is restricted to the temperate forests of the Coastal Cordillera of Central-Southern Chile and threatened by loss of habitat. The genus traditionally has been treated as part of tribe Zanthoxyleae (subfamily Rutoideae) where it constitutes the monogeneric tribe Pitaviinae. This tribe and genus are characterized by fruits of 1 to 4 fleshy drupelets, unlike the dehiscent fruits typical of the subfamily. Fifty-five taxa of Rutaceae, representing 53 genera (nearly one-third of those in the family) and all subfamilies, tribes, and almost all subtribes of the family were included. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used to infer the phylogeny; six taxa of Meliaceae, Sapindaceae, and Simaroubaceae, all members of Sapindales, were also used as out-groups. Results from both analyses were congruent and showed Pitavia as sister to Flindersia and Lunasia, both genera with species scattered through Australia, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea and the Malayan region, and phylogenetically far from other Neotropical Rutaceae, such as the Galipeinae (Galipeeae, Rutoideae) and Pteleinae (Toddalieae, former Toddalioideae). Additionally, a new circumscription of the subfamilies of Rutaceae is presented and discussed. Only two subfamilies (both monophyletic) are recognized: Cneoroideae (including Dictyolomatoideae, Spathelioideae, Cneoraceae, and Ptaeroxylaceae) and Rutoideae (including not only traditional Rutoideae but also Aurantioideae, Flindersioideae, and Toddalioideae). As a consequence, Aurantioideae (Citrus and allies) is reduced to tribal rank as Aurantieae. PMID:23717188

  15. Differentiation of spotted fever group rickettsiae by sequencing and analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified DNA of the gene encoding the protein rOmpA.

    PubMed Central

    Roux, V; Fournier, P E; Raoult, D

    1996-01-01

    Currently, the genotypic identification of the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae is based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified genes coding for the enzyme citrate synthase and the surface proteins rOmpA and rOmpB. A set of useful restriction endonucleases was found following comparison of Rickettsia rickettsii and R. prowazekii sequences. However, by using three PCR amplifications and four enzyme digestions with this set, it was impossible to differentiate between all of the known serotypes of the SFG rickettsiae. We amplified by PCR and sequenced using an automated laser fluorescent DNA sequencer a fragment of the gene encoding the protein rOmpA from 21 serotypes of the SFG rickettsiae. A 632-bp amplification product was obtained for most of the strains, although no product could be obtained by using R. akari, R. australis, R. helvetica, and R. bellii DNAs. We found a characteristic sequence for all strains studied except the two isolates of R. massiliae, isolates GS and Mtul. Using the software package BISANCE, we determined the restriction map of this fragment and identified five potentially useful endonucleases, RsaI, AluI, PstI, XbaI, and AvaII. We confirmed the computer analysis-derived profiles by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The combination of the profiles obtained after digestion of the PCR product by RsaI and PstI allowed for the differentiation of 16 strains. The use of AluI and XbaI allowed for the characterization of R. parkeri and strain HA-91, respectively. R. africae and strain S were differentiated by AvaII digestion. Thus, using a single PCR amplification, we were able to differentiate all of the SFG rickettsiae whose ompA gene was amplified by PCR. PMID:8862558

  16. Dancing DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    An imaging technique that uses fluorescent dyes and allows scientists to track DNA as it moves through gels or in solution is described. The importance, opportunities, and implications of this technique are discussed. (KR)

  17. Can Epstein-Barr virus DNA load in nasopharyngeal brushings or whole blood predict recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a non-endemic region? A prospective nationwide study of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Sharon D; Wildeman, Maarten A; Novalic, Zlata; Fles, Renske; van der Noort, Vincent; de Bree, Remco; Braunius, Weibel W; van den Broek, Guido B; Kreike, Bas; Kross, Kenneth W; Juwana, Hedy; Ramayanti, Octavia; Verkuijlen, Sandra A W M; de Boer, Jan Paul; Greijer, Astrid E; Middeldorp, Jaap M; Tan, I Bing

    2016-06-01

    This study estimated the value of quantitative measurements of EBV markers in the clinical management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a non-endemic area. The aim was to predict prognosis and detect recurrent and residual disease. In 72 patients, EBV DNA load in blood and nasopharyngeal brushes, and IgA VCA-p18 and EBNA1 in plasma were measured at different time points. At diagnosis and post-treatment, a cut-off value was used for detecting disease [positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive value]. The markers were correlated as a continuous variable with tumor stage, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The Cox hazard ratio model assessed hazard ratios. At diagnosis, the markers were above the COV in 45, 92, 85 and 83 % of the patients, respectively. Post-treatment, DNA load test in blood and brush had the best discriminating power (blood DNA load test: PPV 39 % and NPV 97 %, brush for local disease: PPV 75 % and NPV 99 %). Post-treatment, DNA load in blood was the best predictor for OS and DFS [hazard ratio 3.2 (95 % CI 1.51-3.5) and 2.3 (95 % CI 1.72-5.8)]. Assessing the EBV DNA load in blood has significant prognostic value, although the clinical value is for discussion. The EBV DNA load in the brush might improve early detection of local failures post-treatment. PMID:25929413

  18. Deciphering the Positional Influence of the Hydroxyl Group in the Cinnamoyl Part of 3-Hydroxy Flavonoids for Structural Modification and Their Interaction with the Protonated and B Form of Calf Thymus DNA Using Spectroscopic and Molecular Modeling Studies.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Ankur Bikash; Haque, Lucy; Bhuiya, Sutanwi; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Das, Suman

    2015-06-11

    Studies on the interaction of naturally occurring flavonoids with different polymorphic forms of nucleic acid are helpful for understanding the molecular aspects of binding mode and providing direction for the use and design of new efficient therapeutic agents. However, much less information is available on the interactions of these compounds with different polymorphic forms of DNA at the molecular level. In this report we investigated the interaction of two widely abundant dietary flavonoids quercetin (Q) and morin (M) with calf thymus (CT) DNA. Spectrophotometric, spectropolarimetric, viscosity measurement, and molecular docking simulation methods are used as tools to delineate the binding mode and probable location of the flavonoids and their effects on the stability and conformation of DNA. It is observed that in the presence of the protonated form of DNA the dual fluorescence of Q and M resulting from the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) is modified significantly. Structural analysis showed Q and M binds weakly to the B form (groove binding) compared to the protonated form of CT DNA (electrostatic interaction). In both cases, Q binds strongly to both forms of DNA compared to M. PMID:25978104

  19. DNA repair.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Nigel; Rose, Ann

    2006-01-01

    The integrity of the genome is essential to the health of the individual and to the reproductive success of a species. Transmission of genetic information is in a selective balance between two opposing forces, the maintenance of genetic stability versus elimination of mutational change and loss of evolutionary potential. Caenorhabditis elegans provides many advantages for the study of DNA surveillance and repair in a multicellular organism. Several genes have been identified by mutagenesis and RNA interference that affect DNA damage checkpoint and repair functions. Many of these DNA damage response genes also play essential roles in DNA replication, cell cycle control, development, meiosis and mitosis. To date, no obvious DNA damage-induced checkpoint has been described in C. elegans somatic cells. In contrast, the DNA damage response in the germ line is characterized by two spatially separate checkpoints; mitotic germ nuclei proliferation arrest and apoptosis of damaged meiotic nuclei. Both of these responses are regulated by checkpoint genes including mrt-2, hus-1, rad-5 and cep-1, the C. elegans ortholog of the human tumour suppressor p53. The germ line DNA damage checkpoints in C. elegans provide an excellent model in which to study the genes required to maintain genomic stability and to test compounds which might have tumor suppressing properties. In addition to single gene studies, integration of data from high-throughput screens has identified genes not previous implicated in the DNA damage response and elucidated novel connections between the different repair pathways. Most of the genes involved are conserved between worms and humans, and in humans, are associated with either oncogenesis or tumor-suppression. Thus, studies of the physical and functional interactions of the components of the repair pathways in C. elegans will provide information about human repair disorders and cancer predisposition. PMID:18050489

  20. Unravelling DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Rs; Danilowicz, C.

    2004-04-01

    The forces involved in the biology of life are carefully balanced between stopping thermal fluctuations ripping our DNA apart and having bonds weak enough to allow enzymes to function. The application of recently developed techniques for measuring piconewton forces and imaging at the nanometre scale on a molecule-by-molecule basis has dramatically increased the impact of single-molecule biophysics. This article describes the most commonly used techniques for imaging and manipulating single biomolecules. Using these techniques, the mechanical properties of DNA can be investigated, for example through measurements of the forces required to stretch and unzip the DNA double helix. These properties determine the ease with which DNA can be folded into the cell nucleus and the size and complexity of the accompanying cellular machinery. Part of this cellular machinery is enzymes, which manipulate, repair and transcribe the DNA helix. Enzymatic function is increasingly being investigated at the single molecule level to give better understanding of the forces and processes involved in the genetic cycle. One of the challenges is to transfer this understanding of single molecules into living systems. Already there have been some notable successes, such as the development of techniques for gene expression through the application of mechanical forces to cells, and the imaging and control of viral infection of a cell. This understanding and control of DNA has also been used to design molecules, which can self-assemble into a range of structures.

  1. Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Clarence A.

    1971-01-01

    This article reviews the major concerns of group counseling and differentiates among group guidance, group counseling, and group therapy. It also evaluates the research status of group counseling and presents implications for the future of this approach. Comment by Carl E. Thoresen follows. (Author)

  2. Comparison of Immunogenicity in Rhesus Macaques of Transmitted-Founder, HIV-1 Group M Consensus, and Trivalent Mosaic Envelope Vaccines Formulated as a DNA Prime, NYVAC, and Envelope Protein Boost

    PubMed Central

    Hulot, Sandrine L.; Korber, Bette; Giorgi, Elena E.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Saunders, Kevin O.; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Mach, Linh V.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Tartaglia, Jim; Phogat, Sanjay; Jacobs, Bertram; Kibler, Karen; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Gomez, Carmen E.; Esteban, Mariano; Rosati, Margherita; Felber, Barbara K.; Pavlakis, George N.; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey; Sutherland, Laura; Scearce, Richard; Letvin, Norman L.; Seaman, Michael S.; Alam, S. Munir; Montefiori, David; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine must induce protective antibody responses, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, that can be effective despite extraordinary diversity of HIV-1. The consensus and mosaic immunogens are complete but artificial proteins, computationally designed to elicit immune responses with improved cross-reactive breadth, to attempt to overcome the challenge of global HIV diversity. In this study, we have compared the immunogenicity of a transmitted-founder (T/F) B clade Env (B.1059), a global group M consensus Env (Con-S), and a global trivalent mosaic Env protein in rhesus macaques. These antigens were delivered using a DNA prime-recombinant NYVAC (rNYVAC) vector and Env protein boost vaccination strategy. While Con-S Env was a single sequence, mosaic immunogens were a set of three Envs optimized to include the most common forms of potential T cell epitopes. Both Con-S and mosaic sequences retained common amino acids encompassed by both antibody and T cell epitopes and were central to globally circulating strains. Mosaics and Con-S Envs expressed as full-length proteins bound well to a number of neutralizing antibodies with discontinuous epitopes. Also, both consensus and mosaic immunogens induced significantly higher gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot) responses than B.1059 immunogen. Immunization with these proteins, particularly Con-S, also induced significantly higher neutralizing antibodies to viruses than B.1059 Env, primarily to tier 1 viruses. Both Con-S and mosaics stimulated more potent CD8-T cell responses against heterologous Envs than did B.1059. Both antibody and cellular data from this study strengthen the concept of using in silico-designed centralized immunogens for global HIV-1 vaccine development strategies. IMPORTANCE There is an increasing appreciation for the importance of vaccine-induced anti-Env antibody responses for preventing HIV-1 acquisition. This nonhuman primate study demonstrates that in silico-designed global HIV-1 immunogens, designed for a human clinical trial, are capable of eliciting not only T lymphocyte responses but also potent anti-Env antibody responses. PMID:25855741

  3. Linking two DNA duplexes with a rigid linker for DNA nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Ryu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Morinaga, Hironobu; Emura, Tomoko; Hidaka, Kumi; Endo, Masayuki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    DNA has recently emerged as a promising material for the construction of nanosized architectures. Chemically modified DNA has been suggested to be an important component of such architectural building blocks. We have designed and synthesized a novel H-shaped DNA oligonucleotide dimer that is cross-linked with a structurally rigid linker composed of phenylene and ethynylene groups. A rotatable DNA unit was constructed through the self-assembly of this H-shaped DNA component and two complementary DNA oligonucleotides. In addition to the rotatable unit, a locked DNA unit containing two H-shaped DNA components was also constructed. As an example of an extended locked structure, a hexagonal DNA origami dimer and oligomer were constructed by using H-shaped DNA as linkers. PMID:26130712

  4. DNA vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  5. Ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole mitochondrial genome sequences of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of these processes and the effects of damage on ancient DNA templates has started to provide a more robust basis for research. Recent methodological advances have included the characterization of Pleistocene mammal populations and discoveries of DNA preserved in ancient sediments. Increasingly, ancient genetic information is providing a unique means to test assumptions used in evolutionary and population genetics studies to reconstruct the past. Initial results have revealed surprisingly complex population histories, and indicate that modern phylogeographic studies may give misleading impressions about even the recent evolutionary past. With the advent and uptake of appropriate methodologies, ancient DNA is now positioned to become a powerful tool in biological research and is also evolving new and unexpected uses, such as in the search for extinct or extant life in the deep biosphere and on other planets. PMID:15875564

  6. RNA-guided DNA assembly.

    PubMed

    Angeleska, Angela; Jonoska, Natasa; Saito, Masahico; Landweber, Laura F

    2007-10-21

    We propose molecular models for homologous DNA recombination events that are guided by either double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) templates. The models are applied to explain DNA rearrangements in some groups of ciliates, such as Stylonychia or Oxytricha, where extensive gene rearrangement occurs during differentiation of a somatic macronucleus from a germline micronucleus. We describe a model for RNA template guided DNA recombination, such that the template serves as a catalyst that remains unchanged after DNA recombination. This recombination can be seen as topological braiding of the DNA, with the template-guided alignment proceeding through DNA branch migration. We show that a virtual knot diagram can provide a physical representation of the DNA at the time of recombination. Schematically, the braiding process can be represented as a crossing in the virtual knot diagram. The homologous recombination corresponds to removal of the crossings in the knot diagram (called smoothing). We show that if all recombinations are performed at the same time (i.e., simultaneous smoothings of the crossings) then one of the resulting DNA molecules will always contain all of the gene segments in their correct, linear order, which produces the mature DNA sequence. PMID:17669433

  7. Group X

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  8. DNA Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Carol; della Villa, Paula

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students reverse-translate proteins from their amino acid sequences back to their DNA sequences then assign musical notes to represent the adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine bases. Data is obtained from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on the Internet. (DDR)

  9. Synthetic DNA

    PubMed Central

    O’ Driscoll, Aisling; Sleator, Roy D.

    2013-01-01

    With world wide data predicted to exceed 40 trillion gigabytes by 2020, big data storage is a very real and escalating problem. Herein, we discuss the utility of synthetic DNA as a robust and eco-friendly archival data storage solution of the future. PMID:23514938

  10. DNA Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Ellen S.; Bertino, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity that allow students to work through the exercise of DNA profiling and to grapple with some analytical and ethical questions involving a couple arranging with a surrogate mother to have a baby. Can be used to teach the principles of restriction enzyme digestion, gel electrophoresis, and probe hybridization. (MDH)

  11. Group Flow and Group Genius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  12. Biophysical characterization of DNA binding from single molecule force measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasiya, Kathy R.; Paramanathan, Thayaparan; McCauley, Micah J.; Williams, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that uses the mechanical properties of DNA to explore DNA interactions. Here we describe how DNA stretching experiments quantitatively characterize the DNA binding of small molecules and proteins. Small molecules exhibit diverse DNA binding modes, including binding into the major and minor grooves and intercalation between base pairs of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Histones bind and package dsDNA, while other nuclear proteins such as high mobility group proteins bind to the backbone and bend dsDNA. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding proteins slide along dsDNA to locate and stabilize ssDNA during replication. Other proteins exhibit binding to both dsDNA and ssDNA. Nucleic acid chaperone proteins can switch rapidly between dsDNA and ssDNA binding modes, while DNA polymerases bind both forms of DNA with high affinity at distinct binding sites at the replication fork. Single molecule force measurements quantitatively characterize these DNA binding mechanisms, elucidating small molecule interactions and protein function. PMID:20576476

  13. Isopermutation group

    SciTech Connect

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  14. Packaged DNA. An elastic model.

    PubMed

    Manning, G S

    1985-03-01

    We review and deepen a theory of elastic bending of DNA on a persistence length scale. In a regime of extensive charge neutralization the axis of the double helix is elastically unstable when straight. Its stable bent conformation allows nucleation of DNA toruses and in principle could direct the supercoiled (solenoid) form of a polynucleosome. The Euler theory of elastic instability of macroscopic rods gives a partial description of the intrinsic ability of DNA to form locally stable bends. A different, quasi-Eulerian theory can be based on what is probably the dominant bending mechanism of DNA in solution-flexible kinking at the sites of open base pairs. This predictive theory is in quantitative agreement with the observed value (about 16 nm) for the minimum radius of torus holes. Stability of the inner torus ring is achieved when DNA phosphate groups are about 90% neutralized by trivalent cations, another prediction that is consistent with the observed formation of toruses in these conditions. The predicted stable radius of curvature of charge-neutralized DNA is also equal to the radial dimension of a maximally contracted polynucleosome supercoil as measured by neutron scattering (17 nm), but further experimental investigation of the geometrical disposition of the spacer DNA regions in the solenoid will be necessary to rule out the possibility of accidental agreement for this complex system. We stress again the experimental reality and probable importance of open base pairs in the equilibrium solution conformation of DNA. PMID:2408756

  15. Oxygen adsorption of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walch, S.; Anantram, M. P.

    2003-03-01

    Reference [1] experimentally addressed the change of DNA conductance upon oxygen adsorption, and found a large decrease in conductance of a polyG-polyC strand. Motivated by this work, we have studied molecular oxygen (O2) adsorption of polyG-polyC base pairs. Since O2 is electrophilic, it is expected to bond to electron rich regions such as the N lone pairs of the base pair and the PO4- groups of the backbone. N7 of guanine is the preferred bonding site once steric interactions are taken into account. We find that the binding energy of O2 to guanine is rather small and only of the order of kT at 300 K. The charge transfer to O2 from the base pair is also small (of the order of 1 E-3). Our calculations suggest that the doping of DNA due to O2 should be a small effect in the current reduction experimentally seen in O2-doped DNA. [1] H.-Y. Lee et. al, Control of electrical conduction in DNA using oxygen hole doping, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 80, p. 1670 (2002)

  16. DNA phosphorothioate modifications influence the global transcriptional response and protect DNA from double-stranded breaks

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Rui; Wu, Xiaolin; He, Wei; Liu, Zhenhua; Wu, Shuangju; Chen, Chao; Chen, Si; Xiang, Qianrong; Deng, Zixin; Liang, Dequan; Chen, Shi; Wang, Lianrong

    2014-01-01

    The modification of DNA by phosphorothioate (PT) occurs when the non-bridging oxygen in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA is replaced with sulfur. This DNA backbone modification was recently discovered and is governed by the dndABCDE genes in a diverse group of bacteria and archaea. However, the biological function of DNA PT modifications is poorly understood. In this study, we employed the RNA-seq analysis to characterize the global transcriptional changes in response to PT modifications. Our results show that DNA without PT protection is susceptible to DNA damage caused by the dndFGHI gene products. The DNA double-stranded breaks then trigger the SOS response, cell filamentation and prophage induction. Heterologous expression of dndBCDE conferring DNA PT modifications at GPSA and GPST prevented the damage in Salmonella enterica. Our data provide insights into the physiological role of the DNA PT system. PMID:25319634

  17. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  18. GROUP INEQUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Samuel; Loury, Glenn C.; Sethi, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    We explore the combined effect of segregation in social networks, peer effects, and the relative size of a historically disadvantaged group on the incentives to invest in market-rewarded skills and the dynamics of inequality between social groups. We identify conditions under which group inequality will persist in the absence of differences in ability, credit constraints, or labor market discrimination. Under these conditions, group inequality may be amplified even if initial group differences are negligible. Increases in social integration may destabilize an unequal state and make group equality possible, but the distributional and human capital effects of this depend on the demographic composition of the population. When the size of the initially disadvantaged group is sufficiently small, integration can lower the long-run costs of human capital investment in both groups and result in an increase the aggregate skill share. In contrast, when the initially disadvantaged group is large, integration can induce a fall in the aggregate skill share as the costs of human capital investment rise in both groups. We consider applications to concrete cases and policy implications. PMID:25554727

  19. Whitehead Groups of Spinor Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monastyrnyĭ, A. P.; Yanchevskiĭ, V. I.

    1991-02-01

    The Whitehead groups of spinor groups are studied. The known Kneser-Tits conjecture for spinor groups is reduced to a spinor analogue of the Tannaka-Artin problem, namely, to the question of whether the group K1Spin(D), where D is a division ring of exponent 2 , is trivial. A counterexample to the Kneser-Tits problem is constructed in the class of spinor groups. The group K1Spin(D) is computed. The stability of the Whitehead groups of spinor groups under purely transcendental extensions of the ground field is established. The R-equivalence on the k-points of spinor groups and the weak approximation problem are considered. The study of spinor group completes the study of the Whitehead groups of algebraic groups of classical type, that was started in studying reduced K-theory (V.P. Platonov) and was continued for reduced unitary K-theory (V.I. Yanchevskiĭ) and Hermitian K-theory (Platonov and Yanchevskiĭ). Bibliography: 50 titles.

  20. Recombinant dna technical bulletin. Volume 12, Number 3, September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The Recombinant DNA Technical Bulletin is a publication of the Office of Recombinant DNA Activities (ORDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH). The Bulletin attempts to link investigators involved in recombinant DNA research with organizations active in this area. It is sent to the chairmen of Institutional Biosafety Committees registered with ORDA, to principal investigators of NIH grants and contracts involving recombinant DNA, to the chairmen of genetic manipulation advisory committees, and to other individuals and groups interested in recombinant DNA activities.

  1. Comparison of three DNA extraction methods for recovery of soil protist DNA.

    PubMed

    Santos, Susana S; Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Hansen, Lars H; Winding, Anne

    2015-08-01

    The use of molecular methods to investigate protist communities in soil is in rapid development this decade. Molecular analysis of soil protist communities is usually dependant on direct genomic DNA extraction from soil and inefficient or differential DNA extraction of protist DNA can lead to bias in downstream community analysis. Three commonly used soil DNA extraction methods have been tested on soil samples from three European Long-Term Observatories (LTOs) with different land-use and three protist cultures belonging to different phylogenetic groups in different growth stages. The methods tested were: ISOm-11063 (a version of the ISO-11063 method modified to include a FastPrep ®-24 mechanical lysis step), GnS-GII (developed by the GenoSol platform to extract soil DNA in large-scale soil surveys) and a commercial DNA extraction kit - Power Lyzer™ PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio). DNA yield and quality were evaluated along with DNA suitability for amplification of 18S rDNA fragments by PCR. On soil samples, ISOm-11063 yields significantly higher DNA for two of the three soil samples, however, MoBio extraction favors DNA quality. This method was also more effective to recover copies of 18S rDNA numbers from all soil types. In addition and despite the lower yields, higher DNA quality was observed with DNA extracted from protist cultures with the MoBio method. Likewise, a bead-beating step shows to be a good solution for DNA extraction of soil protists, since the recovery of DNA from protist cultures and from the different soil samples with the ISOm method proved to be efficient in recovering PCR-amplifiable DNA. This study showed that soil DNA extraction methods provide biased results towards the cyst stages of protist organism. PMID:25966645

  2. DNA Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, C.; Gidrol, X.

    Genomics has revolutionised biological and biomedical research. This revolution was predictable on the basis of its two driving forces: the ever increasing availability of genome sequences and the development of new technology able to exploit them. Up until now, technical limitations meant that molecular biology could only analyse one or two parameters per experiment, providing relatively little information compared with the great complexity of the systems under investigation. This gene by gene approach is inadequate to understand biological systems containing several thousand genes. It is essential to have an overall view of the DNA, RNA, and relevant proteins. A simple inventory of the genome is not sufficient to understand the functions of the genes, or indeed the way that cells and organisms work. For this purpose, functional studies based on whole genomes are needed. Among these new large-scale methods of molecular analysis, DNA microarrays provide a way of studying the genome and the transcriptome. The idea of integrating a large amount of data derived from a support with very small area has led biologists to call these chips, borrowing the term from the microelectronics industry. At the beginning of the 1990s, the development of DNA chips on nylon membranes [1, 2], then on glass [3] and silicon [4] supports, made it possible for the first time to carry out simultaneous measurements of the equilibrium concentration of all the messenger RNA (mRNA) or transcribed RNA in a cell. These microarrays offer a wide range of applications, in both fundamental and clinical research, providing a method for genome-wide characterisation of changes occurring within a cell or tissue, as for example in polymorphism studies, detection of mutations, and quantitative assays of gene copies. With regard to the transcriptome, it provides a way of characterising differentially expressed genes, profiling given biological states, and identifying regulatory channels.

  3. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, M. L. de; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L. Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Moura, F. A. B. F. de; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-11-16

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  4. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, M. L.; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  5. DNA typing of isolates associated with the 1988 sporotrichosis epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, C R; Breslin, B J; Dixon, D M; Salkin, I F

    1992-01-01

    DNA typing techniques were used to examine selected clinical and environmental isolates of Sporothorix spp. recovered from the 1988 sporotrichosis epidemic in multiple states of the United States. Previous studies indicated that isolates in one of the six morphologically or physiologically distinct groups (group I) obtained from environmental sources were Sporothrix schenckii and were the possible etiologic agents responsible for the epidemic. To assess this hypothesis at the genetic level, whole-cell DNA was extracted from selected clinical isolates and representative members of each of the six environmental groups subjected to endonuclease digestion and then analyzed by gel electrophresis. DNA types were assigned on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns. One DNA type was common to clinical and group I isolates but was dissimilar from the DNA types exhibited by groups II to VI. In contrast, a variety of DNA types were associated with isolates in groups II to VI. The latter groups appeared to make up a heterogeneous collection of fungi, with some members of the same group having different DNA types but with others from different groups possessing identical DNA types. Thus, DNA typing studies confirmed that group I environmental isolates are indistinguishable from clinical isolates and that group II to VI isolates represent a complex of related fungi with similar Sporothrix anamorphs. Images PMID:1352783

  6. Optical DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaywargi, Deepak; Lewis, Dave; Kirovski, Darko

    A certificate of authenticity (COA) is an inexpensive physical object with a random and unique structure S which is hard to near-exactly replicate. An inexpensive device should be able to scan object’s physical “fingerprint,” a set of features that represents S. In this paper, we explore one set of requirements that optical media such as DVDs should satisfy, to be considered as COAs. As manufacturing of such media produces inevitable errors, we use the locations and count of these errors as a “fingerprint” for each optical disc: its optical DNA. The “fingerprint” is signed using publisher’s private-key and the resulting signature is stored onto the optical medium using a post-production process. Standard DVD players with altered firmware that includes publisher’s public-key, should be able to verify the authenticity of DVDs protected with optical DNA. Our key finding is that for the proposed protocol, only DVDs with exceptional wear-and-tear characteristics would result in an inexpensive and viable anti-counterfeiting technology.

  7. Carbon nanotube-enhanced electrochemical DNA biosensor for DNA hybridization detection.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hong; Cao, Xuni; Jiang, Ying; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2003-01-01

    A novel and sensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with a carboxylic acid group (MWNTs-COOH) for covalent DNA immobilization and enhanced hybridization detection is described. The MWNTs-COOH-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated and oligonucleotides with the 5'-amino group were covalently bonded to the carboxyl group of carbon nanotubes. The hybridization reaction on the electrode was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis using an electroactive intercalator daunomycin as an indicator. Compared with previous DNA sensors with oligonucleotides directly incorporated on carbon electrodes, this carbon nanotube-based assay with its large surface area and good charge-transport characteristics dramatically increased DNA attachment quantity and complementary DNA detection sensitivity. This is the first application of carbon nanotubes to the fabrication of an electrochemical DNA biosensor with a favorable performance for the rapid detection of specific hybridization. PMID:12560975

  8. T5 DNA polymerase: structural--functional relationships to other DNA polymerases.

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, M C; Ito, J

    1989-01-01

    T5 DNA polymerase, a highly processive single-polypeptide enzyme, has been analyzed for its primary structural features. The amino acid sequence of T5 DNA polymerase has a high degree of homology with that of DNA polymerase I from Escherichia coli and retains many of the amino acid residues that have been implicated in the 3'----5' exonuclease and DNA polymerase activities of that enzyme. Alignment with sequences of polymerase I and T7 DNA polymerase was used to identify regions possibly involved in the high processivity of this enzyme. Further, amino acid sequence comparisons of T5 DNA polymerase with a large group of DNA polymerases previously shown to exhibit little similarity to polymerase I indicate certain sequence segments are shared among distantly related DNA polymerases. These shared regions have been implicated in the 3'----5' exonuclease function of polymerase I, which suggests that the proofreading domains of all these enzymes may be evolutionarily related. PMID:2660138

  9. Nanomechanical molecular devices made of DNA origami.

    PubMed

    Kuzuya, Akinori; Ohya, Yuichi

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: Eight years have passed since the striking debut of the DNA origami technique ( Rothemund, P. W. K. Nature 2006 , 440 , 297 - 302 ), in which long single-stranded DNA is folded into a designed nanostructure, in either 2D or 3D, with the aid of many short staple strands. The number of proposals for new design principles for DNA origami structures seems to have already reached a peak. It is apparent that DNA origami study is now entering the second phase of creating practical applications. The development of functional nanomechanical molecular devices using the DNA origami technique is one such application attracting significant interest from researchers in the field. Nanomechanical DNA origami devices, which maintain the characteristics of DNA origami structures, have various advantages over conventional DNA nanomachines. Comparatively high assembly yield, relatively large size visible via atomic force microscopy (AFM) or transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the capability to assemble multiple functional groups with precision using multiple staple strands are some of the advantages of the DNA origami technique for constructing sophisticated molecular devices. This Account describes the recent developments of such nanomechanical DNA origami devices and reviews the emerging target of DNA origami studies. First, simple "dynamic" DNA origami structures with transformation capability, such as DNA origami boxes and a DNA origami hatch with structure control, are briefly summarized. More elaborate nanomechanical DNA origami devices are then reviewed. The first example describes DNA origami pinching devices that can be used as "single-molecule" beacons to detect a variety of biorelated molecules, from metal ions at the size of a few tens of atomic mass number units to relatively gigantic proteins with a molecular mass greater than a hundred kilodaltons, all on a single platform. Clamshell-like DNA nanorobots equipped with logic gates can discriminate different cell lines, open their shell, and bind to their target. An intelligent DNA origami "sheath" can mimic the function of suppressors in a transcription regulation system to control the expression of a loaded gene. DNA origami "rolls" are created to construct precisely arranged plasmonic devices with metal nanoparticles. All of their functions are derived from their nanomechanical movement, which is programmable by designing the DNA sequence or by using the significant repository of technical achievements in nucleic acid chemistry. Finally, some studies on detailed structural parameters of DNA origami or their mechanical properties in nanoscale are discussed, which may be useful and inspiring for readers who intend to design new nanomechanical DNA origami devices. PMID:24772996

  10. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, Karin D.; Chu, Tun-Jen; Pitt, William G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

  11. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, K.D.; Chu, T.J.; Pitt, W.G.

    1992-05-12

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through amino groups contained on the surface. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to the target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membranes may be reprobed numerous times. No Drawings

  12. Group Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  13. Anthraquinones quinizarin and danthron unwind negatively supercoiled DNA and lengthen linear DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Verebová, Valéria; Adamcik, Jozef; Danko, Patrik; Podhradský, Dušan; Miškovský, Pavol; Staničová, Jana

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • Anthraquinones quinizarin and danthron unwind negatively supercoiled DNA. • Anthraquinones quinizarin and danthron lengthen linear DNA. • Anthraquinones quinizarin and danthron possess middle binding affinity to DNA. • Anthraquinones quinizarin and danthron interact with DNA by intercalating mode. - Abstract: The intercalating drugs possess a planar aromatic chromophore unit by which they insert between DNA bases causing the distortion of classical B-DNA form. The planar tricyclic structure of anthraquinones belongs to the group of chromophore units and enables anthraquinones to bind to DNA by intercalating mode. The interactions of simple derivatives of anthraquinone, quinizarin (1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone) and danthron (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone), with negatively supercoiled and linear DNA were investigated using a combination of the electrophoretic methods, fluorescence spectrophotometry and single molecule technique an atomic force microscopy. The detection of the topological change of negatively supercoiled plasmid DNA, unwinding of negatively supercoiled DNA, corresponding to appearance of DNA topoisomers with the low superhelicity and an increase of the contour length of linear DNA in the presence of quinizarin and danthron indicate the binding of both anthraquinones to DNA by intercalating mode.

  14. Photosensitive interaction of RSU 1069 with DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.I.; Knox, R.J.; Skolimowski, I.M.; Zahoor, A.; Knight, R.C.

    1984-08-01

    RSU 1069 is a 2-nitroimidazole radiosensitizer with an aziridine-containing side chain. In light (360 nm) the absorbance maximum of the nitro group at 325 nm disappears, which is accompanied by expulsion of the nitro group as the nitrite ion. This photosensitive effect was used to determine separately the damage of DNA induced by the reduced nitro group and the alkylating property of the aziridine. The aziridine-induced DNA damage is maximized in the dark when the nitro group is either absent (electrolytically reduced prior to the addition of DNA) or non functional (unreduced). In the light, damage is reduced. Typical DNA damage includes helix disruption leading to single strand breaks and the release of thymidine. Alkaline filter elution studies show evidence only for strand breakage and none for cross-linking indicating the drug is capable of mono-functional alkylation only.

  15. Magnetic tweezers for DNA micromanipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, Charbel; Wirtz, Denis

    2000-12-01

    We detail the design of an electromagnetic assembly capable of generating a constant magnetic field superimposed to a large magnetic field gradient (between 40 and 100 T/m), which was uniform over a large gap (between 1.5 and 2 cm). Large gaps allowed the use of wide high numerical-aperture lenses to track microspheres attached to DNA molecules with an inverted light microscope. Given the geometric constraints of the microscope, computer-aided design was used to optimize the magnetic field gradient linearity, homogeneity, and amplitude, as well as the arrangement of the magnetic coils, the currents, and the mechanical stability of the assembly. The assembly was used to apply forces of controlled amplitude, direction, and time dependence on superparamagnetic microspheres by using magnetic coils instead of permanent magnets. A streptavidin-coated microsphere was attached to the 3' end of a ?-phage DNA molecule through a single biotin molecule. The 5' end of the ?-phage DNA molecule was tethered to a glass coverslip by conjugating the DNA's overhang to a complementary 12 base-pair primer, which was itself cross-linked to a heterobifunctional group placed on the glass coverslip. By tracking the centroid of this microsphere, the mechanical response of a single ?-phage DNA molecule was measured as a function of the applied magnetic force. The resulting force-extension curve was fitted with the worm-like-chain model to obtain ?-phage DNA's persistence length and contour length, which were in agreement with previous reports.

  16. DNA modifications: Another stable base in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazauskas, Pijus; Kriaucionis, Skirmantas

    2014-12-01

    Oxidation of 5-methylcytosine has been proposed to mediate active and passive DNA demethylation. Tracking the history of DNA modifications has now provided the first solid evidence that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is a stable epigenetic modification.

  17. Synthesis of DNA

    DOEpatents

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2008-11-18

    A method of synthesizing a desired double-stranded DNA of a predetermined length and of a predetermined sequence. Preselected sequence segments that will complete the desired double-stranded DNA are determined. Preselected segment sequences of DNA that will be used to complete the desired double-stranded DNA are provided. The preselected segment sequences of DNA are assembled to produce the desired double-stranded DNA.

  18. Relaxed specificity of prokaryotic DNA methyltransferases results in DNA site-specific modification of RNA/DNA heteroduplexes.

    PubMed

    Wons, Ewa; Mruk, Iwona; Kaczorowski, Tadeusz

    2015-11-01

    RNA/DNA hybrid duplexes regularly occur in nature, for example in transcriptional R loops. Their susceptibility to modification by DNA-specific or RNA-specific enzymes is, thus, a biologically relevant question, which, in addition, has possible biotechnological implications. In this study, we investigated the activity of four isospecific DNA methyltransferases (M.EcoVIII, M.LlaCI, M.HindIII, M.BstZ1II) toward an RNA/DNA duplex carrying one 5'-AAGCUU-3'/3'-TTCGAA-5' target sequence. The analyzed enzymes belong to the β-group of adenine N6-methyltransferases and recognize the palindromic DNA sequence 5'-AAGCTT-3'/3'-TTCGAA-5'. Under standard conditions, none of these isospecific enzymes could detectibly methylate the RNA/DNA duplex. However, the addition of agents that generally relax specificity, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol, resulted in substantial methylation of the RNA/DNA duplex by M.EcoVIII and M.LlaCI. Only the DNA strand of the RNA/DNA duplex was methylated. The same was not observed for M.HindIII or M.BstZ1II. This is, to our knowledge, the first report that demonstrates such activity by prokaryotic DNA methyltransferases. Possible applications of these findings in a laboratory practice are also discussed. PMID:25787880

  19. DNA encoding a DNA repair protein

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, John H.; Morgan, William Francis; Maser, Richard Scott; Carney, James Patrick

    2006-08-15

    An isolated and purified DNA molecule encoding a DNA repair protein, p95, is provided, as is isolated and purified p95. Also provided are methods of detecting p95 and DNA encoding p95. The invention further provides p95 knock-out mice.

  20. DNA systematics. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics: PLANTS: PLANT DNA: Contents and Systematics. Repeated DNA Sequences and Polyploidy in Cereal Crops. Homology of Nonrepeated DNA Sequences in Phylogeny of Fungal Species. Chloropast DNA and Phylogenetic Relationships. rDNA: Evolution Over a Billion Years. 23S rRNA-derived Small Ribosomal RNAs: Their Structure and Evolution with Reference to Plant Phylogeny. Molecular Analysis of Plant DNA Genomes: Conserved and Diverged DNA Sequences. A Critical Review of Some Terminologies Used for Additional DNA in Plant Chromosomes and Index.

  1. Energy transport in crystalline DNA composites

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zaoli; Xu, Shen; Tang, Xiaoduan; Wang, Xinwei

    2014-01-15

    This work reports on the synthesis of crystalline DNA-composited films and microfibers, and details the study of thermal energy transport in them. The transient electro-thermal technique is used to characterize the thermal transport in DNA composite microfibers, and the photothermal technique is used to explore the thermal transport in the thickness direction of DNA films. Compared with microfibers, the DNA films are found to have a higher thermal transport capacity, largely due to the carefully controlled crystallization process in film synthesis. In high NaCl concentration solutions, the bond of the Na{sup +} ion and phosphate group aligns the DNA molecules with the NaCl crystal structure during crystallization. This results in significant enhancement of thermal transport in the DNA films with aligned structure.

  2. DNA/RNA Detection Using DNA-Templated Few-Atom Silver Nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Obliosca, Judy M.; Liu, Cong; Batson, Robert Austin; Babin, Mark C.; Werner, James H.; Yeh, Hsin-Chih

    2013-01-01

    DNA-templated few-atom silver nanoclusters (DNA/Ag NCs) are a new class of organic/inorganic composite nanomaterials whose fluorescence emission can be tuned throughout the visible and near-IR range by simply programming the template sequences. Compared to organic dyes, DNA/Ag NCs can be brighter and more photostable. Compared to quantum dots, DNA/Ag NCs are smaller, less prone to blinking on long timescales, and do not have a toxic core. The preparation of DNA/Ag NCs is simple and there is no need to remove excess precursors as these precursors are non-fluorescent. Our recent discovery of the fluorogenic and color switching properties of DNA/Ag NCs have led to the invention of new molecular probes, termed NanoCluster Beacons (NCBs), for DNA detection, with the capability to differentiate single-nucleotide polymorphisms by emission colors. NCBs are inexpensive, easy to prepare, and compatible with commercial DNA synthesizers. Many other groups have also explored and taken advantage of the environment sensitivities of DNA/Ag NCs in creating new tools for DNA/RNA detection and single-nucleotide polymorphism identification. In this review, we summarize the recent trends in the use of DNA/Ag NCs for developing DNA/RNA sensors. PMID:25586126

  3. Electronic Structure of Wet DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervasio, Francesco Luigi; Carloni, Paolo; Parrinello, Michele

    2002-08-01

    The electronic properties of a Z-DNA crystal synthesized in the laboratory are investigated by means of density-functional theory Car-Parrinello calculations. The electronic structure has a gap of only 1.28eV. This separates a manifold of 12 occupied states which came from the ? guanine orbitals from the lowest empty states in which the electron is transferred to the Na+ from PO-4 groups and water molecules. We have evaluated the anisotropic optical conductivity. At low frequency the conductivity is dominated by the ?-->Na+ transitions. Our calculation demonstrates that the cost of introducing electron holes in wet DNA strands could be lower than previously anticipated.

  4. GROUP DECISIONS

    PubMed Central

    Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Farine, Damien R.; Couzin, Iain D.; Crofoot, Margaret C.

    2016-01-01

    Conflicts of interest about where to go and what to do are a primary challenge of group living. However, it remains unclear how consensus is achieved in stable groups with stratified social relationships. Tracking wild baboons with a high-resolution global positioning system and analyzing their movements relative to one another reveals that a process of shared decision-making governs baboon movement. Rather than preferentially following dominant individuals, baboons are more likely to follow when multiple initiators agree. When conflicts arise over the direction of movement, baboons choose one direction over the other when the angle between them is large, but they compromise if it is not. These results are consistent with models of collective motion, suggesting that democratic collective action emerging from simple rules is widespread, even in complex, socially stratified societies. PMID:26089514

  5. Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Not long after EDWIN HUBBLE established that galaxies are `island universes' similar to our home galaxy, the MILKY WAY, he realized that a few of these external galaxies are considerably closer to us than any others. In 1936 he first coined the term `Local Group' in his famous book The Realm of the Nebulae to identify our nearest galactic neighbors. More than 60 yr later, the galaxies of the Loca...

  6. Underrepresented groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem with the shortage of under represented groups in science and engineering is absolutely crucial, especially considering that U.S. will experience a shortage of 560,000 science and engineering personnel by the year 2010. Most studies by the National Science Foundation also concluded that projected shortages cannot be alleviated without significant increases in the involvement of Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, handicapped persons, and women.

  7. Cantor Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Ben; Dow, Chris; Livshits, Leo

    2011-01-01

    The Cantor subset of the unit interval [0, 1) is "large" in cardinality and also "large" algebraically, that is, the smallest subgroup of [0, 1) generated by the Cantor set (using addition mod 1 as the group operation) is the whole of [0, 1). In this paper, we show how to construct Cantor-like sets which are "large" in cardinality but "small"…

  8. Should arrestee DNA databases extend to misdemeanors?

    PubMed

    Joh, Elizabeth E

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, those groups of persons eligible for compulsory DNA sampling by law enforcement authorities continue to expand. The collection of DNA samples from felony arrestees will likely be adopted by many more states after the U.S. Supreme Court's 2013 decision in Maryland v. King, which upheld a state law permitting the compulsory and warrantless DNA sampling from those arrested of serious offenses. At the time of the decision, 28 states and the federal government already had arrestee DNA collection statutes in place. Nevada became the 29th state to collect DNA from arrestees in May 2013, and several others have bills under consideration. Should states collect DNA from misdemeanor arrestees as well? This article considers this as yet largely unrealized but nevertheless important potential expansion of arrestee DNA databases. The collection of DNA samples from those arrested of relatively minor offenses would increase the number of samples, and perhaps consequently the number of "hits." On balance, however, such an expansion of current DNA laws raises enough serious concerns-chiefly about police discretion, inequitable enforcement, and cost-that legislators should refrain from changing arrestee DNA laws in this way. PMID:25669828

  9. DNA Binding Hydroxyl Radical Probes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Vicky J; Konigsfeld, Katie M; Aguilera, Joe A; Milligan, Jamie R

    2011-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical is the primary mediator of DNA damage by the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. It is a powerful oxidizing agent produced by the radiolysis of water and is responsible for a significant fraction of the DNA damage associated with ionizing radiation. There is therefore an interest in the development of sensitive assays for its detection. The hydroxylation of aromatic groups to produce fluorescent products has been used for this purpose. We have examined four different chromophores which produce fluorescent products when hydroxylated. Of these, the coumarin system suffers from the fewest disadvantages. We have therefore examined its behavior when linked to a cationic peptide ligand designed to bind strongly to DNA. PMID:22125376

  10. Sirtuins, Metabolism, and DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jee-Eun; Mostoslavsky, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Cells evolve to actively coordinate nutrient availability with cellular activity in order to maintain metabolic homeostasis. In addition, active pathways to repair DNA damage are crucial to avoid deleterious genomic instability. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that availability of intermediate metabolites may play an important role in DNA repair, suggesting that these two seemingly distant cellular activities may be highly coordinated. The sirtuin family of proteins now described as deacylases (they can also remove acyl groups other than acetyl moieties), it appears to have evolved to control both metabolism and DNA repair. In this review, we discuss recent advances that lay the foundation to understanding the role of sirtuins in these two biological processes, and the potential crosstalk to coordinate them. PMID:25005742

  11. Mechanism of DNA loading by the DNA repair helicase XPD

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu-Aruxandei, Diana; Petrovic-Stojanovska, Biljana; Penedo, J. Carlos; White, Malcolm F.; Naismith, James H.

    2016-01-01

    The xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) helicase is a component of the transcription factor IIH complex in eukaryotes and plays an essential role in DNA repair in the nucleotide excision repair pathway. XPD is a 5′ to 3′ helicase with an essential iron–sulfur cluster. Structural and biochemical studies of the monomeric archaeal XPD homologues have aided a mechanistic understanding of this important class of helicase, but several important questions remain open. In particular, the mechanism for DNA loading, which is assumed to require large protein conformational change, is not fully understood. Here, DNA binding by the archaeal XPD helicase from Thermoplasma acidophilum has been investigated using a combination of crystallography, cross-linking, modified substrates and biochemical assays. The data are consistent with an initial tight binding of ssDNA to helicase domain 2, followed by transient opening of the interface between the Arch and 4FeS domains, allowing access to a second binding site on helicase domain 1 that directs DNA through the pore. A crystal structure of XPD from Sulfolobus acidocaldiarius that lacks helicase domain 2 has an otherwise unperturbed structure, emphasizing the stability of the interface between the Arch and 4FeS domains in XPD. PMID:26896802

  12. Mechanism of DNA loading by the DNA repair helicase XPD.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu-Aruxandei, Diana; Petrovic-Stojanovska, Biljana; Penedo, J Carlos; White, Malcolm F; Naismith, James H

    2016-04-01

    The xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) helicase is a component of the transcription factor IIH complex in eukaryotes and plays an essential role in DNA repair in the nucleotide excision repair pathway. XPD is a 5' to 3' helicase with an essential iron-sulfur cluster. Structural and biochemical studies of the monomeric archaeal XPD homologues have aided a mechanistic understanding of this important class of helicase, but several important questions remain open. In particular, the mechanism for DNA loading, which is assumed to require large protein conformational change, is not fully understood. Here, DNA binding by the archaeal XPD helicase fromThermoplasma acidophilumhas been investigated using a combination of crystallography, cross-linking, modified substrates and biochemical assays. The data are consistent with an initial tight binding of ssDNA to helicase domain 2, followed by transient opening of the interface between the Arch and 4FeS domains, allowing access to a second binding site on helicase domain 1 that directs DNA through the pore. A crystal structure of XPD fromSulfolobus acidocaldiariusthat lacks helicase domain 2 has an otherwise unperturbed structure, emphasizing the stability of the interface between the Arch and 4FeS domains in XPD. PMID:26896802

  13. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to the DNA mapping and sequencing technologies. In particular, the present invention provides enhanced methods and compositions for the physical mapping and positional cloning of genomic DNA. The present invention also provides a useful analytical technique to directly map cloned DNA sequences onto individual stretched DNA molecules.

  14. Active DNA demethylation mediated by DNA glycosylases.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2009-01-01

    Active DNA demethylation is involved in many vital developmental and physiological processes of plants and animals. Recent genetic and biochemical studies in Arabidopsis have demonstrated that a subfamily of DNA glycosylases function to promote DNA demethylation through a base excision-repair pathway. These specialized bifunctional DNA glycosylases remove the 5-methylcytosine base and then cleave the DNA backbone at the abasic site, resulting in a gap that is then filled with an unmethylated cytosine nucleotide by as yet unknown DNA polymerase and ligase enzymes. Evidence suggests that active DNA demethylation in mammalian cells is also mediated at least in part by a base excision repair pathway where the AID/Apobec family of deaminases convert 5-methylcytosine to thymine followed by G/T mismatch repair by the DNA glycosylase MBD4 or TDG. This review also discusses other possible mechanisms of active DNA demethylation, how genome DNA methylation status might be sensed to regulate the expression of demethylase genes, and the targeting of demethylases by small RNAs. PMID:19659441

  15. Melanesian mtDNA Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Friedlaender, Jonathan S.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Hodgson, Jason A.; Stoltz, Matthew; Koki, George; Horvat, Gisele; Zhadanov, Sergey; Schurr, Theodore G.; Merriwether, D. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Melanesian populations are known for their diversity, but it has been hard to grasp the pattern of the variation or its underlying dynamic. Using 1,223 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVR1 and HVR2) from 32 populations, we found the among-group variation is structured by island, island size, and also by language affiliation. The more isolated inland Papuan-speaking groups on the largest islands have the greatest distinctions, while shore dwelling populations are considerably less diverse (at the same time, within-group haplotype diversity is less in the most isolated groups). Persistent differences between shore and inland groups in effective population sizes and marital migration rates probably cause these differences. We also add 16 whole sequences to the Melanesian mtDNA phylogenies. We identify the likely origins of a number of the haplogroups and ancient branches in specific islands, point to some ancient mtDNA connections between Near Oceania and Australia, and show additional Holocene connections between Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan and Island Melanesia with branches of haplogroup E. Coalescence estimates based on synonymous transitions in the coding region suggest an initial settlement and expansion in the region at ∼30–50,000 years before present (YBP), and a second important expansion from Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan during the interval ∼3,500–8,000 YBP. However, there are some important variance components in molecular dating that have been overlooked, and the specific nature of ancestral (maternal) Austronesian influence in this region remains unresolved. PMID:17327912

  16. Origin and differentiation of human mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Excoffier, L; Langaney, A

    1989-01-01

    A recent study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism has generated much debate about modern human origins by proposing the existence of an "African Eve" living 200,000 years ago somewhere in Africa. In an attempt to synthesize information concerning human mtDNA genetic polymorphism, all available data on mtDNA RFLP have been gathered. A phylogeny of the mtDNA types found in 10 populations reveals that all types could have issued from a single common ancestral type. The distribution of shared types between continental groups indicates that caucasoid populations could be the closest to an ancestral population from which all other continental groups would have diverged. A partial phylogeny of the types found in five other populations also demonstrates that the myth of an African Eden was based on an incorrect "genealogical tree" of mtDNA types. Two measures of molecular diversity have been computed on all samples on the basis of mtDNA type frequencies, on one hand, and on the basis of the number of polymorphic sites in the samples, on the other. A large discrepancy is found between the two measures except in African populations; this suggests the existence of some differential selective mechanisms. The lapse of time necessary for creating the observed molecular diversity from an ancestral monomorphic population has been calculated and is found generally greater in Oriental and caucasoid populations. Implications concerning human mtDNA evolution are discussed. PMID:2562823

  17. Cardiovascular group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  18. Attitudes on DNA ancestry tests.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jennifer K; Weiss, Kenneth M

    2012-01-01

    The DNA ancestry testing industry is more than a decade old, yet details about it remain a mystery: there remain no reliable, empirical data on the number, motivations, and attitudes of customers to date, the number of products available and their characteristics, or the industry customs and standard practices that have emerged in the absence of specific governmental regulations. Here, we provide preliminary data collected in 2009 through indirect and direct participant observation, namely blog post analysis, generalized survey analysis, and targeted survey analysis. The attitudes include the first available data on attitudes of those of individuals who have and have not had their own DNA ancestry tested as well as individuals who are members of DNA ancestry-related social networking groups. In a new and fluid landscape, the results highlight the need for empirical data to guide policy discussions and should be interpreted collectively as an invitation for additional investigation of (1) the opinions of individuals purchasing these tests, individuals obtaining these tests through research participation, and individuals not obtaining these tests; (2) the psychosocial and behavioral reactions of individuals obtaining their DNA ancestry information with attention given both to expectations prior to testing and the sociotechnical architecture of the test used; and (3) the applications of DNA ancestry information in varying contexts. PMID:21698460

  19. Binding of HIV-1 Vpr protein to the human homolog of the yeast DNA repair protein RAD23 (hHR23A) requires its xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C binding (XPCB) domain as well as the ubiquitin-associated 2 (UBA2) domain.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jinwon; Byeon, In-Ja L; DeLucia, Maria; Koharudin, Leonardus M I; Ahn, Jinwoo; Gronenborn, Angela M

    2014-01-31

    The human homolog of the yeast DNA repair protein RAD23, hHR23A, has been found previously to interact with the human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 accessory protein Vpr. hHR23A is a modular protein containing an N-terminal ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain and two ubiquitin-associated domains (UBA1 and UBA2) separated by a xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C binding (XPCB) domain. All domains are connected by flexible linkers. hHR23A binds ubiquitinated proteins and acts as a shuttling factor to the proteasome. Here, we show that hHR23A utilizes both the UBA2 and XPCB domains to form a stable complex with Vpr, linking Vpr directly to cellular DNA repair pathways and their probable exploitation by the virus. Detailed structural mapping of the Vpr contacts on hHR23A, by NMR, revealed substantial contact surfaces on the UBA2 and XPCB domains. In addition, Vpr binding disrupts an intramolecular UBL-UBA2 interaction. We also show that Lys-48-linked di-ubiquitin, when binding to UBA1, does not release the bound Vpr from the hHR23A-Vpr complex. Instead, a ternary hHR23A·Vpr·di-Ub(K48) complex is formed, indicating that Vpr does not necessarily abolish hHR23A-mediated shuttling to the proteasome. PMID:24318982

  20. Functionalizing Designer DNA Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard

    Three-dimensional crystals have been self-assembled from a DNA tensegrity triangle via sticky end interaction. The tensegrity triangle is a rigid DNA motif containing three double helical edges connected pair-wise by three four-arm junctions. The symmetric triangle contains 3 unique strands combined in a 3:3:1 ratio: 3 crossover, 3 helical and 1 central. The length of the sticky end reported previously was two nucleotides (nt) (GA:TC) and the motif with 2-helical turns of DNA per edge diffracted to 4.9 A at beam line NSLS-X25 and to 4 A at beam line ID19 at APS. The purpose of these self-assembled DNA crystals is that they can be used as a framework for hosting external guests for use in crystallographic structure solving or the periodic positioning of molecules for nanoelectronics. This thesis describes strategies to improve the resolution and to incorporate guests into the 3D lattice. The first chapter describes the effect of varying sticky end lengths and the influence of 5'-phosphate addition on crystal formation and resolution. X-ray diffraction data from beam line NSLS-X25 revealed that the crystal resolution for 1-nt (G:C) sticky end was 3.4 A. Motifs with every possible combination of 1-nt and 2-nt sticky-ended phosphorylated strands were crystallized and X-ray data were collected. The position of the 5'-phosphate on either the crossover (strand 1), helical (strand 2), or central strand (3) had an impact on the resolution of the self-assembled crystals with the 1-nt 1P-2-3 system diffracting to 2.62 A at APS and 3.1 A at NSLS-X25. The second chapter describes the sequence-specific recognition of DNA motifs with triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs). This study examined the feasibility of using TFOs to bind to specific locations within a 3-turn DNA tensegrity triangle motif. The TFO 5'-TTCTTTCTTCTCT was used to target the tensegrity motif containing an appropriately embedded oligopurine.oligopyrimidine binding site. As triplex formation involving cytidine nucleotides is usually pH dependent (pH < 6) four different TFOs were examined: TFO-1 was unmodified while TFOs 2-4 contained additional stabilizing analogues capable of extending triplex formation to pH 7. In addition, each of the TFOs contained a Cy5 dye at the 5'-end of the oligonucleotide to aid in characterization of TFO binding - crystals were obtained with all four variations of TFOs. Formation of DNA triplex in the motif was characterized by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), UV melting studies and FRET. Crystals containing TFO-1 (unmodified) and TFO-2 (with 2'-amino ethoxy modification) were isolated and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen for X-ray data collection at beam line NSLS-X25. X-ray data was also collected for crystals of the 3-turn triangle without any TFO bound to it. Difference maps were done between the crystals with TFO against the one without to identify any additional electron density corresponding to the third strand in the triplex binding region. The data from the crystal containing TFO-2 was used to further analyze if the additional density can match the expected position of the TFO on the triangle motif. Since the additional density did not correspond to the entire binding region, 2Fo-Fc, 3Fo-2Fc and 4Fo-3Fc maps were done to check for missing pieces of the electron density. From the resulting 2Fo-Fc map, the asymmetric unit from the 3-turn triangle (31-bp duplex model based on previous structure 3UBI) was inserted into the density as a reference. However, the electron density corresponding to the TFO was still not continuous throughout the 13-nt triplex binding region and allowed only a partial fit of the TFO. The third nucleotide in positions 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 were fit into the density in the major groove of the underlying duplex with proper triplex configuration. The third chapter describes the triplex approach to position a functional group (the UV cross-linking agent psoralen) within a pre-formed DNA motif. Triplex formation and psoralen cross-linking of the motif were analyzed by native and denaturing gel electrophoresis respectively. Motifs containing the Psoralen-TFO were also successfully crystallized and the crosslinking shown by analyzing the denatured crystals on a gel. The end goal would be to form a crosslinked designed DNA crystal that can diffract to a higher resolution. The fourth chapter describes the use of serial femtosecond crystallography for structure determination of designed DNA lattices. X-ray diffraction data from self-assembled 3D DNA microcrystals were collected from a stream of crystals in solution. Serial femtosecond crystallography eliminates the need for large crystals and the need for freezing, thus overcoming any associated crystal defects and radiation damage. Self-assembled nano/microcrystals were successfully made and were diffracted at room temperature. The best diffraction was from the 1-nt SE motif to an extent of 3.5 A in resolution.

  1. Retroviral Integrase Structure and DNA Recombination Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, Alan; Cherepanov, Peter

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Due to the importance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase as a drug target, the biochemistry and structural aspects of retroviral DNA integration have been the focus of intensive research during the past three decades. The retroviral integrase enzyme acts on the linear double-stranded viral DNA product of reverse transcription. Integrase cleaves specific phosphodiester bonds near the viral DNA ends during the 3? processing reaction. The enzyme then uses the resulting viral DNA 3?-OH groups during strand transfer to cut chromosomal target DNA, which simultaneously joins both viral DNA ends to target DNA 5?-phosphates. Both reactions proceed via direct transesterification of scissile phosphodiester bonds by attacking nucleophiles: a water molecule for 3? processing, and the viral DNA 3?-OH for strand transfer. X-ray crystal structures of prototype foamy virus integrase-DNA complexes revealed the architectures of the key nucleoprotein complexes that form sequentially during the integration process and explained the roles of active site metal ions in catalysis. X-ray crystallography furthermore elucidated the mechanism of action of HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitors, which are currently used to treat AIDS patients, and provided valuable insights into the mechanisms of viral drug resistance. PMID:25705574

  2. Tumorigenic DNA viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, G.

    1989-01-01

    The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

  3. Analysis of Diazofluorene DNA Binding and Damaging Activity. DNA Cleavage by a Synthetic Monomeric Diazofluorene

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Christina M.; Ranjan, Nihar; Arya, Dev P.; Herzon, Seth B.

    2014-01-01

    The lomaiviticins and kinamycins are complex DNA damaging natural products that contain a diazofluorene functional group. Herein, we elucidate the influence of skeleton structure, ring and chain isomerization, D-ring oxidation state, and naphthoquinone substitution on DNA binding and damaging activity. We show that the electrophilicity of the diazofluorene appears to be the most significant determinant of DNA damaging activity. These studies identify the monomeric diazofluorene 11 as a potent DNA cleavage agent in tissue culture. The simpler structure of 11 relative to the natural products establishes it as a useful lead for translational studies. PMID:25044348

  4. Group evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion process is greatly affected by the rate of droplet evaporation. The heat and mass exchanges between gas and liquid couple the dynamics of both phases in all aspects: mass, momentum, and energy. Correct prediction of the evaporation rate is therefore a key issue in engineering design of liquid combustion devices. Current analytical tools for characterizing the behavior of these devices are based on results from a single isolated droplet. Numerous experimental studies have challenged the applicability of these results in a dense spray. To account for the droplets' interaction in a dense spray, a number of theories have been developed in the past decade. Herein, two tasks are examined. One was to study how to implement the existing theoretical results, and the other was to explore the possibility of experimental verifications. The current theoretical results of group evaporation are given for a monodispersed cluster subject to adiabatic conditions. The time evolution of the fluid mechanic and thermodynamic behavior in this cluster is derived. The results given are not in the form of a subscale model for CFD codes.

  5. Mammalian DNA helicase.

    PubMed Central

    Hübscher, U; Stalder, H P

    1985-01-01

    A forked DNA was constructed to serve as a substrate for DNA helicases. It contains features closely resembling a natural replication fork. The DNA was prepared in large amounts and was used to assay displacement activity during isolation from calf thymus DNA polymerases alpha holoenzyme. One form of DNA polymerase alpha holoenzyme is possibly involved leading strand replication at the replication fork and possesses DNA dependent ATPase activity (Ottiger, H.-P. and Hübscher, U. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 3993-3997). The enzyme can be separated from DNA polymerase alpha by velocity sedimentation in conditions of very low ionic strength and then be purified by chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 and ATP-agarose. At all stages of purification, DNA dependent ATPase and displacement activity profiles were virtually superimposable. The DNA dependent ATPase can displace a hybridized DNA fragment with a short single-stranded tail at its 3'hydroxyl end only in the presence of ATP, and this displacement relies on ATP hydrolysis. Furthermore, homogeneous single-stranded binding proteins from calf thymus as well as from other tissues cannot perform this displacement reaction. By all this token the DNA dependent ATPase appears to be a DNA helicase. It is suggested that this DNA helicase might act in concert with DNA polymerase alpha at the leading strand, possibly pushing the replication fork ahead of the polymerase. Images PMID:3162158

  6. DNA base composition of rickettsiae.

    PubMed

    Tyeryar, F J; Weiss, E; Millar, D B; Bozeman, F M; Ormsbee, R A

    1973-04-27

    There is a small but distinct difference in DNA base composition between the typhus and spotted fever groups of rickettsiae. The molar percentages of guanine plus cytosine for Rickettsia prowazeki, R. typhi, and R. canada are approximately 30, for R. rickettsi, R. conori, and R. akari they are about 32.5. The percentage for trench fever rickettsia, Rochalimaea quintana, is 38.6. PMID:4633692

  7. Reconfiguration of DNA methylation in aging.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Michele; Ciccarone, Fabio; Calabrese, Roberta; Franceschi, Claudio; Brkle, Alexander; Caiafa, Paola

    2015-11-01

    A complex interplay between multiple biological effects shapes the aging process. The advent of genome-wide quantitative approaches in the epigenetic field has highlighted the effective impact of epigenetic deregulation, particularly of DNA methylation, on aging. Age-associated alterations in DNA methylation are commonly grouped in the phenomenon known as "epigenetic drift" which is characterized by gradual extensive demethylation of genome and hypermethylation of a number of promoter-associated CpG islands. Surprisingly, specific DNA regions show directional epigenetic changes in aged individuals suggesting the importance of these events for the aging process. However, the epigenetic information obtained until now in aging needs a re-consideration due to the recent discovery of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, a new DNA epigenetic mark present on genome. A recapitulation of the factors involved in the regulation of DNA methylation and the changes occurring in aging will be described in this review also considering the data available on 5 hmC. PMID:25708826

  8. Direct electrical detection of DNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pourmand, Nader; Karhanek, Miloslav; Persson, Henrik H. J.; Webb, Chris D.; Lee, Thomas H.; Zahradníková, Alexandra; Davis, Ronald W.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid, sequence-specific DNA detection is essential for applications in medical diagnostics and genetic screening. Electrical biosensors that use immobilized nucleic acids are especially promising in these applications because of their potential for miniaturization and automation. Current DNA detection methods based on sequencing by synthesis rely on optical readouts; however, a direct electrical detection method for this technique is not available. We report here an approach for direct electrical detection of enzymatically catalyzed DNA synthesis by induced surface charge perturbation. We discovered that incorporation of a complementary deoxynucleotide (dNTP) into a self-primed single-stranded DNA attached to the surface of a gold electrode evokes an electrode surface charge perturbation. This event can be detected as a transient current by a voltage-clamp amplifier. Based on current understanding of polarizable interfaces, we propose that the electrode detects proton removal from the 3′-hydroxyl group of the DNA molecule during phosphodiester bond formation. PMID:16614066

  9. Strategies for RNA-Guided DNA Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeleska, Angela; Jonoska, Nataa; Saito, Masahico; Landweber, Laura F.

    We present a model for homologous DNA recombination events guided by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) templates, and apply this model to DNA rearrangements in some groups of ciliates, such as Stylonychia or Oxytricha. In these organisms, differentiation of a somatic macronucleus from a germline micronucleus involves extensive gene rearrangement, which can be modeled as topological braiding of the DNA, with the template-guided alignment proceeding through DNA branch migration. We show that a graph structure, which we refer to as an assembly graph, containing only 1- and 4-valent vertices can provide a physical representation of the DNA at the time of recombination. With this representation, 4-valent vertices correspond to the alignment of the recombination sites, and we model the actual recombination event as smoothing of these vertices.

  10. DNA demethylation by TDG.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Shannon R; Bellacosa, Alfonso

    2012-08-01

    DNA methylation has long been considered a very stable DNA modification in mammals that could only be removed by replication in the absence of remethylation - that is, by mere dilution of this epigenetic mark (so-called passive DNA demethylation). However, in recent years, a significant number of studies have revealed the existence of active processes of DNA demethylation in mammals, with important roles in development and transcriptional regulation, allowing the molecular mechanisms of active DNA demethylation to be unraveled. In this article, we review the recent literature highlighting the prominent role played in active DNA demethylation by base excision repair and especially by TDG. PMID:22920184

  11. Ex vivo DNA Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Adam B.; Canfield, Zachary B.; Hayward, Laura C.; Fong, Stephen S.; McArthur, George H.

    2013-01-01

    Even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid, and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. Advances in cloning techniques have resulted in powerful in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA. However, monetary and time costs have limited these approaches. Here, we report an ex vivo DNA assembly method that uses cellular lysates derived from a commonly used laboratory strain of Escherichia coli for joining double-stranded DNA with short end homologies embedded within inexpensive primers. This method concurrently shortens the time and decreases costs associated with current DNA assembly methods. PMID:25024067

  12. Chemical method for introducing haptens on to DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, G.H.; Cumming, C.U.; Huang, D.P.; Manak, M.M.; Ting, R.

    1988-05-01

    The authors developed a versatile chemical method of attaching hapten moieties onto DNA, for the construction of nonisotopic DNA probes. The DNA is reacted with N-bromosuccinimide at alkaline pH, resulting in bromination of a fraction of the thymine, guanine, and cytosine residues, with adenine modified to a lesser extent. The bromine is subsequently displaced by a primary amino group, attached to a linker arm. The other end of the linker arm has a detectable group preattached to it. They have labeled cloned hepatitis B viral (HBV) DNA with the hapten 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) and used it in combination with a high affinity rabbit anti-DNP antibody, for the detection of hepatitis B DNA by slot blotting. This probe was sensitive enough to specifically detect 1 x 10/sup -17/ mol (1 x 10/sup 6/ copies) of HBV DNA in total DNA from human serum.

  13. Effect of DNA type on response of DNA biosensor for carcinogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, Nor Diyana bt. Md.; Heng, Lee Yook; Surif, Salmijah; Lazim, Azwani Mat

    2013-11-01

    Carcinogens are cancer causing chemicals that can bind to DNA and cause damage to the DNA. These chemicals are available everywhere including in water, air, soil and food. Therefore, a sensor that can detect the presence of these chemicals will be a very useful tool. Since carcinogens bind to DNA, DNA can be used as the biological element in a biosensor. This study has utilized different types of DNA in a biosensor for carcinogen detection. The DNAs include double stranded calf thymus DNA, single stranded calf thymus DNA and guanine rich single stranded DNA. The modified SPE was exposed to a carcinogen followed by interaction with methylene blue which acts as the electroactive indicator. The SPE was then analysed using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Optimization studies were conducted for MB concentration and accumulation time, DNA concentration, as well as effect of buffer concentration, buffer pH and ionic strength. The performance of the biosensor was tested on a group 1 carcinogen, formaldehyde. The results indicated that the usage of guanine rich single stranded DNA also gives higher response as carcinogens prefer to bind with guanine compared to other bases.

  14. Crossing borders: the DNA of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beijerinck, H. C. W.

    2015-01-01

    In cell culture, the physical environment plays an important role: "Everything is everywhere, but the environment selects"[1]. The education of physicists can be viewed within this framework. The Petri dish for the reproduction of physicists is a university research group. The full professor is its DNA. The selection process of new professors - new DNA - is a determining step in creating the right culture. [1] M.W. Beijerinck and L.G.M. Baas Becking, en.wikipedia.org.

  15. Ancient DNA is thirteen years old.

    PubMed

    Audic, S; Béraud-Colomb, E

    1997-09-01

    The first successful recovery of ancient DNA, from quagga and human mummies inspired significant enough interest to open an entire field of research. Efforts from many research groups, often in a hunt for the oldest sequences, showed that ancient DNA was a poor substrate for the enzymes used in molecular biology; it is present in tiny amounts, hard to purify, and frequently damaged. These obstacles have been partially overcome by the use of drastic laboratory precautions and by the introduction of polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic studies. Ancient DNA analysis now finds applications in many research domains. PMID:9306399

  16. DNA tagged microparticles

    DOEpatents

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2015-05-05

    A simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the simulant.

  17. HPV DNA test

    MedlinePlus

    The HPV DNA test is used to check for high-risk HPV infection in women. HPV infection around the genitals is ... warts spread when you have sex. The HPV-DNA test is generally not recommended for detecting low- ...

  18. Modeling DNA Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  19. Structural Organization of DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfalvi, Gaspar

    1986-01-01

    Explains the structural organization of DNA by providing information on the primary, secondary, tertiary, and higher organization levels of the molecule. Also includes illustrations and descriptions of sign-inversion and rotating models for supercoiling of DNA. (ML)

  20. Amino acid sequence of the FV region of a human monoclonal IgM (NOV) with specificity for the capsular polysaccharide of the group B meningococcus and of Escherichia coli K1, which cross-reacts with polynucleotides and with denatured DNA.

    PubMed

    Gawinowicz, M A; Merlini, G; Birken, S; Osserman, E F; Kabat, E A

    1991-08-01

    The complete amino acid sequences of the VH and VL regions of a biologically significant Ig, IgMNOV, were determined. IgMNOV is reactive with the capsular polysaccharide of the group B meningococcus and of Escherichia coli K1. As reported earlier, it cross-reacts completely with polynucleotides poly(A) and poly(I) and to a lesser extent with denatured DNA and protects newborn rats against infection with E. coli K1, and is equal in potency to the standard horse anti-group B meningococcal serum. The reduced and alkylated chains were sequenced directly, identifying the L chain as lambda-subgroup II and the mu-H chain as subgroup III. The complete sequence of the VL region was determined by sequencing peptides generated by cleavage with Staphylococcus aureus protease, chymotrypsin, and trypsin. The H chain was cleaved with cyanogen bromide followed by enzymatic cleavages to obtain a large part of the VH region sequence. The structure was completed by sequencing tryptic peptides of the Fab fragment and by mass-spectrometric analysis. PMID:1907308

  1. Is DNA a language?

    PubMed

    Tsonis, A A; Elsner, J B; Tsonis, P A

    1997-01-01

    DNA sequences usually involve local construction rules that affect different scales. As such their "dictionary" may not follow Zipf's law (a power law) which is followed in every natural language. Indeed, analysis of many DNA sequences suggests that no linguistics connections to DNA exist and that even though it has structure DNA is not a language. Computer simulations and a biological approach to this problem further support these results. PMID:9039397

  2. Plasmid DNA hydrogels for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Costa, Diana; Valente, Artur J M; Miguel, M Graça; Queiroz, João

    2014-03-01

    In the last few years, our research group has focused on the design and development of plasmid DNA (pDNA) based systems as devices to be used therapeutically in the biomedical field. Biocompatible macro and micro plasmid DNA gels were prepared by a cross-linking reaction. For the first time, the pDNA gels have been investigated with respect to their swelling in aqueous solution containing different additives. Furthermore, we clarified the fundamental and basic aspects of the solute release mechanism from pDNA hydrogels and the significance of this information is enormous as a basic tool for the formulation of pDNA carriers for drug/gene delivery applications. The co-delivery of a specific gene and anticancer drugs, combining chemical and gene therapies in the treatment of cancer was the main challenge of our research. Significant progresses have been made with a new p53 encoding pDNA microgel that is suitable for the loading and release of pDNA and doxorubicin. This represents a strong valuable finding in the strategic development of systems to improve cancer cure through the synergetic effect of chemical and gene therapy. PMID:24011472

  3. Nanopores: Flossing with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasianowicz, John J.

    2004-06-01

    Passing a DNA strand many times back-and-forth through a protein nanopore would enable the interaction between them to be studied more closely. This may now be possible, using a dumbbell-shaped DNA-polymer complex, which may lead to a more reliable analysis of DNA sequences using nanopores.

  4. Photoelectrochemical synthesis of DNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Brian Y.; Emig, Christopher J.; Jacobson, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    Optical addressing of semiconductor electrodes represents a powerful technology that enables the independent and parallel control of a very large number of electrical phenomena at the solid-electrolyte interface. To date, it has been used in a wide range of applications including electrophoretic manipulation, biomolecule sensing, and stimulating networks of neurons. Here, we have adapted this approach for the parallel addressing of redox reactions, and report the construction of a DNA microarray synthesis platform based on semiconductor photoelectrochemistry (PEC). An amorphous silicon photoconductor is activated by an optical projection system to create virtual electrodes capable of electrochemically generating protons; these PEC-generated protons then cleave the acid-labile dimethoxytrityl protecting groups of DNA phosphoramidite synthesis reagents with the requisite spatial selectivity to generate DNA microarrays. Furthermore, a thin-film porous glass dramatically increases the amount of DNA synthesized per chip by over an order of magnitude versus uncoated glass. This platform demonstrates that PEC can be used toward combinatorial bio-polymer and small molecule synthesis. PMID:19706433

  5. Fractals in DNA sequence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zu-Guo; Vo, Anh; Gong, Zhi-Min; Long, Shun-Chao

    2002-12-01

    Fractal methods have been successfully used to study many problems in physics, mathematics, engineering, finance and even in biology. There has been an increasing interest in unravelling the mysteries of DNA; for example, how can we distinguish coding and noncoding sequences and the problems of classification and evolution relationship of organisms are key problems in bioinformatics. Although much research has been carried out by taking into consideration the long-range correlations in DNA sequences and the global fractal dimension has been used in these works by other people, the models and methods are somewhat rough and the results are not satisfactory. In recent years, our group has introduced a time series model (statistical point of view) and a visual representation (geometrical point of view) to DNA sequence analysis. We have also used fractal dimension, correlation dimension, the Hurst exponent and the dimension spectrum (multifractal analysis) to discuss problems in this field. In this paper, we introduce these fractal models and methods and the results of DNA sequence analysis.

  6. The Many Sides of DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the meaning of DNA. Discusses histories of DNA, literature on DNA, the contributions of Max Delbruck and Barbara McClintock, life, views of control, current research, and the language of DNA. Contains 24 references. (JRH)

  7. Small Molecules, Inhibitors of DNA-PK, Targeting DNA Repair, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, David; Amrein, Lilian; Panasci, Lawrence; Aloyz, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Many current chemotherapies function by damaging genomic DNA in rapidly dividing cells ultimately leading to cell death. This therapeutic approach differentially targets cancer cells that generally display rapid cell division compared to normal tissue cells. However, although these treatments are initially effective in arresting tumor growth and reducing tumor burden, resistance and disease progression eventually occur. A major mechanism underlying this resistance is increased levels of cellular DNA repair. Most cells have complex mechanisms in place to repair DNA damage that occurs due to environmental exposures or normal metabolic processes. These systems, initially overwhelmed when faced with chemotherapy induced DNA damage, become more efficient under constant selective pressure and as a result chemotherapies become less effective. Thus, inhibiting DNA repair pathways using target specific small molecule inhibitors may overcome cellular resistance to DNA damaging chemotherapies. Non-homologous end joining a major mechanism for the repair of double-strand breaks (DSB) in DNA is regulated in part by the serine/threonine kinase, DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). The DNA-PK holoenzyme acts as a scaffold protein tethering broken DNA ends and recruiting other repair molecules. It also has enzymatic activity that may be involved in DNA damage signaling. Because of its’ central role in repair of DSBs, DNA-PK has been the focus of a number of small molecule studies. In these studies specific DNA-PK inhibitors have shown efficacy in synergizing chemotherapies in vitro. However, compounds currently known to specifically inhibit DNA-PK are limited by poor pharmacokinetics: these compounds have poor solubility and have high metabolic lability in vivo leading to short serum half-lives. Future improvement in DNA-PK inhibition will likely be achieved by designing new molecules based on the recently reported crystallographic structure of DNA-PK. Computer based drug design will not only assist in identifying novel functional moieties to replace the metabolically labile morpholino group but will also facilitate the design of molecules to target the DNA-PKcs/Ku80 interface or one of the autophosphorylation sites. PMID:23386830

  8. DNA-Mediated Electrochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Buzzeo, Marisa C.

    2009-01-01

    The base pair stack of DNA has been demonstrated as a medium for long range charge transport chemistry both in solution and at DNA-modified surfaces. This chemistry is exquisitely sensitive to structural perturbations in the base pair stack as occur with lesions, single base mismatches, and protein binding. We have exploited this sensitivity for the development of reliable electrochemical assays based on DNA charge transport at self-assembled DNA monolayers. Here we discuss the characteristic features, applications, and advantages of DNA-mediated electrochemistry. PMID:18980370

  9. DNA Sequencing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1992-01-01

    An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and dysfunctions in presbyacusis.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, H; Saad, M; El-Attar, A; Ahmed, G; Berrettini, S; Forli, F; Siciliano, G; Mancuso, M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations and metabolic dysfunctions in patients with presbyacusis, and to discover correlations between presbyacusis and the degree of hearing loss and mitochondrial damage. Seventy patients with presbyacusis were examined, including 40 Egyptian patients and 30 Italian patients. Forty eight normal subjects were included as control group, including 24 Egyptians and 24 Italians. There was no common point mutation, and A1555G, A3243G, A7445G not were detected in any patients or controls. Haplogroup U was significantly common in patients in comparison to controls. Mutation of antioxidant genes (GSTT1, GSTM1) were significantly present in only Italian patients compared to Italian controls. PMID:24711684

  11. Protection of DNA against Direct Radiation Damage by Complex Formation with Positively Charged Polypeptides

    PubMed Central

    Roginskaya, Marina; Bernhard, William A.; Razskazovskiy, Yuriy

    2007-01-01

    Radioprotection of DNA from direct-type radiation damage by histones has been studied in model systems using complexes of positively charged polypeptides (PCPs) with DNA. PCPs bind to DNA via ionic interactions mimicking the mode of DNA-histone binding. Direct radiation damage to DNA in films of DNA-PCP complexes was quantified as unaltered base release, which correlates closely with DNA strand breaks. All types of PCPs tested protected DNA from radiation, with the maximum radioprotection being approximately 2.5-fold compared with non-complexed DNA. Conformational changes of the DNA induced by PCPs or repair of free radical damage on the DNA sugar moiety by PCPs are considered the most feasible mechanisms of radioprotection of DNA. The degree of radioprotection of DNA by polylysine (PL) increased dramatically on going from pure DNA to a molar ratio of PL monomer:DNA nucleotide ~1:2, while a further increase in the PL:DNA ratio did not offer more radioprotection. This concentration dependence is in agreement with the model of PCP binding to DNA that assumes preferential binding of positively charged side groups to DNA phosphates in the minor groove, so that the maximum occupancy of all minor-groove PCP binding sites is at a molar ratio of PCP:DNA = 1:2. PMID:16808625

  12. DNA structure and function.

    PubMed

    Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi

    2015-06-01

    The proposal of a double-helical structure for DNA over 60 years ago provided an eminently satisfying explanation for the heritability of genetic information. But why is DNA, and not RNA, now the dominant biological information store? We argue that, in addition to its coding function, the ability of DNA, unlike RNA, to adopt a B-DNA structure confers advantages both for information accessibility and for packaging. The information encoded by DNA is both digital - the precise base specifying, for example, amino acid sequences - and analogue. The latter determines the sequence-dependent physicochemical properties of DNA, for example, its stiffness and susceptibility to strand separation. Most importantly, DNA chirality enables the formation of supercoiling under torsional stress. We review recent evidence suggesting that DNA supercoiling, particularly that generated by DNA translocases, is a major driver of gene regulation and patterns of chromosomal gene organization, and in its guise as a promoter of DNA packaging enables DNA to act as an energy store to facilitate the passage of translocating enzymes such as RNA polymerase. PMID:25903461

  13. Defects and DNA replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Michel; Herrick, John; Bechhoefer, John

    2010-03-01

    In higher organisms, DNA replication is initiated at distinct sites called replication origins, where pairs of replication forks begin to duplicate DNA bi-directionally outward from the origin site until they eventually coalesce with another fork. Unfortunately, defects along the DNA (such as single-strand DNA lesions or double-strand breaks) can slow, or even stall, replication forks. We introduce a master-equation formalism to study DNA replication kinetics in the presence of defects resulting from DNA damage and find a crossover between two regimes: a normal regime, where the influence of defects is local, and an initiation-limited regime. In the latter, defects have a global impact on replication, whose progress is set by the rate at which origins of replication are activated, or initiated. Normal, healthy cells have defect densities in the normal regime. Our model can explain an observed correlation between interorigin separation and rate of DNA replication.

  14. Impacts of degraded DNA on restriction enzyme associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq).

    PubMed

    Graham, Carly F; Glenn, Travis C; McArthur, Andrew G; Boreham, Douglas R; Kieran, Troy; Lance, Stacey; Manzon, Richard G; Martino, Jessica A; Pierson, Todd; Rogers, Sean M; Wilson, Joanna Y; Somers, Christopher M

    2015-11-01

    Degraded DNA from suboptimal field sampling is common in molecular ecology. However, its impact on techniques that use restriction site associated next-generation DNA sequencing (RADSeq, GBS) is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of in situDNA degradation on data generation for a modified double-digest RADSeq approach (3RAD). We generated libraries using genomic DNA serially extracted from the muscle tissue of 8 individual lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) following 0-, 12-, 48- and 96-h incubation at room temperature posteuthanasia. This treatment of the tissue resulted in input DNA that ranged in quality from nearly intact to highly sheared. All samples were sequenced as a multiplexed pool on an Illumina MiSeq. Libraries created from low to moderately degraded DNA (12-48 h) performed well. In contrast, the number of RADtags per individual, number of variable sites, and percentage of identical RADtags retained were all dramatically reduced when libraries were made using highly degraded DNA (96-h group). This reduction in performance was largely due to a significant and unexpected loss of raw reads as a result of poor quality scores. Our findings remained consistent after changes in restriction enzymes, modified fold coverage values (2- to 16-fold), and additional read-length trimming. We conclude that starting DNA quality is an important consideration for RADSeq; however, the approach remains robust until genomic DNA is extensively degraded. PMID:25783180

  15. Likelihood ratios for DNA identification.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, A; Morton, N E

    1994-01-01

    Likelihood ratio (LR) tests are provided for the three alternatives to DNA identity: exclusion, coincidence, and kinship. The coincidence test uses the radius of coalescence to conserve the observed frequency of single band phenotypes. Genotype probabilities under kinship are derived for mating groups, specified relatives, and structured populations; and unbiased estimates of the genetic parameters are provided. The LR is made robust to gene frequency errors by specifying the mean matching probability, and the tolerable loss of information this entails is determined by LR theory. This straightforward application of the seminal work of Jerzy Neyman and Sewall Wright strongly supports the use of LRs and kinship for presentation of DNA evidence by expert witnesses and committees. PMID:8016106

  16. DNA hybridization activity of single-stranded DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles used as probes for DNA detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kira, Atsushi; Matsuo, Kosuke; Nakajima, Shin-ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) have potential applications in bio-sensing technologies as labels or signal enhancers. In order to meet demands for a development of biomolecular assays by a quantitative understanding of single-molecule, it is necessary to regulate accuracy of the NPs probes modified with biomolecules to optimize the characteristics of NPs. However, to our knowledge, there is little information about the structural effect of conjugated biomolecules to the NPs. In this study, we investigated the contribution of a density of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) conjugating gold NP to hybridization activity. Hybridization activity decreased in accordance with increases in the density of attached ssDNAs, likely due to electrostatic repulsion generated by negatively charged phosphate groups in the ssDNA backbone. These results highlight the importance of controlling the density of ssDNAs attached to the surface of NPs used as DNA detection probes.

  17. Adsorption of DNA onto anionic lipid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Martín-Molina, Alberto; Luque-Caballero, Germán; Faraudo, Jordi; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Maldonado-Valderrama, Julia

    2014-04-01

    Currently self-assembled DNA delivery systems composed of DNA multivalent cations and anionic lipids are considered to be promising tools for gene therapy. These systems become an alternative to traditional cationic lipid-DNA complexes because of their low cytotoxicity lipids. However, currently these nonviral gene delivery methods exhibit low transfection efficiencies. This feature is in large part due to the poorly understood DNA complexation mechanisms at the molecular level. It is well-known that the adsorption of DNA onto like charged lipid surfaces requires the presence of multivalent cations that act as bridges between DNA and anionic lipids. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms behind such adsorption phenomenon still remain unclear. Accordingly a historical background of experimental evidence related to adsorption and complexation of DNA onto anionic lipid surfaces mediated by different multivalent cations is firstly reviewed. Next, recent experiments aimed to characterise the interfacial adsorption of DNA onto a model anionic phospholipid monolayer mediated by Ca(2+) (including AFM images) are discussed. Afterwards, modelling studies of DNA adsorption onto charged surfaces are summarised before presenting preliminary results obtained from both CG and all-atomic MD computer simulations. Our results allow us to establish the optimal conditions for cation-mediated adsorption of DNA onto negatively charged surfaces. Moreover, atomistic simulations provide an excellent framework to understand the interaction between DNA and anionic lipids in the presence of divalent cations. Accordingly,our simulation results in conjunction go beyond the macroscopic picture in which DNA is stuck to anionic membranes by using multivalent cations that form glue layers between them. Structural aspects of the DNA adsorption and molecular binding between the different charged groups from DNA and lipids in the presence of divalent cations are reported in the last part of the study. Although this research work is far from biomedical applications, we truly believe that scientific advances in this line will assist, at least in part, in the rational design and development of optimal carrier systems for genes and applicable to other drugs. PMID:24359695

  18. Mitochondrial DNA hypomethylation in chrome plating workers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linqing; Xia, Bo; Yang, Xueqin; Ding, Hong; Wu, Desheng; Zhang, Huimin; Jiang, Gaofeng; Liu, Jianjun; Zhuang, Zhixiong

    2016-01-22

    A matched case-control study was conducted to examine the relationship between chromium (Cr) exposure and variation in mitochondrial (mt) DNA methylation. We enrolled 29 pairs of subjects in this study; Cr exposure was confirmed in the cases by detecting blood Cr and other metal ion concentrations. DNA damage caused by Cr exposure was determined in terms of binucleated micronucleus frequency (BNMN) and mtDNA copy number. Finally, a Sequenom MassARRAY platform was applied to inspect the DNA methylation levels of mitochondrially encoded tRNA phenylalanine (MT-TF), mitochondrially encoded 12S RNA (MT-RNR1), and long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) genes. The blood Cr ion concentration and micronucleus frequency of the Cr-exposed group were higher than those of the control group, whereas the mtDNA copy number remained unchanged. The methylation levels of MT-TF and MT-RNR1 but not LINE-1 were significantly lower in Cr-exposed workers. Pearson correlation analysis showed that workers with higher blood Cr ion concentrations exhibited lower MT-TF and MT-RNR1 gene methylation, and multiple linear regression analysis indicated that CpG sites 1 and 2 in MT-TF and CpG site 6 in MT-RNR1 were affected. These results suggested that methylation level of mtDNA has the possibility of acting as an alternative effect biomarker for Cr exposure. PMID:26656300

  19. Ultrasonic degradation of DNA.

    PubMed

    Elsner, H I; Lindblad, E B

    1989-12-01

    Different results are obtained when DNA in aqueous solution and DNA in biological tissue are exposed to ultrasound. At intensities of ultrasound comparable to those applied clinically, ultrasonication is able to degrade purified DNA in aqueous solution, making ultrasonication a useful tool for preparing DNA fragments in vitro. Ultrasonic degradation of DNA in solution occurs by breaking hydrogen bonds and by single-strand and double-strand ruptures of the DNA helix. Two mechanisms are mainly responsible: cavitation and a thermal or mechanical effect. Stable cavitation is seen at low intensities of ultrasound. Increasing the intensity of the ultrasound above 2 W/cm2 is followed by increases in single-strand ruptures due to the creation of free radicals by transient cavitation. Following sonication, the distribution of the resulting DNA fragments approaches a lower size limit of 100-500 bp. Breaks in the DNA helix occur mainly between oxygen and carbon atoms, resulting in DNA fragments with a phosphorylated 5' end and a free alcohol at the 3' end. The relative lack of specificity in degrading the DNA helix makes ultrasonication a complementary alternative to the highly specific fragmentation obtained by restriction endonucleases. PMID:2693020

  20. Circulating Cell Free DNA in the Diagnosis of Trophoblastic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, Mark R; Harvey, Richard A; Sebire, Neil J; Kaur, Baljeet; Sarwar, Naveed; Seckl, Michael J; Fisher, Rosemary A

    2016-02-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) represents a group of diseases characterized by production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Since non-gestational tumors may occasionally secrete hCG, histopathological diagnosis is important for appropriate clinical management. However, a histopathological diagnosis is not always available. We therefore investigated the feasibility of extracting cell free DNA (cfDNA) from the plasma of women with GTN for use as a "liquid biopsy" in patients without histopathological diagnosis. cfDNA was prepared from the plasma of 20 women with a diagnosis of GTN and five with hCG-secreting tumors of unknown origin. Genotyping of cfDNA from the patient, genomic DNA from her and her partner and DNA from the tumor tissue identified circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) (from 9% to 53% of total cfDNA) in 12 of 20 patients with GTN. In one case without a tissue diagnosis, ctDNA enabled a diagnosis of GTN originating in a non-molar conception and in another a diagnosis of non-gestational tumor, based on the high degree of allelic instability and loss of heterozygosity in the ctDNA. In summary ctDNA can be detected in the plasma of women with GTN and can facilitate the diagnosis of both gestational and non-gestational trophoblastic tumors in cases without histopathological diagnosis. PMID:26981554

  1. Circulating Cell Free DNA in the Diagnosis of Trophoblastic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Openshaw, Mark R.; Harvey, Richard A.; Sebire, Neil J.; Kaur, Baljeet; Sarwar, Naveed; Seckl, Michael J.; Fisher, Rosemary A.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) represents a group of diseases characterized by production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Since non-gestational tumors may occasionally secrete hCG, histopathological diagnosis is important for appropriate clinical management. However, a histopathological diagnosis is not always available. We therefore investigated the feasibility of extracting cell free DNA (cfDNA) from the plasma of women with GTN for use as a “liquid biopsy” in patients without histopathological diagnosis. cfDNA was prepared from the plasma of 20 women with a diagnosis of GTN and five with hCG-secreting tumors of unknown origin. Genotyping of cfDNA from the patient, genomic DNA from her and her partner and DNA from the tumor tissue identified circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) (from 9% to 53% of total cfDNA) in 12 of 20 patients with GTN. In one case without a tissue diagnosis, ctDNA enabled a diagnosis of GTN originating in a non-molar conception and in another a diagnosis of non-gestational tumor, based on the high degree of allelic instability and loss of heterozygosity in the ctDNA. In summary ctDNA can be detected in the plasma of women with GTN and can facilitate the diagnosis of both gestational and non-gestational trophoblastic tumors in cases without histopathological diagnosis. PMID:26981554

  2. Functional DNA Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhao

    The discovery of DNA helical structure opened the door of modern molecular biology. Ned Seeman utilized DNA as building block to construct different nanoscale materials, and introduced a new field, know as DNA nanotechnology. After several decades of development, different DNA structures had been created, with different dimension, different morphology and even with complex curvatures. In addition, after construction of enough amounts DNA structure candidates, DNA structure template, with excellent spatial addressability, had been used to direct the assembly of different nanomaterials, including nanoparticles and proteins, to produce different functional nanomaterials. However there are still many challenges to fabricate functional DNA nanostructures. The first difficulty is that the present finite sized template dimension is still very small, usually smaller than 100nm, which will limit the application for large amount of nanomaterials assembly or large sized nanomaterials assembly. Here we tried to solve this problem through developing a new method, superorigami, to construct finite sized DNA structure with much larger dimension, which can be as large as 500nm. The second problem will be explored the ability of DNA structure to assemble inorganic nanomaterials for novel photonic or electronic properties. Here we tried to utilize DNA Origami method to assemble AuNPs with controlled 3D spacial position for possible chiral photonic complex. We also tried to assemble SWNT with discrete length for possible field effect transistor device. In addition, we tried to mimic in vivo compartment with DNA structure to study internalized enzyme behavior. From our results, constructed DNA cage origami can protect encapsulated enzyme from degradation, and internalized enzyme activity can be boosted for up to 10 folds. In summary, DNA structure can serve as an ideal template for construction of functional nanomaterials with lots of possibilities to be explored.

  3. Interaction between DNA and cationic surfactants: effect of DNA conformation and surfactant headgroup.

    PubMed

    Dias, Rita S; Magno, Luís M; Valente, Artur J M; Das, Dibyendu; Das, Prasanta K; Maiti, Souvik; Miguel, Maria G; Lindman, Björn

    2008-11-20

    The interactions between DNA and a number of different cationic surfactants, differing in headgroup polarity, were investigated by electric conductivity measurements and fluorescence microscopy. It was observed that, the critical association concentration (cac), characterizing the onset of surfactant binding to DNA, does not vary significantly with the architecture of the headgroup. However, comparing with the critical micelle concentration (cmc) in the absence of DNA, it can be inferred that the micelles of a surfactant with a simple quaternary ammonium headgroup are much more stabilized by the presence of DNA than those of surfactants with hydroxylated head-groups. In line with previous studies of polymer-surfactant association, the cac does not vary significantly with either the DNA concentration or its chain length. On the other hand, a novel observation is that the cac is much lower when DNA is denaturated and in the single-stranded conformation, than for the double-helix DNA. This is contrary to expectation for a simple electrostatically driven association. Thus previous studies of polyelectrolyte-surfactant systems have shown that the cac decreases strongly with increasing linear charge density of the polyion. Since double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) has twice as large linear charge density as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), the stronger binding in the latter case indicates an important role of nonelectrostatic effects. Both a higher flexibility of ssDNA and a higher hydrophobicity due to the exposed bases are found to play a role, with the hydrophobic interaction argued to be more important. The significance of hydrophobic DNA-surfactant interaction is in line with other observations. The significance of nonelectrostatic effects is also indicated in significant differences in cac between different surfactants for ssDNA but not for dsDNA. For lower concentrations of DNA, the conductivity measurements presented an "anomalous" feature, i.e., a second inflection point for surfactant concentrations below the cac; this feature was not displayed at higher concentrations of DNA. The effect is attributed to the presence of a mixture of ss- and dsDNA molecules. Thus the stability of dsDNA is dependent on a certain ion atmosphere; at lower ion concentrations the electrostatic repulsions between the DNA strands become too strong compared to the attractive interactions, and there is a dissociation into the individual strands. Fluorescence microscopy studies, performed at much lower DNA concentrations, demonstrated a transformation of dsDNA from an extended "coil" state to a compact "globule" condition, with a broad concentration region of coexistence of coils and globules. The onset of DNA compaction coincides roughly with the cac values obtained from conductivity measurements. This is in line with the observed independence of cac on the DNA concentration, together with the assumption that the onset of binding corresponds to an initiation of DNA compaction. No major changes in either the onset of compaction or complete compaction were observed as the surfactant headgroup was made more polar. PMID:18774843

  4. DNA binding to proteolytically activated TLR9 is sequence-independent and enhanced by DNA curvature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Berke, Ian C; Modis, Yorgo

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes microbial DNA in endolysosomal compartments. The ectodomain of TLR9 must be proteolytically cleaved by endosomal proteases to produce the active receptor capable of inducing an innate immune signal. We show that the cleaved TLR9 ectodomain is a monomer in solution and that DNA ligands with phosphodiester backbones induce TLR9 dimerization in a sequence-independent manner. Ligands with phosphorothioate (PS) backbones induce the formation of large TLR9–DNA aggregates, possibly due to the propensity of PS ligands to self-associate. DNA curvature-inducing proteins including high-mobility group box 1 and histones H2A and H2B significantly enhance TLR9 binding, suggesting that TLR9 preferentially recognizes curved DNA backbones. Our work sheds light on the molecular mechanism of TLR9 activation by endogenous protein–nucleic acid complexes, which are associated with autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:22258621

  5. PCR Techniques in Characterizing DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Wani, Khalida; Aldape, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation was the first epigenetic mark to be discovered, involving the addition of a methyl group to the 5' position of cytosine by DNA methyltransferases, and can be inherited through cell division. DNA methylation plays an important role in normal human development and is associated with the regulation of gene expression, tumorigenesis, and other genetic and epigenetic diseases. Differential methylation is now known to play a central role in the development and outcome of most if not all human malignancies.Bisulfite conversion is a commonly used approach for gene-specific DNA methylation analysis. Treatment of DNA with bisulfite converts cytosine to uracil while leaving 5-methylcytosine intact, allowing for single-nucleotide resolution information about the methylated areas of DNA. PCR-based methods are routinely used to study DNA methylation on a gene-specific basis, after bisulfite treatment. Variations of this method include bisulfite sequencing, methylation-specific PCR, real-time PCR-based MethyLight, and methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting PCR. Several whole-epigenome profiling technologies such as MethylC-seq reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and the Infinium Human methylation 450 K bead chip are now available allowing for the identification of epigenetic drivers of disease processes as well as biomarkers that could potentially be integrated into clinical practice. PMID:26843056

  6. Simulation of Dna-Nanotube Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huajian; Kong, Yong

    2004-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes functionalized with biological molecules (such as protein peptides and nucleic acids) show great potential for application in bioengineering and nanotechnology. Fundamental understanding, description, and regulation of such bio-nano-systems will ultimately lead to a new generation of integrated systems that combine unique properties of the carbon nanotube (CNT) with biological recognition capabilities. In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding the interactions between deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) and CNT, as well as relevant simulation techniques. We also review progress in simulating DNA noncovalent interactions with CNTs in an aqueous environment. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that DNA molecules may be encapsulated inside or wrap around CNT owing to van der Waals attraction between DNA and CNT. We focus on the dynamics and energetics of DNA encapsulation inside nanotubes and discuss the mechanism of encapsulation and the effects of nanotube size, nanotube end-group, DNA base sequence, solvent temperature and pressure on the encapsulation process. Finally, we discuss the likely impact of DNA encapsulation on bioengineering and nanotechnology, as well as other potential applications.

  7. DNA as a dietary biomarker in Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba.

    PubMed

    Passmore, A J; Jarman, S N; Swadling, K M; Kawaguchi, S; McMinn, A; Nicol, S

    2006-01-01

    The diet of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been studied using a variety of techniques, but current methods still suffer from problems that are difficult to solve. This study examined an alternative approach utilizing DNA as a prey biomarker. Methods were developed for the preservation, extraction, and identification of prey DNA from krill collected in the field. Group-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify diatom prey (Phylum: Bacillariophyta) and the results from DNA clone libraries were compared with microscopic diet analysis. DNA analysis was superior to microscopy for prey detection. However, differences in prey relative abundance estimates between the two techniques suggested some bias in the DNA-based estimates. Quantification showed that large amounts of prey DNA had been successfully preserved and extracted. Overall the results suggest that the application of DNA-based diet analysis to krill warrants further investigation, particularly for prey that are difficult to study using other methods. PMID:16924375

  8. Sequence specificity of DNA cleavage by Micrococcus luteus. gamma. endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Hentosh, P.; Henner, W.D.; Reynolds, R.J.

    1985-04-01

    DNA fragments of defined sequence have been used to determine the sites of cleavage by ..gamma..-endonuclease activity in extracts prepared from Micrococcus luteus. End-labeled DNA restriction fragments of pBR322 DNA that had been irradiated under nitrogen in the presence of potassium iodide or t-butanol were treated with M. luteus ..gamma.. endonuclease and analyzed on irradiated DNA preferentially at the positions of cytosines and thymines. DNA cleavage occurred immediately to the 3' side of pyrimidines in irradiated DNA and resulted in fragments that terminate in a 5'-phosphoryl group. These studies indicate that both altered cytosines and thymines may be important DNA lesions requiring repair after exposure to ..gamma.. radiation.

  9. Multiple strand displacement amplification of mitochondrial DNA from clinical samples

    PubMed Central

    Maragh, Samantha; Jakupciak, John P; Wagner, Paul D; Rom, William N; Sidransky, David; Srivastava, Sudhir; O'Connell, Catherine D

    2008-01-01

    Background Whole genome amplification (WGA) methods allow diagnostic laboratories to overcome the common problem of insufficient DNA in patient specimens. Further, body fluid samples useful for cancer early detection are often difficult to amplify with traditional PCR methods. In this first application of WGA on the entire human mitochondrial genome, we compared the accuracy of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis after WGA to that performed without genome amplification. We applied the method to a small group of cancer cases and controls and demonstrated that WGA is capable of increasing the yield of starting DNA material with identical genetic sequence. Methods DNA was isolated from clinical samples and sent to NIST. Samples were amplified by PCR and those with no visible amplification were re-amplified using the Multiple Displacement Amplificaiton technique of whole genome amplification. All samples were analyzed by mitochip for mitochondrial DNA sequence to compare sequence concordance of the WGA samples with respect to native DNA. Real-Time PCR analysis was conducted to determine the level of WGA amplification for both nuclear and mtDNA. Results In total, 19 samples were compared and the concordance rate between WGA and native mtDNA sequences was 99.995%. All of the cancer associated mutations in the native mtDNA were detected in the WGA amplified material and heteroplasmies in the native mtDNA were detected with high fidelity in the WGA material. In addition to the native mtDNA sequence present in the sample, 13 new heteroplasmies were detected in the WGA material. Conclusion Genetic screening of mtDNA amplified by WGA is applicable for the detection of cancer associated mutations. Our results show the feasibility of this method for: 1) increasing the amount of DNA available for analysis, 2) recovering the identical mtDNA sequence, 3) accurately detecting mtDNA point mutations associated with cancer. PMID:18257929

  10. Engineering Clostridium Strain to Accept Unmethylated DNA

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Dai, Zongjie; Li, Yin

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to genetically manipulate the medically and biotechnologically important genus Clostridium due to the existence of the restriction and modification (RM) systems. We identified and engineered the RM system of a model clostridial species, C. acetobutylicum, with the aim to allow the host to accept the unmethylated DNA efficiently. A gene CAC1502 putatively encoding the type II restriction endonuclease Cac824I was identified from the genome of C. acetobutylicum DSM1731, and disrupted using the ClosTron system based on group II intron insertion. The resulting strain SMB009 lost the type II restriction endonuclease activity, and can be transformed with unmethylated DNA as efficiently as with methylated DNA. The strategy reported here makes it easy to genetically modify the clostridial species using unmethylated DNA, which will help to advance the understanding of the clostridial physiology from the molecular level. PMID:20161730

  11. Mitochondrial DNA abnormalities in ophthalmological disease

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Grainne S.; Taylor, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are a group of clinically heterogeneous diseases, commonly defined by lack of cellular energy due to genetic defects of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Ocular involvement is a prominent clinical feature of mitochondrial disease. This can manifest as optic nerve dysfunction specifically involving retinal ganglion cells as typified by Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), or progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) and ptosis involving the extraocular muscles which is commonly associated with either primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations or acquired mtDNA defects secondary to a nuclear genetic disorder of mtDNA maintenance. In this short review, we will outline the unique characteristics of mitochondrial genetic disease and its investigation with reference to the clinical features and molecular genetic abnormalities underlying mitochondrial ophthalmological disease. PMID:23960954

  12. Evaluation of DNAstable for DNA storage at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Susanne E; Castillo, Hilda S; Gioeni, Lora J; Robertson, James M; Donfack, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Preserving DNA is important for validation of prospective and retrospective analyses, requiring many expensive types of equipment (e.g., freezers and back-up generators) and energy. While freezing is the most common method for storing extracted DNA evidence or well-characterized DNA samples for validation studies, DNAstable (Biomatrica), a commercially available medium for room temperature storage of DNA extracts was evaluated in this study. Two groups of samples consisting of different DNA quantities were investigated, one ranging from 20 to 400 ng (group 1) and the other one ranging from 1.4 to 20 ng (group 2). The DNA samples with and without DNAstable were stored at four different temperatures [∼25 °C (room temperature), -20 °C, 37 °C or 50 °C]. DNA degradation over several months was monitored by SYBR Green-based qPCR assays and by PCR amplification of the core CODIS STR markers for group 1 and 2 DNA samples, respectively. For the time points tested in this study (up to 365 days), the findings indicate that the -20 °C controls and the DNAstable protected samples at room temperature provided similar DNA recoveries that were higher compared to the unprotected controls kept at RT, 37 °C or 50 °C. These results suggest that DNAstable can protect DNA samples with effectiveness similar to that of the traditional -20 °C freezing method. In addition, extrapolations from accelerated aging experiments conducted at high temperatures support that DNAstable is an effective technology for preserving purified DNA at room temperature with a larger protective impact on DNA samples of low quantity (<20 ng). PMID:24315605

  13. Detection and quantitation of single nucleotide polymorphisms, DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    DOEpatents

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2002-01-01

    DNA mutation binding proteins alone and as chimeric proteins with nucleases are used with solid supports to detect DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms. The solid supports may be flow cytometry beads, DNA chips, glass slides or DNA dips sticks. DNA molecules are coupled to solid supports to form DNA-support complexes. Labeled DNA is used with unlabeled DNA mutation binding proteins such at TthMutS to detect DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations and single nucleotide length polymorphisms by binding which gives an increase in signal. Unlabeled DNA is utilized with labeled chimeras to detect DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations and single nucleotide length polymorphisms by nuclease activity of the chimera which gives a decrease in signal.

  14. DNA topology and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Kouzine, Fedor; Levens, David; Baranello, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin is a complex assembly that compacts DNA inside the nucleus while providing the necessary level of accessibility to regulatory factors conscripted by cellular signaling systems. In this superstructure, DNA is the subject of mechanical forces applied by variety of molecular motors. Rather than being a rigid stick, DNA possesses dynamic structural variability that could be harnessed during critical steps of genome functioning. The strong relationship between DNA structure and key genomic processes necessitates the study of physical constrains acting on the double helix. Here we provide insight into the source, dynamics, and biology of DNA topological domains in the eukaryotic cells and summarize their possible involvement in gene transcription. We emphasize recent studies that might inspire and impact future experiments on the involvement of DNA topology in cellular functions. PMID:24755522

  15. Electrocatalysis in DNA Sensors.

    PubMed

    Furst, Ariel; Hill, Michael G; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2014-12-14

    Electrocatalysis is often thought of solely in the inorganic realm, most often applied to energy conversion in fuel cells. However, the ever-growing field of bioelectrocatalysis has made great strides in advancing technology for both biofuel cells as well as biological detection platforms. Within the context of bioelectrocatalytic detection systems, DNA-based platforms are especially prevalent. One subset of these platforms, the one we have developed, takes advantage of the inherent charge transport properties of DNA. Electrocatalysis coupled with DNA-mediated charge transport has enabled specific and sensitive detection of lesions, mismatches and DNA-binding proteins. Even greater signal amplification from these platforms is now being achieved through the incorporation of a secondary electrode to the platform both for patterning DNA arrays and for detection. Here, we describe the evolution of this new DNA sensor technology. PMID:25435647

  16. Electrocatalysis in DNA Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Furst, Ariel; Hill, Michael G.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2014-01-01

    Electrocatalysis is often thought of solely in the inorganic realm, most often applied to energy conversion in fuel cells. However, the ever-growing field of bioelectrocatalysis has made great strides in advancing technology for both biofuel cells as well as biological detection platforms. Within the context of bioelectrocatalytic detection systems, DNA-based platforms are especially prevalent. One subset of these platforms, the one we have developed, takes advantage of the inherent charge transport properties of DNA. Electrocatalysis coupled with DNA-mediated charge transport has enabled specific and sensitive detection of lesions, mismatches and DNA-binding proteins. Even greater signal amplification from these platforms is now being achieved through the incorporation of a secondary electrode to the platform both for patterning DNA arrays and for detection. Here, we describe the evolution of this new DNA sensor technology. PMID:25435647

  17. Elasticity of DNA nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sanjeev K.; McEwan, Andrew; Lukačević, Igor

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, using a theoretical model we bring forth the Young modulus of DNA nanowire (NWs) as a function of diameter considering both equilibrium strain and surface stress effects. A good trend between the present calculated and the available theoretical size-dependent Young modulus of different metallic and semiconducting NWs is found, which supports the DNA NWs mechanical strength. We have extended our view of studied materials to predict the behavior of the DNA NWs and ascertain their resemblance to the behavior of either metallic or semiconducting nature of NWs. We have also demonstrated the variation in Young modulus of the DNA NWs with the variation of relaxed material property of DNA NWs. This study extrapolates key factors in modeling DNA NWs for the electronic device applications.

  18. Markovian language model of the DNA and its information content

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, S.; Baptista, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes a Markovian memoryless model for the DNA that simplifies enormously the complexity of it. We encode nucleotide sequences into symbolic sequences, called words, from which we establish meaningful length of words and groups of words that share symbolic similarities. Interpreting a node to represent a group of similar words and edges to represent their functional connectivity allows us to construct a network of the grammatical rules governing the appearance of groups of words in the DNA. Our model allows us to predict the transition between groups of words in the DNA with unprecedented accuracy, and to easily calculate many informational quantities to better characterize the DNA. In addition, we reduce the DNA of known bacteria to a network of only tens of nodes, show how our model can be used to detect similar (or dissimilar) genes in different organisms, and which sequences of symbols are responsible for most of the information content of the DNA. Therefore, the DNA can indeed be treated as a language, a Markovian language, where a ‘word’ is an element of a group, and its grammar represents the rules behind the probability of transitions between any two groups. PMID:26909179

  19. Markovian language model of the DNA and its information content.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S; Baptista, M S

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes a Markovian memoryless model for the DNA that simplifies enormously the complexity of it. We encode nucleotide sequences into symbolic sequences, called words, from which we establish meaningful length of words and groups of words that share symbolic similarities. Interpreting a node to represent a group of similar words and edges to represent their functional connectivity allows us to construct a network of the grammatical rules governing the appearance of groups of words in the DNA. Our model allows us to predict the transition between groups of words in the DNA with unprecedented accuracy, and to easily calculate many informational quantities to better characterize the DNA. In addition, we reduce the DNA of known bacteria to a network of only tens of nodes, show how our model can be used to detect similar (or dissimilar) genes in different organisms, and which sequences of symbols are responsible for most of the information content of the DNA. Therefore, the DNA can indeed be treated as a language, a Markovian language, where a 'word' is an element of a group, and its grammar represents the rules behind the probability of transitions between any two groups. PMID:26909179

  20. Metal complexes as DNA intercalators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Ke; Sadler, Peter J

    2011-05-17

    DNA has a strong affinity for many heterocyclic aromatic dyes, such as acridine and its derivatives. Lerman in 1961 first proposed intercalation as the source of this affinity, and this mode of DNA binding has since attracted considerable research scrutiny. Organic intercalators can inhibit nucleic acid synthesis in vivo, and they are now common anticancer drugs in clinical therapy. The covalent attachment of organic intercalators to transition metal coordination complexes, yielding metallointercalators, can lead to novel DNA interactions that influence biological activity. Metal complexes with σ-bonded aromatic side arms can act as dual-function complexes: they bind to DNA both by metal coordination and through intercalation of the attached aromatic ligand. These aromatic side arms introduce new modes of DNA binding, involving mutual interactions of functional groups held in close proximity. The biological activity of both cis- and trans-diamine Pt(II) complexes is dramatically enhanced by the addition of σ-bonded intercalators. We have explored a new class of organometallic "piano-stool" Ru(II) and Os(II) arene anticancer complexes of the type [(η(6)-arene)Ru/Os(XY)Cl](+). Here XY is, for example, ethylenediamine (en), and the arene ligand can take many forms, including tetrahydroanthracene, biphenyl, or p-cymene. Arene-nucleobase stacking interactions can have a significant influence on both the kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA binding. In particular, the cytotoxic activity, conformational distortions, recognition by DNA-binding proteins, and repair mechanisms are dependent on the arene. A major difficulty in developing anticancer drugs is cross-resistance, a phenomenon whereby a cell that is resistant to one drug is also resistant to another drug in the same class. These new complexes are non-cross-resistant with cisplatin towards cancer cells: they constitute a new class of anticancer agents, with a mechanism of action that differs from the anticancer drug cisplatin and its analogs. The Ru-arene complexes with dual functions are more potent towards cancer cells than their nonintercalating analogs. In this Account, we focus on recent studies of dual-function organometallic Ru(II)- and Os(II)-arene complexes and the methods used to detect arene-DNA intercalation. We relate these interactions to the mechanism of anticancer activity and to structure-activity relationships. The interactions between these complexes and DNA show close similarities to those of covalent polycyclic aromatic carcinogens, especially to N7-alkylating intercalation compounds. However, Ru-arene complexes exhibit some new features. Classical intercalation and base extrusion next to the metallated base is observed for {(η(6)-biphenyl)Ru(ethylenediamine)}(2+) adducts of a 14-mer duplex, while penetrating arene intercalation occurs for adducts of the nonaromatic bulky intercalator {(η(6)-tetrahydroanthracene)Ru(ethylenediamine)}(2+) with a 6-mer duplex. The introduction of dual-function Ru-arene complexes introduces new mechanisms of antitumor activity, novel mechanisms for attack on DNA, and new concepts for developing structure- activity relationships. We hope this discussion will stimulate thoughtful and focused research on the design of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents using these unique approaches. PMID:21446672

  1. Bisulfite Sequencing of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Darst, Russell P.; Pardo, Carolina E.; Ai, Lingbao; Brown, Kevin D.; Kladde, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Exact positions of 5-methylcytosine (m5C) on a single strand of DNA can be determined by bisulfite genomic sequencing (BGS). Treatment with bisulfite ion preferentially deaminates unmethylated cytosines, which then convert to uracil upon desulfonation. Amplifying regions of interest from deaminated DNA and sequencing products cloned from amplicons permits determination of methylation at single nucleotide resolution along single DNA molecules, which is not possible with other methylation analysis techniques. This unit describes a BGS technique suitable for most DNA sources, including formaldehyde-fixed tissue. Considerations for experimental design and common sources of error are discussed. PMID:20583099

  2. Circulating Plasma Tumor DNA.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Heather A; Beaver, Julia A; Park, Ben H

    2016-01-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA)-first identified in 1947-is "naked" DNA that is free-floating in the blood, and derived from both normal and diseased cells. In the 1970s, scientists observed that patients with cancer had elevated levels of ccfDNA as compared to their healthy, cancer-free counterparts. The maternal fetal medicine community first developed techniques to identify the small fraction of fetal-derived ccfDNA for diagnostic purposes. Similarly, due to the presence of tumor-specific (somatic) variations in all cancers, the fraction of circulating cell-free plasma tumor DNA (ptDNA) in the larger pool of ccfDNA derived from normal cells can serve as extremely specific blood-based biomarkers for a patient's cancer. In theory this "liquid biopsy" can provide a real-time assessment of molecular tumor genotype (qualitative) and existing tumor burden (quantitative). Historically, the major limitation for ptDNA as a biomarker has been related to a low detection rate; however, current and developing techniques have improved sensitivity dramatically. In this chapter, we discuss these methods, including digital polymerase chain reaction and various approaches to tagged next-generation sequencing. PMID:26987539

  3. DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina; Zotter, Angelika; Vermeulen, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Structural changes to DNA severely affect its functions, such as replication and transcription, and play a major role in age-related diseases and cancer. A complicated and entangled network of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms, including multiple DNA repair pathways, damage tolerance processes, and cell-cycle checkpoints safeguard genomic integrity. Like transcription and replication, DDR is a chromatin-associated process that is generally tightly controlled in time and space. As DNA damage can occur at any time on any genomic location, a specialized spatio-temporal orchestration of this defense apparatus is required. PMID:20980439

  4. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  5. Phytoplasma plasmid DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mark T; Liefting, Lia W

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasma plasmids have generally been detected from DNA extracted from plants and insects using methods designed for the purification of total phytoplasma DNA. Methods include extraction from tissues that are high in phytoplasma titre, such as the phloem of plants, with the use of CsCl-bisbenzimide gradients that exploit the low G+C content of phytoplasma DNA. Many of the methods employed for phytoplasma purification have been described elsewhere in this book. Here we describe in detail two methods that are specifically aimed at isolating plasmid DNA. PMID:22987431

  6. Immune sensing of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Paludan, Søren R.; Bowie, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Although it has been appreciated for some years that cytosolic DNA is immune-stimulatory, it is only in the past five years that the molecular basis of DNA sensing by the innate immune system has begun to be revealed. In particular it has been described how DNA induces type I interferon, central in anti-viral responses and a mediator of autoimmunity. While to date more than 10 cytosolic receptors of DNA have been proposed, STING is a key adaptor protein for most DNA sensing pathways, and we are now beginning to understand the signaling mechanisms for STING. In this review we describe the recent progress in understanding signaling mechanisms activated by DNA and the relevance of DNA sensing to pathogen responses and autoimmunity. We highlight new insights gained into how and why the immune system responds to both pathogen and self DNA, and define important questions that now need to be addressed in the field of innate immune activation by DNA. PMID:23706668

  7. Gene duplications in evolution of archaeal family B DNA polymerases.

    PubMed Central

    Edgell, D R; Klenk, H P; Doolittle, W F

    1997-01-01

    All archaeal DNA-dependent DNA polymerases sequenced to date are homologous to family B DNA polymerases from eukaryotes and eubacteria. Presently, representatives of the euryarchaeote division of archaea appear to have a single family B DNA polymerase, whereas two crenarchaeotes, Pyrodictium occultum and Sulfolobus solfataricus, each possess two family B DNA polymerases. We have found the gene for yet a third family B DNA polymerase, designated B3, in the crenarchaeote S. solfataricus P2. The encoded protein is highly divergent at the amino acid level from the previously characterized family B polymerases in S. solfataricus P2 and contains a number of nonconserved amino acid substitutions in catalytic domains. We have cloned and sequenced the ortholog of this gene from the closely related Sulfolobus shibatae. It is also highly divergent from other archaeal family B DNA polymerases and, surprisingly, from the S. solfataricus B3 ortholog. Phylogenetic analysis using all available archaeal family B DNA polymerases suggests that the S. solfataricus P2 B3 and S. shibatae B3 paralogs are related to one of the two DNA polymerases of P. occultum. These sequences are members of a group which includes all euryarchaeote family B homologs, while the remaining crenarchaeote sequences form another distinct group. Archaeal family B DNA polymerases together constitute a monophyletic subfamily whose evolution has been characterized by a number of gene duplication events. PMID:9098062

  8. Low-Dose Formaldehyde Delays DNA Damage Recognition and DNA Excision Repair in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luch, Andreas; Frey, Flurina C. Clement; Meier, Regula; Fei, Jia; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    Objective Formaldehyde is still widely employed as a universal crosslinking agent, preservative and disinfectant, despite its proven carcinogenicity in occupationally exposed workers. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the possible impact of low-dose formaldehyde exposures in the general population. Due to the concomitant occurrence of multiple indoor and outdoor toxicants, we tested how formaldehyde, at micromolar concentrations, interferes with general DNA damage recognition and excision processes that remove some of the most frequently inflicted DNA lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings The overall mobility of the DNA damage sensors UV-DDB (ultraviolet-damaged DNA-binding) and XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum group C) was analyzed by assessing real-time protein dynamics in the nucleus of cultured human cells exposed to non-cytotoxic (<100 μM) formaldehyde concentrations. The DNA lesion-specific recruitment of these damage sensors was tested by monitoring their accumulation at local irradiation spots. DNA repair activity was determined in host-cell reactivation assays and, more directly, by measuring the excision of DNA lesions from chromosomes. Taken together, these assays demonstrated that formaldehyde obstructs the rapid nuclear trafficking of DNA damage sensors and, consequently, slows down their relocation to DNA damage sites thus delaying the excision repair of target lesions. A concentration-dependent effect relationship established a threshold concentration of as low as 25 micromolar for the inhibition of DNA excision repair. Conclusions/Significance A main implication of the retarded repair activity is that low-dose formaldehyde may exert an adjuvant role in carcinogenesis by impeding the excision of multiple mutagenic base lesions. In view of this generally disruptive effect on DNA repair, we propose that formaldehyde exposures in the general population should be further decreased to help reducing cancer risks. PMID:24722772

  9. DNA Targeting Sequence Improves Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Plasmid DNA Transfection Efficiency in Model Neurons.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Matthew M; Dean, David A; Dobson, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Efficient non-viral plasmid DNA transfection of most stem cells, progenitor cells and primary cell lines currently presents an obstacle for many applications within gene therapy research. From a standpoint of efficiency and cell viability, magnetic nanoparticle-based DNA transfection is a promising gene vectoring technique because it has demonstrated rapid and improved transfection outcomes when compared to alternative non-viral methods. Recently, our research group introduced oscillating magnet arrays that resulted in further improvements to this novel plasmid DNA (pDNA) vectoring technology. Continued improvements to nanomagnetic transfection techniques have focused primarily on magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) functionalization and transfection parameter optimization: cell confluence, growth media, serum starvation, magnet oscillation parameters, etc. Noting that none of these parameters can assist in the nuclear translocation of delivered pDNA following MNP-pDNA complex dissociation in the cell's cytoplasm, inclusion of a cassette feature for pDNA nuclear translocation is theoretically justified. In this study incorporation of a DNA targeting sequence (DTS) feature in the transfecting plasmid improved transfection efficiency in model neurons, presumably from increased nuclear translocation. This observation became most apparent when comparing the response of the dividing SH-SY5Y precursor cell to the non-dividing and differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. PMID:26287182

  10. DNA Targeting Sequence Improves Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Plasmid DNA Transfection Efficiency in Model Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Matthew M.; Dean, David A.; Dobson, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Efficient non-viral plasmid DNA transfection of most stem cells, progenitor cells and primary cell lines currently presents an obstacle for many applications within gene therapy research. From a standpoint of efficiency and cell viability, magnetic nanoparticle-based DNA transfection is a promising gene vectoring technique because it has demonstrated rapid and improved transfection outcomes when compared to alternative non-viral methods. Recently, our research group introduced oscillating magnet arrays that resulted in further improvements to this novel plasmid DNA (pDNA) vectoring technology. Continued improvements to nanomagnetic transfection techniques have focused primarily on magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) functionalization and transfection parameter optimization: cell confluence, growth media, serum starvation, magnet oscillation parameters, etc. Noting that none of these parameters can assist in the nuclear translocation of delivered pDNA following MNP-pDNA complex dissociation in the cell’s cytoplasm, inclusion of a cassette feature for pDNA nuclear translocation is theoretically justified. In this study incorporation of a DNA targeting sequence (DTS) feature in the transfecting plasmid improved transfection efficiency in model neurons, presumably from increased nuclear translocation. This observation became most apparent when comparing the response of the dividing SH-SY5Y precursor cell to the non-dividing and differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. PMID:26287182

  11. Quantitative analysis of cell-free DNA in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    SHAO, XUEFENG; He, YAN; JI, MIN; CHEN, XIAOFANG; QI, JING; SHI, WEI; HAO, TIANBO; JU, SHAOQING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) levels and clinicopathological characteristics of patients with ovarian cancer using a branched DNA (bDNA) technique, and to determine the value of quantitative cf-DNA detection in assisting with the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Serum specimens were collected from 36 patients with ovarian cancer on days 1, 3 and 7 following surgery, and additional serum samples were also collected from 22 benign ovarian tumor cases, and 19 healthy, non-cancerous ovaries. bDNA techniques were used to detect serum cf-DNA concentrations. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. The cf-DNA levels were significantly increased in the ovarian cancer group compared with those of the benign ovarian tumor group and healthy ovarian group (P<0.01). Furthermore, cf-DNA levels were significantly increased in stage III and IV ovarian cancer compared with those of stages I and II (P<0.01). In addition, cf-DNA levels were significantly increased on the first day post-surgery (P<0.01), and subsequently demonstrated a gradual decrease. In the ovarian cancer group, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of cf-DNA and the sensitivity were 0.917 and 88.9%, respectively, which was higher than those of cancer antigen 125 (0.724, 75%) and human epididymis protein 4 (0.743, 80.6%). There was a correlation between the levels of serum cf-DNA and the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer in the patients evaluated. bDNA techniques possessed higher sensitivity and specificity than other methods for the detection of serum cf-DNA in patients exhibiting ovarian cancer, and bDNA techniques are more useful for detecting cf-DNA than other factors. Thus, the present study demonstrated the potential value for the use of bDNA as an adjuvant diagnostic method for ovarian cancer. PMID:26788153

  12. ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF HIGH METHIONINE INTAKE ON DNA METHYLATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methylation of DNA occurs at cytosines within CpG (cytosine-guanine) dinucleotides and is one of several epigenetic mechanisms that serve to establish and maintain tissue-specific patterns of gene expression. The methyl groups transferred in mammalian DNA methylation reactions are ultimately derived...

  13. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and

  14. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  15. Many Ways to Loop DNA

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Jack D.

    2013-01-01

    In the 1960s, I developed methods for directly visualizing DNA and DNA-protein complexes using an electron microscope. This made it possible to examine the shape of DNA and to visualize proteins as they fold and loop DNA. Early applications included the first visualization of true nucleosomes and linkers and the demonstration that repeating tracts of adenines can cause a curvature in DNA. The binding of DNA repair proteins, including p53 and BRCA2, has been visualized at three- and four-way junctions in DNA. The trombone model of DNA replication was directly verified, and the looping of DNA at telomeres was discovered. PMID:24005675

  16. DNA Barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, Eric; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage. PMID:25004106

  17. DISCRIMINATIVE POWER OF NUCLEAR rDNA SEQUENCES FOR THE DNA TAXONOMY OF THE DINOFLAGELLATE GENUS PERIDINIUM (DINOPHYCEAE)(1).

    PubMed

    Ki, Jang-Seu; Park, Myung-Hwan; Han, Myung-Soo

    2011-04-01

    The genus Peridinium Ehrenb. comprises a group of highly diversified dinoflagellates. Their morphological taxonomy has been established over the last century. Here, we examined relationships within the genus Peridinium, including Peridinium bipes F. Stein sensu lato, based on a molecular phylogeny derived from nuclear rDNA sequences. Extensive rDNA analyses of nine selected Peridinium species showed that intraspecies genetic variation was considerably low, but interspecies genetic divergence was high (>1.5% dissimilarity in the nearly complete 18S sequence; >4.4% in the 28S rDNA D1/D2). The 18S and 28S rDNA Bayesian tree topologies showed that Peridinium species grouped according to their taxonomic positions and certain morphological characters (e.g., epithecal plate formula). Of these groups, the quinquecorne group (plate formula of 3', 2a, 7″) diverged first, followed by the umbonatum group (4', 2a, 7″) and polonicum group (4', 1a, 7″). Peridinium species with a plate formula of 4', 3a, 7″ diverged last. Thus, 18S and 28S rDNA D1/D2 sequences are informative about relationships among Peridinium species. Statistical analyses revealed that the 28S rDNA D1/D2 region had a significantly higher genetic divergence than the 18S rDNA region, suggesting that the former as DNA markers may be more suitable for sequence-based delimitation of Peridinium. The rDNA sequences had sufficient discriminative power to separate P. bipes f. occultaum (Er. Lindem.) M. Lefèvre and P. bipes f. globosum Er. Lindem. into two distinct species, even though these taxa are morphologically only marginally discriminated by spines on antapical plates and the shape of red bodies during the generation of cysts. Our results suggest that 28S rDNA can be used for all Peridinium species to make species-level taxonomic distinctions, allowing improved taxonomic classification of Peridinium. PMID:27021873

  18. The interplay of primer-template DNA phosphorylation status and single-stranded DNA binding proteins in directing clamp loaders to the appropriate polarity of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hayner, Jaclyn N.; Douma, Lauren G.; Bloom, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    Sliding clamps are loaded onto DNA by clamp loaders to serve the critical role of coordinating various enzymes on DNA. Clamp loaders must quickly and efficiently load clamps at primer/template (p/t) junctions containing a duplex region with a free 3′OH (3′DNA), but it is unclear how clamp loaders target these sites. To measure the Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae clamp loader specificity toward 3′DNA, fluorescent β and PCNA clamps were used to measure clamp closing triggered by DNA substrates of differing polarity, testing the role of both the 5′phosphate (5′P) and the presence of single-stranded binding proteins (SSBs). SSBs inhibit clamp loading by both clamp loaders on the incorrect polarity of DNA (5′DNA). The 5′P groups contribute selectivity to differing degrees for the two clamp loaders, suggesting variations in the mechanism by which clamp loaders target 3′DNA. Interestingly, the χ subunit of the E. coli clamp loader is not required for SSB to inhibit clamp loading on phosphorylated 5′DNA, showing that χ·SSB interactions are dispensable. These studies highlight a common role for SSBs in directing clamp loaders to 3′DNA, as well as uncover nuances in the mechanisms by which SSBs perform this vital role. PMID:25159615

  19. Genotyping Performance Assessment of Whole Genome Amplified DNA with Respect to Multiplexing Level of Assay and Its Period of Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Daniel W. H.; Yiu, Wai Chi; Yap, Maurice K. H.; Fung, Wai Yan; Ng, Po Wah; Yip, Shea Ping

    2011-01-01

    Whole genome amplification can faithfully amplify genomic DNA (gDNA) with minimal bias and substantial genome coverage. Whole genome amplified DNA (wgaDNA) has been tested to be workable for high-throughput genotyping arrays. However, issues about whether wgaDNA would decrease genotyping performance at increasing multiplexing levels and whether the storage period of wgaDNA would reduce genotyping performance have not been examined. Using the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX Gold assays, we investigated 174 single nucleotide polymorphisms for 3 groups of matched samples: group 1 of 20 gDNA samples, group 2 of 20 freshly prepared wgaDNA samples, and group 3 of 20 stored wgaDNA samples that had been kept frozen at −70°C for 18 months. MassARRAY is a medium-throughput genotyping platform with reaction chemistry different from those of high-throughput genotyping arrays. The results showed that genotyping performance (efficiency and accuracy) of freshly prepared wgaDNA was similar to that of gDNA at various multiplexing levels (17-plex, 21-plex, 28-plex and 36-plex) of the MassARRAY assays. However, compared with gDNA or freshly prepared wgaDNA, stored wgaDNA was found to give diminished genotyping performance (efficiency and accuracy) due to potentially inferior quality. Consequently, no matter whether gDNA or wgaDNA was used, better genotyping efficiency would tend to have better genotyping accuracy. PMID:22022531

  20. Structural features of DNA interaction with caffeine and theophylline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Manouchehri, Firouzeh; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali; Varavipour, Maryam

    2008-03-01

    Caffeine and theophylline are strong antioxidants that prevent DNA damage. The anticancer and antiviral activities of these natural products are implicated in their mechanism of actions. However, there has been no information on the interactions of these xanthine derivatives with individual DNA at molecular level. The aim of this study was to examine the stability and structural features of calf-thymus DNA complexes with caffeine and theophylline in aqueous solution, using constant DNA concentration (6.25 mM) and various caffeine or theophylline/DNA(P) ratios of 1/80, 1/40, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2 and 1/1. FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopic methods were used to determine the ligand external binding modes, the binding constant and the stability of caffeine, theophylline-DNA complexes in aqueous solution. Spectroscopic evidence showed that the complexation of caffeine and theophylline with DNA occurred via G-C and A-T and PO 2 group with overall binding constants of K(caffeine-DNA) = 9.7 × 10 3 M -1 and K(theophylline-DNA) = 1.7 × 10 4 M -1. The affinity of ligand-DNA binding is in the order of theophylline > caffeine. A partial B to A-DNA transition occurs upon caffeine and theophylline complexation.

  1. Conformational changes of the phenyl and naphthyl isocyanate-DNA adducts during DNA replication and by minor groove binding molecules

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Shu-ichi; Uotani, Yuuki; Sato, Yuichi; Oka, Hirohito; Fujii, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    DNA lesions produced by aromatic isocyanates have an extra bulky group on the nucleotide bases, with the capability of forming stacking interaction within a DNA helix. In this work, we investigated the conformation of the 2′-deoxyadenosine and 2′-deoxycytidine derivatives tethering a phenyl or naphthyl group, introduced in a DNA duplex. The chemical modification experiments using KMnO4 and 1-cyclohexyl-3 -(2-morpholinoethyl) carbodiimide metho-p-toluenesulfonate have shown that the 2′-deoxycytidine lesions form the base pair with guanine while the 2′-deoxyadenosine lesions have less ability of forming the base pair with thymine in solution. Nevertheless, the kinetic analysis shows that these DNA lesions are compatible with DNA ligase and DNA polymerase reactions, as much as natural DNA bases. We suggest that the adduct lesions have a capability of adopting dual conformations, depending on the difference in their interaction energies between stacking of the attached aromatic group and base pairing through hydrogen bonds. It is also presented that the attached aromatic groups change their orientation by interacting with the minor groove binding netropsin, distamycin and synthetic polyamide. The nucleotide derivatives would be useful for enhancing the phenotypic diversity of DNA molecules and for exploring new non-natural nucleotides. PMID:23873956

  2. DNA as information.

    PubMed

    Wills, Peter R

    2016-03-13

    This article reviews contributions to this theme issue covering the topic 'DNA as information' in relation to the structure of DNA, the measure of its information content, the role and meaning of information in biology and the origin of genetic coding as a transition from uninformed to meaningful computational processes in physical systems. PMID:26857666

  3. Characterization of muntjac DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.C.

    1981-05-27

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in muntjac chromosomes is generally proportional to the chromosomal DNA content, but the SCE frequency is reduced in the heterochromatic neck region of the X chromosome. The physical properties of muntjac DNA and the kinetics of repair of UV damage in muntjac heterochromatin and euchromatin were examined and compared with the distribution of sister chromatid exchange.

  4. Replicating repetitive DNA.

    PubMed

    Tognetti, Silvia; Speck, Christian

    2016-05-27

    The function and regulation of repetitive DNA, the 'dark matter' of the genome, is still only rudimentarily understood. Now a study investigating DNA replication of repetitive centromeric chromosome segments has started to expose a fascinating replication program that involves suppression of ATR signalling, in particular during replication stress. PMID:27230530

  5. Environmental DNA Samples

    Samples from various aquatic species and other material necessary to create environemntal DNA (eDNA) assays are stored at the Snake River Field Station in Boise. Water samples from aquatic ecosystems are compared against the assays to identify the presence and location of species in those ecosy...

  6. Environmental DNA Samples

    Samples collected form coho salmon that will be used to develop environmental DNA (eDNA) assays for the species. Water samples from aquatic ecosystems are compared against the assays to identify the presence and location of species in those ecosystems....

  7. Modeling DNA Replication Intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Roy, D.; Shapiro, R.

    1997-06-01

    While there is now available a great deal of information on double stranded DNA from X-ray crystallography, high resolution NMR and computer modeling, very little is known about structures that are representative of the DNA core of replication intermediates. DNA replication occurs at a single strand/double strand junction and bulged out intermediates near the junction can lead to frameshift mutations. The single stranded domains are particularly challenging. Our interest is focused on strategies for modeling the DNA of these types of replication intermediates. Modeling such structures presents special problems in addressing the multiple minimum problem and in treating the electrostatic component of the force field. We are testing a number of search strategies for locating low energy structures of these types and we are also investigating two different distance dependent dielectric functions in the coulombic term of the force field. We are studying both unmodified DNA and DNA damaged by aromatic amines, carcinogens present in the environment in tobacco smoke, barbecued meats and automobile exhaust. The nature of the structure adopted by the carcinogen modified DNA at the replication fork plays a key role in determining whether the carcinogen will cause a mutation during replication that can initiate the carcinogenic process. In the present work results are presented for unmodified DNA.

  8. MICROWAVE RESONANCES IN DNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes spectroscopic studies of DNA which were undertaken to better understand a physical basis for microwave absorption by this molecule. hree types of studies are described. ) The low frequency scattered light spectrum of DNA was studied by two methods. irst, Ram...

  9. Recombinant DNA for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, James G., III

    1992-01-01

    A science teacher describes his experience at a workshop to learn to teach the Cold Spring Harbor DNA Science Laboratory Protocols. These protocols lead students through processes for taking E. coli cells and transforming them into a new antibiotic resistant strain. The workshop featured discussions of the role of DNA recombinant technology in

  10. Curating DNA specimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA data are used in a variety of ethnobiological disciplines including archaeology, conservation, ecology, medicinal plants and natural products research, taxonomy and systematics, crop evolution and domestication, and genetic diversity. It frequently is convenient to store and share DNA among coop...

  11. Routine DNA testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine DNA testing. It’s done once you’ve Marker-Assisted Breeding Pipelined promising Qantitative Trait Loci within your own breeding program and thereby established the performance-predictive power of each DNA test for your germplasm under your conditions. By then you are ready to screen your par...

  12. Recombinant DNA for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, James G., III

    1992-01-01

    A science teacher describes his experience at a workshop to learn to teach the Cold Spring Harbor DNA Science Laboratory Protocols. These protocols lead students through processes for taking E. coli cells and transforming them into a new antibiotic resistant strain. The workshop featured discussions of the role of DNA recombinant technology in…

  13. Nanotechnology: Deadly DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Swati; Simmel, Friedrich C.

    2015-01-01

    DNA self-assembly has previously been used to create channel-like structures that can penetrate through lipid bilayer membranes. However, such assemblies have not been shown to cause cell death before. Now a DNA nanopore has been shown to exert a cytotoxic effect when administered to cells.

  14. Premeltons in DNA.

    PubMed

    Sobell, Henry M

    2016-03-01

    Premeltons are examples of emergent-structures (i.e., structural-solitons) that arise spontaneously in DNA due to the presence of nonlinear-excitations in its structure. They are of two kinds: B-B (or A-A) premeltons form at specific DNA-regions to nucleate site-specific DNA melting. These are stationary and, being globally-nontopological, undergo breather-motions that allow drugs and dyes to intercalate into DNA. B-A (or A-B) premeltons, on the other hand, are mobile, and being globally-topological, act as phase-boundaries transforming B- into A-DNA during the structural phase-transition. They are not expected to undergo breather motions. A key feature of both types of premeltons is the presence of an intermediate structural-form in their central regions (proposed as being a transition-state intermediate in DNA-melting and in the B- to A-transition), which differs from either A- or B-DNA. Called beta-DNA, this is both metastable and hyperflexible-and contains an alternating sugar-puckering pattern along the polymer backbone combined with the partial unstacking (in its lower energy-forms) of every-other base-pair. Beta-DNA is connected to either B- or to A-DNA on either side by boundaries possessing a gradation of nonlinear structural-change, these being called the kink and the antikink regions. The presence of premeltons in DNA leads to a unifying theory to understand much of DNA physical chemistry and molecular biology. In particular, premeltons are predicted to define the 5' and 3' ends of genes in naked-DNA and DNA in active-chromatin, this having important implications for understanding physical aspects of the initiation, elongation and termination of RNA-synthesis during transcription. For these and other reasons, the model will be of broader interest to the general-audience working in these areas. The model explains a wide variety of data, and carries with it a number of experimental predictions-all readily testable-as will be described in this review. PMID:26984848

  15. Recombinant DNA in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cederbaum, Stephen D.; Fareed, George C.; Lovett, Michael A.; Shapiro, Larry J.

    1984-01-01

    Studies in bacteria and bacterial viruses have led to methods to manipulate and recombine DNA in unique and reproducible ways and to amplify these recombined molecules millions of times. Once properly identified, the recombinant DNA molecules can be used in various ways useful in medicine and human biology. There are many applications for recombinant DNA technology. Cloned complementary DNA has been used to produce various human proteins in microorganisms. Insulin and growth hormone have been extensively and successfully tested in humans and insulin has been licensed for sale. Mass production of bacterial and viral antigens with recombinant DNA technology is likely to provide safe and effective vaccines for some disorders for which there is no prevention. The cloned probes for the human ?- and ?-globin loci, for specific disease genes, such as the Z allele of ?-antitrypsin, and for random genomic sequences are proving useful for prenatally diagnosing human genetic disorders and preventing their clinical consequences. Images PMID:6208695

  16. Translesion DNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Myron F.; Woodgate, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Living cells are continually exposed to DNA-damaging agents that threaten their genomic integrity. Although DNA repair processes rapidly target the damaged DNA for repair, some lesions nevertheless persist and block genome duplication by the cell’s replicase. To avoid the deleterious consequence of a stalled replication fork, cells use specialized polymerases to traverse the damage. This process, termed “translesion DNA synthesis” (TLS), affords the cell additional time to repair the damage before the replicase returns to complete genome duplication. In many cases, this damage-tolerance mechanism is error-prone, and cell survival is often associated with an increased risk of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Despite being tightly regulated by a variety of transcriptional and posttranslational controls, the low-fidelity TLS polymerases also gain access to undamaged DNA where their inaccurate synthesis may actually be beneficial for genetic diversity and evolutionary fitness. PMID:23838442

  17. Target DNA induced switches of DNA polymerase activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Soo; Lee, Chang Yeol; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2015-06-21

    A novel concept that target DNA can induce switching of DNA polymerase activity is devised. The method relies on the finding that a DNA aptamer can undergo conformational change upon hybridization with a complementary target DNA, which leads to activation or inactivation of DNA polymerase. This strategy is utilized to identify the presence of target DNA with high levels of sensitivity and selectivity. PMID:25959533

  18. Developmental validation of the ParaDNA(®) Intelligence System-A novel approach to DNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Stephen; Dawnay, Nick; Ball, Glyn; Stafford-Allen, Beccy; Tribble, Nicholas; Rendell, Paul; Neary, Kelsey; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack; Kallifatidis, Beatrice; Mendel, Julian; Mills, DeEtta K; Wells, Simon

    2015-07-01

    DNA profiling through the analysis of STRs remains one of the most widely used tools in human identification across the world. Current laboratory STR analysis is slow, costly and requires expert users and interpretation which can lead to instances of delayed investigations or non-testing of evidence on budget grounds. The ParaDNA(®) Intelligence System has been designed to provide a simple, fast and robust way to profile DNA samples in a lab or field-deployable manner. The system analyses 5-STRs plus amelogenin to deliver a DNA profile that enables users to gain rapid investigative leads and intelligent prioritisation of samples in human identity testing applications. Utilising an innovative sample collector, minimal training is required to enable both DNA analysts and nonspecialist personnel to analyse biological samples directly, without prior processing, in approximately 75min. The test uses direct PCR with fluorescent HyBeacon(®) detection of STR allele lengths to provide a DNA profile. The developmental validation study described here followed the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines and tested the sensitivity, reproducibility, accuracy, inhibitor tolerance, and performance of the ParaDNA Intelligence System on a range of mock evidence items. The data collected demonstrate that the ParaDNA Intelligence System displays useful DNA profiles when sampling a variety of evidence items including blood, saliva, semen and touch DNA items indicating the potential to benefit a number of applications in fields such as forensic, military and disaster victim identification (DVI). PMID:25980941

  19. DNA Align Editor: DNA Alignment Editor Tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SNPAlignEditor is a DNA sequence alignment editor that runs on Windows platforms. The purpose of the program is to provide an intuitive, user-friendly tool for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments by providing functions for input, editing, and output of nucleotide sequence alignments....

  20. Activation of an Mg2+-dependent DNA endonuclease of avian myeloblastosis virus alpha beta DNA polymerase by in vitro proteolytic cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Grandgenett, D P; Golomb, M; Vora, A C

    1980-01-01

    Partial chymotryptic digestion of purified avian myeloblastosis virus alpha beta DNA polymerase resulted in the activation of a Mg2+-dependent DNA endonuclease activity. Incubation of the polymerase-protease mixture in the presence of super-coiled DNA and Mg2+ permitted detection of the cleaved polymerase fragment possessing DNA nicking activity. Protease digestion conditions were established permitting selective cleavage of beta to alpha, which contained DNA polymerase and RNase H activity and to a family of polypeptides ranging in size from 30,000 to 34,000 daltons. These latter beta-unique fragments were purified by polyuridylate-Sepharose 4B chromatography and were shown to contain both DNA binding and DNA endonuclease activities. We have demonstrated that this group of polymerase fragments derived by chymotryptic digestion of alpha beta DNA polymerase is similar to the in vivo-isolated avian myeloblastosis virus p32pol in size, sequence, and DNA endonuclease activity. Images PMID:6154149

  1. Reversing DNA Methylation: Mechanisms, Genomics, and Biological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of cytosines in the mammalian genome represents a key epigenetic modification and is dynamically regulated during development. Compelling evidence now suggests that dynamic regulation of DNA methylation is mainly achieved through a cyclic enzymatic cascade comprised of cytosine methylation, iterative oxidation of methyl group by TET dioxygenases, and restoration of unmodified cytosines by either replication-dependent dilution or DNA glycosylase-initiated base excision repair. In this review, we discuss the mechanism and function of DNA demethylation in mammalian genomes, focusing particularly on how developmental modulation of the cytosine-modifying pathway is coupled to active reversal of DNA methylation in diverse biological processes. PMID:24439369

  2. Ecological diversification in the Bacillus cereus Group.

    PubMed

    Guinebretire, Marie-Hlne; Thompson, Fabiano L; Sorokin, Alexei; Normand, Philippe; Dawyndt, Peter; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Svensson, Birgitta; Sanchis, Vincent; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Vos, Paul

    2008-04-01

    The Bacillus cereus Group comprises organisms that are widely distributed in the environment and are of health and economic interest. We demonstrate an 'ecotypic' structure of populations in the B. cereus Group using (i) molecular data from Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism patterns, ribosomal gene sequences, partial panC gene sequences, 'psychrotolerant' DNA sequence signatures and (ii) phenotypic and descriptive data from range of growth temperature, psychrotolerance and thermal niches. Seven major phylogenetic groups (I to VII) were thus identified, with ecological differences that provide evidence for a multiemergence of psychrotolerance in the B. cereus Group. A moderate thermotolerant group (VII) was basal to the mesophilic group I, from which in turn distinct thermal lineages have emerged, comprising two mesophilic groups (III, IV), an intermediate group (V) and two psychrotolerant groups (VI, II). This stepwise evolutionary transition toward psychrotolerance was particularly well illustrated by the relative abundance of the 'psychrotolerant' rrs signature (as defined by Pruss et al.) copies accumulated in strains that varied according to the phylogenetic group. The 'psychrotolerant' cspA signature (as defined by Francis et al.) was specific to group VI and provided a useful way to differentiate it from the psychrotolerant group II. This study illustrates how adaptation to novel environments by the modification of temperature tolerance limits has shaped historical patterns of global ecological diversification in the B. cereus Group. The implications for the taxonomy of this Group and for the human health risk are discussed. PMID:18036180

  3. Thymidine analogues for tracking DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Brenton L; Walker, Tom; Norazit, Anwar; Meedeniya, Adrian C B

    2011-01-01

    Replicating cells undergo DNA synthesis in the highly regulated, S-phase of the cell cycle. Analogues of the pyrimidine deoxynucleoside thymidine may be inserted into replicating DNA, effectively tagging dividing cells allowing their characterisation. Tritiated thymidine, targeted using autoradiography was technically demanding and superseded by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and related halogenated analogues, detected using antibodies. Their detection required the denaturation of DNA, often constraining the outcome of investigations. Despite these limitations BrdU alone has been used to target newly synthesised DNA in over 20,000 reviewed biomedical studies. A recent breakthrough in "tagging DNA synthesis" is the thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). The alkyne group in EdU is readily detected using a fluorescent azide probe and copper catalysis using 'Huisgen's reaction' (1,3-dipolar cycloaddition or 'click chemistry'). This rapid, two-step biolabelling approach allows the tagging and imaging of DNA within cells whilst preserving the structural and molecular integrity of the cells. The bio-orthogonal detection of EdU allows its application in more experimental assays than previously possible with other "unnatural bases". These include physiological, anatomical and molecular biological experimentation in multiple fields including, stem cell research, cancer biology, and parasitology. The full potential of EdU and related molecules in biomedical research remains to be explored. PMID:21921870

  4. Simple & Safe Genomic DNA Isolation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A procedure for purifying DNA using either bacteria or rat liver is presented. Directions for doing a qualitative DNA assay using diphenylamine and a quantitative DNA assay using spectroscopy are included. (KR)

  5. Studying DNA in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarins, Silja

    1993-01-01

    Outlines a workshop for teachers that illustrates a method of extracting DNA and provides instructions on how to do some simple work with DNA without sophisticated and expensive equipment. Provides details on viscosity studies and breaking DNA molecules. (DDR)

  6. A search for specificity in DNA-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Cruciani, G; Goodford, P J

    1994-06-01

    The GRID force field and a principal component analysis have been used in order to predict the interactions of small chemical groups with all 64 different triplet sequences of B-DNA. Factors that favor binding to guanine-cytosine base pairs have been identified, and a dictionary of ligand groups and their locations is presented as a guide to the design of specific DNA ligands. PMID:7918250

  7. Molecular characterization of races and vegetative compatibility groups in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, D; Assigbese, K; Dubois, M P; Geiger, J P

    1994-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and vegetative compatibility analyses were undertaken to assess genetic relationships among 52 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum of worldwide origin and representing race A, 3, or 4 on cotton plants. Ten distinct vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) were obtained, and isolates belonging to distinct races were never in the same VCG. Race A isolates were separated into eight VCGs, whereas isolates of race 3 were classified into a single VCG (0113), as were those of race 4 (0114). Ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA (rDNA and mtDNA) RFLPs separated four rDNA haplotypes and seven mtDNA haplotypes. Race A isolates displayed the most polymorphism, with three rDNA haplotypes and four mtDNA haplotypes; race 4 isolates formed a single rDNA group but exhibited three mtDNA haplotypes, while race 3 isolates had unique rDNA and mtDNA haplotypes. Two mtDNA molecules with distinct sizes were identified; the first (45-kb mtDNA) was found in all race A isolates and seven race 4 isolates, and the second (55-kb mtDNA) was found in all race 3 isolates and in two isolates of race 4. These two mtDNA molecules were closely related to mtDNAs of F. oxysporum isolates belonging to other formae speciales (conglutinans, lycopersici, matthioli, and raphani). Isolates within a VCG shared the same rDNA and mtDNA haplotypes, with the exception of VCG0114, in which three distinct mtDNA haplotypes were observed. Genetic relationships among isolates inferred from rDNA or mtDNA site restriction data were different, and there was not a strict correlation between race and RFLPs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:7993090

  8. Toxoplasma gondii infection can induce retinal DNA damage: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Aly, Eman Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    AIM To detect whether Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection of mice can induce retinal DNA damage. METHODS A total of 20 laboratory-bred male Swiss albino mice were used and divided into four groups: control group (non-infected animals); T. gondii infected group; immunosuppressed infected group; and infected group treated with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. Mice eyes were collected 6wk post infection and retinas were obtained. Each retina was immediately processed for comet assay and the frequency of tailed nuclei (DNA damage) was calculated. In addition, retinal DNA damage was revealed by various comet assay parameters that were provided by the image analysis software including tail length, percentage of DNA in the tail, percentage of tailed cells and tail moment. RESULTS The obtained results showed that T. gondii infection induced a statistically significant increase in the frequency of tailed nuclei, tail length, percentage of DNA in the tail, and tail moment in mice retinal cells compared to the control group (which showed some degree of DNA damage). In immunosuppressed infected group, retinal DNA damage was severing and there was significant increase in various comet assay parameters compared to both control and infected groups. After treatment with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine, retinal DNA damage decreased and all comet assay parameters showed a statistical significant decrease compared to infected groups. CONCLUSION T. gondii infection can induce DNA damage in mice retinal cells. PMID:24967186

  9. The structure of DAPI bound to DNA.

    PubMed

    Larsen, T A; Goodsell, D S; Cascio, D; Grzeskowiak, K; Dickerson, R E

    1989-12-01

    The structure of the DNA fluorochrome 4'-6-diamidine-2-phenyl indole (DAPI) bound to the synthetic B-DNA oligonucleotide C-G-C-G-A-A-T-T-C-G-C-G has been solved by single crystal x-ray diffraction methods, at a resolution of 2.4 A. The structure is nearly isomorphous with that of the native DNA molecule alone. With one DAPI and 25 waters per DNA double helix, the residual error is 21.5% for the 2428 reflections above the 2-sigma level. DAPI inserts itself edgewise into the narrow minor groove, displacing the ordered spine of hydration. DAPI and a single water molecule together span the four AT base pairs at the center of the duplex. The indole nitrogen forms a bifurcated hydrogen bond with the thymine O2 atoms of the two central base pairs, as with netropsin and Hoechst 33258. The preference of all three of these drugs for AT regions of B-DNA is a consequence of three factors: (1) The intrinsically narrower minor groove in AT regions than in GC regions of B-DNA, leading to a snug fit of the flat aromatic drug rings between the walls of the groove. (2) The more negative electrostatic potential within the minor groove in AT regions, attributable in part to the absence of electropositive-NH2 groups along the floor of the groove, and (3) The steric advantage of the absence of those same guanine-NH2 groups, thus permitting the drug molecule to sink deeper into the groove. Groove width and electrostatic factors are regional, and define the relative receptiveness of a section of DNA since they operate over several contiguous base pairs. The steric factor is local, varying from one base pair to the next, and hence is the means of fine-tuning sequence specificity. PMID:2627296

  10. DNA methyltransferase 1 mutations and mitochondrial pathology: is mtDNA methylated?

    PubMed Central

    Maresca, Alessandra; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Caporali, Leonardo; Carelli, Valerio; Zanna, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia-deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) and Hereditary sensory neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss (HSN1E) are two rare, overlapping neurodegenerative syndromes that have been recently linked to allelic dominant pathogenic mutations in the DNMT1 gene, coding for DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). DNMT1 is the enzyme responsible for maintaining the nuclear genome methylation patterns during the DNA replication and repair, thus regulating gene expression. The mutations responsible for ADCA-DN and HSN1E affect the replication foci targeting sequence domain, which regulates DNMT1 binding to chromatin. DNMT1 dysfunction is anticipated to lead to a global alteration of the DNA methylation pattern with predictable downstream consequences on gene expression. Interestingly, ADCA-DN and HSN1E phenotypes share some clinical features typical of mitochondrial diseases, such as optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, and deafness, and some biochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. The recent discovery of a mitochondrial isoform of DNMT1 and its proposed role in methylating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) suggests that DNMT1 mutations may directly affect mtDNA and mitochondrial physiology. On the basis of this latter finding the link between DNMT1 abnormal activity and mitochondrial dysfunction in ADCA-DN and HSN1E appears intuitive, however, mtDNA methylation remains highly debated. In the last years several groups demonstrated the presence of 5-methylcytosine in mtDNA by different approaches, but, on the other end, the opposite evidence that mtDNA is not methylated has also been published. Since over 1500 mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome, the altered methylation of these genes may well have a critical role in leading to the mitochondrial impairment observed in ADCA-DN and HSN1E. Thus, many open questions still remain unanswered, such as why mtDNA should be methylated, and how this process is regulated and executed? PMID:25815005

  11. Ground squirrel hepatitis virus DNA: molecular cloning and comparison with hepatitis B virus DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, A; Marion, P L; Robinson, W S

    1981-01-01

    Ground squirrel hepatitis virus (GSHV) shares many ultrastructural antigenic, molecular, and biological features with hepatitis B virus (HBV) of humans, indicating that they are members of the same virus group. Both viruses contain small circular DNA molecules which are partially single stranded. Here, we ligated an endonuclease EcoRI digest of GSHV DNA with EcoRI-cleaved plasmid vector pBR322 and cloned recombinant plasmids in Escherichia coli C600. Two cloned recombinants were characterized. One (pGS2) was found to contain only part of the GSHV genome, and the other (pGS11) was found to contain the entire viral DNA. A restriction endonuclease cleavage map of the GSHV insert in pGS11 and the locations of certain physical features of the virion DNA were determined. The relative positions of the single-stranded region, the unique 5' end of the short DNA strand, and the unique nick in the long DNA strand in GSHV DNA were found to be the same as those previously described for HBV DNA. Hybridization with an HBV [32P]DNA probe containing the apparent coding sequence for the major polypeptide of HBV surface antigen and a probe containing the putative coding sequence for the major polypeptide of the HBV core revealed specific homology with different restriction fragments of GSHV DNA. The two homologous regions had approximately the same locations relative to the single-stranded region, the 5' end of the short strand, and the nick in the long strand in the two viral DNAs. These results suggest that in both viruses the genes for the major HBV surface antigen and core polypeptides have the same locations relative to unique physical features of the viral DNAs. Images PMID:6264112

  12. Polycomb Group Response Elements in Drosophila and Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kassis, Judith A.; Brown, J. Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Polycomb group genes (PcG) encode a group of about 16 proteins that were first identified in Drosophila as repressors of homeotic genes. PcG proteins are present in all metazoans and are best characterized as transcriptional repressors. In Drosophila, these proteins are known as epigenetic regulators because they remember, but do not establish, the patterned expression state of homeotic genes throughout development. PcG proteins, in general, are not DNA binding proteins, but act in protein complexes to repress transcription at specific target genes. How are PcG proteins recruited to the DNA? In Drosophila, there are specific regulatory DNA elements called Polycomb group response elements (PREs) that bring PcG protein complexes to the DNA. Drosophila PREs are made up of binding sites for a complex array of DNA binding proteins. Functional PRE assays in transgenes have shown that PREs act in the context of other regulatory DNA and PRE activity is highly dependent on genomic context. Drosophila PREs tend to regulate genes with a complex array of regulatory DNA in a cell or tissue-specific fashion and it is the interplay between regulatory DNA that dictates PRE function. In mammals, PcG proteins are more diverse and there are multiple ways to recruit PcG complexes, including RNA-mediated recruitment. In this review, we discuss evidence for PREs in vertebrates and explore similarities and differences between Drosophila and vertebrate PREs. PMID:23419717

  13. Molecular structure of r/GCG/d/TATACGC/ - A DNA-RNA hybrid helix joined to double helical DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A. H.-J.; Fujii, S.; Rich, A.; Van Boom, J. H.; Van Der Marel, G. A.; Van Boeckel, S. A. A.

    1982-01-01

    The molecule r(GCG)d(TATACGC) is self-complementary and forms two DNA-RNA hybrid segments surrounding a central region of double helical DNA; its molecular structure has been solved by X-ray analysis. All three parts of the molecule adopt a conformation which is close to that seen in the 11-fold RNA double helix. The conformation of the ribonucleotides is partly determined by water molecules bridging between the ribose O2' hydroxyl group and cytosine O2. The hybrid-DNA duplex junction contains no structural discontinuities. However, the central DNA TATA sequence has some structural irregularities.

  14. Dietary and lifestyle factors of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Song, Min-Ae

    2012-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking, physical activity, and body weight management, are known to constitute the majority of cancer causes. Epigenetics has been widely proposed as a main mechanism that mediates the reversible effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on carcinogenesis. This chapter reviews human studies on potential dietary and lifestyle determinants of DNA methylation. Apart from a few prospective investigations and interventions of limited size and duration, evidence mostly comes from cross-sectional observational studies and supports some associations. Studies to date suggest that certain dietary components may alter genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation levels in systemic and target tissues, affecting genomic stability and transcription of tumor suppressors and oncogenes. Most data and supportive evidence exist for folate, a key nutritional factor in one-carbon metabolism that supplies the methyl units for DNA methylation. Other candidate bioactive food components include alcohol and other key nutritional factors of one-carbon metabolism, polyphenols and flavonoids in green tea, phytoestrogen, and lycopene. Some data also support a link of DNA methylation with physical activity and energy balance. Effects of dietary and lifestyle exposures on DNA methylation may be additionally modified by common genetic variants, environmental carcinogens, and infectious agents, an aspect that remains largely unexplored. In addition, growing literature supports that the environmental conditions during critical developmental stages may influence later risk of metabolic disorders in part through persistent programming of DNA methylation. Further research of these modifiable determinants of DNA methylation will improve our understanding of cancer etiology and may present certain DNA methylation markers as attractive surrogate endpoints for prevention research. Considering the plasticity of epigenetic marks and correlated nature of lifestyle factors, more longitudinal studies of healthy individuals of varying age, sex, and ethnic groups are warranted, ideally with comprehensive data collection on various lifestyle factors. PMID:22359306

  15. [Forensic DNA analysis--past and future].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, H

    1999-11-01

    Since the introduction of DNA polymorphism analysis techniques to forensic science, forensic identification research has made radical, astonishing progress at a rate that has already rendered the initial methodologies introduced fifteen years ago obsolete. DNA extraction now can be quickly and efficiently performed by various kinds of commercially available kits. The advent of PCR has enabled the use of relatively crude and minute DNA as amplification templates while many kinds of new detection methods for analyzing the amplified products have also been developed. Although many minisatellites such as MCT118, YNZ22, COL2A1, and ApoB were highlighted at the beginning of 1980s, none of these loci, with the exception of MCT118, have proved useful for forensic DNA application due to their low amplification efficiency. On the other hand, STR loci containing four base pair repeat sequences have been used routinely for human identification since the mid-1990s. In the near future, the highly efficient STR should be selected as a consensus core marker in Japan. STR systems located on the Y chromosome are widely used in forensic science for the identification of male individuals. These systems have a special significance in forensic science cases where mixtures of male and female DNA are analyzed, as happens in cases of rape or other sexual crimes. The characteristics of high copy number, maternal inheritance, and high degree of sequence variability make mtDNA a powerful tool for forensic identification. Most of the variations in mtDNA among individuals are found within the displacement loop (D-loop). In all population groups, mtDNA sequences can be useful for discriminating among unrelated individuals. Now it is necessary to get as much as possible individual genetic information as quickly as possible in order to enable individual identification. We will create a new era in which forensic identification can be performed using microarray technology. PMID:10723959

  16. Quantitive DNA Fiber Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Mei; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.

    2008-01-28

    Several hybridization-based methods used to delineate single copy or repeated DNA sequences in larger genomic intervals take advantage of the increased resolution and sensitivity of free chromatin, i.e., chromatin released from interphase cell nuclei. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping (QDFM) differs from the majority of these methods in that it applies FISH to purified, clonal DNA molecules which have been bound with at least one end to a solid substrate. The DNA molecules are then stretched by the action of a receding meniscus at the water-air interface resulting in DNA molecules stretched homogeneously to about 2.3 kb/{micro}m. When non-isotopically, multicolor-labeled probes are hybridized to these stretched DNA fibers, their respective binding sites are visualized in the fluorescence microscope, their relative distance can be measured and converted into kilobase pairs (kb). The QDFM technique has found useful applications ranging from the detection and delineation of deletions or overlap between linked clones to the construction of high-resolution physical maps to studies of stalled DNA replication and transcription.

  17. Innovations. DNA detectives.

    PubMed

    May, M

    1999-01-01

    To understand the many potential causes and resulting consequences of DNA damage, scientists first need methods to detect it. Canadian scientists X. Chris Le and Michael Weinfeld, with help from U.S. molecular biologist Steven Leadon, developed a selective, sensitive technique for measuring DNA damage. The scientists combined a thymine glycol antibody with thymine glycol to selectively tag a specific type of DNA damage. They then added a second antibody with fluorescing properties, and used laser-induced fluorescence to identify the damaged portion of the tagged DNA. The fluorescence can be quantified, with higher levels of fluorescence indicating higher DNA damage. The technique was shown to find 1 damaged base in 1 billion normal bases. This level of sensitivity could allow the measurement of DNA damage resulting from clinical levels of radiation, and may allow scientists to establish a day-to-day baseline for DNA damage. From this baseline, it would be possible to ascertain the levels of damage that a cell can tolerate, as well as how much damaged it is capable of repairing on a daily basis. PMID:9872726

  18. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  19. Facilitating Reminiscence Groups: Perceptions of Group Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Teresa M.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana; Salgado, Roy A.; Thornton, Mark D.; Miller, Jason L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a two-year qualitative investigation in which group leaders provided their perceptions of the process of facilitating reminiscence groups with elderly persons in a residential care facility. Group Culture emerged as the dominant construct. Findings from this study can serve guide leaders who are interested in

  20. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  1. Chimeric proteins for detection and quantitation of DNA mutations, DNA sequence variations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    DOEpatents

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2002-01-01

    Chimeric proteins having both DNA mutation binding activity and nuclease activity are synthesized by recombinant technology. The proteins are of the general formula A-L-B and B-L-A where A is a peptide having DNA mutation binding activity, L is a linker and B is a peptide having nuclease activity. The chimeric proteins are useful for detection and identification of DNA sequence variations including DNA mutations (including DNA damage and mismatches) by binding to the DNA mutation and cutting the DNA once the DNA mutation is detected.

  2. Distinct evolutionary histories of the DNA-A and DNA-B components of bipartite begomoviruses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) have genomes consisting of either one or two genomic components. The component of bipartite begomoviruses known as DNA-A is homologous to the genomes of all geminiviruses and encodes proteins required for replication, control of gene expression, overcoming host defenses, encapsidation and insect transmission. The second component, referred to as DNA-B, encodes two proteins with functions in intra- and intercellular movement in host plants. The origin of the DNA-B component remains unclear. The study described here was initiated to investigate the relationship between the DNA-A and DNA-B components of bipartite begomoviruses with a view to unraveling their evolutionary histories and providing information on the possible origin of the DNA-B component. Results Comparative phylogenetic and exhaustive pairwise sequence comparison of all DNA-A and DNA-B components of begomoviruses demonstrates that the two molecules have very distinct molecular evolutionary histories and likely are under very different evolutionary pressures. The analysis highlights that component exchange has played a far greater role in diversification of begomoviruses than previously suspected, although there are distinct differences in the apparent ability of different groups of viruses to utilize this "sexual" mechanism of genetic exchange. Additionally we explore the hypothesis that DNA-B originated as a satellite that was captured by the monopartite progenitor of all extant bipartite begomoviruses and subsequently evolved to become the integral (essential) genome component that we recognize today. The situation with present-day satellites associated with begomoviruses provides some clues to the processes and selection pressures that may have led to the "domestication" of a wild progenitor of the DNA-B component. Conclusions The analysis has highlighted the greater genetic variation of DNA-B components, in comparison to the DNA-A components, and that component exchange is more widespread than previously demonstrated and confined to viruses from the Old World. Although the vast majority of New World and some Old World begomoviruses show near perfect co-evolution of the DNA-A and DNA-B components, this is not the case for the majority of Old World viruses. Genetic differences between Old and New World begomoviruses and the cultivation of exotic crops in the Old World are likely factors that have led to this dichotomy. PMID:20377896

  3. DNA-PK assay

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Connelly, Margery A.

    2004-10-12

    The present invention provides a method for detecting DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity in a biological sample. The method includes contacting a biological sample with a detectably-labeled phosphate donor and a synthetic peptide substrate defined by the following features to provide specific recognition and phosphorylation by DNA-PK: (1) a phosphate-accepting amino acid pair which may include serine-glutamine (Ser-Gln) (SQ), threonine-glutamine (Thr-Gln) (TQ), glutamine-serine (Gln-Ser) (QS), or glutamine-threonine (Gln-Thr) (QT); (2) enhancer amino acids which may include glutamic acid or glutamine immediately adjacent at the amino- or carboxyl- side of the amino acid pair and forming an amino acid pair-enhancer unit; (3) a first spacer sequence at the amino terminus of the amino acid pair-enhancer unit; (4) a second spacer sequence at the carboxyl terminus of the amino acid pair-enhancer unit, which spacer sequences may include any combination of amino acids that does not provide a phosphorylation site consensus sequence motif; and, (5) a tag moiety, which may be an amino acid sequence or another chemical entity that permits separating the synthetic peptide from the phosphate donor. A compostion and a kit for the detection of DNA-PK activity are also provided. Methods for detecting DNA, protein phosphatases and substances that alter the activity of DNA-PK are also provided. The present invention also provides a method of monitoring protein kinase and DNA-PK activity in living cells. -A composition and a kit for monitoring protein kinase activity in vitro and a composition and a kit for monitoring DNA-PK activities in living cells are also provided. A method for identifying agents that alter protein kinase activity in vitro and a method for identifying agents that alter DNA-PK activity in living cells are also provided.

  4. Cytotoxic activity and DNA-binding properties of xanthone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shen, Rui; Wang, Peng; Tang, Ning

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the interactions of different groups substituted xanthone derivatives with calf thymus DNA (ct DNA) have been investigated by spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements. Results indicate that xanthone derivatives can intercalate into the DNA base pairs by the plane of xanthone ring and the various substituents may influence the binding affinity with DNA according to the calculated quenching constant values and the melting temperature of DNA. Furthermore, three tumor cell lines including esophagus squamous cancer cell line (ECA109), stomach cancer cell line (SGC7901) and lung cancer cell line (GLC-82) have been used to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of xanthone derivatives by MTT (microculture tetrazolium) method. Analysis show that the oxiranylmethoxy or piperidinylethoxy substituted xanthones exhibit more effective cytotoxic activity against three cancer cells than the other substituted xanthones. The effects on the inhibition of tumor cells in vitro agree with the studies of DNA-binding. PMID:20532595

  5. Microscopic and spectroscopic analysis of chitosan-DNA conjugates.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, D; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2016-02-10

    Conjugations of DNA with chitosans 15 kD (ch-15), 100 kD (ch-100) and 200 kD (ch-200) were investigated in aqueous solution at pH 5.5-6.5. Multiple spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to locate the chitosan binding sites and the effect of polymer conjugation on DNA compaction and particle formation. Structural analysis showed that chitosan-DNA conjugation is mainly via electrostatic interactions through polymer cationic charged NH2 and negatively charged backbone phosphate groups. As polymer size increases major DNA compaction and particle formation occurs. At high chitosan concentration major DNA structural changes observed indicating a partial B to A-DNA conformational transition. PMID:26686122

  6. Structure of large dsDNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Klose, Thomas; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic large dsDNA viruses (NCLDVs) encompass an ever-increasing group of large eukaryotic viruses, infecting a wide variety of organisms. The set of core genes shared by all these viruses includes a major capsid protein with a double jelly-roll fold forming an icosahedral capsid, which surrounds a double layer membrane that contains the viral genome. Furthermore, some of these viruses, such as the members of the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae have a unique vertex that is used during infection to transport DNA into the host. PMID:25003382

  7. Recombinant DNA. Rifkin's regulatory revivalism runs riot.

    PubMed

    David, P

    Jeremy Rifkin, activist opponent of genetic engineering, has adopted tactics of litigation, persuasion, and confrontation in his campaign to halt genetic experimentation. The Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee of the National Institutes of Health has often been the target of his criticism, most recently for its failure to prepare an environmental risk assessment for some DNA tests it approved. Rifkin has won support for his position from religious organizations in the United States, and in June 1983 persuaded an ecumenical group of religious leaders to ask Congress to ban genetic experiments that would affect the human germ line. PMID:6578418

  8. Biology of DNA restriction.

    PubMed Central

    Bickle, T A; Krüger, D H

    1993-01-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of DNA restriction and modification systems, the control of the expression of the structural genes for the enzymes, and the importance of DNA restriction in the cellular economy has advanced by leaps and bounds in recent years. This review documents these advances for the three major classes of classical restriction and modification systems, describes the discovery of a new class of restriction systems that specifically cut DNA carrying the modification signature of foreign cells, and deals with the mechanisms developed by phages to avoid the restriction systems of their hosts. PMID:8336674

  9. DNA Mismatch Repair

    PubMed Central

    MARINUS, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair functions to correct replication errors in newly synthesized DNA and to prevent recombination between related, but not identical (homeologous), DNA sequences. The mechanism of mismatch repair is best understood in Escherichia coli and is the main focus of this review. The early genetic studies of mismatch repair are described as a basis for the subsequent biochemical characterization of the system. The effects of mismatch repair on homologous and homeologous recombination are described. The relationship of mismatch repair to cell toxicity induced by various drugs is included. The VSP (Very Short Patch) repair system is described in detail. PMID:26442827

  10. Focus: DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Progress in the development of DNA probes for the identification and quantitation of specific genetic sequences in biological samples is reviewed. Current research efforts in the development of DNA probes for the diagnosis of a wide variety of bacterial, viral, and other infectious diseases, such as herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus, and inherited genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia are discussed. Progress in development of DNA probe assays for cancer diagnosis, detection of Salmonella food poisoning, tissue typing (detection of histocompatibility antigens), mutagen screening, and animal diseases, among other applications is included.

  11. Defects and DNA Replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Michel G.; Herrick, John; Bechhoefer, John

    2010-05-01

    We introduce a rate-equation formalism to study DNA replication kinetics in the presence of defects resulting from DNA damage and find a crossover between two regimes: a normal regime, where the influence of defects is local, and an initiation-limited regime. In the latter, defects have a global impact on replication, whose progress is set by the rate at which origins of replication are activated, or initiated. Normal, healthy cells have defect densities in the normal regime. Our model can explain an observed correlation between interorigin separation and rate of DNA replication.

  12. DNA as a Binary Code: How the Physical Structure of Nucleotide Bases Carries Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallister, Gary

    2005-01-01

    The DNA triplet code also functions as a binary code. Because double-ring compounds cannot bind to double-ring compounds in the DNA code, the sequence of bases classified simply as purines or pyrimidines can encode for smaller groups of possible amino acids. This is an intuitive approach to teaching the DNA code. (Contains 6 figures.)

  13. Phylogenetic Analysis of Shewanella Strains by DNA Relatedness Derived from Whole Genome Microarray DNA-DNA Hybridization and Comparison with Other Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Liyou; Yi, T. Y.; Van Nostrand, Joy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    Phylogenetic analyses were done for the Shewanella strains isolated from Baltic Sea (38 strains), US DOE Hanford Uranium bioremediation site [Hanford Reach of the Columbia River (HRCR), 11 strains], Pacific Ocean and Hawaiian sediments (8 strains), and strains from other resources (16 strains) with three out group strains, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Clostridium cellulolyticum, and Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus X514, using DNA relatedness derived from WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridizations, sequence similarities of 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene, and sequence similarities of 6 loci of Shewanella genome selected from a shared gene list of the Shewanella strains with whole genome sequenced based on the average nucleotide identity of them (ANI). The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences, and DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations of the tested Shewanella strains share exactly the same sub-clusters with very few exceptions, in which the strains were basically grouped by species. However, the phylogenetic analysis based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations dramatically increased the differentiation resolution at species and strains level within Shewanella genus. When the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations was compared to the tree based on the combined sequences of the selected functional genes (6 loci), we found that the resolutions of both methods are similar, but the clustering of the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WMGA hybridizations was clearer. These results indicate that WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization is an idea alternative of conventional DNA-DNA hybridization methods and it is superior to the phylogenetics methods based on sequence similarities of single genes. Detailed analysis is being performed for the re-classification of the strains examined.

  14. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the DNA-remodelling protein DnaD from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Sabine; Carneiro, Maria J. V. M.; Ioannou, Charikleia; Soultanas, Panos; Paoli, Max

    2007-02-01

    Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the two domains of DnaD from B. subtilis is reported. The DnaD protein is an essential component of the chromosome-replication machinery of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis and is part of the primosomal cascade that ultimately loads the replicative ring helicase DnaC onto DNA. Moreover, DnaD is a global regulator of DNA architecture, as it forms higher order nucleoprotein structures in order to open supercoiled DNA. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the two domains of DnaD from B. subtilis are reported. Crystals of the N-terminal domain are trigonal, with either P3{sub 1}21 or P3{sub 2}21 space-group symmetry, and diffracted X-rays to 2.0 Å resolution; crystals of the C-terminal domain are hexagonal, with space group P6{sub 1} or P6{sub 5}, and diffracted X-rays to 2.9 Å resolution in-house. Determination of the structure of the DnaD domains will provide insight into how remodelling of the nucleoid is associated with priming of replication in the model Gram-positive organism B. subtilis.

  15. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis. PMID:25229871

  16. DNA Nanostructures on Membranes as Tools for Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Czogalla, Aleksander; Franquelim, Henri G; Schwille, Petra

    2016-04-26

    Over the last decade, functionally designed DNA nanostructures applied to lipid membranes prompted important achievements in the fields of biophysics and synthetic biology. Taking advantage of the universal rules for self-assembly of complementary oligonucleotides, DNA has proven to be an extremely versatile biocompatible building material on the nanoscale. The possibility to chemically integrate functional groups into oligonucleotides, most notably with lipophilic anchors, enabled a widespread usage of DNA as a viable alternative to proteins with respect to functional activity on membranes. As described throughout this review, hybrid DNA-lipid nanostructures can mediate events such as vesicle docking and fusion, or selective partitioning of molecules into phase-separated membranes. Moreover, the major benefit of DNA structural constructs, such as DNA tiles and DNA origami, is the reproducibility and simplicity of their design. DNA nanotechnology can produce functional structures with subnanometer precision and allow for a tight control over their biochemical functionality, e.g., interaction partners. DNA-based membrane nanopores and origami structures able to assemble into two-dimensional networks on top of lipid bilayers are recent examples of the manifold of complex devices that can be achieved. In this review, we will shortly present some of the potentially most relevant avenues and accomplishments of membrane-anchored DNA nanostructures for investigating, engineering, and mimicking lipid membrane-related biophysical processes. PMID:27119630

  17. DNA from soil mirrors plant taxonomic and growth form diversity.

    PubMed

    Yoccoz, N G; Bråthen, K A; Gielly, L; Haile, J; Edwards, M E; Goslar, T; Von Stedingk, H; Brysting, A K; Coissac, E; Pompanon, F; Sønstebø, J H; Miquel, C; Valentini, A; De Bello, F; Chave, J; Thuiller, W; Wincker, P; Cruaud, C; Gavory, F; Rasmussen, M; Gilbert, M T P; Orlando, L; Brochmann, C; Willerslev, E; Taberlet, P

    2012-08-01

    Ecosystems across the globe are threatened by climate change and human activities. New rapid survey approaches for monitoring biodiversity would greatly advance assessment and understanding of these threats. Taking advantage of next-generation DNA sequencing, we tested an approach we call metabarcoding: high-throughput and simultaneous taxa identification based on a very short (usually <100 base pairs) but informative DNA fragment. Short DNA fragments allow the use of degraded DNA from environmental samples. All analyses included amplification using plant-specific versatile primers, sequencing and estimation of taxonomic diversity. We tested in three steps whether degraded DNA from dead material in soil has the potential of efficiently assessing biodiversity in different biomes. First, soil DNA from eight boreal plant communities located in two different vegetation types (meadow and heath) was amplified. Plant diversity detected from boreal soil was highly consistent with plant taxonomic and growth form diversity estimated from conventional above-ground surveys. Second, we assessed DNA persistence using samples from formerly cultivated soils in temperate environments. We found that the number of crop DNA sequences retrieved strongly varied with years since last cultivation, and crop sequences were absent from nearby, uncultivated plots. Third, we assessed the universal applicability of DNA metabarcoding using soil samples from tropical environments: a large proportion of species and families from the study site were efficiently recovered. The results open unprecedented opportunities for large-scale DNA-based biodiversity studies across a range of taxonomic groups using standardized metabarcoding approaches. PMID:22507540

  18. In vitro supplementation with deoxynucleoside monophosphates rescues mitochondrial DNA depletion

    PubMed Central

    Bulst, Stefanie; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Payne, Brendan; Abicht, Angela; Krause, Sabine; Lochmüller, Hanns; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Walter, Maggie C.; Horvath, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes are a genetically heterogeneous group of often severe diseases, characterized by reduced cellular mitochondrial DNA content. Investigation of potential therapeutic strategies for mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes will be dependent on good model systems. We have previously suggested that myotubes may be the optimal model system for such studies. Here we firstly validate this technique in a diverse range of cells of patients with mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes, showing contrasting effects in cell lines from genetically and phenotypically differing patients. Secondly, we developed a putative therapeutic approach using variable combinations of deoxynucleoside monophosphates in different types of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes, showing near normalization of mitochondrial DNA content in many cases. Furthermore, we used nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors to precisely titrate mtDNA depletion in vitro. In this manner we can unmask a physiological defect in mitochondrial depletion syndrome cell lines which is also ameliorated by deoxynucleoside monophosphate supplementation. Finally, we have extended this model to study fibroblasts after myogenic transdifferentiation by MyoD transfection, which similar to primary myotubes also showed deoxynucleoside monophosphate responsive mitochondrial DNA depletion in vitro, thus providing a more convenient method for deriving future models of mitochondrial DNA depletion. Our results suggest that using different combinations of deoxynucleoside monophosphates depending on the primary gene defect and molecular mechanism may be a possible therapeutic approach for many patients with mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes and is worthy of further clinical investigation. PMID:22608879

  19. The DNA repair endonuclease Mus81 facilitates fast DNA replication in the absence of exogenous damage

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Haiqing; Martin, Melvenia M.; Regairaz, Marie; Huang, Liang; You, Yang; Lin, Chi-Mei; Ryan, Michael; Kim, RyangGuk; Shimura, Tsutomu; Pommier, Yves; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2015-01-01

    The Mus81 endonuclease resolves recombination intermediates and mediates cellular responses to exogenous replicative stress. Here, we show that Mus81 also regulates the rate of DNA replication during normal growth by promoting replication fork progression while reducing the frequency of replication initiation events. In the absence of Mus81 endonuclease activity, DNA synthesis is slowed and replication initiation events are more frequent. In addition, Mus81 deficient cells fail to recover from exposure to low doses of replication inhibitors and cell viability is dependent on the XPF endonuclease. Despite an increase in replication initiation frequency, cells lacking Mus81 use the same pool of replication origins as Mus81-expressing cells. Therefore, decelerated DNA replication in Mus81 deficient cells does not initiate from cryptic or latent origins not used during normal growth. These results indicate that Mus81 plays a key role in determining the rate of DNA replication without activating a novel group of replication origins. PMID:25879486

  20. Stability and proton transfer in DNA base pairs of AMD473-DNA adduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmah, Pubalee; Deka, Ramesh C.

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the energetics of four different adducts of cisplatin analogue cis-[PtCl 2(NH 3)(2-picoline)] (AMD473) with a duplex DNA using DFT/ONIOM methods to probe their stabilities. Further, we study the possibilities of proton transfer between DNA base pairs of the most stable drug-DNA adduct. The adduct b(2-picoline trans to 3'-G and 2-methyl group directs to the DNA major groove) is found to be the most stable configuration among all the possible adducts. From the proton transfer analysis we found that the single proton transfer between N1 position of guanine (G) and N3 position of cytosine (C) of each GC pair gives a structure energetically as stable as the original one.

  1. Interaction of DNA and DNA-anti-DNA complexes to fibronectin

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.C.; Simpson, W.A.; Raghow, R.; Hasty, K.

    1986-03-01

    Fibronectin (Fn) is a large multidomain glycoprotein found in the basement membrane, on cell surface and in plasma. The interactions of Fn with DNA may be significant in glomerular deposition of DNA-anti-DNA complexes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The authors examined the binding of DNA and DNA-anti-DNA complexes to Fn by a solid phase assay in which Fn was coated to microtiter plates and reacted with (/sup 3/H)DNA or DNA complexes with a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody. The optimal interaction of DNA with Fn occurs at <0.1M NaCl suggesting that the binding is charge dependent; the specificity of this binding was shown by competitive inhibition and locking experiments using anti-Fn. The binding was maximum at pH 6.5 and in the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/. The addition of Clq enhanced the binding of DNA and DNA-anti-DNA complexes to Fn, whereas heparan sulfate inhibited such binding. The monomeric or aggregated IgC did not bind Fn but aggregated IgG bound to Fn in the presence of Clq. Furthermore, DNA-anti-DNA complexes in sera from active SLE patients bound Fn which was enhanced in the presence of Clq; DNase abolished this binding indicating that the interaction of these complexes was mediated by DNA. These observations may partially explain the molecular mechanism(s) of the deposition of DNA-anti-DNA complexes in basement membrane.

  2. Multiplex analysis of DNA

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Kieffer-Higgins, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    This invention features vectors and a method for sequencing DNA. The method includes the steps of: a) ligating the DNA into a vector comprising a tag sequence, the tag sequence includes at least 15 bases, wherein the tag sequence will not hybridize to the DNA under stringent hybridization conditions and is unique in the vector, to form a hybrid vector, b) treating the hybrid vector in a plurality of vessels to produce fragments comprising the tag sequence, wherein the fragments differ in length and terminate at a fixed known base or bases, wherein the fixed known base or bases differs in each vessel, c) separating the fragments from each vessel according to their size, d) hybridizing the fragments with an oligonucleotide able to hybridize specifically with the tag sequence, and e) detecting the pattern of hybridization of the tag sequence, wherein the pattern reflects the nucleotide sequence of the DNA.

  3. Ratchet Nanofiltration of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Joel D. P.; Joswiak, Mark N.; Olson, Daniel W.; Park, Sung-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    The DNA nanofilter is a microfabricated electrophoretic separation device consisting of a periodic array of thin slits (circa 60 nm) separated by deeper wells (circa 320 nm). We demonstrate that this device can act as a tuneable, clog-free filter when operating in a low frequency, asymmetric field inversion mode. This filtration occurs by using the asymmetric field inversion to achieve bi-directional migration of short (less than 1000 bp) DNA. Moreover, similar ratchet-type operation can improve separations when compared to a constant field separation in the same device. These modes of operation enhance the utility of the DNA nanofilter as a component of integrated lab-on-a-chip devices. The experimental data confirm theoretical predictions for the bidirectional transport of DNA in entropy-based separations. PMID:23896739

  4. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cook-Deegan, R.M.; Venter, J.C.; Gilbert, W.; Mulligan, J.; Mansfield, B.K.

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  5. Close encounters with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Maffeo, C.; Yoo, J.; Comer, J.; Wells, D. B.; Luan, B.; Aksimentiev, A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years, the all-atom molecular dynamics method has grown in the scale of both systems and processes amenable to it and in its ability to make quantitative predictions about the behavior of experimental systems. The field of computational DNA research is no exception, witnessing a dramatic increase in the size of systems simulated with atomic resolution, the duration of individual simulations and the realism of the simulation outcomes. In this topical review, we describe the hallmark physical properties of DNA from the perspective of all-atom simulations. We demonstrate the amazing ability of such simulations to reveal the microscopic physical origins of experimentally observed phenomena and we review the frustrating limitations associated with imperfections of present atomic force fields and inadequate sampling. The review is focused on the following four physical properties of DNA: effective electric charge, response to an external mechanical force, interaction with other DNA molecules and behavior in an external electric field. PMID:25238560

  6. Making DNA Fingerprints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunley, Kathie F.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity to simulate electrophoresis using everyday items. Uses adding machine paper to construct a set of DNA fingerprints that can be used to solve crime cases designed by students in any biology class. (JRH)

  7. FBI's DNA analysis program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, John R.

    1994-03-01

    Forensic DNA profiling technology is a significant law enforcement tool due to its superior discriminating power. Applying the principles of population genetics to the DNA profile obtained in violent crime investigations results in low frequency of occurrence estimates for the DNA profile. These estimates often range from a frequency of occurrence of 1 in 50 unrelated individuals to 1 in a million unrelated individuals or even smaller. It is this power to discriminate among individuals in the population that has propelled forensic DNA technology to the forefront of forensic testing in violent crime cases. Not only is the technology extremely powerful in including or excluding a criminal suspect as the perpetrator, but it also gives rise to the potential of identifying criminal suspects in cases where the investigators of unknown suspect cases have exhausted all other available leads.

  8. DNA damage and carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Stelow, R B

    1980-01-01

    Although cancer may arise as a result of many different types of molecular changes, there is little reason to doubt that changes to DNA are one of the more important ones in cancer initiation. Although DNA repair mechanisms seem able to eliminate a very large fraction of deleterious changes to DNA, we not only have little insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in such repair, but have a negligible amount of information to permit us to estimate the shape of dose response relations at low doses. The case of skin cancer is a special one, in that the average population is exposed to sufficient solar uv so that the effects of small increments in uv dose may be estimated. An approximate 85% reduction in DNA repair increases skin cancer incidence 10/sup 4/ fold.

  9. DNA computing in microreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagler, Patrick; van Noort, Danny; McCaskill, John S.

    2001-11-01

    The goal of this research is to improve the modular stability and programmability of DNA-based computers and in a second step towards optical programmable DNA computing. The main focus here is on hydrodynamic stability. Clockable microreactors can be connected in various ways to solve combinatorial optimisation problems, such as Maximum Clique or 3-SAT. This work demonstrates by construction how one micro-reactor design can be programmed to solve any instance of Maximum Clique up to its given maximum size (N). It reports on an implementation of the architecture proposed previously. This contrasts with conventional DNA computing where the individual sequence of biochemical operations depends on the specific problem. In this pilot study we are tackling a graph for the Maximum Clique problem with NDNA solution space will be presented, which is symbolized by a set of bit-strings (words).

  10. Modulation of binding properties of amphiphilic DNA containing multiple dodecyl phosphotriester linkages to lipid bilayer membrane.

    PubMed

    Makishi, Shingo; Shibata, Tomonori; Okazaki, Masatsugu; Dohno, Chikara; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2014-08-01

    DNA is a promising functional molecule to modify and design lipid membrane functions. In order to use DNA in a hydrophilic-hydrophobic interface including lipid membrane, we have developed an amphiphilic DNA having dodecyl phosphotriester linkages (dod-DNA). Herein, we report the binding of a series of amphiphilic dod-DNAs to the lipid bilayer membrane. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay and fluorescent microscopy showed that dod-DNA having three dodecyl groups at each end strongly bound to lipid membrane due to the slow dissociation rate and the dod-DNA can be used as a linear template for molecular arrangement on the membrane surface. PMID:24909080

  11. Das DNA-Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Stefan

    Im Jahre 1953 wurde von James Watson und Francis Crick erstmalig der strukturelle Aufbau der sogenannten DNA (Desoxyribonukleinsäure) beschrieben, welche das Erbgut jedes Lebewesens enthält. Der wesentliche Teil des Erbguts wird dabei durch eine sehr lange Folge der vier Basen Adenin (A), Cytosin (C), Guanin (G) und Thymin (T) codiert. Seit einigen Jahren ist es möglich, die Folge der vier Basen zu einer gegebenen DNA zu bestimmen. Biologen bezeichnen diesen Vorgang als Sequenzierung.

  12. Celebrating DNA's Repair Crew.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    This year, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar, and Paul Modrich for their seminal studies of the mechanisms by which cells from bacteria to man repair DNA damage that is generated by normal cellular metabolism and stress from the environment. These studies beautifully illustrate the remarkable power of DNA repair to influence life from evolution through disease susceptibility. PMID:26638062

  13. Ancient DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Dabney, Jesse; Meyer, Matthias; Pääbo, Svante

    2013-01-01

    Under favorable conditions DNA can survive for thousands of years in the remains of dead organisms. The DNA extracted from such remains is invariably degraded to a small average size by processes that at least partly involve depurination. It also contains large amounts of deaminated cytosine residues that are accumulated toward the ends of the molecules, as well as several other lesions that are less well characterized. PMID:23729639

  14. Ribonucleotide triggered DNA damage and RNA-DNA damage responses

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Bret D; Williams, R Scott

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that the transient contamination of DNA with ribonucleotides exceeds all other known types of DNA damage combined. The consequences of ribose incorporation into DNA, and the identity of protein factors operating in this RNA-DNA realm to protect genomic integrity from RNA-triggered events are emerging. Left unrepaired, the presence of ribonucleotides in genomic DNA impacts cellular proliferation and is associated with chromosome instability, gross chromosomal rearrangements, mutagenesis, and production of previously unrecognized forms of ribonucleotide-triggered DNA damage. Here, we highlight recent findings on the nature and structure of DNA damage arising from ribonucleotides in DNA, and the identification of cellular factors acting in an RNA-DNA damage response (RDDR) to counter RNA-triggered DNA damage. PMID:25692233

  15. Complex kinetics of DNA condensation revealed through DNA twist tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wong, Wei Juan; Lim, Ci Ji; Ju, Hai-Peng; Li, Ming; Yan, Jie; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2015-08-01

    Toroid formation is an important mechanism for DNA condensation in cells. The length change during DNA condensation was investigated in previous single-molecule experiments. However, DNA twist is key to understanding the topological kinetics of DNA condensation. In this study, DNA twist as well as DNA length was traced during the DNA condensation by the freely orbiting magnetic tweezers and the tilted magnetic tweezers combined with Brownian dynamics simulations. The experimental results disclose the complex relationship between DNA extension and backbone rotation. Brownian dynamics simulations show that the toroid formation follows a wiggling pathway which leads to the complex DNA backbone rotation as revealed in our experiments. These findings provide the complete description of multivalent cation-dependent DNA toroid formation under tension.

  16. DNA-mediated charge transport for DNA repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Elizabeth M.; Livingston, Alison L.; Chmiel, Nikolas H.; David, Sheila S.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2003-10-01

    MutY, like many DNA base excision repair enzymes, contains a [4Fe4S]2+ cluster of undetermined function. Electrochemical studies of MutY bound to a DNA-modified gold electrode demonstrate that the [4Fe4S] cluster of MutY can be accessed in a DNA-mediated redox reaction. Although not detectable without DNA, the redox potential of DNA-bound MutY is 275 mV versus NHE, which is characteristic of HiPiP iron proteins. Binding to DNA is thus associated with a change in [4Fe4S]3+/2+ potential, activating the cluster toward oxidation. Given that DNA charge transport chemistry is exquisitely sensitive to perturbations in base pair structure, such as mismatches, we propose that this redox process of MutY bound to DNA exploits DNA charge transport and provides a DNA signaling mechanism to scan for mismatches and lesions in vivo.

  17. Elevated Level of DNA Damage and Impaired Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage in Patients with Recurrent Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Czarny, Piotr; Kwiatkowski, Dominik; Kacperska, Dagmara; Kawczy?ska, Daria; Talarowska, Monika; Orzechowska, Agata; Bielecka-Kowalska, Anna; Szemraj, Janusz; Gaandlstrokecki, Piotr; ?liwi?ski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Background Depressive disorder (DD), including recurrent DD (rDD), is a severe psychological disease, which affects a large percentage of the world population. Although pathogenesis of the disease is not known, a growing body of evidence shows that inflammation together with oxidative stress may contribute to development of DD. Since reactive oxygen species produced during stress may damage DNA, we wanted to evaluate the extent of DNA damage and efficiency of DNA repair in patients with depression. Material/Methods We measured and compared the extent of endogenous DNA damage single- and double-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, and oxidative damage of the pyrimidines and purines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from rDD patients (n=40) and healthy controls (n=46) using comet assay. We also measured DNA damage evoked by hydrogen peroxide and monitored changes in DNA damage during repair incubation. Results We found an increased number DNA breaks, alkali-labile sites, and oxidative modification of DNA bases in the patients compared to the controls. Exposure to hydrogen peroxide evoked the same increased damage in both groups. Examination of the repair kinetics of both groups revealed that the lesions were more efficiently repaired in the controls than in the patients. Conclusions For the first time we showed that patients with depression, compared with non-depresses individuals, had more DNA breaks, alkali-labile sites, and oxidative DNA damage, and that those lesions may be accumulated by impairments of the DNA repair systems. More studies must be conducted to elucidate the role of DNA damage and repair in depression. PMID:25656523

  18. Variations in brain DNA

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Jesús; Gómez-Ramos, Alberto; Soriano, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that DNA sequences are conserved in the diverse cell types present in a multicellular organism like the human being. Thus, in order to compare the sequences in the genome of DNA from different individuals, nucleic acid is commonly isolated from a single tissue. In this regard, blood cells are widely used for this purpose because of their availability. Thus blood DNA has been used to study genetic familiar diseases that affect other tissues and organs, such as the liver, heart, and brain. While this approach is valid for the identification of familial diseases in which mutations are present in parental germinal cells and, therefore, in all the cells of a given organism, it is not suitable to identify sporadic diseases in which mutations might occur in specific somatic cells. This review addresses somatic DNA variations in different tissues or cells (mainly in the brain) of single individuals and discusses whether the dogma of DNA invariance between cell types is indeed correct. We will also discuss how single nucleotide somatic variations arise, focusing on the presence of specific DNA mutations in the brain. PMID:25505410

  19. Toward larger DNA origami.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Alexandria N; Saaem, Ishtiaq; Vogen, Briana N; Brown, Stanley; LaBean, Thomas H

    2014-10-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology, and specifically scaffolded DNA origami, is rapidly developing as a versatile method for bottom-up fabrication of novel nanometer-scale materials and devices. However, lengths of conventional single-stranded scaffolds, for example, 7,249-nucleotide circular genomic DNA from the M13mp18 phage, limit the scales of these uniquely addressable structures. Additionally, increasing DNA origami size generates the cost burden of increased staple-strand synthesis. We addressed this 2-fold problem by developing the following methods: (1) production of the largest to-date biologically derived single-stranded scaffold using a λ/M13 hybrid virus to produce a 51 466-nucleotide DNA in a circular, single-stranded form and (2) inexpensive DNA synthesis via an inkjet-printing process on a chip embossed with functionalized micropillars made from cyclic olefin copolymer. We have experimentally demonstrated very efficient assembly of a 51-kilobasepair origami from the λ/M13 hybrid scaffold folded by chip-derived staple strands. In addition, we have demonstrated two-dimensional, asymmetric origami sheets with controlled global curvature such that they land on a substrate in predictable orientations that have been verified by atomic force microscopy. PMID:25179827

  20. DNA methylation and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Michalowky, L.A.; Jones, P.A. )

    1989-03-01

    The methylation of specific cytosine residues in DNA has been implicated in regulating gene expression and facilitating functional specialization of cellular phenotypes. Generally, the demethylation of certain CpG sites correlates with transcriptional activation of genes. 5-Azacytidine is an inhibitor of DNA methylation and has been widely used as a potent activator of suppressed genetic information. Treatment of cells with 5-azacytidine results in profound phenotypic alterations. The drug-induced hypomethylation of DNA apparently perturbs DNA-protein interactions that may consequently alter transcriptional activity and cell determination. The inhibitory effect of cytosine methylation may be exerted via altered DNA-protein interactions specifically or may be transduced by a change in the conformation of chromatin. Recent studies have demonstrated that cytosine methylation also plays a central role in parental imprinting, which in turn determines the differential expression of maternal and paternal genomes during embryogenesis. In other words, methylation is the mechanism whereby the embryo retains memory of the gametic origin of each component of genetic information. A memory of this type would probably persist during DNA replication and cell division as methylation patterns are stable and heritable.

  1. DNA biosensors that reason.

    PubMed

    Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2012-08-01

    Despite the many designs of devices operating with the DNA strand displacement, surprisingly none is explicitly devoted to the implementation of logical deductions. The present article introduces a new model of biosensor device that uses nucleic acid strands to encode simple rules such as "IF DNA_strand(1) is present THEN disease(A)" or "IF DNA_strand(1) AND DNA_strand(2) are present THEN disease(B)". Taking advantage of the strand displacement operation, our model makes these simple rules interact with input signals (either DNA or any type of RNA) to generate an output signal (in the form of nucleotide strands). This output signal represents a diagnosis, which either can be measured using FRET techniques, cascaded as the input of another logical deduction with different rules, or even be a drug that is administered in response to a set of symptoms. The encoding introduces an implicit error cancellation mechanism, which increases the system scalability enabling longer inference cascades with a bounded and controllable signal-noise relation. It also allows the same rule to be used in forward inference or backward inference, providing the option of validly outputting negated propositions (e.g. "diagnosis A excluded"). The models presented in this paper can be used to implement smart logical DNA devices that perform genetic diagnosis in vitro. PMID:22406690

  2. Raman spectroscopy of topotecan, an inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalov, K. E.; Ustinova, O. A.; Strel'Tsov, S. A.; Grokhovskii, S. L.; Zhuze, A. L.; Nabiev, I. R.; Sukhanova, A. V.; Oleinikov, V. A.

    2002-10-01

    Topotecan (TPT), a water-soluble derivative of camptothecin (inhibitor of human DNA topoiomerase I), has found wide application in cancer chemotherapy. The central problem in using topotecan is the presence of lactone rings in its molecules, which undergo hydrolysis at a physiological pH yielding an inactive and even toxic form of the drug. The analysis of Raman spectra of TPT in H2O and D2O solutions made it possible to assign the spectral bands to the vibrations of particular molecular groups. Spectral features indicative of the opening of the lactone rings of the TPT molecules, deprotonation of the hydroxyl groups in their quinoline fragments, and of possible participation of the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups in H bonding are found. The data obtained are necessary to study the molecular mechanisms of TPT-DNA interaction and the formation of ternary complexes between TPT, DNA, and DNA topoisomerase I.

  3. DNA barcodes for ecology, evolution, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Kress, W John; García-Robledo, Carlos; Uriarte, Maria; Erickson, David L

    2015-01-01

    The use of DNA barcodes, which are short gene sequences taken from a standardized portion of the genome and used to identify species, is entering a new phase of application as more and more investigations employ these genetic markers to address questions relating to the ecology and evolution of natural systems. The suite of DNA barcode markers now applied to specific taxonomic groups of organisms are proving invaluable for understanding species boundaries, community ecology, functional trait evolution, trophic interactions, and the conservation of biodiversity. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology will greatly expand the versatility of DNA barcodes across the Tree of Life, habitats, and geographies as new methodologies are explored and developed. PMID:25468359

  4. Stabilization of DNA Structures with Poly(ethylene sodium phosphate).

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Rui; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Miyoshi, Daisuke

    2015-09-10

    The structure and stability of biomolecules under molecular crowding conditions are of interest because such information clarifies how biomolecules behave under cell-mimicking conditions. The anionic surfaces of chromatin, which is composed of DNA strands and histone complexes, are concentrated in cell nuclei and thus generate a polyanionic crowding environment. In this study, we designed and synthesized an anionic polymer, poly(ethylene sodium phosphate) (PEP·Na), which has a nucleic acid phosphate backbone and created a cell nucleus-like environment. The effects of molecular crowding with PEP·Na on the thermodynamics of DNA duplexes, triplexes, and G-quadruplexes were systematically studied. Thermodynamic analysis demonstrated that PEP·Na significantly stabilized the DNA structures; e.g., a free energy change at 25 °C for duplex formation decreased from -6.6 to -12.8 kcal/mol with 20 wt % PEP·Na. Thermodynamic parameters further indicated that the factors for the stabilization of the DNA structures were dependent on sodium ion concentration. At lower polymer concentrations, the stabilization was attributed to a shielding of the electrostatic repulsion between DNA strands by the sodium ions of PEP·Na. In contrast, at higher polymer concentrations, the DNA structures were entropically stabilized by volume exclusion, which could be enhanced by electrostatic repulsion between phosphate groups in DNA strands and in PEP·Na. Additionally, increasing PEP·Na concentration resulted in increasing enthalpy of the DNA duplex but decreasing enthalpy of DNA G-quadruplex, indicating that the polymers also promoted dehydration of the DNA strands. Thus, polyanionic crowding affects the thermodynamics of DNA structures via the sodium ions, volume exclusion, and hydration. The stabilization of DNA by the cell nucleus-like polyanionic crowding provides new information regarding DNA structures and allows for modeling reactions in cell nuclei. PMID:26173001

  5. Mutagenesis of mitochondrial DNA in Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Czarny, P; Seda, A; Wielgorski, M; Binczyk, E; Markiewicz, B; Kasprzak, E; Jiménez-García, M P; Grabska-Liberek, I; Pawlowska, E; Blasiak, J; Szaflik, J; Szaflik, J P

    2014-02-01

    Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is an age-related, slowly progressive disease, which may lead to loss of vision resulting from apoptosis of corneal endothelial (CE) cells, dysfunction of Descemet membrane (DM) and corneal edema. A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress may play a major role in the pathogenesis of FECD and that mitochondria of CE cells are its main target. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is particularly prone to oxidative stress and changes in mtDNA were reported in FECD patients. In the present work we studied mtDNA damage and repair, mtDNA copy number, and the 4977bp common deletion in mtDNA in DM cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) isolated from FECD patients. PBLs from 35 FECD patients and 32 controls were challenged for 10min with hydrogen peroxide at 20μM and then left in a fresh medium for 3h, resulting in a decrease in mtDNA copy number in both groups. Damage to mtDNA was not fully repaired after 3h and the extent of remaining lesions was significantly higher in the patients than the controls. We observed a higher copy number and an increased extent of mtDNA damage as well as a higher ratio of the common 4977bp deletion in DM cells of FECD patients than the controls. Our results confirm that mutagenesis of mtDNA may be involved in FECD pathogenesis and disturbance in mtDNA sensitivity to damaging agent as well as changes in mtDNA damage repair along with alternations in mtDNA copy number may underline this involvement. PMID:24374226

  6. DNA ligation catalyzed by human topoisomerase II alpha.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Kenneth D; Vélez-Cruz, Renier; Burgin, Alex B; Osheroff, Neil

    2004-10-26

    The DNA ligation reaction of topoisomerase II is essential for genomic integrity. However, it has been impossible to examine many fundamental aspects of this reaction because ligation assays historically required the enzyme to cleave a DNA substrate before sealing the nucleic acid break. Recently, a cleavage-independent DNA ligation assay was developed for human topoisomerase IIalpha [Bromberg, K. D., Hendricks, C., Burgin, A. B., and Osheroff, N. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 31201-31206]. This assay overcomes the requirement for DNA cleavage by monitoring the ability of the enzyme to ligate a nicked oligonucleotide in which the 5'-terminal phosphate at the nick has been activated by covalent attachment to the tyrosine mimic, p-nitrophenol. The cleavage-independent ligation assay was used to more fully characterize the DNA ligation activity of human topoisomerase IIalpha. Results suggest that the active site tyrosine contributes little to the catalysis of DNA ligation beyond its primary role as an activating/leaving group. Although arginine 804 (the residue immediately N-terminal to the active site tyrosine) has been proposed to help anchor the 5'-DNA terminus during cleavage, conversion of this residue to alanine had only a modest effect on DNA ligation. Thus, it appears that arginine 804 does not play an essential role in DNA strand joining. In contrast, disruption of base pairing at the 5'-DNA terminus abrogated DNA ligation in the absence of a covalent enzyme-DNA bond. Therefore, it is proposed that base pairing represents a secondary mechanism for aligning the 5'-DNA termini for ligation. Finally, the human enzyme appears to ligate the two scissile bonds of a cleavage site in a nonconcerted fashion. PMID:15491148

  7. Small Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  8. Can Groups Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elizabeth G.; Lotan, Rachel A.; Abram, Percy L.; Scarloss, Beth A.; Schultz, Susan E.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the work of sixth grade students' creative problem-solving groups, proposing that providing students with specific guidelines about what makes an exemplary group product would improve the character of the discussion and quality of the group product. Student groups did learn as a result of their discussions and creation of group products.…

  9. Group B Strep Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... strep doesn’t usually cause symptoms in healthy adults. Babies who have group B strep may develop symptoms ... problems can group B strep cause? In healthy adults, group B strep doesn’t usually ... from group B strep: Infants who have group B strep can develop an ...

  10. Oral bacterial DNA findings in pericardial fluid

    PubMed Central

    Louhelainen, Anne-Mari; Aho, Joonas; Tuomisto, Sari; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Pessi, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Background We recently reported that large amounts of oral bacterial DNA can be found in thrombus aspirates of myocardial infarction patients. Some case reports describe bacterial findings in pericardial fluid, mostly done with conventional culturing and a few with PCR; in purulent pericarditis, nevertheless, bacterial PCR has not been used as a diagnostic method before. Objective To find out whether bacterial DNA can be measured in the pericardial fluid and if it correlates with pathologic–anatomic findings linked to cardiovascular diseases. Methods Twenty-two pericardial aspirates were collected aseptically prior to forensic autopsy at Tampere University Hospital during 2009–2010. Of the autopsies, 10 (45.5%) were free of coronary artery disease (CAD), 7 (31.8%) had mild and 5 (22.7%) had severe CAD. Bacterial DNA amounts were determined using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers and probes for all bacterial strains associated with endodontic disease (Streptococcus mitis group, Streptococcus anginosus group, Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus epidermidis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra) and periodontal disease (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatus, and Dialister pneumosintes). Results Of 22 cases, 14 (63.6%) were positive for endodontic and 8 (36.4%) for periodontal-disease-associated bacteria. Only one case was positive for bacterial culturing. There was a statistically significant association between the relative amount of bacterial DNA in the pericardial fluid and the severity of CAD (p=0.035). Conclusions Oral bacterial DNA was detectable in pericardial fluid and an association between the severity of CAD and the total amount of bacterial DNA in pericardial fluid was found, suggesting that this kind of measurement might be useful for clinical purposes. PMID:25412607

  11. A Nuclear Family A DNA Polymerase from Entamoeba histolytica Bypasses Thymine Glycol

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Palacios, Guillermo; Azuara-Liceaga, Elisa; Brieba, Luis G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic family A DNA polymerases are involved in mitochondrial DNA replication or translesion DNA synthesis. Here, we present evidence that the sole family A DNA polymerase from the parasite protozoan E. histolytica (EhDNApolA) localizes to the nucleus and that its biochemical properties indicate that this DNA polymerase may be involved in translesion DNA synthesis. Methodology and Results EhDNApolA is the sole family A DNA polymerase in E. histolytica. An in silico analysis places family A DNA polymerases from the genus Entamoeba in a separate branch of a family A DNA polymerases phylogenetic tree. Biochemical studies of a purified recombinant EhDNApolA demonstrated that this polymerase is active in primer elongation, is poorly processive, displays moderate strand displacement, and does not contain 3′–5′ exonuclease or editing activity. Importantly, EhDNApolA bypasses thymine glycol lesions with high fidelity, and confocal microscopy demonstrates that this polymerase is translocated into the nucleus. These data suggest a putative role of EhDNApolA in translesion DNA synthesis in E. histolytica. Conclusion This is the first report of the biochemical characterization of a DNA polymerase from E. histolytica. EhDNApolA is a family A DNA polymerase that is grouped into a new subfamily of DNA polymerases with translesion DNA synthesis capabilities similar to DNA polymerases from subfamily ν. PMID:20706627

  12. DNA templates silver clusters with magic sizes and colors for multi-cluster fluorescent assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copp, Stacy

    2015-03-01

    The natural inclusion of information in DNA, a vital part of life's rich complexity, can also be exploited to create diverse structures with multiple scales of complexity. Now emerging in novel photonic applications, DNA-stabilized silver clusters (AgN-DNA) are compelling examples of multi-scale DNA-directed assembly: individual fluorescent clusters, each templated by specific DNA base motifs, can then be arranged together in DNA-mediated multi-cluster assemblies with nanoscale precision. We discuss how DNA imbues AgN-DNA with unique features. Our optical data on pure AgN-DNA show that DNA base-cationic silver ligands impose rod-like shapes for neutral silver clusters, whose length primarily determines fluorescence color. This shape anisotropy leads to the aspherical AgN-DNA magic number cluster sizes and ``magic color'' groupings. We exploit DNA's sequence properties to extract multi-base motifs that select certain magic cluster sizes, using machine learning algorithms applied to large data sets. With these base motifs, we design DNA scaffolds to arrange multiple atomically precise AgN together in nanoscale proximity. We demonstrate that clusters are stable when held at separations below 10 nm, both in bicolor, dual cluster DNA clamp assemblies and in one-dimensional assemblies of atomically precise clusters arrayed on DNA nanotubes. Supported by NSF-CHE-1213895 and NSF-DMR-1309410. SMC acknowledges NSF-DGE-1144085, a NSF GRFP.

  13. Study of the DNA Damage Checkpoint using Xenopus Egg Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Yogin; Gowda, Vrushab; Yan, Shan

    2012-01-01

    On a daily basis, cells are subjected to a variety of endogenous and environmental insults. To combat these insults, cells have evolved DNA damage checkpoint signaling as a surveillance mechanism to sense DNA damage and direct cellular responses to DNA damage. There are several groups of proteins called sensors, transducers and effectors involved in DNA damage checkpoint signaling (Figure 1). In this complex signaling pathway, ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) is one of the major kinases that can respond to DNA damage and replication stress. Activated ATR can phosphorylate its downstream substrates such as Chk1 (Checkpoint kinase 1). Consequently, phosphorylated and activated Chk1 leads to many downstream effects in the DNA damage checkpoint including cell cycle arrest, transcription activation, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis or senescence (Figure 1). When DNA is damaged, failing to activate the DNA damage checkpoint results in unrepaired damage and, subsequently, genomic instability. The study of the DNA damage checkpoint will elucidate how cells maintain genomic integrity and provide a better understanding of how human diseases, such as cancer, develop. Xenopus laevis egg extracts are emerging as a powerful cell-free extract model system in DNA damage checkpoint research. Low-speed extract (LSE) was initially described by the Masui group1. The addition of demembranated sperm chromatin to LSE results in nuclei formation where DNA is replicated in a semiconservative fashion once per cell cycle. The ATR/Chk1-mediated checkpoint signaling pathway is triggered by DNA damage or replication stress 2. Two methods are currently used to induce the DNA damage checkpoint: DNA damaging approaches and DNA damage-mimicking structures 3. DNA damage can be induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, γ-irradiation, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), mitomycin C (MMC), 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), or aphidicolin3, 4. MMS is an alkylating agent that inhibits DNA replication and activates the ATR/Chk1-mediated DNA damage checkpoint 4-7. UV irradiation also triggers the ATR/Chk1-dependent DNA damage checkpoint 8. The DNA damage-mimicking structure AT70 is an annealed complex of two oligonucleotides poly-(dA)70 and poly-(dT)70. The AT70 system was developed in Bill Dunphy's laboratory and is widely used to induce ATR/Chk1 checkpoint signaling 9-12. Here, we describe protocols (1) to prepare cell-free egg extracts (LSE), (2) to treat Xenopus sperm chromatin with two different DNA damaging approaches (MMS and UV), (3) to prepare the DNA damage-mimicking structure AT70, and (4) to trigger the ATR/Chk1-mediated DNA damage checkpoint in LSE with damaged sperm chromatin or a DNA damage-mimicking structure. PMID:23149695

  14. DNA Knots: Theory and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumners, D. W.

    Cellular DNA is a long, thread-like molecule with remarkably complex topology. Enzymes that manipulate the geometry and topology of cellular DNA perform many vital cellular processes (including segregation of daughter chromosomes, gene regulation, DNA repair, and generation of antibody diversity). Some enzymes pass DNA through itself via enzyme-bridged transient breaks in the DNA; other enzymes break the DNA apart and reconnect it to different ends. In the topological approach to enzymology, circular DNA is incubated with an enzyme, producing an enzyme signature in the form of DNA knots and links. By observing the changes in DNA geometry (supercoiling) and topology (knotting and linking) due to enzyme action, the enzyme binding and mechanism can often be characterized. This paper will discuss some personal research history, and the tangle model for the analysis of site-specific recombination experiments on circular DNA.

  15. A single residue in DNA polymerases of the Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I family is critical for distinguishing between deoxy- and dideoxyribonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, S; Richardson, C C

    1995-01-01

    Bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase efficiently incorporates a chain-terminating dideoxynucleotide into DNA, in contrast to the DNA polymerases from Escherichia coli and Thermus aquaticus. The molecular basis for this difference has been determined by constructing active site hybrids of these polymerases. A single hydroxyl group on the polypeptide chain is critical for selectivity. Replacing tyrosine-526 of T7 DNA polymerase with phenylalanine increases discrimination against the four dideoxynucleotides by > 2000-fold, while replacing the phenylalanine at the homologous position in E. coli DNA polymerase I (position 762) or T. aquaticus DNA polymerase (position 667) with tyrosine decreases discrimination against the four dideoxynucleotides 250- to 8000-fold. These mutations allow the engineering of new DNA polymerases with enhanced properties for use in DNA sequence analysis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7603992

  16. Genetic Organization of the Vibrio harveyi dnaA Gene Region and Analysis of the Function of the V. harveyi DnaA Protein in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Berenstein, Dvora; Olesen, Kirsten; Speck, Christian; Skovgaard, Ole

    2002-01-01

    The Vibrionaceae family is distantly related to Enterobacteriaceae within the group of bacteria possessing the Dam methylase system. We have cloned, sequenced, and analyzed the dnaA gene region of Vibrio harveyi and found that although the organization of the V. harveyi dnaA region differs from that of Escherichia coli, the expression of both genes is autoregulated and ATP-DnaA binds cooperatively to ATP-DnaA boxes in the dnaA promoter region. The DnaA proteins of V. harveyi and E. coli are interchangeable and function nearly identically in controlling dnaA transcription and the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication despite the evolutionary distance between these bacteria. PMID:11948168

  17. Dietary lipid concentration affects liver mitochondrial DNA copy number, gene expression and DNA methylation in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    PubMed

    Liao, Kai; Yan, Jing; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui

    2016-03-01

    In response to changes in energy demand and nutrient supply, the organism regulates mitochondrial metabolic status to coordinate ATP production. To survey mitochondrial metabolic adaptation in response to dietary lipid concentration, citrate synthase (EC 2.3.3.1, CS) activity, the expression of several mitochondrial transcription factors, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, mitochondrial gene expression, mtDNA methylation, and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in the liver of large yellow croaker fed one of three diets with a low (6%), moderate (12%, the control diet) or high (18%) crude lipid content for 70d. MtDNA copy number was significantly increased in the low- and high-lipid groups compared to the control. The transcription of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COX1), COX2, COX3, ATP synthase 6 (ATPase 6), 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA was also significantly increased in the low-lipid group compared with the control, while the transcription of these genes in the high-lipid group was unchanged. Moreover, D-loop (displacement loop) methylation in the high-lipid group was significantly higher than the control. The increase in mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial transcription might be a compensatory mechanism that matches ATP supply to demand under a low-lipid diet, while the increase of mtDNA copy number with unchanged mitochondrial transcription in the high-lipid group probably came from the increase of D-loop methylation. PMID:26692128

  18. Energy and Technology Review: Unlocking the mysteries of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, W.A.

    1993-04-01

    DNA, the genetic blueprint, has the remarkable property of encoding its own repair following diverse types of structural damage induced by external agents or normal metabolism. We are studying the interplay of DNA damaging agents, repair genes, and their protein products to decipher the complex biochemical pathways that mediate such repair. Our research focuses on repair processes that correct DNA damage produced by chemical mutagens and radiation, both ionizing and ultraviolet. The most important type of DNA repair in human cells is called excision repair. This multistep process removes damaged or inappropriate pieces of DNA -- often as a string of 29 nucleotides containing the damage -- and replaces them with intact ones. We have isolated, cloned, and mapped several human repair genes associated with the nucleotide excision repair pathway and involved in the repair of DNA damage after exposure to ultraviolet light or mutagens in cooked food. We have shown that a defect in one of these repair genes, ERCC2, is responsible for the repair deficiency in one of the groups of patients with the recessive genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP group D). We are exploring ways to purify sufficient quantities (milligrams) of the protein products of these and other repair genes so that we can understand their functions. Our long-term goals are to link defective repair proteins to human DNA repair disorders that predispose to cancer, and to produce DNA-repair-deficient mice that can serve as models for the human disorders.

  19. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis of European Archaeological M. leprae DNA

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Claire L.; Lockwood, Diana N. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Leprosy was common in Europe eight to twelve centuries ago but molecular confirmation of this has been lacking. We have extracted M. leprae ancient DNA (aDNA) from medieval bones and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typed the DNA, this provides insight into the pattern of leprosy transmission in Europe and may assist in the understanding of M. leprae evolution. Methods and Findings Skeletons have been exhumed from 3 European countries (the United Kingdom, Denmark and Croatia) and are dated around the medieval period (476 to 1350 A.D.). we tested for the presence of 3 previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 aDNA extractions. M. leprae aDNA was extracted from 6 of the 10 bone samples. SNP analysis of these 6 extractions were compared to previously analysed European SNP data using the same PCR assays and were found to be the same. Testing for the presence of SNPs in M. leprae DNA extracted from ancient bone samples is a novel approach to analysing European M. leprae DNA and the findings concur with the previously published data that European M. leprae strains fall in to one group (SNP group 3). Conclusions These findings support the suggestion that the M. leprae genome is extremely stable and show that archaeological M. leprae DNA can be analysed to gain detailed information about the genotypic make-up of European leprosy, which may assist in the understanding of leprosy transmission worldwide. PMID:19847306

  20. Photoaging and DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Shinichi; Takahashi, Yoshito

    2008-06-01

    The incidence of sunlight-induced skin changes (photoaged skin, skin carcinogenesis) increases with increasing age and it is thought to be associated with an accumulation of mutations in skin cells. These mutations are mainly caused by UV exposure. The reactive oxygen species produced in UV-exposed skin can cause various kinds of DNA damages e.g., 8-oxoguanine, which are primarily repaired by the base excision repair (BER) system. In addition, UV can directly cause DNA damages; cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts (6-4PP), both of which can be repaired by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) system. There have been several reports showing an age-related reduction in the DNA repair capacity in the NER, BER, and other repair systems, which contributes to the phenotypes of aging. To clarify the mechanism of skin aging, we examined the NER of skin fibroblasts from healthy donors of different ages. In a host cell reactivation assay, the cells from elderly donors exhibited a significant decline in the ability to restore transfected reporter DNA damaged by UV. In contrast, the ability to remove CPD and 6-4PP declined little with age, as assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mRNA expression of DNA repair synthesis-related genes was markedly decreased in the cells from elderly subjects as compared with those from young subjects. These results imply that the age-sensitive step took place after the damage excision in the NER, and that there is an impairment of the latter step of the NER in aging. Based on our data, as well as other reports, the reduced post-UV DNA repair capacity in aging resulting in an accumulation of UV-induced DNA damage is thus considered to be associated with the phenotypes of photoaged skin. PMID:17920816

  1. Redefining Cohesiveness in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyton, Joann; Springston, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Attempted to replicate and extend research on work of Kelly and Duran in assessing relationship of group member perceptions of group interaction to group effectiveness. Concludes perceived similarity may not always align with perceptions of cohesiveness. (Author/ABL)

  2. Forensic DNA Profiling and Database

    PubMed Central

    Panneerchelvam, S.; Norazmi, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    The incredible power of DNA technology as an identification tool had brought a tremendous change in crimnal justice . DNA data base is an information resource for the forensic DNA typing community with details on commonly used short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers. This article discusses the essential steps in compilation of COmbined DNA Index System (CODIS) on validated polymerase chain amplified STRs and their use in crime detection. PMID:23386793

  3. Biomimetic DNA nanoballs for oligonucleotide delivery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Gyeong; Park, Joo Yeon; Shim, Gayong; Choi, Han-Gon; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2015-09-01

    Here, we designed biomimetic DNA nanoballs for delivery of multiple antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). DNA templates with ASOs-complementary sequences were amplified by rolling circle amplification (RCA). RCA products were loaded with two types of ASOs by hybridization, condensed using adenovirus-derived Mu peptide, and coated with hyaluronic acid (HA) for delivery into CD44-overexpressing tumor cells. HA-coated, Mu peptide-condensed, dual ASO-loaded DNA nanoballs (HMA nanoballs) showed considerable cellular entry of Cy5-incorporated RCA product DNA and fluorescent ASOs, whereas Mu peptide-condensed, dual ASO-loaded DNA nanoballs (MA nanoballs) revealed limited uptake. Dual ASOs, Dz13 and OGX-427, delivered by HMA nanoballs could reduce the levels of protein targets and exert anticancer effects. Enhanced tumor distribution was observed for fluorescent HMA nanoballs than the corresponding MA nanoballs. Upon intravenous co-administration with doxorubicin, HMA nanoballs exerted the greatest anti-tumor effects among the groups. These results suggest HMA nanoballs as a nanoplatform for sequence-specific delivery of multiple ASOs and other functional oligonucleotides. PMID:26056726

  4. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression. PMID:25587870

  5. Mechanism of Ribonucleotide Incorporation by Human DNA Polymerase η.

    PubMed

    Su, Yan; Egli, Martin; Guengerich, F Peter

    2016-02-19

    Ribonucleotides and 2'-deoxyribonucleotides are the basic units for RNA and DNA, respectively, and the only difference is the extra 2'-OH group on the ribonucleotide sugar. Cellular rNTP concentrations are much higher than those of dNTP. When copying DNA, DNA polymerases not only select the base of the incoming dNTP to form a Watson-Crick pair with the template base but also distinguish the sugar moiety. Some DNA polymerases use a steric gate residue to prevent rNTP incorporation by creating a clash with the 2'-OH group. Y-family human DNA polymerase η (hpol η) is of interest because of its spacious active site (especially in the major groove) and tolerance of DNA lesions. Here, we show that hpol η maintains base selectivity when incorporating rNTPs opposite undamaged DNA and the DNA lesions 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer but with rates that are 10(3)-fold lower than for inserting the corresponding dNTPs. X-ray crystal structures show that the hpol η scaffolds the incoming rNTP to pair with the template base (dG) or 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine with a significant propeller twist. As a result, the 2'-OH group avoids a clash with the steric gate, Phe-18, but the distance between primer end and Pα of the incoming rNTP increases by 1 Å, elevating the energy barrier and slowing polymerization compared with dNTP. In addition, Tyr-92 was identified as a second line of defense to maintain the position of Phe-18. This is the first crystal structure of a DNA polymerase with an incoming rNTP opposite a DNA lesion. PMID:26740629

  6. DNA damage after long-term repetitive hyperbaric oxygen exposure.

    PubMed

    Gröger, Michael; Oter, Sükrü; Simkova, Vladislava; Bolten, Markus; Koch, Andreas; Warninghoff, Volker; Georgieff, Michael; Muth, Claus-Martin; Speit, Günter; Radermacher, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A single exposure to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), i.e., pure oxygen breathing at supra-atmospheric pressures, causes oxidative DNA damage in humans in vivo as well as in isolated lymphocytes of human volunteers. These DNA lesions, however, are rapidly repaired, and an adaptive protection is triggered against further oxidative stress caused by HBO exposure. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that long-term repetitive exposure to HBO would modify the degree of DNA damage. Combat swimmers and underwater demolition team divers were investigated because their diving practice comprises repetitive long-term exposure to HBO over years. Nondiving volunteers with and without endurance training served as controls. In addition to the measurement of DNA damage in peripheral blood (comet assay), blood antioxidant enzyme activities, and the ratio of oxidized and reduced glutathione content, we assessed the DNA damage and superoxide anion radical (O(2)(*-)) production induced by a single ex vivo HBO exposure of isolated lymphocytes. All parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity in vivo were comparable in the four different groups. Exposure to HBO increased both the level of DNA damage and O(2)(*-) production in lymphocytes, and this response was significantly more pronounced in the cells obtained from the combat swimmers than in all the other groups. However, in all groups, DNA damage was completely removed within 1 h. We conclude that, at least in healthy volunteers with endurance training, long-term repetitive exposure to HBO does not modify the basal blood antioxidant capacity or the basal level of DNA strand breaks. The increased ex vivo HBO-related DNA damage in isolated lymphocytes from these subjects, however, may reflect enhanced susceptibility to oxidative DNA damage. PMID:19023023

  7. Human DNA polymerase α in binary complex with a DNA:DNA template-primer

    PubMed Central

    Coloma, Javier; Johnson, Robert E.; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2016-01-01

    The Polα/primase complex assembles the short RNA-DNA fragments for priming of lagging and leading strand DNA replication in eukaryotes. As such, the Polα polymerase subunit encounters two types of substrates during primer synthesis: an RNA:DNA helix and a DNA:DNA helix. The engagement of the polymerase subunit with the DNA:DNA helix has been suggested as the of basis for primer termination in eukaryotes. However, there is no structural information on how the Polα polymerase subunit actually engages with a DNA:DNA helix during primer synthesis. We present here the first crystal structure of human Polα polymerase subunit in complex with a DNA:DNA helix. Unexpectedly, we find that portion of the DNA:DNA helix in contact with the polymerase is not in a B-form but in a hybrid A-B form. Almost all of the contacts observed previously with an RNA primer are preserved with a DNA primer – with the same set of polymerase residues tracking the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA or RNA primer. Thus, rather than loss of specific contacts, the free energy cost of distorting DNA from B- to hybrid A-B form may augur the termination of primer synthesis in eukaryotes. PMID:27032819

  8. Human DNA polymerase α in binary complex with a DNA:DNA template-primer.

    PubMed

    Coloma, Javier; Johnson, Robert E; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya; Aggarwal, Aneel K

    2016-01-01

    The Polα/primase complex assembles the short RNA-DNA fragments for priming of lagging and leading strand DNA replication in eukaryotes. As such, the Polα polymerase subunit encounters two types of substrates during primer synthesis: an RNA:DNA helix and a DNA:DNA helix. The engagement of the polymerase subunit with the DNA:DNA helix has been suggested as the of basis for primer termination in eukaryotes. However, there is no structural information on how the Polα polymerase subunit actually engages with a DNA:DNA helix during primer synthesis. We present here the first crystal structure of human Polα polymerase subunit in complex with a DNA:DNA helix. Unexpectedly, we find that portion of the DNA:DNA helix in contact with the polymerase is not in a B-form but in a hybrid A-B form. Almost all of the contacts observed previously with an RNA primer are preserved with a DNA primer - with the same set of polymerase residues tracking the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA or RNA primer. Thus, rather than loss of specific contacts, the free energy cost of distorting DNA from B- to hybrid A-B form may augur the termination of primer synthesis in eukaryotes. PMID:27032819

  9. [DNA helicases and human diseases].

    PubMed

    Uhring, Muriel; Poterszman, Arnaud

    2006-12-01

    DNA helicases are molecular motors that catalyse the unwinding of energetically unstable structures into single strands and have therefore an essential role in nearly all metabolism transactions. Defects in helicase function can result in human syndromes in which predisposition to cancer and genomic instability are common features. So far different helicase genes have been found associated in 8 such disorders. RecQ helicases are a family of conserved enzymes required for maintaining the genome integrity that function as suppressors of inappropriate recombination. Mutations in RecQ4, BLM and WRN give rise to various disorders: Bloom syndrome, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, and Werner syndrome characterized by genomic instability and increased cancer susceptibility. The DNA helicase BRIP1/BACH1 is involved in double-strand break repair and is defective in Fanconi anemia complementation group J. Mutations in XPD and XPB genes can result in xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome and trichothiodystrophy, three genetic disorders with different clinical features but with association of transcription and NER defects. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the diverse biological functions of these helicases and the molecular basis of the associated diseases. PMID:17156731

  10. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of ancient Peruvian highlanders.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Ken-ichi; Adachi, Noboru; Guillen, Sonia; Shimada, Izumi

    2006-09-01

    Ancient DNA recovered from 57 individuals excavated by Hiram Bingham at the rural communities of Paucarcancha, Patallacta, and Huata near the famed Inca royal estate and ritual site of Machu Picchu was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, and the results were compared with ancient and modern DNA from various Central Andean areas to test their hypothesized indigenous highland origins. The control and coding regions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 35 individuals in this group were sequenced, and the haplogroups of each individual were determined. The frequency data for the haplogroups of these samples show clear proximity to those of modern Quechua and Aymara populations in the Peruvian and Bolivian highlands, and contrast with those of pre-Hispanic individuals of the north coast of Peru that we defined previously. Our study suggests a strong genetic affinity between sampled late pre-Hispanic individuals and modern Andean highlanders. A previous analysis of the Machu Picchu osteological collection suggests that the residents there were a mixed group of natives from various coastal and highland regions relocated by the Inca state for varied purposes. Overall, our study indicates that the sampled individuals from Paucarcancha and Patallacta were indigenous highlanders who provided supportive roles for nearby Machu Picchu. PMID:16485299

  11. Group purchasing: an overview.

    PubMed

    Wetrich, J G

    1987-07-01

    The various types and operational methods of purchasing groups are described, and evaluation of groups is discussed. Since group purchasing is increasing in popularity as a method of controlling drug costs, community and hospital pharmacy managers may need to evaluate various groups to determine the appropriateness of their services. Groups are categorized as independent, system based, or alliance or association based. Instead of "purchasing," some groups develop contracts for hospitals, which then purchase directly from the vendor. Aside from this basic difference between groups that purchase and groups that contract, comparisons among groups are difficult because of the wide variation in sizes and services. Competition developing from diversification among groups has led to "super groups," formed from local and regional groups. In evaluating groups, advantages and disadvantages germane to accomplishing the member's objectives must be considered. To ensure a group's success, members must be committed and support the group's philosophies; hospital pharmacists must help to establish a strong formulary system. To select vendors, groups should develop formal qualification and selection criteria and should not base a decision solely on price. The method of solicitation (bidding or negotiating), as well as the role of the prime vendor, should be studied. Legal implications of group purchasing, especially in the areas of administrative fees and drug diversion, must also be considered. The most advantageous group for each organization will include members with common missions and will be able to implement strategies for future success. PMID:3631088

  12. Strandwise translocation of a DNA glycosylase on undamaged DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Yan; Nam, Kwangho; Spong, Marie C.; Banerjee, Anirban; Sung, Rou-Jia; Zhang, Michael; Karplus, Martin; Verdine, Gregory L.

    2012-05-14

    Base excision repair of genotoxic nucleobase lesions in the genome is critically dependent upon the ability of DNA glycosylases to locate rare sites of damage embedded in a vast excess of undamaged DNA, using only thermal energy to fuel the search process. Considerable interest surrounds the question of how DNA glycosylases translocate efficiently along DNA while maintaining their vigilance for target damaged sites. Here, we report the observation of strandwise translocation of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase, MutM, along undamaged DNA. In these complexes, the protein is observed to translocate by one nucleotide on one strand while remaining untranslocated on the complementary strand. We further report that alterations of single base-pairs or a single amino acid substitution (R112A) can induce strandwise translocation. Molecular dynamics simulations confirm that MutM can translocate along DNA in a strandwise fashion. These observations reveal a previously unobserved mode of movement for a DNA-binding protein along the surface of DNA.

  13. DNA damage response: three levels of DNA repair regulation.

    PubMed

    Sirbu, Bianca M; Cortez, David

    2013-08-01

    Genome integrity is challenged by DNA damage from both endogenous and environmental sources. This damage must be repaired to allow both RNA and DNA polymerases to accurately read and duplicate the information in the genome. Multiple repair enzymes scan the DNA for problems, remove the offending damage, and restore the DNA duplex. These repair mechanisms are regulated by DNA damage response kinases including DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR that are activated at DNA lesions. These kinases improve the efficiency of DNA repair by phosphorylating repair proteins to modify their activities, by initiating a complex series of changes in the local chromatin structure near the damage site, and by altering the overall cellular environment to make it more conducive to repair. In this review, we focus on these three levels of regulation to illustrate how the DNA damage kinases promote efficient repair to maintain genome integrity and prevent disease. PMID:23813586

  14. DNA Damage Response: Three Levels of DNA Repair Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Sirbu, Bianca M.; Cortez, David

    2013-01-01

    Genome integrity is challenged by DNA damage from both endogenous and environmental sources. This damage must be repaired to allow both RNA and DNA polymerases to accurately read and duplicate the information in the genome. Multiple repair enzymes scan the DNA for problems, remove the offending damage, and restore the DNA duplex. These repair mechanisms are regulated by DNA damage response kinases including DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR that are activated at DNA lesions. These kinases improve the efficiency of DNA repair by phosphorylating repair proteins to modify their activities, by initiating a complex series of changes in the local chromatin structure near the damage site, and by altering the overall cellular environment to make it more conducive to repair. In this review, we focus on these three levels of regulation to illustrate how the DNA damage kinases promote efficient repair to maintain genome integrity and prevent disease. PMID:23813586

  15. DNA vaccines: a review.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P J; Babiuk, L A

    1999-01-01

    Therapeutic and prophylactic DNA vaccine clinical trials for a variety of pathogens and cancers are underway (Chattergoon et al., 1997; Taubes, 1997). The speed with which initiation of these trials occurred is no less than astounding; clinical trials for a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp160 DNA-based vaccine were underway within 36 months of the first description of "genetic immunization" (Tang et al., 1992) and within 24 months of publication of the first article describing intramuscular delivery of a DNA vaccine (Ulmer et al., 1993). Despite the relative fervor with which clinical trials have progressed, it can be safely stated that DNA-based vaccines will not be an immunological "silver bullet." In this regard, it was satisfying to see a publication entitled "DNA Vaccines--A Modern Gimmick or a Boon to Vaccinology?" (Manickan et al., 1997b). There is no doubt that this technology is well beyond the phenomenology phase of study. Research niches and models have been established and will allow the truly difficult questions of mechanism and application to target species to be studied. These two aspects of future studies are intricately interwoven and will ultimately determine the necessity for mechanistic understanding and the evolution of target species studies. The basic science of DNA vaccines has yet to be clearly defined and will ultimately determine the success or failure of this technology to find a place in the immunological arsenal against disease. In a commentary on a published study describing DNA vaccine-mediated protection against heterologous challenge with HIV-1 in chimpanzees, Ronald Kennedy (1997) states, "As someone who has been in the trenches of AIDS vaccine research for over a decade and who, together with collaborators, has attempted a number of different vaccine approaches that have not panned out, I have a relatively pessimistic view of new AIDS vaccine approaches." Kennedy then goes on to summarize a DNA-based multigene vaccine approach and the subsequent development of neutralizing titers and potent CTL activity in immunized chimpanzees (Boyer et al., 1997). Dr. Kennedy closes his commentary by stating. "The most exciting aspect of this report is the experimental challenge studies.... Viraemia was extremely transient and present at low levels during a single time point. These animals remained seronegative ... for one year after challenge" and "Overall, these observations engender some excitement". (Kennedy, 1997). Although this may seem a less than rousing cheer for DNA vaccine technology, it is a refreshingly hopeful outlook for a pathogen to which experience has taught humility. It has also been suggested that DNA vaccine technology may find its true worth as a novel alternative option for the development of vaccines against diseases that conventional vaccines have been unsuccessful in controlling (Manickan et al., 1997b). This is a difficult task for any vaccine, let alone a novel technology. DNA-based vaccine technology represents a powerful and novel entry into the field of immunological control of disease. The spinoff research has also been dramatic, and includes the rediscovery of potent bacterially derived immunomodulatory DNA sequences (Gilkeson et al., 1989), as well as availability of a methodology that allows extremely rapid assessment and dissection of both antigens and immunity. The benefits of potent Th1-type immune responses to DNA vaccines must not be overlooked, particularly in the light of suggestions that Western culture immunization practices may be responsible for the rapid increases in adult allergic and possibly autoimmune disorders (Rook and Stanford, 1998). The full utility of this technology has not yet been realized, and yet its broad potential is clearly evident. Future investigations of this technology must not be hindered by impatience, misunderstanding, and lack of funding or failure of an informed collective and collaborative effort. PMID:10547676

  16. Elongation of primed DNA templates by eukaryotic DNA polymerases.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, J E; Longiaru, M; Horwitz, M S; Hurwitz, J

    1980-01-01

    The combined action of DNA polymerase alpha and DNA polymerase beta leads to the synthesis of full-length linear DNA strands with phi X174 DNA templates containing an RNA primer. The reaction can be carried out in two stages. In the first stage, DNA polymerase alpha catalyzes the synthesis of a chain that averaged 230 deoxynucleotides long and was covalently linked to the RNA primer. In the second stage, DNA polymerase beta elongates the DNA strand covalently attached to the RNA primer to full length. With DNA primers, DNA polymerase alpha catalyzes only limited deoxynucleotide addition whereas DNA polymerase beta alone elongates DNA primed templates to full length. DNA polymerase beta can also stimulate the synthesis of adenovirus DNA in vitro in the presence of a cytosol extract from adenovirus-infected cells. In all of these systems, dNMP incorporation catalyzed by DNA polymerase beta was sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide; however, this polymerase activity was resistant to N-ethylmaleimide with poly(rA) x (dT) as the primer template. Images PMID:6160581

  17. Bacterial group I introns: mobile RNA catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Group I introns are intervening sequences that have invaded tRNA, rRNA and protein coding genes in bacteria and their phages. The ability of group I introns to self-splice from their host transcripts, by acting as ribozymes, potentially renders their insertion into genes phenotypically neutral. Some group I introns are mobile genetic elements due to encoded homing endonuclease genes that function in DNA-based mobility pathways to promote spread to intronless alleles. Group I introns have a limited distribution among bacteria and the current assumption is that they are benign selfish elements, although some introns and homing endonucleases are a source of genetic novelty as they have been co-opted by host genomes to provide regulatory functions. Questions regarding the origin and maintenance of group I introns among the bacteria and phages are also addressed. PMID:24612670

  18. A versatile method for the coupling of protein to DNA: synthesis of alpha 2-macroglobulin-DNA conjugates.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, S; Merlino, G T; Pastan, I H

    1983-01-01

    We describe a simple, general method to link proteins covalently to DNA. The method uses two reagents, N-acetyl-N'-(p-glyoxylylbenzoyl)cystamine and 2-iminothiolane. The former reacts specifically with nonpaired quanine residues and upon reduction generates a free sulfhydryl group. The latter reacts with a protein to provide another sulfhydryl group which is subsequently conjugated to DNA by an intermolecular disulfide interchange reaction. Using this method alpha 2-macroglobulin was conjugated to plasmid DNA encoding the Herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase gene or a DNA fragment containing the E. coli chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Up to 20% of the total DNA was conjugated to alpha 2-macroglobulin and the alpha 2-macroglobulin-DNA conjugate had a protein/DNA molar ratio of approximately two. The whole reaction takes place under very mild conditions in aqueous solution. The structure of DNA appears not to be significantly affected by the chemical modification. This method may prove useful in ligand directed gene transfer studies. Images PMID:6188106

  19. A versatile method for the coupling of protein to DNA: synthesis of alpha 2-macroglobulin-DNA conjugates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S; Merlino, G T; Pastan, I H

    1983-02-11

    We describe a simple, general method to link proteins covalently to DNA. The method uses two reagents, N-acetyl-N'-(p-glyoxylylbenzoyl)cystamine and 2-iminothiolane. The former reacts specifically with nonpaired quanine residues and upon reduction generates a free sulfhydryl group. The latter reacts with a protein to provide another sulfhydryl group which is subsequently conjugated to DNA by an intermolecular disulfide interchange reaction. Using this method alpha 2-macroglobulin was conjugated to plasmid DNA encoding the Herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase gene or a DNA fragment containing the E. coli chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Up to 20% of the total DNA was conjugated to alpha 2-macroglobulin and the alpha 2-macroglobulin-DNA conjugate had a protein/DNA molar ratio of approximately two. The whole reaction takes place under very mild conditions in aqueous solution. The structure of DNA appears not to be significantly affected by the chemical modification. This method may prove useful in ligand directed gene transfer studies. PMID:6188106

  20. SCE and DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Ikushima, T

    1984-01-01

    The interrelationship between sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formation and DNA methylation was studied in Chinese hamster V79 and Indian muntjac cells. A DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-azacytidine (5AzaC), induced SCEs only when it had been present in cells for at least 2 rounds of DNA replication. This result suggests that SCEs are formed during replication of hemimethylated or demethylated DNA possessing 5AzaC, and that hypomethylated sites may become fully methylated after they pass 1 cell division. It also appears that hypomethylated DNA is not more sensitive to ultraviolet light (UV) or 3-aminobenzamide (3AMB) than normal chromosomes, but sensitized to mitomycin C (MMC) for the induction of SCEs. An analysis of sites of SCEs induced by 5AzaC within Indian muntjac chromosomes showed that the SCE frequency was enhanced at the 5 methylcytosine-rich regions where spontaneous SCEs were intensively suppressed. The SCE mechanism at the junction between contiguous replicons with different replication timing was discussed. PMID:6085258

  1. Shear degradation of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Adam, R E; Zimm, B H

    1977-01-01

    A concentric-cylinder flow-birefringence instrument is used to generate sufficient shear fields to break T2 DNA (M = 1.2 X 10(8)) and E. coli DNA (M = 2.5 X 10(9)) in dilute solution. Breakage is monitored in situ by measuring the change in birefringence relaxation after the flow has been stopped. The breakage of T2 DNA follows first-order kinetics. Rate constants are obtained as functions of shear rate and viscosity (varied by adding glycerol). The data are fitted by a modified Arrhenius equation, assuming that stess increases the rate by lowering the activation energy. The rate increases with temperature, pH, and water concentration, and appears to be a base-catalyzed hydrolysis of the phosphate-ester linkage. La3+ ions catalyze the reaction. E. coli DNA was reduced to half molecules at a shear stress of 0.4 dynes/cm2, which is about 2500 times less than that required for T2. The difference in rates is accounted for in part by the difference in size of the two, but may also reflect the presence of many single-strand nicks in the coli DNA. PMID:19729

  2. Characteristics of CDC group 1 and group 1-like coryneform bacteria isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Funke, G; Lucchini, G M; Pfyffer, G E; Marchiani, M; von Graevenitz, A

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen strains of CDC group 1 coryneform and biochemically similar bacteria were isolated from clinical specimens. Of the 15 strains isolated, 11 were derived from abscesses and purulent lesions, mostly from the upper part of the body, and 3 were grown from blood cultures. Nine strains were associated with mixed anaerobic but no other aerobic flora. Seven strains exhibited the classical biochemical profile of CDC coryneform group 1; however, eight strains were unable to reduce nitrate and were called "group 1-like." Other reactions to differentiate CDC group 1 and group 1-like coryneform rods include alpha-hemolysis on human blood agar, fermentation of adonitol, and the presence of alkaline phosphatase. Fifteen strains showed marked CAMP reactions on different erythrocyte agars. Gas-liquid chromatography of volatile and nonvolatile fatty acids as well as cellular fatty acid patterns and the composition of cell wall components suggest that CDC group 1 and group 1-like coryneform bacteria do not belong to the genus Corynebacterium but possibly to the genus Actinomyces or Arcanobacterium. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that group 1 and group 1-like strains represent different species. Images PMID:8263175

  3. [Determination of DNA base composition and levels of DNA-DNA hybridization of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans].

    PubMed

    Han, N

    1991-01-01

    Using the strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and Haemophilus aphrophilus (Haph) in experiments, the mole percent quanine plus cytosine content (mol% G + C) and level of DNA-DNA hybridization (DNA homology) were determined for the first time in oral microbiologic study in China. DNA was extracted by Marmur's method. The mol% G + C of DNA was determined by thermal denaturation method (Tm). DNA-DNA hybridization was carried out by De Ley's optical procedure (initial renaturation rate). The results are as follows: 1. The mol% G + C of DNA of Aa is different from that of Haph. 2. 2 strains of Aa had high DNA homology (73.8%) and the DNA homology between Aa and Haph was low (33.9%). It was confirmed that Aa and Haph are different species. In order to identify the bacteria in periodontal pockets accurately, it is necessary to carry out the nucleic acid study in bacterial classification. PMID:2032476

  4. Structural analysis of DNA interaction with retinol and retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Mandeville, J S; N'soukpoé-Kossi, C N; Neault, J F; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2010-06-01

    Dietary constituents of fresh fruits and vegetables may play a relevant role in DNA adduct formation by inhibiting enzymatic activities. Studies have shown the important role of antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E in the protection against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The antioxidant activity of vitamin A and beta-carotene may consist of scavenging oxygen radicals and preventing DNA damage. This study was designed to examine the interaction of calf-thymus DNA with retinol and retinoic acid in aqueous solution at physiological conditions using a constant DNA concentration and various retinoid contents. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence spectroscopic methods were used to determine retinoid binding mode, the binding constant, and the effects of retinol and retinoic acid complexation on DNA conformation and aggregation. Structural analysis showed that retinol and retinoic acid bind DNA via G-C and A-T base pairs and the backbone phosphate groups with overall binding constants of Kret = 3.0 (+/-0.50) x 10(3) (mol.L(-1))(-1) and Kretac = 1.0 (+/-0.20) x 10(4) (mol.L(-1))(-1). The number of bound retinoids per DNA were 0.84 for retinol and 1.3 for retinoic acid. Hydrophobic interactions were also observed at high retinol and retinoic acid contents. At a high retinoid concentration, major DNA aggregation occurred, while DNA remained in the B-family structure. PMID:20555389

  5. Kinetoplast DNA minicircles: regions of extensive sequence divergence.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, W O; Wirth, D F

    1987-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the kinetoplast minicircle DNA of Leishmania species exhibits species-specific sequence divergence and this observation has led to the development of a DNA probe-based diagnostic test for leishmaniasis. In the work reported here, we demonstrate that the minicircle is composed of three types of DNA sequences with differing specificities reflecting different rates of DNA sequence change. A library of cloned fragments of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) from Leishmania mexicana amazonensis was prepared and the cloned subfragments were found to contain DNA sequences with different taxonomic specificities based on hybridization analysis with various species of Leishmania. Four groups of subfragments were found, those that hybridized with a large number of Leishmania sp. as well as sequences unique to the species, subspecies, or isolate. Analysis of nested deletions of a single, full-length minicircle demonstrates that these different taxonomic specificities are contained within a single minicircle. This implies that different regions of a single minicircle have DNA sequences that diverge at different rates. These sequences represent potentially valuable tools in diagnostic, epidemiologic, and ecological studies of leishmaniasis and provide the basis for a model of kDNA sequence evolution. Images PMID:3025880

  6. Effect of salt concentration on the stability of heterogeneous DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amar; Singh, Navin

    2015-02-01

    We study the role of cations on the stability of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules. It is known that the two strands of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) have negative charge due to phosphate group. Cations in the form of salt in the solution, act as shielding agents thereby reducing the repulsion between these strands. We study several heterogeneous DNA molecules. We calculate the phase diagrams for DNA molecules in thermal as well as in force ensembles using Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois (PBD) model. The dissociation and the stacking energies are the two most important factors that play an important role in the DNA stability. With suitable modifications in the model parameters we investigate the role of cation concentration on the stability of different heterogeneous DNA molecules. The objective of this work is to understand how these cations modify the strength of different pairs or bases along the strand. The phase diagram for the force ensemble case (a dsDNA is pulled from an end) is compared with the experimental results.

  7. The Role of Methylation of DNA in Environmental Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Kevin B.; Wolschin, Florian; Amdam, Gro V.

    2013-01-01

    Methylation of DNA is an epigenetic mechanism that influences patterns of gene expression. DNA methylation marks contribute to adaptive phenotypic variation but are erased during development. The role of DNA methylation in adaptive evolution is therefore unclear. We propose that environmentally-induced DNA methylation causes phenotypic heterogeneity that provides a substrate for selection via forces that act on the epigenetic machinery. For example, selection can alter environmentally-induced methylation of DNA by acting on the molecular mechanisms used for the genomic targeting of DNA methylation. Another possibility is that specific methylation marks that are environmentally-induced, yet non-heritable, could influence preferential survival and lead to consistent methylation of the same genomic regions over time. As methylation of DNA is known to increase the likelihood of cytosine-to-thymine transitions, non-heritable adaptive methylation marks can drive an increased likelihood of mutations targeted to regions that are consistently marked across several generations. Some of these mutations could capture, genetically, the phenotypic advantage of the epigenetic mark. Thereby, selectively favored transitory alterations in the genome invoked by DNA methylation could ultimately become selectable genetic variation through mutation. We provide evidence for these concepts using examples from different taxa, but focus on experimental data on large-scale DNA sequencing that expose between-group genetic variation after bidirectional selection on honeybees, Apis mellifera. PMID:23620251

  8. Mitochondrial DNA variation in Tajiks living in Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V; Malek, Mathew J; Drees, Kenneth; Kholina, Olga I

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to characterize mtDNA control region (positions 16,024-576) of unrelated Tajiks living in Tajikistan. DNA was isolated from saliva specimens stored on FTA cards. The mtDNA fragments were amplified and directly sequenced in forward and reverse directions. Haplogroups were determined using HaploGrep and the diagnostic polymorphisms in the coding region of mtDNA. The Tajik mtDNA pool was characterized by substantial admixture of western and eastern Eurasian haplogroups, 62.6% and 26.4% sequences, respectively. It also contained 9.9% of South Asian and 1.1% of African haplotypes. The Tajik mtDNA sequences belonged to 90 different haplotypes defined by 148 transitions and 13 transversions in 156 of 1122 nucleotide sites. The Tajik mtDNA pool demonstrated the high genetic variation with genetic diversity of 0.999±0.002, nucleotide diversity of 0.014±0.007, and the mean number of pairwise nucleotide differences of 15.38±6.93. The random match probability and the power of discrimination were 0.0112 and 0.9888, respectively. Ethno-territorial groups of Tajiks demonstrated significant genetic differentiation with 2.67% of the genetic variance explained by differences between subpopulations. This study provides the insight into the mtDNA pool of Tajiks living in Tajikistan. The data should be taken into account in forensic identifications based on mtDNA. PMID:25155918

  9. Molecular determinants of site-specific inhibition of human DNA topoisomerase I by fagaronine and ethoxidine. Relation to DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Fleury, F; Sukhanova, A; Ianoul, A; Devy, J; Kudelina, I; Duval, O; Alix, A J; Jardillier, J C; Nabiev, I

    2000-02-01

    DNA topoisomerase (top) I inhibition activity of the natural alkaloid fagaronine (NSC157995) and its new synthetic derivative ethoxidine (12-ethoxy-benzo[c]phenanthridine) has been correlated with their molecular interactions and sequence specificity within the DNA complexes. Flow linear dichroism shows that ethoxidine exhibits the same inhibition of DNA relaxation as fagaronine at the 10-fold lower concentration. The patterns of DNA cleavage by top I show linear enhancement of CPT-dependent sites at the 0.016-50 microM concentrations of fagaronine, whereas ethoxidine suppress both top I-specific and CPT-dependent sites. Suppression of top I-mediated cleavage by ethoxidine is found to be specific for the sites, including strand cut between A and T. Fagaronine and ethoxidine are DNA major groove intercalators. Ethoxidine intercalates DNA in A-T sequences and its 12-ethoxy-moiety (absent in fagaronine) extends into the DNA minor groove. These findings may explain specificity of suppression by ethoxidine of the strong top I cleavage sites with the A(+1), T(-1) immediately adjacent to the strand cut. Fagaronine does not show any sequence specificity of DNA intercalation, but its highly electronegative oxygen of hydroxy group (absent in ethoxidine) is shown to be an acceptor of the hydrogen bond with the NH(2) group of G base of DNA. Ability of fagaronine to stabilize top I-mediated ternary complex is proposed to be determined by interaction of its hydroxy group with the guanine at position (+1) of the DNA cleavage site and of quaternary nitrogen interaction with top I. The model proposed provides a guidance for screening new top I-targeted drugs in terms of identification of molecular determinants responsible for their top I inhibition effects. PMID:10652345

  10. The Human Oxidative DNA Glycosylase NEIL1 Excises Psoralen-induced Interstrand DNA Cross-links in a Three-stranded DNA Structure*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Couvé, Sophie; Macé-Aimé, Gaëtane; Rosselli, Filippo; Saparbaev, Murat K.

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that human oxidative DNA glycosylase NEIL1 excises photoactivated psoralen-induced monoadducts but not genuine interstrand cross-links (ICLs) in duplex DNA. It has been postulated that the repair of ICLs in mammalian cells is mainly linked to DNA replication and proceeds via dual incisions in one DNA strand that bracket the cross-linked site. This process, known as “unhooking,” enables strand separation and translesion DNA synthesis through the gap, yielding a three-stranded DNA repair intermediate composed of a short unhooked oligomer covalently bound to the duplex. At present, the detailed molecular mechanism of ICL repair in mammalian cells remains unclear. Here, we constructed and characterized three-stranded DNA structures containing a single ICL as substrates for the base excision repair proteins. We show that NEIL1 excises with high efficiency the unhooked ICL fragment within a three-stranded DNA structure. Complete reconstitution of the repair of unhooked ICL shows that it can be processed in a short patch base excision repair pathway. The new substrate specificity of NEIL1 points to a preferential involvement in the replication-associated repair of ICLs. Based on these data, we propose a model for the mechanism of ICL repair in mammalian cells that implicates the DNA glycosylase activity of NEIL1 downstream of Xeroderma Pigmentosum group F/Excision Repair Cross-Complementing 1 endonuclease complex (XPF/ERCC1) and translesion DNA synthesis repair steps. Finally, our data demonstrate that Nei-like proteins from Escherichia coli to human cells can excise bulky unhooked psoralen-induced ICLs via hydrolysis of glycosidic bond between cross-linked base and deoxyribose sugar, thus providing an alternative heuristic solution for the removal of complex DNA lesions. PMID:19258314

  11. The human oxidative DNA glycosylase NEIL1 excises psoralen-induced interstrand DNA cross-links in a three-stranded DNA structure.

    PubMed

    Couvé, Sophie; Macé-Aimé, Gaëtane; Rosselli, Filippo; Saparbaev, Murat K

    2009-05-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that human oxidative DNA glycosylase NEIL1 excises photoactivated psoralen-induced monoadducts but not genuine interstrand cross-links (ICLs) in duplex DNA. It has been postulated that the repair of ICLs in mammalian cells is mainly linked to DNA replication and proceeds via dual incisions in one DNA strand that bracket the cross-linked site. This process, known as "unhooking," enables strand separation and translesion DNA synthesis through the gap, yielding a three-stranded DNA repair intermediate composed of a short unhooked oligomer covalently bound to the duplex. At present, the detailed molecular mechanism of ICL repair in mammalian cells remains unclear. Here, we constructed and characterized three-stranded DNA structures containing a single ICL as substrates for the base excision repair proteins. We show that NEIL1 excises with high efficiency the unhooked ICL fragment within a three-stranded DNA structure. Complete reconstitution of the repair of unhooked ICL shows that it can be processed in a short patch base excision repair pathway. The new substrate specificity of NEIL1 points to a preferential involvement in the replication-associated repair of ICLs. Based on these data, we propose a model for the mechanism of ICL repair in mammalian cells that implicates the DNA glycosylase activity of NEIL1 downstream of Xeroderma Pigmentosum group F/Excision Repair Cross-Complementing 1 endonuclease complex (XPF/ERCC1) and translesion DNA synthesis repair steps. Finally, our data demonstrate that Nei-like proteins from Escherichia coli to human cells can excise bulky unhooked psoralen-induced ICLs via hydrolysis of glycosidic bond between cross-linked base and deoxyribose sugar, thus providing an alternative heuristic solution for the removal of complex DNA lesions. PMID:19258314

  12. Coarse-graining DNA for simulations of DNA nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doye, Jonathan P. K.; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Louis, Ard A.; Romano, Flavio; Šulc, Petr; Matek, Christian; Snodin, Benedict E. K.; Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Schreck, John S.; Harrison, Ryan M.; Smith, William P. J.

    To simulate long time and length scale processes involving DNA it is necessary to use a coarse-grained description. Here we provide an overview of different approaches to such coarse graining, focussing on those at the nucleotide level that allow the self-assembly processes associated with DNA nanotechnology to be studied. OxDNA, our recently-developed coarse-grained DNA model, is particularly suited to this task, and has opened up this field to systematic study by simulations. We illustrate some of the range of DNA nanotechnology systems to which the model is being applied, as well as the insights it can provide into fundamental biophysical properties of DNA.

  13. The effect of local melting of DNA on DNA loop formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jiyoun; Kim, Harold

    Statistical mechanics of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is well described by the wormlike chain model (WLC) which assumes a harmonic bending potential. Such smooth bending potential may no longer be valid for large bending angles to form small loops (<100 bp). Instead, DNA may rely on rare structural transitions such as local melting (opening) of base pairs to lower the energetic cost. In theory, open base pairs called bubbles can increase the looping probability of short DNA molecules by a few orders of magnitude, but a robust experimental validation of this theoretical prediction is lacking. Here, we investigated the correlation between local melting probability and looping dynamics of dsDNA using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). We designed two groups of short DNA molecules with low and high melting probabilities around their center and measured their looping and unlooping rates in equilibrium. Our data allow rigorous tests of meltable wormlike chain (MWLC) models at short length scales for setting ranges of acceptable free energy cost of bubble formation and flexibility values of a bubble.

  14. Defects in mitochondrial DNA replication and oxidative damage in muscle of mtDNA mutator mice.

    PubMed

    Kolesar, Jill E; Safdar, Adeel; Abadi, Arkan; MacNeil, Lauren G; Crane, Justin D; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Kaufman, Brett A

    2014-10-01

    A causal role for mitochondrial dysfunction in mammalian aging is supported by recent studies of the mtDNA mutator mouse ("PolG" mouse), which harbors a defect in the proofreading-exonuclease activity of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma. These mice exhibit accelerated aging phenotypes characteristic of human aging, including systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, exercise intolerance, alopecia and graying of hair, curvature of the spine, and premature mortality. While mitochondrial dysfunction has been shown to cause increased oxidative stress in many systems, several groups have suggested that PolG mutator mice show no markers of oxidative damage. These mice have been presented as proof that mitochondrial dysfunction is sufficient to accelerate aging without oxidative stress. In this study, by normalizing to mitochondrial content in enriched fractions we detected increased oxidative modification of protein and DNA in PolG skeletal muscle mitochondria. We separately developed novel methods that allow simultaneous direct measurement of mtDNA replication defects and oxidative damage. Using this approach, we find evidence that suggests PolG muscle mtDNA is indeed oxidatively damaged. We also observed a significant decrease in antioxidants and expression of mitochondrial biogenesis pathway components and DNA repair enzymes in these mice, indicating an association of maladaptive gene expression with the phenotypes observed in PolG mice. Together, these findings demonstrate the presence of oxidative damage associated with the premature aging-like phenotypes induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:25106705

  15. Structural heterogeneity of mitochondrial DNA molecules within the genus Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Fauron, C M; Wolstenholme, D R

    1976-01-01

    We have determined by electron microscopy the molecular weight of circular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules from 39 species representing 13 groups of five subgenera of the genus Drosophila. mtDNA molecules of all species examined, other than members of the melanogaster group, had, with one exception, molecular weights in the rather narrow range 9.90 X 10(6). The one exception was D. robusta, which had a molecular weight of 10.61 X 10(6). In contrast, mtDNA molecules from species within the melanogaster group had molecular weights covering the considerably greater range 9.92 X 10(6) to 12.35 X 10(6). Applying the electron microscope denaturation mapping technique of Inman to mtDNA molecules of eight species of the melanogaster group, we found each of them to contain a region [presumably rich in adenine and thymine (A+T)] which denatured at a specific temperature (40 degrees) at which most of the remainder of the molecule remained undenatured. The size of the A+T-rich region was constant for mtDNA molecules of a species, but varied from 0.62 X 10(6) to 3.41 X 10(6) for mtDNA molecules of different species. It was demonstrated that the differences in molecular weights of the A+T-rich regions can almost completely account for the differences in total molecular weights of the mtDNA molecules from species of the melanogaster group. Images PMID:1068475

  16. Liposome-mediated DNA immunisation via the subcutaneous route.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Y; McNeil, S; Vangala, A

    2003-01-01

    Compared to naked DNA immunisation, entrapment of plasmid-based DNA vaccines into liposomes by the dehydration-rehydration method has shown to enhance both humoural and cell-mediated immune responses to encoded antigens administered by a variety of routes. In this paper, we have investigated the application of liposome-entrapped DNA and their cationic lipid composition on such potency after subcutaneous immunisation. Plasmid pI.18Sfi/NP containing the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of A/Sichuan/2/87 (H3N2) influenza virus in the pI.18 expression vector was incorporated by the dehydration-rehydration method into liposomes composed of 16 micromol egg phosphatidylcholine (PC), 8 micromoles dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) or cholesterol (Chol) and either the cationic lipid 1,2-diodeoyl-3-(trimethylammonium) propane (DOTAP) or cholesteryl 3-N-(dimethyl amino ethyl) carbamate (DC-Chol). This method, entailing mixing of small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) with DNA, followed by dehydration and rehydration, yielded incorporation values of 90-94% of the DNA used. Mixing or rehydration of preformed cationic liposomes with 100 microg plasmid DNA also led to similarly high complexation values (92-94%). In an attempt to establish differences in the nature of DNA association with these various liposome preparations their physico-chemical characteristics were investigated. Studies on vesicle size, zeta potential and gel electrophoresis in the presence of the anion sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) indicate that, under the conditions employed, formulation of liposomal DNA by the dehydration-rehydration generated submicron size liposomes incorporating most of the DNA in a manner that prevents DNA displacement through anion competition. The bilayer composition of these dehydration-rehydration vesicles (DRV(DNA)) can also further influence these physico-chemical characteristics with the presence of DOPE within the liposome bilayer resulting in a reduced vesicle zeta potential. Subcutaneous liposome-mediated DNA immunisation employing two DRV(DNA) formulations as well as naked DNA revealed that humoural responses (immunoglobulin total IgG, and subclasses IgG1 and 1gG2a) engendered by the plasmid encoded NP were substantially higher after dosing twice, 28 days apart with 10 microg liposome-entrapped DNA compared to naked DNA. At all time points measured, mice immunised with naked DNA showed no greater immune response compared to the control, non-immunised group. In contrast, as early as day 49, responses were significantly higher in mice injected with DNA entrapped in DRV liposomes containing DOTAP compared to the control group and mice immunised with naked DNA. By day 56, all total IgG responses from mice immunised with both DRV formulations were significantly higher. Comparison between the DRV formulations revealed no significant difference in immune responses elicited except at day 114, where the humoural responses of the group injected with liposomal formulation containing DC-Chol dropped to significantly lower levels that those measured in mice which received the DOTAP formulation. Similar results were found when the IgG1 and IgG2a subclass responses were determined. These results suggest that, not only can DNA be effectively entrapped within liposomes using the DRV method but that such DRV liposomes containing DNA may be a useful system for subcutaneous delivery of DNA vaccines. PMID:15203925

  17. [DNA methylation in obesity].

    PubMed

    Pokrywka, Małgorzata; Kieć-Wilk, Beata; Polus, Anna; Wybrańska, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    The number of overweight and obese people is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the developed and developing countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and in consequence for premature death. The development of obesity results from the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, which include sedentary life style and abnormal eating habits. In the past few years a number of events accompanying obesity, affecting expression of genes which are not directly connected with the DNA base sequence (e.g. epigenetic changes), have been described. Epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, as well as non-coding micro-RNA (miRNA) synthesis. In this review, the known changes in the profile of DNA methylation as a factor affecting obesity and its complications are described. PMID:25531701

  18. DNA Methylation in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Li, En; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the best characterized epigenetic modifications. In mammals it is involved in various biological processes including the silencing of transposable elements, regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation. This article describes how DNA methylation serves as a cellular memory system and how it is dynamically regulated through the action of the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes. Its role in the regulation of gene expression, through its interplay with histone modifications, is also described, and its implication in human diseases discussed. The exciting areas of investigation that will likely become the focus of research in the coming years are outlined in the summary. PMID:24789823

  19. DNA Vaccination Techniques.

    PubMed

    Fissolo, Nicols; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory, demyelinating, and neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. Although the etiology of MS remains unknown, several lines of evidence support the notion that autoimmunity against components of the myelin sheath plays a major role in susceptibility to and development of the disease. At present, there are no approved MS therapies aimed specifically toward downregulating antigen-specific autoreactive immune cells. One antigen-specific approach that appears promising for the treatment of MS is DNA vaccination. This technique has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials while maintaining safety.Here, we describe the generation of DNA vaccines containing immunologically relevant antigens of MS. Moreover, we present a detailed protocol for the prophylactic and therapeutic administration of DNA vaccines via intramuscular injection targeting on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model resembling MS. PMID:24973869

  20. DNA methylation in an engineered heart tissue model of cardiac hypertrophy: common signatures and effects of DNA methylation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Stenzig, Justus; Hirt, Marc N; Löser, Alexandra; Bartholdt, Lena M; Hensel, Jan-Tobias; Werner, Tessa R; Riemenschneider, Mona; Indenbirken, Daniela; Guenther, Thomas; Müller, Christian; Hübner, Norbert; Stoll, Monika; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation affects transcriptional regulation and constitutes a drug target in cancer biology. In cardiac hypertrophy, DNA methylation may control the fetal gene program. We therefore investigated DNA methylation signatures and their dynamics in an in vitro model of cardiac hypertrophy based on engineered heart tissue (EHT). We exposed EHTs from neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to a 12-fold increased afterload (AE) or to phenylephrine (PE 20 µM) and compared DNA methylation signatures to control EHT by pull-down assay and DNA methylation microarray. A 7-day intervention sufficed to induce contractile dysfunction and significantly decrease promoter methylation of hypertrophy-associated upregulated genes such as Nppa (encoding ANP) and Acta1 (α-skeletal actin) in both intervention groups. To evaluate whether pathological consequences of AE are affected by inhibiting de novo DNA methylation we applied AE in the absence and presence of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors: 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (aza, 100 µM, nucleosidic inhibitor), RG108 (60 µM, non-nucleosidic) or methylene disalicylic acid (MDSA, 25 µM, non-nucleosidic). Aza had no effect on EHT function, but RG108 and MDSA partially prevented the detrimental consequences of AE on force, contraction and relaxation velocity. RG108 reduced AE-induced Atp2a2 (SERCA2a) promoter methylation. The results provide evidence for dynamic DNA methylation in cardiac hypertrophy and warrant further investigation of the potential of DNA methylation in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26680771

  1. DNA templated magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsella, Joseph M.

    Recent discoveries in nanoscience are predicted to potentially revolutionize future technologies in an extensive number of fields. These developments are contingent upon discovering new and often unconventional methods to synthesize and control nanoscale components. Nature provides several examples of working nanotechnology such as the use of programmed self assembly to build and deconstruct complex molecular systems. We have adopted a method to control the one dimensional assembly of magnetic nanoparticles using DNA as a scaffold molecule. With this method we have demonstrated the ability to organize 5 nm particles into chains that stretch up to ˜20 mum in length. One advantage of using DNA compared is the ability of the molecule to interact with other biomolecules. After assembling particles onto DNA we have been able to cleave the molecule into smaller fragments using restriction enzymes. Using ligase enzymes we have re-connected these fragments, coated with either gold or iron oxide, to form long one-dimensional arrangements of the two different types of nanoparticles on a single molecular guide. We have also created a sensitive magnetic field sensor by incorporating magnetic nanoparticle coated DNA strands with microfabricated electrodes. The IV characteristics of the aligned nanoparticles are dependant on the magnitude of an externally applied magnetic field. This transport phenomenon known as tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) shows room temperature resistance of our devices over 80% for cobalt ferrite coated DNA when a field of 20 kOe is applied. In comparison, studies using two dimensional nanoparticle films of irox oxides xii only exhibit a 35% MR effect. Confinement into one dimension using the DNA guide produces a TMR mechanism which produces significant increases in magnetoresistance. This property can be utilized for applications in magnetic field sensing, data storage, and logic elements.

  2. Therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Monie, Archana; Tsen, Shaw-Wei D; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with several human cancers, including cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal and anal cancer, and a subset of head and neck cancers. The identification of HPV as an etiological factor for HPV-associated malignancies creates the opportunity for the control of these cancers through vaccination. Currently, the preventive HPV vaccine using HPV virus-like particles has been proven to be safe and highly effective. However, this preventive vaccine does not have therapeutic effects, and a significant number of people have established HPV infection and HPV-associated lesions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop therapeutic HPV vaccines to facilitate the control of HPV-associated malignancies and their precursor lesions. Among the various forms of therapeutic HPV vaccines, DNA vaccines have emerged as a potentially promising approach for vaccine development due to their safety profile, ease of preparation and stability. However, since DNA does not have the intrinsic ability to amplify or spread in transfected cells like viral vectors, DNA vaccines can have limited immunogenicity. Therefore, it is important to develop innovative strategies to improve DNA vaccine potency. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are key players in the generation of antigen-specific immune responses, it is important to develop innovative strategies to modify the properties of the DNA-transfected DCs. These strategies include increasing the number of antigen-expressing/antigen-loaded DCs, improving antigen processing and presentation in DCs, and enhancing the interaction between DCs and T cells. Many of the studies on DNA vaccines have been performed on preclinical models. Encouraging results from impressive preclinical studies have led to several clinical trials. PMID:19722895

  3. Comprehensive gene expression profiling following DNA vaccination of rainbow trout against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Nichols, Krista M.; Winton, James R.; Kurath, Gael; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Wheeler, Paul; Hansen, John D.; Herwig, Russell P.; Park, Linda K.

    2006-01-01

    The DNA vaccine based on the glycoprotein gene of Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus induces a non-specific anti-viral immune response and long-term specific immunity against IHNV. This study characterized gene expression responses associated with the early anti-viral response. Homozygous rainbow trout were injected intra-muscularly (I.M.) with vector DNA or the IHNV DNA vaccine. Gene expression in muscle tissue (I.M. site) was evaluated using a 16,008 feature salmon cDNA microarray. Eighty different genes were significantly modulated in the vector DNA group while 910 genes were modulated in the IHNV DNA vaccinate group relative to control group. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to examine expression of selected immune genes at the I.M. site and in other secondary tissues. In the localized response (I.M. site), the magnitudes of gene expression changes were much greater in the vaccinate group relative to the vector DNA group for the majority of genes analyzed. At secondary systemic sites (e.g. gill, kidney and spleen), type I IFN-related genes were up-regulated in only the IHNV DNA vaccinated group. The results presented here suggest that the IHNV DNA vaccine induces up-regulation of the type I IFN system across multiple tissues, which is the functional basis of early anti-viral immunity.

  4. Relatedness of Strains of Xanthomonas fragariae by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, DNA-DNA Reassociation, and Fatty Acid Analyses†

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, P. D.; Hodge, N. C.; Bouzar, H.; Jones, J. B.; Stall, R. E.; Berger, R. D.; Chase, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    The levels of relatedness of strains of Xanthomonas fragariae collected over several years from locations in Canada and the United States were compared by determining fatty acid methyl ester profiles, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, and DNA-DNA reassociation values. Based on qualitative and quantitative differences in fatty acid profiles, the strains were divided into nine groups and four groups by the MIDI “10% rule” and unweighted pair analysis, respectively. Restriction analysis of genomic DNA by PFGE with two endonucleases (XbaI and SpeI) revealed four distinct profiles. When a third endonuclease (VspI) was used, one group was divided into three subgroups. The profile of the American Type Culture Collection type strain differed from the profile of every other strain of X. fragariae. Considerable diversity was observed within X. fragariae, although the majority of the strains represented a clonal population. The four groups based on fatty acid profiles were similar to the four groups based on RFLP, but neither method related groups to the geographic origins of the strains. The DNA-DNA reassociation values were high for representative strains, providing evidence that all of the strains belong to the same species. PMID:9758826

  5. Quantum isometry groups for dihedral group D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jicheng; Qiu, Daowen

    2012-09-01

    The main goal of this paper is to extend the results of Bhowmicka on quantum isometry groups associated to the dihedral group D6 to the case of D10, and then we show that QISO+(D10,S) is isomorphic to C∗(D10)⊕C∗(D10) as a C∗-algebra. We further show that QISO+(D,S) is isomorphic to C∗(D)⊕C∗(D) as a C∗-algebra, for n≥3.

  6. Rigidity of melting DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Tanmoy; Bhattacharjee, Somendra M.

    2016-05-01

    The temperature dependence of DNA flexibility is studied in the presence of stretching and unzipping forces. Two classes of models are considered. In one case the origin of elasticity is entropic due to the polymeric correlations, and in the other the double-stranded DNA is taken to have an intrinsic rigidity for bending. In both cases single strands are completely flexible. The change in the elastic constant for the flexible case due to thermally generated bubbles is obtained exactly. For the case of intrinsic rigidity, the elastic constant is found to be proportional to the square root of the bubble number fluctuation.

  7. [From pendulum to DNA].

    PubMed

    Iakushevich, L V

    2013-01-01

    In the review the results on the modeling of angular oscillations of the nitrous bases in short and long (in the limit - infinite) fragments of polynucleotide DNA chains are collected and systematized. The material is arranged so to represent the results of investigations in the course of development beginning from those obtained first for elementary models as the pendulum or a pair of coupled unequal pendulums, and then for more complex DNA models. The description of dynamic behavior features of all considered model systems is executed in the uniform mathematical language representing a state of model system as a point, moving along a certain trajectory in the phase space. PMID:24159808

  8. DNA Separation on Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Braiman, Avital; Rudakov, Fedor M; Thundat, Thomas George

    2010-01-01

    Recent experimental work on DNA separation on surfaces reveals a power law behavior of the mobility with size. We employed a simple model that elucidates the observed power law trend. When the external electric field is barely larger than the critical value required for initiating translational motion, the mobility is approximately inversely proportional to the DNA size. At larger fields, mobility scales as N{sup -{alpha}} with 0 < {alpha} < 1, while showing oscillatory structure. Finally, at very large fields, mobility becomes size independent. Our model provides insight into separation mechanisms and presents numerical results that explain power law scaling.

  9. DNA banking and DNA databanking by academic and commercial laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    McEwen, J.E. |; Reilly, P.R.

    1994-09-01

    The advent of DNA-based testing is giving rise to DNA banking (the long-term storage of cells, transformed cell lines, or extracted DNA for subsequent retrieval and analysis) and DNA data banking (the indefinite storage of information derived from DNA analysis). Large scale acquisition and storage of DNA and DNA data has important implications for the privacy rights of individuals. A survey of 148 academically based and commercial DNA diagnostic laboratories was conducted to determine: (1) the extent of their DNA banking activities; (2) their policies and experiences regarding access to DNA samples and data; (3) the quality assurance measures they employ; and (4) whether they have written policies and/or depositor`s agreements addressing specific issues. These issues include: (1) who may have access to DNA samples and data; (2) whether scientists may have access to anonymous samples or data for research use; (3) whether they have plans to contact depositors or retest samples if improved tests for a disorder become available; (4) disposition of samples at the end of the contract period if the laboratory ceases operations, if storage fees are unpaid, or after a death or divorce; (5) the consequence of unauthorized release, loss, or accidental destruction of samples; and (6) whether depositors may share in profits from the commercialization of tests or treatments developed in part from studies of stored DNA. The results suggest that many laboratories are banking DNA, that many have already amassed a large number of samples, and that a significant number plan to further develop DNA banking as a laboratory service over the next two years. Few laboratories have developed written policies governing DNA banking, and fewer still have drafted documents that define the rights and obligations of the parties. There may be a need for increased regulation of DNA banking and DNA data banking and for better defined policies with respect to protecting individual privacy.

  10. The Fanconi anemia pathway promotes DNA glycosylase-dependent excision of interstrand DNA crosslinks.

    PubMed

    Macé-Aimé, Gaëtane; Couvé, Sophie; Khassenov, Bekbolat; Rosselli, Filippo; Saparbaev, Murat K

    2010-07-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive cancer prone syndrome featuring bone marrow failure and hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) and, to a milder extension, to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. Recently, we reported that human oxidative DNA glycosylase, NEIL1 excises with high efficiency the unhooked crosslinked oligomer within three-stranded DNA repair intermediate induced by photoactivated psoralen exposure. Complete reconstitution of repair of the ICL within a three-stranded DNA structure shows that it is processed in the short-patch base excision repair (BER) pathway. To examine whether the DNA damage hypersensitivity in FA cells follows impaired BER activities, we measured DNA glycosylase and AP endonuclease activities in cell-free extracts from wild-type, FA, and FA-corrected cells. We showed that immortalized lymphoid cells of FA complementation Groups A, C, and D and from control cells from normal donors contain similar BER activities. Intriguingly, the cellular level of NEIL1 protein strongly depends on the intact FA pathway suggesting that the hypersensitivity of FA cells to ICLs may, at least in part, arise from downregulation or degradation of NEIL1. Consistent with this result, plasmid-based expression of the FLAG-tagged NEIL1 protein partially complements the hypersensitivity FA cells to the crosslinking agents exposures, suggesting that NEIL1 specifically complements impaired capability of FA cells to repair ICLs and oxidative DNA damage. These findings shed light to how the FA pathway may regulate DNA repair proteins and bring explanation for the long-time disputed problem of the oxidative stress sensitive phenotype of FA cells. PMID:20120016

  11. The Implications of DNA Methylation for Toxicology: Toward Toxicomethylomics, the Toxicology of DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Szyf, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Identifying agents that have long-term deleterious impact on health but exhibit no immediate toxicity is of prime importance. It is well established that long-term toxicity of chemicals could be caused by their ability to generate changes in the DNA sequence through the process of mutagenesis. Several assays including the Ames test and its different modifications were developed to assess the mutagenic potential of chemicals (Ames, B. N., Durston, W. E., Yamasaki, E., and Lee, F. D. (1973a). Carcinogens are mutagens: a simple test system combining liver homogenates for activation and bacteria for detection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70, 22812285; Ames, B. N., Lee, F. D., and Durston, W. E. (1973b). An improved bacterial test system for the detection and classification of mutagens and carcinogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70, 782786). These tests have also been employed for assessing the carcinogenic potential of compounds. However, the DNA molecule contains within its chemical structure two layers of information. The DNA sequence that bears the ancestral genetic information and the pattern of distribution of covalently bound methyl groups on cytosines in DNA. DNA methylation patterns are generated by an innate program during gestation but are attuned to the environment in utero and throughout life including physical and social exposures. DNA function and health could be stably altered by exposure to environmental agents without changing the sequence, just by changing the state of DNA methylation. Our current screening tests do not detect agents that have long-range impact on the phenotype without altering the genotype. The realization that long-range damage could be caused without changing the DNA sequence has important implications on the way we assess the safety of chemicals, drugs, and food and broadens the scope of definition of toxic agents. PMID:21297083

  12. The unusual and dynamic character of PX-DNA.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dong; Jiang, Hualin; Sha, Ruojie; Canary, James W; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2015-09-01

    PX-DNA is a four-stranded DNA structure that has been implicated in the recognition of homology, either continuously, or in an every-other-half-turn fashion. Some of the structural features of the molecule have been noted previously, but the structure requires further characterization. Here, we report atomic force microscopic characterization of PX molecules that contain periodically placed biotin groups, enabling the molecule to be labeled by streptavidin molecules at these sites. In comparison with conventional double stranded DNA and with antiparallel DNA double crossover molecules, it is clear that PX-DNA is a more dynamic structure. Furthermore, the spacing between the nucleotide pairs along the helix axis is shorter, suggesting a mixed B/A structure. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicates unusual features in the PX molecule that are absent in both the molecules to which it is compared. PMID:26184876

  13. Platinum resistance: the role of DNA repair pathways.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lainie P; Hamilton, Thomas C; Schilder, Russell J

    2008-03-01

    Although platinum chemotherapeutic agents such as carboplatin, cisplatin, and oxaliplatin are used to treat a broad range of malignant diseases, their efficacy in most cancers is limited by the development of resistance. There are multiple factors that contribute to platinum resistance but alterations of DNA repair processes have been known for some time to be important in mediating resistance. Recently acquired knowledge has provided insight into the molecular mechanisms of DNA repair pathways and their effect on response to chemotherapy. This review will discuss the most important DNA repair pathways known to be involved in the platinum response, i.e., nucleotide excision repair (NER) and mismatch repair (MMR), and will briefly touch on the role of BRCA in DNA repair. The therapeutic implications of alterations in DNA repair which affect response to platinum in the treatment of patients with malignant disease, such as excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) deficiency and mismatch repair deficiency, will be reviewed. PMID:18316546

  14. TET enzymes, TDG and the dynamics of DNA demethylation.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Rahul M; Zhang, Yi

    2013-10-24

    DNA methylation has a profound impact on genome stability, transcription and development. Although enzymes that catalyse DNA methylation have been well characterized, those that are involved in methyl group removal have remained elusive, until recently. The transformative discovery that ten-eleven translocation (TET) family enzymes can oxidize 5-methylcytosine has greatly advanced our understanding of DNA demethylation. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is a key nexus in demethylation that can either be passively depleted through DNA replication or actively reverted to cytosine through iterative oxidation and thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG)-mediated base excision repair. Methylation, oxidation and repair now offer a model for a complete cycle of dynamic cytosine modification, with mounting evidence for its significance in the biological processes known to involve active demethylation. PMID:24153300

  15. DNA Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinit; Palazzolo, Stefano; Bayda, Samer; Corona, Giuseppe; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Rizzolio, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology is an emerging and exciting field, and represents a forefront frontier for the biomedical field. The specificity of the interactions between complementary base pairs makes DNA an incredible building material for programmable and very versatile two- and three-dimensional nanostructures called DNA origami. Here, we analyze the DNA origami and DNA-based nanostructures as a drug delivery system. Besides their physical-chemical nature, we dissect the critical factors such as stability, loading capability, release and immunocompatibility, which mainly limit in vivo applications. Special attention was dedicated to highlighting the boundaries to be overcome to bring DNA nanostructures closer to the bedside of patients. PMID:27022418

  16. pH-dependent conformational change of Fe(3+)-binding giant DNA for control of aggregation of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lingling; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Zengfang; Li, Na; Han, Nannan; Zhou, Jianzhang; Lin, Zhonghua

    2011-06-01

    The pH-dependent conformational change of Calf thymus DNA (ctDNA, a typical giant DNA) binding with Fe3+ (Fe(3+)-ctDNA) for control of aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) hybridized with Fe(3+)-ctDNA was described, which was attributed to the interaction between ctDNA and Fe3+. In acidic conditions, significant conformational change of ctDNA from elongated coil state to folded compact state occurs by binding of Fe3+ with the phosphate groups of ctDNA. The SPR absorbance and thus the colors of AuNPs hybridized with Fe(3+)-ctDNA would vary pH-dependently within the pH range 6.0-10.6 as the folded compact ctDNA could not stabilize AuNPs as effectively as the elongated coil ctDNA. Zeta potentials and Raman spectra were studied for revealing the interaction between Fe3+ and ctDNA as well as that between AuNPs and DNA (ctDNA and Fe(3+)-ctDNA). The conformational change of ctDNA driven by Fe3+ was also investigated using CD spectroscopy. This study prompts the possibility that the spectral, and thus color, change of AuNPs can be used to follow the conformational change of giant DNA driven by metal ions and biological relevant pH conditions. PMID:21770098

  17. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, S.; Richardson, C.

    1997-03-25

    A modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase is disclosed. The modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase. 6 figs.

  18. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase wherein the modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase.

  19. DNA-carbon dots function as fluorescent vehicles for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Han; Du, Feiyue; Liu, Pengchang; Chen, Zhijun; Shen, Jiacong

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dots (CDs) are a new representative in the carbon-based material family, attracting tremendous interest in a large variety of fields, including biomedicine. In this report, we described a facile and green system for synthesizing DNA-CDs using genomic DNA isolated from Escherichia coli. DNA-CDs can be purified using a simple column centrifugation-based system. During DNA-CD synthesis, ribose was collapsed, accompanied by the release of nitrogen, and several new bonds (C-OH, N-O, and N-P) were formed, while the other covalent bonds of DNA were largely maintained. The presence of abundant chemical groups, such as amino or hydroxyl groups on DNA-CDs, may facilitate their future functionalization. These highly biocompatible DNA-CDs can serve as a new type of fluorescent vehicle for cell imaging and drug delivery studies. Our research may hasten the development of CDs for prominent future biomedical applications. PMID:25742297

  20. TRANSFECTION WITH BACULOVIRUS DNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purified DNA from the nuclear polyhedrosis viruses of Autographa californica (AcM NPV) and Rachiplusia ou (RoM NPV) were found to be infectious in TN-368 cells employing the calcium phosphate precipitation technique (F.L. Graham and A.J. van der Eb, Virology, 52, 456-467, 1973). ...