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1

Hormonal Growth Promoting Agents in Food Producing Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In contrast to the use of hormonal doping agents in sports to enhance the performance of athletes, in the livestock industry\\u000a hormonal growth promoters (“anabolics”) are used to increase the production of muscle meat. This leads to international disputes\\u000a about the safety of meat originating from animals treated with such anabolics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a As a consequence of the total ban in the

Rainer W. Stephany

2

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): Their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents  

PubMed Central

Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action, leading to a more efficient use for biocontrol strategies to improve cropping systems. PMID:23411488

Beneduzi, Anelise; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

2012-01-01

3

Siderophore as a potential plant growth-promoting agent produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25.  

PubMed

Siderophores scavenges Fe(+3) from the vicinity of the roots of plants, and thus limit the amount of iron required for the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium ultimum, and Fusarium udum, which cause wilt and root rot disease in crops. The ability of Pseudomonas to grow and to produce siderophore depends upon the iron content, pH, and temperature. Maximum yield of siderophore of 130 ?M was observed at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 and temperature of 30 °C at 30 h. The threshold level of iron was 50 ?M, which increases up to 150 ?M, favoring growth but drastically affecting the production of siderophore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25. The seeds of agricultural crops like Cicer arietinum (chick pea), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), and Arachis hypogaea (ground nut) were treated with P. aeruginosa JAS-25, which enhanced the seed germination, root length, shoot length, and dry weight of chick pea, pigeon pea, and ground nut plants under pot studies. The efficient growth of the plants was not only due to the biocontrol activity of the siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa JAS-25 but also may be by the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), which influences the growth of the plants as phytohormones. PMID:25062779

Sulochana, M B; Jayachandra, S Y; Kumar, S Anil; Parameshwar, A B; Reddy, K Mohan; Dayanand, A

2014-09-01

4

Identification of volatiles produced by Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1, a fungal biocontrol agent that promotes plant growth.  

PubMed

Certain microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) have been reported to enhance the growth and development of plants. The biocontrol fungi, Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1 significantly improved the growth of tobacco seedlings in vitro when they were co-cultivated without physical contact. SPME Quadrupole GC/MS/MS revealed that CL-1 emited the volatiles ?-pinene, (-)-trans-caryophyllene, tetrahydro-2,2,5,5-tetramethylfuran, dehydroaromadendrene, and (+)-sativene. Potential roles of these volatiles in plant growth and development are discussed. Even though there were several fungal VOCs reported in the past that could influence plant growth, their exact mechanisms of action are not fully known. Fungal VOC-mediated plant growth promotion requires in-depth study in order for this technology to be used in large scale for crops, especially those grown under greenhouse conditions. PMID:24135990

Paul, Diby; Park, Kyung Seok

2013-01-01

5

Identification of Volatiles Produced by Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1, a Fungal Biocontrol Agent That Promotes Plant Growth  

PubMed Central

Certain microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) have been reported to enhance the growth and development of plants. The biocontrol fungi, Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1 significantly improved the growth of tobacco seedlings in vitro when they were co-cultivated without physical contact. SPME Quadrupole GC/MS/MS revealed that CL-1 emited the volatiles ?-pinene, (?)-trans-caryophyllene, tetrahydro-2,2,5,5-tetramethylfuran, dehydroaromadendrene, and (+)-sativene. Potential roles of these volatiles in plant growth and development are discussed. Even though there were several fungal VOCs reported in the past that could influence plant growth, their exact mechanisms of action are not fully known. Fungal VOC-mediated plant growth promotion requires in-depth study in order for this technology to be used in large scale for crops, especially those grown under greenhouse conditions. PMID:24135990

Paul, Diby; Park, Kyung Seok

2013-01-01

6

Benefits and risks of growth promoters in animal production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Producers use growth promoters to increase growth rates and improve overall efficiency and product quality. Various compounds have been tried for growth promotion, including hormones and antimicrobial agents. Natural hormones such estradiol (estrogen), progestrone and testosterone or synthetic hormones such as zeranol, melengestrol acetate and trenbolone acetate are widely used as growth promoters in animals. The non- therapeutic use of

S. N. Al-Dobai; H. M. Mous

2009-01-01

7

Proximal promoter region of the human vascular endothelial growth factor gene has a G-quadruplex structure which can be targeted by G-quadruplex-interactive agents  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on the functional analysis of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoter using the full-length VEGF promoter reporter revealed that the proximal 36-bp region (?85 to ?50 relative to transcription initiation site) is essential for basal or inducible VEGF promoter activity in several human cancer cells. This region consists of a polypurine (guanine) tract that contains four runs of at least three contiguous guanines separated by one or more bases, thus conforming to a general motif capable of forming an intramolecular G-quadruplex. Here, we demonstrated that the G-rich strand in this region is able to form an intramolecular propeller-type parallel-stranded G-quadruplex structure in vitro by using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), dimethyl sulfate (DMS) footprinting technique, DNA polymerase stop assay, CD spectroscopy, and computer-aided molecular modeling. Two well-known G-quadruplex interactive agents, TMPyP4 and Se2SAP, stabilize G-quadruplex structures formed by this sequence in the presence of potassium ion, although Se2SAP is at least 10 fold more effective in binding to the G-quadruplex than TMPyP4. Between these two agents, Se2SAP better suppresses VEGF transcription in different cancer cell lines, including HEC-A1 and MDA-MB-231. Collectively, our results provide evidence that specific G-quadruplex structures can be formed in the VEGF promoter region, and that the transcription of this gene can be controlled by ligand-mediated G-quadruplex stabilization. Our results also provide further support for the idea that G-quadruplex structures may play structural roles in vivo and therefore might provide insight into novel methodologies for rational drug design. PMID:18413801

Sun, Daekyu; Liu, Wei-Jun; Guo, Kexiao; Rusche, Jadrian J.; Ebbinghaus, Scot; Gokhale, Vijay; Hurley, Laurence H.

2008-01-01

8

Analytical strategies for residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents in food-producing animals--a review.  

PubMed

After a brief introduction into the field of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents, the most important EU regulations and directives for the inspection of food-producing animals and animal products regarding the residue control of these substances are presented and discussed. Main attention in the review is on the methods of analysis in use today for the most important classes of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents viz. anthelmintics, antibiotics, coccidiostats, hormones, beta-agonists and tranquillizers. Emphasis is given to the potential, and limitations, of state-of-the-art analytical procedures and their performance characteristics. The most obvious conclusion is that, today (reversed-phase) liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometric detection--either triple-quadrupole or ion-trap multi-stage--is the preferred technique in a large majority of all cases. In the field of sample treatment, the combined use of liquid extraction--i.e., liquid partitioning or liquid-liquid extraction--and liquid-solid extraction--primary on- or off-line solid-phase extraction--is most popular. Finally, while the analytical tools required to meet the demands typically formulated by governments and international organizations today, generally speaking are available, several problems still do exist. To quote three examples, problems are encountered in the area of simultaneously extracting and pre-treating groups of analytes with mutually widely different polarities, with regard to identification-point--based confirmation of analyte identity, and regarding quantification errors caused by ion-suppression effects. Improving the speed of analysis is another aspect that should, and will, receive dedicated interest in the near future. PMID:15844509

Stolker, A A M; Brinkman, U A Th

2005-03-01

9

Determination of synthetic growth promoters in bile  

Microsoft Academic Search

To monitor the use of synthetic growth promoting hormones in red meat animals requires a sensitive and rapid method of analysis. This paper describes the development of such a method for these agents in bile, based on a high pressure liquid chromatographic purification procedure with detection and estimation by radioimmunoassay.

M. L. Bates; M. J. Warwick; G. Shearer

1985-01-01

10

Effect of a novel botanical agent Drynol Cibotin on human osteoblast cells and implications for osteoporosis: promotion of cell growth, calcium uptake and collagen production.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a widespread problem afflicting millions of people. Drynol Cibotinis is a newly developed proprietary botanical combination of eight botanicals including Angelica sinensis, Glycine max, Wild yam, Ligustrum lucidum, Astragalus membranaceus, Cuscuta chinensis, Psoraleae corylifoliae, and Drynaria fortune. Each of the botanicals has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat osteoporosis. The effect of Drynol Cibotinis, with the specific combination of these anti-osteoporosis botanicals for promoting bone growth, was examined in this study. The effects of Drynol Cibotin on cell growth, apoptosis, cell spreading, calcium uptake and production of bone matrix proteins Collagen I and Laminin B2 on human osteoblast cells were assessed by BrdU incorporation, TUNEL assay, cell staining, intracellular Ca2+ measurement and Western blot analysis. The results showed that Drynol Cibotin significantly increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in osteoblasts (P < 0.01). In addition, Drynol Cibotin was found to promote cell spreading and greatly increase calcium uptake both instantaneously and in the long term (P < 0.01). Furthermore, Drynol Cibotin significantly increased production of two key extracellular matrix proteins in bone cells: Collagen I and Laminin B2. These results indicate that Drynol Cibotin alone or in combination with amino acids and vitamins may have prophylactic potentials in osteoporosis. PMID:19953582

Wegiel, Barbara; Persson, Jenny L

2010-06-01

11

Bacterial volatiles promote growth in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several chemical changes in soil are associated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Some bacterial strains directly regulate plant physiology by mimicking synthesis of plant hormones, whereas others increase mineral and nitrogen availability in the soil as a way to augment growth. Identification of bacterial chemical messengers that trigger growth promotion has been limited in part by the understanding of how

Choong-Min Ryu; Mohamed A. Farag; Chia-Hui Hu; Munagala S. Reddy; Han-Xun Wei; Paul W. Paré; Joseph W. Kloepper

2003-01-01

12

Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. III. Alternatives to antibiotic growth promotants  

E-print Network

Review Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. III. Alternatives to antibiotic growth promotants Sigvard Thomke Klas Elwinger Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Sweden Univ Agric additives and feeding strategies are reviewed. Nutrient absorption is facilitated by dietary incorporation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

13

Hair growth-promoting effect of Carthamus tinctorius floret extract.  

PubMed

The florets of Carthamus tinctorius L. have traditionally been used for hair growth promotion. This study aimed to examine the potential of hydroxysafflor yellow A-rich C.?tinctorius extract (CTE) on hair growth both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of CTE on cell proliferation and hair growth-associated gene expression in dermal papilla cells and keratinocytes (HaCaT) was determined. In addition, hair follicles from mouse neonates were isolated and cultured in media supplemented with CTE. Moreover, CTE was applied topically on the hair-shaved skin of female C57BL/6 mice, and the histological profile of the skin was investigated. C.?tinctorius floret ethanolic extract promoted the proliferation of both dermal papilla cells and HaCaT and significantly stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor and keratinocyte growth factor. In contrast, CTE suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-?1 that is the hair loss-related gene. Furthermore, CTE treatment resulted in a significant increase in the length of cultured hair follicles and stimulated the growth of hair with local effects in mice. The results provided the preclinical data to support the potential use of CTE as a hair growth-promoting agent. PMID:24338940

Junlatat, Jintana; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

2014-07-01

14

Bacterial volatiles promote growth in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Several chemical changes in soil are associated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Some bacterial strains directly regulate plant physiology by mimicking synthesis of plant hormones, whereas others increase mineral and nitrogen availability in the soil as a way to augment growth. Identification of bacterial chemical messengers that trigger growth promotion has been limited in part by the understanding of how plants respond to external stimuli. With an increasing appreciation of how volatile organic compounds signal plants and serve in plant defense, investigations into the role of volatile components in plant–bacterial systems now can follow. Here, we present chemical and plant-growth data showing that some PGPR release a blend of volatile components that promote growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. In particular, the volatile components 2,3-butanediol and acetoin were released exclusively from two bacterial strains that trigger the greatest level of growth promotion. Furthermore, pharmacological applications of 2,3-butanediol enhanced plant growth whereas bacterial mutants blocked in 2,3-butanediol and acetoin synthesis were devoid in this growth-promotion capacity. The demonstration that PGPR strains release different volatile blends and that plant growth is stimulated by differences in these volatile blends establishes an additional function for volatile organic compounds as signaling molecules mediating plant–microbe interactions. PMID:12684534

Ryu, Choong-Min; Farag, Mohamed A.; Hu, Chia-Hui; Reddy, Munagala S.; Wei, Han-Xun; Paré, Paul W.; Kloepper, Joseph W.

2003-01-01

15

Soil inoculation with the biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea and the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices results in mutual inhibition, plant growth promotion and alteration of soil microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between the biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea IK 726 and a tomato\\/Glomus intraradices BEG87 symbiosis were examined with and without wheat bran, which served as a food base for C. rosea. In soil without wheat bran amendment, inoculation with C. rosea increased plant growth and altered shoot nutrient content resulting in an increase and decrease in P and N content,

Sabine Ravnskov; Birgit Jensen; Inge M. B. Knudsen; Lars Bødker; Dan Funck Jensen; Leszek Karli?ski; John Larsen

2006-01-01

16

Using Community Health Workers in Community-Based Growth Promotion: What Stakeholders Think  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Nutrition and Malaria Control for Child Survival Project is a community-based growth promotion project that utilizes Community Health Workers (CHWs), referred to as Community Child Growth Promoters (CCGPs), as the principal change agents. The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of key stakeholders about the project and the role…

Afulani, Patience A.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Opoku, Ernest C.; Asunka, Joseph

2012-01-01

17

Growth Promotion of Maize (Zea mays L.) by Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria under Field Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play an important role in plant health and soil fertility. The experiment was conducted as factorial experiment with two factors of Azospirillum and Azotobacter. The bacterial strains were Azospirillum lipoferum s-21, A. brasilense DSM 1690, A. lipoferum DSM 1691, Azotobacter chroococcum s-5, and A. chroococcum DSM 2286. The results indicated that growth promotion by PGPR appears

Ahmad Gholami; Atena Biyari; Manoochehr Gholipoor; Hadi Asadi Rahmani

2012-01-01

18

Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp.  

PubMed

Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, known as the hybrid, E. urograndis. Eighteen isolates of E. urograndis, clone 4622, were tested for plant growth promotion using the same clone. These isolates were also evaluated for indole acetic acid production and their potential for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The isolates were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA. Bacillus subtilis was the most prevalent species. Several Bacillus species, including B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, were found for the first time as endophytes of eucalyptus. Bacillus sp strain EUCB 10 significantly increased the growth of the root and aerial parts of eucalyptus plantlets under greenhouse conditions, during the summer and winter seasons. PMID:22930432

Paz, I C P; Santin, R C M; Guimarães, A M; Rosa, O P P; Dias, A C F; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Matsumura, A T S

2012-01-01

19

Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor Promotes Vascular Repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intravascular injury to arteries can result in thickening of the intimal smooth muscle layer adjacent to the lumen by migration and proliferation of cells from the underlying medial smooth muscle layer accompanied by deposition of extracellular matrix. This pathological response, which decreases lumen diameter, might, in part, be the result of the access of smooth muscle cells to plasma and platelet-derived growth factors as a consequence of denudation of the overlying confluent monolayer of vascular endothelial cells. Injured rat carotid arteries were treated by i.v. administration of acidic fibroblast growth factor, a heparin-binding protein that is chemotactic and mitogenic for vascular endothelial cells. The growth factor treatment resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of intimal thickening with parallel promotion of endothelial regeneration over the injured area. Therefore, acidic fibroblast growth factor might be efficacious in the prevention of restenosis caused by intimal thickening following angioplasty in humans.

Bjornsson, Thorir D.; Dryjski, Maciej; Tluczek, John; Mennie, Robert; Ronan, John; Mellin, Theodore N.; Thomas, Kenneth A.

1991-10-01

20

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria: Fundamentals and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have gained worldwide importance and acceptance for agricultural benefits. This\\u000a is due to the emerging demand for dependence diminishing of synthetic chemical products, to the growing necessity of sustainable\\u000a agriculture within a holistic vision of development and to focalize environmental protection. Scientific researches involve\\u000a multidisciplinary approaches to understand adaptation of PGPR, effects on plant physiology

Márcia Figueiredo; Lucy Seldin; Fabio Fernando de Araujo; Rosa Mariano

21

Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum  

PubMed Central

Background Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake and producing growth-promoting metabolites such as gibberellins and auxins. We screened roots of Ixeris repenes (L.) A. Gray, a common dune plant, for the isolation of gibberellin secreting endophytic fungi. Results We isolated 15 endophytic fungi from the roots of Ixeris repenes and screened them for growth promoting secondary metabolites. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 gave maximum plant growth when applied to waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii seedlings. Analysis of the culture filtrate of IR-3-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 (1.95 ng/ml, 3.83 ng/ml, 6.03 ng/ml and 2.35 ng/ml, respectively) along with other physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA12, GA15, GA19, GA20 and, GA24. The plant growth promotion and gibberellin producing capacity of IR-3-3 was much higher than the wild type Gibberella fujikuroi, which was taken as control during present study. GA5, a precursor of bioactive GA3 was reported for the first time in fungi. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 was identified as a new strain of Penicillium citrinum (named as P. citrinum KACC43900) through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Conclusion Isolation of new strain of Penicillium citrinum from the sand dune flora is interesting as information on the presence of Pencillium species in coastal sand dunes is limited. The plant growth promoting ability of this fungal strain may help in conservation and revegetation of the rapidly eroding sand dune flora. Penicillium citrinum is already known for producing mycotoxin citrinin and cellulose digesting enzymes like cellulase and endoglucanase, as well as xylulase. Gibberellins producing ability of this fungus and the discovery about the presence of GA5 will open new aspects of research and investigations. PMID:19099608

Khan, Sumera Afzal; Hamayun, Muhammad; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kim, Ho-Youn; Suh, Seok-Jong; Hwang, Seon-Kap; Kim, Jong-Myeong; Lee, In-Jung; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kong, Won-Sik; Lee, Byung-Moo; Kim, Jong-Guk

2008-01-01

22

Microaerophilic Conditions Promote Growth of Mycobacterium genavense  

PubMed Central

Our studies show that microaerophilic conditions promote the growth of Mycobacterium genavense in semisolid medium. The growth of M. genavense at 2.5 or 5% oxygen was superior to that obtained at 21% oxygen in BACTEC primary cultures (Middlebrook 7H12, pH 6.0, without additives). By using nondecontaminated specimens, it was possible to detect growth with very small inocula (25 bacilli/ml) of 12 different M. genavense strains (from nude mice) within 6 weeks of incubation under low oxygen tension; conversely, with 21% oxygen, no growth of 8 of 12 (66.7%) M. genavense strains was detected (growth index, <10). The same beneficial effect of 2.5 or 5% oxygen was observed in primary cultures of a decontaminated clinical specimen. Low oxygen tension (2.5 or 5%) is recommended for the primary isolation of M. genavense. Microaerophilic cultivation of other atypical mycobacteria, especially slow-growing (e.g., Mycobacterium avium) and difficult-to-grow (e.g., Mycobacterium ulcerans) species, is discussed. PMID:9705393

Realini, L.; De Ridder, K.; Palomino, J.-C.; Hirschel, B.; Portaels, F.

1998-01-01

23

Oxidative Stress by Targeted Agents Promotes Cytotoxicity in Hematologic Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Abstract The past decade has seen an exponential increase in the number of cancer therapies with defined molecular targets. Interestingly, many of these new agents are also documented to raise levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in addition to inhibiting a biochemical target. In most cases, the exact link between the primary target of the drug and effects on cellular redox status is unknown. However, it is important to understand the role of oxidative stress in promoting cytotoxicity by these agents, because the design of multiregimen strategies could conceivably build on these redox alterations. Also, drug resistance mediated by antioxidant defenses could potentially be anticipated and circumvented with improved knowledge of the redox-related effects of these targeted agents. Given the large number of targeted chemotherapies, in this review, we focus on selected agents that have shown promise in hematologic malignancies: proteasome inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, Bcl-2–targeted agents, and a kinase inhibitor called adaphostin. Despite structural differences within classes of these compounds, a commonality of causing increased oxidative stress exists, which contributes to induction of cell death. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1123–1137. PMID:19018667

2009-01-01

24

Biosensor for organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters.  

PubMed

The toxic metalloid arsenic is widely distributed in food, water, and soil. While inorganic arsenic enters the environment primarily from geochemical sources, methylarsenicals either result from microbial biotransformation of inorganic arsenic or are introduced anthropogenically. Methylarsenicals such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA) have been extensively utilized as herbicides, and aromatic arsenicals such as roxarsone (Rox) are used as growth promoters for poultry and swine. Organoarsenicals are degraded to inorganic arsenic. The toxicological effects of arsenicals depend on their oxidation state, chemical composition, and bioavailability. Here we report that the active forms are the trivalent arsenic-containing species. We constructed a whole-cell biosensor utilizing a modified ArsR repressor that is highly selective toward trivalent methyl and aromatic arsenicals, with essentially no response to inorganic arsenic. The biosensor was adapted for in vitro detection of organoarsenicals using fluorescence anisotropy of ArsR-DNA interactions. It detects bacterial biomethylation of inorganic arsenite both in vivo and in vitro with detection limits of 10(-7) M and linearity to 10(-6) M for phenylarsenite and 5 × 10(-6) M for methylarsenite. The biosensor detects reduced forms of MSMA and roxarsone and offers a practical, low cost method for detecting activate forms and breakdown products of organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters. PMID:24359149

Chen, Jian; Sun, Samio; Li, Chen-Zhong; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rosen, Barry P

2014-01-21

25

Promotion of Plant Growth by Bacterial ACC Deaminase  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, there has been only limited commercial use of plant growth-promoting bacteria in agriculture, horticulture, and silviculture. However, with recent progress toward understanding the mechanisms that these organisms utilize to facilitate plant growth, the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria is expected to continue to increase worldwide. One of the key mechanisms employed by plant growth-promoting bacteria to facilitate plant

Bernard R. Glick; Biljana Todorovic; Jennifer Czarny; Zhenyu Cheng; Jin Duan; Brendan McConkey

2007-01-01

26

Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. I. Growth and feed efficiency responses  

E-print Network

- poration of such growth promoters into animal feed mixtures has made it possible to improve ani- mal healthReview Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. I. Growth and feed efficiency responses to antibiotic growth promotants Sigvard Thomke Klas Elwinger Department of Animal Nutrition and Management

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

Ethylene Promotes Elongation Growth and Auxin Promotes Radial Growth in Ranunculus sceleratus Petioles 1  

PubMed Central

Submergence induces elongation in the petioles of Ranunculus sceleratus L., after a rise in endogenous ethylene levels in the tissue. Petioles of isolated leaves also elongate 100% in 24 hours when treated with ethylene gas, without a change in the radius. Application of silver thiosulfate, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), abscisic acid (ABA), or methyl jasmonate inhibits this elongation response. Gibberellic acid treatment promotes ethylene-induced elongation, without an effect on the radius. Indoelastic acid (IAA) induces radial growth in the petioles, irrespective of the presence or absence of added ethylene. High concentrations of IAA will also induce elongation growth, but this is largely due to auxin-induced ethylene synthesis; treatment with silver thiosulfate, AVG, ABA, or methyl jasmonate inhibit this auxin-promoted elongation growth. However, the radial growth induced by IAA is not affected by gibberellic acid, and not specifically inhibited by ABA, methyl jasmonate, silver thiosulfate, or AVG. These results support the idea that petiole cell elongation during “accommodation growth” can be separated from radial expansion. The radial expansion may well be regulated by IAA. However, effects of high levels of IAA are probably anomalous, since they do not mimic normal developmental patterns. PMID:16668257

Smulders, Marinus J. M.; Horton, Roger F.

1991-01-01

28

A natural plant growth promoter calliterpenone from a plant Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl improves the plant growth promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs).  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calliterpenone, a natural plant growth promoter from a shrub Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl., in enhancing the growth and yield promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), in menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L).This study is based on our previous results indicating the microbial growth promotion by calliterpenone and assumption that application of calliterpenone along with PGPRs will improve the population of PGPRs resulting in higher impacts on plant growth and yield. Of the 15 PGPRs (identified as potent ones in our laboratory), 25 ?l of 0.01 mM calliterpenone (8.0 ?g/100 ml) was found to be useful in improving the population of nine PGPRs in culture media. The five selected strains of PGPRs exhibiting synergy with calliterpenone in enhancing growth of maize compared to PGPR or calliterpenone alone were selected and tested on two cultivars (cvs. Kosi and Kushal) of M. arvensis. Of the five strains, Bacillus subtilis P-20 (16S rDNA sequence homologous to Accession No NR027552) and B. subtilis Daz-26 (16SrDNA sequence homologuos to Accession No GU998816) were found to be highly effective in improving the herb and essential oil yield in the cultivars Kushal and Kosi respectively when co-treated with calliterpenone. The results open up the possibilities of using a natural growth promoter along with PGPRs as a bio-agri input for sustainable and organic agriculture. PMID:23271460

Maji, Deepamala; Barnawal, Deepti; Gupta, Aakansha; King, Shikha; Singh, A K; Kalra, A

2013-05-01

29

Multitrait plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea rhizosphere : Keratin degradation and growth promotion.  

PubMed

Plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, a beneficial microbe colonizing plant roots, enhanced crop productivity and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. The keratinous waste which comprises feathers, hairs, nails, skin and wool creates problem of solid waste management due to presence of highly recalcitrant keratin. The multi traits rhizobacteria effective to remove both keratine from the environment by producing keratinase enzyme and to eradicate the chemical fertilizer by providing different PGP activity is novel achievement. In the present study, the effective PM2 strain of PGPR was isolated from rhizospheric soil of mustard (Brassica juncea) field, Pantnagar and they were identified on the basis of different biochemical tests as belonging to Bacillus genera. Different plant growth promoting activity, feather degradation and keratinolytic activity was performed and found very effective toward all the parameters. Furthermore, the efficient strain PM2 was identified on the basis of 16s rRNA sequencing and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The strain PM2 might be used efficiently for keratinous waste management and PGP activity. Therefore, the present study suggests that Bacillus cereus have multi traits activity which extremely useful for different PGP activity and biotechnological process involving keratin hydrolysis, feather biodegradation or in the leather industry. PMID:24778758

Anwar, Mohmmad Shahbaz; Siddique, Mohammad Tahir; Verma, Amit; Rao, Yalaga Rama; Nailwal, Tapan; Ansari, Mohammad; Pande, Veena

2014-01-01

30

Growth Inhibition of Sympathetic Cells by Some Adrenergic Blocking Agents  

PubMed Central

Treatment of newborn mice and rats with the adrenergic blocking agents, guanethidine and bretylium tosylate, results in massive destruction of immature sympathetic nerve cells. A growth inhibition of the same cells is caused by reserpine. Similarities and differences between the effects elicited by these three ganglion blocking agents and a dopamine analog, 6-hydroxydopamine, are discussed. Images PMID:4333047

Angeletti, Pietro U.; Levi-Montalcini, Rita

1972-01-01

31

Developing Teacher Evaluation Systems That Promote Professional Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of teacher evaluation systems that promote professional growth is discussed, based on studies in South Kitsap, North Haven, and Levittown of adult development and teacher evaluation and the professional experiences of D. L. Duke. "Decoupling" accountability from professional growth provides the best means of forwarding the latter.…

Duke, Daniel L.

1990-01-01

32

Applications of free living plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-living plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can be used in a variety of ways when plant growth enhancements are required. The most intensively researched use of PGPR has been in agriculture and horticulture. Several PGPR formulations are currently available as commercial products for agricultural production. Recently developing areas of PGPR usage include forest regeneration and phytoremediation of contaminated soils. As the

M. Lucy; E. Reed; Bernard R. Glick

2004-01-01

33

Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake

Sumera Afzal Khan; Muhammad Hamayun; Hyeokjun Yoon; Ho-Youn Kim; Seok-Jong Suh; Seon-Kap Hwang; Jong-Myeong Kim; In-Jung Lee; Yeon-Sik Choo; Ung-Han Yoon; Won-Sik Kong; Byung-Moo Lee; Jong-Guk Kim

2008-01-01

34

The Interrelationship between Promoter Strength, Gene Expression, and Growth Rate  

PubMed Central

In exponentially growing bacteria, expression of heterologous protein impedes cellular growth rates. Quantitative understanding of the relationship between expression and growth rate will advance our ability to forward engineer bacteria, important for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology applications. Recently, a work described a scaling model based on optimal allocation of ribosomes for protein translation. This model quantitatively predicts a linear relationship between microbial growth rate and heterologous protein expression with no free parameters. With the aim of validating this model, we have rigorously quantified the fitness cost of gene expression by using a library of synthetic constitutive promoters to drive expression of two separate proteins (eGFP and amiE) in E. coli in different strains and growth media. In all cases, we demonstrate that the fitness cost is consistent with the previous findings. We expand upon the previous theory by introducing a simple promoter activity model to quantitatively predict how basal promoter strength relates to growth rate and protein expression. We then estimate the amount of protein expression needed to support high flux through a heterologous metabolic pathway and predict the sizable fitness cost associated with enzyme production. This work has broad implications across applied biological sciences because it allows for prediction of the interplay between promoter strength, protein expression, and the resulting cost to microbial growth rates. PMID:25286161

Klesmith, Justin R.; Detwiler, Emily E.; Tomek, Kyle J.; Whitehead, Timothy A.

2014-01-01

35

Rapamycin promotes Schwann cell migration and nerve growth factor secretion  

PubMed Central

Rapamycin, similar to FK506, can promote neural regeneration in vitro. We assumed that the mechanisms of action of rapamycin and FK506 in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration were similar. This study compared the effects of different concentrations of rapamycin and FK506 on Schwann cells and investigated effects and mechanisms of rapamycin on improving peripheral nerve regeneration. Results demonstrated that the lowest rapamycin concentration (1.53 nmol/L) more significantly promoted Schwann cell migration than the highest FK506 concentration (100?mol/L). Rapamycin promoted the secretion of nerve growth factors and upregulated growth-associated protein 43 expression in Schwann cells, but did not significantly affect Schwann cell proliferation. Therefore, rapamycin has potential application in peripheral nerve regeneration therapy. PMID:25206862

Liu, Fang; Zhang, Haiwei; Zhang, Kaiming; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Shipu; Yin, Yixia

2014-01-01

36

Epidermal growth factor promotes a neural phenotype in thymic epithelial cells and enhances neuropoietic cytokine expression  

PubMed Central

Neural crest-derived cells populate the thymus, and their coexistence with epithelial cells is required for proper organ development and T cell education function. We show here that epidermal growth factor (EGF), a major epithelial cell growth-enhancing agent, has a morphogenetic action to promote the expression of a neuronal phenotype (e.g., neurofilament expression) in cultured thymic epithelial cells that are characterized by a cytokeratin-positive epithelial cell background. The proliferation of such neurodifferentiated cells is also enhanced by EGF. Furthermore, the growth factor enhances cells that express the genes encoding the preprotachykinin A-generated neuropeptides and bipotential neuropoietic and lymphopoietic cytokines ciliary neurotrophic factor and interleukin-6. These cytokines also enhance the neuronal phenotype of thymic epithelial cells. Therefore, EGF appears to be a composite autocrine/paracrine neuromodulator in thymic stroma. This suggests that EGF may regulate thymus-dependent immune functions by promoting neuronal gene expression in neural crest- derived cells. PMID:7540616

1995-01-01

37

Instructive role of the vascular niche in promoting tumour growth and tissue repair by angiocrine factors  

PubMed Central

The precise mechanisms whereby anti-angiogenesis therapy blocks tumour growth or causes vascular toxicity are unknown. We propose that endothelial cells establish a vascular niche that promotes tumour growth and tissue repair not only by delivering nutrients and O2 but also through an ‘angiocrine’ mechanism by producing stem and progenitor cell-active trophogens. Identification of endothelial-derived instructive angiocrine factors will allow direct tumour targeting, while diminishing the unwanted side effects associated with the use of anti-angiogenic agents. PMID:20094048

Butler, Jason M.; Kobayashi, Hideki; Rafii, Shahin

2010-01-01

38

[Characterization of growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Eucalyptus nitens seedlings].  

PubMed

Rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rizosphere and root tissue of Eucalyptus nitens. The objective of this work was to evaluate their capacity to promote growth in seedlings of the same species under greenhouse conditions. The isolates that improved seedling growth were identified and characterized by their capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphates and increase 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. One hundred and five morphologically different strains were isolated, 15 of which promoted E. nitens seedling growth, significantly increasing the height (50%), root length (45%) as well as the aerial and root dry weight (142% and 135% respectively) of the plants. Bacteria belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, Lysinibacillus, Rahnella and Bacillus. Isolates A. phenanthrenivorans 21 and B. cereus 113 improved 3.15 times the emergence of E. nitens after 12 days, compared to control samples. Among isolated R. aquatilis, 78 showed the highest production of IAA (97.5±2.87?g/ml) in the presence of tryptophan and the highest solubilizer index (2.4) for phosphorus, while B. amyloliquefaciens 60 isolate was positive for ACC deaminase activity. Our results reveal the potential of the studied rhizobacteria as promoters of emergence and seedling growth of E. nitens, and their possible use as PGPR inoculants, since they have more than one mechanism associated with plant growth promotion. PMID:25576419

Angulo, Violeta C; Sanfuentes, Eugenio A; Rodríguez, Francisco; Sossa, Katherine E

2014-01-01

39

Growth promoting effect of hyaluronan synthesis promoting substances on Japanese eel leptocephali.  

PubMed

Hyaluronans (HAs) are glycosaminoglycans produced in the bodies of Anguilliform and Elopiform leptocephali, and play a role in metabolic energy. In mammals, HA synthesis-promoting substances (HASPS) up-regulate the expression of HA synthase (HAS) and increase the amount of HA in the body. In this study, Japanese eel leptocephali were fed a HASPS containing diet. We analyzed HAS1s and HAS2 expression, HA content, and their influence on growth. HASPS extracted from Grifola frondosa promoted HAS1s and HAS2 mRNA and HA content. Other than mammals, these results are first reported in vertebrate. Moreover, HASPS extracted from G. frondosa promoted leptocephalus growth. The relationship between growth and HA in the leptocephali is not yet clear. However, based on our results we hypothesize that HA is involved in the storage of energy, which is metabolized to sugars when needed for metabolic energy. PMID:24896609

Kawakami, Yutaka; Nomura, Kazuharu; Tanaka, Hideki

2014-01-01

40

Autocrine Hepatocyte Growth Factor Provides a Local Mechanism for Promoting Axonal Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we describe a novel local mechanism necessary for optimal axonal growth that involves hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion coexpress bioactive HGF and its receptor, the Met tyrosine kinase, both in vivo and in vitro. Exogenous HGF selectively promotes the growth but not survival of cultured sympathetic neurons; the magnitude of this

Xiu-Ming Yang; Jean G. Toma; Shernaz X. Bamji; Daniel J. Belliveau; Judi Kohn; Morag Park; Freda D. Miller

1998-01-01

41

Importance of Biofilm Formation in Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacterial Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Among the diverse soil microflora, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mark an important role in enhancing plant growth\\u000a through a range of beneficial effects. This is often achieved by forming biofilms in the rhizosphere, which has advantages\\u000a over planktonic mode of bacterial existence. However, the biofilm formation of PGPR has been overlooked in past research.\\u000a This chapter focuses on new

Gamini Seneviratne; M. Weerasekara; K. Seneviratne; J. Zavahir; M. Kecskés; I. Kennedy

42

Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Agriculture: History and Mode of Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report will review the history of anti- biotic growth promoter (AGP) use in the animal industry, concerns about development of antimicrobial resistance, and response in the European Union and United States to these concerns. A brief description of the history of legislation regarding feed use of antimicrobials in Den- mark and the experience of animal producers following the 1998

J. J. Dibner; J. D. Richards

43

Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Mechanisms and Applications  

PubMed Central

The worldwide increases in both environmental damage and human population pressure have the unfortunate consequence that global food production may soon become insufficient to feed all of the world's people. It is therefore essential that agricultural productivity be significantly increased within the next few decades. To this end, agricultural practice is moving toward a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach. This includes both the increasing use of transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as a part of mainstream agricultural practice. Here, a number of the mechanisms utilized by plant growth-promoting bacteria are discussed and considered. It is envisioned that in the not too distant future, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) will begin to replace the use of chemicals in agriculture, horticulture, silviculture, and environmental cleanup strategies. While there may not be one simple strategy that can effectively promote the growth of all plants under all conditions, some of the strategies that are discussed already show great promise. PMID:24278762

Glick, Bernard R.

2012-01-01

44

Peppermint Oil Promotes Hair Growth without Toxic Signs.  

PubMed

Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is a plant native to Europe and has been widely used as a carminative and gastric stimulant worldwide. This plant also has been used in cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component and skin conditioning agent. This study investigated the effect of peppermint oil on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were randomized into 4 groups based on different topical applications: saline (SA), jojoba oil (JO), 3% minoxidil (MXD), and 3% peppermint oil (PEO). The hair growth effects of the 4-week topical applications were evaluated in terms of hair growth, histological analysis, enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gene expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), known bio-markers for the enhanced hair growth. Of the 4 experimental groups, PEO group showed the most prominent hair growth effects; a significant increase in dermal thickness, follicle number, and follicle depth. ALP activity and IGF-1 expression also significantly increased in PEO group. Body weight gain and food efficiency were not significantly different between groups. These results suggest that PEO induces a rapid anagen stage and could be used for a practical agent for hair growth without change of body weight gain and food efficiency. PMID:25584150

Oh, Ji Young; Park, Min Ah; Kim, Young Chul

2014-12-01

45

Peppermint Oil Promotes Hair Growth without Toxic Signs  

PubMed Central

Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is a plant native to Europe and has been widely used as a carminative and gastric stimulant worldwide. This plant also has been used in cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component and skin conditioning agent. This study investigated the effect of peppermint oil on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were randomized into 4 groups based on different topical applications: saline (SA), jojoba oil (JO), 3% minoxidil (MXD), and 3% peppermint oil (PEO). The hair growth effects of the 4-week topical applications were evaluated in terms of hair growth, histological analysis, enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gene expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), known bio-markers for the enhanced hair growth. Of the 4 experimental groups, PEO group showed the most prominent hair growth effects; a significant increase in dermal thickness, follicle number, and follicle depth. ALP activity and IGF-1 expression also significantly increased in PEO group. Body weight gain and food efficiency were not significantly different between groups. These results suggest that PEO induces a rapid anagen stage and could be used for a practical agent for hair growth without change of body weight gain and food efficiency. PMID:25584150

Park, Min Ah; Kim, Young Chul

2014-01-01

46

Sorption and mineral-promoted transformation of synthetic hormone growth promoters in soil systems.  

PubMed

This work examines the fate of synthetic growth promoters (trenbolone acetate, melengestrol acetate, and zeranol) in sterilized soil systems, focusing on their sorption to organic matter and propensity for mineral-promoted reactions. In organic-rich soil matrices (e.g., Pahokee Peat), the extent and reversibility of sorption did not generally correlate with compound hydrophobicity (e.g., Kow values), suggesting that specific binding interactions (e.g., potentially hydrogen bonding through C17 hydroxyl groups for the trenbolone and melengestrol families) can also contribute to uptake. In soils with lower organic carbon contents (1-5.9% OC), evidence supports sorption occurring in parallel with surface reaction on inorganic mineral phases. Subsequent experiments with pure mineral phases representative of those naturally abundant in soil (e.g., iron, silica, and manganese oxides) suggest that growth promoters are prone to mineral-promoted oxidation, hydrolysis, and/or nucleophilic (e.g., H2O or OH(-)) addition reactions. Although reaction products remain unidentified, this study shows that synthetic growth promoters can undergo abiotic transformation in soil systems, a previously unidentified fate pathway with implications for their persistence and ecosystem effects in the subsurface. PMID:25426694

Qu, Shen; Kolodziej, Edward P; Cwiertny, David M

2014-12-24

47

Antibiotic growth promoters in agriculture: history and mode of action.  

PubMed

This report will review the history of antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) use in the animal industry, concerns about development of antimicrobial resistance, and response in the European Union and United States to these concerns. A brief description of the history of legislation regarding feed use of antimicrobials in Denmark and the experience of animal producers following the 1998 ban will serve to illustrate the consequences on animal performance and health of withdrawing the approval for this use. The biological basis for antibiotic effects on animal growth efficiency will consider effects on intestinal microbiota and effects on the host animal and will use the germ-free animal to illustrate effects of the conventional microflora. The probability that no single compound will replace all of the functions of antimicrobial growth promoters will be considered, and methods to consolidate and analyze the enlarging database will be discussed. PMID:15844822

Dibner, J J; Richards, J D

2005-04-01

48

Improvement of plant growth and nickel uptake by nickel resistant-plant-growth promoting bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, among a collection of Ni-resistant bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of Alyssum serpyllifolium and Phleum phleoides grown on serpentine soil, five plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were selected based on their ability to utilize 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) as the sole N source and promote seedling growth. All of the strains tested positive for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and

Ying Ma; Mani Rajkumar; Helena Freitas

2009-01-01

49

Growth Enhancement of Chickpea in Saline Soils Using Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial isolates with the ability to tolerate salinity and plant growth-promoting features were isolated from the saline\\u000a areas of Gujarat, India, that is, Bhavnagar and Khambat. A total of 176 strains of rhizobacteria were isolated out of which\\u000a 62 bacterial strains were able to tolerate 1 M NaCl. These were then further studied for their potential plant growth-promoting\\u000a rhizobacteria characteristics like

Dhara Patel; Chaitanya Kumar Jha; Neelam Tank; Meenu Saraf

50

The essential oils of Chamaecyparis obtusa promote hair growth through the induction of vascular endothelial growth factor gene.  

PubMed

Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa) is a conifer in the cypress family Cupressaceae, native to northeast Asia. The essential oils of C. obtusa have antibacterial and antifungal effects and several products such as hygienic bands, aromatics, and shampoos contain these oils as a natural source of antimicrobial/antifungal agents. Interestingly, some consumers suffering from baldness and/or other forms of hair loss have reported a hair growth promoting effect of shampoos containing these oils. In the present study, the hair growth promoting effect of C. obtusa oils was elucidated in an animal model. C. obtusa oils promoted the early phase of hair growth in shaved mice. In addition, we examined the molecular effect of C. obtusa oils on the regulation of hair morphogenesis and hair growth using the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. In the current study of hair growth regulating genes, the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF beta 1), and keratinocyte growth factor(KGF) have been analyzed by real-time PCR in HaCaT cells. The essential oils of C. obtusa were divided into seven fractions for treatment of HaCaT cells. VEGF transcripts were induced by fractions 6 and 7; however, TGF beta 1 and KGF mRNA levels were unchanged by C. obtusa oils or fractions. Fraction 7 was separated into seven sub-fractions and studied further. Sub-fractions E and D significantly increased VEGF and KGF gene expression without up-regulating the hair growth inhibition factor, TGF beta 1. The components of the two sub-fractions were further analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Cuminol, eucarvone, and calamenene were common to these two sub-fractions, although the effects of these individual components were not determined. Taken together, these results suggest that C. obtusa oils promote hair growth in an animal model and a positive regulator of hair growth, VEGF, was induced by particular components of these oils. PMID:19576968

Lee, Geun-Shik; Hong, Eui-Ju; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Choi, In-Gyu; Jang, Je-Won; Jeung, Eui-Bae

2010-01-01

51

Growth promoting effects of some lichen metabolites on probiotic bacteria.  

PubMed

In the present study, the extract of four natural lichen species Canoparmelia eruptens, Everniastrum cirrhatum, Parmotrema austrosinense and Rimelia cetrata were studied for the source of natural antioxidant and their purified secondary metabolites were evaluated for growth promoting effects on probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei. The methanolic fraction of lichen species showed moderate to high antioxidant activity in the order P. austrosinense > E. cirrhatum > C. eruptens > R. cetrata. The lichen metabolites showed antioxidant activity with an IC50 values (?g/ml); lecanoric acid 79-95, salazinic 88-108, atranorin 100-116 and consalazinic acid 119-125. As far as the growth promoting effects of lichen metabolites on L. casei is concerned, lecanoric acid at 100 ?g/ml conc. showed high growth stimulating activity in terms of increased dry matter of biomass (56.08 mg) of L. casei. Other lichen metabolites; salazinic acid, atranorin and consalazinic acid produced relatively less dry biomass 43.98 mg, 41.1 mg, 40.68 mg, respectively. However, standard antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and Trolox after 36 h produced 39.04-47.81 mg dry biomass. At lower pH the growth promoting activity of lichen metabolites was found stable. PMID:25328204

Gaikwad, Subhash; Verma, Neeraj; Sharma, B O; Behera, B C

2014-10-01

52

Plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus rhizosphere.  

PubMed

Present study deals with the isolation of rhizobacteria and selection of plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus (Saffron) rhizosphere during its flowering period (October-November). Bacterial load was compared between rhizosphere and bulk soil by counting CFU/gm of roots and soil respectively, and was found to be ~40 times more in rhizosphere. In total 100 bacterial isolates were selected randomly from rhizosphere and bulk soil (50 each) and screened for in-vitro and in vivo plant growth promoting properties. The randomly isolated bacteria were identified by microscopy, biochemical tests and sequence homology of V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA gene. Polyphasic identification categorized Saffron rhizobacteria and bulk soil bacteria into sixteen different bacterial species with Bacillus aryabhattai (WRF5-rhizosphere; WBF3, WBF4A and WBF4B-bulk soil) common to both rhizosphere as well as bulk soil. Pseudomonas sp. in rhizosphere and Bacillus and Brevibacterium sp. in the bulk soil were the predominant genera respectively. The isolated rhizobacteria were screened for plant growth promotion activity like phosphate solubilization, siderophore and indole acetic acid production. 50 % produced siderophore and 33 % were able to solubilize phosphate whereas all the rhizobacterial isolates produced indole acetic acid. The six potential PGPR showing in vitro activities were used in pot trial to check their efficacy in vivo. These bacteria consortia demonstrated in vivo PGP activity and can be used as PGPR in Saffron as biofertilizers.This is the first report on the isolation of rhizobacteria from the Saffron rhizosphere, screening for plant growth promoting bacteria and their effect on the growth of Saffron plant. PMID:23749248

Ambardar, Sheetal; Vakhlu, Jyoti

2013-12-01

53

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638  

PubMed Central

Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT–PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar as an energy feedstock on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria as growth promoting agents. PMID:20485560

Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Hoffman, Adam; Zhang, Yian-Biao; Walla, Michael D.; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Newman, Lee; Monchy, Sébastien

2010-01-01

54

Efficiency of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the enhancement of rice growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize plant roots and enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. Here, we have isolated and characterized the PGPR from the rhizosphere soil of rice field for the enhancement

M. Ashrafuzzaman; Farid Akhtar Hossen; M. Razi Ismail; M. Zahurul Islam; S. M. Shahidullah; Sariah Meon

2009-01-01

55

Siderophores from Neighboring Organisms Promote the Growth of Uncultured Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary The majority of bacterial species do not grow on synthetic media. Many non-growers require growth factors from other bacteria, but the nature of these compounds is largely unknown. We show here that previously uncultured isolates from marine sediment biofilm grow on a Petri dish in the presence of cultured organisms from the same environment. The growth factors produced by one cultured helper strain were identified as new acyl-desferrioxamine siderophores. A panel of previously uncultured isolates exhibited a range of siderophore promiscuity for growth promotion. This siderophore-based approach has enabled the culturing of organisms only distantly related to previously cultured microbes. The lack of growth in the lab for many strains from this habitat stems from an inability to autonomously produce siderophores, and the resulting chemical dependence on other microorganisms regulates community establishment in the environment. PMID:20338517

D’Onofrio, Anthony; Crawford, Jason M.; Stewart, Eric J.; Witt, Kathrin; Gavrish, Ekaterina; Epstein, Slava; Clardy, Jon; Lewis, Kim

2010-01-01

56

Vascular endothelial growth factor acts primarily via platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? to promote proliferative vitreoretinopathy.  

PubMed

Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a nonneovascular blinding disease and the leading cause for failure in surgical repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Once formed, PVR is difficult to treat. Hence, there is an acute interest in developing approaches to prevent PVR. Of the many growth factors and cytokines that accumulate in vitreous as PVR develops, neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A has recently been found to prevent PVR in at least one animal model. The goal of this study was to test if Food and Drug Administration-approved agents could protect the eye from PVR in multiple animal models and to further investigate the underlying mechanisms. Neutralizing VEGF with aflibercept (VEGF Trap-Eye) safely and effectively protected rabbits from PVR in multiple models of disease. Furthermore, aflibercept reduced the bioactivity of both experimental and clinical PVR vitreous. Finally, although VEGF could promote some PVR-associated cellular responses via VEGF receptors expressed on the retinal pigment epithelial cells that drive this disease, VEGF's major contribution to vitreal bioactivity occurred via platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?. Thus, VEGF promotes PVR by a noncanonical ability to engage platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?. These findings indicate that VEGF contributes to nonangiogenic diseases and that anti-VEGF-based therapies may be effective on a wider spectrum of diseases than previously appreciated. PMID:25261788

Pennock, Steven; Haddock, Luis J; Mukai, Shizuo; Kazlauskas, Andrius

2014-11-01

57

Genetic and Phenotypic Diversity of Plant Growth Promoting Bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bacilli are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive or variable, endospore-forming bacteria that exhibit resistance\\u000a to environmental stress and produce peptide antibiotics, peptide signal molecules, and extracellular enzymes. Bacillus and Paenibacillus genera include the best knowing nitrogen-fixing species. Another characteristic of bacilli is their great potential in producing\\u000a substances that promote direct plant growth by the production of phytohormones (mainly indolic

Anelise Beneduzi; Luciane M. P. Passaglia

58

Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria  

DOEpatents

A material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10.degree. to about 60.degree. C. until the dissolved oxygen is removed.

Adler, Howard I. (128 Indian La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1984-01-01

59

Promotion of plant growth by polymers of lactic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymers of L-lactic acid are shown to promote plant growth. Dry weight of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and corn (Zea mays L) was more than doubled when plants were grown in media containing the dimer of L-lactic acid, L-lactoyllactic acid. Higher polymers were equally effective at increasing plant biomass. Monomeric lactic acid and polymers of D-lactic acid showed no biological

Alan M. Kinnersley; Taylor C. Scott; John H. Yopp; George H. Whitten

1990-01-01

60

Dynamic mast cell-stromal cell interactions promote growth of pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exists in a complex desmoplastic microenvironment, which includes cancer-associated fibroblasts [also known as pancreatic stellate cells (PSC)] and immune cells that provide a fibrotic niche that impedes successful cancer therapy. We have found that mast cells are essential for PDAC tumorigenesis. Whether mast cells contribute to the growth of PDAC and/or PSCs is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mast cells contribute to the growth of PSCs and tumor cells, thus contributing to PDAC development. Tumor cells promoted mast cell migration. Both tumor cells and PSCs stimulated mast cell activation. Conversely, mast cell-derived interleukin (IL)-13 and tryptase stimulated PSC proliferation. Treating tumor-bearing mice with agents that block mast cell migration and function depressed PDAC growth. Our findings suggest that mast cells exacerbate the cellular and extracellular dynamics of the tumor microenvironment found in PDAC. Therefore, targeting mast cells may inhibit stromal formation and improve therapy. PMID:23633481

Ma, Ying; Hwang, Rosa F; Logsdon, Craig D; Ullrich, Stephen E

2013-07-01

61

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638  

SciTech Connect

Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar as an energy feedstock on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria as growth promoting agents. Poplar is considered as the model tree species for the production of lignocellulosic biomass destined for biofuel production. The plant growth promoting endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638 can improve the growth of poplar on marginal soils by as much as 40%. This prompted us to sequence the genome of this strain and, via comparative genomics, identify functions essential for the successful colonization and endophytic association with its poplar host. Analysis of the genome sequence, combined with metabolite analysis and quantitative PCR, pointed to a remarkable interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host with the endophyte responsible for the production of a phytohormone, and a precursor for another that poplar is unable to synthesize, and where the production of the plant growth promoting compounds depended on the presence of plant synthesized compounds, such as sucrose, in the growth medium. Our results provide the basis to better understanding the synergistic interactions between poplar and Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria such as Enterobacter sp. 638 as growth promoting agents.

Taghavi, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Hoffman, A.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Walla, M. D.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.; Monchy, S.

2010-05-13

62

Biotechnological application and taxonomical distribution of plant growth promoting actinobacteria.  

PubMed

Plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria are involved in various interactions known to affect plant fitness and soil quality, thereby increasing the productivity of agriculture and stability of soil. Although the potential of actinobacteria in antibiotic production is well-investigated, their capacity to enhance plant growth is not fully surveyed. Due to the following justifications, PGP actinobacteria (PGPA) can be considered as a more promising taxonomical group of PGP bacteria: (1) high numbers of actinobacteria per gram of soil and their filamentous nature, (2) genome dedicated to the secondary metabolite production (~5 to 10 %) is distinctively more than that of other bacteria and (3) number of plant growth promoter genera reported from actinobacteria is 1.3 times higher than that of other bacteria. Mechanisms by which PGPA contribute to the plant growth by association are: (a) enhancing nutrients availability, (b) regulation of plant metabolism, (c) decreasing environmental stress, (d) control of phytopathogens and (e) improvement of soil texture. Taxonomical and chemical diversity of PGPA and their biotechnological application along with their associated challenges are summarized in this paper. PMID:25410828

Hamedi, Javad; Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh

2015-02-01

63

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning  

PubMed Central

The rhizosphere supports the development and activity of a huge and diversified microbial community, including microorganisms capable to promote plant growth. Among the latter, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize roots of monocots and dicots, and enhance plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Modification of root system architecture by PGPR implicates the production of phytohormones and other signals that lead, mostly, to enhanced lateral root branching and development of root hairs. PGPR also modify root functioning, improve plant nutrition and influence the physiology of the whole plant. Recent results provided first clues as to how PGPR signals could trigger these plant responses. Whether local and/or systemic, the plant molecular pathways involved remain often unknown. From an ecological point of view, it emerged that PGPR form coherent functional groups, whose rhizosphere ecology is influenced by a myriad of abiotic and biotic factors in natural and agricultural soils, and these factors can in turn modulate PGPR effects on roots. In this paper, we address novel knowledge and gaps on PGPR modes of action and signals, and highlight recent progress on the links between plant morphological and physiological effects induced by PGPR. We also show the importance of taking into account the size, diversity, and gene expression patterns of PGPR assemblages in the rhizosphere to better understand their impact on plant growth and functioning. Integrating mechanistic and ecological knowledge on PGPR populations in soil will be a prerequisite to develop novel management strategies for sustainable agriculture. PMID:24062756

Vacheron, Jordan; Desbrosses, Guilhem; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Touraine, Bruno; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Muller, Daniel; Legendre, Laurent; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

2013-01-01

64

Akt inhibition promotes autophagy and sensitizes PTEN-null tumors to lysosomotropic agents.  

PubMed

Although Akt is known as a survival kinase, inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway do not always induce substantial apoptosis. We show that silencing Akt1 alone, or any combination of Akt isoforms, can suppress the growth of tumors established from phosphatase and tensin homologue-null human cancer cells. Although these findings indicate that Akt is essential for tumor maintenance, most tumors eventually rebound. Akt knockdown or inactivation with small molecule inhibitors did not induce significant apoptosis but rather markedly increased autophagy. Further treatment with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine caused accumulation of abnormal autophagolysosomes and reactive oxygen species, leading to accelerated cell death in vitro and complete tumor remission in vivo. Cell death was also promoted when Akt inhibition was combined with the vacuolar H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 or with cathepsin inhibition. These results suggest that blocking lysosomal degradation can be detrimental to cancer cell survival when autophagy is activated, providing rationale for a new therapeutic approach to enhancing the anticancer efficacy of PI3K-Akt pathway inhibition. PMID:18838554

Degtyarev, Michael; De Mazière, Ann; Orr, Christine; Lin, Jie; Lee, Brian B; Tien, Janet Y; Prior, Wei W; van Dijk, Suzanne; Wu, Hong; Gray, Daniel C; Davis, David P; Stern, Howard M; Murray, Lesley J; Hoeflich, Klaus P; Klumperman, Judith; Friedman, Lori S; Lin, Kui

2008-10-01

65

Fusarial wilt control and growth promotion of pigeon pea through bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

The bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRLJ 04 and a Bacillus cereus strain BS 03, which showed growth promotion and disease control in pigeon pea against Fusarium udum, were isolated and screened for their efficacy to control fusarial wilt of pigeon pea under gnotobiotic and nursery condition. Bioactive metabolites viz., BM 1 and BM 2 from RRLJ 04 and BM 3 from BS 03 also showed in vitro antibiosis against F. udum. Seeds treated with 50 ?l seed?¹ of BM 1, 30 ?l seed?¹ of BM 2 and 70 ?l seed?¹ of BM 3 and grown in pathogen infested soil showed suppression of wilt disease besides growth enhancement. Per cent disease control was 90 % with BM 2 application as compared to 87 and 83 %, respectively in BM 1 and BM 3 after 90 days of growth. BM 2 treated plants were more resistant to the pathogen as compared to the other fractions tested. Mycelial dry weight was found to be reduced on treatment with the bioactive metabolites. Formation of chlamydospore-like structures was observed in the pathogen mycelium treated with BM 3. The analytical studies confirmed that two of these metabolites are phenazine derivatives. PMID:24154979

Dutta, S; Morang, P; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S

2014-03-01

66

Modulations of the chicken cecal microbiome and metagenome in response to anticoccidial and growth promoter treatment.  

PubMed

With increasing pressures to reduce or eliminate the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion purposes in production animals, there is a growing need to better understand the effects elicited by these agents in order to identify alternative approaches that might be used to maintain animal health. Antibiotic usage at subtherapeutic levels is postulated to confer a number of modulations in the microbes within the gut that ultimately result in growth promotion and reduced occurrence of disease. This study examined the effects of the coccidiostat monensin and the growth promoters virginiamycin and tylosin on the broiler chicken cecal microbiome and metagenome. Using a longitudinal design, cecal contents of commercial chickens were extracted and examined using 16S rRNA and total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. A number of genus-level enrichments and depletions were observed in response to monensin alone, or monensin in combination with virginiamycin or tylosin. Of note, monensin effects included depletions of Roseburia, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus, and enrichments in Coprococcus and Anaerofilum. The most notable effect observed in the monensin/virginiamycin and monensin/tylosin treatments, but not in the monensin-alone treatments, was enrichments in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the metagenomic dataset identified enrichments in transport system genes, type I fimbrial genes, and type IV conjugative secretion system genes. No significant differences were observed with regard to antimicrobial resistance gene counts. Overall, this study provides a more comprehensive glimpse of the chicken cecum microbial community, the modulations of this community in response to growth promoters, and targets for future efforts to mimic these effects using alternative approaches. PMID:22114729

Danzeisen, Jessica L; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Isaacson, Richard E; Tu, Zheng Jin; Johnson, Timothy J

2011-01-01

67

Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria for Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings  

SciTech Connect

Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance the revegetation of mine tailings and minimize the need for compost amendment. Twenty promising PGPB isolates were used as seed inoculants in a series of greenhouse studies to examine revegetation of an extremely acidic, high metal content tailings sample previously shown to require 15% compost amendment for normal plant growth. Several isolates significantly enhanced growth of two native species, quailbush and buffalo grass, in tailings. In this study, PGPB/compost outcomes were plant specific; for quailbush, PGPB were most effective in combination with 10% compost addition while for buffalo grass, PGPB enhanced growth in the complete absence of compost. Results indicate that selected PGPB can improve plant establishment and reduce the need for compost amendment. Further, PGPB activities necessary for aiding plant growth in mine tailings likely include tolerance to acidic pH and metals.

Grandlic, C.J.; Mendez, M.O.; Chorover, J.; Machado, B.; Maier, R.M.

2009-05-19

68

Pine and spruce seedling growth and mycorrhizal infection after inoculation with plant growth promoting Pseudomonas strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pine and spruce seeds were inoculated with antibiotic-resistant plant growth promoting fluorescent Pseudomonas strains Sm3-RN, Ss2-RN and Sw5-RN for evaluation of bacterial root colonization and seedling growth responses under greenhouse conditions. Mycorrhizal inoculum was introduced to seedling containers by placing 2 cc of forest floor soil around seeds at the time of sowing. Mycorrhizal roots were detected on 39% of

Masahiro Shishido; Daniel J. Petersen; Hugues B. Massicotte; Christopher P. Chanway

1996-01-01

69

Growth-promoting relationships with children and youth.  

PubMed

At the heart of afterschool programs are the relationships that form between the children and youth who participate in these programs and the adults who lead them. To be effective, adults working in afterschool settings must be able to engage youth in growth-promoting relationships. This article identifies and describes four foundational ways of interacting with youth that foster the development of such relationships-engaging in warm and emotionally supportive connections, providing developmentally appropriate structure and support, cultivating and responding to youth initiative, and scaffolding and propelling youth learning and skill development. PMID:25537350

Spencer, Renée; Rhodes, Jean E

2014-12-01

70

Impaired Hippo signaling promotes Rho1-JNK-dependent growth.  

PubMed

The Hippo and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway both regulate growth and contribute to tumorigenesis when dysregulated. Whereas the Hippo pathway acts via the transcription coactivator Yki/YAP to regulate target gene expression, JNK signaling, triggered by various modulators including Rho GTPases, activates the transcription factors Jun and Fos. Here, we show that impaired Hippo signaling induces JNK activation through Rho1. Blocking Rho1-JNK signaling suppresses Yki-induced overgrowth in the wing disk, whereas ectopic Rho1 expression promotes tissue growth when apoptosis is prohibited. Furthermore, Yki directly regulates Rho1 transcription via the transcription factor Sd. Thus, our results have identified a novel molecular link between the Hippo and JNK pathways and implicated the essential role of the JNK pathway in Hippo signaling-related tumorigenesis. PMID:25583514

Ma, Xianjue; Chen, Yujun; Xu, Wenyan; Wu, Nana; Li, Maoquan; Cao, Ying; Wu, Shian; Li, Qiutang; Xue, Lei

2015-01-27

71

Erythropoietin promotes the growth of pituitary adenomas by enhancing angiogenesis.  

PubMed

rhEPO is frequently used in clinical practice to treat anemia. However, recently rhEPO has been reported to accelerate tumor growth, progression and metastasis. Many pituitary adenoma patients, particularly those with macroprolactinomas, tend to have anemia and may need rhEPO therapy. To date, whether rhEPO has deleterious effects on pituitary adenomas has not been defined. Here we demonstrated for the first time that human pituitary adenomas are EPOR negative tumors and rhEPO accelerated the tumor growth of MMQ pituitary adenoma xenografts via enhancement of angiogenesis in vivo, whereas rhEPO displayed no direct effect on MMQ cells in vitro. Our mechanistic study showed that rhEPO administration increased phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3 and VEGF expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and in MMQ cell xenografts in vivo. Furthermore, VEGF inhibitor attenuated rhEPO induced angiogenesis and delayed tumor growth in MMQ pituitary adenoma xenografts in vivo. JAK2 inhibitor AG490 attenuated EPO induced HUVECs proliferation, phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3 and VEGF upregulation in vitro and inhibited EPO induced vessel formation in Chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis model in vivo. These results suggest that rhEPO administration may promote the growth of pituitary adenomas by enhancing angiogenesis through EPO-JAK2-STAT3-VEGF signaling pathway. rhEPO should be used with caution in anemia patients bearing pituitary adenoma due to its potential deleterious effects. PMID:22086127

Yang, Jinsheng; Xiao, Zheng; Li, Tao; Gu, Xuanmin; Fan, Bo

2012-04-01

72

Dual roles of PARP-1 promote cancer growth and progression  

PubMed Central

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an abundant nuclear enzyme that modifies substrates by poly(ADP-ribose)-ylation. PARP-1 has well-described functions in DNA damage repair, and also functions as a context-specific regulator of transcription factors. Using multiple models, data demonstrate that PARP-1 elicits pro-tumorigenic effects in androgen receptor (AR)-positive prostate cancer (PCa) cells, both in the presence and absence of genotoxic insult. Mechanistically, PARP-1 is recruited to sites of AR function, therein promoting AR occupancy and AR function. It was further confirmed in genetically-defined systems that PARP-1 supports AR transcriptional function, and that in models of advanced PCa, PARP-1 enzymatic activity is enhanced, further linking PARP-1 to AR activity and disease progression. In vivo analyses demonstrate that PARP-1 activity is required for AR function in xenograft tumors, as well as tumor cell growth in vivo and generation and maintenance of castration-resistance. Finally, in a novel explant system of primary human tumors, targeting PARP-1 potently suppresses tumor cell proliferation. Collectively, these studies identify novel functions of PARP-1 in promoting disease progression, and ultimately suggest that the dual functions of PARP-1 can be targeted in human PCa to suppress tumor growth and progression to castration-resistance. PMID:22993403

Schiewer, Matthew J.; Goodwin, Jonathan F.; Han, Sumin; Brenner, J. Chad; Augello, Michael A.; Dean, Jeffry L.; Liu, Fengzhi; Planck, Jamie L.; Ravindranathan, Preethi; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; McCue, Peter; Gomella, Leonard G.; Raj, Ganesh V.; Dicker, Adam P.; Brody, Jonathan R.; Pascal, John M.; Centenera, Margaret M.; Butler, Lisa M.; Tilley, Wayne D.; Feng, Felix Y.; Knudsen, Karen E.

2012-01-01

73

The biosurfactant viscosin produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 aids spreading motility and plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Food security depends on enhancing production and reducing loss to pests and pathogens. A promising alternative to agrochemicals is the use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which are commonly associated with many, if not all, plant species. However, exploiting the benefits of PGPRs requires knowledge of bacterial function and an in-depth understanding of plant-bacteria associations. Motility is important for colonization efficiency and microbial fitness in the plant environment, but the mechanisms employed by bacteria on and around plants are not well understood. We describe and investigate an atypical mode of motility in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 that was revealed only after flagellum production was eliminated by deletion of the master regulator fleQ. Our results suggest that this 'spidery spreading' is a type of surface motility. Transposon mutagenesis of SBW25?fleQ (SBW25Q) produced mutants, defective in viscosin production, and surface spreading was also abolished. Genetic analysis indicated growth-dependency, production of viscosin, and several potential regulatory and secretory systems involved in the spidery spreading phenotype. Moreover, viscosin both increases efficiency of surface spreading over the plant root and protects germinating seedlings in soil infected with the plant pathogen Pythium. Thus, viscosin could be a useful target for biotechnological development of plant growth promotion agents. PMID:24684210

Alsohim, Abdullah S; Taylor, Tiffany B; Barrett, Glyn A; Gallie, Jenna; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Altamirano-Junqueira, Astrid E; Johnson, Louise J; Rainey, Paul B; Jackson, Robert W

2014-07-01

74

Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Promotes Kidney Growth and Repair via Alteration of Macrophage Responses  

PubMed Central

Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 controls the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of macrophages, which are recognized as scavengers and agents of the innate and the acquired immune systems. Because of their plasticity, macrophages are endowed with many other essential roles during development and tissue homeostasis. We present evidence that CSF-1 plays an important trophic role in postnatal organ growth and kidney repair. Notably, the injection of CSF-1 postnatally enhanced kidney weight and volume and was associated with increased numbers of tissue macrophages. Moreover, CSF-1 promotes postnatal renal repair in mice after ischemia-reperfusion injury by recruiting and influencing macrophages toward a reparative state. CSF-1 treatment rapidly accelerated renal repair with tubular epithelial cell replacement, attenuation of interstitial fibrosis, and functional recovery. Analysis of macrophages from CSF-1-treated kidneys showed increased expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and anti-inflammatory genes that are known CSF-1 targets. Taken together, these data suggest that CSF-1 is important in kidney growth and the promotion of endogenous repair and resolution of inflammatory injury. PMID:21762674

Alikhan, Maliha A.; Jones, Christina V.; Williams, Timothy M.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Fletcher, Anne L.; Kett, Michelle M.; Sakkal, Samy; Samuel, Chrishan S.; Ramsay, Robert G.; Deane, James A.; Wells, Christine A.; Little, Melissa H.; Hume, David A.; Ricardo, Sharon D.

2011-01-01

75

Nickel detoxification and plant growth promotion by multi metal resistant plant growth promoting Rhizobium species RL9.  

PubMed

Pollution of the biosphere by heavy metals is a global threat that has accelerated dramatically since the beginning of industrial revolution. The aim of the study is to check the resistance of RL9 towards the metals and to observe the effect of Rhizobium species on growth, pigment content, protein and nickel uptake by lentil in the presence and absence of nickel. The multi metal tolerant and plant growth promoting Rhizobium strain RL9 was isolated from the nodules of lentil. The strain not only tolerated nickel but was also tolerant o cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc and copper. The strain tolerated nickel 500 ?g/mL, cadmium 300 ?g/mL, chromium 400 ?g/mL, lead 1,400 ?g/mL, zinc 1,000 ?g/mL and copper 300 ?g/mL, produced good amount of indole acetic acid and was also positive for siderophore, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. The strain RL9 was further assessed with increasing concentrations of nickel when lentil was used as a test crop. The strain RL9 significantly increased growth, nodulation, chlorophyll, leghaemoglobin, nitrogen content, seed protein and seed yield compared to plants grown in the absence of bioinoculant but amended with nickel The strain RL9 decreased uptake of nickel in lentil compared to plants grown in the absence of bio-inoculant. Due to these intrinsic abilities strain RL9 could be utilized for growth promotion as well as for the remediation of nickel in nickel contaminated soil. PMID:23609454

Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

2013-07-01

76

Comparative genomic analysis of four representative plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Pseudomonas  

PubMed Central

Background Some Pseudomonas strains function as predominant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Within this group, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens are non-pathogenic biocontrol agents, and some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains are PGPR. P. chlororaphis GP72 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with a fully sequenced genome. We conducted a genomic analysis comparing GP72 with three other pseudomonad PGPR: P. fluorescens Pf-5, P. aeruginosa M18, and the nitrogen-fixing strain P. stutzeri A1501. Our aim was to identify the similarities and differences among these strains using a comparative genomic approach to clarify the mechanisms of plant growth-promoting activity. Results The genome sizes of GP72, Pf-5, M18, and A1501 ranged from 4.6 to 7.1 M, and the number of protein-coding genes varied among the four species. Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) analysis assigned functions to predicted proteins. The COGs distributions were similar among the four species. However, the percentage of genes encoding transposases and their inactivated derivatives (COG L) was 1.33% of the total genes with COGs classifications in A1501, 0.21% in GP72, 0.02% in Pf-5, and 0.11% in M18. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that GP72 and Pf-5 were the most closely related strains, consistent with the genome alignment results. Comparisons of predicted coding sequences (CDSs) between GP72 and Pf-5 revealed 3544 conserved genes. There were fewer conserved genes when GP72 CDSs were compared with those of A1501 and M18. Comparisons among the four Pseudomonas species revealed 603 conserved genes in GP72, illustrating common plant growth-promoting traits shared among these PGPR. Conserved genes were related to catabolism, transport of plant-derived compounds, stress resistance, and rhizosphere colonization. Some strain-specific CDSs were related to different kinds of biocontrol activities or plant growth promotion. The GP72 genome contained the cus operon (related to heavy metal resistance) and a gene cluster involved in type IV pilus biosynthesis, which confers adhesion ability. Conclusions Comparative genomic analysis of four representative PGPR revealed some conserved regions, indicating common characteristics (metabolism of plant-derived compounds, heavy metal resistance, and rhizosphere colonization) among these pseudomonad PGPR. Genomic regions specific to each strain provide clues to its lifestyle, ecological adaptation, and physiological role in the rhizosphere. PMID:23607266

2013-01-01

77

Application of plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with composts and macrofauna for growth promotion of Pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were reported to influence the growth, yield, and nutrient uptake by an array of mechanisms. We selected seven different plant growth-promoting traits and antagonistic ability to screen 207 bacteria isolated from composts. Fifty-four percent of PGPB were from farm waste compost (FWC), 56% from rice straw compost (RSC), 64% from Gliricidia vermicompost (GVC), and 41% from

B. Hameeda; O. P. Rupela; Gopal Reddy; K. Satyavani

2006-01-01

78

Biophysical basis of growth promotion in primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. by hormones versus light: solute accumulation and the growth potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid cell enlargement in primary leaves of bean is induced by bright white light (WL), gibberellic acid (GA3) or the cytokinin N6-benzyladenine (BA). In previous studies it has been show that all three agents cause an increase in wall extensibility, although by different mechanisms. Here we examine the effects of the three growth promoters on the osmotic potential difference (delta Psi), the accumulation of solutes (delta TSC), the wall yield threshold (Y) and the growth potential (delta Psi -Y). With GA3 and BA, but not WL, there was a rapid decline in delta Psi as measured by the osmotic concentration of expressed sap. Unlike WL, neither GA3 nor BA promoted the accumulation of osmotic solutes. The decline in delta Psi, however, was apparently counteracted by a decline in Y since the growth potential, as measured by the external-osmoticum method, remained unchanged. It is concluded that WL, GA3 and BA all promote cell enlargement of bean leaves by increasing one cellular growth parameter, wall extensibility. Only WL, however, promotes osmotic adjustment during growth.

Brock, T. G.; Cleland, R. E.

1990-01-01

79

Synthesis of UV-curable silane-coupling agent as an adhesion promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In color filter industry, a problem was found that the adhesion strength between glass substrate and black matrix was largely decreased after ITO sputtering process. In order to solve this problem, a new UV-curable silane-coupling agent (UV-SCA) was synthesized to be an adhesion promoter, which was synthesized by the reaction between the hydroxyl group of bisphenol A epoxy diacrylate and

Kuo-Huai Kuo; Wen-Yen Chiu; Kuo-Huang Hsieh

2009-01-01

80

The Y specific growth gene(s): how does it promote stature?  

PubMed Central

Although the presence of a Y specific growth gene(s) (Y growth gene(s) on Yq has widely been accepted, it remains unknown how this gene promotes stature. In this report, we discuss the growth pattern in normal boys and girls and in patients with growth disorders informative for the Y growth gene(s). The results suggest that the Y growth gene(s) augments statural growth by controlling the sex steroid independent childhood growth pattern. PMID:9138158

Ogata, T; Matsuo, N

1997-01-01

81

Genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. strain JS.  

PubMed

Volatile and nonvolatile compounds emitted from the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. strain JS enhance the growth of tobacco and lettuce. Here, we report the high-quality genome sequence of this bacterium. Its 4.1-Mb genome reveals a number of genes whose products are possibly involved in promotion of plant growth or antibiosis. PMID:22740679

Song, Ju Yeon; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Ji-Seoung; Kim, Seon-Young; Jeong, Haeyoung; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Lee, Choong Hoon; Yu, Dong Su; Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Kwon, Suk Yoon; Kim, Jihyun F

2012-07-01

82

Fibronectin promotes rat Schwann cell growth and motility  

PubMed Central

Techniques are now available for culturing well characterized and purified Schwann cells. Therefore, we investigated the role of fibronectin in the adhesion, growth, and migration of cultured rat Schwann cells. Double-immunolabeling shows that, in primary cultures of rat sciatic nerve, Schwann cells (90%) rarely express fibronectin, whereas fibroblasts (10%) exhibit a granular cytoplasmic and fibrillar surface-associated fibronectin. Secondary cultures of purified Schwann cells do not express fibronectin. Exogenous fibronectin has a small effect on promoting the adhesion of Schwann cells to the substrate and does not significantly affect cell morphology, but it produced a surface fibrillar network on fibronectin on the secondary Schwann cells. Tritiated thymidine autoradiography revealed that addition of fibronectin to the medium, even at low concentrations, markedly stimulates Schwann cell proliferation, in both primary and secondary cultures. In addition, when cell migration was measured in a Boyden chamber assay, fibronectin was found to moderately, but clearly, stimulate directed migration or chemotaxis. PMID:7040414

1982-01-01

83

Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Plant Growth-Promoting Fungus Phoma sp. GS8-3 for Growth Promotion Effects on Tobacco  

PubMed Central

We extracted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by a plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF) Phoma sp. GS8-3 by gas chromatography and identified them by mass spectrometry. All of the identified compounds belonged to C4-C8 hydrocarbons. Volatiles varied in number and quantity by the culture period of the fungus (in days). 2-Methyl-propanol and 3-methyl-butanol formed the main components of the volatile blends for all the culture periods of fungus. Growth-promoting effects of the identified synthetic compounds were analyzed individually and in blends using tobacco plants. We found that the mixture of volatiles extracted from 3-day-old culture showed significant growth promotion in tobacco in vitro. The volatile blend showed better growth promotion at lower than higher concentrations. Our results confirm the potential role of volatile organic compounds in the mechanism of growth enhancement by GS8-3. PMID:23080408

Naznin, Hushna Ara; Kimura, Minako; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2013-01-01

84

PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA INCREASE GROWTH, YIELD AND NITROGEN FIXATION IN PHASEOLUS VULGARIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) fixation by legume-Rhizobium symbiosis is important to agricultural productivity and is therefore of great economic interest. Growing evidence indicates that soil beneficial bacteria can positively affect symbiotic performance of rhizobia. The effect of co-inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Rhizobium, on nodulation, nitrogen fixation, and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars was investigated in two

Mehrab Yadegari; H. Asadi Rahmani; G. Noormohammadi; A. Ayneband

2010-01-01

85

YIELD AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF STRAWBERRY TO PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA INOCULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to examine the effect of inoculation of plant growth-promotion Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on phenological data, total yield and fruit quality characteristics of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) cv. ‘Fern’ during 2006 and 2007. All bacterial root inoculations significantly increased yield per plant (1.98–20.85%), average fruit weight (3.05–19.26%) and first quality fruit ratio (10.30–32.05%) compared to control, whereas

Y. Erturk; S. Ercisli; R. Cakmakci

2012-01-01

86

Effect of Trichoderma on plant growth: A balance between inhibition and growth promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of lettuce (Latuca sativa L.) germination and growth in nonsterilized potting compost of 0.1% and 1.0% w\\/w incorporation of fermenter biomass inocula of six strains of Trichoderma was investigated. Except for strains WT and T35 at 0.1 % w\\/w, all inocula inhibited germination. Biomass of strains WT, T35, 20, and 47 at 1.0% promoted shoot fresh weight, whereas

M. A. Ousley; J. M. Lynch; J. M. Whipps

1993-01-01

87

Hair growth promoting effect of Zizyphus jujuba essential oil.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of essential oil from seeds of Zizyphus jujuba for its potential role on hair growth by in vivo method. Essential oil was applied at different concentrations (0.1%, 1% and 10%) over the shaved skin onto the backs of BALB/c mice and monitored for 21 days. After 21 days, mice treated with 1% and 10% of oil produced a greater effect on the length of hair which were measured to be 9.96 and 10.02 mm, respectively, as compared to the control (8.94 mm). We measured the weight of hair/cm(2) area of dorsal skin and also evaluated hair thickness and hair follicles microscopically after plucking the hair immediately from the shaved area of mice and found the best results for 1% of essential oil-treated mice. From this study, it is concluded that Z. jujuba essential oil possesses hair growth promoting activity. PMID:20206225

Yoon, Jung In; Al-Reza, Sharif M; Kang, Sun Chul

2010-05-01

88

SNAI2/Slug promotes growth and invasion in human gliomas  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous factors that contribute to malignant glioma invasion have been identified, but the upstream genes coordinating this process are poorly known. Methods To identify genes controlling glioma invasion, we used genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of primary human glioblastomas to develop an expression-based rank ordering of 30 transcription factors that have previously been implicated in the regulation of invasion and metastasis in cancer. Results Using this approach, we identified the oncogenic transcriptional repressor, SNAI2/Slug, among the upper tenth percentile of invasion-related transcription factors overexpressed in glioblastomas. SNAI2 mRNA expression correlated with histologic grade and invasive phenotype in primary human glioma specimens, and was induced by EGF receptor activation in human glioblastoma cells. Overexpression of SNAI2/Slug increased glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and promoted angiogenesis and glioblastoma growth in vivo. Importantly, knockdown of endogenous SNAI2/Slug in glioblastoma cells decreased invasion and increased survival in a mouse intracranial human glioblastoma transplantation model. Conclusion This genome-scale approach has thus identified SNAI2/Slug as a regulator of growth and invasion in human gliomas. PMID:20565806

2010-01-01

89

Microbial Endophytes of crop plants and their role in plant growth promotion;.  

E-print Network

??Endophytic microorganisms that colonize the internal tissues of plants enhance agricultural production through plant growth promoting mechanisms. Considering the enormous potential of the endophytic newlinebacteria… (more)

Anu Rajan S

2012-01-01

90

Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor promotes lymphangiogenesis in the skin  

PubMed Central

Background The lymphatic vascular system regulates tissue fluid homeostasis and plays important roles in immune surveillance, inflammation and cancer metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lymphangiogenesis remain incompletely characterized. Objective: We aimed to identify new pathways involved in the promotion of skin lymphangiogenesis. Methods We used a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid body vascular differentiation assay to investigate the effects of a selection of pharmacological agents with the potential to inhibit blood and/or lymphatic vessel formation. We also used a subcutaneous Matrigel assay to study candidate lymphangiogenesis factors as well as skin-specific transgenic mice. Results We found that compounds inhibiting the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) led to an impaired formation of lymphatic vessel-like structures. In vitro studies with human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), that were found to express EGFR, revealed that EGF promotes lymphatic vessel formation. This effect was inhibited by an EGFR-blocking antibody and by low molecular weight inhibitors of either the EGFR or its associated tyrosine kinase. Incorporation of EGF into a mouse matrigel plug assay showed that EGF promotes enlargement of lymphatic vessels in the skin in vivo. Moreover, transgenic mice with skin-specific overexpression of amphiregulin, another agonistic ligand of the EGFR, displayed an enhanced size and density of lymphatic vessels in the skin. Conclusion These findings reveal that EGFR activation is involved in lymphatic remodeling and suggest that specific EGFR antagonists might be used to inhibit pathological lymphangiogenesis. PMID:23706492

Marino, Daniela; Angehrn, Yvonne; Klein, Sarah; Riccardi, Sabrina; Baenziger-Tobler, Nadja; Otto, Vivianne I.; Pittelkow, Mark; Detmar, Michael

2013-01-01

91

ANKHD1 represses p21 (WAF1/CIP1) promoter and promotes multiple myeloma cell growth.  

PubMed

ANKHD1 (Ankyrin repeat and KH domain-containing protein 1) is highly expressed and plays an important role in the proliferation and cell cycle progression of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. ANKHD1 downregulation modulates cell cycle gene expression and upregulates p21 irrespective of the TP53 mutational status of MM cell lines. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of ANKHD1 in MM in vitro clonogenicity and in vivo tumourigenicity, as well as the role of ANKHD1 in p21 transcriptional regulation. ANKHD1 silencing in MM cells resulted in significantly low no. of colonies formed and in slow migration as compared to control cells (p<0.05). Furthermore, in xenograft MM mice models, tumour growth was visibly suppressed in mice injected with ANKHD1 silenced cells compared to the control group. There was a significant decrease in tumour volume (p=0.006) as well as in weight (p=0.02) in the group injected with silenced cells compared to those of the control group. Co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the interaction between p21 and ANKHD1. Moreover, overexpression of ANKHD1 downregulated the activity of a p21 promoter in luciferase assays. Decrease in luciferase activity suggests a direct role of ANKHD1 in p21 transcriptional regulation. In addition confocal analysis after U266 cells were treated with Leptomycin B (LMB) for 24h showed accumulation of ANKHD1 inside the nucleus as compared to untreated cells where ANKHD1 was found to be predominantly in cytoplasm. This suggests ANKHD1 might be shuttling between cytoplasm and nucleus. In conclusion, ANKHD1 promotes MM growth by repressing p21 a potent cell cycle regulator. PMID:25483783

Dhyani, Anamika; Machado-Neto, João A; Favaro, Patricia; Saad, Sara T Olalla

2014-12-01

92

Effects of anticoccidial and antibiotic growth promoter programs on broiler performance and immune status  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study investigated the effects of various coccidiosis control programs in combination with antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on growth performance and host immune responses in broiler chickens. The coccidiosis programs that were investigated include in ovo coccidiosis vaccination (CVAC) with ...

93

Isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) growth hormone.  

PubMed

We report the isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus; Teleostei; Perciformes; Siganidae) growth hormone (GH). Rabbitfish GH was extracted from pituitary glands under alkaline conditions, fractionated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions containing GH were identified by immunoblotting with bonito GH antiserum. Under nonreducing conditions, the molecular weight of rabbitfish GH is about 19 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The purified hormone was potent in promoting growth in rabbitfish fry. Weekly intraperitoneal injections of the hormone significantly accelerated growth. This was evident 3 weeks after the start of the treatment, and its effect was still significant 2 weeks after the treatment was terminated. Rabbitfish GH cDNA was cloned to determine its nucleotide sequence. Excluding the poly (A) tail, rabbitfish GH cDNA is 860 base pairs (bp) long. It contained untranslated regions of 94 and 175 bp in the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. It has an open reading frame of 588 bp coding for a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature protein of 178 amino acid residues. Rabbitfish GH has 4 cysteine residues. On the amino acid level, rabbitfish GH shows high identity (71-74%) with GHs of other perciforms, such as tuna, sea bass, yellow tail, bonito, and tilapia, and less (47-49%) identity with salmonid and carp GHs. PMID:10642447

Ayson, F G; de Jesus, E G; Amemiya, Y; Moriyama, S; Hirano, T; Kawauchi, H

2000-02-01

94

Gibberellin production and plant growth promotion by a newly isolated strain of Gliomastix murorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi are known to play a vital role in the growth and development of their host plants. We isolated eleven endophytic\\u000a fungi from the roots of sand-dune plant Elymus mollis and their growth-promoting ability was studied on waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii. We found that eight fungal isolates promoted growth of both plants. Fungal isolate EM-7-1 induced maximum growth

Sumera Afzal Khan; Muhammad Hamayun; Ho-Youn Kim; Hyeok-Jun Yoon; In-Jung Lee; Jong-Guk Kim

2009-01-01

95

ROCK inhibition promotes adult retinal ganglion cell neurite outgrowth only in the presence of growth promoting factors.  

PubMed

Lesioned central nervous system (CNS) axons fail to regenerate because of limited availability of neurotrophic factors (NTF) to promote neuron survival and drive axon regeneration through an environment rich in multiple myelin- and non myelin-derived axon growth inhibitory ligands that initiate growth cone collapse through the Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK) signalling pathway. However, pharmacological inhibition of Rho and ROCK promotes neurite outgrowth in PC12, Ntera-2 cells and embryonic/early postnatal neurons in culture. We have used our well-characterised CNS myelin-inhibited adult rat retinal culture model to show that Y27632 only promotes disinhibited neurite outgrowth if RGC are co-stimulated with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Y27632 in CNTF-stimulated retinal cultures promotes optimal RGC neurite outgrowth at 10 muM concentrations, while higher concentrations negatively correlate with RGC neurite outgrowth and survival. Raising the levels of cAMP in Y27632-treated retinal cultures also promotes significant RGC neurite outgrowth, an effect that is potentiated by the further inclusion of CNTF. Our results suggest that Y27632-induced ROCK inhibition promotes robust disinhibited axon regeneration of adult neurons only when growth promoting factors are added and/or cAMP levels are raised. PMID:19524675

Ahmed, Zubair; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann

2009-10-01

96

Transforming Growth Factor-? activates c-Myc to promote palatal growth  

PubMed Central

During palatogenesis, the palatal mesenchyme undergoes increased cell proliferation resulting in palatal growth, elevation and fusion of the two palatal shelves. Interestingly, the palatal mesenchyme expresses all three TGF? isoforms (1, 2 and 3) throughout these steps of palatogenesis. However, the role of TGF? in promoting proliferation of palatal mesenchymal cells has never been explored. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of TGF? on human embryonic palatal mesenchymal (HEPM) cell proliferation. Our results showed that all isoforms of TGF?, especially TGF?3, increased HEPM cell proliferation by up-regulating the expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases as well as c-Myc oncogene. TGF? activated both Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways to induce c-Myc gene expression. Furthermore, TBE1 is the only functional Smad binding element (SBE) in the c-Myc promoter and Smad4, activated by TGF?, binds to the TBE1 to induce c-Myc gene activity. We conclude that HEPM proliferation is manifested by the induction of c-Myc in response to TGF? signaling, which is essential for complete palatal confluency. Our data highlights the potential role of TGF? as a therapeutic molecule to correct cleft palate by promoting growth. PMID:22573578

Zhu, Xiujuan; Ozturk, Ferhat; Liu, ChangChih; Oakley, Gregory G.; Nawshad, Ali

2012-01-01

97

Perceptions of Growth Monitoring and Promotion among an International Panel of District Medical Officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth chart has been proposed as an educational tool to make the child's growth visible to both health workers and caregivers and to enhance communication between them. In the case of growth faltering, this would trigger timely corrective measures. Although the relevance of growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) has often been questioned in the literature, opinions of District Medical

Dominique Roberfroid; Pierre Lefèvre; Tom Hoerée; Patrick Kolsteren

98

Response of intestinal microbiota to antibiotic growth promoters in chickens.  

PubMed

Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been used as feed additives to improve average daily weight gain and feed efficiency in food animals for more than five decades. However, use of AGPs is associated with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant human pathogens of animal origin, posing a significant threat to food safety and public health. Thus, development of novel alternatives to AGPs is important to mitigate antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens. To achieve this goal, the mode of action of AGPs should be elucidated. In this study, the response of the chicken gut microbiota to AGPs was examined using two culture-independent approaches: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing. PLFA analysis showed that AGP tylosin treatment changed composition of the microbiota in various intestinal sites; however, total viable bacterial biomass in intestine was not affected by tylosin treatment. PLFA analysis also revealed an abundant viable fungal population in chicken microbiota. Eight 16S rDNA libraries (96 clones per library) were constructed using ileal samples from chickens that received either antibiotic-free or medicated feed. The 16S rDNA clone analysis of the growth-relevant samples showed the AGP treatment influenced the diversity of ileum microbiota in the chickens primarily in the Firmicutes division. In particular, Lactobacillus spp. populations in the ileum of AGP-treated chickens were significantly lower than those from chickens receiving antibiotic-free feed. Together, this study revealed novel features of the intestinal microbiota in response to AGP treatment and suggested approach to develop potential alternatives to AGPs for mitigation of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens. PMID:23461609

Lin, Jun; Hunkapiller, Andree A; Layton, Alice C; Chang, Yun-Juan; Robbins, Kelly R

2013-04-01

99

Applying a Multi-Agent Model to Evaluate Effects of Development Proposals and Growth Management  

E-print Network

Applying a Multi-Agent Model to Evaluate Effects of Development Proposals and Growth Management-agent models, Suburban sprawl, Growth management 1. INTRODUCTION Suburban and exurban sprawl is a major that increases the tax-base and employment opportunities while maintaining the social and natural amenities

Monticino, Michael

100

Leaf Anatomical Modifications in Catharanthus roseus as Affected by Plant Growth Promoters and Retardants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, different plant growth promoters and retardant were used to determine the anatomical characteristics of Catharanthus roseus. The plant growth promoters used were gibberellic acid (GA ) and Pseudomonas fluorescens elicitors (PF Elicitors) and retardant was paclobutrazol (PBZ). The 3 treatments were given by soil drenching on 38, 53, 68 and 83 days after planting (DAP) by

Cheruth Abdul Jaleel; R. Gopi; M. M. Azooz; Rajaram Panneerselvam

101

Growth promotion of Prunus rootstocks by root treatment with specific bacterial strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of bacterial strains obtained from a wide-range origin was screened for ability to promote growth in two types of Prunus rootstocks in a commercial nursery. Only few strains promoted growth significantly and consistently, and a strong specificity for the rootstock cultivar was observed. Irrigation of plants with Pseudomonas fluorescens EPS282 and Pantoea agglomerans EPS427 significantly increased plant height

A. Bonaterra; L. Ruz; E. Badosa; J. Pinochet; E. Montesinos

2003-01-01

102

Genome Sequence of Enterobacter radicincitans DSM16656T, a Plant Growth-Promoting Endophyte  

PubMed Central

Enterobacter radicincitans sp. nov. DSM16656T represents a new species of the genus Enterobacter which is a biological nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacterium with growth-promoting effects on a variety of crop and model plant species. The presence of genes for nitrogen fixation, phosphorous mobilization, and phytohormone production reflects this microbe's potential plant growth-promoting activity. PMID:22965092

Witzel, Katja; Gwinn-Giglio, Michelle; Nadendla, Suvarna; Shefchek, Kent

2012-01-01

103

ADAM12 Transmembrane and Secreted Isoforms Promote Breast Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

Increased levels of ADAM12 have been reported in a variety of human cancers. We have previously reported that urinary ADAM12 is predictive of disease status in breast cancer patients and that ADAM12 protein levels in urine increase with progression of disease. On the basis of these findings, the goal of this study was to elucidate the contribution of ADAM12 in breast tumor growth and progression. Overexpression of both the ADAM12-L (transmembrane) and ADAM12-S (secreted) isoforms in human breast tumor cells resulted in a significantly higher rate of tumor take and increased tumor size. Cells expressing the enzymatically inactive form of the secreted isoform, ADAM12-S, had tumor take rates and tumor volumes similar to those of wild-type cells, suggesting that the tumor-promoting activity of ADAM12-S was a function of its proteolytic activity. Of the two isoforms, only the secreted isoform, ADAM12-S, enhanced the ability of tumor cells to migrate and invade in vitro and resulted in a higher incidence of local and distant metastasis in vivo. This stimulatory effect of ADAM12-S on migration and invasion was dependent on its catalytic activity. Expression of both ADAM12 isoforms was found to be significantly elevated in human malignant breast tissue. Taken together, our results suggest that ADAM12 overexpression results in increased tumor take, tumor size, and metastasis in vivo. These findings suggest that ADAM12 may represent a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:21493715

Roy, Roopali; Rodig, Scott; Bielenberg, Diane; Zurakowski, David; Moses, Marsha A.

2011-01-01

104

The Promoting Effect of Ishige sinicola on Hair Growth  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the promoting effect of Ishige sinicola, an alga native to Jeju Island, Korea, on hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of I. sinicola extract for 21 days, I. sinicola extract increased hair-fiber length. After topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. The I. sinicola extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase. Treatment of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs) with I. sinicola extract resulted in increase of cell proliferation, which was accompanied by the increase of phospho-GSK3? level, ?-catenin, Cyclin E and CDK2, whereas p27kip1 was down-regulated. In particular, octaphlorethol A, an isolated component from the I. sinicola extract, inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase and increased the proliferation of DPCs. These results suggest that I. sinicola extract and octaphlorethol A, a principal of I. sinicola, have the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of DPCs followed by the activation of ?-catenin pathway, and the 5?-reductase inhibition. PMID:23708185

Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Eun-JI; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Jeon, You-Jin; Kang, Sung-Myung; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2013-01-01

105

Plant growth promoting bacteria from cow dung based biodynamic preparations.  

PubMed

Indigenous formulations based on cow dung fermentation are commonly used in organic farming. Three biodynamic preparations viz., Panchagavya (PG), BD500 and 'Cow pat pit' (CPP) showed high counts of lactobacilli (10(9) ml(-1)) and yeasts (10(4) ml(-1)). Actinomycetes were present only in CPP (10(4) ml(-1)) and absent in the other two. Seven bacterial isolates from these ferments were identified by a polyphasic approach: Bacillus safensis (PG1), Bacillus cereus (PG2, PG4 PG5), Bacillus subtilis (BD2) Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (BD3) and Bacillus licheniformis (CPP1). This is the first report of L. xylanilyticus and B. licheniformis in biodynamic preparations. Only three carbon sources-dextrose, sucrose and trehalose out of 21 tested were utilized by all the bacteria. None could utilize arabinose, dulcitol, galactose, inositol, inulin, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose and sorbitol. All the strains produced indole acetic acid (1.8-3.7 ?g ml(-1) culture filtrate) and ammonia. None could fix nitrogen; but all except B. safensis and B. licheniformis could solubilize phosphorous from insoluble tri-calcium phosphate. All the strains except L. xylaniliticus exhibited antagonism to the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia bataticola whereas none could inhibit Sclerotium rolfsi. In green house experiment in soil microcosms, bacterial inoculation significantly promoted growth of maize; plant dry weight increased by ~21 % due to inoculation with B. cereus (PG2). Results provide a basis for understanding the beneficial effects of biodynamic preparations and industrial deployment of the strains. PMID:25320439

Radha, T K; Rao, D L N

2014-12-01

106

Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producing soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria that contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase facilitate plant\\u000a growth and development by decreasing plant ethylene levels, especially following a variety of environmental stresses. In this\\u000a review, the physiological basis for this growth-promotion effect is examined in some detail. In addition, models are presented\\u000a that endeavour to explain (i) the seemingly paradoxical effects of ethylene on a

Bernard R. Glick; Zhenyu Cheng; Jennifer Czarny; Jin Duan

2007-01-01

107

Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producing soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plant growth-promoting bacteria that contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase facilitate plant\\u000a growth and development by decreasing plant ethylene levels, especially following a variety of environmental stresses. In this\\u000a review, the physiological basis for this growth-promotion effect is examined in some detail. In addition, models are presented\\u000a that endeavour to explain (i) the seemingly paradoxical effects of ethylene on a

Bernard R. Glick; Zhenyu Cheng; Jennifer Czarny; Jin Duan

108

Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil bacteria are very important in biogeochemical cycles and have been used for crop production for decades. Plant–bacterial\\u000a interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health and soil fertility. Free-living soil bacteria beneficial\\u000a to plant growth, usually referred to as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), are capable of promoting plant growth\\u000a by colonizing the plant root. PGPR are

Rifat Hayat; Safdar Ali; Ummay Amara; Rabia Khalid; Iftikhar Ahmed

2010-01-01

109

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Mycorrhizal Fungi in Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) encourage plant growth by producing growth regulators, facilitating nutrient uptake,\\u000a accelerating mineralization, reducing plant stress, stimulating nodulation, providing nitrogen fixation, promoting mycorrhizal\\u000a fungi, suppressing plant diseases, and functioning as nematicides and insecticides. Many of the PGPR are fluorescent pseudomonads\\u000a (Pseudomonas fluorescens), but other bacteria (Bacillus sp., Azotobacter sp., Acetobacter sp., Azospirillum sp.) are known as well.

Muhammad A. B. Mallik; Robert D. Williams

110

Efficacy of growth factor in promoting early osseointegration.  

PubMed

A preclinical study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of 2 different topical formulations of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) to promote early osseointegration and enhanced bone-to-implant contact (BIC) for dental implants placed in an edentulous ridge. Six female beagle dogs were divided into 3 groups. The control group included 4 implants with no coating; test group A included 10 implants with commercially available rhPDGF-BB formulation coating; and second test group B included 10 implants with prototype viscous rhPDGF-BB coating. Three dogs were sacrificed at 3 weeks (12 implants) and the remaining 3 dogs at 6 weeks after implant placement (12 implants). The specimens were retrieved for histological evaluation, and revealed an uneventful healing of all implants without any sign of an inflammatory response at the different time intervals. Furthermore, the bone was in very close contact with the implants' surfaces with no evidence of intervening fibrous tissue layers. At 3 weeks, new bone formation between most implant threads on rhPDGF-BB coated implants was evident, whereas in the control group only a thin and sparse amount of new bone was noted. At 6 weeks, the commercially available rhPDGF-BB formulation coated implant group (Group A) showed more trabecular bone and higher BIC compared to the other 2 groups. Histologically, the results in this study showed that use of conventionally available rhPDGF-BB formulation as the implant surface treatment may accelerate the process of osseointegration and enhance BIC. PMID:24946082

Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Nevins, Myron; Kim, Soo-Woo; Fateh, Ardavan; Kim, David M

2014-10-01

111

Hpa1 harpin needs nitroxyl terminus to promote vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Hpa1 is a harpin protein produced by Xanthomonas oryzae, an important bacterial pathogen of rice, and has the growth-promoting activity in plants. To understand the molecular basis for the function of Hpa1, we generated an inactive variant protein, Hpa1 delta NT, by deleting the nitroxyl-terminal region of the Hpa1 sequence and compared Hpa1 delta NT with the full-length protein in terms of the effects on vegetative growth and related physiological responses in Arabidopsis. When Hpa1 was applied to plants, it acted to enhance the vegetative growth but did not affect the floral development. Enhanced plant growth was accompanied by induced expression of growth-promoting genes in plant leaves. The growth-promoting activity of Hpa1 was further correlated with a physiological consequence shown as promoted leaf photosynthesis as a result of facilitated CO2 conduction through leaf stomata and mesophyll cells. On the contrary, plant growth, growth-promoting gene expression, and the physiological consequence changed little in response to the Hpa1 delta NT treatment. These analyses suggest that Hpa1 requires the nitroxyl-terminus to facilitate CO2 transport inside leaf cells and promote leaf photosynthesis and vegetative growth of the plant. PMID:24499797

Li, Xiaojie; Han, Liping; Zhao, Yanying; You, Zhenzhen; Dong, Hansong; Zhang, Chunling

2014-03-01

112

Effect of Trichoderma on plant growth: A balance between inhibition and growth promotion.  

PubMed

The effect of lettuce (Latuca sativa L.) germination and growth in nonsterilized potting compost of 0.1% and 1.0% w/w incorporation of fermenter biomass inocula of six strains of Trichoderma was investigated. Except for strains WT and T35 at 0.1 % w/w, all inocula inhibited germination. Biomass of strains WT, T35, 20, and 47 at 1.0% promoted shoot fresh weight, whereas strains TH1 and 8MF2 were inhibitory. In contrast, when biomass of strains WT, TH1, and 8MF2 was autoclaved and incorporated at 1%, shoot fresh weight was promoted, but the biomass of T35 was inhibitory. None of the strains incorporated at 0.1 % w/w increased shoot fresh weight, and autoclaved biomass of TH1, T35, and 20 incorporated at 0.1% w/w resulted in lower shoot fresh weights in comparison with uninoculated controls. The shoot dry weight of lettuce seedlings could be enhanced by germinating seeds in uninoculated compost and after five days' growth transferring them into WT-inoculated compost. Inoculum of strain TH1 when applied using this method was very inhibitory. With WT the degree of increase in shoot fresh weight and germination rate declined as the fermentation time to produce inocula was increased. PMID:24190096

Ousley, M A; Lynch, J M; Whipps, J M

1993-11-01

113

Amelogenin as a promoter of nucleation and crystal growth of apatite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human dental enamel forms over a period of 2-4 years by substituting the enamel matrix, a protein gel mostly composed of a single protein, amelogenin with fibrous apatite nanocrystals. Self-assembly of amelogenin and the products of its selective proteolytic digestion are presumed to direct the growth of apatite fibers and their organization into bundles that eventually comprise the mature enamel, the hardest tissue in the mammalian body. This work aimed to establish the physicochemical and biochemical conditions for the growth of apatite crystals under the control of a recombinant amelogenin matrix (rH174) in combination with a programmable titration system. The growth of apatite substrates was initiated in the presence of self-assembling amelogenin particles. A series of constant titration rate experiments was performed that allowed for a gradual increase of the calcium and/or phosphate concentrations in the protein suspensions. We observed a significant amount of apatite crystals formed on the substrates following the titration of rH174 sols that comprised the initial supersaturation ratio equal to zero. The protein layers adsorbed onto the substrate apatite crystals were shown to act as promoters of nucleation and growth of calcium phosphates subsequently formed on the substrate surface. Nucleation lag time experiments have showed that rH174 tends to accelerate precipitation from metastable calcium phosphate solutions in proportion to its concentration. Despite their mainly hydrophobic nature, amelogenin nanospheres, the size and surface charge properties of which were analyzed using dynamic light scattering, acted as a nucleating agent for the crystallization of apatite. The biomimetic experimental setting applied in this study proves as convenient for gaining insight into the fundamental nature of the process of amelogenesis.

Uskokovi?, Vuk; Li, Wu; Habelitz, Stefan

2011-02-01

114

Bacterial volatiles promote growth in Arabidopsis Choong-Min Ryu*, Mohamed A. Farag  

E-print Network

Bacterial volatiles promote growth in Arabidopsis Choong-Min Ryu*, Mohamed A. Farag , Chia-Hui Hu. Identifica- tion of bacterial chemical messengers that trigger growth pro- motion has been limited in part- nents in plant­bacterial systems now can follow. Here, we present chemical and plant-growth data showing

Paré, Paul W.

115

Novel function of Oncostatin M as a potent tumour-promoting agent in lung.  

PubMed

Oncostatin M is a leukocyte product that has been reported to have anti-proliferative effects directly on melanoma and other cancer cell lines in vitro. However, its function(s) in cancers in vivo appears complex and its roles in cancer growth in lungs are unknown. Here, we show that OSM promotes marked growth of tumour cells in mouse lungs. Local pulmonary administration of adenovirus vector expressing mouse OSM (AdOSM) induced >13-fold increase in lung tumour burden of ectopically delivered B16-F10 melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice. AdOSM caused increases in tumour size (14 days post-challenge), whereas control vector (Addel70) did not. AdOSM had no such action in C57BL/6 mice deficient in the OSM receptor beta chain (OSMR?-/-), indicating that these effects required OSMR? expression on non-tumour cells in the recipient mice. AdOSM induced elevated levels of chemokines and inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, elevated arginase-1 mRNA levels (60-fold), and increased arginase-1+immunostaining macrophage numbers in lungs. Adherent BAL cells collected from AdOSM-treated mice expressed elevated arginase-1 activity. In contrast to AdOSM-induced effects, pulmonary over-expression of IL-1? (AdIL-1?) induced neutrophil accumulation and iNOS mRNA, but did not modulate tumour burden. AdOSM also increased lung tumour load (>50-fold) upon ectopic administration of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells in vivo. However, in vitro, neither recombinant OSM nor AdOSM infection stimulated B16-F10 or LLC cell growth directly. We conclude that pulmonary over-expression of OSM promotes tumour growth, and does so through altering the local lung environment with accumulation of M2 macrophages. PMID:24976180

Lauber, Sean; Wong, Steven; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Tanaka, Minoru; Barra, Nicole; Lhoták, Sárka; Ashkar, Ali; Richards, Carl Douglas

2015-02-15

116

Maize rhizosphere in Sichuan, China, hosts plant growth promoting Burkholderia cepacia with phosphate solubilizing and antifungal abilities.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria promote plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. We isolated twelve bacterial strains showing different degrees of phosphate solubilizing activity from maize rhizosphere. Four isolates solubilized over 300 ?g mL?¹ phosphate from insoluble Ca?(PO?)?, with isolate SCAUK0330 solubilizing over 450 ?g mL?¹. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis SCAUK0330 was identified as Burkholderia cepacia. SCAUK0330 grew at 10-40 °C and pH 4.0-10.0, tolerated up to 5% NaCl, and showed antagonism against nine pathogenic fungi. SCAUK0330 promoted the growth of both healthy and Helminthosporium maydis infected maize plants, indicating that the isolate was a good candidate to be applied as a biofertilizer and a biocontrol agent under a wide range of environmental conditions.The expression of a single SCAUK0330 gene gave E. coli a pH decrease linked ability to solubilize phosphate. The nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences of this phosphate solubilization linked gene showed high degree of sequence identity with B. cepacia E37gabY. The production of gluconic acid is considered as the principle mechanism for phosphate solubilization. In agreement with the proposed periplasmic location of the gluconic acid production, the predicted signal peptide and transmembrane regions implied that GabY is membrane bound. PMID:23932330

Zhao, Ke; Penttinen, Petri; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ao, Xiaoling; Liu, Maoke; Yu, Xiumei; Chen, Qiang

2014-01-20

117

Effects of Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Yield, Growth, and Some Physiological Characteristics of Wheat and Barley Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009 a greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effects of boron (B) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments, applied either alone or in combination, on yield, plant growth, leaf total chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, membrane leakage, and leaf relative water content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Bezostiya) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Tokak) plants. Results showed

Metin Turan; Medine Gulluce; Fikrettin ?ahin

2012-01-01

118

The effect of plant growth promoting bacteria on growth and nutrient uptake of maize in two different soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of ecological conditions effecting on bacterial inoculants is important when introducing microbes for increasing plant growth and productivity. In this study the influence of two different soil types on the stimulatory effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for maize was investigated. The investigations were carried out in pot experiments with calcareous calcisol soil taken from Sirdarya, Uzbekistan and

Dilfuza Egamberdiyeva

2007-01-01

119

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-04-24

120

Growth promotion of ivy (Hedera helix L.) by paclobutrazol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paclobutrazol was applied to juvenile ivy plants in an attempt to induce the mature form by the inhibition of gibberellin biosynthesis. Contrary to expectation, shoot elongation and adventitious root formation on aerial shoots were promoted.

Barbara A. Horrell; Paula E. Jameson; Peter Bannister

1989-01-01

121

Evaluation of Phytase Producing Bacteria for Their Plant Growth Promoting Activities  

PubMed Central

Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076–0.174?U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal activity. All isolates were positive for the above characteristics except for HCN production. The solubilization index for phosphorus on Pikovskaya agar plates was in the range of 2–4. Significant amount of IAA (7.19 to 35.03??g/mL) production and solubilized phosphate (189.53 to 746.84??g/mL) was noticed by these isolates at different time intervals. Besides that, a greenhouse study was also conducted with Indian mustard to evaluate the potential of these isolates to promote plant growth. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters and P uptake by plant were used as indicators. The plant growth promoting ability of bacterial isolates in pot experiments was correlated to IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and other in vitro tests. On the basis of present findings, isolate PB-06 was most promising in plant growth promotion with multiple growth promoting characteristics. PMID:24669222

Singh, Prashant; Agrawal, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

122

Evaluation of phytase producing bacteria for their plant growth promoting activities.  

PubMed

Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076-0.174?U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal activity. All isolates were positive for the above characteristics except for HCN production. The solubilization index for phosphorus on Pikovskaya agar plates was in the range of 2-4. Significant amount of IAA (7.19 to 35.03? ? g/mL) production and solubilized phosphate (189.53 to 746.84? ? g/mL) was noticed by these isolates at different time intervals. Besides that, a greenhouse study was also conducted with Indian mustard to evaluate the potential of these isolates to promote plant growth. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters and P uptake by plant were used as indicators. The plant growth promoting ability of bacterial isolates in pot experiments was correlated to IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and other in vitro tests. On the basis of present findings, isolate PB-06 was most promising in plant growth promotion with multiple growth promoting characteristics. PMID:24669222

Singh, Prashant; Kumar, Vinod; Agrawal, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

123

Original article Effects of gelling agents on growth,  

E-print Network

the ageing of in vitro propagated walnut trees. Juglans / micropropagation / gelling agent / mineral / micropropagation / gélifiant / composition minérale / polyphénol INTRODUCTION Although techniques for micropropaga

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

124

Chain-Growth Polymerization of 2-Chlorothiophenes Promoted by Lewis Acids  

E-print Network

Lewis acids promote the polymerization of several 2-chloroalkylenedioxythiophenes, providing high-molecular-weight conjugated polymers. The proposed mechanism is a cationic chain-growth polymerization, as confirmed by ...

Bonillo Fernandez, Baltasar

125

CLPTM1L promotes growth and enhances aneuploidy in pancreatic cancer cells.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of 10 different cancers have identified pleiotropic cancer predisposition loci across a region of chromosome 5p15.33 that includes the TERT and CLPTM1L genes. Of these, susceptibility alleles for pancreatic cancer have mapped to the CLPTM1L gene, thus prompting an investigation of the function of CLPTM1L in the pancreas. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that CLPTM1L localized to the endoplasmic reticulum where it is likely embedded in the membrane, in accord with multiple predicted transmembrane domains. Overexpression of CLPTM1L enhanced growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro (1.3-1.5-fold; PDAY7 < 0.003) and in vivo (3.46-fold; PDAY68 = 0.039), suggesting a role in tumor growth; this effect was abrogated by deletion of two hydrophilic domains. Affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry identified an interaction between CLPTM1L and non-muscle myosin II (NMM-II), a protein involved in maintaining cell shape, migration, and cytokinesis. The two proteins colocalized in the cytoplasm and, after treatment with a DNA-damaging agent, at the centrosomes. Overexpression of CLPTM1L and depletion of NMM-II induced aneuploidy, indicating that CLPTM1L may interfere with normal NMM-II function in regulating cytokinesis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed enhanced staining of CLPTM1L in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n = 378) as compared with normal pancreatic tissue samples (n = 17; P = 1.7 × 10(-4)). Our results suggest that CLPTM1L functions as a growth-promoting gene in the pancreas and that overexpression may lead to an abrogation of normal cytokinesis, indicating that it should be considered as a plausible candidate gene that could explain the effect of pancreatic cancer susceptibility alleles on chr5p15.33. PMID:24648346

Jia, Jinping; Bosley, Allen D; Thompson, Abbey; Hoskins, Jason W; Cheuk, Adam; Collins, Irene; Parikh, Hemang; Xiao, Zhen; Ylaya, Kris; Dzyadyk, Marta; Cozen, Wendy; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Lynch, Charles F; Loncarek, Jadranka; Altekruse, Sean F; Zhang, Lizhi; Westlake, Christopher J; Factor, Valentina M; Thorgeirsson, Snorri; Bamlet, William R; Hewitt, Stephen M; Petersen, Gloria M; Andresson, Thorkell; Amundadottir, Laufey T

2014-05-15

126

Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were\\u000a undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated

R. K. Roy; Mayank Thakur; V. K. Dixit

2008-01-01

127

Plant growth-promoting activities of fluorescent pseudomonads, isolated from the Iranian soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent pseudomonads are among the most influencing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in plants rhizosphere. In this\\u000a research work the plant growth-promoting activities of 40 different strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas\\u000a putida, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) and maintained in the microbial collection of Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran, Iran,

P. Abbas-Zadeh; N. Saleh-Rastin; H. Asadi-Rahmani; K. Khavazi; A. Soltani; A. R. Shoary-Nejati; Mohammad Miransari

2010-01-01

128

Growth promotion of Taxus brevifolia cell suspension culture using conditioned medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth promotion of aTaxus brevifolia cell suspension culture was investigated using conditioning factors. The conditioning factors produced and secreted from\\u000a cultured cells usually stimulate cell division and the production of secondary metabolites. Therefore, the effective incubation\\u000a time for the optimal secretion of conditioning factors was firstly determined for the promotion of cell growth. Conditioned\\u000a media obtained by cultivating for

Myung-Hwan Kim; Su Hwan Chun; Dong-Il Kim

2000-01-01

129

Bacillus megaterium strain XTBG34 promotes plant growth by producing 2-pentylfuran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several chemical changes in soil are associated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. An endosporeforming bacterium,\\u000a strain XTBG34, was isolated from a Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden soil sample and identified as Bacillus megaterium. The strain’s volatiles had remarkable plant growth promotion activity in Arabidopsis thaliana plants; after 15 days treatment, the fresh weight of plants inoculated with XTBG34 was almost 2-fold compared

Changsong Zou; Zhifang Li; Diqiu Yu

2010-01-01

130

Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pantoea sp. Strain AS-PWVM4  

PubMed Central

Nonpathogenic Pantoea spp. have been shown to confer biofertilizer and biocontrol activities, indicating their potential for increasing crop yield. Herein, we provide the high-quality genome sequence of Pantoea sp. strain AS-PWVM4, a Gram-negative motile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium isolated from a pomegranate plant. The 4.9-Mb genome contains genes related to plant growth promotion and the synthesis of siderophores. PMID:24309733

Khatri, Indu; Kaur, Sukhvir; Devi, Usha; Kumar, Navinder; Sharma, Deepak

2013-01-01

131

Genetic, physiological and biochemical characterization of Bacillus sp . strain RMB7 exhibiting plant growth promoting and broad spectrum antifungal activities.  

PubMed

BackgroundPlant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are functionally diverse group of bacteria having immense potential as biofertilizers and biopesticides. Depending upon their function, they may serve as partial replacements for chemical fertilizer or pesticides as an eco-friendly and cost-effective alternatives as compared to their synthetic counterparts. Therefore, isolation, characterization and practical evaluation of PGPRs having the aforementioned multifaceted beneficial characteristics, are essentially required. This study describes the detailed polyphasic characterization of Bacillus sp. strain RMB7 having profound broad spectrum antifungal activity and plant growth promoting potential.ResultsBased on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, strain RMB7 was identified as Bacillus specie. This strain exhibited the production of 8 mg. L¿1of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in tryptophan-supplemented medium. It was able to solubilize 50.6 mg. L¿1 tri-calcium phosphate, reduced 601¿mol acetylene h¿1/vial and inhibited >70% growth of nine fungal phytopathogens tested in vitro. Under natural pathogen pressure, inoculation with strain RMB7 and RMB7-supernatant conferred resistance by arugula plant against Pythium irregulare with a concurrent growth improvement over non-inoculated plants. The T-RFLP analysis based on 16S rRNA gene showed that inoculation with RMB7 or its supernatant have a major impact on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial population. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the production of lipopeptide surfactins as well as iturin A presence in crude extract of RMB7. PCR-amplification further confirmed the presence of genes involved in the biosynthesis of these two bioactive lipopeptide compounds.ConclusionsThe data show that Bacillus sp. strain RMB7 has multifaceted beneficial characteristics. It may be an ideal plant growth promoting as well as biocontrol agent, for its integrated use in disease and nutrient management strategies. PMID:25338952

Ali, Saira; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Iqbal, Mazhar; Lazarovits, George

2014-10-24

132

Staurosporine from the endophytic Streptomyces sp. strain CNS-42 acts as a potential biocontrol agent and growth elicitor in cucumber.  

PubMed

Chinese medicinal plants and their surrounding rhizospheric soil serve as promising sources of actinobacteria. A total of 180 actinobacteria strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soil, leaves, stems, and roots of nine selected plants and have been identified as potential biocontrol agents against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. An endophytic strain CNS-42 isolated from Alisma orientale showed the largest zone of inhibition demonstrating a potent effect against F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and a broad antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeasts, and other pathogenic fungi. The in vivo biocontrol assays showed that the disease severity index was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), and plant shoot fresh weight and height increased greatly (P < 0.05) in plantlets treated with strain CNS-42 compared to the negative control. This isolate was identified as Streptomyces sp. based on cultural, physiological, morphological characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Further bioassay-guided isolation and purification revealed that staurosporine was responsible for its antifungal and plant growth promoting activities and the latter property of staurosporine is reported for the first time. The in vivo assay was further performed and indicated that staurosporine showed good growth promoting effect on the plant shoot biomass of cucumber. This is the first critical evidence identifying CNS-42 as a biocontrol agent for the soil borne pathogen, F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. PMID:25035061

Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Pei; Wang, Qian; Xiao, Lie; Liu, Miaomiao; Bolla, Krishna; Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Linyong; Gan, Bingcheng; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Xiaoping

2014-09-01

133

Promoters maintain their relative activity levels under different growth conditions  

PubMed Central

Most genes change expression levels across conditions, but it is unclear which of these changes represents specific regulation and what determines their quantitative degree. Here, we accurately measured activities of ?900 S. cerevisiae and ?1800 E. coli promoters using fluorescent reporters. We show that in both organisms 60–90% of promoters change their expression between conditions by a constant global scaling factor that depends only on the conditions and not on the promoter's identity. Quantifying such global effects allows precise characterization of specific regulation—promoters deviating from the global scale line. These are organized into few functionally related groups that also adhere to scale lines and preserve their relative activities across conditions. Thus, only several scaling factors suffice to accurately describe genome-wide expression profiles across conditions. We present a parameter-free passive resource allocation model that quantitatively accounts for the global scaling factors. It suggests that many changes in expression across conditions result from global effects and not specific regulation, and provides means for quantitative interpretation of expression profiles. PMID:24169404

Keren, Leeat; Zackay, Ora; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Barenholz, Uri; Dekel, Erez; Sasson, Vered; Aidelberg, Guy; Bren, Anat; Zeevi, Danny; Weinberger, Adina; Alon, Uri; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

2013-01-01

134

Growth Promotion of Legumes by Inoculation of Rhizosphere Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Most plants grown in fields are colonized by diverse groups of rhizosphere bacteria that form beneficial or pathogenic relationships\\u000a with their hosts. The root exudates encourage the development of beneficial bacterial communities in the root zone capable\\u000a of producing secondary metabolites that improve plant growth and crop yield. These beneficial associations facilitate plant\\u000a growth either by enhancing crop nutrition, releasing

Satyavir S. Sindhu; Seema Dua; M. K. Verma; Aakanksha Khandelwal

135

Optimization of plant growth-promoting bacteria-assisted phytostabilization of mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have indicated that plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can improve revegetation of arid mine tailings as measured by increased biomass production. The goals of the present study were first to evaluate how mode of application of known PGPB affects plant growth, and second to evaluate the effect of this inoculation on rhizosphere microbial community structure. PGPB application strategies investigated

Christopher J. Grandlic; Michael W. Palmer; Raina M. Maier

2009-01-01

136

PROMOTION OF PLANT GROWTH BY SOIL BACTERIA THAT REGULATE PLANT ETHYLENE LEVELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the central the mechanisms used by many soil bacteria to directly promote plant growth is the production of the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. This enzyme facilitates plant growth as a consequence of the fact that it sequesters and cleaves plant- produced ACC (the immediate precursor of ethylene in plants), thereby lowering the level of ethylene in the plant.

Bernard R. Glick

137

Complete Genome of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1  

SciTech Connect

We report the complete sequence of the 5.7-Mbp genome of Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1, a metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that is highly tolerant to desiccation and capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and iron and of synthesizing phytohormones that stimulate seed germination and plant growth.

Matilla, M.A.; van der Lelie, D.; Pizarro-Tobias, P.; Roca, A.; Fernandez, M.; Duque, E.; Molina, L.; Wu, X.; Gomez, M. J.; Segura, A.; Ramos, J.-L.

2011-03-01

138

Evaluating Pseudomonas aeruginosa as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some parameters of growth were examined in three test crops as indices of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Crops include Abelmoschus esculentus L. (okra), Lycopersicon esculentum L. (tomato) and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach). This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of PGPR in West Africa and determine whether the inoculation method has an impact on PGPR's effectiveness.

Anthony O. Adesemoye; Esther O. Ugoji

2009-01-01

139

Enhancement of photosynthesis (CO2 uptake) and plant growth through the promotion of stomatal opening  

E-print Network

1 Enhancement of photosynthesis (CO2 uptake) and plant growth through the promotion of stomatal ­ By determining the key factor in regulating photosynthesis and plant growth, scientists, Prof. Toshinori-Molecules (WPI-ITbM), have succeeded in developing a method to increase photosynthesis (CO2 uptake) and plant

Takahashi, Ryo

140

Autoimmunity as a Double Agent in Tumor Killing and Cancer Promotion  

PubMed Central

Cancer immunotherapy through manipulation of the immune system holds great potential for the treatment of human cancers. However, recent trials targeting the negative immune regulators cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, programed death 1 (PD-1), and PD-1 receptor ligand (PD-L1) demonstrated that clinically significant antitumor responses were often associated with the induction of autoimmune toxicity. This finding suggests that the same immune mechanisms that elicit autoimmunity may also contribute to the destruction of tumors. Given the fact that the immunological identity of tumors might be largely an immunoprivileged self, autoimmunity may not represent a wholly undesirable outcome in the context of cancer immunotherapy. Rather, targeted killing of cancer cells and autoimmune damage to healthy tissues may be intricately linked through molecular mechanisms, in particular inflammatory cytokine signaling. On the other hand, since chronic inflammation is a well-recognized condition that promotes tumor development, it appears that autoimmunity can be a “double agent” in mediating either pro-tumor or antitumor effects. This review surveys the tumor-promoting and tumoricidal activities of several prominent cytokines: IFN-?, TNF-?, TGF-?, IL-17, IL-23, IL-4, and IL-13, produced by three major subsets of T helper cells that interact with innate immune cells. Many of these cytokines exert divergent and seemingly contradictory effects on cancer development in different human and animal models, suggesting a high degree of context dependence in their functions. We hypothesize that these inflammatory cytokines could mediate a feedback loop of autoimmunity, antitumor immunity, and tumorigenesis. Understanding the diverse and paradoxical roles of cytokines from autoimmune responses in the setting of cancer will advance the long-term goal of improving cancer immunotherapy, while minimizing the hazards of immune-mediated tissue damage and the possibility of de novo tumorigenesis, through proper monitoring and preventive measures. PMID:24672527

Toomer, Kevin H.; Chen, Zhibin

2014-01-01

141

Activating transcription factor 2 controls Bcl-2 promoter activity in growth plate chondrocytes.  

PubMed

Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) is expressed ubiquitously in mammals. Mice deficient in ATF-2 (ATF-2 m/m) are slightly smaller than their normal littermates at birth. Approximately 50% of mice born mutant in both alleles die within the first month. Those that survive develop a hypochondroplasia-like dwarfism, characterized by shortened growth plates and kyphosis. Expression of ATF-2 within the growth plate is limited to the resting and proliferating zones. We have previously shown that ATF-2 targets the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the promoters of cyclin A and cyclin D1 in growth plate chondrocytes to activate their expression. Here, we demonstrate that Bcl-2, a cell death inhibitor that regulates apoptosis, is expressed within the growth plate in proliferative and prehypertrophic chondrocytes. However, Bcl-2 expression declines in hypertrophic chondrocytes. The Bcl-2 promoter contains a CRE at -1,552 bp upstream of the translation start. Mutations within this CRE cause reduced Bcl-2 promoter activity. We show here that the absence of ATF-2 in growth plate chondrocytes corresponds to a decline in Bcl-2 promoter activity, as well as a reduction in Bcl-2 protein levels. In addition, we show that ATF-2 as well as CREB, a transcription factor that can heterodimerize with ATF-2, bind to the CRE within the Bcl-2 promoter. These data identify the Bcl-2 gene as a novel target of ATF-2 and CREB in growth plate chondrocytes. PMID:17219413

Ma, Qin; Li, Xinying; Vale-Cruz, Dustin; Brown, Mark L; Beier, Frank; LuValle, Phyllis

2007-05-15

142

Pyrroloquinoline quinone is a plant growth promotion factor produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens B16.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas fluorescens B16 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. To determine the factors involved in plant growth promotion by this organism, we mutagenized wild-type strain B16 using OmegaKm elements and isolated one mutant, K818, which is defective in plant growth promotion, in a rockwool culture system. A cosmid clone, pOK40, which complements the mutant K818, was isolated from a genomic library of the parent strain. Tn3-gusA mutagenesis of pOK40 revealed that the genes responsible for plant growth promotion reside in a 13.3-kb BamHI fragment. Analysis of the DNA sequence of the fragment identified 11 putative open reading frames, consisting of seven known and four previously unidentified pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) biosynthetic genes. All of the pqq genes showed expression only in nutrient-limiting conditions in a PqqH-dependent manner. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis of culture filtrates confirmed that wild-type B16 produces PQQ, whereas mutants defective in plant growth promotion do not. Application of wild-type B16 on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants cultivated in a hydroponic culture system significantly increased the height, flower number, fruit number, and total fruit weight, whereas none of the strains that did not produce PQQ promoted tomato growth. Furthermore, 5 to 1,000 nm of synthetic PQQ conferred a significant increase in the fresh weight of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings, confirming that PQQ is a plant growth promotion factor. Treatment of cucumber leaf discs with PQQ and wild-type B16 resulted in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that PQQ acts as an antioxidant in plants. PMID:18055583

Choi, Okhee; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Jung-Gun; Jeong, Yeonhwa; Moon, Jae Sun; Park, Chang Seuk; Hwang, Ingyu

2008-02-01

143

Clove extract inhibits tumor growth and promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) have been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for thousands of years. Cloves possess antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties, but their potential anticancer activity remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects and biological mechanisms of ethyl acetate extract of cloves (EAEC) and the potential bioactive components responsible for its antitumor activity. The effects of EAEC on cell growth, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis were investigated using human cancer cell lines. The molecular changes associated with the effects of EAEC were analyzed by Western blot and (qRT)-PCR analysis. The in vivo effect of EAEC and its bioactive component was investigated using the HT-29 tumor xenograft model. We identified oleanolic acid (OA) as one of the components of EAEC responsible for its antitumor activity. Both EAEC and OA display cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines. Interestingly, EAEC was superior to OA and the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil at suppressing growth of colon tumor xenografts. EAEC promoted G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with EAEC and OA selectively increased protein expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and ?-H2AX and downregulated expression of cell cycle-regulated proteins. Moreover, many of these changes were at the mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional regulation by EAEC treatment. Our results demonstrate that clove extract may represent a novel therapeutic herb for the treatment of colorectal cancer, and OA appears to be one of the bioactive components. PMID:24854101

Liu, Haizhou; Schmitz, John C; Wei, Jianteng; Cao, Shousong; Beumer, Jan H; Strychor, Sandra; Cheng, Linyou; Liu, Ming; Wang, Cuicui; Wu, Ning; Zhao, Xiangzhong; Zhang, Yuyan; Liao, Joshua; Chu, Edward; Lin, Xiukun

2014-01-01

144

Clove Extract Inhibits Tumor Growth and Promotes Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) have been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for thousands of years. Cloves possess antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties, but their potential anticancer activity remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects and biological mechanisms of ethyl acetate extract of cloves (EAEC) and the potential bioactive components responsible for its antitumor activity. The effects of EAEC on cell growth, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis were investigated using human cancer cell lines. The molecular changes associated with the effects of EAEC were analyzed by Western blot and (qRT)-PCR analysis. The in vivo effect of EAEC and its bioactive component was investigated using the HT-29 tumor xenograft model. We identified oleanolic acid (OA) as one of the components of EAEC responsible for its antitumor activity. Both EAEC and OA display cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines. Interestingly, EAEC was superior to OA and the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil at suppressing growth of colon tumor xenografts. EAEC promoted G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with EAEC and OA selectively increased protein expression of p21WAF1/Cip1 and ?-H2AX and downregulated expression of cell cycle-regulated proteins. Moreover, many of these changes were at the mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional regulation by EAEC treatment. Our results demonstrate that clove extract may represent a novel therapeutic herb for the treatment of colorectal cancer, and OA appears to be one of the bioactive components. PMID:24854101

Liu, Haizhou; Schmitz, John C.; Wei, Jianteng; Cao, Shousong; Beumer, Jan H.; Strychor, Sandra; Cheng, Linyou; Liu, Ming; Wang, Cuicui; Wu, Ning; Zhao, Xiangzhong; Zhang, Yuyan; Liao, Joshua; Chu, Edward; Lin, Xiukun

2014-01-01

145

What Is Expected from the Genus Azospirillum as a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bacteria capable of stimulating plant growth are generally known as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). Among them are\\u000a Azospirillum species that influence plant growth through different mechanisms. Azospirillum is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the alphaproteobacteria phylum. On the basis of the newly discovered species\\u000a (at present 15), it is present not only in a wide diversity of plants, including

Veronica Massena Reis; Kátia Regina dos Santos Teixeira; Raúl Osvaldo Pedraza

146

Mechanisms behind bacteria induced plant growth promotion and Zn accumulation in Brassica juncea.  

PubMed

The growth and metal-extraction efficiency of plants exposed to toxic metals has been reported to be enhanced by inoculating plants with certain bacteria but the mechanisms behind this process remain unclear. We report results from glasshouse experiments on Brassica juncea plants exposed to 400mgZnkg(-1) that investigated the abilities of Pseudomonas brassicacearum and Rhizobium leguminosarum to promote growth, coupled with synchrotron based ?XANES analysis to probe Zn speciation in the plant roots. P. brassicacearum exhibited the poorest plant growth promoting ability, while R. leguminosarum alone and in combination with P. brassicacearum enhanced plant growth and Zn phytoextraction. Reduced growth in un-inoculated plants was attributed to accumulation of Zn oxalate and Zn sulfate in roots. In plants inoculated with P. brassicacearum the high concentration of Zn polygalacturonic acid in the root may be responsible for the stunted growth and reduced Zn phytoextraction. The improved growth and increased metal accumulation observed in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum and in combination with P. brassicacearum was attributed to the storage of Zn in the form of Zn phytate and Zn cysteine in the root. When combined with the observation that both bacteria do not statistically improve B. juncea growth in the absence of Zn, this work suggests that bacteria-induced metal chelation is the key mechanism of plant growth promoting bacteria in toxicity attenuation and microbial-assisted phytoremediation. PMID:25464287

Adediran, Gbotemi A; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Heal, Kate V; Harvie, Barbra A

2015-02-11

147

Effects of disintegration-promoting agent, lubricants and moisture treatment on optimized fast disintegrating tablets.  

PubMed

Effects of calcium silicate (disintegration-promoting agent) and various lubricants on an optimized beta-cyclodextrin-based fast-disintegrating tablet formulation were investigated. Effects of moisture treatment were also evaluated at 75, 85 and 95% relative humidities. A two factor, three levels (3(2)) full factorial design was used to optimize concentrations of calcium silicate and lubricant. Magnesium stearate, being commonly used lubricant, was used to optimize lubricant concentration in optimization study. Other lubricants were evaluated at an obtained optimum concentration. Desiccator with saturated salt solutions was used to analyze effects of moisture treatments. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that concentration of calcium silicate had no effect; however concentration of lubricant was found to be important for tablet disintegration and hardness. An optimized value of 1.5% of magnesium stearate gave disintegration time of 23.4 s and hardness of 1.42 kg. At an optimized concentration, glycerol dibehenate and L-leucine significantly affected disintegration time, while talc and stearic acid had no significant effect. Tablet hardness was significantly affected with L-leucine, while other lubricants had no significant effect. Hardness was not affected at 75% moisture treatment. Moisture treatment at 85 and 95% increased hardness of the tablets; however at the same time it negatively affected the disintegration time. PMID:18778759

Late, Sameer G; Yu, Yi-Ying; Banga, Ajay K

2009-01-01

148

Berberis vulgaris as Growth Promoter in Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk in Persian) is a member of therapeutic plants in herbal medicine. There is evidence that its root contains components, such as berberine, berbamine, culumbamine and berberubine, with a relatively wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The aim of the present study was to examine if the plant root has any effect on the growth of broiler chickens. The

2006-01-01

149

Polluted dust promotes new particle formation and growth  

PubMed Central

Understanding new particle formation and their subsequent growth in the troposphere has a critical impact on our ability to predict atmospheric composition and global climate change. High pre-existing particle loadings have been thought to suppress the formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles due to high condensation and coagulation sinks. Here, based on field measurements at a mountain site in South China, we report, for the first time, in situ observational evidence on new particle formation and growth in remote ambient atmosphere during heavy dust episodes mixed with anthropogenic pollution. Both the formation and growth rates of particles in the diameter range 15–50?nm were enhanced during the dust episodes, indicating the influence of photo-induced, dust surface-mediated reactions and resulting condensable vapor production. This study provides unique in situ observations of heterogeneous photochemical processes inducing new particle formation and growth in the real atmosphere, and suggests an unexpected impact of mineral dust on climate and atmospheric chemistry. PMID:25319109

Nie, Wei; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; George, Christian; Xue, Likun; Wang, Wenxing; Zhang, Qingzhu; Petäjä, Tuukka; Qi, Ximeng; Gao, Xiaomei; Wang, Xinfeng; Yang, Xiuqun; Fu, Congbin; Kulmala, Markku

2014-01-01

150

Promotion of growth by elevated carbon dioxide is coordinated through a flexible transcriptional network in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Although gibberellins (GAs) promote many developmental responses in plants, little is known about how the hormone interacts with environmental signals at the molecular level for regulating plant growth. Recently, we have demonstrated that inhibition of growth by the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) at ambient [CO?] (350 µmol CO? mol(-1)) is reverted by elevated [CO?] (750 ?mol CO? mol(-1)). Our finding points to an important role of elevated [CO?] as a signal allowing higher growth rates of low-GA plants. GA promotes plant growth via a complex transcriptional network that integrates multiple signaling pathways. Herein, we discuss how elevated [CO?] stimulates biomass accumulation in a GA-independent manner by regulating the expression of growth-related genes. PMID:23333969

Ribeiro, Dimas M; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Schippers, Jos H M

2013-03-01

151

Quercetin promotes glioma growth in a rat model.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that quercetin (Quer), a polyphenol widely found in vegetables, decreased glioma cell growth in vitro. Here, we asked whether this compound could affect glioma growth in an in vivo rat glioma model. We found that daily intraperitoneal Quer (50 mg/kg) injections lead to a concentration of 0.15 ?g of Quer per gram of brain tissue, which increased the tumor volume in a time dependent manner. We observed a small reduction in lymphocytic infiltration, a marker of good prognosis in gliomas that was accompanied by a small reduction in cell viability of peripheral T-cells. Moreover, after Quer treatment neither body weight alteration nor liver pathology markers were detected. Although in vitro studies and massive literature reports point to the antitumoral properties of Quer, the present results indicate that great caution has to be taken in the design of clinical trials and the indiscriminate use of this polyphenol as dietary supplement. PMID:24252772

Zamin, Lauren L; Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo C; Vargas, Jose; Demartini, Diogo Ribeiro; Meurer, Luise; Souza, Ana Paula; Bonorino, Cristina; Salbego, Christianne; Lenz, Guido

2014-01-01

152

Biocontrol of Plant Pathogens and Plant Growth Promotion by Bacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Numerous Bacillus strains have been investigated for their capacities to protect plants from pathogens and stimulate plant growth. Studying\\u000a the diversity of these bacteria provides clues to the distinctiveness of beneficial strains and raises questions regarding\\u000a the scale and evolutionary forces that led to the development of biocontrol activities. Soils harbor vast spore banks of Bacillus, subsets of which germinate,

Brian B. McSpadden Gardener

153

Microbial phytases in phosphorus acquisition and plant growth promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) is one of the major constituents in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of nucleic acids and cell membranes\\u000a with an important role in regulation of a number of enzymes. Soil phosphorous is an important macronutrient for plant growth.\\u000a Phosphorus deficiency in soil is a major problem for agricultural production. Total soil P occurs in either organic or in\\u000a organic

Bijender Singh; T. Satyanarayana

2011-01-01

154

TNF-? promotes invasive growth through the MET signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-?) is known to trigger invasive growth, a physiological property for tissue healing, turning into a hallmark of progression in cancer. However, the invasive response to TNF-? relies on poorly understood molecular mechanisms. We thus investigated whether it involves the MET oncogene, which regulates the invasive growth program by encoding the tyrosine kinase receptor for Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF). Here we show that the TNF-? pro-invasive activity requires MET function, as it is fully inhibited by MET-specific inhibitors (small-molecules, antibodies, and siRNAs). Mechanistically, we show that TNF-? induces MET transcription via NF-?B, and exploits MET to sustain MEK/ERK activation and Snail accumulation, leading to E-cadherin downregulation. We then show that TNF-? not only induces MET expression in cancer cells, but also HGF secretion by fibroblasts. Consistently, we found that, in human colorectal cancer tissues, high levels of TNF-? correlates with increased expression of both MET and HGF. These findings suggest that TNF-? fosters a HGF/MET pro-invasive paracrine loop in tumors. Targeting this ligand/receptor pair would contribute to prevent cancer progression associated with inflammation. PMID:25306394

Bigatto, Viola; De Bacco, Francesca; Casanova, Elena; Reato, Gigliola; Lanzetti, Letizia; Isella, Claudio; Sarotto, Ivana; Comoglio, Paolo M; Boccaccio, Carla

2015-02-01

155

CEACAM1 Promotes Melanoma Cell Growth through Sox-212  

PubMed Central

The prognostic value of the carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in melanoma was demonstrated more than a decade ago as superior to Breslow score. We have previously shown that intercellular homophilic CEACAM1 interactions protect melanoma cells from lymphocyte-mediated elimination. Here, we study the direct effects of CEACAM1 on melanoma cell biology. By employing tissue microarrays and low-passage primary cultures of metastatic melanoma, we show that CEACAM1 expression gradually increases from nevi to metastatic specimens, with a strong dominance of the CEACAM1-Long tail splice variant. Using experimental systems of CEACAM1 knockdown and overexpression of selective variants or truncation mutants, we prove that only the full-length long tail variant enhances melanoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. This effect is not reversed with a CEACAM1-blocking antibody, suggesting that it is not mediated by intercellular homophilic interactions. Downstream, CEACAM1-Long increases the expression of Sox-2, which we show to be responsible for the CEACAM1-mediated enhanced proliferation. Furthermore, analysis of the CEACAM1 promoter reveals two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly enhance the promoter's activity compared with the consensus nucleotides. Importantly, case-control genetic SNP analysis of 134 patients with melanoma and matched healthy donors show that patients with melanoma do not exhibit the Hardy-Weinberg balance and that homozygous SNP genotype enhances the hazard ratio to develop melanoma by 35%. These observations shed new mechanistic light on the role of CEACAM1 in melanoma, forming the basis for development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic technologies. PMID:24931667

Ortenberg, Rona; Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Greenberg, Ilanit; Zamlin, Bella; Sapoznik, Sivan; Greenberg, Eyal; Barshack, Iris; Avivi, Camila; Feiler, Yulia; Zan-Bar, Israel; Besser, Michal J.; Azizi, Ester; Eitan, Friedman; Schachter, Jacob; Markel, Gal

2014-01-01

156

CEACAM1 promotes melanoma cell growth through Sox-2.  

PubMed

The prognostic value of the carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in melanoma was demonstrated more than a decade ago as superior to Breslow score. We have previously shown that intercellular homophilic CEACAM1 interactions protect melanoma cells from lymphocyte-mediated elimination. Here, we study the direct effects of CEACAM1 on melanoma cell biology. By employing tissue microarrays and low-passage primary cultures of metastatic melanoma, we show that CEACAM1 expression gradually increases from nevi to metastatic specimens, with a strong dominance of the CEACAM1-Long tail splice variant. Using experimental systems of CEACAM1 knockdown and overexpression of selective variants or truncation mutants, we prove that only the full-length long tail variant enhances melanoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. This effect is not reversed with a CEACAM1-blocking antibody, suggesting that it is not mediated by intercellular homophilic interactions. Downstream, CEACAM1-Long increases the expression of Sox-2, which we show to be responsible for the CEACAM1-mediated enhanced proliferation. Furthermore, analysis of the CEACAM1 promoter reveals two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly enhance the promoter's activity compared with the consensus nucleotides. Importantly, case-control genetic SNP analysis of 134 patients with melanoma and matched healthy donors show that patients with melanoma do not exhibit the Hardy-Weinberg balance and that homozygous SNP genotype enhances the hazard ratio to develop melanoma by 35%. These observations shed new mechanistic light on the role of CEACAM1 in melanoma, forming the basis for development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic technologies. PMID:24931667

Ortenberg, Rona; Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Greenberg, Ilanit; Zamlin, Bella; Sapoznik, Sivan; Greenberg, Eyal; Barshack, Iris; Avivi, Camila; Feiler, Yulia; Zan-Bar, Israel; Besser, Michal J; Azizi, Ester; Eitan, Friedman; Schachter, Jacob; Markel, Gal

2014-05-01

157

Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. PMID:24144612

Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

2014-01-01

158

Spinal cord injury triggers an intrinsic growth-promoting state in nociceptors.  

PubMed

Although most investigations of the mechanisms underlying chronic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) have examined the central nervous system (CNS), recent studies have shown that nociceptive primary afferent neurons display persistent hyperexcitability and spontaneous activity in their peripheral branches and somata in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after SCI. This suggests that SCI-induced alterations of primary nociceptors contribute to central sensitization and chronic pain after SCI. Does SCI also promote growth of these neurons' fibers, as has been suggested in some reports? The present study tests the hypothesis that SCI induces an intrinsic growth-promoting state in DRG neurons. This was tested by dissociating DRG neurons 3 days or 1 month after spinal contusion injury at thoracic level T10 and measuring neuritic growth 1 day later. Neurons cultured 3 days after SCI exhibited longer neurites without increases in branching ("elongating growth"), compared to neurons from sham-treated or untreated (naïve) rats. Robust promotion of elongating growth was found in small and medium-sized neurons (but not large neurons) from lumbar (L3-L5) and thoracic ganglia immediately above (T9) and below (T10-T11) the contusion site, but not from cervical DRG. Elongating growth was also found in neurons immunoreactive to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), suggesting that some of the neurons exhibiting enhanced neuritic growth were nociceptors. The same measurements made on neurons dissociated 1 month after SCI revealed no evidence of elongating growth, although evidence for accelerated initiation of neurite outgrowth was found. Under certain conditions this transient growth-promoting state in nociceptors might be important for the development of chronic pain and hyperreflexia after SCI. PMID:21939395

Bedi, Supinder S; Lago, Michael T; Masha, Luke I; Crook, Robyn J; Grill, Raymond J; Walters, Edgar T

2012-03-20

159

Spinal Cord Injury Triggers an Intrinsic Growth-Promoting State in Nociceptors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Although most investigations of the mechanisms underlying chronic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) have examined the central nervous system (CNS), recent studies have shown that nociceptive primary afferent neurons display persistent hyperexcitability and spontaneous activity in their peripheral branches and somata in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after SCI. This suggests that SCI-induced alterations of primary nociceptors contribute to central sensitization and chronic pain after SCI. Does SCI also promote growth of these neurons' fibers, as has been suggested in some reports? The present study tests the hypothesis that SCI induces an intrinsic growth-promoting state in DRG neurons. This was tested by dissociating DRG neurons 3 days or 1 month after spinal contusion injury at thoracic level T10 and measuring neuritic growth 1 day later. Neurons cultured 3 days after SCI exhibited longer neurites without increases in branching (“elongating growth”), compared to neurons from sham-treated or untreated (naïve) rats. Robust promotion of elongating growth was found in small and medium-sized neurons (but not large neurons) from lumbar (L3–L5) and thoracic ganglia immediately above (T9) and below (T10–T11) the contusion site, but not from cervical DRG. Elongating growth was also found in neurons immunoreactive to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), suggesting that some of the neurons exhibiting enhanced neuritic growth were nociceptors. The same measurements made on neurons dissociated 1 month after SCI revealed no evidence of elongating growth, although evidence for accelerated initiation of neurite outgrowth was found. Under certain conditions this transient growth-promoting state in nociceptors might be important for the development of chronic pain and hyperreflexia after SCI. PMID:21939395

Lago, Michael T.; Masha, Luke I.; Crook, Robyn J.; Grill, Raymond J.; Walters, Edgar T.

2012-01-01

160

[Plant growth promoting microorganisms as alternative to chemical protection from pathogens (review)].  

PubMed

The review analyses data on physiological and biochemical influence of rhizospheric and endophytic microorganisms promoting plant growth (PGPR-plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) on induced resistance of plants and the possibility of its use in plant cultivation to protect crops from pathogens and phytophages. Resistance of plants provided by PGPR due to their endosymbiotic interrelationships is directly achieved because they produce peptide antibiotics and hydrolases ofchitin and glucan and also because plants form their own system of induced resistance, followed by changes in the balance of defensive proteins, phytohormones, and pro-/antioxidant status. PMID:21950110

Maksimov, I V; Abizgil'dina, R R; Pusenkova, L I

2011-01-01

161

A Naturally Associated Rhizobacterium of Arabidopsis thaliana Induces a Starvation-Like Transcriptional Response while Promoting Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth promotion by rhizobacteria is a known phenomenon but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We searched for plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that are naturally associated with Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate the molecular mechanisms that are involved in plant growth-promotion. We isolated a Pseudomonas bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. G62) from roots of field-grown Arabidopsis plants that has not been described previously

Jens Schwachtje; Silke Karojet; Ina Thormählen; Carolin Bernholz; Sabine Kunz; Stephan Brouwer; Melanie Schwochow; Karin Köhl; Joost T. van Dongen

2011-01-01

162

Toxicological assessment of selective pesticides towards plant growth promoting activities of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The study was designed to assess the effect of selected pesticides (metribuzin, glyphosate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, hexaconazole, metalaxyl and kitazin) at the recommended and higher rates on plant growth promoting activities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PS1 isolated from mustard (Brassica compestris) rhizosphere. The strain PS1 was specifically chosen owing to its substantial tolerance against pesticides, phosphate solubilization and considerable production of indole acetic acid, siderophores, exo-polysaccharides, HCN and ammonia. Plant growth promoting traits of the strain PS1 decreased consistently as the concentrations of each pesticide was increased from the recommended dose to the higher ones. Generally, the maximum toxicity to plant growth promoting traits was displayed by pesticides at three times the recommended field rate. However, the effect on the plant growth promoting activities of the P. aeruginosa strain PS1 at the recommended dose of each pesticide was less hazardous. This study revealed an additional aspect of the toxicological mechanisms of the pesticides through which they suppress the plant growth. PMID:21983319

Ahemad, Munees; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

2011-09-01

163

Bacteria with ACC deaminase can promote plant growth and help to feed the world.  

PubMed

To feed all of the world's people, it is necessary to sustainably increase agricultural productivity. One way to do this is through the increased use of plant growth-promoting bacteria; recently, scientists have developed a more profound understanding of the mechanisms employed by these bacteria to facilitate plant growth. Here, it is argued that the ability of plant growth-promoting bacteria that produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase to lower plant ethylene levels, often a result of various stresses, is a key component in the efficacious functioning of these bacteria. The optimal functioning of these bacteria includes the synergistic interaction between ACC deaminase and both plant and bacterial auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). These bacteria not only directly promote plant growth, they also protect plants against flooding, drought, salt, flower wilting, metals, organic contaminants, and both bacterial and fungal pathogens. While a considerable amount of both basic and applied work remains to be done before ACC deaminase-producing plant growth-promoting bacteria become a mainstay of plant agriculture, the evidence indicates that with the expected shift from chemicals to soil bacteria, the world is on the verge of a major paradigm shift in plant agriculture. PMID:24095256

Glick, Bernard R

2014-01-20

164

Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida spp. by relative growth measurement at single concentrations of antifungal agents.  

PubMed Central

The relative growth (percentage of growth relative to control growth) of 496 isolates representing six Candida species was assessed as a means of determining in vitro susceptibilities of the isolates in microdilution plate wells containing single concentrations of each of seven antifungal agents. The relative growth data were highly reproducible. With flucytosine and amorolfine they correlated well with MICs, but for an azole antifungal agent, terconazole, they did not correlate with MICs. Distributions of relative growth percentages for different Candida spp. showed significant differences in species susceptibility to individual agents. For example, C. albicans was less susceptible than the other species to amorolfine; C. parapsilosis isolates were particularly susceptible to terbinafine; and C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, and C. krusei isolates were less susceptible than C. albicans to fluconazole and ketoconazole but equally susceptible as or more susceptible than C. albicans to itraconazole. Differential patterns of susceptibility to individual azole antifungal agents were noted for some individual strains as well as for Candida spp. PMID:1416856

Odds, F C

1992-01-01

165

Regulation of Ribosome Biogenesis by Nucleostemin 3 Promotes Local and Systemic Growth in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Nucleostemin 3 (NS3) is an evolutionarily conserved protein with profound roles in cell growth and viability. Here we analyze cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous growth control roles of NS3 in Drosophila and demonstrate its GTPase activity using genetic and biochemical assays. Two null alleles of ns3, and RNAi, demonstrate the necessity of NS3 for cell autonomous growth. A hypomorphic allele highlights the hypersensitivity of neurons to lowered NS3 function. We propose that NS3 is the functional ortholog of yeast and human Lsg1, which promotes release of the nuclear export adapter from the large ribosomal subunit. Release of the adapter and its recycling to the nucleus are essential for sustained production of ribosomes. The ribosome biogenesis role of NS3 is essential for proper rates of translation in all tissues and is necessary for functions of growth-promoting neurons. PMID:23436180

Hartl, Tom A.; Ni, Julie; Cao, Jian; Suyama, Kaye L.; Patchett, Stephanie; Bussiere, Cyril; Gui, Dan Yi; Tang, Sheng; Kaplan, Daniel D.; Fish, Matthew; Johnson, Arlen W.; Scott, Matthew P.

2013-01-01

166

Use of impact fees to incentivize low-impact development and promote compact growth.  

PubMed

Low-impact development (LID) is an innovative stormwater management strategy that restores the predevelopment hydrology to prevent increased stormwater runoff from land development. Integrating LID into residential subdivisions and increasing population density by building more compact living spaces (e.g., apartment homes) can result in a more sustainable city by reducing stormwater runoff, saving infrastructural cost, increasing the number of affordable homes, and supporting public transportation. We develop an agent-based model (ABM) that describes the interactions between several decision-makers (i.e., local government, a developer, and homebuyers) and fiscal drivers (e.g., property taxes, impact fees). The model simulates the development of nine square miles of greenfield land. A more sustainable development (MSD) scenario introduces an impact fee that developers must pay if they choose not to use LID to build houses or apartment homes. Model simulations show homeowners selecting apartment homes 60% or 35% of the time after 30 years of development in MSD or business as usual (BAU) scenarios, respectively. The increased adoption of apartment homes results from the lower cost of using LID and improved quality of life for apartment homes relative to single-family homes. The MSD scenario generates more tax revenue and water savings than does BAU. A time-dependent global sensitivity analysis quantifies the importance of socioeconomic variables on the adoption rate of apartment homes. The top influential factors are the annual pay rates (or capital recovery factor) for single-family houses and apartment homes. The ABM can be used by city managers and policymakers for scenario exploration in accordance with local conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of impact fees and other policies in promoting LID and compact growth. PMID:23815440

Lu, Zhongming; Noonan, Douglas; Crittenden, John; Jeong, Hyunju; Wang, Dali

2013-10-01

167

Glycolysis supports embryonic muscle growth by promoting myoblast fusion  

PubMed Central

Muscles ensure locomotion behavior of invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. They are highly specialized and form using conserved developmental programs. To identify new players in muscle development we screened Drosophila and zebrafish gene expression databases for orthologous genes expressed in embryonic muscles. We selected more than 100 candidates. Among them is the glycolysis gene Pglym78/pgam2, the attenuated expression of which results in the formation of thinner muscles in Drosophila embryos. This phenotype is also observed in fast muscle fibers of pgam2 zebrafish morphants, suggesting affected myoblast fusion. Indeed, a detailed analysis of developing muscles in Pglym78 RNAi embryos reveals loss of fusion-associated actin foci and an inefficient Notch decay in fusion competent myoblasts, both known to be required for fusion. In addition to Pglym78, our screen identifies six other genes involved in glycolysis or in pyruvate metabolism (Pfk, Tpi, Gapdh, Pgk, Pyk, and Impl3). They are synchronously activated in embryonic muscles and attenuation of their expression leads to similar muscle phenotypes, which are characterized by fibers with reduced size and the presence of unfused myoblasts. Our data also show that the cell size triggering insulin pathway positively regulates glycolysis in developing muscles and that blocking the insulin or target of rapamycin pathways phenocopies the loss of function phenotypes of glycolytic genes, leading to myoblast fusion arrest and reduced muscle size. Collectively, these data suggest that setting metabolism to glycolysis-stimulated biomass production is part of a core myogenic program that operates in both invertebrate and vertebrate embryos and promotes formation of syncytial muscles. PMID:24191061

Tixier, Vanessa; Bataillé, Laetitia; Etard, Christelle; Jagla, Teresa; Weger, Meltem; DaPonte, Jean Philippe; Strähle, Uwe; Dickmeis, Thomas; Jagla, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

168

Elbow loading promotes longitudinal bone growth of the ulna and the humerus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical stimulation plays a critical role in bone development and growth. In view of recently recognized anabolic responses\\u000a promoted by a joint-loading modality, we examined the effects of elbow loading on longitudinal growth of the ulna and the\\u000a humerus. Using a custom-made piezoelectric loader, the left elbow of growing C57\\/BL\\/6 female mice was given daily 5-min bouts\\u000a of dynamic loading

Ping Zhang; Hiroki Yokota

169

Growth promoting effect of a transgenic Bacillus mucilaginosus on tobacco planting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we have investigated the plant growth promoting effect of Bacillus mucilaginosus strain D4B1, a rhizosphere soil organism, and its transgenic strain NKTS-3 on tobacco planting. The transgenic strain contains a phytase\\u000a expression cassette that can express high active phytase extracellularly and hydrolyze phytate in the soil to liberate inorganic\\u000a phosphorus for the growth of tobacco plants. Greenhouse

Xin Li; Zhiqiang Wu; Weidong Li; Ruixiang Yan; Li Li; Jun Li; Yihang Li; Minggang Li

2007-01-01

170

Rock phosphate-solubilizing Actinomycetes: screening for plant growth-promoting activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to select Actinobacteria that could improve plant growth and thus agricultural yield, we assessed different plant\\u000a growth promoting (PGP) abilities of eight rock phosphate (RP)-solubilizing Actinomycete isolates originating from Moroccan\\u000a phosphate mines. Six of these strains were able to grow on root exudates of the wheat plant as sole nutrient sources and were\\u000a efficiently releasing soluble phosphate from

Hanane Hamdali; Mohamed Hafidi; Marie Joëlle Virolle; Yedir Ouhdouch

2008-01-01

171

Ni/SiO2 Promoted Growth of Carbon Nanofibers  

SciTech Connect

The temporal changes to supported Ni sites during the growth of graphitic carbon nanofibers (GCNs) via the decomposition of chlorobenzene over Ni/SiO{sub 2} at 873 K have been investigated. The reaction of chlorobenzene with hydrogen also generated benzene, via catalytic hydrodechlorination, as the principal competing reaction. Reaction selectivity was found to be time dependent with a switch from a preferential hydrodechlorination to a predominant decomposition that generated an increasingly more structured carbon product over prolonged time-on-stream. These findings are discussed in terms of Cl/catalyst interaction(s) leading to metal site restructuring, the latter manifest in a sintering and faceting of the Ni metal particles. The pressure exerted on the metal/support interface due to fiber formation was of sufficient magnitude to extract the Ni particle from the support; the occurrence of an entrapped Ni particle at the fiber tip is a feature common to the majority of GCNs with the incorporation of Ni fragments along the length of the GCN. Metal site restructuring has been probed by temperature-programmed reduction of the passivated samples, H{sub 2} chemisorption/temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and XANES/EXAFS analyses. This restructuring serves to enhance destructive chemisorption and/or facilitate carbon diffusion to generate the resultant GCN. The nature of the carbonaceous product has been characterized by a combination of TEM-EDX, SEM, XRD and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO).

Keane,M.; Jacobs, G.; Patterson, P.

2006-01-01

172

Growth signaling promotes chronological aging in budding yeast by inducing superoxide anions that inhibit quiescence  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of growth signaling pathways protects against aging and age-related diseases in parallel with reduced oxidative stress. The relationships between growth signaling, oxidative stress and aging remain unclear. Here we report that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alterations in growth signaling pathways impact levels of superoxide anions that promote chronological aging and inhibit growth arrest of stationary phase cells in G0/G1. Factors that decrease intracellular superoxide anions in parallel with enhanced longevity and more efficient G0/G1 arrest include genetic inactivation of growth signaling pathways that inhibit Rim15p, which activates oxidative stress responses, and downregulation of these pathways by caloric restriction. Caloric restriction also reduces superoxide anions independently of Rim15p by elevating levels of H2O2, which activates superoxide dismutases. In contrast, high glucose or mutations that activate growth signaling accelerate chronological aging in parallel with increased superoxide anions and reduced efficiency of stationary phase G0/G1 arrest. High glucose also activates DNA damage responses and preferentially kills stationary phase cells that fail to arrest growth in G0/G1. These findings suggest that growth signaling promotes chronological aging in budding yeast by elevating superoxide anions that inhibit quiescence and induce DNA replication stress. A similar mechanism likely contributes to aging and age-related diseases in complex eukaryotes. PMID:21076178

Weinberger, Martin; Mesquita, Ana; Carroll, Timothy; Marks, Laura; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Zhaojie; Ludovico, Paula; Burhans, William C.

2010-01-01

173

VCC-1, a novel chemokine, promotes tumor growth  

SciTech Connect

We have identified a novel human gene by transcriptional microarray analysis, which is co-regulated in tumors and angiogenesis model systems with VEGF expression. Isolation of cDNA clones containing the full-length VCC-1 transcript from both human and mouse shows a 119 amino acid protein with a 22 amino acid cleavable signal sequence in both species. Comparison of the protein product of this gene with hidden Markov models of all known proteins shows weak but significant homology with two known chemokines, SCYA17 and SCYA16. Northern analysis of human tissues detects a 1 kb band in lung and skeletal muscle. Murine VCC-1 expression can also be detected in lung as well as thyroid, submaxillary gland, epididymis, and uterus tissues by slot blot analysis. By quantitative real time RT-PCR 71% of breast tumors showed 3- to 24-fold up-regulation of VCC-1. In situ hybridization of breast carcinomas showed strong expression of the gene in both normal and transformed mammary gland ductal epithelial cells. In vitro, human microvascular endothelial cells grown on fibronectin increase VCC-1 expression by almost 100-fold. In addition, in the mouse angioma endothelial cell line PY4.1 the gene was over-expressed by 28-fold 6 h after induction of tube formation while quiescent and proliferating cells showed no change. VCC-1 expression is also increased by VEGF and FGF treatment, about 6- and 5-fold, respectively. Finally, 100% of mice injected with NIH3T3 cells over-expressing VCC-1 develop rapidly progressing tumors within 21 days while no growth is seen in any control mice injected with NIH3T3 cells containing the vector alone. These results strongly suggest that VCC-1 plays a role in angiogenesis and possibly in the development of tumors in some tissue types.

Weinstein, Edward J. [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Head, Richard [Department of Genomics and Biotechnology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Griggs, David W. [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Sun Duo [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Evans, Robert J. [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Swearingen, Michelle L. [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Westlin, Marisa M. [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Mazzarella, Richard [Department of Genomics and Biotechnology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States)]. E-mail: richard.a.mazzarella@pfizer.com

2006-11-10

174

Saprotrophic competitiveness and biocontrol fitness of a genetically modified strain of the plant-growth-promoting fungus Trichoderma hamatum GD12.  

PubMed

Trichoderma species are ubiquitous soil fungi that hold enormous potential for the development of credible alternatives to agrochemicals and synthetic fertilizers in sustainable crop production. In this paper, we show that substantial improvements in plant productivity can be met by genetic modification of a plant-growth-promoting and biocontrol strain of Trichoderma hamatum, but that these improvements are obtained in the absence of disease pressure only. Using a quantitative monoclonal antibody-based ELISA, we show that an N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase-deficient mutant of T. hamatum, generated by insertional mutagenesis of the corresponding gene, has impaired saprotrophic competitiveness during antagonistic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani in soil. Furthermore, its fitness as a biocontrol agent of the pre-emergence damping-off pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is significantly reduced, and its ability to promote plant growth is constrained by the presence of both pathogens. This work shows that while gains in T. hamatum-mediated plant-growth-promotion can be met through genetic manipulation of a single beneficial trait, such a modification has negative impacts on other aspects of its biology and ecology that contribute to its success as a saprotrophic competitor and antagonist of soil-borne pathogens. The work has important implications for fungal morphogenesis, demonstrating a clear link between hyphal architecture and secretory potential. Furthermore, it highlights the need for a holistic approach to the development of genetically modified Trichoderma strains for use as crop stimulants and biocontrol agents in plant agriculture. PMID:21835878

Ryder, Lauren S; Harris, Beverley D; Soanes, Darren M; Kershaw, Michael J; Talbot, Nicholas J; Thornton, Christopher R

2012-01-01

175

Plant–microbe interactions promoting plant growth and health: perspectives for controlled use of microorganisms in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-associated microorganisms fulfill important functions for plant growth and health. Direct plant growth promotion by\\u000a microbes is based on improved nutrient acquisition and hormonal stimulation. Diverse mechanisms are involved in the suppression\\u000a of plant pathogens, which is often indirectly connected with plant growth. Whereas members of the bacterial genera Azospirillum and Rhizobium are well-studied examples for plant growth promotion, Bacillus,

Gabriele Berg

2009-01-01

176

Draft Genome Sequence of the Growth-Promoting Endophyte Paenibacillus sp. P22, Isolated from Populus  

PubMed Central

Paenibacillus sp. P22 is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic endospore-forming bacterium isolated from poplar hybrid 741 (?[Populus alba × (P. davidiana + P. simonii) × P. tomentosa]). This bacterium shows strong similarities to Paenibacillus humicus, and important growth-promoting effects on in vitro grown explants of poplar hybrid 741 have been described. PMID:24723717

Hanak, Anne M.; Nagler, Matthias; Weinmaier, Thomas; Sun, Xiaoliang; Fragner, Lena; Schwab, Clarissa; Rattei, Thomas; Ulrich, Kristina; Ewald, Dietrich; Engel, Marion; Schloter, Michael; Bittner, Romana; Schleper, Christa

2014-01-01

177

Veterinary Drugs and Growth Promoters Residues in Meat and Processed Meats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterinary drugs, which comprise a large number of different types of substances, are generally intended for therapeutic (to control infectious diseases) and prophylactic (to prevent against infections) purposes in farm animals. Other substances with growth promoting effect may exert antimicrobial effect against the microbial flora in the gut to take maximum profit of nutrients in the feed or by affecting

Milagro Reig; Fidel Toldrá

2009-01-01

178

Can Choice Promote Education for All? Evidence from Growth in Private Primary Schooling in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines whether the recent growth in "low-fee private" (LFP) schools is able to promote Education for All by being accessible to the poor. Based primarily on a 13-village survey of 250 households and visits to 26 private and government schools in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, this paper explores who "chooses" private schooling, in the…

Harma, Joanna

2009-01-01

179

Burkholderia cenocepacia conditional growth mutant library created by random promoter replacement of essential genes  

PubMed Central

Identification of essential genes by construction of conditional knockouts with inducible promoters allows the identification of essential genes and creation of conditional growth (CG) mutants that are then available as genetic tools for further studies. We used large-scale transposon delivery of the rhamnose-inducible promoter, PrhaB followed by robotic screening of rhamnose-dependent growth to construct a genomic library of 106 Burkholderia cenocepacia CG mutants. Transposon insertions were found where PrhaB was in the same orientation of widely conserved, well-characterized essential genes as well as genes with no previous records of essentiality in other microorganisms. Using previously reported global gene-expression analyses, we demonstrate that PrhaB can achieve the wide dynamic range of expression levels required for essential genes when the promoter is delivered randomly and mutants with rhamnose-dependent growth are selected. We also show specific detection of the target of an antibiotic, novobiocin, by enhanced sensitivity of the corresponding CG mutant (PrhaB controlling gyrB expression) within the library. Modulation of gene expression to achieve 30–60% of wild-type growth created conditions for specific hypersensitivity demonstrating the value of the CG mutant library for chemogenomic experiments. In summary, CG mutants can be obtained on a large scale by random delivery of a tightly regulated inducible promoter into the bacterial chromosome followed by a simple screening for the CG phenotype, without previous information on gene essentiality. PMID:23389959

Bloodworth, Ruhi A M; Gislason, April S; Cardona, Silvia T

2013-01-01

180

tions promoting the growth and de-velopment offish, the effects of the reg-  

E-print Network

tions promoting the growth and de- velopment offish, the effects of the reg- ulation parts of the North Sea. Papua New Guinea Puts Higher Tax Assessment on Foreign Fish Firms Three Japanese Company in late 1974 were notified by the government of Papua New Guinea of new tax measures ap- plicable

181

Genome of the Root-Associated Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Variovorax paradoxus Strain EPS  

PubMed Central

Variovorax paradoxus is a ubiquitous betaproteobacterium involved in plant growth promotion, the degradation of xenobiotics, and quorum-quenching activity. The genome of V. paradoxus strain EPS consists of a single circular chromosome of 6,550,056 bp, with a 66.48% G+C content. PMID:24158554

Han, Jong-In; Spain, Jim C.; Leadbetter, Jared R.; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff S.; Woyke, Tanja; Davenport, Karen W.

2013-01-01

182

EFFECTS OF A NEW GROWTH PROMOTER (R-ALBUTEROL) FOR COMMERCIAL SWINE PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several beta agonists have been tried as potential growth promoters for swine with variable success; only one is currently commercially available in the USA, ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean®, Elanco). Ractopamine is a preferential beta-1 agonist and has been associated with both behavioral and c...

183

GIBBERELLIC ACID AND BENZYLADENINE PROMOTE EARLY FLOWERING AND VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF MILTONIOPSIS ORCHID HYBRIDS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flowering of Miltoniopsis orchids is influenced by a combination of cool temperatures and short photoperiod. To determine if application of plant growth regulators could promote flowering without the need for costly structural modification to control photoperiod or temperature, we utilized drenches ...

184

An Agent-Based Model of Lifetime Attendance and Self-Help Program Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on Alcoholics Anonymous and other self-help programs has shown mixed results regarding lifetime participation at the individual level. No one has systematically studied whether lifetime membership contributes to the success of the program as a whole. This project analyzes the relationship of lifetime membership and program growth using a series of agent-based models. Results demonstrate that programs encouraging lifetime

Danielle Hiance; Nathan Doogan; Keith Warren; Ian M. Hamilton; Marilyn Lewis

2012-01-01

185

PTEN loss mediated Akt activation promotes prostate tumor growth and metastasis via CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling  

PubMed Central

Introduction The chemokine CXCL12, also known as SDF-1, and its receptor, CXCR4, are overexpressed in prostate cancers and in animal models of prostate-specific PTEN deletion, but their regulation is poorly understood. Loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) is frequently observed in cancer, resulting in the deregulation of cell survival, growth, and proliferation. We hypothesize that loss of PTEN and subsequent activation of Akt, frequent occurrences in prostate cancer, regulate the CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling axis in tumor growth and bone metastasis. Methods Murine prostate epithelial cells from PTEN+/+, PTEN+/?, and PTEN?/? (prostate specific knockdown) mice as well as human prostate cancer cell lines C4-2B, PC3, and DU145 were used in gene expression and invasion studies with Akt inhibition. Additionally, HA-tagged Akt1 was overexpressed in DU145, and tumor growth in subcutaneous and intra-tibia bone metastasis models were analyzed. Results Loss of PTEN resulted in increased expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12 and Akt inhibition reversed expression and cellular invasion. These results suggest that loss of PTEN may play a key role in the regulation of this chemokine activity in prostate cancer. Overexpression of Akt1 in DU145 resulted in increased CXCR4 expression, as well as increased proliferation and cell cycle progression. Subcutaneous injection of these cells also resulted in increased tumor growth as compared to neo controls. Akt1 overexpression reversed the osteosclerotic phenotype associated with DU145 cells to an osteolytic phenotype and enhanced intra-osseous tumor growth. Conclusions These results suggest the basis for activation of CXCL12 signaling through CXCR4 in prostate cancer driven by the loss of PTEN and subsequent activation of Akt. Akt1-associated CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling promotes tumor growth, suggesting that Akt inhibitors may potentially be employed as anticancer agents to target expansion of PC bone metastases. PMID:23902739

2013-01-01

186

Growth Promotion of Yunnan Pine Early Seedlings in Response to Foliar Application of IAA and IBA.  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted using a 3 × 3 orthogonal regression design to explore the growth promotion of one-year-old Yunnan pine seedlings (Pinus yunnanensis Franch.) in response to foliar application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L(-1) and IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L(-1) in order to promote the growth during the seedlings' early stage. The experiment was conducted at the Lufeng Village Forest Farm of Yiliang County in Kunming, Yunnan, China. The results showed that IAA and IBA were effective in growth promotion of Yunnan pine seedlings. The response of both growth increment and biomass accumulation to the concentration of IAA and IBA can be modeled using a bivariate surface response, and each growth index had a peak value. Growth indexes increased with the increase of the dosage of photohormones before reaching a peak value, and then decreased. The different growth indexes had various responses to the concentrations and ratio of IAA and IBA. The foliar application of IAA in combination with IBA showed the largest improvement on the biomass of the needles, followed by stems and roots. The higher ratio of IAA promoted stem diameter growth, root system development and biomass accumulation in the needles, while a higher ratio of IBA contributed to height growth and biomass accumulation in the stem. Based on the auxin effect equations on the different growth indexes and surface response, the optimum concentrations and the (IAA:IBA) ratios can be obtained. The optimum concentrations of IAA and IBA were 167 and 186, 310 and 217, 193 and 159, 191 and 221, and 206 and 186 mg·L(-1), with corresponding ratios of 1:1.11, 1:0.70, 1:0.82, 1:1.15 and 1:0.90, respectively, at the maximum seedling height and collar diameter growth as well as biomass accumulation at the root, stem and needle. The above growth indexes were 22.00%, 79.80%, 48.65%, 82.20% and 107.00% higher than the control treatment. PMID:22754380

Xu, Yulan; Zhang, Yuemin; Li, Yunfei; Li, Genqian; Liu, Daiyi; Zhao, Minchong; Cai, Nianhui

2012-01-01

187

Growth Promotion of Yunnan Pine Early Seedlings in Response to Foliar Application of IAA and IBA  

PubMed Central

A field experiment was conducted using a 3 × 3 orthogonal regression design to explore the growth promotion of one-year-old Yunnan pine seedlings (Pinus yunnanensis Franch.) in response to foliar application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L?1 and IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L?1 in order to promote the growth during the seedlings’ early stage. The experiment was conducted at the Lufeng Village Forest Farm of Yiliang County in Kunming, Yunnan, China. The results showed that IAA and IBA were effective in growth promotion of Yunnan pine seedlings. The response of both growth increment and biomass accumulation to the concentration of IAA and IBA can be modeled using a bivariate surface response, and each growth index had a peak value. Growth indexes increased with the increase of the dosage of photohormones before reaching a peak value, and then decreased. The different growth indexes had various responses to the concentrations and ratio of IAA and IBA. The foliar application of IAA in combination with IBA showed the largest improvement on the biomass of the needles, followed by stems and roots. The higher ratio of IAA promoted stem diameter growth, root system development and biomass accumulation in the needles, while a higher ratio of IBA contributed to height growth and biomass accumulation in the stem. Based on the auxin effect equations on the different growth indexes and surface response, the optimum concentrations and the (IAA:IBA) ratios can be obtained. The optimum concentrations of IAA and IBA were 167 and 186, 310 and 217, 193 and 159, 191 and 221, and 206 and 186 mg·L?1, with corresponding ratios of 1:1.11, 1:0.70, 1:0.82, 1:1.15 and 1:0.90, respectively, at the maximum seedling height and collar diameter growth as well as biomass accumulation at the root, stem and needle. The above growth indexes were 22.00%, 79.80%, 48.65%, 82.20% and 107.00% higher than the control treatment. PMID:22754380

Xu, Yulan; Zhang, Yuemin; Li, Yunfei; Li, Genqian; Liu, Daiyi; Zhao, Minchong; Cai, Nianhui

2012-01-01

188

The Use of Growth Factors and Other Humoral Agents to Accelerate and Enhance Burn Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Objective: Certain cytokines, especially those known as growth factors, have been demonstrated to mediate or modulate burn wound healing. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that there are therapeutic advantages to the wound healing process when these agents are utilized. Positive effects have been reported for 4 types of wounds seen in the burn patient: partial-thickness wounds, full-thickness wounds, interstices of meshed skin grafts, and skin graft donor sites. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, Ovid, and Web of Science databases to identify pertinent articles regarding growth factors and other cytokines in burns and wound healing. Results: The current knowledge about cytokine growth factors and their potential therapeutic applications in burn wound healing are discussed and reviewed. Conclusions: Platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factors, epidermal growth factors, transforming growth factor alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor I, nerve growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and amnion-derived cellular cytokine solution have all been suggested to enhance the rate and quality of healing in 1 or more of these wounds encountered in burn care. PMID:22084646

Ching, Yiu-Hei; Sutton, Thomas L.; Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Robson, Martin C.; Payne, Wyatt G.

2011-01-01

189

Effect of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas spp. on compatible solutes, antioxidant status and plant growth of maize under drought stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting yield of dryland crops. Rhizobacterial populations of stressed soils\\u000a are adapted and tolerant to stress and can be screened for isolation of efficient stress adaptive\\/tolerant, plant growth promoting\\u000a rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains that can be used as inoculants for crops grown in stressed ecosystems. The effect of inoculation\\u000a of five drought tolerant

V. Sandhya; Sk. Z. Ali; Minakshi Grover; Gopal Reddy; B. Venkateswarlu

2010-01-01

190

Enhanced Hepatocyte Growth Factor Signaling by Type II Transforming Growth Factor-B Receptor Knockout Fibroblasts Promotes Mammary Tumorigenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-B (TGF-B) plays complex dual roles as an inhibitor and promoter of tumor progression. Although the influence of the stromal microenvironment on tumor progression is well recognized, little is known about the functions of TGF-B signaling in the stroma during tumor progression. Using cre-lox technology, expression of the type II TGF-B receptor was selectively knocked out in fibroblasts

Nikki Cheng; Anna Chytil; Yu Shyr; Alison Joly

2007-01-01

191

Serum cholesterol promotes the growth of Candida glabrata in the presence of fluconazole.  

PubMed

The pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata is thought to utilize extracellular sterols during infection, but there have been few reports on the sterol uptake mechanisms of this fungus. The addition of serum promoted the growth of C. glabrata cells in the presence of the sterol inhibitor fluconazole, probably as the result of incorporation of cholesterol from serum. We demonstrated that lipoprotein-deficient serum, in which most of the cholesterol was eliminated, could not rescue the growth of fluconazole-treated C. glabrata cells, but it successfully promoted the expression of the sterol transporter gene AUS1. After supplementation of free cholesterol to lipoprotein-deficient serum, the serum was again competent to promote the growth of fluconazole-treated C. glabrata. The serum-mediated growth rescue from fluconazole inhibition was observed in the nonpathogenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae when it was followed by the activation of anaerobic sterol uptake. These results suggested that serum cholesterol was incorporated into yeast cells to compensate for sterol depletion when sterol uptake was activated. The uptake of serum cholesterol could support the growth of C. glabrata cells during bloodstream infections. PMID:23233084

Nagi, Minoru; Tanabe, Koichi; Nakayama, Hironobu; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Umeyama, Takashi; Oura, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideaki; Kajiwara, Susumu; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

2013-02-01

192

Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles.  

PubMed

Abstract Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-Young; Cho, Hong-Il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

2014-11-14

193

Eco-friendly synthesis and study of new plant growth promoters: 3,3?-Diindolylmethane and its derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

3,3?-Diindolylmethane (DIM) derivatives 3a–k, prepared in one-pot from indoles 1a–k and hexamethylenetetramine (2) using ionic liquid [Bmim]BF4 as eco-friendly recyclable solvent as well as catalyst, showed good plant growth promoting activity on Oryza sativa. Among the DIM derivatives synthesized 3c shows potent auxin like growth promoting activity.

Churala Pal; Sumit Dey; Sanjit Kumar Mahato; Jayaraman Vinayagam; Prasun K. Pradhan; Venkatachalam Sesha Giri; Parasuraman Jaisankar; Tanvir Hossain; Shikhi Baruri; Debjit Ray; Suparna Mandal Biswas

2007-01-01

194

Learning To Listen to Mothers: A Trainers' Manual To Strengthen Communication Skills for Nutrition and Growth Promotion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counseling mothers of small children in effective growth monitoring and promotion is both an art and a science. Virtually all primary health care programs contain a Growth Monitoring and Promotion component (GMP). It is vital that supervisors and community health workers of GMP programs have a clear understanding of why communication skills are…

Vella, Jane; Uccellani, Valerie

195

Induction of reactive oxygen species generation inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promotes growth arrest in prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is one causative factor of the pathogenesis and aggressiveness of most of the cancer types, including prostate cancer (CaP). A moderate increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) induces cell proliferation whereas excessive amounts of ROS promote apoptosis. In this study, we explored the pro-oxidant property of 3,9-dihydroxy-2-prenylcoumestan (psoralidin [pso]), a dietary agent, on CaP (PC-3 and C4-2B) cells. Pso greatly induced ROS generation (more than 20-fold) that resulted in the growth inhibition of CaP cells. Overexpression of anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD2, and catalase, or pretreatment with the pharmacological inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated both pso-mediated ROS generation and pso-mediated growth inhibition in CaP cells. Furthermore, pso administration significantly inhibited the migratory and invasive property of CaP cells by decreasing the transcription of ?-catenin, and slug, which promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and by concurrently inducing E-cadherin expression in CaP cells. Pso-induced ROS generation in CaP cells resulted in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome-c release, and activation of caspase-3 and -9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which led to apoptosis. On the other hand, overexpression of anti-oxidants rescued pso-mediated effects on CaP cells. These findings suggest that increasing the threshold of intracellular ROS could prevent or treat CaP growth and metastasis. PMID:23475579

Das, Trinath P; Suman, Suman; Damodaran, Chendil

2014-07-01

196

Promotion of the growth of Crocus sativus cells and the production of crocin by rare earth elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

La3+ and Ce3+, either singly or a mixture, promoted crocin production of Crocus sativus callus but Nd3+ had little effect and all metal ions were toxic above 100 µM. La3+ (60 µM) promoted growth of callus significantly but increased crocin only slightly. Ce3+ (40 µM) significantly promoted crocin production but had little effect on cell growth. La3+ (60 µM) and Ce3+ (20 µM) together gave

Shu-an Chen; Bing Zhao; Xiaodong Wang; Xiaofan Yuan; Yuchun Wang

2004-01-01

197

The effect of complexing agents on the oriented growth of electrodeposited microcrystalline cuprous oxide film  

SciTech Connect

Highlight: ? Cu{sub 2}O microcrystalline film is electrodeposited on ITO with complexing agents. ? As the stability constant increasing, the overpotential is negatively shifted. ? The formation energy of different planes is affected by overpotential. ? The overpotential can significantly alter the growth priority of different planes. ? The morphology of Cu{sub 2}O film is significantly modified by complexing agents. -- Abstract: Three conventional complexing agents, including lactic acid, citric acid and EDTA, are applied in the electrodeposition of microcrystalline cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) film on indium tin oxide glass substrate. Both scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction have been performed to characterize the morphology and texture of microcrystalline Cu{sub 2}O film. It is found that the stability constant of copper-based complex compound can obviously influence the deposition overpotential of Cu{sub 2}O, and the overpotential can significantly alter the growth priority of different planes, which results in oriented growth of Cu{sub 2}O grains. The quantitative relationships between the stability constant and the deposition overpotential of different complexing agents, as well as the relationship between the overpotential and the formation energy of microcrystalline cuprous oxide's (1 1 0), (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) planes are calculated, respectively.

Zhang, Zhen; Hu, Wenbin; Deng, Yida; Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Haoren [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wu, Yating, E-mail: tosunbear@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2012-09-15

198

Stimulatory Effects of Arsenic-Tolerant Soil Fungi on Plant Growth Promotion and Soil Properties  

PubMed Central

Fifteen fungi were obtained from arsenic-contaminated agricultural fields in West Bengal, India and examined for their arsenic tolerance and removal ability in our previous study. Of these, the four best arsenic-remediating isolates were tested for plant growth promotion effects on rice and pea in the present study. A greenhouse-based pot experiment was conducted using soil inocula of individual fungi. The results indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant growth and improvement of soil properties in inoculated soils compared to the control. A significant increase in plant growth was recorded in treated soils and varied from 16–293%. Soil chemical and enzymatic properties varied from 20–222% and 34–760%, respectively, in inoculated soil. Plants inoculated with inocula of Westerdykella and Trichoderma showed better stimulatory effects on plant growth and soil nutrient availability than Rhizopus and Lasiodiplodia. These fungi improved soil nutrient content and enhanced plant growth. These fungi may be used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and improved soil properties in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:23047145

Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Gupta, Manjul; Vaish, Aradhana; Mannan, Shivee; Singh, Nandita; Tewari, Shri Krishna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

2012-01-01

199

Functional identification of regulatory elements within the promoter region of platelet-derived growth factor 2.  

PubMed Central

Human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is composed of two polypeptide chains, PDGF-1 and PDGF-2, the human homolog of the v-sis oncogene. Deregulation of PDGF-2 expression can confer a growth advantage to cells possessing the cognate receptor and, thus, may contribute to the malignant phenotype. We investigated the regulation of PDGF-2 mRNA expression during megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells. Induction by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) led to a greater than 200-fold increase in PDGF-2 transcript levels in these cells. Induction was dependent on protein synthesis and was not enhanced by cycloheximide exposure. In our initial investigation of the PDGF-2 promoter, a minimal promoter region, which included sequences extending only 42 base pairs upstream of the TATA signal, was found to be as efficient as 4 kilobase pairs upstream of the TATA signal in driving expression of a reporter gene in uninduced K562 cells. We also functionally identified different regulatory sequence elements of the PDGF-2 promoter in TPA-induced K562 cells. One region acted as a transcriptional silencer, while another region was necessary for maximal activity of the promoter in megakaryoblasts. This region was shown to bind nuclear factors and was the target for trans-activation in normal and tumor cells. In one tumor cell line, which expressed high PDGF-2 mRNA levels, the presence of the positive regulatory region resulted in a 30-fold increase in promoter activity. However, the ability of the minimal PDGF-2 promoter to drive reporter gene expression in uninduced K562 cells and normal fibroblasts, which contained no detectable PDGF-2 transcripts, implies the existence of other negative control mechanisms beyond the regulation of promoter activity. Images PMID:2651898

Pech, M; Rao, C D; Robbins, K C; Aaronson, S A

1989-01-01

200

Arsenite-Mediated Promotion Of Anchorage-Independent Growth Of HaCat Cells Through Placental Growth Factor.  

PubMed

Various cancers including skin cancer are increasing in 45 million people exposed to arsenic above the World Health Organization's guideline value of 10 ?g/L. However, there is limited information on key molecules regulating arsenic-mediated carcinogenesis. Our fieldwork in Bangladesh demonstrated that levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) in urine samples from residents of cancer-prone areas with arsenic-polluted drinking water were higher than those in urine samples from residents of an area not polluted with arsenic. Our experimental study in human non-tumorigenic HaCaT skin keratinocytes showed that arsenite promoted anchorage-independent growth with increased expression and secretion of PlGF, a ligand of VEGF receptor1 (VEGFR1), and increased VEGFR1/MEK/ERK activities. The arsenite-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth was strongly inhibited by PlGF depletion with decreased activities of the PlGF/VEGFR1/MEK/ERK pathway. Moreover, arsenite proteasome-dependently degrades Metal-regulatory transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) protein, resulting in a decreased amount of MTF-1 protein binding to the PlGF promoter. MTF-1 negatively controlled PlGF transcription in HaCaT cells, resulting in increased PlGF transcription. These results suggest that arsenite-mediated MTF-1 degradation enhances activity of PlGF/VEGFR1/MEK/ERK signaling, resulting in promotion of the malignant transformation of keratinocytes. Thus, this study proposed a molecular mechanism for arsenite-mediated development of skin cancer.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 10 December 2014. doi:10.1038/jid.2014.514. PMID:25493652

Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Naito, Hisao; Shekhar, Hossain U; Omata, Yasuhiro; Kato, Masashi

2014-12-10

201

Efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sand dunes of Chennai coastal area.  

PubMed

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize the plant root and enhance the plant growth. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. In the present study, PGPR were isolated from 18 different rhizosphere soil samples of coastal sand dune plants, belonging to the genus Ipomoea sp. collected from the Chennai coastal area. For isolation of bacteria from soil samples, pour plate technique was followed. The rhizobacterial population was ranged from 4.4 x 10(6)-7.5 x 10(7) CFU g(-1). From that, 46 morphologically different bacterial strains were isolated. Among 46, 18 strains exhibited the production of Indole Acetic Acid. (IAA). When screened for phosphate solubilzing activity, six strains showed maximum activity. All these selected six strains were screened for seed germination among which these two strains (AMET1136 and AMET 1148) showed remarkable increase in the seed germination of black gram and green gram. For plant growth promotion, three types of treatments namely, seed bacterization, soil drenching and mixed (seed+soil) were carried out to check the potential of these two strains. Among that one strain which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. AMET1148 showed remarkable and significant increase in shoot length and root length of the tested plants. The study concluded that PGPR from coastal sand dund plants can be developed as plant growth promoters in agricultural crops. PMID:24175421

Muthezhilan, R; Sindhuja, B S; Hussain, A Jaffar; Jayaprakashvel, M

2012-08-15

202

Neurotensin, a novel target of Wnt/?-catenin pathway, promotes growth of neuroendocrine tumor cells.  

PubMed

Wnt/?-catenin signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating cell growth and differentiation by activation of the ?-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) complex and subsequent regulation of a set of target genes that have one or more TCF-binding elements (TBEs). Hyperactivation of this pathway has been implicated in numerous malignancies including human neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Neurotensin (NT), an intestinal hormone, induces proliferation of several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including cancers of the pancreas and colon. Here, we analyzed the human NT promoter in silico and found at least four consensus TBEs within the proximal promoter region. Using a combination of ChIP and luciferase reporter assays, we identified one TBE (located ?900 bp proximal from the transcription start site) that was immunoprecipitated efficiently by TCF4-targeting antibody; mutation of this site attenuated the responsiveness to ?-catenin. We also confirmed that the promoter activity and the mRNA and protein expression levels of NT were increased by various Wnt pathway activators and decreased by Wnt inhibitors in NET cell lines BON and QGP-1, which express and secrete NT. Similarly, the intracellular content and secretion of NT were induced by Wnt3a in these cells. Finally, inhibition of NT signaling suppressed cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth and decreased expression levels of growth-related proteins in NET cells. Our results indicate that NT is a direct target of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway and may be a mediator for NET cell growth. PMID:25098665

Kim, Ji Tae; Liu, Chunming; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y; Weiss, Heidi L; Townsend, Courtney M; Evers, B Mark

2015-03-15

203

Revegetation of a lakeside barren area by the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

The growth stimulation of wild plants by several bacterial species showing plant growth-promoting capabilities was examined in a barren lakeside area at Lake Paro, Korea. Microbial numbers and activities in the field soil were monitored for 73 days after inoculation of the bacteria. The acridine orange direct counts for the total soil bacterial populations ranged between 2.0-2.3x10(9) cells/g soil and 1.4-1.8x10(9) cells/g soil in the inoculated and uninoculated soils, respectively. The numbers of Pseudomonas spp., which is known as a typical plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, and the total microbial activity were higher in the inoculated soil compared to those in the uninoculated soil. The average shoot and root lengths of the wild plants grown in the inoculated soil were 17.3 cm and 12.4 cm, respectively, and longer than those of 11.4 cm and 8.5 cm in the uninoculated soil. The total dry weight of the harvested wild plants was also higher in the inoculated soil (42.0 g) compared to the uninoculated soil (35.1 g). The plant growth-promoting capabilities of the inoculated bacteria may be used for the rapid revegetation of barren or disturbed land, and as biofertilizer in agriculture. PMID:17483804

Ahn, Tae-Seok; Ka, Jong-Ok; Lee, Geon-Hyoung; Song, Hong-Gyu

2007-04-01

204

Plant-Growth-Promoting Fungicide-Tolerant Rhizobium Improves Growth and Symbiotic Characteristics of Lentil ( Lens esculentus ) in Fungicide-Applied Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to identify lentil-specific rhizobial strains with the ability to tolerate fungicide and synthesize\\u000a plant growth regulators even in soils contaminated with fungicides. A fungicide-tolerant and plant-growth-promoting rhizobial\\u000a strain was used to assess its impact on lentil grown in fungicide-treated soils. The tebuconazole-tolerant Rhizobium sp. strain MRL3 produced plant-growth-promoting substances when grown in the presence

Munees Ahemad; Mohammad Saghir Khan

205

Effects of spill-treating agents on growth kinetics of marine microalgae.  

PubMed

The effects of four spill-treating agents (STAs) (CytoSol, Finasol(®) OSR 51, Agma OSD 569 and OD4000) on the growth kinetics of three marine microalgae (Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) were studied. Chlorophyll a concentration and optical density at 700 nm were assessed to describe the logistic growth of algae in batch cultures. The optical density data were initially analyzed as described for standard algal growth inhibition tests and subsequently modelled by a bivariate model, as a function of time and dose, to assess the toxic effects on growth parameters. Increasing trends in EC50 and EC10 values with time were found with the standard approach. In 8 of the 11 tests, the lag phase (?) or the time required to achieve half the maximum biomass (?) was significantly dependent on the STA concentration. A global parameter (EC50,?) was calculated to summarize the effects of STAs on growth parameters in the bivariate model. The ranking of sensitivity as EC50,? values was I. galbana>C. gracilis>P. tricornutum. For all species tested, the least toxic agent was Agma OSD 569, followed by CytoSol. The mathematical model allowed successful ecotoxicological evaluation of chemicals on microalgal growth. PMID:23911058

Rial, Diego; Murado, Miguel A; Menduiña, Araceli; Fuciños, Pablo; González, Pilar; Mirón, Jesús; Vázquez, José A

2013-12-15

206

Evaluation of growth promotion and inhibition from mycobactins and nonmycobacterial siderophores (Desferrioxamine and FR160) in Mycobacterium aurum.  

PubMed Central

Heterologous mycobactins and the synthetic FR160 [N4-nonyl,N1,N8-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl) spermidine hydrobromide (C3 0H4 6N3, O6 Br)] promoted growth in Mycobacterium aurum in low concentrations. They were otherwise highly inhibitory, as opposed to homologous mycobactin, which was strictly growth promoting. Desferrioxamine B (Desferal) had no significant effect on growth. PMID:9257775

Bosne-David, S; Bricard, L; Ramiandrasoa, F; DeRoussent, A; Kunesch, G; Andremont, A

1997-01-01

207

Potential plant growth-promoting activity of Serratia nematodiphila NII0928 on black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential bacterial strain designated as NII-0928 isolated from Western ghat forest soil with multiple plant growth promoting attributes, and it has been identified and characterized. Plant growth promoting\\u000a traits were analyzed by determining the P-solubilization efficiency, Indole acetic acid production, HCN, siderophore production\\u000a and growth in nitrogen free medium. It was able to solubilize phosphate (76.6 ?g ml?1), and produce indole

Syed G. DastagerC; C. K. Deepa; Ashok Pandey

2011-01-01

208

Novel Quorum-Quenching Agents Promote Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Wound Healing and Sensitize MRSA to ?-Lactam Antibiotics.  

PubMed

The dwindling repertoire of antibiotics to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) calls for novel treatment options. Quorum-quenching agents offer an alternative or an adjuvant to antibiotic therapy. Three biaryl hydroxyketone compounds discovered previously (F1, F12, and F19; G. Yu, D. Kuo, M. Shoham, and R. Viswanathan, ACS Comb Sci 16:85-91, 2014) were tested for efficacy in MRSA-infected animal models. Topical therapy of compounds F1 and F12 in a MRSA murine wound infection model promotes wound healing compared to the untreated control. Compounds F1, F12, and F19 afford significant survival benefits in a MRSA insect larva model. Combination therapy of these quorum-quenching agents with cephalothin or nafcillin, antibiotics to which MRSA is resistant in monotherapy, revealed additional survival benefits. The quorum-quenching agents sensitize MRSA to the antibiotic by a synergistic mode of action that also is observed in vitro. An adjuvant of 1 ?g/ml F1, F12, or F19 reduces the MIC of nafcillin and cephalothin about 50-fold to values comparable to those for vancomycin, the antibiotic often prescribed for MRSA infections. These findings suggest that it is possible to resurrect obsolete antibiotic therapies in combination with these novel quorum-quenching agents. PMID:25534736

Kuo, David; Yu, Guanping; Hoch, Wyatt; Gabay, Dean; Long, Lisa; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Nagy, Nancy; Harding, Clifford V; Viswanathan, Rajesh; Shoham, Menachem

2015-03-01

209

Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting traits of a rhizobacteria: Pantoea agglomerans lma2.  

PubMed

The use of microbial technology in agriculture is expanding quickly with the identification of new bacterial strains which are more effective in promoting the growth of plants. The rhizobacteria that promote the growth of plants can have a positive effect on the productivity of crops especially when subjected to salt stress. A nitrogen-fixing bacterium was isolated from the wheat rhizosphere of an arid region. The strain was identified on the basis of tests API20E and 16S rRNA sequencing, as Pantoea agglomerans lma2. This strain degraded several carbon sources: sugars (fructose, ribose, dextrin, salicin...), lipids (lecithin, tributyrin and tween 80), proteins (gelatin, casein), grew on KCN and could grow from pH 4 to 8 and had an optimum at pH 7. The growth temperature showed a maximum at 30 degrees C and the bacteria could tolerate from 4 to 41 degrees C and the growth rate was higher when the NaCl concentration was between 100 and 300 mM. The performance of activities enhancing the growth of plants of P. agglomerans lma2 was significantly better in the presence of salt. Rates of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), siderophores production and solubilization of phosphate increased between 100 and 400 mM NaCl compared to the control without salt. The maximum values were saved to 300 mM for the production of siderophores (18.32%) and solubilization of phosphate (1061.49 microg mL(-1)) and 100 mM for the production of IAA (161 microg mL(-1)). A significant correlation existed between these three activities. These results showed that P. agglomerans lma2 with its Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and halophilic properties could constitute a good fertilizer in arid and saline zone. PMID:24175423

Silini-Chérif, H; Silini, A; Ghoul, M; Yadav, S

2012-03-15

210

TAF4 Inactivation Reveals the 3 Dimensional Growth Promoting Activities of Collagen 6A3  

PubMed Central

Collagen 6A3 (Col6a3), a component of extracellular matrix, is often up-regulated in tumours and is believed to play a pro-oncogenic role. However the mechanisms of its tumorigenic activity are poorly understood. We show here that Col6a3 is highly expressed in densely growing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In MEFs where the TAF4 subunit of general transcription factor IID (TFIID) has been inactivated, elevated Col6a3 expression prevents contact inhibition promoting their 3 dimensional growth as foci and fibrospheres. Analyses of gene expression in densely growing Taf4?/? MEFs revealed repression of the Hippo pathway and activation of Wnt signalling. The Hippo activator Kibra/Wwc1 is repressed under dense conditions in Taf4?/? MEFs, leading to nuclear accumulation of the proliferation factor YAP1 in the cells forming 3D foci. At the same time, Wnt9a is activated and the Sfrp2 antagonist of Wnt signalling is repressed. Surprisingly, treatment of Taf4?/? MEFs with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) restores contact inhibition suppressing 3D growth. ATRA represses Col6a3 expression independently of TAF4 expression and Col6a3 silencing is sufficient to restore contact inhibition in Taf4?/? MEFs and to suppress 3D growth by reactivating Kibra expression to induce Hippo signalling and by inducing Sfrp2 expression to antagonize Wnt signalling. All together, these results reveal a critical role for Col6a3 in regulating both Hippo and Wnt signalling to promote 3D growth, and show that the TFIID subunit TAF4 is essential to restrain the growth promoting properties of Col6a3. Our data provide new insight into the role of extra cellular matrix components in regulating cell growth. PMID:24498316

Duluc, Isabelle; Vicaire, Serge; Philipps, Muriel; Freund, Jean-Noel; Davidson, Irwin

2014-01-01

211

Transforming Growth Factor-B Promotes Invasion in Tumorigenic but not in Nontumorigenic Human Prostatic Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-B (TGF-B) is a pleiotropic growth factor with actions that are dependent on circumstances, including dose, target cell type, and context. TGF-B can elicit both growth-promoting and growth-suppressive activities. In normal tissues, TGF-B generally acts to restrict growth and maintain differentiation. However, during tumorigenesis, changes in TGF-B expression and cellular responses can pro- mote tumorigenesis. The present study

Mingfang Ao; Karin Williams; Neil A. Bhowmick; Simon W. Hayward

2006-01-01

212

The OXI1 Kinase Pathway Mediates Piriformospora indica-Induced Growth Promotion in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes roots of many plant species and promotes growth and resistance to certain plant pathogens. Despite its potential use in agriculture, little is known on the molecular basis of this beneficial plant-fungal interaction. In a genetic screen for plants, which do not show a P. indica- induced growth response, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant in the OXI1 (Oxidative Signal Inducible1) gene. OXI1 has been characterized as a protein kinase which plays a role in pathogen response and is regulated by H2O2 and PDK1 (3-PHOSPHOINOSITIDE-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE1). A genetic analysis showed that double mutants of the two closely related PDK1.1 and PDK1.2 genes are defective in the growth response to P. indica. While OXI1 and PDK1 gene expression is upregulated in P. indica-colonized roots, defense genes are downregulated, indicating that the fungus suppresses plant defense reactions. PDK1 is activated by phosphatidic acid (PA) and P. indica triggers PA synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Under beneficial co-cultivation conditions, H2O2 formation is even reduced by the fungus. Importantly, phospholipase D (PLD)?1 or PLD? mutants, which are impaired in PA synthesis do not show growth promotion in response to fungal infection. These data establish that the P. indica-stimulated growth response is mediated by a pathway consisting of the PLD-PDK1-OXI1 cascade. PMID:21625539

Camehl, Iris; Drzewiecki, Corinna; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Shahollari, Bationa; Sherameti, Irena; Forzani, Celine; Munnik, Teun; Hirt, Heribert; Oelmüller, Ralf

2011-01-01

213

Rhizoremediation of Cadmium Soil Using a Cadmium-Resistant Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizopseudomonad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three pseudomonad strains (MKRh1, MKRh3, and MKRh4) isolated from rhizospheres showed a high growth potential in the presence\\u000a of cadmium, with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 mM for cadmium chloride (CdCl2). Among them, isolate MKRh3 was specifically chosen as the most favorable cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium\\u000a based on its higher 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid deaminase activity, siderophore production, phosphate solubilization,\\u000a and

Velmurugan Ganesan

2008-01-01

214

[Growth-promoting effect and triptolide production regulation of endophytic bacteria from Tripterygium wilfordii].  

PubMed

A total of twenty-three endophytic bacteria were isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii, among which three strains were selected for further studying based on their capabilities of growth-promotion and wheat germination. All three isolated strains could produce phytohormone and siderophore, and LG3 and LJ10 strains were capable of dissolving phosphorus. Additionally, LG3 and LY4 strains were both proved to have nitrogen-fixing function and 1-aminocyclopropane-1carboxy-late deaminase activity. Bacterial 16S rDNA sequence identification and homology analysis suggested that LG3 and LY4 strains belonged to the Enterobacter and LJ10 belonged to the Pantoea. The results of reinoculation experiment demonstrated that three endophytic bacteria could not only promote the growth of Tripterygium wilfordii, but also improve the triptolide contents of different organs significantly. PMID:25223024

Xu, Jin-Jiao; Song, Ping; Feng, Lei; Hong, Wei; Wu, Cheng-Zhen; Li, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Xi-Jun; Ge, Heng-Yi

2014-06-01

215

Colonization by endophytic Ochrobactrum anthropi?Mn1 promotes growth of Jerusalem artichoke  

PubMed Central

The Ochrobactrum anthropi?Mn1 strain, taxonomically identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequence, was isolated from roots of Jerusalem artichoke. Its endophytic colonization was investigated microscopically using green fluorescent protein introduced by vector pHC60. The strain entered Jerusalem artichoke tissues through the root, and was localized in the roots and stems. The plant growth-promoting (PGP) effects of O. anthropi?Mn1 were assessed in greenhouse as well as field trials with different nitrogen supplies. Only under moderate to ample nitrogen supply, could O. anthropi?Mn1 promoted growth of host plant. The PGP effects of the strain were symbiotic nitrogen fixation, root morphological optimization and enhanced nutrient uptake. We hypothesize that the symbiotic interspecies interaction might be quorum sensing related. PMID:25073416

Meng, Xianfa; Yan, Dekai; Long, Xiaohua; Wang, Changhai; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

2014-01-01

216

Colonization by endophytic Ochrobactrum anthropi?Mn1 promotes growth of Jerusalem artichoke.  

PubMed

The Ochrobactrum anthropi?Mn1 strain, taxonomically identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequence, was isolated from roots of Jerusalem artichoke. Its endophytic colonization was investigated microscopically using green fluorescent protein introduced by vector pHC60. The strain entered Jerusalem artichoke tissues through the root, and was localized in the roots and stems. The plant growth-promoting (PGP) effects of O. anthropi?Mn1 were assessed in greenhouse as well as field trials with different nitrogen supplies. Only under moderate to ample nitrogen supply, could O. anthropi?Mn1 promoted growth of host plant. The PGP effects of the strain were symbiotic nitrogen fixation, root morphological optimization and enhanced nutrient uptake. We hypothesize that the symbiotic interspecies interaction might be quorum sensing related. PMID:25073416

Meng, Xianfa; Yan, Dekai; Long, Xiaohua; Wang, Changhai; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

2014-11-01

217

TGF-? promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression through Smad and ERK1/2 pathways  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •TGF-? promoted Nodal expression in glioma cells. •TGF-? promoted Nodal expression via activating Smad and ERK1/2 pathways. •TGF-? promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression. -- Abstract: While there were certain studies focusing on the mechanism of TGF-? promoting the growth of glioma cells, the present work revealed another novel mechanism that TGF-? may promote glioma cell growth via enhancing Nodal expression. Our results showed that Nodal expression was significantly upregulated in glioma cells when TGF-? was added, whereas the TGF-?-induced Nodal expression was evidently inhibited by transfection Smad2 or Smad3 siRNAs, and the suppression was especially significant when the Smad3 was downregulated. Another, the attenuation of TGF-?-induced Nodal expression was observed with blockade of the ERK1/2 pathway also. Further detection of the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of glioma cells indicated that Nodal overexpression promoted the proliferation and invasion of tumor cells and inhibited their apoptosis, resembling the effect of TGF-? addition. Downregulation of Nodal expression via transfection Nodal-specific siRNA in the presence of TGF-? weakened the promoting effect of the latter on glioma cells growth, and transfecting Nodal siRNA alone in the absence of exogenous TGF-? more profoundly inhibited the growth of glioma cells. These results demonstrated that while both TGF-? and Nodal promoted glioma cells growth, the former might exert such effect by enhancing Nodal expression, which may form a new target for glioma therapy.

Sun, Jing [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China)] [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China); Liu, Su-zhi [Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Taizhou 317000, Zhejiang (China)] [Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Taizhou 317000, Zhejiang (China); Lin, Yan; Cao, Xiao-pan [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China)] [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China); Liu, Jia-ming, E-mail: wzljm@126.com [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China)] [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China)

2014-01-17

218

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended

Safiyh Taghavi; Daniel van der Lelie; Adam Hoffman; Yian-Biao Zhang; Michael D. Walla; Jaco Vangronsveld; Lee Newman; Sébastien Monchy

2010-01-01

219

Cyclic AMP promotes growth and secretion in human polycystic kidney epithelial cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic AMP promotes growth and secretion in human polycystic kidney epithelial cells.BackgroundProgressive cyst enlargement, the hallmark of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal-recessive (ARPKD) polycystic kidney disease, precedes the eventual decline of function in these conditions. The expansion of individual cysts in ADPKD is determined to a major extent by mural epithelial cell proliferation and transepithelial fluid secretion. This

Franck A. Belibi; GAIL REIF; Darren P. Wallace; TAMIO YAMAGUCHI; LINCOLN OLSEN; HONG LI; George M. Helmkamp; Jared J. Grantham

2004-01-01

220

Tumor Promoters Induce Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Gene Expression in Human Dermal Fibroblasta1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor-promoting phorbol esters have been shown previously to either induce or repress the expression of numerous cellular genes, and this property is likely to be important for the in vitro and in vivo biological effects of these compounds. In this report, we demonstrate that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induces the accumulation of basic fibroblast growth factor mRNA and protein in human

Jeffrey A. Winkles; Kimberly A. Peifley; Robert E. Friesel

1992-01-01

221

Molecular characterization and PCR detection of a nitrogen-fixing Pseudomonas strain promoting rice growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen-fixing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) from the genus Pseudomonas have received little attention so far. In the present study, a nitrogen-fixing phytohormone-producing bacterial isolate from kallar grass (strain K1) was identified as Pseudomonas sp. by rrs (16S ribosomal RNA gene) sequence analysis. rrs identity level was high with an uncharacterized marine bacterium (99%), Pseudomonas sp. PCP2 (98%), uncultured bacteria (98%),

M. Sajjad Mirza; Samina Mehnaz; Philippe Normand; Claire Prigent-Combaret; Yvan Moënne-Loccoz; René Bally; Kauser A. Malik

2006-01-01

222

Subcutaneous fatty acid composition of steers finished as weanlings or yearlings with and without growth promotants  

PubMed Central

Background The current study evaluated the subcutaneous fatty acid (FA) composition of calf- and yearling-fed steers with or without growth promoting implants. Crossbred steers (n?=?112; 267?±?5.0 kg) of the same contemporary group were allocated to one of four production system and implant strategy based treatments in a completely randomized design with a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Results There were no interactions (P?>?0.05) between production systems and growth promoting implants for the total and individual subcutaneous FA. Yearling as opposed to calf finishing reduced (P?growth promotants had higher (P?growth promotants led to only minor differences in subcutaneous FA composition of beef steers. PMID:24188642

2013-01-01

223

Siderophore mediated plant growth promotion at low temperature by mutant of fluorescent pseudomonad?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cold resistant mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 was developed, which could grow equally well at 25 and 10 C and its effect on plant growth promotion under in vitro and in situ conditions was observed. Siderophore estimation revealed it to be a siderophore-overproducing mutant (17-fold increase) when\\u000a compared to its wild type counterpart. A gnotobiotic root elongation assay

Vandana Katiyar; Reeta Goel

2004-01-01

224

Induced Systemic Resistance and Promotion of Plant Growth by Bacillus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kloepper, J. W., Ryu, C.-M., and Zhang, S. 2004. Induced systemic resis- tance and promotion of plant growth by Bacillus spp. Phytopathology 94:1259-1266. Elicitation of induced systemic resistance (ISR) by plant-associated bacteria was initially demonstrated using Pseudomonas spp. and other gram-negative bacteria. Several reviews have summarized various aspects of the large volume of literature on Pseudomonas spp. as elicitors of

Joseph W. Kloepper; Choong-Min Ryu; Shouan Zhang

2004-01-01

225

Low Doses of L-Monosodium Glutamate Promote Neuronal Growth and Differentiation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monosodium glutamate given at a concentration of 5 x 10–6M to whole-brain dissociated cultures of 18-day-old rats promotes neuronal growth. Neurons are larger due to an increased size of both cytoplasm and nucleus. Rough endoplasmic reticulum is more developed and mitochondria are more abundant. Synaptic vesicles are significantly increased in number with respect to control cultures. Synapses are more abundant

C. Aruffo; R. Ferszt; A. G. Hildebrandt; J. Cérvos-Navarro

1987-01-01

226

Forest soil community responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and spruce seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and spruce seedlings on the composition and activity of forest\\u000a soil microbial communities was studied in a microcosm experiment in which sterile, sand-filled 25mm×150mm glass tubes were\\u000a treated with a forest soil suspension containing Bacillus or Pseudomonas PGPR and 2-week-old spruce seedlings. Eighteen weeks after treatments were established, bacterial, actinomycete and fungal\\u000a population sizes

M. Shishido; C. P. Chanway

1998-01-01

227

Growth promoting effects of corn ( Zea mays) bacterial isolates under greenhouse and field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertilizer costs are a major component of corn production. The use of biofertilizers may be one way of reducing production costs. In this study we present isolation and identification of three plant growth promoting bacteria that were identified as Enterobacter cloacae (CR1), Pseudomonas putida (CR7) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (CR3). All bacterial strains produced IAA in the presence of 100mgl?1 of

Samina Mehnaz; Tom Kowalik; Bruce Reynolds; George Lazarovits

2010-01-01

228

Veterinary Drugs and Growth Promoters Residues in Meat and Processed Meats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Veterinary drugs, which comprise a large number of different types of substances, are generally intended for therapeutic (to control infectious diseases) and prophylactic (to prevent against infections) purposes in farm animals. Other substances with growth promoting effect may exert antimicrobial effect against the microbial flora in the gut to take maximum profit of nutrients in the feed or by affecting the animal’s metabolism. Most of these substances are orally active and can be administered either in the feed or in the drinking water. Other active hormones are applied in the form of small implants into the subcutaneous tissue of the ears. These are slow release (several weeks or months) devices and the ears are discarded at the slaughter. Growth promoters allow a better efficiency in the feed conversion rate. The net effect is an increased protein deposition, partly due to muscle proteases inhibition (Fiems, Buts, Boucque, Demeyer, & Cottyn, 1990), usually linked to fat utilization (Brockman & Laarveld, 1986). The result is a leaner meat (Lone, 1997) with some toughness derived from the production of connective tissue and collagen crosslinking (Miller, Judge, Diekman, Hudgens, & Aberle, 1989; Miller, Judge, & Schanbacher, 1990). Some recent fraudulent practices, consisting of the use of a kind of “cocktails” or mixtures of several substances like ?-agonists and corticosteroids at very low amounts (Monsón et al., 2007), are difficult to detect with modern analytical instrumentation. They try to obtain a synergistic effect for a similar growth promotion with lower probability of detection by official control laboratories (Reig & Toldrá, 2007).

Reig, Milagro; Toldrá, Fidel

229

Preparation of oligoalginate plant growth promoter by ? irradiation of alginate solution containing hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

Degraded alginate compounds with molecular weights of 7-26, 40-77, or 11-26 kDa were obtained by ? irradiation, hydrogen peroxide (5% H(2)O(2)) treatment, or a combination treatment involving ionizing radiation and H(2)O(2), respectively. The 14 kDa oligoalginate, prepared by the combined method, promoted the growth of mustard greens and lettuce at an optimal concentration of 75 mg/L. The growth promotion effects of the oligoalginate prepared by ? irradiation in the presence of H(2)O(2) were statistically equivalent to those of the oligoalginate prepared by ? irradiation only. The combination of ? irradiation and H(2)O(2) reduced the required irradiation dosage by a factor of 9 relative to the oligoalginate produced by ? irradiation only. The combination treatment (? irradiation/H(2)O(2)) may be carried out on a large scale at low cost to produce oligoalginate for use as a plant growth promoter in agricultural industries. PMID:22296105

Luan, Le Quang; Ha, Vo Thi Thu; Uyen, Nguyen Huynh Phuong; Trang, Le Thi Thuy; Hien, Nguyen Quoc

2012-02-22

230

Mass spectrometric analysis of muscle samples to detect potential antibiotic growth promoter misuse in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometric methods were developed and validated for the analysis in chicken muscle of a range of antibiotic growth promoters: spiramycin, tylosin, virginiamycin and bacitracin, and separately for two marker metabolites of carbadox (quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid and 1,4-bisdesoxycarbadox), and a marker metabolite of olaquindox (3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid). The use of these compounds as antibiotic growth promoters has been banned by the European Commission. This study aimed to develop methods to detect their residues in muscle samples as a means of checking for the use of these drugs during the rearing of broiler chickens. When fed growth-promoting doses for 6 days, spiramycin (31.4 µg kg(-1)), tylosin (1.0 µg kg(-1)), QCA (6.5 µg kg(-1)), DCBX (71.2 µg kg(-1)) and MQCA (0.2 µg kg(-1)) could be detected in the muscle 0 days after the withdrawal of fortified feed. Only spiramycin could consistently be detected beyond a withdrawal period of 1 day. All analytes showed stability to a commercial cooking process, therefore raw or cooked muscle could be used for monitoring purposes. PMID:22784097

Gibson, R; Cooper, K M; Kennedy, D G; Elliott, C T

2012-01-01

231

Simultaneous immunochemical detection of four banned antibiotic growth promoters in raw and cooked poultry tissue.  

PubMed

Spiramycin, tylosin, bacitracin and virginiamycin are among a group of antibiotic growth promoters that have been banned in the European Union since the 1999 Council. This was due to concerns over the development of resistant bacteria emerging between humans and animals with the threat of antibiotics no longer being able to be used effectively to treat human infections. A sensitive and fast immunochemical method is presented for the determination of these four antibiotic growth promoters simultaneously in poultry tissue. The method employs methanol extraction followed by sample clean-up by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with determination by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA). The limit of detection (LOD) was less than 1 ng g(-1) and the detection capability (CC?) was 3 ng g(-1) or less for all four antibiotic growth promoters. Validation was completed with both raw and cooked chicken, therefore either matrix could be used for the monitoring of these banned drugs. In a feeding trial no residues of either bacitracin or virginiamycin were found in medicated birds even without a withdrawal period. In the case of tylosin and spiramycin much higher residues level were detected immunochemically than was the case by mass spectrometry. PMID:23789918

McNamee, S E; Cunningham, R; Elliott, C T

2013-01-01

232

Retardation of shoot growth and promotion of tuber growth of potato plants by paclobutrazol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between shoot growth and tuber yield in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank) was studied under greenhouse conditions using paclobutrazol [(2R,3R + 2S,3S)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(l,2-4-triazol-l-yl)-pentan-3-ol),\\u000a PP333], a growth retardant. Concurrent with reduction of stem elongation by the application of paclobutrazol to base of the\\u000a main stem was a decrease in the dry weight of the shoot and an

V. Balamani; B. W. Poovaiah

1985-01-01

233

GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS OF PLANT-GROWTH PROMOTION IN ARABIDOPSIS TRIGGERED BY VOLATILE CHEMICALS FROM RHIZOBACTERIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) constitute a wide range of root-colonizing bacteria that can enhance plant growth by increasing seed germination, plant weight, and crop yields. Some PGPR strains regulate plant growth by mimicking synthesis of plant hormones including indole-3-acetic acid...

234

Molecular characterization and identification of plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.).  

PubMed

Root nodule accommodates various non-nodulating bacteria at varying densities. Present study was planned to identify and characterize the non-nodulating bacteria from the pea plant. Ten fast growing bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of cultivated pea plants. These bacterial isolates were unable to nodulate pea plants in nodulation assay, which indicate the non-rhizobial nature of these bacteria. Bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for plant growth promoting properties including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, root colonization and biofilm formation. Six isolates were able to produce IAA at varying level from 0.86 to 16.16 ?g ml(-1), with the isolate MSP9 being most efficient. Only two isolates, MSP2 and MSP10, were able to fix nitrogen. All isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphorus ranging from 5.57 to 11.73 ?g ml(-1), except MSP4. Bacterial isolates showed considerably better potential for colonization on pea roots. Isolates MSP9 and MSP10 were most efficient in biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride, which indicated their potential to withstand various biotic and abiotic stresses, whereas the remaining isolates showed a very poor biofilm formation ability. The most efficient plant growth promoting agents, MSP9 and MSP10, were phylogenetically identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Ochrobactrum and Enterobacter, respectively, with 99% similarity. It is suggested the potential endophytic bacterial strains, Ochrobactrum sp. MSP9 and Enterobacter sp. MSP10, can be used as biofertilizers for various legume and non-legume crops after studying their interaction with the host crop and field evaluation. PMID:24072498

Tariq, Mohsin; Hameed, Sohail; Yasmeen, Tahira; Zahid, Mehwish; Zafar, Marriam

2014-02-01

235

Conjugated bile acids promote cholangiocarcinoma cell invasive growth through activation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2  

PubMed Central

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an often fatal primary malignancy of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tract that is commonly associated with chronic cholestasis and significantly elevated levels of primary and conjugated bile acids (CBAs), which are correlated with bile duct obstruction (BDO). BDO has also recently been shown to promote CCA progression. However, whereas there is increasing evidence linking chronic cholestasis and abnormal bile acid profiles to CCA development and progression, the specific mechanisms by which bile acids may be acting to promote cholangiocarcinogenesis and invasive biliary tumor growth have not been fully established. Recent studies have shown that CBAs, but not free bile acids, stimulate CCA cell growth, and that an imbalance in the ratio of free to CBAs may play an important role in the tumorigenesis of CCA. Also, CBAs are able to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2- and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (AKT)-signaling pathways through sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) in rodent hepatocytes. In the current study, we demonstrate S1PR2 to be highly expressed in rat and human CCA cells, as well as in human CCA tissues. We further show that CBAs activate the ERK1/2- and AKT-signaling pathways and significantly stimulate CCA cell growth and invasion in vitro. Taurocholate (TCA)-mediated CCA cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were significantly inhibited by JTE-013, a chemical antagonist of S1PR2, or by lentiviral short hairpin RNA silencing of S1PR2. In a novel organotypic rat CCA coculture model, TCA was further found to significantly increase the growth of CCA cell spheroidal/“duct-like” structures, which was blocked by treatment with JTE-013. Conclusion: Our collective data support the hypothesis that CBAs promote CCA cell-invasive growth through S1PR2. PMID:24700501

Liu, Runping; Zhao, Renping; Zhou, Xiqiao; Liang, Xiuyin; Campbell, Deanna JW; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Luyong; Shi, Ruihua; Wang, Guangji; Pandak, William M; Sirica, Alphonse E; Hylemon, Phillip B; Zhou, Huiping

2014-01-01

236

RAT TRACHEAL CELL CULTURE TRANSFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS AS CARCINOGENS AND PROMOTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A tracheal cell culture system which can be used for detection of hazardous environmental agents is described. The culture system makes use of primary tracheal cells that are isolated from rats by protease digestion of the tracheal epithelium. The epithelial cells are plated on a...

237

The insulin-mimetic agent vanadate promotes receptor endocytosis and inhibits intracellular ligand-receptor degradation by a mechanism distinct from the lysosomotropic agents.  

PubMed

Vanadate (sodium orthovanadate) is an insulin-mimetic agent and phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor that has been proposed as a potential therapeutic agent for diabetes. We previously reported that vanadate decreased the number of cell-surface insulin receptors but inhibited receptor degradation in cultured lymphocytes (IM-9) (1). To determine whether vanadate affected receptors without intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, its effects on LDL and transferrin receptors and their ligands were examined. Vanadate exposure resulted in a dose- and time-dependent decrease in LDL binding to cultured human fibroblasts associated with a decrease in cell surface receptor number while total solubilized cell LDL receptors increased. Vanadate also inhibited the LDL-mediated downregulation of total cellular LDL receptors in the absence and presence of cycloheximide consistent with an inhibition of LDL receptor degradation. In the case of the ligand, vanadate augmented the accumulation of intact 125I-LDL associated with an inhibition of up to 80% of the ability of LDL to decrease cholesterol synthesis. Since these actions were similar to the effects of lysosomotropic agents, we examined the effect of vanadate on intraendosomal pH using the fluorescent probe acridine orange. In contrast with chloroquine and NH4Cl, vanadate did not neutralize the pH of the acidic intracellular compartment. Furthermore, after a transient insulin-like effect, chronic exposure to vanadate diminished 125I-diferric transferrin binding to rat adipocytes. In contrast with the inhibitory action of NH4Cl, intracellular 59Fe uptake remained unaffected and was proportional to cell-surface binding capacity in the presence of vanadate. These data demonstrate a chronic effect of vanadate to promote the accumulation of intracellular receptors and to inhibit ligand and receptor degradation. The latter effect is not mediated by pH changes, appears to be localized to a late endosomal/lysosomal compartment, and suggests a possible role for tyrosine dephosphorylation in the regulation of receptor-ligand degradation. PMID:8690156

Fantus, I G; George, R; Tang, S; Chong, P; Poznansky, M J

1996-08-01

238

HOXA9 promotes ovarian cancer growth by stimulating cancer-associated fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) often exhibit morphologic features of embryonic Müllerian duct–derived tissue lineages and colonize peritoneal surfaces that overlie connective and adipose tissues. However, the mechanisms that enable EOC cells to readily adapt to the peritoneal environment are poorly understood. In this study, we show that expression of HOXA9, a Müllerian-patterning gene, is strongly associated with poor outcomes in patients with EOC and in mouse xenograft models of EOC. Whereas HOXA9 promoted EOC growth in vivo, HOXA9 did not stimulate autonomous tumor cell growth in vitro. On the other hand, expression of HOXA9 in EOC cells induced normal peritoneal fibroblasts to express markers of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and to stimulate growth of EOC and endothelial cells. Similarly, expression of HOXA9 in EOC cells induced normal adipose- and bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to acquire features of CAFs. These effects of HOXA9 were due in substantial part to its transcriptional activation of the gene encoding TGF-?2 that acted in a paracrine manner on peritoneal fibroblasts and MSCs to induce CXCL12, IL-6, and VEGF-A expression. These results indicate that HOXA9 expression in EOC cells promotes a microenvironment that is permissive for tumor growth. PMID:22945634

Ko, Song Yi; Barengo, Nicolas; Ladanyi, Andras; Lee, Ju-Seog; Marini, Frank; Lengyel, Ernst; Naora, Honami

2012-01-01

239

Host-derived tumor endothelial marker 8 promotes the growth of melanoma.  

PubMed

Tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) was initially identified as a gene overexpressed in the vasculature of human tumors and was subsequently identified as an anthrax toxin receptor. To assess the functional role of TEM8, we disrupted the TEM8 gene in mice by targeted homologous recombination. TEM8(-/-) mice were viable and reached adulthood without defects in physiologic angiogenesis. However, histopathologic analysis revealed an excess of extracellular matrix in several tissues, including the ovaries, uterus, skin, and periodontal ligament of the incisors, the latter resulting in dental dysplasia. When challenged with B16 melanoma, tumor growth was delayed in TEM8(-/-) mice, whereas the growth of other tumors, such as Lewis lung carcinoma, was unaltered. These studies show that host-derived TEM8 promotes the growth of certain tumors and suggest that TEM8 antagonists may have utility in the development of new anticancer therapies. PMID:19622764

Cullen, Mike; Seaman, Steven; Chaudhary, Amit; Yang, Mi Young; Hilton, Mary Beth; Logsdon, Daniel; Haines, Diana C; Tessarollo, Lino; St Croix, Brad

2009-08-01

240

Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of plant-growth promoting Serratia proteamaculans S4.  

PubMed

Serratia proteamaculans S4 (previously Serratia sp. S4), isolated from the rhizosphere of wild Equisetum sp., has the ability to stimulate plant growth and to suppress the growth of several soil-borne fungal pathogens of economically important crops. Here we present the non-contiguous, finished genome sequence of S. proteamaculans S4, which consists of a 5,324,944 bp circular chromosome and a 129,797 bp circular plasmid. The chromosome contains 5,008 predicted genes while the plasmid comprises 134 predicted genes. In total, 4,993 genes are assigned as protein-coding genes. The genome consists of 22 rRNA genes, 82 tRNA genes and 58 pseudogenes. This genome is a part of the project "Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth-promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens" awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI's Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24501629

Neupane, Saraswoti; Goodwin, Lynne A; Högberg, Nils; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Alström, Sadhna; Bruce, David; Quintana, Beverly; Munk, Christine; Daligault, Hajnalka; Teshima, Hazuki; Davenport, Karen; Reitenga, Krista; Green, Lance; Chain, Patrick; Erkkila, Tracy; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Xu, Yan; Kunde, Yulia; Chertkov, Olga; Han, James; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Szeto, Ernest; Mavromatis, Kostas; Huntemann, Marcel; Nolan, Matt; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Markowitz, Victor; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D

2013-07-30

241

Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of plant-growth promoting Serratia proteamaculans S4  

PubMed Central

Serratia proteamaculans S4 (previously Serratia sp. S4), isolated from the rhizosphere of wild Equisetum sp., has the ability to stimulate plant growth and to suppress the growth of several soil-borne fungal pathogens of economically important crops. Here we present the non-contiguous, finished genome sequence of S. proteamaculans S4, which consists of a 5,324,944 bp circular chromosome and a 129,797 bp circular plasmid. The chromosome contains 5,008 predicted genes while the plasmid comprises 134 predicted genes. In total, 4,993 genes are assigned as protein-coding genes. The genome consists of 22 rRNA genes, 82 tRNA genes and 58 pseudogenes. This genome is a part of the project “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth-promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens” awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI’s Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24501629

Goodwin, Lynne A.; Högberg, Nils; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Alström, Sadhna; Bruce, David; Quintana, Beverly; Munk, Christine; Daligault, Hajnalka; Teshima, Hazuki; Davenport, Karen; Reitenga, Krista; Green, Lance; Chain, Patrick; Erkkila, Tracy; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Xu, Yan; Kunde, Yulia; Chertkov, Olga; Han, James; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Szeto, Ernest; Mavromatis, Kostas; Huntemann, Marcel; Nolan, Matt; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Markowitz, Victor; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D.

2013-01-01

242

CD43 Promotes Cells Transformation by Preventing Merlin-Mediated Contact Inhibition of Growth  

PubMed Central

In normal tissues, strict control of tissue size is achieved by regulating cell numbers. The mechanism that controls total cell number is known as contact inhibition of growth and it depends on the NF2/Merlin pathway. Negative regulation of this pathway by deleterious mutations or by oncogenes results in cell transformation and tumor progression. Here we provide evidence that the CD43 sialomucin cooperates with oncogenic signals to promote cell transformation by abrogating the contact inhibition of growth through a molecular mechanism that involves AKT-dependent Merlin phosphorylation and degradation. Accordingly, inhibition of endogenous CD43 expression by RNA interference in lung, cervix and colon human cancer cells impaired tumor growth in vivo. These data underscore a previously unidentified role for CD43 in non-hematopoietic tumor progression. PMID:24260485

Camacho-Concha, Nohemi; Olivos-Ortiz, Amiel; Nuñez-Rivera, Alfredo; Pedroza-Saavedra, Adolfo; Gutierrez-Xicotencatl, Lourdes; Rosenstein, Yvonne; Pedraza-Alva, Gustavo

2013-01-01

243

Preparation of gold nanoparticles by surfactant-promoted reductive reaction without extra reducing agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) has been extensively applied in the solution-phase synthesis of many types of colloidal nanoparticles. However, the uses of CTAB were mainly considered as template or capping agents to form controllable shape and protect the product from agglomeration. Here it was discovered that CATB could serve as a very mild reductant to reduce gold salt precursors preparing gold nanoparticles (GNPs) at base environment. CTAB acted as the reducing agent suffering a partial degradation and forming CTA macro radicals. FTIR proved the formation of Csbnd Cl and/or Csbnd Br bond after CTAB degraded. The characterization of synthesized GNPs was examined by UV-Vis spectra, TEM and XRD. Several factors affecting the process of reaction, such as the amount of NaOH, the molar ratio of CTAB and HAuCl4, the reaction temperature, the effect of light and oxygen, and stirring were discussed.

Tang, Junqi; Huang, Jiamin; Man, Shi-Qing

2013-02-01

244

A method of promoting single crystal yield during melt growth of semiconductors by directional solidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For certain semiconductors with important applications, the existing unseeded bulk directional solidification crystal growth technique from the melt usually results in poor quality multi-crystalline ingots which causes the low yield of the commercial growth process. The multi-grained crystal growth is mainly caused by the large supercool of the melt, which not only results in a large section of ingot solidifying uncontrollably under spontaneous nucleation but also prohibits the ideal growth condition that small single crystal nuclei form at the very tip of the ampoule and grow into large single grains. To promote nucleation under the condition of small supercooling, a method was employed to induce nucleation by mechanical perturbation at a critical time during growth. The technique was applied to the bulk crystal growth process of Cd1-xZnxTe ingots. The comparison between the crystalline quality of the crystals grown with and without the mechanically induced nucleation shows that the yield of single crystalline can been vastly improved with the application of the technique.

Su, Ching-Hua

2015-01-01

245

Perceptions of growth monitoring and promotion among an international panel of district medical officers.  

PubMed

The growth chart has been proposed as an educational tool to make the child's growth visible to both health workers and caregivers and to enhance communication between them. In the case of growth faltering, this would trigger timely corrective measures. Although the relevance of growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) has often been questioned in the literature, opinions of District Medical Officers responsible for local implementation of GMP are unknown. The aim of this qualitative research was to explore the perceptions and difficulties of an international panel of District Medical Officers regarding GMP. As an exploratory study, in-depth interviews of an international panel of District Medical Officers (n=19) were conducted. Data were coded using the QSR Nudist 5.0 software. A discrepancy between intended purposes and practice of GMP was detected at two levels. First, lack of participation of care-givers was reported. Second, the District Medical Officers expressed a restrictive interpretation of the concept of growth monitoring. The communication with parents was never reported as a means or a result of GMP, neither as an evaluation criterion of programme efficiency. The growth chart was mainly considered a tool intended to be used by health services for the purpose of diagnosis. This two-fold discrepancy between the intention of international policy-planners and practice of local programme implementers could be a crucial factor affecting the performance of GMP. More emphasis should be put on social communication and involvement of caregivers. PMID:16262016

Roberfroid, Dominique; Lefèvre, Pierre; Hoerée, Tom; Kolsteren, Patrick

2005-09-01

246

PAS Kinase Promotes Cell Survival and Growth Through Activation of Rho1  

PubMed Central

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphorylation of Ugp1 by either of the yeast PASK family protein kinases (yPASK), Psk1 or Psk2, directs this metabolic enzyme to deliver glucose to the periphery for synthesis of the cell wall. However, we isolated PSK1 and PSK2 in a high-copy suppressor screen of a temperature-sensitive mutant of target of rapamycin 2 (TOR2). Posttranslational activation of yPASK, either by cell integrity stress or by growth on nonfermentative carbon sources, also suppressed the growth defect resulting from tor2 mutation. Although suppression of the tor2 mutant growth phenotype by activation of the kinase activity of yPASK required phosphorylation of the metabolic enzyme Ugp1 on serine 11, this resulted in the formation of a complex that induced Rho1 activation, rather than required the glucose partitioning function of Ugp1. In addition to phosphorylated Ugp1, this complex contained Rom2, a Rho1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, and Ssd1, an mRNA-binding protein. Activation of yPASK-dependent Ugp1 phosphorylation, therefore, enables two processes that are required for cell growth and stress resistance: synthesis of the cell wall through partitioning glucose to the periphery and the formation of the signaling complex with Rom2 and Ssd1 to promote Rho1-dependent polarized cell growth. This complex may integrate metabolic and signaling responses required for cell growth and survival in suboptimal conditions. PMID:22296835

Cardon, Caleb M.; Beck, Thomas; Hall, Michael N.; Rutter, Jared

2014-01-01

247

Mesenchymal Stem Cell 1 (MSC1)-Based Therapy Attenuates Tumor Growth Whereas MSC2-Treatment Promotes Tumor Growth and Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, there are many promising clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cell-based therapies of numerous diseases. Increasingly, however, there is a concern over the use of MSCs because they home to tumors and can support tumor growth and metastasis. For instance, we established that MSCs in the ovarian tumor microenvironment promoted tumor growth and favored angiogenesis. In parallel studies, we also developed a new approach to induce the conventional mixed pool of MSCs into two uniform but distinct phenotypes we termed MSC1 and MSC2. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we tested the in vitro and in vivo stability of MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes as well as their effects on tumor growth and spread. In vitro co-culture of MSC1 with various cancer cells diminished growth in colony forming units and tumor spheroid assays, while conventional MSCs or MSC2 co-culture had the opposite effect in these assays. Co-culture of MSC1 and cancer cells also distinctly affected their migration and invasion potential when compared to MSCs or MSC2 treated samples. The expression of bioactive molecules also differed dramatically among these samples. MSC1-based treatment of established tumors in an immune competent model attenuated tumor growth and metastasis in contrast to MSCs- and MSC2-treated animals in which tumor growth and spread was increased. Also, in contrast to these groups, MSC1-therapy led to less ascites accumulation, increased CD45+leukocytes, decreased collagen deposition, and mast cell degranulation. Conclusion/Significance These observations indicate that the MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes may be convenient tools for the discovery of critical components of the tumor stroma. The continued investigation of these cells may help ensure that cell based-therapy is used safely and effectively in human disease. PMID:23029122

Waterman, Ruth S.; Henkle, Sarah L.; Betancourt, Aline M.

2012-01-01

248

Autotrophic Growth of Thiobacillus acidophilus in the Presence of a Surface-Active Agent, Tween 80  

PubMed Central

Cellular protein, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, and static surface tension were measured during growth of Thiobacillus acidophilus on elemental sulfur in the absence and presence of up to 5,000 mg of Tween 80 per liter. The decrease in pH and the increase in sulfate production were observed to be less accurate measurements of growth when compared with the increase in cellular protein. The doubling time of the bacterium decreased approximately 50% with the addition of 500 mg of Tween 80 per liter. The bacteria did not appear to synthesize any wetting agents as demonstrated by the constant surface tension of the medium during growth. Morphological alterations in the presence of Tween 80 were also observed. PMID:16345459

Kingma, J. G.; Silver, Marvin

1979-01-01

249

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Dynamics Influences Response to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Targeted Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of gene expression of cancer cell lines exposed to erlotinib, a small molecule inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), showed a marked increase in EGFR mRNA in resistant cell lines but not in susceptible ones. Because cetuximab induces EGFR down-regulation, we explored the hypothesis that treatment with cetuximab would interfere with erlotinib-induced EGFR up-regulation and result in

Antonio Jimeno; Maria L. Amador; Nadia Bouraoud; Peter Kulesza; Anirban Maitra; Manuel Hidalgo

2005-01-01

250

Characterization of the PLCB1 promoter and regulation by early growth response transcription factor EGR-1.  

PubMed

The G?q/-G?11-PLC?1 pathway is important for intracellular signalling and associated with pathological conditions, such as cardiac hypertrophy. The GNAQ and GNA11 promoters (encoding for G?q and G?11) have already been characterized and are both regulated by the transcription factor early growth response 1 (Egr-1). In contrast, the PLCB1 promoter (encoding for the direct downstream effector PLC?1) has neither been cloned nor characterized. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to 1) characterize the PLCB1 promoter, and 2) assess its potential regulation by Egr-1. By means of 5'- Rapid Amplification of 5'-cDNA ends analysis in human heart tissue we found an initiation of transcription from multiple starting points, the main transcription starting point being located at nt-235 relative to the translation start point. The PLCB1 promoter was cloned and deletion constructs were generated. Luciferase assays were performed in three different cell lines and regulatory regions were identified between nt-595/nt-313 (Hek293: P=0.013; HASMC: P=0.019; H9c2: P=0.005). In electrophoretic mobility shift assays one specific Egr-1 binding site was identified at nt-451/-419 and PLCB1 promoter activity was increased more than 5-fold (Hek293: P=0.0008) and 1,6- fold (H9c2: P=0.0499) following overexpression of Egr-1. Thus, the PLCB1 promoter was characterized for the first time and a specific interaction with the transcription factor Egr-1 was shown. Our data provide a potential molecular mechanism relating to pathophysiological conditions such as cardiac hypertrophy where activation by Egr-1 of G?q/G?11-PLC?1 plays an important role. PMID:25192965

Klenke, Stefanie; Rump, Katharina; Buschkamp, Kai; Engler, Andrea; Peters, Jürgen; Siffert, Winfried; Frey, Ulrich H

2014-11-01

251

A novel growth-related nuclear protein binds and inhibits rat aldolase B gene promoter.  

PubMed

The promoter of the rat aldolase B (AldB) gene that confers liver-specific transcription has an additional role. It functions in vivo as an origin region of DNA replication in the cells in which the gene is repressed (Zhao, Y., Tsutsumi, R., Yamaki, M., Nagatsuka, N., Ejiri, S., Tsutsumi, K., 1994. Initiation zone of DNA replication at the rat aldolase B locus encompasses transcription promoter region. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 5385-5390). This promoter/origin region has multiple protein-binding sites and, thus, binding of a particular set of protein factors in AldB-expressing or non-expressing cells seems to correlate with functional switch of this promoter/origin region. In the present study, we characterized two closely related proteins, termed AlF-C1 and AlF-C2, which are assumed to be involved in repression of the AldB gene. These two proteins share an identical amino acid sequence except for a 47-residue-insertion in AlF-C1, and are members of a gene family including heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) and CCAAT-binding factor subunit A (CBF-A) genes. Bacterially expressed AlF-C1 can bind sequence-specifically to the AldB gene promoter, whereas AlF-C2 can only weakly. Transfection experiments using mammalian expression vectors showed that AlF-C1 down-regulates the AldB gene promoter in rat hepatoma cells, while AlF-C2 had no or little effect. Expressions of mRNAs encoding these two proteins are enriched in fetal livers and in regenerating livers. These results implied that AlF-C1 and/or C2 is involved in growth-regulated repression of the AldB gene. PMID:11245986

Yabuki, T; Miyagi, S; Ueda, H; Saitoh, Y; Tsutsumi, K

2001-02-01

252

A20 promotes Brucella intracellular growth via inhibition of macrophage cell death and activation.  

PubMed

The zinc-finger protein A20 has crucial physiological functions as a dual inhibitor of macrophage activation and apoptosis in tumor necrosis factor receptor1 (TNFR1) signaling pathway. Brucella infection can induce A20 expression in macrophages. Here, we hypothesize that A20 promotes Brucella intracellular growth via inhibition of activation and apoptosis of macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we stably incorporated mouse A20-shRNA into the RAW264.7 cells by lentiviral gene transfer to successfully knockdown A20. A20-deficient RAW264.7 cells were subsequently challenged with Brucella abortus and colony formation units (CFUs) of bacteria, TNF? production, NF-kB activation, macrophages apoptosis and cell death were evaluated. The A20 knockdown was shown to effectively promote B. abortus-stimulated TNF? release, NF-kB activation and macrophage cell death, which suppressed B. abortus intracellular replication. Unexpectedly, deficiency of A20 failed to lead to B. abortus-induced macrophage apoptosis. A20 deficiency coupled NF-kB inhibition promoted caspase-8 dependent B. abortus-induced macrophage apoptosis. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which Brucella intracellular growth within macrophages occurs through up-regulation of A20 thereby limiting activation and macrophages cell death. PMID:25433453

Wei, Pan; Cui, Guimei; Lu, Qiang; Yang, Li; Guan, Zhenhong; Sun, Wanchun; Zhao, Yuxi; Wang, Shuangxi; Peng, Qisheng

2015-01-30

253

NIH study finds low-dose nicotine does not promote tumor growth in mouse models of lung cancer:  

Cancer.gov

Experiments in mice show that low levels of exposure to nicotine, equivalent to those in humans who use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to help them quit smoking, did not promote lung tumor growth.

254

The impact of stress on tumor growth: peripheral CRF mediates tumor-promoting effects of stress  

PubMed Central

Introduction Stress has been shown to be a tumor promoting factor. Both clinical and laboratory studies have shown that chronic stress is associated with tumor growth in several types of cancer. Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) is the major hypothalamic mediator of stress, but is also expressed in peripheral tissues. Earlier studies have shown that peripheral CRF affects breast cancer cell proliferation and motility. The aim of the present study was to assess the significance of peripheral CRF on tumor growth as a mediator of the response to stress in vivo. Methods For this purpose we used the 4T1 breast cancer cell line in cell culture and in vivo. Cells were treated with CRF in culture and gene specific arrays were performed to identify genes directly affected by CRF and involved in breast cancer cell growth. To assess the impact of peripheral CRF as a stress mediator in tumor growth, Balb/c mice were orthotopically injected with 4T1 cells in the mammary fat pad to induce breast tumors. Mice were subjected to repetitive immobilization stress as a model of chronic stress. To inhibit the action of CRF, the CRF antagonist antalarmin was injected intraperitoneally. Breast tissue samples were histologically analyzed and assessed for neoangiogenesis. Results Array analysis revealed among other genes that CRF induced the expression of SMAD2 and ?-catenin, genes involved in breast cancer cell proliferation and cytoskeletal changes associated with metastasis. Cell transfection and luciferase assays confirmed the role of CRF in WNT- ?-catenin signaling. CRF induced 4T1 cell proliferation and augmented the TGF-? action on proliferation confirming its impact on TGF?/SMAD2 signaling. In addition, CRF promoted actin reorganization and cell migration, suggesting a direct tumor-promoting action. Chronic stress augmented tumor growth in 4T1 breast tumor bearing mice and peripheral administration of the CRF antagonist antalarmin suppressed this effect. Moreover, antalarmin suppressed neoangiogenesis in 4T1 tumors in vivo. Conclusion This is the first report demonstrating that peripheral CRF, at least in part, mediates the tumor-promoting effects of stress and implicates CRF in SMAD2 and ?-catenin expression. PMID:20875132

2010-01-01

255

AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity  

SciTech Connect

Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

Mitchell, Darrion L. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)] [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States); DiMario, Joseph X., E-mail: joseph.dimario@rosalindfranklin.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)

2010-01-15

256

?-Galactoside ?2,6-Sialyltranferase 1 Promotes Transforming Growth Factor-?-mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.  

PubMed

?-Galactoside ?2,6-sialyltranferase 1 (ST6GAL1) catalyzes the addition of terminal ?2,6-sialylation to N-glycans. Increased expression of ST6GAL1 has been reported in diverse carcinomas and highly correlates with tumor progression. Here, we report that St6gal1 transcription and ?2,6-sialylated N-glycans are up-regulated during TGF-?-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in GE11 cells, requiring the Sp1 element within the St6gal1 promoter. Knockdown of St6gal1 strongly suppressed TGF-?-induced EMT with a concomitant increase in E-cadherin expression, a major determinant of epithelial cell adherens junctions. Conversely, overexpression of ST6GAL1 increased the turnover of cell surface E-cadherin and promoted TGF-?-induced EMT. Overexpressing ?-galactoside ?2,3-sialyltranferase 4 had little influence on EMT, indicating specificity for ?2,6-sialylation. The basal mesenchymal phenotype of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells was partially reversed by ST6GAL1 silencing. Moreover, ST6GAL1 knockdown inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, but not Smad2, suggesting that ST6GAL1 contributes to EMT through a non-Smad signaling pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that ST6GAL1 promotes TGF-?-dependent EMT as well as maintenance of the mesenchymal state by growth signaling, providing a plausible mechanism whereby up-regulated ST6GAL1 may promote malignant progression. PMID:25344606

Lu, Jishun; Isaji, Tomoya; Im, Sanghun; Fukuda, Tomohiko; Hashii, Noritaka; Takakura, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Nana; Gu, Jianguo

2014-12-12

257

Evaluation of Bio-Mos® Mannan Oligosaccharide as a Replacement For Growth Promoting Antibiotics in Diets for Turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the use of Bio-Mos®, a mannan oligosaccharide derived from the cell wall of yeast, as a potential replacement for growth promoting antibiotics in the diet of growing turkeys. Bio-Mos® was added to nutritionally complete turkey diets at the rate of 0.05 and 0.10%. The growth-promoting antibiotics bambermycins and bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) were added

2003-01-01

258

Growth promotion of Vigna mungo (L.) by Pseudomonas spp. exhibiting auxin production and ACC-deaminase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auxin production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase of rhizobacteria are very important plant growth promoting\\u000a attributes. In the present study, Pseudomonas strains exhibiting these traits were evaluated for their growth promoting effects on Vigna mungo (L.). Colorimetric analysis revealed that Pseudomonas alcaliphila AvR-2, Pseudomonas sp. AvH-4 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa As-17, respectively, produced 40.30, 32.90 and 36.50 ?g auxin ml?1 in the presence

Shahzadi Noreen; Basharat Ali; Shahida Hasnain

259

An inducible activator produced by a Serratia proteamaculans strain and its soybean growth-promoting activity under greenhouse conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serratia proteamaculans 1-102 (1-102) promotes soybean-bradyrhizobia nodulation and growth, but the mechanism is unknown. After adding isoflavonoid inducers to 1-102 culture, an active peak with a retention time of about 105 min in the HPLC frac- tionation was isolated using a bioassay based on the stimulation of soybean seed germination. The plant growth-promoting activity of this material was com- pared

Yuming Bai; Alfred Souleimanov; Donald L. Smith

2002-01-01

260

Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils  

PubMed Central

Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands. PMID:23781499

Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

2013-01-01

261

Semaphorin3A Regulates Neuronal Polarization by Suppressing Axon Formation and Promoting Dendrite Growth  

PubMed Central

Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a secreted factor known to guide axon/dendrite growth and neuronal migration. We found that it also acts as a polarizing factor for axon/dendrite development in cultured hippocampal neurons. Exposure of the undifferentiated neurite to localized Sema3A suppressed its differentiation into axon and promoted dendrite formation, resulting in axon formation away from the Sema3A source, and bath application of Sema3A to polarized neurons promoted dendrite growth but suppressed axon growth. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging showed that Sema3A elevated the cGMP but reduced cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and its axon suppression is attributed to the down-regulation of PKA-dependent phosphorylation of axon determinants LKB1 and GSK-3?. Down-regulating Sema3A signaling in rat embryonic cortical progenitors via in utero electroporation of siRNAs against the Sema3A receptor neuropilin-1 also resulted in polarization defects in vivo. Thus, Sema3A regulates the earliest step of neuronal morphogenesis by polarizing axon/dendrite formation. PMID:21835341

Shelly, Maya; Cancedda, Laura; Lim, Byung Kook; Popescu, Andrei; Cheng, Pei-lin; Gao, Hongfeng; Poo, Mu-ming

2011-01-01

262

Vascular CD39/ENTPD1 Directly Promotes Tumor Cell Growth by Scavenging Extracellular Adenosine Triphosphate12  

PubMed Central

Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to boost immune responses in the tumor microenvironment but might also contribute directly to cancer cell death. CD39/ENTPD1 is the dominant ectonucleotidase expressed by endothelial cells and regulatory T cells and catalyzes the sequential hydrolysis of ATP to AMP that is further degraded to adenosine by CD73/ecto-5?-nucleotidase. We have previously shown that deletion of Cd39 results in decreased growth of transplanted tumors in mice, as a result of both defective angiogenesis and heightened innate immune responses (secondary to loss of adenosinergic immune suppression). Whether alterations in local extracellular ATP and adenosine levels as a result of CD39 bioactivity directly affect tumor growth and cytotoxicity has not been investigated to date. We show here that extracellular ATP exerts antitumor activity by directly inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cancer cell death. ATP-induced antiproliferative effects and cell death are, in large part, mediated through P2X7 receptor signaling. Tumors in Cd39 null mice exhibit increased necrosis in association with P2X7 expression. We further demonstrate that exogenous soluble NTPDase, or CD39 expression by cocultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, stimulates tumor cell proliferation and limits cell death triggered by extracellular ATP. Collectively, our findings indicate that local expression of CD39 directly promotes tumor cell growth by scavenging extracellular ATP. Pharmacological or targeted inhibition of CD39 enzymatic activity may find utility as an adjunct therapy in cancer management. PMID:21390184

Feng, Lili; Sun, Xiaofeng; Csizmadia, Eva; Han, Lihui; Bian, Shu; Murakami, Takashi; Wang, Xin; Robson, Simon C; Wu, Yan

2011-01-01

263

A new species of Burkholderia isolated from sugarcane roots promotes plant growth  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane is a globally important food, biofuel and biomaterials crop. High nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates aimed at increasing yield often result in environmental damage because of excess and inefficient application. Inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria is an attractive option for reducing N fertilizer needs. However, the efficacy of bacterial inoculants is variable, and their effective formulation remains a knowledge frontier. Here, we take a new approach to investigating diazotrophic bacteria associated with roots using culture-independent microbial community profiling of a commercial sugarcane variety (Q208A) in a field setting. We first identified bacteria that were markedly enriched in the rhizosphere to guide isolation and then tested putative diazotrophs for the ability to colonize axenic sugarcane plantlets (Q208A) and promote growth in suboptimal N supply. One isolate readily colonized roots, fixed N2 and stimulated growth of plantlets, and was classified as a new species, Burkholderia australis sp. nov. Draft genome sequencing of the isolate confirmed the presence of nitrogen fixation. We propose that culture-independent identification and isolation of bacteria that are enriched in rhizosphere and roots, followed by systematic testing and confirming their growth-promoting capacity, is a necessary step towards designing effective microbial inoculants. PMID:24350979

Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Lonhienne, Thierry G A; Yeoh, Yun Kit; Webb, Richard I; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chan, Cheong Xin; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Ragan, Mark A; Schmidt, Susanne; Hugenholtz, Philip

2014-01-01

264

Diversity, Biocontrol, and Plant Growth Promoting Abilities of Xylem Residing Bacteria from Solanaceous Crops  

PubMed Central

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the solanaceous crops of economic and cultural importance and is widely cultivated in the state of Goa, India. Eggplant cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that colonizes the xylem tissue. In this study, 167 bacteria were isolated from the xylem of healthy eggplant, chilli, and Solanum torvum Sw. by vacuum infiltration and maceration. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) grouped these xylem residing bacteria (XRB) into 38 haplotypes. Twenty-eight strains inhibited growth of R. solanacearum and produced volatile and diffusible antagonistic compounds and plant growth promoting substances in vitro. Antagonistic strains XB86, XB169, XB177, and XB200 recorded a biocontrol efficacy greater than 85% against BW and exhibited 12%–22 % increase in shoot length in eggplant in the greenhouse screening. 16S rRNA based identification revealed the presence of 23 different bacterial genera. XRB with high biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities were identified as strains of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptomyces sp., Enterobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp. This study is the first report on identity of bacteria from the xylem of solanaceous crops having traits useful in cultivation of eggplant. PMID:24963298

Achari, Gauri A.

2014-01-01

265

Diversity, biocontrol, and plant growth promoting abilities of xylem residing bacteria from solanaceous crops.  

PubMed

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the solanaceous crops of economic and cultural importance and is widely cultivated in the state of Goa, India. Eggplant cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that colonizes the xylem tissue. In this study, 167 bacteria were isolated from the xylem of healthy eggplant, chilli, and Solanum torvum Sw. by vacuum infiltration and maceration. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) grouped these xylem residing bacteria (XRB) into 38 haplotypes. Twenty-eight strains inhibited growth of R. solanacearum and produced volatile and diffusible antagonistic compounds and plant growth promoting substances in vitro. Antagonistic strains XB86, XB169, XB177, and XB200 recorded a biocontrol efficacy greater than 85% against BW and exhibited 12%-22 % increase in shoot length in eggplant in the greenhouse screening. 16S rRNA based identification revealed the presence of 23 different bacterial genera. XRB with high biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities were identified as strains of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptomyces sp., Enterobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp. This study is the first report on identity of bacteria from the xylem of solanaceous crops having traits useful in cultivation of eggplant. PMID:24963298

Achari, Gauri A; Ramesh, Raman

2014-01-01

266

Potential for plant growth promotion of rhizobacteria associated with Salicornia growing in Tunisian hypersaline soils.  

PubMed

Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands. PMID:23781499

Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

2013-01-01

267

17?-Estradiol and Lipopolysaccharide Additively Promote Pelvic Inflammation and Growth of Endometriosis.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age. An additive effect between inflammation and stress reaction on the growth of endometriosis has been demonstrated. Here we investigated the combined effect between 17?-estradiol (E2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on pelvic inflammation and growth of endometriotic cells. Peritoneal fluid was collected from 46 women with endometriosis and 30 control women during laparoscopy. Peritoneal macrophages (M?) and stromal cells from eutopic/ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) were isolated from 10 women each with and without endometriosis in primary culture. Changes in cytokine secretion (interleukin 6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor ? [TNF-?]) by M? and proliferation of ESCs in response to single and combined treatment with E2 and LPS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay, respectively. A significantly increased secretion of IL-6 and TNF-? in M? culture media was found in response to E2 (10(-8) mol/L) compared to nontreated M?. This effect of E2 was abrogated after pretreatment of cells with ICI 182720 (10(-6) mol/L; an estrogen receptor [ER] antagonist). Combined treatment with E2 and LPS (10 ng/mL) additively promoted IL-6 and TNF-? secretion by peritoneal M? and growth of eutopic/ectopic ESCs. The additive effects of E2 + LPS on cytokine secretion and growth of ESCs were effectively suppressed after combined blocking of ER and Toll-like receptor 4. An additive effect was observed between E2 and LPS on promoting proinflammatory response in pelvis and growth of endometriosis. PMID:25355803

Khan, Khaleque Newaz; Kitajima, Michio; Inoue, Tsuneo; Fujishita, Akira; Nakashima, Masahiro; Masuzaki, Hideaki

2014-10-29

268

Phytohormonal basis for the plant growth promoting action of naturally occurring biostimulators.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in the use of naturally occurring 'biostimulators' for enhancing the growth of agricultural and horticultural crops. Bacteria, fungi and protozoa, as well as marine algae-based seaweed extracts, can produce or contain biostimulators. The activity of biostimulators to promote plant growth is often attributed to their ability to directly or indirectly provide mineral nutrients (mostly N, but also P, S and other macro- and micro-nutrients) to plants. Alternatively, biostimulators are postulated to increase the plant's ability to assimilate these mineral nutrients, often in return for photo-assimilates (as occurs with certain bacteria and fungi associations). Although optimal growth of plants depends on the availability of adequate mineral nutritients, that growth (and also development, including reproduction) is also regulated by plant hormones (phytohormones), including gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins. This review describes and discusses the evidence that the presence or application of biostimulators also increases plant growth directly via phytohormone action and also influences the plant's ability to control its own hormone biosynthesis and homeostasis. Finally, it discusses the need for a better understanding of the role(s) that are played by the naturally occurring biostimulators associated with the plant in the crop field. It is suggested that better understanding will allow for optimal crop yield returns, since disruptions of phytohormone homeostasis in plant organs and tissues can yield either beneficial or sub-optimal outcomes. PMID:24375470

Kurepin, Leonid V; Zaman, Mohammad; Pharis, Richard P

2014-07-01

269

Mushroom and herb polysachariides as alternative for antimicrobial growth promotors in poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords : mushroom and herb polysaccharides, antimicrobial growth promoters, chickensAntibiotics are widely used as therapeutics agents and also as growth promoters in poultry production. The possibility of developing resistant populations of bacteria and the side effects of using antibiotics as growth promoters in the farm animals has led to the recent EU-ban on the use of several antibiotics as growth

F. Guo

2003-01-01

270

Omental adipose tissue-derived stromal cells promote vascularization and growth of endometrial tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adipose tissue contains a population of tumor-tropic mesenchymal progenitors, termed adipose stromal cells (ASC), which engraft in neighboring tumors to form supportive tumor stroma. We hypothesized that intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue may contain a uniquely tumor promoting population of ASC to account for the relationship between excess visceral adipose tissue and mortality of intra-abdominal cancers. Experimental Design To investigate this, we isolated and characterized ASC from intra-abdominal omental adipose tissue (O-ASC) and characterized their effects on endometrial cancer progression as compared to subcutaneous adipose derived mesenchymal stromal cells (SC-ASC), bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC) and lung fibroblasts. To model chronic recruitment of ASC by tumors, cells were injected metronomically into mice bearing Hec1a xenografts. Results O-ASC expressed cell surface markers characteristic of BM-MSC and differentiated into mesenchymal lineages. Co-culture with O-ASC increased endometrial cancer cell proliferation in-vitro. Tumor tropism of O-ASC and SC-ASC for human Hec1a endometrial tumor xenografts was comparable, but O-ASC more potently promoted tumor growth. Compared with tumors in SC-ASC-injected mice, tumors in O-ASC-injected mice contained higher numbers of large tortuous desmin-positive blood vessels, which correlated with decreased central tumor necrosis and increased tumor cell proliferation. O-ASC-exhibited enhanced motility as compared to SC-ASC in response to Hec1a secreted factors. Conclusions Visceral adipose contains a population of multipotent MSC that promote endometrial tumor growth more potently than MSC from subcutaneous adipose tissue. We propose that O-ASC recruited to tumors express specific factors that enhance tumor vascularization, promoting survival and proliferation of tumor cells. PMID:22167410

Klopp, Ann H.; Zhang, Yan; Solley, Travis; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Marini, Frank; Andreeff, Michael; Debeb, Bisrat; Woodward, Wendy; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Broaddus, Russell; Lu, Karen; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

2011-01-01

271

Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from commercial broiler chickens receiving growth-promoting doses of bacitracin or virginiamycin  

PubMed Central

Antibacterial agents such as zinc bacitracin (ZB) and virginiamycin (VG) are used as growth promoting agents (GP) in broiler chicken production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of ZB and VG on the emergence of antibacterial resistance in a commercial broiler chicken farm. Three trials were conducted using 3 different diets: one without antibacterial agents, one containing VG, and one with ZB. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated and tested for their susceptibility to various antibacterial agents. The occurrence of the resistance genes vatD, ermB, and bcrR in Enterococcus spp. isolates was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Comparative quantification of vatD and bcrR genes in total deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracts from litter was done by SYBR Green Real-Time PCR (QPCR). Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from diet groups had different levels of resistance to various antibacterial agents over time. These GPs did not select for specific antibacterial agent resistance (AAR) in Enterococcus spp. The use of GPs seemed to lower the percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to some antibacterial agents. The presence of the bcrR gene could not explain all resistant phenotypes to ZB. Genes other than vatD and ermB might be involved in the resistance to VG in Enterococcus spp. Use of GPs was not associated with presence of the bcrR gene in DNA extracts from litter, but use of VG was associated with vatD presence. PMID:18505201

Thibodeau, Alexandre; Quessy, Sylvain; Guévremont, Evelyne; Houde, Alain; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa Sory; Letellier, Ann

2008-01-01

272

In-vitro growth inhibition of chemotherapy and molecular targeted agents in hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and challenging malignant disease. The prognosis is poor in patients with advanced disease. Although sorafenib prolongs survival in these patients, improvement remains modest. We used doxorubicin and sorafenib as controls and screened eight new agents including ixabepilone, gefitinib, cetuximab, brivanib, dasatinib, sunitinib, BMS-690514, and BMS-536924 against nine HCC cell lines and evaluated their interactions. We studied growth inhibition of 10 drugs against nine HCC cell lines. Single-agent activity was tested using an MTS assay. Combination studies were carried out in both resistant and sensitive cells to determine the combination index. The IC50 of each agent varied widely among nine cell lines. Ixabepilone was more potent than doxorubicin. HT-17 cells were more sensitive to gefitinib and cetuximab than the other eight cell lines. BMS-536924 showed good efficacy (IC50 ? 1 µmol/l) on all three ?-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, Huh-7). Three cell lines showed moderate sensitivity to dasatinib (IC50 ? 1 µmol/l). Dasatinib showed the most frequent and strongest synergism with ixabepilone, gefitinib, brivanib, BMS-690514, or BMS-536924. Ixabepilone, sorafenib, brivanib, dasatinib, and BMS-536924 are active against HCC cell lines. The heterogeneity of the sensitivity of each cell line emphasizes the need for individualized treatment. The sensitivity to BMS-536924 is closely associated with the production of AFP. AFP may be a biomarker predicting response to the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibitor in HCC patients. Additional studies are warranted. The synergism between dasatinib and other agents also provides future research directions to understand drug resistance and improve outcome. PMID:23187461

Chang, Alex Y; Wang, Miao

2013-03-01

273

Identification of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Using Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis-Assisted Photoacoustic Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of titanium dioxide photocatalysis against bacteria that are dangerous for human health has been investigated in the past, suggesting the possibility of using a specific behavior for each microorganism during this process for its discrimination. In this study, the behavior of some plants’ growth promoting bacteria ( Burkholderia unamae (Strain MTI 641), Acetobacter diazotrophicus (Strain PAl 5T), A. diazotrophicus (Strain CFN-Cf 52), and B. unamae (Strain TATl-371)) interacting with light and bactericidal titanium dioxide films have been analyzed using the photoacoustic technique. The monitoring of these interactions shows particular characteristics that could serve for identifying these species.

Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Marín, E.; Calderón, A.

2013-09-01

274

Synthesis of brassinosteroids analogues from laxogenin and their plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Four steroid saponins (2-5) and three derivatives (6-8) were synthesised from laxogenin. Four of them were new compounds: (25R)-3?-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-?-D-galactopyranosyloxy)-5?-spirostan-6-one (3), (25R)-3?-(?-D-galactopyranosyloxy)-5?-spirostan-6-one (5), 3?,16-diacetyl-26-hydroxy-5?-cholestan-6,22-dione (6) and 16-acetyl-3?,26-dihydroxy-5?-cholestan-6,22-dione (7). All the compounds showed plant growth-promoting activity in the radish hypocotyl elongation and cotyledon expansion bioassay. Above all, 2 and 6 were found to be more active. PMID:25311045

Wang, Qi; Xu, Jing; Liu, XiaoLi; Gong, WenXiu; Zhang, CunLi

2015-01-01

275

Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spinach respectively over the non-bacterized control. Considering all the parameters tested, there were similarities but no significant difference at P < 0.05 between the overall performances of the two organisms. PMID:24031240

Adesemoye, A.O.; Obini, M.; Ugoji, E.O.

2008-01-01

276

Lysosomotropic Properties of Weakly Basic Anticancer Agents Promote Cancer Cell Selectivity In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Drug distribution in cells is a fundamentally important, yet often overlooked, variable in drug efficacy. Many weakly basic anticancer agents accumulate extensively in the acidic lysosomes of normal cells through ion trapping. Lysosomal trapping reduces the activity of anticancer drugs, since anticancer drug targets are often localized in the cell cytosol or nucleus. Some cancer cells have defective acidification of lysosomes, which causes a redistribution of trapped drugs from the lysosomes to the cytosol. We have previously established that such differences in drug localization between normal and cancer cells can contribute to the apparent selectivity of weakly basic drugs to cancer cells in vitro. In this work, we tested whether this intracellular distribution-based drug selectivity could be optimized based on the acid dissociation constant (pKa) of the drug, which is one of the determinants of lysosomal sequestration capacity. We synthesized seven weakly basic structural analogs of the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDA) with pKa values ranging from 5 to 12. The selectivity of each analog was expressed by taking ratios of anti-proliferative IC50 values of the inhibitors in normal fibroblasts to the IC50 values in human leukemic HL-60 cells. Similar selectivity assessments were performed in a pair of cancer cell lines that differed in lysosomal pH as a result of siRNA-mediated alteration of vacuolar proton ATPase subunit expression. Optimal selectivity was observed for analogs with pKa values near 8. Similar trends were observed with commercial anticancer agents with varying weakly basic pKa values. These evaluations advance our understanding of how weakly basic properties can be optimized to achieve maximum anticancer drug selectivity towards cancer cells with defective lysosomal acidification in vitro. Additional in vivo studies are needed to examine the utility of this approach for enhancing selectivity. PMID:23145164

Ndolo, Rosemary A.; Luan, Yepeng; Duan, Shaofeng; Forrest, M. Laird; Krise, Jeffrey P.

2012-01-01

277

Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth  

SciTech Connect

Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Nishiofuku, Mariko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

2008-03-07

278

Erk2 Phosphorylation of Drp1 Promotes Mitochondrial Fission and MAPK-Driven Tumor Growth.  

PubMed

Ras is mutated in up to 30% of cancers, including 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, causing it to be constitutively GTP-bound, and leading to activation of downstream effectors that promote a tumorigenic phenotype. As targeting Ras directly is difficult, there is a significant effort to understand the downstream biological processes that underlie its protumorigenic activity. Here, we show that expression of oncogenic Ras or direct activation of the MAPK pathway leads to increased mitochondrial fragmentation and that blocking this phenotype, through knockdown of the mitochondrial fission-mediating GTPase Drp1, inhibits tumor growth. This fission is driven by Erk2-mediated phosphorylation of Drp1 on Serine 616, and both this phosphorylation and mitochondrial fragmentation are increased in human pancreatic cancer. Finally, this phosphorylation is required for Ras-associated mitochondrial fission, and its inhibition is sufficient to block xenograft growth. Collectively, these data suggest mitochondrial fission may be a target for treating MAPK-driven malignancies. PMID:25658205

Kashatus, Jennifer A; Nascimento, Aldo; Myers, Lindsey J; Sher, Annie; Byrne, Frances L; Hoehn, Kyle L; Counter, Christopher M; Kashatus, David F

2015-02-01

279

Human Serum Promotes Candida albicans Biofilm Growth and Virulence Gene Expression on Silicone Biomaterial  

PubMed Central

Objectives Systemic candidal infections are a common problem in hospitalized patients due to central venous catheters fabricated using silicone biomaterial (SB). We therefore evaluated the effect of human serum on C. albicans biofilm morphology, growth, and the expression of virulence-related genes on SB in vitro. Methods We cultivated C. albicans SC5314 (wild-type strain, WT) and its derivative HLC54 (hyphal mutant, HM) for 48 h in various conditions, including the presence or absence of SB discs, and human serum. The growth of planktonic and biofilm cells of both strains was monitored at three time points by a tetrazolium salt reduction assay and by scanning electron microscopy. We also analyzed by RT-PCR its expression of the virulence-related genes ALS3, HWP1, EAP1, ECE1, SAP1 - SAP10, PLB1, PLB2, PLC and PLD. Results At each time point, planktonic cells of WT strain cultured in yeast nitrogen base displayed a much higher expression of EAP1 and HWP1, and a moderately higher ALS3 expression, than HM cells. In planktonic cells, expression of the ten SAP genes was higher in the WT strain initially, but were highly expressed in the HM strain by 48 h. Biofilm growth of both strains on SB was promoted in the presence of human serum than in its absence. Significant upregulation of ALS3, HWP1, EAP1, ECE1, SAP1, SAP4, SAP6 - SAP10, PLB1, PLB2 and PLC was observed for WT biofilms grown on serum-treated SB discs for at least one time point, compared with biofilms on serum-free SB discs. Conclusions Human serum stimulates C. albicans biofilm growth on SB discs and upregulates the expression of virulence genes, particularly adhesion genes ALS3 and HWP1, and hydrolase-encoding genes SAP, PLB1 and PLB2. This response is likely to promote the colonization of this versatile pathogen within the human host. PMID:23704884

Samaranayake, Yuthika Hemamala; Cheung, Becky P. K.; Yau, Joyce Y. Y.; Yeung, Shadow K. W.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

2013-01-01

280

Fibroblast growth factor 8 increases breast cancer cell growth by promoting cell cycle progression and by protecting against cell death  

SciTech Connect

Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF-8) is expressed in a large proportion of breast cancers, whereas its level in normal mammary gland epithelium is low. Previous studies have shown that FGF-8b stimulates breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. To explore the mechanisms by which FGF-8b promotes growth, we studied its effects on cell cycle regulatory proteins and signalling pathways in mouse S115 and human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We also studied the effect of FGF-8b on cell survival. FGF-8b induced cell cycle progression and up-regulated particularly cyclin D1 mRNA and protein in S115 cells. Silencing cyclin D1 with siRNA inhibited most but not all FGF-8b-induced proliferation. Inhibition of the FGF-8b-activated ERK/MAPK pathway decreased FGF-8b-stimulated proliferation. Blocking the constitutively active PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways also lowered FGF-8b-induced cyclin D1 expression and proliferation. Corresponding results were obtained in MCF-7 cells. In S115 and MCF-7 mouse tumours, FGF-8b increased cyclin D1 and Ki67 levels. Moreover, FGF-8b opposed staurosporine-induced S115 cell death which effect was blocked by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway but not the ERK/MAPK pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest that FGF-8b increases breast cancer cell growth both by stimulating cell cycle progression and by protecting against cell death.

Nilsson, Emeli M., E-mail: Emeli.Nilsson@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tumour Biology, Lund University, CRC, Building 91, Plan 10, Entrance 72, UMAS, 205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Brokken, Leon J.S., E-mail: Leon.Brokken@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tumour Biology, Lund University, CRC, Building 91, Plan 10, Entrance 72, UMAS, 205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Haerkoenen, Pirkko L., E-mail: Pirkko.Harkonen@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tumour Biology, Lund University, CRC, Building 91, Plan 10, Entrance 72, UMAS, 205 02 Malmoe (Sweden)

2010-03-10

281

Bioinformatics based structural characterization of glucose dehydrogenase (gdh) gene and growth promoting activity of Leclercia sp. QAU-66  

PubMed Central

Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.1. 5.2) is the member of quinoproteins group that use the redox cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinoine, calcium ions and glucose as substrate for its activity. In present study, Leclercia sp. QAU-66, isolated from rhizosphere of Vigna mungo, was characterized for phosphate solubilization and the role of GDH in plant growth promotion of Phaseolus vulgaris. The strain QAU-66 had ability to solubilize phosphorus and significantly (p ? 0.05) promoted the shoot and root lengths of Phaseolus vulgaris. The structural determination of GDH protein was carried out using bioinformatics tools like Pfam, InterProScan, I-TASSER and COFACTOR. These tools predicted the structural based functional homology of pyrroloquinoline quinone domains in GDH. GDH of Leclercia sp. QAU-66 is one of the main factor that involved in plant growth promotion and provides a solid background for further research in plant growth promoting activities. PMID:25242947

Naveed, Muhammad; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad

2014-01-01

282

Hypoxia shifts activity of neuropeptide Y in Ewing sarcoma from growth-inhibitory to growth-promoting effects.  

PubMed

Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive malignancy driven by an oncogenic fusion protein, EWS-FLI1. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), and two of its receptors, Y1R and Y5R are up-regulated by EWS-FLI1 and abundantly expressed in ES cells. Paradoxically, NPY acting via Y1R and Y5R stimulates ES cell death. Here, we demonstrate that these growth-inhibitory actions of NPY are counteracted by hypoxia, which converts the peptide to a growth-promoting factor. In ES cells, hypoxia induces another NPY receptor, Y2R, and increases expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme that cleaves NPY to a shorter form, NPY3-36. This truncated peptide no longer binds to Y1R and, therefore, does not stimulate ES cell death. Instead, NPY3-36 acts as a selective Y2R/Y5R agonist. The hypoxia-induced increase in DPPIV activity is most evident in a population of ES cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, rich in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Consequently, NPY, acting via Y2R/Y5Rs, preferentially stimulates proliferation and migration of hypoxic ALDHhigh cells. Hypoxia also enhances the angiogenic potential of ES by inducing Y2Rs in endothelial cells and increasing the release of its ligand, NPY3-36, from ES cells. In summary, hypoxia acts as a molecular switch shifting NPY activity away from Y1R/Y5R-mediated cell death and activating the Y2R/Y5R/DPPIV/NPY3-36 axis, which stimulates ES CSCs and promotes angiogenesis. Hypoxia-driven actions of the peptide such as these may contribute to ES progression. Due to the receptor-specific and multifaceted nature of NPY actions, these findings may inform novel therapeutic approaches to ES. PMID:24318733

Tilan, Jason U; Lu, Congyi; Galli, Susana; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; Earnest, Joshua Patrick; Shabbir, Asim; Everhart, Lindsay M; Wang, Shuo; Martin, Samantha; Horton, Meredith; Mahajan, Akanksha; Christian, David; O'Neill, Alison; Wang, Hongkun; Zhuang, Tingting; Czarnecka, Magdalena; Johnson, Michael D; Toretsky, Jeffrey A; Kitlinska, Joanna

2013-12-01

283

Hypoxia shifts activity of neuropeptide Y in Ewing sarcoma from growth-inhibitory to growth-promoting effects  

PubMed Central

Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive malignancy driven by an oncogenic fusion protein, EWS-FLI1. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), and two of its receptors, Y1R and Y5R are up-regulated by EWS-FLI1 and abundantly expressed in ES cells. Paradoxically, NPY acting via Y1R and Y5R stimulates ES cell death. Here, we demonstrate that these growth-inhibitory actions of NPY are counteracted by hypoxia, which converts the peptide to a growth-promoting factor. In ES cells, hypoxia induces another NPY receptor, Y2R, and increases expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme that cleaves NPY to a shorter form, NPY3-36. This truncated peptide no longer binds to Y1R and, therefore, does not stimulate ES cell death. Instead, NPY3-36 acts as a selective Y2R/Y5R agonist. The hypoxia-induced increase in DPPIV activity is most evident in a population of ES cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, rich in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Consequently, NPY, acting via Y2R/Y5Rs, preferentially stimulates proliferation and migration of hypoxic ALDHhigh cells. Hypoxia also enhances the angiogenic potential of ES by inducing Y2Rs in endothelial cells and increasing the release of its ligand, NPY3-36, from ES cells. In summary, hypoxia acts as a molecular switch shifting NPY activity away from Y1R/Y5R-mediated cell death and activating the Y2R/Y5R/DPPIV/NPY3-36 axis, which stimulates ES CSCs and promotes angiogenesis. Hypoxia-driven actions of the peptide such as these may contribute to ES progression. Due to the receptor-specific and multifaceted nature of NPY actions, these findings may inform novel therapeutic approaches to ES. PMID:24318733

Galli, Susana; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; Earnest, Joshua Patrick; Shabbir, Asim; Everhart, Lindsay M.; Wang, Shuo; Martin, Samantha; Horton, Meredith; Mahajan, Akanksha; Christian, David; O'Neill, Alison; Wang, Hongkun; Zhuang, Tingting; Czarnecka, Magdalena; Johnson, Michael D.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Kitlinska, Joanna

2013-01-01

284

Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase Activity Controls Plant Growth by Promoting Leaf Cell Number  

PubMed Central

A changing global environment, rising population and increasing demand for biofuels are challenging agriculture and creating a need for technologies to increase biomass production. Here we demonstrate that the inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity is a promising technology to achieve this under non-stress conditions. Furthermore, we investigate the basis of this growth enhancement via leaf series and kinematic cell analysis as well as single leaf transcriptomics and plant metabolomics under non-stress conditions. These data indicate a regulatory function of PARP within cell growth and potentially development. PARP inhibition enhances growth of Arabidopsis thaliana by enhancing the cell number. Time course single leaf transcriptomics shows that PARP inhibition regulates a small subset of genes which are related to growth promotion, cell cycle and the control of metabolism. This is supported by metabolite analysis showing overall changes in primary and particularly secondary metabolism. Taken together the results indicate a versatile function of PARP beyond its previously reported roles in controlling plant stress tolerance and thus can be a useful target for enhancing biomass production. PMID:24587323

Schulz, Philipp; Jansseune, Karel; Degenkolbe, Thomas; Méret, Michaël; Claeys, Hannes; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Teige, Markus; Willmitzer, Lothar; Hannah, Matthew A.

2014-01-01

285

Promotion of growth by Coenzyme Q10 is linked to gene expression in C. elegans.  

PubMed

Coenzyme Q (CoQ, ubiquinone) is an essential component of the respiratory chain, a cofactor of pyrimidine biosynthesis and acts as an antioxidant in extra mitochondrial membranes. More recently CoQ has been identified as a modulator of apoptosis, inflammation and gene expression. CoQ deficient Caenorhabditis elegans clk-1 mutants show several phenotypes including a delayed postembryonic growth. Using wild type and two clk-1 mutants, here we established an experimental set-up to study the consequences of endogenous CoQ deficiency or exogenous CoQ supply on gene expression and growth. We found that a deficiency of endogenous CoQ synthesis down-regulates a cluster of genes that are important for growth (i.e., RNA polymerase II, eukaryotic initiation factor) and up-regulates oxidation reactions (i.e., cytochrome P450, superoxide dismutase) and protein interactions (i.e., F-Box proteins). Exogenous CoQ supply partially restores the expression of these genes as well as the growth retardation of CoQ deficient clk-1 mutants. On the other hand exogenous CoQ supply does not alter the expression of a further sub-set of genes. These genes are involved in metabolism (i.e., succinate dehydrogenase complex), cell signalling or synthesis of lectins. Thus, our work provides a comprehensive overview of genes which can be modulated in their expression by endogenous or exogenous CoQ. As growth retardation in CoQ deficiency is linked to the gene expression profile we suggest that CoQ promotes growth via gene expression. PMID:25234594

Fischer, Alexandra; Niklowitz, Petra; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

2014-10-01

286

Performance of three endophytic actinomycetes in relation to plant growth promotion and biological control of Pythium aphanidermatum , a pathogen of cucumber under commercial field production conditions in the United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, the performance of three endophytic actinomycetes identified as Actinoplanes campanulatus, Micromonospora chalcea and Streptomyces spiralis previously shown to reduce seedling damping-off, and root and crown rots of mature cucumber (Cucumis sativus) caused by Pythium aphanidermatum in pots under greenhouse conditions were further evaluated to determine their potential as biological control agents and\\u000a as plant growth promoters

Khaled A. El-Tarabily; Giles E. St. J. Hardy; Krishnapillai Sivasithamparam

2010-01-01

287

Biomimetic scaffold combined with electrical stimulation and growth factor promotes tissue engineered cardiac development.  

PubMed

Toward developing biologically sound models for the study of heart regeneration and disease, we cultured heart cells on a biodegradable, microfabricated poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) scaffold designed with micro-structural features and anisotropic mechanical properties to promote cardiac-like tissue architecture. Using this biomimetic system, we studied individual and combined effects of supplemental insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and electrical stimulation (ES). On culture day 8, all tissue constructs could be paced and expressed the cardiac protein troponin-T. IGF-1 reduced apoptosis, promoted cell-to-cell connectivity, and lowered excitation threshold, an index of electrophysiological activity. ES promoted formation of tissue-like bundles oriented in parallel to the electrical field and a more than ten-fold increase in matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) gene expression. The combination of IGF-1 and ES increased 2D projection length, an index of overall contraction strength, and enhanced expression of the gap junction protein connexin-43 and sarcomere development. This culture environment, designed to combine cardiac-like scaffold architecture and biomechanics with molecular and biophysical signals, enabled functional assembly of engineered heart muscle from dissociated cells and could serve as a template for future studies on the hierarchy of various signaling domains relative to cardiac tissue development. PMID:24240126

Park, Hyoungshin; Larson, Benjamin L; Kolewe, Martin E; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Freed, Lisa E

2014-02-15

288

Transgenic Studies with a Keratin Promoter-Driven Growth Hormone Transgene: Prospects for Gene Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keratinocytes are potentially appealing vehicles for the delivery of secreted gene products because they can be transferred to human skin by the relatively simple procedure of grafting. Adult human keratinocytes can be efficiently propagated in culture with sufficient proliferative capacity to produce enough epidermis to cover the body surface of an average adult. However, the feasibility of delivering secreted proteins through skin grafting rests upon (i) the strength of the promoter in keratinocytes and (ii) the efficiency of protein transport through the basement membrane of the stratified epithelium and into the bloodstream. In this paper, we use transgenic technology to demonstrate that the activity of the human keratin 14 promoter remains high in adult skin and that keratinocyte-derived human growth hormone (hGH) can be produced, secreted, and transported to the bloodstream of mice with efficiency that is sufficient to exceed by an order of magnitude the circulating hGH concentration in growing children. Transgenic skin grafts from these adults continue to produce and secrete hGH stably, at ? 1/10 physiological levels in the bloodstream of nontransgenic recipient mice. These studies underscore the utility of the keratin 14 promoter for expressing foreign transgenes in keratinocytes and demonstrate that keratinocytes can be used as effective vehicles for transporting factors to the bloodstream and for eliciting metabolic changes. These findings have important implications for considering the keratinocyte as a possible vehicle for gene therapy.

Wang, Xiaoming; Zinkel, Sandra; Polonsky, Kenneth; Fuchs, Elaine

1997-01-01

289

ZmGRF, a GA regulatory factor from maize, promotes flowering and plant growth in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Transcription factors that act as positive regulators of gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic genes in plants are not well understood. A nuclear-localized basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ZmGRF, was isolated from maize. The core DNA sequence motif recognized for binding by ZmGRF was CCANNTGGC. ZmGRF overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants promoted flowering, stem elongation, and cell expansion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ZmGRF bound directly to the cis-element CCANNTGGC in the promoter of the Arabidopsis ent-kaurene oxidase (AtKO1) gene and promoted AtKO1 expression. GA4 content increased by 372-567 % in transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmGRF compared to wild-type control plants. The GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 gene, which encodes a GA receptor, was also upregulated and the growth-repressing DELLA protein gene GA INSENSITIVE was downregulated. Our results showed ZmGRF functioned through the GA-signaling pathway. PMID:25477078

Xu, Miaoyun; Lu, Yunming; Yang, Hongmei; He, Jingcheng; Hu, Zhiqiu; Hu, Xiaolong; Luan, Mingda; Zhang, Lan; Fan, Yunliu; Wang, Lei

2015-01-01

290

Promotion of the Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 growth and acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by flavonoids.  

PubMed

An unexpected promotion effect of Ginkgo leaf on the growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was investigated. Component analysis of Ginkgo leaf was carried out and flavonoids were determined as the potential key metabolites. Then the flavonoids feeding experiments were carried out. Results showed that addition of only 10 mg/L flavonoids to the fermentation broth can promote butanol and ABE titre up to 14.5 and 17.8 g/L after 5 days of fermentation, that is, 74 and 68% higher than the control. A 2.2-fold biomass also has been achieved. Furthermore, by employing such novel founding, we easily exploited flavonoids from soybean and some agriculture wastes as the wide-distributed and economic feasible ABE fermentation promoter. The mechanism of the above effects was investigated from the perspective of oxidation-reduction potential. This work opens a new way in the efforts to increase the titer of butanol. PMID:24510404

Wang, Lan; Xia, Menglei; Zhang, Lianhua; Chen, Hongzhang

2014-07-01

291

Multitrait plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea rhizosphere  

PubMed Central

Plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, a beneficial microbe colonizing plant roots, enhanced crop productivity and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. The keratinous waste which comprises feathers, hairs, nails, skin and wool creates problem of solid waste management due to presence of highly recalcitrant keratin. The multi traits rhizobacteria effective to remove both keratine from the environment by producing keratinase enzyme and to eradicate the chemical fertilizer by providing different PGP activity is novel achievement. In the present study, the effective PM2 strain of PGPR was isolated from rhizospheric soil of mustard (Brassica juncea) field, Pantnagar and they were identified on the basis of different biochemical tests as belonging to Bacillus genera. Different plant growth promoting activity, feather degradation and keratinolytic activity was performed and found very effective toward all the parameters. Furthermore, the efficient strain PM2 was identified on the basis of 16s rRNA sequencing and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The strain PM2 might be used efficiently for keratinous waste management and PGP activity. Therefore, the present study suggests that Bacillus cereus have multi traits activity which extremely useful for different PGP activity and biotechnological process involving keratin hydrolysis, feather biodegradation or in the leather industry. PMID:24778758

Anwar, Mohmmad Shahbaz; Siddique, Mohammad Tahir; Verma, Amit; Rao, Yalaga Rama; Nailwal, Tapan; Ansari, Mohammad; Pande, Veena

2014-01-01

292

A Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium That Decreases Nickel Toxicity in Seedlings  

PubMed Central

A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and CrO4?, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel. PMID:9758782

Burd, Genrich I.; Dixon, D. George; Glick, Bernard R.

1998-01-01

293

Mixtures of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria enhance biological control of multiple cucumber pathogens.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains INR7 (Bacillus pumilus), GB03 (Bacillus subtilis), and ME1 (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens) were tested singly and in combinations for biological control against multiple cucumber pathogens. Investigations under greenhouse conditions were conducted with three cucumber pathogens-Colletotrichum orbiculare (causing anthracnose), Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans (causing angular leaf spot), and Erwinia tracheiphila(causing cucurbit wilt disease)-inoculated singly and in all possible combinations. There was a general trend across all experiments toward greater suppression and enhanced consistency against multiple cucumber pathogens using strain mixtures. The same three PGPR strains were evaluated as seed treatments in two field trials over two seasons, and two strains, IN26 (Burkholderia gladioli) and INR7 also were tested as foliar sprays in one of the trials. In the field trials, the efficacy of induced systemic resistance activity was determined against introduced cucumber pathogens naturally spread within plots through placement of infected plants into the field to provide the pathogen inoculum. PGPR-mediated disease suppression was observed against angular leaf spot in 1996 and against a mixed infection of angular leaf spot and anthracnose in 1997. The three-way mixture of PGPR strains (INR7 plus ME1 plus GB03) as a seed treatment showed intensive plant growth promotion and disease reduction to a level statistically equivalent to the synthetic elicitor Actigard applied as a spray. PMID:18944848

Raupach, G S; Kloepper, J W

1998-11-01

294

Sustaining intrinsic growth capacity of adult neurons promotes spinal cord regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peripheral axonal branch of primary sensory neurons readily regenerates after peripheral nerve injury, but the central branch, which courses in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, does not. However, if a peripheral nerve is transected before a spinal cord injury, sensory neurons that course in the dorsal columns will regenerate, presumably because their intrinsic growth capacity is enhanced by the priming peripheral nerve lesion. As the effective priming lesion is made before the spinal cord injury it would clearly have no clinical utility, and unfortunately, a priming lesion made after a spinal cord injury results in an abortive regenerative response. Here, we show that two priming lesions, one made at the time of a spinal cord injury and a second 1 week after a spinal cord injury, in fact, promote dramatic regeneration, within and beyond the lesion. The first lesion, we hypothesize, enhances intrinsic growth capacity, and the second one sustains it, providing a paradigm for promoting CNS regeneration after injury. primary afferents | dorsal columns | neurite outgrowth | sprouting | priming

Neumann, Simona; Skinner, Kate; Basbaum, Allan I.

2005-11-01

295

Vascular endothelial growth factor c promotes ovarian carcinoma progression through paracrine and autocrine mechanisms.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) has been reported to promote tumor progression in several tumor types, mainly through the stimulation of lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. However, the expression and biological significance of the VEGFC/VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 pathway in ovarian cancer growth and dissemination are unclear, and have been investigated in this study. Soluble VEGFC was detected in the plasma and ascites of patients with ovarian carcinoma, and VEGFR3 expression was found in their tumor tissues. In human ovarian carcinoma xenograft models, high levels of soluble VEGFC in ascites and serum were detected, in association with disease progression, tumor burden, and volume of ascites. Peak VEGFC expression preceded para-aortic lymph node infiltration by HOC8 neoplastic cells. Histological detection of tumor cells in blood and lymphatic vessels indicated both hematogenous and lymphatic dissemination. Overexpression of VEGFC in the VEGFR3-positive and luciferase-expressing IGROV1 cells promoted carcinoma dissemination after orthotopic transplantation in the ovary of immunodeficient mice. In vitro, VEGFC released by the tumor cells stimulated tumor cell migration in an autocrine manner. Cediranib, an inhibitor of VEGFR1-3 and c-kit, inhibited in vivo metastasis of VEGFC-overexpressing IGROV1 and in vitro autocrine effects. These findings suggest that the VEGFC/VEGFR3 pathway acts as an enhancer of ovarian cancer progression through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms, hence offering a potential target for therapy. PMID:24508126

Decio, Alessandra; Taraboletti, Giulia; Patton, Veronica; Alzani, Rachele; Perego, Patrizia; Fruscio, Robert; Jürgensmeier, Juliane M; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Belotti, Dorina

2014-04-01

296

BDNF Alters ERK/p38 MAPK Activity Ratios to Promote Differentiation in Growth Plate Chondrocytes  

PubMed Central

The ERK and p38 MAPK pathways are well-known transducers of signals that regulate proliferation and differentiation, but precisely how these pathways control growth plate chondrocyte development is unclear. For example, the ERK pathway has been reported to be required by some investigators but inhibitory to chondrocyte development by others. Moreover, how these two pathways interact to regulate chondrocyte development is even less clear. Using primary bovine growth plate chondrocytes and murine ATDC5 cells, we demonstrate that the ERK and p38 pathways have opposing effects on proliferation but are both absolutely required for differentiation. Two factors that promote chondrocyte differentiation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and C-type natriuretic peptide, increase p38 activity while decreasing, but not completely inhibiting, ERK activity. The attenuation of ERK activity by BDNF occurs via p38-dependent raf-1 inhibition. The inhibition of raf-1 by p38 is direct, because purified p38 protein inhibits the kinase activity of purified active raf-1 as well as raf-1 immunoprecipitated from chondrocyte lysates. Moreover, IGF-I, which stimulates proliferation, suppresses p38 activation. This work describes a model wherein unopposed IGF-I promotes high ERK/p38 activity ratios favoring proliferation, whereas BDNF signals a transition to differentiation by decreasing the ERK/p38 activity ratio without completely inhibiting ERK, which involves the direct inhibition of raf-1 by p38. PMID:22700586

2012-01-01

297

Genomic insights into the versatility of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum amazonense  

PubMed Central

Background The species Azospirillum amazonense belongs to a well-known genus of plant growth-promoting bacteria. This bacterium is found in association with several crops of economic importance; however, there is a lack of information on its physiology. In this work, we present a comprehensive analysis of the genomic features of this species. Results Genes of A. amazonense related to nitrogen/carbon metabolism, energy production, phytohormone production, transport, quorum sensing, antibiotic resistance, chemotaxis/motility and bacteriophytochrome biosynthesis were identified. Noteworthy genes were the nitrogen fixation genes and the nitrilase gene, which could be directly implicated in plant growth promotion, and the carbon fixation genes, which had previously been poorly investigated in this genus. One important finding was that some A. amazonense genes, like the nitrogenase genes and RubisCO genes, were closer phylogenetically to Rhizobiales members than to species of its own order. Conclusion The species A. amazonense presents a versatile repertoire of genes crucial for its plant-associated lifestyle. PMID:21838888

2011-01-01

298

A plant growth-promoting bacterium that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings  

SciTech Connect

A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and CrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel.

Burd, G.I.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1998-10-01

299

Gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vitro gluconic acid formation and phosphate solubilization from sparingly soluble phosphorus sources by two strains of the plant growth-promoting bacteria A. brasilense (Cd and 8-I) and one strain of A. lipoferum JA4 were studied. Strains of A. brasilense were capable of producing gluconic acid when grown in sparingly soluble calcium phosphate medium when their usual fructose carbon source is amended with glucose. At the same time, there is a reduction in pH of the medium and release of soluble phosphate. To a greater extent, gluconic acid production and pH reduction were observed for A. lipoferum JA4. For the three strains, clearing halos were detected on solid medium plates with calcium phosphate. This is the first report of in vitro gluconic acid production and direct phosphate solubilization by A. brasilense and the first report of P solubilization by A. lipoferum. This adds to the very broad spectrum of plant growth-promoting abilities of this genus.

Rodriguez, Hilda; Gonzalez, Tania; Goire, Isabel; Bashan, Yoav

2004-11-01

300

Comparison of prominent Azospirillum strains in Azospirillum-Pseudomonas-Glomus consortia for promotion of maize growth.  

PubMed

Azospirillum are prominent plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) extensively used as phytostimulatory crop inoculants, but only few studies are dealing with Azospirillum-containing mixed inocula involving more than two microorganisms. We compared here three prominent Azospirillum strains as part of three-component consortia including also the PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 and a mycorrhizal inoculant mix composed of three Glomus strains. Inoculant colonization of maize was assessed by quantitative PCR, transcription of auxin synthesis gene ipdC (involved in phytostimulation) in Azospirillum by RT-PCR, and effects on maize by secondary metabolic profiling and shoot biomass measurements. Results showed that phytostimulation by all the three-component consortia was comparable, despite contrasted survival of the Azospirillum strains and different secondary metabolic responses of maize to inoculation. Unexpectedly, the presence of Azospirillum in the inoculum resulted in lower phytostimulation in comparison with the Pseudomonas-Glomus two-component consortium, but this effect was transient. Azospirillum's ipdC gene was transcribed in all treatments, especially with three-component consortia, but not with all plants and samplings. Inoculation had no negative impact on the prevalence of mycorrhizal taxa in roots. In conclusion, this study brought new insights in the functioning of microbial consortia and showed that Azospirillum-Pseudomonas-Glomus three-component inoculants may be useful in environmental biotechnology for maize growth promotion. PMID:22805783

Couillerot, Olivier; Ramírez-Trujillo, Augusto; Walker, Vincent; von Felten, Andreas; Jansa, Jan; Maurhofer, Monika; Défago, Geneviève; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Comte, Gilles; Caballero-Mellado, Jesus; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

2013-05-01

301

Rhamnolipids production by multi-metal-resistant and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

The biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa A11, with plant-growth-promoting (PGP) and multi-metal-resistant (MMR) features was isolated from the rhizosphere of a wild plant Parthenium hysterophorus. The strain A11 was able to utilize glycerol as a carbon source and produce 4,436.9 mg/L of biosurfactant after 120 h of incubation. The biosurfactants was characterized as rhamnolipids (RLs) by thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Eight different RLs congeners were detected with RhaRhaC??C?? being most abundant. The purified rhamnolipid, dirhamnolipid, and monorhamnolipid reduced the surface tension of water to 29, 36, and 42 mN/m with critical micelle concentration of 83, 125, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The strain A11 demonstrated resistance against all the metals detected in rhizosphere except Hg and Ni. The strain A11 also possessed plant-growth-promoting features like siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, catalase, ammonia production, and phosphate solubilization. The dirhamnolipids formed crystals upon incubation at 4 °C, thus making separation of dirhamnolipids easy. Biosurfactant-producing ability along with MMR and PGP traits of the strain A11 makes it a potential candidate for application in the bacterial assisted enhancement of phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated sites. PMID:23640260

Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

2013-07-01

302

The solid state, solution and tubulin-bound conformations of agents that promote microtubule stabilization.  

PubMed

Taxol (paclitaxel), a complex diterpene obtained from Taxus brevifolia and its semisynthetic analogue Taxotere are two of the most important new drugs for cancer chemotherapy. Their mechanism of cytotoxic action involves stabilization of microtubules leading to mitotic arrest. A similar mechanism has been proposed for an expanding set of other natural products, for instance, the epothilones, eleutherobin, the sarcodictyins, discodermolide, laulimalide, Rhazinilam, WS9885B, certain steroids and a group of polyisoprenyl benzophenones. In this review, we focus on the conformations of small molecule microtubule (MT) stabilizing compounds which have been isolated or synthesized and subjected to structural analysis. NMR and fluorescense spectroscopies, X-ray crystallography, high resolution microscopy (electron crystallography) and theoretical calculations comprise the most common methods used in this context. In particular, we describe how the structures were determined and with what accuracy. We also discuss the conformational diversity apparent from the three dimensional structures and compare the various proposals for bioactive conformations at the target MT binding sites. Of critical importance are the recently disclosed models for Taxol and its biomimetics binding to beta-tubulin. Several different conformational schemes derived from both pharmacophore construction and modeled protein ligand complexes are compared and critically evaluated. Although full consensus has yet to be reached, emphasis is placed on pharmacophore models for the various anti-MT agents that are internally consistent and encompass more than one structural class. PMID:12678753

Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Amat-Guerri, Francisco; Snyder, James P

2002-01-01

303

Drosophila casein kinase 2 (CK2) promotes warts protein to suppress Yorkie protein activity for growth control.  

PubMed

Drosophila Hippo signaling regulates Wts activity to phosphorylate and inhibit Yki in order to control tissue growth. CK2 is widely expressed and involved in a variety of signaling pathways. In this study we report that Drosophila CK2 promotes Wts activity to phosphorylate and inhibit Yki activity, which is independent of Hpo-induced Wts promotion. In vivo, CK2 overexpression suppresses hpo mutant-induced expanded (Ex) up-regulation and overgrowth phenotype, whereas it cannot affect wts mutant. Consistent with this, knockdown of CK2 up-regulates Hpo pathway target expression. We also found that Drosophila CK2 is essential for tissue growth as a cell death inhibitor as knockdown of CK2 in the developing disc induces severe growth defects as well as caspase3 signals. Taken together, our results uncover a dual role of CK2; although its major role is promoting cell survive, it may potentially be a growth inhibitor as well. PMID:25320084

Hu, Lianxin; Huang, Hongling; Li, Jinhui; Yin, Meng-Xin; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wenqing; Zeng, Rong; Jiang, Jin; Zhao, Yun; Zhang, Lei

2014-11-28

304

A Trypanosoma brucei Kinesin Heavy Chain Promotes Parasite Growth by Triggering Host Arginase Activity  

PubMed Central

Background In order to promote infection, the blood-borne parasite Trypanosoma brucei releases factors that upregulate arginase expression and activity in myeloid cells. Methodology/Principal findings By screening a cDNA library of T. brucei with an antibody neutralizing the arginase-inducing activity of parasite released factors, we identified a Kinesin Heavy Chain isoform, termed TbKHC1, as responsible for this effect. Following interaction with mouse myeloid cells, natural or recombinant TbKHC1 triggered SIGN-R1 receptor-dependent induction of IL-10 production, resulting in arginase-1 activation concomitant with reduction of nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity. This TbKHC1 activity was IL-4R?-independent and did not mirror M2 activation of myeloid cells. As compared to wild-type T. brucei, infection by TbKHC1 KO parasites was characterized by strongly reduced parasitaemia and prolonged host survival time. By treating infected mice with ornithine or with NO synthase inhibitor, we observed that during the first wave of parasitaemia the parasite growth-promoting effect of TbKHC1-mediated arginase activation resulted more from increased polyamine production than from reduction of NO synthesis. In late stage infection, TbKHC1-mediated reduction of NO synthesis appeared to contribute to liver damage linked to shortening of host survival time. Conclusion A kinesin heavy chain released by T. brucei induces IL-10 and arginase-1 through SIGN-R1 signaling in myeloid cells, which promotes early trypanosome growth and favors parasite settlement in the host. Moreover, in the late stage of infection, the inhibition of NO synthesis by TbKHC1 contributes to liver pathogenicity. PMID:24204274

De Muylder, Géraldine; Daulouède, Sylvie; Lecordier, Laurence; Uzureau, Pierrick; Morias, Yannick; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Caljon, Guy; Hérin, Michel; Holzmuller, Philippe; Semballa, Silla; Courtois, Pierrette; Vanhamme, Luc; Stijlemans, Benoît; De Baetselier, Patrick; Barrett, Michael P.; Barlow, Jillian L.; McKenzie, Andrew N. J.; Barron, Luke; Wynn, Thomas A.; Beschin, Alain; Vincendeau, Philippe; Pays, Etienne

2013-01-01

305

Effect of Compost on Rhizosphere Microflora of the Tomato and on the Incidence of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four commercial composts were added to soil to study their effect on plant growth, total rhizosphere microflora, and incidence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere of tomato plants. Three of the compost treatments significantly improved plant growth, while one compost treatment significantly depressed it. Compost amendments caused only small variations in the total numbers of bacteria, actinomycetes,andfungiintherhizosphereoftomatoplants.Atotalof709bacteriawereisolatedfromthefour compost

MARCOS A. DEBRITO ALVAREZ; SERGE GAGNE; ANDHANI ANTOUN

1995-01-01

306

Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. PMID:22841774

Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Guifang; Cai, Xiaojun; Falck, John R.; Yang, Jing

2012-01-01

307

Efficiency of plant growth-promoting P-solubilizing Bacillus circulans CB7 for enhancement of tomato growth under net house conditions.  

PubMed

P-solubilizing bacterial isolate CB7 isolated from apple rhizosphere soil of Himachal Pradesh, India was identified as Bacillus circulans on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, biochemical tests, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolate exhibited plant growth-promoting traits of P-solubilization, auxin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, siderophore, nitrogenase activity, and antagonistic activity against Dematophora necatrix. In vitro studies revealed that P-solubilization and other plant growth-promoting traits were dependent on the presence of glucose in PVK medium and removal of yeast extract had no significant effect on plant growth-promoting traits. Plant growth-promoting traits of isolate CB7 were repressed in the presence of KH2 PO4 . P-solubilization activity was associated with the release of organic acids and a drop in the pH of the Pikovskaya's medium. HPLC analysis detected gluconic and citric acid as major organic acids in the course of P-solubilization. Remarkable increase was observed in seed germination (22.32%), shoot length (15.91%), root length (25.10%), shoot dry weight (52.92%) and root dry weight (31.4%), nitrogen (18.75%), potassium (57.69%), and phosphorus (22.22%) content of shoot biomass over control. These results demonstrate that isolate CB7 has the promising PGPR attributes to be developed as a biofertilizer to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth. PMID:24464353

Mehta, Preeti; Walia, Abhishek; Kulshrestha, Saurabh; Chauhan, Anjali; Shirkot, Chand Karan

2015-01-01

308

Growth of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is promoted by exogenous hydroxamate and catechol siderophores.  

PubMed Central

Siderophores bind ferric ions and are involved in receptor-specific iron transport into bacteria. Six types of siderophores were tested against strains representing the 12 different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Ferrichrome and bis-catechol-based siderophores showed strong growth-promoting activities for A. pleuropneumoniae in a disk diffusion assay. Most strains of A. pleuropneumoniae tested were able to use ferrichrome (21 of 22 or 95%), ferrichrome A (20 of 22 or 90%), and lysine-based bis-catechol (20 of 22 or 90%), while growth of 36% (8 of 22) was promoted by a synthetic hydroxamate, N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine tripeptide. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (strain FMV 87-682) and serotype 5 (strain 2245) exhibited a distinct yellow halo around colonies on Chrome Azurol S agar plates, suggesting that both strains can produce an iron chelator (siderophore) in response to iron stress. The siderophore was found to be neither a phenolate nor a hydroxamate by the chemical tests of Arnow and Csaky, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the production of an iron chelator and the use of exogenous siderophores by A. pleuropneumoniae. A spermidine-based bis-catechol siderophore conjugated to a carbacephalosporin was shown to inhibit growth of A. pleuropneumoniae. A siderophore-antibiotic-resistant strain was isolated and shown to have lost the ability to use ferrichrome, synthetic hydroxamate, or catechol-based siderophores when grown under conditions of iron restriction. This observation indicated that a common iron uptake pathway, or a common intermediate, for hydroxamate- and catechol-based siderophores may exist in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:8975614

Diarra, M S; Dolence, J A; Dolence, E K; Darwish, I; Miller, M J; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

1996-01-01

309

The IL-8-regulated chemokine receptor CXCR7 stimulates EGFR signaling to promote prostate cancer growth.  

PubMed

The proinflammatory chemokine receptor CXCR7 that binds the ligands CXCL11 and CXCL12 (SDF-1a) is elevated in a variety of human cancers, but its functions are not understood as it does not elicit classical chemokine receptor signaling. Here we report that the procancerous cytokine IL-8 (interleukin-8) upregulates CXCR7 expression along with ligand-independent functions of CXCR7 that promote the growth and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells (CaP cells). In cell culture, ectopic expression or addition of IL-8 selectively increased expression of CXCR7 at the level of mRNA and protein production. Conversely, suppressing IL-8 signaling abolished the ability of IL-8 to upregulate CXCR7. RNAi-mediated knockdown of CXCR7 in CaP cells caused multiple antitumor effects, including decreased cell proliferation, cell-cycle arrest in G(1) phase, and decreased expression of proteins involved in G(1) to S phase progression. In contrast, addition of the CXCR7 ligand SDF-1a and CXCL11 to CaP cells did not affect cell proliferation. Over expression of CXCR7 in normal prostate cells increased their proliferation in a manner associated with increased levels of phospho-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor; pY1110) and phospho-ERK1/2. Notably, coimmunoprecipitation studies established a physical association of CXCR7 with EGFR, linking CXCR7-mediated cell proliferation to EGFR activation. Consistent with these findings, CXCR7-depleted CaP tumors grew more slowly than control tumors, expressing decreased tumor-associated expression of VEGF, cyclin D1, and p-EGFR. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism of ligand-independent growth promotion by CXCR7 and its coregulation by the proinflammatory factor IL-8 in prostate cancer. PMID:21398406

Singh, Rajendra Kumar; Lokeshwar, Bal L

2011-05-01

310

Silencing DACH1 promotes esophageal cancer growth by inhibiting TGF-? signaling.  

PubMed

Human Dachshund homologue 1 (DACH1) is a major component of the Retinal Determination Gene Network. Loss of DACH1 expression was found in breast, prostate, lung, endometrial, colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma. To explore the expression, regulation and function of DACH1 in human esophageal cancer, 11 esophageal cancer cell lines, 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa, 51 cases of different grades of dysplasia and 104 cases of primary esophageal squamous cancer were employed. Methylation specific PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot, flow cytometry, small interfering RNAs, colony formation techniques and xenograft mice model were used. We found that DACH1 expression was regulated by promoter region hypermethylation in esophageal cancer cell lines. 18.8% (6 of 32) of grade 1, 42.1% (8 of 19) of grade 2 and grade 3 dysplasia (ED2,3), and 61.5% (64 of 104) of esophageal cancer were methylated, but no methylation was found in 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa. The methylation was increased in progression tendency during esophageal carcinogenesis (P<0.01). DACH1 methylation was associated with poor differentiation (P<0.05) and late tumor stage (P<0.05). Restoration of DACH1 expression inhibited cell growth and activated TGF-? signaling in KYSE150 and KYSE510 cells. DACH1 suppressed human esophageal cancer cell tumor growth in xenograft mice. In conclusion, DACH1 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer and methylation of DACH1 is involved in the early stage of esophageal carcinogenesis. DACH1 expression is regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. DACH1 suppresses esophageal cancer growth by activating TGF-? signaling. PMID:24743895

Wu, Liang; Herman, James G; Brock, Malcolm V; Wu, Kongming; Mao, Gaoping; Yan, Wenji; Nie, Yan; Liang, Hao; Zhan, Qimin; Li, Wen; Guo, Mingzhou

2014-01-01

311

Silencing DACH1 Promotes Esophageal Cancer Growth by Inhibiting TGF-? Signaling  

PubMed Central

Human Dachshund homologue 1 (DACH1) is a major component of the Retinal Determination Gene Network. Loss of DACH1 expression was found in breast, prostate, lung, endometrial, colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma. To explore the expression, regulation and function of DACH1 in human esophageal cancer, 11 esophageal cancer cell lines, 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa, 51 cases of different grades of dysplasia and 104 cases of primary esophageal squamous cancer were employed. Methylation specific PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot, flow cytometry, small interfering RNAs, colony formation techniques and xenograft mice model were used. We found that DACH1 expression was regulated by promoter region hypermethylation in esophageal cancer cell lines. 18.8% (6 of 32) of grade 1, 42.1% (8 of 19) of grade 2 and grade 3 dysplasia (ED2,3), and 61.5% (64 of 104) of esophageal cancer were methylated, but no methylation was found in 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa. The methylation was increased in progression tendency during esophageal carcinogenesis (P<0.01). DACH1 methylation was associated with poor differentiation (P<0.05) and late tumor stage (P<0.05). Restoration of DACH1 expression inhibited cell growth and activated TGF-? signaling in KYSE150 and KYSE510 cells. DACH1 suppressed human esophageal cancer cell tumor growth in xenograft mice. In conclusion, DACH1 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer and methylation of DACH1 is involved in the early stage of esophageal carcinogenesis. DACH1 expression is regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. DACH1 suppresses esophageal cancer growth by activating TGF-? signaling. PMID:24743895

Wu, Liang; Herman, James G.; Brock, Malcolm V.; Wu, Kongming; Mao, Gaoping; Yan, Wenji; Nie, Yan; Liang, Hao; Zhan, Qimin; Li, Wen; Guo, Mingzhou

2014-01-01

312

Growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits as affected by different growth promoters.  

PubMed

The aim of the article was to study the effect of different growth promoters on growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits. A total number of 105 male growing NZW rabbits during 35-91 days of age were randomly distributed among 7 groups fed the same basal diet and submitted to different dietary treatments: the first group was unsupplemented and used as control; the other groups were supplemented respectively with bee pollen and/or propolis at 200 mg/kg BW of each and inulin and/or mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) at 35 mg/kg BW of each. Body weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), biochemical and haematological blood parameters, carcass characteristics, histological studies of ileum and spleen and economical efficiency were measured. Bee pollen administered alone or with propolis significantly (p < 0.01) the body weight gain and improved FCR in respect of the control group. Inulin with MOS significantly improved just FCR than the control group. Bee pollen with propolis and MOS supplemented-groups resulted in significantly higher (7.96 and 8.41% respectively) white blood cells compared to the control group. Plasma total cholesterol was significantly higher for the MOS group in respect of the control, bee pollen, inulin and inulin with MOS supplemented-groups. Propolis resulted in significantly higher dressed carcass percentage than the control group and higher carcass index than only bee pollen with propolis supplemented-group. Bee pollen, in particular if in combination with propolis, could be used as a supplement in the growing rabbits during days 35-91 of age with positive effects on growth rate and feed conversion ratio. PMID:23419029

Attia, Y A; El-Hanoun, A M; Bovera, F; Monastra, G; El-Tahawy, W S; Habiba, H I

2014-02-01

313

Influence of inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on tomato plant growth and nematode reproduction under greenhouse conditions  

PubMed Central

Numerous species of soil bacteria which flourish in the rhizosphere of plants or around plant tissues stimulate plant growth and reduce nematode population by antagonistic behavior. These bacteria are collectively known as PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria). The effects of six isolates of PGPR Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, were studied on tomato plant growth and root knot nematode reproduction after 45 days from nematode infection. The highest number of shoot dry weight/g (43.00 g) was detected in the plant treated with S. marcescens; then P. putida (34.33 g), B. amyloliquefaciens (31.66 g), P. fluorescens (30.0 g), B. subtilis (29.0 g), B. cereus (27.0 g) and nematode alone (untreated) 20 g/plant. While the highest number of plant height was observed when plant was treated with S. marcescens, P. fluorescens, P. putida, B. amyloliquefaciens and P. putida 52.66, 50.66, 48 and 48 cm respectively. No significant differences were seen between previous treatments but only had significant differences compared with untreated plant. The highest number of fruit/plant was observed when plants were treated with S. marcescens (10.66), then B. amyloliquefaciens (8.66), P. putida (8), P. fluorescens (8) and B. cereus (7.66). No significant differences between the last 4 treatments, but all had significant differences compared with untreated plants. The highest weight of plant yield (g) was observed with S. marcescens (319.6 g/plant) and the lowest weight of plant yield was observed in plants treated with nematode alone (untreated). On the other hand, the lowest numbers of J2/10 g of soil (78), galls/root, (24.33) galls/root, egg masses/root (12.66) and egg/egg masses were observed in the plants treated with S. marcescens. PMID:23961220

Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Massoud, Samia I.; Abdelmoneim, Tamer S.

2012-01-01

314

Exposure to low concentrations of dissolved ammonia promotes growth rate in walleye Sander vitreus.  

PubMed

The objective of the current study was to examine whether sublethal (moderate) levels of dissolved ammonia may be beneficial to growth in juvenile walleye Sander vitreus (recent evidence in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss has shown significant increases in protein synthesis in the presence of moderately elevated concentrations of dissolved ammonia). Moderately elevated dissolved ammonia concentrations between 100 and 300 micromol l(-1) suppressed routine aerobic metabolic activity by 20% during acute trials (2 h), while promoting specific growth rate (>50%) and elevating whole body soluble protein content by 20% in the early stages (14-42 days) in chronic ammonia exposure experiments. Juvenile S. vitreus held at ammonia concentrations between 107.6 +/- 5.5 and 225.5 +/- 4.7 micromol l(-1) (mean +/-s.e.) grew significantly faster than control fish and significantly reduced plasma cortisol levels (<3 microg dl(-1)). Results from this study suggest that chronic exposure to moderate amounts of dissolved ammonia significantly increase growth rates in juvenile S. vitreus by increasing nitrogen accessible for supplementary protein deposition leading to somatic development. PMID:20735605

Madison, B N; Dhillon, R S; Tufts, B L; Wang, Y S

2009-03-01

315

N2-fixation and seedling growth promotion of lodgepole pine by endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa.  

PubMed

We inoculated lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia (Dougl.) Engelm.) with Paenibacillus polymyxa P2b-2R, a diazotrophic bacterium previously isolated from internal stem tissue of a naturally regenerating pine seedling to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation and seedling growth promotion by this microorganism. Seedlings generated from pine seed inoculated with strain P2b-2R were grown for up to 13 months in a N-limited soil mix containing 0.7 mM available N labeled as Ca((15)NO3)2 to facilitate detection of N2-fixation. Strain P2b-2R developed a persistent endophytic population comprising 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1) plant tissue inside pine roots, stems, and needles during the experiment. At the end of the growth period, P2b-2R had reduced seedling mortality by 14 % and (15)N foliar N abundance 79 % and doubled foliar N concentration and seedling biomass compared to controls. Our results suggest that N2-fixation by P. polymyxa enhanced growth of pine seedlings and support the hypothesis that plant-associated diazotrophs capable of endophytic colonization can satisfy a significant proportion of the N required by tree seedlings growing under N-limited conditions. PMID:23420205

Anand, Richa; Grayston, Susan; Chanway, Christopher

2013-08-01

316

Inhibition of Alanine Aminotransferase in Silico and in Vivo Promotes Mitochondrial Metabolism to Impair Malignant Growth*  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells commonly exhibit increased nonoxidative d-glucose metabolism whereas induction of mitochondrial metabolism may impair malignant growth. We have first used an in silico method called elementary mode analysis to identify inhibition of ALAT (l-alanine aminotransferase) as a putative target to promote mitochondrial metabolism. We then experimentally show that two competitive inhibitors of ALAT, l-cycloserine and ?-chloro-l-alanine, inhibit l-alanine production and impair d-glucose uptake of LLC1 Lewis lung carcinoma cells. The latter inhibition is linked to an initial energy deficit, as quantified by decreased ATP content, which is then followed by an activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and subsequently increased respiration rates and mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, culminating in ATP replenishment in ALAT-inhibited LLC1 cells. Moreover, we observe altered phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase 14), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2), and Rb1 (retinoblastoma 1) proteins, as well as decreased expression of Cdc25a (cell decision cycle 25 homolog A) and Cdk4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4). Importantly, these sequelae of ALAT inhibition culminate in similarly reduced anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth rates of LLC1 cells, together suggesting that inhibition of ALAT efficiently impairs cancer growth by counteracting the Warburg effect due to compensatory activation of mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:21540181

Beuster, Gregor; Zarse, Kim; Kaleta, Christoph; Thierbach, René; Kiehntopf, Michael; Steinberg, Pablo; Schuster, Stefan; Ristow, Michael

2011-01-01

317

Inhibition of alanine aminotransferase in silico and in vivo promotes mitochondrial metabolism to impair malignant growth.  

PubMed

Cancer cells commonly exhibit increased nonoxidative D-glucose metabolism whereas induction of mitochondrial metabolism may impair malignant growth. We have first used an in silico method called elementary mode analysis to identify inhibition of ALAT (L-alanine aminotransferase) as a putative target to promote mitochondrial metabolism. We then experimentally show that two competitive inhibitors of ALAT, L-cycloserine and ?-chloro-L-alanine, inhibit L-alanine production and impair D-glucose uptake of LLC1 Lewis lung carcinoma cells. The latter inhibition is linked to an initial energy deficit, as quantified by decreased ATP content, which is then followed by an activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and subsequently increased respiration rates and mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, culminating in ATP replenishment in ALAT-inhibited LLC1 cells. Moreover, we observe altered phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase 14), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2), and Rb1 (retinoblastoma 1) proteins, as well as decreased expression of Cdc25a (cell decision cycle 25 homolog A) and Cdk4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4). Importantly, these sequelae of ALAT inhibition culminate in similarly reduced anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth rates of LLC1 cells, together suggesting that inhibition of ALAT efficiently impairs cancer growth by counteracting the Warburg effect due to compensatory activation of mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:21540181

Beuster, Gregor; Zarse, Kim; Kaleta, Christoph; Thierbach, René; Kiehntopf, Michael; Steinberg, Pablo; Schuster, Stefan; Ristow, Michael

2011-06-24

318

Endothelin-1 promotes vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells.  

PubMed

Chondrosarcoma is the second most common sarcoma in bone malignancy and is characterized by a high metastatic potential. Angiogenesis is essential for the cancer metastasis. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the relationship of ET-1 with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that the expression of ET-1 and VEGF were correlated with tumor stage and were significantly higher than that in the normal cartilage. Exogenous ET-1 with chondrosarcoma cells promoted VEGF expression and subsequently increased migration and tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells. ET-1 increased VEGF expression and angiogenesis through ETAR, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), Akt and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) signaling cascades. Knockdown of ET-1 decreased VEGF expression and also abolished chondrosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro as well as angiogenesis effects in the chick chorioallantoic membrane and Matrigel plug nude mice model in vivo. In addition, in the xenograft tumor angiogenesis model, knockdown of ET-1 significantly reduced tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis. Taken together, these results indicate that ET-1 occurs through ETAR, ILK and Akt, which in turn activates HIF-1?, resulting in the activation of VEGF expression and contributing to the angiogenesis and tumor growth of human chondrosarcoma cells. PMID:23584483

Wu, M-H; Huang, C-Y; Lin, J-A; Wang, S-W; Peng, C-Y; Cheng, H-C; Tang, C-H

2014-03-27

319

Dual-stage growth factor release within 3D protein-engineered hydrogel niches promotes adipogenesis.  

PubMed

Engineered biomimetic microenvironments from hydrogels are an emerging strategy to achieve lineage-specific differentiation in vitro. In addition to recapitulating critical matrix cues found in the native three-dimensional (3D) niche, the hydrogel can also be designed to deliver soluble factors that are present within the native inductive microenvironment. We demonstrate a versatile materials approach for the dual-stage delivery of multiple soluble factors within a 3D hydrogel to induce adipogenesis. We use a Mixing-Induced Two-Component Hydrogel (MITCH) embedded with alginate microgels to deliver two pro-adipogenic soluble factors, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) with two distinct delivery profiles. We show that dual-stage delivery of FGF-1 and BMP-4 to human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs) significantly increases lipid accumulation compared with the simultaneous delivery of both growth factors together. Furthermore, dual-stage growth factor delivery within a 3D hydrogel resulted in substantially more lipid accumulation compared to identical delivery profiles in 2D cultures. Gene expression analysis shows upregulation of key adipogenic markers indicative of brown-like adipocytes. These data suggest that dual-stage release of FGF-1 and BMP-4 within 3D microenvironments can promote the in vitro development of mature adipocytes. PMID:25309741

Greenwood-Goodwin, Midori; Teasley, Eric S; Heilshorn, Sarah C

2014-11-01

320

Tumor fibroblast–derived epiregulin promotes growth of colitis-associated neoplasms through ERK  

PubMed Central

Molecular mechanisms specific to colitis-associated cancers have been poorly characterized. Using comparative whole-genome expression profiling, we observed differential expression of epiregulin (EREG) in mouse models of colitis-associated, but not sporadic, colorectal cancer. Similarly, EREG expression was significantly upregulated in cohorts of patients with colitis-associated cancer. Furthermore, tumor-associated fibroblasts were identified as a major source of EREG in colitis-associated neoplasms. Functional studies showed that Ereg-deficient mice, although more prone to colitis, were strongly protected from colitis-associated tumors. Serial endoscopic studies revealed that EREG promoted tumor growth rather than initiation. Additionally, we demonstrated that fibroblast-derived EREG requires ERK activation to induce proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and tumor development in vivo. To demonstrate the functional relevance of EREG-producing tumor-associated fibroblasts, we developed a novel system for adoptive transfer of these cells via mini-endoscopic local injection. It was found that transfer of EREG-producing, but not Ereg-deficient, fibroblasts from tumors significantly augmented growth of colitis-associated neoplasms in vivo. In conclusion, our data indicate that EREG and tumor-associated fibroblasts play a crucial role in controlling tumor growth in colitis-associated neoplasms. PMID:23549083

Neufert, Clemens; Becker, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Waldner, Maximilian J.; Backert, Ingo; Floh, Katharina; Atreya, Imke; Leppkes, Moritz; Jefremow, Andre; Vieth, Michael; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Klinger, Patricia; Greten, Florian R.; Threadgill, David W.; Sahin, Ugur; Neurath, Markus F.

2013-01-01

321

Tumor fibroblast-derived epiregulin promotes growth of colitis-associated neoplasms through ERK.  

PubMed

Molecular mechanisms specific to colitis-associated cancers have been poorly characterized. Using comparative whole-genome expression profiling, we observed differential expression of epiregulin (EREG) in mouse models of colitis-associated, but not sporadic, colorectal cancer. Similarly, EREG expression was significantly upregulated in cohorts of patients with colitis-associated cancer. Furthermore, tumor-associated fibroblasts were identified as a major source of EREG in colitis-associated neoplasms. Functional studies showed that Ereg-deficient mice, although more prone to colitis, were strongly protected from colitis-associated tumors. Serial endoscopic studies revealed that EREG promoted tumor growth rather than initiation. Additionally, we demonstrated that fibroblast-derived EREG requires ERK activation to induce proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and tumor development in vivo. To demonstrate the functional relevance of EREG-producing tumor-associated fibroblasts, we developed a novel system for adoptive transfer of these cells via mini-endoscopic local injection. It was found that transfer of EREG-producing, but not Ereg-deficient, fibroblasts from tumors significantly augmented growth of colitis-associated neoplasms in vivo. In conclusion, our data indicate that EREG and tumor-associated fibroblasts play a crucial role in controlling tumor growth in colitis-associated neoplasms. PMID:23549083

Neufert, Clemens; Becker, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Waldner, Maximilian J; Backert, Ingo; Floh, Katharina; Atreya, Imke; Leppkes, Moritz; Jefremow, Andre; Vieth, Michael; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Klinger, Patricia; Greten, Florian R; Threadgill, David W; Sahin, Ugur; Neurath, Markus F

2013-04-01

322

Annual ryegrass-associated bacteria with potential for plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Annual ryegrass is a fast-growing cool-season grass broadly present in the Portuguese "montado", a typically Mediterranean agro-forestry-pastoral ecosystem. A culture-dependent approach was used to investigate natural associations of this crop with potentially beneficial bacteria, aiming to identify strains suitable for biofertilization purposes. Annual ryegrass seedlings were used to trap bacteria from three different soils in laboratory conditions. Using a nitrogen-free microaerophilic medium, 147 isolates were recovered from the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and surface-sterilized plant tissues, which were assigned to 12 genera in classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. All isolates were able to grow in the absence of nitrogen and several of them were able to perform in vitro activities related to plant growth promotion. Isolates of the genera Sphingomonas and Achromobacter were found to be the most effective stimulators of annual ryegrass growth under nitrogen limitation (47-92% biomass increases). Major enhancements were obtained with isolates G3Dc4 (Achromobacter sp.) and G2Ac10 (Sphingomonas sp.). The latest isolate was also able to increment plant growth in nitrogen-supplemented medium, as well as the phosphate solubilizer and siderophore producer, G1Dc10 (Pseudomonas sp.), and the cellulose/pectin hydrolyser, G3Ac9 (Paenibacillus sp.). This study represents the first survey of annual ryegrass-associated bacteria in the "montado" ecosystem and unveiled a set of strains with potential for use as inoculants. PMID:24485300

Castanheira, Nádia; Dourado, Ana Catarina; Alves, Paula Isabel; Cortés-Pallero, Alícia Maria; Delgado-Rodríguez, Ana Isabel; Prazeres, Ângela; Borges, Nuno; Sánchez, Claudia; Barreto Crespo, Maria Teresa; Fareleira, Paula

2014-01-01

323

Toxicity of four spill-treating agents on bacterial growth and sea urchin embryogenesis.  

PubMed

The toxicity of spill-treating agents (STAs) is a topic that needs to be assessed prior to their potential application in environmental disasters. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of four commercial STAs (CytoSol, Finasol OSR 51, Agma OSD 569 and OD4000) on the growth of marine (Phaeobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp.) and terrestrial (Leuconostoc mesenteroides) bacteria, and sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryolarval development. In general, STA did not inhibit significantly the biomass production of the tested marine bacteria. Finasol OSR 51 and OD4000 clearly inhibited the growth of L. mesenteroides and an accurate description of the kinetics was provided by a proposed bivariate equation. For this species, a global parameter (EC50,?) was defined to summarize the set of growth kinetics. Using this parameter Finasol OSR 51 was found to be less toxic (754?L L(-1)) than OD4000 (129?L L(-1)). For the sea urchin embryo assay, the ranking of toxicity as EC50 (?L L(-1)) was Agma OSD 569 (34.0)

Rial, Diego; Murado, Miguel A; Beiras, Ricardo; Vázquez, José A

2014-06-01

324

Effect of pesticides on plant growth promoting traits of greengram-symbiont, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain MRM6.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of herbicides (metribuzin and glyphosate), insecticides (imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) and fungicides (hexaconazole, metalaxyl and kitazin) at the recommended and the higher dose rates on plant growth promoting activities of Bradyrhizobium sp. under in vitro conditions. The Bradyrhizobium sp. strain MRM6 was isolated from nodules of greengram plants. Pesticide-concentration dependent progressive-decline was observed in plant growth promoting traits of the strain MRM6 apart from exo-polysaccharides which increased consistently on increasing pesticide concentrations. Generally, the highest toxicity to plant growth promoting characteristics of the Bradyrhizobium sp. strain MRM6 was observed when the strain MRM6 was grown with three times the recommended field rates of glyphosate, imidacloprid and hexaconazole. PMID:21359648

Ahemad, Munees; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

2011-04-01

325

CDK9 Regulates AR Promoter Selectivity and Cell Growth through Serine 81 Phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Previously we determined that S81 is the highest stoichiometric phosphorylation on the androgen receptor (AR) in response to hormone. To explore the role of this phosphorylation on growth, we stably expressed wild-type and S81A mutant AR in LHS and LAPC4 cells. The cells with increased wild-type AR expression grow faster compared with parental cells and S81A mutant-expressing cells, indicating that loss of S81 phosphorylation limits cell growth. To explore how S81 regulates cell growth, we tested whether S81 phosphorylation regulates AR transcriptional activity. LHS cells stably expressing wild-type and S81A mutant AR showed differences in the regulation of endogenous AR target genes, suggesting that S81 phosphorylation regulates promoter selectivity. We next sought to identify the S81 kinase using ion trap mass spectrometry to analyze AR-associated proteins in immunoprecipitates from cells. We observed cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)9 association with the AR. CDK9 phosphorylates the AR on S81 in vitro. Phosphorylation is specific to S81 because CDK9 did not phosphorylate the AR on other serine phosphorylation sites. Overexpression of CDK9 with its cognate cyclin, Cyclin T, increased S81 phosphorylation levels in cells. Small interfering RNA knockdown of CDK9 protein levels decreased hormone-induced S81 phosphorylation. Additionally, treatment of LNCaP cells with the CDK9 inhibitors, 5,6-dichloro-1-?-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole and Flavopiridol, reduced S81 phosphorylation further, suggesting that CDK9 regulates S81 phosphorylation. Pharmacological inhibition of CDK9 also resulted in decreased AR transcription in LNCaP cells. Collectively these results suggest that CDK9 phosphorylation of AR S81 is an important step in regulating AR transcriptional activity and prostate cancer cell growth. PMID:20980437

Gordon, Vicki; Bhadel, Shriti; Wunderlich, Winfried; Zhang, JoAnn; Ficarro, Scott B.; Mollah, Sahana A.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Xenarios, Ioannis; Hahn, William C.; Conaway, Mark; Carey, Michael F.; Gioeli, Daniel

2010-01-01

326

Secreted Pyomelanin of Legionella pneumophila Promotes Bacterial Iron Uptake and Growth under Iron-Limiting Conditions  

PubMed Central

Iron acquisition is critical to the growth and virulence of Legionella pneumophila. Previously, we found that L. pneumophila uses both a ferrisiderophore pathway and ferrous iron transport to obtain iron. We now report that two molecules secreted by L. pneumophila, homogentisic acid (HGA) and its polymerized variant (HGA-melanin, a pyomelanin), are able to directly mediate the reduction of various ferric iron salts. Furthermore, HGA, synthetic HGA-melanin, and HGA-melanin derived from bacterial supernatants enhanced the ability of L. pneumophila and other species of Legionella to take up radiolabeled iron. Enhanced iron uptake was not observed with a ferrous iron transport mutant. Thus, HGA and HGA-melanin mediate ferric iron reduction, with the resulting ferrous iron being available to the bacterium for uptake. Upon further testing of L. pneumophila culture supernatants, we found that significant amounts of ferric and ferrous iron were associated with secreted HGA-melanin. Importantly, a pyomelanin-containing fraction obtained from a wild-type culture supernatant was able to stimulate the growth of iron-starved legionellae. That the corresponding supernatant fraction obtained from a nonpigmented mutant culture did not stimulate growth demonstrated that HGA-melanin is able to both promote iron uptake and enhance growth under iron-limiting conditions. Indicative of a complementary role in iron acquisition, HGA-melanin levels were inversely related to the levels of siderophore activity. Compatible with a role in the ecology and pathogenesis of L. pneumophila, HGA and HGA-melanin were effective at reducing and releasing iron from both insoluble ferric hydroxide and the mammalian iron chelates ferritin and transferrin. PMID:23980114

Zheng, Huaixin; Chatfield, Christa H.; Liles, Mark R.

2013-01-01

327

Novel retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents have potent inhibitory activities on human breast cancer cells and tumour growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antitumour effects of retinoids are attributed to their influence on cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. In our effort to develop useful agents for breast cancer therapy, we evaluated the effects of four representative retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs, VN\\/14-1, VN\\/50-1, VN\\/66-1 and VN\\/69-1) on growth inhibition of oestrogen receptor positive (ER +ve, MCF-7 and T-47D) and oestrogen receptor

J B Patel; J Mehta; A Belosay; G Sabnis; A Khandelwal; A M H Brodie; D R Soprano; V C O Njar; VCO Njar

2007-01-01

328

IQGAP3 Promotes EGFR-ERK Signaling and the Growth and Metastasis of Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Proteins of the IQGAP family display complicated and often contradictory activities in tumorigenesis. IQGAP1 has well documented oncogenic potential and IQGAP2 has putative tumor-suppressive function. IQGAP3 is the latest addition to this family and its role in cancer development remains to be defined. Here we demonstrate IQGAP3 expression is markedly increased in lung cancer tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression of IQGAP3 promoted tumor cell growth, and migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of IQGAP3 exhibited opposite effects. Moreover, suppression of IQGAP3 in a lung cancer cell line caused a reduction in the tumorigenicity of these cells in lung tissue after intravenous injection. Furthermore, we showed that IQGAP3 is able to interact with ERK1 and enhance its phosphorylation following treatment with EGF. These data suggest that IQGAP3 may contribute to the pathogenesis of lung cancer by modulating EGFR-ERK signaling. PMID:24849319

Xu, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Song; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jun

2014-01-01

329

Growth-promoting effect of thermophilic fungi on the mycelium of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.  

PubMed Central

The growth-promoting effect of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in mushroom compost on the mycelium of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus was investigated. Results obtained by others were confirmed by showing that S. thermophilum leads to an increased hyphal extension rate of the mushroom mycelium. However, it was demonstrated that hyphal extension rates were not clearly related to mushroom biomass increase rates. A number of experiments pointed strongly towards CO2 as the determinant of hyphal extension rates. In compost, CO2 is produced mainly by thermophilic fungi. Several experiments did not reveal any other specific compound produced by S. thermophilum that increases the hyphal extension rate of the mushroom mycelium. PMID:1514812

Wiegant, W M; Wery, J; Buitenhuis, E T; de Bont, J A

1992-01-01

330

The HMGB1/RAGE inflammatory pathway promotes pancreatic tumor growth by regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics  

PubMed Central

Tumor cells require increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to support anabolism and proliferation. The precise mechanisms regulating this process in tumor cells are unknown. Here, we show that the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and one of its primary ligands, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), are required for optimal mitochondrial function within tumors. We found that RAGE is present in the mitochondria of cultured tumor cells as well as primary tumors. RAGE and HMGB1 coordinately enhanced tumor cell mitochondrial complex I activity, ATP production, tumor cell proliferation and migration. Lack of RAGE or inhibition of HMGB1 release diminished ATP production and slowed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. These findings link, for the first time, the HMGB1–RAGE pathway with changes in bioenergetics. Moreover, our observations provide a novel mechanism within the tumor microenvironment by which necrosis and inflammation promote tumor progression. PMID:23318458

Kang, R; Tang, D; Schapiro, NE; Loux, T; Livesey, KM; Billiar, TR; Wang, H; Van Houten, B; Lotze, MT; Zeh, HJ

2013-01-01

331

Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Promotes Functional Recovery in Primates after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI. PMID:22140459

Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

2011-01-01

332

Human hepatocyte growth factor promotes functional recovery in primates after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI. PMID:22140459

Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-Ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

2011-01-01

333

Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn\\/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity\\u000a of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments,\\u000a SLS18 could not

Shenglian Luo; Taoying Xu; Liang Chen; Jueliang Chen; Chan Rao; Xiao Xiao; Yong Wan; Guangming Zeng; Fei Long; Chengbin Liu; Yutang Liu

334

Phototransformation rates and mechanisms for synthetic hormone growth promoters used in animal agriculture.  

PubMed

Trenbolone acetate, melengestrol acetate, and zeranol are synthetic hormones extensively used as growth promoters in animal agriculture, yet despite occurrence in water and soil little is known about their environmental fate. Here, we establish the time scales and mechanisms by which these synthetic growth promoters and their metabolites (SGPMs) undergo phototransformation in sunlit surface waters. The families of trenbolone acetate (including 17?-trenbolone, 17?-trenbolone, and trendione) and melengestrol acetate (including melengestrol) readily undergo direct photolysis, exhibiting half-lives between ?0.25 and 1 h in both natural and simulated sunlight that were largely insensitive to solution variables (e.g., pH, temperature, and cosolutes). Direct photolysis yielded products that not only are more photostable but also maintain their steroidal ring structure and therefore may retain some biological activity. In contrast, zeranol, ?-zearalanol, and zearalanone only exhibited reactivity in irradiated solutions of model humic and fulvic acids, and rates of indirect photolysis increased steadily from pH 7 to 9. Use of selective probe and quencher compounds suggest hydroxyl radical and triplet state dissolved organic matter are responsible for zeranol family decay at neutral pH, although singlet oxygen contributes modestly in more alkaline waters. This observed pH-dependence appears to result from photooxidants reacting primarily with the monodeprotonated form of zeranol (pK(a) values of 8.44 and 11.42). This investigation provides the first characterization of the fate of this emerging pollutant class in sunlit surface waters and prioritizes future efforts on the identity, fate, and biological impact of their more persistent phototransformation products. PMID:23163486

Qu, Shen; Kolodziej, Edward P; Cwiertny, David M

2012-12-18

335

Getting the ecology into interactions between plants and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens  

PubMed Central

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are increasingly appreciated for their contributions to primary productivity through promotion of growth and triggering of induced systemic resistance in plants. Here we focus on the beneficial effects of one particular species of PGPR (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on plants through induced plant defense. This model organism has provided much understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of PGPR-induced plant defense. However, this knowledge can only be appreciated at full value once we know to what extent these mechanisms also occur under more realistic, species-diverse conditions as are occurring in the plant rhizosphere. To provide the necessary ecological context, we review the literature to compare the effect of P. fluorescens on induced plant defense when it is present as a single species or in combination with other soil dwelling species. Specifically, we discuss combinations with other plant mutualists (bacterial or fungal), plant pathogens (bacterial or fungal), bacterivores (nematode or protozoa), and decomposers. Synergistic interactions between P. fluorescens and other plant mutualists are much more commonly reported than antagonistic interactions. Recent developments have enabled screenings of P. fluorescens genomes for defense traits and this could help with selection of strains with likely positive interactions on biocontrol. However, studies that examine the effects of multiple herbivores, pathogens, or herbivores and pathogens together on the effectiveness of PGPR to induce plant defenses are underrepresented and we are not aware of any study that has examined interactions between P. fluorescens and bacterivores or decomposers. As co-occurring soil organisms can enhance but also reduce the effectiveness of PGPR, a better understanding of the biotic factors modulating P. fluorescens–plant interactions will improve the effectiveness of introducing P. fluorescens to enhance plant production and defense. PMID:23596447

Hol, W. H. Gera; Bezemer, T. Martijn; Biere, Arjen

2013-01-01

336

Fibrin Encapsulation and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Delivery Promotes Ovarian Graft Survival in Mice  

PubMed Central

Ovarian cryopreservation before chemotherapy and autotransplantation post-treatment can restore fertility to women with premature ovarian failure. Although the majority of primordial follicles survive the cryopreservation cycle, the follicular pool is reduced after transplantation due to ischemic death. Therefore, we engineered a biomaterial-based system to promote angiogenesis in a mouse model of ovarian transplantation. To mimic the clinical situation of sterility, a bilateral ovariectomy was performed 2 weeks before transplantation, during which time serum levels of follicular stimulating hormone rose to menopausal levels. Before transplantation, vitrified/thawed ovarian tissue from 12-day-old C57Bl/6J pups was encapsulated in fibrin modified with heparin-binding peptide (HBP), heparin, and loaded with 0.5??g vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The group transplanted with fibrin-HBP-VEGF had twice as many surviving primordial follicles and an increased number of blood vessels relative to the no biomaterial control. Transplanted tissue was viable and supported natural conception that led to live and healthy offspring. The timeline of live births with VEGF delivery suggested that primary follicles survived transplantation, and provided the gametes for the first litter. Thus, VEGF delivery from fibrin supported integration of the transplant with the host, promoted angiogenesis, and enhanced engraftment and function of the tissue. PMID:21740332

Shikanov, Ariella; Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Min; Smith, Rachel M.; Rajan, Aniruddha; Woodruff, Teresa K.

2011-01-01

337

Resistin promotes the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in ovary carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Resistin is a novel hormone that is secreted by human adipocytes and mononuclear cells and is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and inflammation. Recently, resistin has been postulated to play a role in angiogenesis. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that resistin regulates ovary carcinoma production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the angiogenic processes. We found that in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cells (HO-8910), resistin (10-150 ng/mL) enhanced both VEGF protein and mRNA expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, as well as promoter activity. Furthermore, resistin enhanced DNA-binding activity of Sp1 with VEGF promoter in a PI3K/Akt-dependent manner. PI3K/Akt activated by resistin led to increasing interaction with Sp1, triggering a progressive phosphorylation of Sp1 on Thr453 and Thr739, resulting in the upregulation of VEGF expression. In an in vitro angiogenesis system for endothelial cells (EA.hy926) co-cultured with HO-8910 cells, we observed that the addition of resistin stimulated endothelial cell tube formation, which could be abolished by VEGF neutralizing antibody. Our findings suggest that the PI3K/Akt-Sp1 pathway is involved in resistin-induced VEGF expression in HO-8910 cells and indicates that antiangiogenesis therapy may be beneficial treatment against ovarian epithelial carcinoma, especially in obese patients. PMID:23652833

Pang, Li; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Yu; Zhang, Shulan

2013-01-01

338

Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria and soil compaction on barley seedling growth, nutrient uptake, soil properties and rhizosphere microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculants are of great importance in sustainable and\\/or organic agriculture. In the present study, plant growth of barley\\u000a (Hordeum vulgare) has been studied in sterile soil inoculated with four plant growth-promoting bacteria and mineral fertilizers at three different\\u000a soil bulk densities and in three harvests of plants. Three bacterial species were isolated from the rhizosphere of barley\\u000a and wheat. These

Mustafa Y. Canbolat; Serdar Bilen; Ramazan Çakmakç?; Fikrettin ?ahin; Adil Ayd?n

2006-01-01

339

Insecticide-tolerant and plant growth promoting Bradyrhizobium sp. ( vigna ) improves the growth and yield of greengram [ Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] in insecticide-stressed soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to identify rhizobial strains specific to greengram expressing higher tolerance against insecticides,\\u000a fipronil and pyriproxyfen, and synthesizing plant growth regulators even amid insecticide-stress. Of the 50 bradyrhizobial\\u000a isolates, the Bradyrhizobium sp. strain MRM6 showed tolerance up to 1,600 ?g mL?1 against each of fipronil and pyriproxyfen. The tolerant Bradyrhizobium sp. (vigna) produced plant growth promoting substances in substantial

Munees Ahemad; Mohammad Saghir Khan

340

PERFORMANCE OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA CONTAINING ACC-DEAMINASE ACTIVITY FOR IMPROVING GROWTH OF MAIZE UNDER SALT-STRESSED CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria carrying 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity lower stress induced ethylene levels and may be effective to improve plant growth under salt stress conditions. Twenty strains of rhizobacteria isolated from soil samples taken from different salt affected aras were screened for plant growth promotion and ACC- deaminase enzyme activity under axenic conditions at 6 dS rn'. Three strains (S5, S15

S. M. Nadeem; I. Hussain; M. Naveed; H. N. Asghar; Z. A. Zahir; M. Arshad

2006-01-01

341

Binding and biological effects of insulin, insulin analogues and insulin-like growth factors in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Comparison of maximal growth promoting activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Binding and growth promoting effects of insulin, insulin analogues modified in the B chain, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor-I and -II were studied in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Specific binding of125I-insulin was 0.9±0.2% of total 125I-insulin added, and the IC50-value was estimated to 8.9 pmol\\/1. The insulin analogue B10 Asp tended to be more potent than insulin in displacing

K. E. Bornfeldt; R. A. Gidlöf; A. Wasteson; M. Lake; A. Skottner; H. J. Arnqvist

1991-01-01

342

Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting bacteria from non-rhizospheric soil and their effect on cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seedling growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of four potential phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter isolated from non-rhizospheric soil in Western ghat forest in India. Plant growth promoting ability of these isolates was evaluated in cowpea. All are gram negative, rod shaped,\\u000a 0.8–1.6 mm in size, and psychrotrophic in nature, grow from 5 to 40°C (optimum temp. 28 ± 2°C). All isolates exhibits growth\\u000a at a wide range of pH

C. K. Deepa; Syed G. Dastager; Ashok Pandey

2010-01-01

343

Growth rate-dependent control of the rrnB P1 core promoter in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

We have extended our previous studies of the DNA sequences required for growth rate-dependent control of rRNA transcription in Escherichia coli. Utilizing a reporter system suitable for evaluation of promoters with low activities, we have found that the core promoter region of rrnB P1 (-41 to +1 with respect to the transcription initiation site) is sufficient for growth rate-dependent control of transcription, both in the presence and in the absence of guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-diphosphate (ppGpp). The core promoter contains the -10 and -35 hexamers for recognition by the sigma 70 subunit of RNA polymerase but lacks the upstream (UP) element, which increases transcription by interacting with the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase. It also lacks the binding sites for the positive transcription factor FIS. Thus, the UP element, FIS, and ppGpp are not needed for growth rate-dependent regulation of rRNA transcription. In addition, we find that several core promoter mutations, including -10 and -35 hexamer substitutions, severely reduce rrnB P1 activity without affecting growth rate-dependent control. Thus, a high activity is not a determinant of growth rate regulation of rRNA transcription. PMID:8071240

Bartlett, M S; Gourse, R L

1994-01-01

344

A Model to Explain Plant Growth Promotion Traits: A Multivariate Analysis of 2,211 Bacterial Isolates  

PubMed Central

Plant growth-promoting bacteria can greatly assist sustainable farming by improving plant health and biomass while reducing fertilizer use. The plant-microorganism-environment interaction is an open and complex system, and despite the active research in the area, patterns in root ecology are elusive. Here, we simultaneously analyzed the plant growth-promoting bacteria datasets from seven independent studies that shared a methodology for bioprospection and phenotype screening. The soil richness of the isolate's origin was classified by a Principal Component Analysis. A Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the soil richness according to isolate's indolic compound production, siderophores production and phosphate solubilization abilities, and bacterial genera composition. Multiple patterns and relationships were found and verified with nonparametric hypothesis testing. Including niche colonization in the analysis, we proposed a model to explain the expression of bacterial plant growth-promoting traits according to the soil nutritional status. Our model shows that plants favor interaction with growth hormone producers under rich nutrient conditions but favor nutrient solubilizers under poor conditions. We also performed several comparisons among the different genera, highlighting interesting ecological interactions and limitations. Our model could be used to direct plant growth-promoting bacteria bioprospection and metagenomic sampling. PMID:25542031

da Costa, Pedro Beschoren; Granada, Camille E.; Ambrosini, Adriana; Moreira, Fernanda; de Souza, Rocheli; dos Passos, João Frederico M.; Arruda, Letícia; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

2014-01-01

345

A model to explain plant growth promotion traits: a multivariate analysis of 2,211 bacterial isolates.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting bacteria can greatly assist sustainable farming by improving plant health and biomass while reducing fertilizer use. The plant-microorganism-environment interaction is an open and complex system, and despite the active research in the area, patterns in root ecology are elusive. Here, we simultaneously analyzed the plant growth-promoting bacteria datasets from seven independent studies that shared a methodology for bioprospection and phenotype screening. The soil richness of the isolate's origin was classified by a Principal Component Analysis. A Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the soil richness according to isolate's indolic compound production, siderophores production and phosphate solubilization abilities, and bacterial genera composition. Multiple patterns and relationships were found and verified with nonparametric hypothesis testing. Including niche colonization in the analysis, we proposed a model to explain the expression of bacterial plant growth-promoting traits according to the soil nutritional status. Our model shows that plants favor interaction with growth hormone producers under rich nutrient conditions but favor nutrient solubilizers under poor conditions. We also performed several comparisons among the different genera, highlighting interesting ecological interactions and limitations. Our model could be used to direct plant growth-promoting bacteria bioprospection and metagenomic sampling. PMID:25542031

Costa, Pedro Beschoren da; Granada, Camille E; Ambrosini, Adriana; Moreira, Fernanda; de Souza, Rocheli; Dos Passos, João Frederico M; Arruda, Letícia; Passaglia, Luciane M P

2014-01-01

346

Fasudil hydrochloride could promote axonal growth through inhibiting the activity of ROCK  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil hydrochloride in ischemia/reperfusion injury N2a neuron. Methods: In vitro, N2a cells induced by ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion were treated with fasudil hydrochloride, cell damage was analyzed by MTT. On the other hand, the cytoskeleton of N2a cells was scanned through immunofluorescence techniques by Confocal Laser Microscopy which stained with FITC-phalloidin for F-actin visualization. Results: The activation of ROCK-II increased significantly in the damaged local during the following phase of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Ischemia induced a striking reorganization of actin cytoskeleton with a weakening of fluorescent intensity of the peripheral filament actin bands and formation of the long and thick stress fibers, but pretreatment of Fasudil hydrochloride could reversed the changes of ultra-structure on the cellular surface. MTT assay showed that Fasudil hydrochloride could prolong the survival time of the N2a cells after mimic ischemia-reperfusion for 24 h. Conclusions: The activation of ROCK-II has an exceptional hoist after ischemia/reperfusion injury, it is likely to induce the collapse of the growth cone through MLC-P. Fasudil hydrochloride could promote axonal growth on inhibitory of ROCK activity. PMID:25337198

Xiao, Wei-Dong; Yu, Ai-Xi; Liu, Dan-Li

2014-01-01

347

Effect of Dieckol, a Component of Ecklonia cava, on the Promotion of Hair Growth  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Ecklonia cava, a marine alga native to Jeju Island in Korea, on the promotion of hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of E. cava enzymatic extract (which contains more than 35% of dieckol) for 21 days, E. cava enzymatic extract increased hair-fiber length. In addition, after topical application of the 0.5% E. cava enzymatic extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair-shaft was induced. The treatment with E. cava enzymatic extract resulted in the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPC). Especially, dieckol, among the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, showed activity that increased the proliferation of DPC. When NIH3T3 fibroblasts were treated with the E. cava enzymatic extract and the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, the E. cava enzymatic extract increased the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, but the isolated compounds such as eckol, dieckol, phloroglucinol and triphlorethol-A did not affect the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts. On the other hand, the E. cava enzymatic extract and dieckol significantly inhibited 5?-reductase activity. These results suggest that dieckol from E. cava can stimulate hair growth by the proliferation of DPC and/or the inhibition of 5?-reductase activity. PMID:22754373

Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Boo, Hye-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Sung-Myung; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2012-01-01

348

Growth in liverworts of the Marchantiales is promoted by epiphytic methylobacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liverworts, the most basal lineage of extant land plants, have been used as model systems in the reconstruction of adaptations to life on land. In this study, we used gemmae (specialized propagules) that were isolated from mature gemma cups of two distantly related species of liverworts, Marchantia polymorpha L. and Lunularia cruciata L. (order Marchantiales). We show that methylobacteria (genus Methylobacterium), microbes that inhabit the surfaces of land plants where they secrete phytohormones (cytokinines), promote the growth of isolated gemmae cultivated on agar plates. As a control, two species of higher plants, maize (Zea mays L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were raised aseptically from sterile seeds (i.e., caryopses, achenes). Inoculation of these propagules with methylobacteria was without effect on growth in the above-ground phytosphere (expansion of stems and leaves). We conclude that normal development in Marchantia and Lunularia is dependent on (and possibly regulated by) epiphytic methylobacteria, whereas representative higher plants grow at optimal rates in the absence of these prokaryotic epiphytes.

Kutschera, U.; Koopmann, V.

2005-07-01

349

Histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the testes of rabbits after injection with the growth promoter boldenone.  

PubMed

Recently, boldenone (androgenic steroid) is used in improvement of the growth and food conversion in food-producing animals. In addition, it is used by bodybuilders during both off-season and precontest, where it is well known for increasing vascularity while preparing for a bodybuilding contest. The present study was designed to investigate the possible effect of growth promoter boldenone undecylenate on the structure and functions of rabbit testes. A total of 32 adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into 4 groups. The first group in the control group includes animals that were intramuscularly injected with olive oil and dissected after 3 weeks. Three experimental groups include animals that receive 1, 2, and 3 intramuscular injections of 5 mg/kg body weight boldenone, and dissected after 3, 6, and 9 weeks, respectively. Treating rabbits with boldenone increased the testosterone levels compared to the control group. Seminiferous tubules of the rabbit testis treated with boldenone showed reduced development and degeneration of the germinal epithelium, leading to debris and syncytial cell formation in the lumina of seminiferous tubules. Our immunohistochemical results indicated severe reduction in proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive spermatogonia in boldenone-treated animals as compared to the control group. These findings explain the common phenomena among athletics and bodybuilders who suffer from infertility as they were injected with some drugs such as steroids (boldenone) to build muscles. PMID:22383777

Tousson, Ehab; El-Moghazy, Mostafa; Massoud, Ahmed; Akel, Amani

2012-03-01

350

[Screening and identification of endophytic fungi with growth promoting effect on Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

The endophytic fungi with plant growth promoting effects were screened by co-culture of each endophytic fungus and seedlings of Dendrobium officinale. Anatomical features of the inoculated roots were studied by paraffin sectioning. Morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 sequences were applied for the taxonomy of endophytic fungi. The results showed that 8 strains inoculated to D. officinale seedlings greatly enhanced plant height, stem diameter, new roots number and biomass. According to the anatomical features of the inoculated roots, each fungus could infect the velamina of seedlings. The hyphae or pelotons were existed in the exodermis passage cells and cortex cells. The effective fungi could not infect the endodermis and vascular bundle sheath, but which was exception for other fungi with harmful to seedlings. Combined with classic morphologic classification, 2 effective strains were identified which were subjected to Pestalotiopsis and Eurotium. Six species of fungi without conidiophore belonged to Pyrenochaeta, Coprinellus, Pholiota, Alternaria, Helotiales, which were identified by sequencing the PCR-amplified rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 regions. The co-culture technology of effective endophytic fungi and plant can apply to cultivate the seedlings of D. officinale. It is feasible to shorten growth cycle of D. officinale and increase the resource of Chinese herbs. PMID:25522603

Hou, Xiao-qiang; Guo, Shun-xing

2014-09-01

351

An inhibitor of mutant IDH1 delays growth and promotes differentiation of glioma cells.  

PubMed

The recent discovery of mutations in metabolic enzymes has rekindled interest in harnessing the altered metabolism of cancer cells for cancer therapy. One potential drug target is isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), which is mutated in multiple human cancers. Here, we examine the role of mutant IDH1 in fully transformed cells with endogenous IDH1 mutations. A selective R132H-IDH1 inhibitor (AGI-5198) identified through a high-throughput screen blocked, in a dose-dependent manner, the ability of the mutant enzyme (mIDH1) to produce R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG). Under conditions of near-complete R-2HG inhibition, the mIDH1 inhibitor induced demethylation of histone H3K9me3 and expression of genes associated with gliogenic differentiation. Blockade of mIDH1 impaired the growth of IDH1-mutant--but not IDH1-wild-type--glioma cells without appreciable changes in genome-wide DNA methylation. These data suggest that mIDH1 may promote glioma growth through mechanisms beyond its well-characterized epigenetic effects. PMID:23558169

Rohle, Dan; Popovici-Muller, Janeta; Palaskas, Nicolaos; Turcan, Sevin; Grommes, Christian; Campos, Carl; Tsoi, Jennifer; Clark, Owen; Oldrini, Barbara; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Kunii, Kaiko; Pedraza, Alicia; Schalm, Stefanie; Silverman, Lee; Miller, Alexandra; Wang, Fang; Yang, Hua; Chen, Yue; Kernytsky, Andrew; Rosenblum, Marc K; Liu, Wei; Biller, Scott A; Su, Shinsan M; Brennan, Cameron W; Chan, Timothy A; Graeber, Thomas G; Yen, Katharine E; Mellinghoff, Ingo K

2013-05-01

352

An Inhibitor of Mutant IDH1 Delays Growth and Promotes Differentiation of Glioma Cells  

PubMed Central

The recent discovery of mutations in metabolic enzymes has rekindled interest in harnessing the altered metabolism of cancer cells for cancer therapy. One potential drug target is isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), which is mutated in multiple human cancers. Here, we examine the role of mutant IDH1 in fully transformed cells with endogenous IDH1 mutations. A selective R132H-IDH1 inhibitor (AGI-5198) identified through a high-throughput screen blocked, in a dose-dependent manner, the ability of the mutant enzyme (mIDH1) to produce R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG). Under conditions of near-complete R-2HG inhibition, the mIDH1 inhibitor induced demethylation of histone H3K9me3 and expression of genes associated with gliogenic differentiation. Blockade of mIDH1 impaired the growth of IDH1-mutant—but not IDH1–wild-type—glioma cells without appreciable changes in genome-wide DNA methylation. These data suggest that mIDH1 may promote glioma growth through mechanisms beyond its well-characterized epigenetic effects. PMID:23558169

Rohle, Dan; Popovici-Muller, Janeta; Palaskas, Nicolaos; Turcan, Sevin; Grommes, Christian; Campos, Carl; Tsoi, Jennifer; Clark, Owen; Oldrini, Barbara; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Kunii, Kaiko; Pedraza, Alicia; Schalm, Stefanie; Silverman, Lee; Miller, Alexandra; Wang, Fang; Yang, Hua; Chen, Yue; Kernytsky, Andrew; Rosenblum, Marc K.; Liu, Wei; Biller, Scott A.; Su, Shinsan M.; Brennan, Cameron W.; Chan, Timothy A.; Graeber, Thomas G.; Yen, Katharine E.; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.

2013-01-01

353

Transforming growth factor-? superfamily ligand trap ACE-536 corrects anemia by promoting late-stage erythropoiesis.  

PubMed

Erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates proliferation of early-stage erythrocyte precursors and is widely used for the treatment of chronic anemia. However, several types of EPO-resistant anemia are characterized by defects in late-stage erythropoiesis, which is EPO independent. Here we investigated regulation of erythropoiesis using a ligand-trapping fusion protein (ACE-536) containing the extracellular domain of human activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) modified to reduce activin binding. ACE-536, or its mouse version RAP-536, produced rapid and robust increases in erythrocyte numbers in multiple species under basal conditions and reduced or prevented anemia in murine models. Unlike EPO, RAP-536 promoted maturation of late-stage erythroid precursors in vivo. Cotreatment with ACE-536 and EPO produced a synergistic erythropoietic response. ACE-536 bound growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) and potently inhibited GDF11-mediated Smad2/3 signaling. GDF11 inhibited erythroid maturation in mice in vivo and ex vivo. Expression of GDF11 and ActRIIB in erythroid precursors decreased progressively with maturation, suggesting an inhibitory role for GDF11 in late-stage erythroid differentiation. RAP-536 treatment also reduced Smad2/3 activation, anemia, erythroid hyperplasia and ineffective erythropoiesis in a mouse model of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). These findings implicate transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily signaling in erythroid maturation and identify ACE-536 as a new potential treatment for anemia, including that caused by ineffective erythropoiesis. PMID:24658078

Suragani, Rajasekhar N V S; Cadena, Samuel M; Cawley, Sharon M; Sako, Dianne; Mitchell, Dianne; Li, Robert; Davies, Monique V; Alexander, Mark J; Devine, Matthew; Loveday, Kenneth S; Underwood, Kathryn W; Grinberg, Asya V; Quisel, John D; Chopra, Rajesh; Pearsall, R Scott; Seehra, Jasbir; Kumar, Ravindra

2014-04-01

354

Notch4 promotes gastric cancer growth through activation of Wnt1/?-catenin signaling.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers and lethal malignancies in the world. Discovering novel biomarkers that correlate with GC may provide opportunities to reduce the severity of GC. As one of Notch receptor family members in mammals, Notch4 plays an important role in carcinogenesis of several tumors. However, the precise function and mechanism of Notch4 in GC remain undefined. To address this question, we investigated whether Notch4 could be involved in GC progression. We found that Notch4 was activated by overexpressing exogenous intracellular domain of Notch4 (ICN4), and Notch4 activation promoted GC growth in vitro and in vivo, while Notch4 inhibition using ICN4 siRNA had opposite effects. In addition, Notch4 activation induced expression and activation of Wnt1, ?-catenin and downstream target genes, c-Myc and cyclin D1, in GC cells, while Notch4 inhibition had opposite effects. Moreover, ?-catenin depletion by siRNA attenuated cell proliferation induced by Notch4 activation. Therefore, our results revealed that Notch4 activates Wnt1/?-catenin signaling to regulate GC growth. PMID:25511451

Qian, Cuijuan; Liu, Fuqiang; Ye, Bei; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Yong; Yao, Jun

2015-03-01

355

Physiological and biochemical characterization of Azospirillum brasilense strains commonly used as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

Azospirillum is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) genus vastly studied and utilized as agriculture inoculants. Isolation of new strains under different environmental conditions allows the access to the genetic diversity and improves the success of inoculation procedures. Historically, the isolation of this genus has been performed by the use of some traditional culture media. In this work we characterized the physiology and biochemistry of five different A. brasilense strains, commonly used as cereal inoculants. The aim of this work is to contribute to pose into revision some concepts concerning the most used protocols to isolate and characterize this bacterium. We characterized their growth in different traditional and non-traditional culture media, evaluated some PGPR mechanisms and characterized their profiles of fatty acid methyl esters and carbon-source utilization. This work shows, for the first time, differences in both profiles, and ACC deaminase activity of A. brasilense strains. Also, we show unexpected results obtained in some of the evaluated culture media. Results obtained here and an exhaustive knowledge revision revealed that it is not appropriate to conclude about bacterial species without analyzing several strains. Also, it is necessary to continue developing studies and laboratory techniques to improve the isolation and characterization protocols. PMID:25138314

Di Salvo, Luciana P; Silva, Esdras; Teixeira, Kátia R S; Cote, Rosalba Esquivel; Pereyra, M Alejandra; García de Salamone, Inés E

2014-12-01

356

Growth in liverworts of the Marchantiales is promoted by epiphytic methylobacteria.  

PubMed

Liverworts, the most basal lineage of extant land plants, have been used as model systems in the reconstruction of adaptations to life on land. In this study, we used gemmae (specialized propagules) that were isolated from mature gemma cups of two distantly related species of liverworts, Marchantia polymorpha L. and Lunularia cruciata L. (order Marchantiales). We show that methylobacteria (genus Methylobacterium), microbes that inhabit the surfaces of land plants where they secrete phytohormones (cytokinines), promote the growth of isolated gemmae cultivated on agar plates. As a control, two species of higher plants, maize (Zea mays L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were raised aseptically from sterile seeds (i.e., caryopses, achenes). Inoculation of these propagules with methylobacteria was without effect on growth in the above-ground phytosphere (expansion of stems and leaves). We conclude that normal development in Marchantia and Lunularia is dependent on (and possibly regulated by) epiphytic methylobacteria, whereas representative higher plants grow at optimal rates in the absence of these prokaryotic epiphytes. PMID:15965759

Kutschera, U; Koopmann, V

2005-07-01

357

Determinants of Plant Growth-promoting Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 Involved in Induction of Systemic Resistance against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in Tobacco Leaves  

PubMed Central

The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 elicited induced systemic resistance (ISR) in tobacco against soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. We investigated of its factors involved in ISR elicitation. To characterize the ISR determinants, KUDC1013 cell suspension, heat-treated cells, supernatant from a culture medium, crude bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagella were tested for their ISR activities. Both LPS and flagella from KUDC1013 were effective in ISR elicitation. Crude cell free supernatant elicited ISR and factors with the highest ISR activity were retained in the n-butanol fraction. Analysis of the ISR-active fraction revealed the metabolites, phenylacetic acid (PAA), 1-hexadecene and linoleic acid (LA), as elicitors of ISR. Treatment of tobacco with these compounds significantly decreased the soft rot disease symptoms. This is the first report on the ISR determinants by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) KUDC1013 and identifying PAA, 1-hexadecene and LA as ISR-related compounds. This study shows that KUDC1013 has a great potential as biological control agent because of its multiple factors involved in induction of systemic resistance against phytopathogens. PMID:25288944

Sumayo, Marilyn; Hahm, Mi-Seon; Ghim, Sa-Youl

2013-01-01

358

Biocontrol of fusarium crown and root rot and promotion of growth of tomato by paenibacillus strains isolated from soil.  

PubMed

In this study, bacterial strains were isolated from soils from 30 locations of Samcheok, Gangwon province. Of the isolated strains, seven showed potential plant growth promoting and antagonistic activities. Based on cultural and morphological characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these strains were identified as Paenibacillus species. All seven strains produced ammonia, cellulase, hydrocyanic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, protease, phosphatase, and siderophores. They also inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in vitro. The seven Paenibacillus strains enhanced a range of growth parameters in tomato plants under greenhouse conditions, in comparison with non-inoculated control plants. Notably, treatment of tomato plants with one identified strain, P. polymyxa SC09-21, resulted in 80.0% suppression of fusarium crown and root rot under greenhouse conditions. The plant growth promoting and antifungal activity of P. polymyxa SC09-21 identified in this study highlight its potential suitability as a bioinoculant. PMID:25071385

Xu, Sheng Jun; Kim, Byung Sup

2014-06-01

359

Induction of Drought Tolerance in Cucumber Plants by a Consortium of Three Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Strains  

PubMed Central

Our previous work showed that a consortium of three plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) strains (Bacillus cereus AR156, Bacillus subtilis SM21, and Serratia sp. XY21), termed as BBS for short, was a promising biocontrol agent. The present study investigated its effect on drought tolerance in cucumber plants. After withholding watering for 13 days, BBS-treated cucumber plants had much darker green leaves and substantially lighter wilt symptoms than control plants. Compared to the control, the BBS treatment decreased the leaf monodehydroascorbate (MDA) content and relative electrical conductivity by 40% and 15%, respectively; increased the leaf proline content and the root recovery intension by 3.45-fold and 50%, respectively; and also maintained the leaf chlorophyll content in cucumber plants under drought stress. Besides, in relation to the control, the BBS treatment significantly enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and mitigated the drought-triggered down-regulation of the expression of the genes cAPX, rbcL, and rbcS encoding cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxy/oxygenase (Rubisco) large and small subunits, respectively, in cucumber leaves. However, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity was undetected in none of the culture solutions of three BBS constituent strains. These results indicated that BBS conferred induced systemic tolerance to drought stress in cucumber plants, by protecting plant cells, maintaining photosynthetic efficiency and root vigor and increasing some of antioxidase activities, without involving the action of ACC deaminase to lower plant ethylene levels. PMID:23285089

Wang, Chao; Gu, Chun; Niu, Dong-Dong; Liu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Yun-Peng; Guo, Jian-Hua

2012-01-01

360

Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen has growth-promoting and inhibitory activities.  

PubMed

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive form of skin cancer. In at least 80% of all MCC, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA has undergone clonal integration into the host cell genome, and most tumors express the MCPyV large and small T antigens. In all cases of MCC reported to date, the integrated MCPyV genome has undergone mutations in the large T antigen. These mutations result in expression of a truncated large T antigen that retains the Rb binding or LXCXE motif but deletes the DNA binding and helicase domains. However, the transforming functions of full-length and truncated MCPyV large T antigen are unknown. We compared the transforming activities of full-length, truncated, and alternatively spliced 57kT forms of MCPyV large T antigen. MCPyV large T antigen could bind to Rb but was unable to bind to p53. Furthermore, MCPyV-truncated large T antigen was more effective than full-length and 57kT large T antigen in promoting the growth of human and mouse fibroblasts. In contrast, expression of the MCPyV large T antigen C-terminal 100 residues could inhibit the growth of several different cell types. These data imply that the deletion of the C terminus of MCPyV large T antigen found in MCC serves not only to disrupt viral replication but also results in the loss of a distinct growth-inhibitory function intrinsic to this region. PMID:23514892

Cheng, Jingwei; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Paulson, Kelly G; Nghiem, Paul; DeCaprio, James A

2013-06-01

361

Decreased expression of carbonyl reductase 1 promotes ovarian cancer growth and proliferation.  

PubMed

Carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) expression level is related to tumor progression. Decreased CBR1 expression is associated with poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. We investigated the relationship between CBR1 expression level and malignant potential of ovarian cancer. OVCAR?3 cells overexpressing CBR1 or knocked down for CBR1 were obtained by transfecting CBR1 plasmid DNA (pDNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) by electroporation. In vitro cell proliferation and invasion were compared between the two cell types. Subcutaneous CBR1?overexpressed OVCAR?3 cells (n=10) and wild?type ones (n=5) were injected into nude mice. The CBR1 siRNA was then injected twice a week into five of the 10 CBR1?overexpressed OVCAR?3 tumors. Tumor growth and metastatic behavior were observed 3 weeks after cell transplantation. Cell proliferation significantly decreased in CBR1?overexpressed cells as compared to the control, whereas cell proliferation and invasion significantly increased in CBR1?suppressed cells as compared to the control. The size of the CBR1 siRNA?injected tumors (n=5) increased significantly as compared to the other two groups (n=5 for each group). The number of metastatic foci in the lungs was significantly higher in mice injected with CBR1 siRNA (7.0±2.0) compared to CBR1?overexpressed and wild?type tumors (0 and 2.0±2.0, respectively). Western blot analysis showed that, while vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)?C expression was stable in the CBR1?siRNA?injected tumors, E?cadherin expression was decreased, whereas matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)?9 was increased in CBR1?siRNA?injected tumors compared to the other two groups. These results showed that CBR1 decreases promoted tumor proliferation and growth as well as invasion and metastasis, suggesting that CBR1 has potential to become a new candidate for molecular targeting therapy. PMID:25572536

Osawa, Yuki; Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Shigeto, Tatsuhiko; Futagami, Masayuki; Mizunuma, Hideki

2015-03-01

362

Optimization of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria-Assisted Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have indicated that plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can improve revegetation of arid mine tailings as measured by increased biomass production. The goals of the present study were first to evaluate how mode of application of known PGPB affects plant growth, and second to evaluate the effect of this inoculation on rhizosphere microbial community structure. PGPB application strategies investigated include preliminary surface sterilization of seeds (a common practice in phytoremediation trials) followed by a comparison of two application methods; immersion and alginate encapsulation. Results with two native desert plant species, Atriplex lentiformis and Buchloe dactyloides, suggest that seed surface sterilization prior to inoculation is not necessary to achieve beneficial effects of introduced PGPB. Both PGPB application techniques generally enhanced plant growth although results were both plant and PGPB specific. These results demonstrate that alginate encapsulation, which allows for long-term storage and easier application to seeds, is an effective way to inoculate PGPB. In addition, the influence of PGPB application on B. dactyloides rhizosphere community structure was evaluated using PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis of bacterial DNA extracted from rhizosphere samples collected 75 d following planting. A comparative analysis of DGGE profiles was performed using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). DGGE-CCA showed that rhizosphere community profiles from PGPB-inoculated treatments are significantly different from both uninoculated tailings rhizosphere profiles and profiles from the compost used to amend the tailings. Further, community profiles from B. dactyloides inoculated with the best performing PGPB (Arthro mix) were significantly different from two other PGPB tested. These results suggest that introduced PGPB have the potential to influence the development of the rhizosphere community structure found in plants grown in mine tailings. PMID:20161141

Grandlic, Christopher J.; Palmer, Michael W.; Maier, Raina M.

2009-01-01

363

Biocontrol efficacy and plant growth promoting activity of Bacillus altitudinis isolated from Darjeeling hills, India.  

PubMed

A total of 18 bacterial isolates were obtained from the rhizosphere of Sechium edule growing in the lower foothills of Darjeeling, India. The bacterial isolates were tested for PGPR traits in vitro such as phosphate solubilization, HCN, siderophore, IAA, chitinase, protease production as well as inhibition of pthytopathogens. Of all the bacterial isolates, one bacterium designated as BRHS/S-73 was found to possess all the tested characters which was identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Bacillus altitudinis and was selected for in vivo studies. A significant improvement in growth measured in terms of increase in root length, shoot length, and increase in root and shoot biomass was observed when seeds of Vigna radiata, Cicer arietinum, and Glycine max were bacterized prior to sowing in field condition. Besides, the bacterium could also solubilize soil phosphate. Apart form growth promotion, root rot disease of Vigna radiata caused by Thanatephorus cucumeris was also significantly reduced by 74% when the bacterium was applied to the rhizosphere prior to pathogen challenge. The biocontrol efficacy of the bacterium was found to be 66.6% even after 30 days of pathogen inoculation. Activities of key defense related enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, ?-1,3-glucanase, and chitinase in both roots and leaves of treated plants were also enhanced. Results clearly suggest that B. altitudinis (BRHS/S-73) is a potential PGPR which can be used as efficient microorganism for enhancement of plant growth and suppression of fungal disease. PMID:23996212

Sunar, Kiran; Dey, Pannalal; Chakraborty, Usha; Chakraborty, Bishwanath

2015-01-01

364

SPARC promotes leukemic cell growth and predicts acute myeloid leukemia outcome  

PubMed Central

Aberrant expression of the secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin) (SPARC) gene, which encodes a matricellular protein that participates in normal tissue remodeling, is associated with a variety of diseases including cancer, but the contribution of SPARC to malignant growth remains controversial. We previously reported that SPARC was among the most upregulated genes in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) patients with gene-expression profiles predictive of unfavorable outcome, such as mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2-R172) and overexpression of the oncogenes brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic (BAALC) and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG). In contrast, SPARC was downregulated in CN-AML patients harboring mutations in nucleophosmin (NPM1) that are associated with favorable prognosis. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that SPARC expression is clinically relevant in AML. Here, we found that SPARC overexpression is associated with adverse outcome in CN-AML patients and promotes aggressive leukemia growth in murine models of AML. In leukemia cells, SPARC expression was mediated by the SP1/NF-?B transactivation complex. Furthermore, secreted SPARC activated the integrin-linked kinase/AKT (ILK/AKT) pathway, likely via integrin interaction, and subsequent ?-catenin signaling, which is involved in leukemia cell self-renewal. Pharmacologic inhibition of the SP1/NF-?B complex resulted in SPARC downregulation and leukemia growth inhibition. Together, our data indicate that evaluation of SPARC expression has prognosticative value and SPARC is a potential therapeutic target for AML. PMID:24590286

Alachkar, Houda; Santhanam, Ramasamy; Maharry, Kati; Metzeler, Klaus H.; Huang, Xiaomeng; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Mendler, Jason H.; Benito, Juliana M.; Hickey, Christopher; Neviani, Paolo; Dorrance, Adrienne M.; Anghelina, Mirela; Khalife, Jihane; Tarighat, Somayeh S.; Volinia, Stefano; Whitman, Susan P.; Paschka, Peter; Hoellerbauer, Pia; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Han, Lina; Bolon, Brad N.; Blum, William; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Carroll, Andrew J.; Perrotti, Danilo; Andreeff, Michael; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Konopleva, Marina; Garzon, Ramiro; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Marcucci, Guido

2014-01-01

365

Individual Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resuscitation-Promoting Factor Homologues Are Dispensable for Growth In Vitro and In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses five genes with significant homology to the resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) of Micrococcus luteus. The M. luteus Rpf is a secreted 16-kDa protein which restores active growth to cultures of M. luteus rendered dormant by prolonged incubation in stationary phase. More recently, the Rpf-like proteins of M. tuberculosis have been shown to stimulate the growth of extended-stationary-phase cultures

JoAnn M. Tufariello; William R. Jacobs; John Chan

2004-01-01

366

Characterization of Plant Growth–Promoting Traits of Bacteria Isolated from Larval Guts of Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight bacterial isolates from the larval guts of Diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella) were tested for their plant growth–promoting (PGP) traits and effects on early plant growth. All of the strains tested positive\\u000a for nitrogen fixation and indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid production but negative for hydrogen cyanide and pectinase\\u000a production. In addition, five of the isolates exhibited significant

P. Indiragandhi; R. Anandham; M. Madhaiyan; T. M. Sa

2008-01-01

367

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for improving nodulation and nitrogen fixation in the common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on nodulation,\\u000a biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and growth of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Tenderlake). Single and dual inoculation treatments of bean with Rhizobium and\\/or PGPR were administered to detect possible changes in the levels of and interactions between the phytohormones IAA\\u000a and cytokinin.

M. V. B. Figueiredo; C. R. Martinez; H. A. Burity; C. P. Chanway

2008-01-01

368

Growth promoting technologies reduce greenhouse gas, alcohol, and ammonia emissions from feedlot cattle.  

PubMed

Increased animal productivity has the potential to reduce the environmental impact per unit of consumable product and is believed to be the most promising and sustainable mitigation technique to meet increasing demand for high quality protein. The feedlot industry uses ionophores, antibiotics, growth implants, and ?2-adrenergic agonists to improve health and growth performance of cattle. These technologies not only increase productivity but also alter microbes in the rumen and increase nitrogen retention in the animal, which may lead to changes in greenhouse gas (GHG), volatile organic compound (VOC), and ammonia (NH3) emissions from feedlot cattle. The present study investigated GHG, VOC, and NH3 emissions from 160 Angus crossbred steers. Steers were blocked by weight in a randomized block design and assigned to 16 pens of 10 animals each. Treatments applied were 1) control (CON; no technology application), 2) monensin and tylosin phosphate (MON), 3) monensin, tylosin phosphate, and growth implant (IMP), and 4) monensin, tylosin phosphate, growth implant, and zilpaterol hydrochloride (fed during the last 20 d of the feeding period; BAA). Cattle were on feed for an average of 107 d. Performance variables (DMI, BW, ADG, and G:F) and carcass traits (HCW, dressing percent, KPH, LM area, fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, and quality grade) were measured. Gaseous emissions were measured during the last 10 d of the feeding period when animals were housed in 4 totally enclosed identical cattle pen enclosures. To quantify gaseous emissions a 4×4 Latin square design (n=4) was used. Gaseous emissions were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS and reported in grams per kilogram HCW per day and grams per kilogram per animal per hour. Treatment with IMP and BAA increased (P<0.05) ADG, final BW, and HCW. Cattle on BAA had greater HCW and LM area (P<0.05) and had lower (P<0.05) CH4, methanol, and NH3 emissions per kilogram HCW than cattle on the remaining treatments. Methane emissions were similar for CON and IMP treated cattle. Nitrous oxide emissions were similar across CON, MON, and IMP treated cattle and were higher in BAA treated cattle (P<0.05). The present study provides a better understanding of how application of growth promoting technologies to feedlot steers affects GHG, VOC, and NH3 emissions per kilogram of product. PMID:24085413

Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Calvo, M S; Place, S E; Armitage, T L; Pan, Y; Zhao, Y; Mitloehner, F M

2013-11-01

369

Fresh-weight measurements of roots provide inaccurate estimates of the effects of plant growth-promoting bacteria on root growth: a critical examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four strains of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), including three strains of Azospirillum and Pseudomonas fluorescens 313 were used to inoculate seeds of wheat, tomato, pepper, and cotton. Inoculated seedlings were grown to the two or three-leaf stage. After harvest, seven different environmental and technical conditions were evaluated to determine the effect of these conditions on the reproducibility of fresh and

Yoav Bashan; Luz E. de-Bashan

2005-01-01

370

Endophytic fungal diversity in Theobroma cacao (cacao) and T. grandiflorum (cupuaçu) trees and their potential for growth promotion and biocontrol of black-pod disease.  

PubMed

The endophytic niches of plants are a rich source of microbes that can directly and indirectly promote plant protection, growth and development. The diversity of culturable endophytic fungi from stems and branches of Theobroma cacao (cacao) and Theobroma grandiflorum (cupuaçu) trees growing in the Amazon region of Brazil was assessed. The collection of fungal endophytic isolates obtained was applied in field experiments to evaluate their potential as biocontrol agents against Phytophthora palmivora, the causal agent of the black-pod rot disease of cacao, one of the most important pathogens in cocoa-producing regions worldwide. The isolated endophytic fungi from 60 traditional, farmer-planted, healthy cacao and 10 cupuaçu plants were cultured in PDA under conditions inducing sporulation. Isolates were classified based upon the morphological characteristics of their cultures and reproductive structures. Spore suspensions from a total of 103 isolates that could be classified at least up to genus level were tested against P. palmivora in pods attached to cacao trees in the field. Results indicated that ?70% of isolates showed biocontrol effects to a certain extent, suggesting that culturable endophytic fungal biodiversity in this system is of a mostly mutualistic type of interaction with the host. Eight isolates from genera Trichoderma (reference isolate), Pestalotiopsis, Curvularia, Tolypocladium and Fusarium showed the highest level of activity against the pathogen, and were further characterized. All demonstrated their endophytic nature by colonizing axenic cacao plantlets, and confirmed their biocontrol activity on attached pods trials by showing significant decrease in disease severity in relation to the positive control. None, however, showed detectable growth-promotion effects. Aspects related to endophytic biodiversity and host-pathogen-endophyte interactions in the environment of this study were discussed on the context of developing sustainable strategies for biological control of black-pod rot of cacao. PMID:21036333

Hanada, Rogério Eiji; Pomella, Alan William V; Costa, Heron Salazar; Bezerra, José Luiz; Loguercio, Leandro L; Pereira, José O

2010-01-01

371

Bacillus megaterium A6 suppresses Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field and promotes oilseed rape growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China and other regions of the world. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the plant-growth promoting bacterium Bacillus megaterium A6 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen on oilseed rap...

372

NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA AND PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZERS ISOLATED IN LETTUCE (Lactuca sativa L.) AND EVALUATED AS PLANT GROWTH PROMOTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The urgent need for sustainable and low environmental im- pact strategies in agriculture requires the development of micro- bial preparations that improve plant nutrition. The present work was carried out with the purpose of obtaining promising growth promoter bacteria from the rhizosphere and seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants. At least seven strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium

Haydee B. Peña; Isbelia Reyes

2007-01-01

373

EFFECTS OF THE ANDROGENIC GROWTH PROMOTER 17-β TRENBOLONE ON FECUNDITY AND REPRODUCTIVE ENDROCRINOLOGY OF THE FATHEAD MINNOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic steroid which is extensively used in the U.S. as a growth promoter in beef cattle. The acetate is administered to livestock via slow release implants; some is converted by the animal to 17-? trenbolone, a relatively potent androgen receptor ...

374

Draft genome sequence of plant growth-promoting rhizobium Mesorhizobium amorphae, isolated from zinc-lead mine tailings.  

PubMed

Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Mesorhizobium amorphae strain CCNWGS0123, isolated from nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia growing on zinc-lead mine tailings. A large number of metal(loid) resistance genes, as well as genes reported to promote plant growth, were identified, presenting a great future potential for aiding phytoremediation in metal(loid)-contaminated soil. PMID:22247533

Hao, Xiuli; Lin, Yanbing; Johnstone, Laurel; Baltrus, David A; Miller, Susan J; Wei, Gehong; Rensing, Christopher

2012-02-01

375

Characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates from turkeys in commercial processing plants for resistance to antibiotics, disinfectants, and a growth promoter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from turkeys in commercial processing plants were characterized for susceptibility to antibiotics, disinfectants, disinfectant components, and the organoarsenical growth promotant 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid (3-NHPAA) and its metabolites NaAsO2 (As[III])...

376

Evaluation of Streptomyces spp. for biocontrol of gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae) and growth promotion of Cucumis melo L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gummy stem blight of Cucumis melo L. (melon) caused by Didymella bryoniae is a serious disease in the major production area of northwest China. Two Streptomyces isolates (Streptomyces pactum A12 and S. globisporus subsp. globisporus C28) previously isolated from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were investigated regarding their biocontrol of gummy stem blight and growth promotion of melon under controlled conditions. Streptomyces

Juan Zhao; Quan-Hong Xue; Guang-Hui Shen; Lei Xue; Jia-Li Duan; Dong-Sheng Wang

2011-01-01

377

Evaluation of Streptomyces spp. for biocontrol of gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae) and growth promotion of Cucumis melo L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gummy stem blight of Cucumis melo L. (melon) caused by Didymella bryoniae is a serious disease in the major production area of northwest China. Two Streptomyces isolates (Streptomyces pactum A12 and S. globisporus subsp. globisporus C28) previously isolated from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were investigated regarding their biocontrol of gummy stem blight and growth promotion of melon under controlled conditions. Streptomyces

Juan Zhao; Quan-Hong Xue; Guang-Hui Shen; Lei Xue; Jia-Li Duan; Dong-Sheng Wang

2012-01-01

378

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL BACTERIAL COMMUNITY OF BROILER CHICKENS REARED WITH AND WITHOUT ANTIMICROBIAL GROWTH PROMOTANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aims: To explore the effect of antimicrobial growth promotants (AGP) on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens, the bacterial community of this environment was quantitatively profiled in birds reared with and without AGPs. Methods and Results: Quantitative, real-time PCR with group-specifi...

379

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria with multiple plant growth-promoting activities enhance growth of tomato and red pepper.  

PubMed

As a suitable alternative to chemical fertilizers, the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria has been increasing in recent years due to their potential to be used as biofertilizers. In the present work, 13 nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains belonging to 11 different genera were tested for their PGP attributes. All of the strains were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid, and ammonia production while negative for cellulase, pectinase, and hydrocyanic acid production. The strains Pseudomonas sp. RFNB3 and Serratia sp. RFNB14 were the most effective in solubilizing both tri-calcium phosphate and zinc oxide. In addition, all strains except Pseudomonas sp. RFNB3 were able to oxidize sulfur, and six strains were positive for siderophore synthesis. Each strain tested in this study possesses at least four PGP properties in addition to nitrogen fixation. Nine strains were selected based on their multiple PGP potential, particularly ACCD and IAA production, and evaluated for their effects on early growth of tomato and red pepper under gnotobiotic conditions. Bacterial inoculation considerably influenced root and shoot length, seedling vigor, and dry biomass of the two crop plants. Three strains that demonstrated substantial effects on plant performance were further selected for greenhouse trials with red pepper, and among them Pseudomonas sp. RFNB3 resulted in significantly higher plant height (26%) and dry biomass (28%) compared to control. The highest rate of nitrogen fixation, as determined by acetylene reduction assay, occurred in Novosphingobium sp. RFNB21 inoculated red pepper root (49.6?nM of ethylene/h/g of dry root) and rhizosphere soil (41.3?nM of ethylene/h/g of dry soil). Inoculation with nitrogen-fixing bacteria significantly increased chlorophyll content, and the uptake of different macro- and micro-nutrient contents enhancing also in red pepper shoots, in comparison with uninoculated controls. The population estimation studies showed that nitrogen-fixing as well as total heterotrophic bacteria were also noticeably increased in soil and plant samples. The findings of this study suggest that certain nitrogen-fixing strains possessing multiple PGP traits could be applied in the development of biofertilizers. PMID:23553337

Islam, Md Rashedul; Sultana, Tahera; Joe, M Melvin; Yim, Woojong; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Sa, Tongmin

2013-12-01

380

How elevated oxalate can promote kidney stone disease: changes at the surface and in the cytosol of renal cells that promote crystal adherence and growth.  

PubMed

The present review assesses the mechanisms by which oxalate-induced alterations in renal cell function may promote stone disease focusing on 1) changes in membrane surface properties that promote the attachment of nascent crystals and 2) changes in the expression/secretion of urinary macromolecules that alter the kinetics of crystal nucleation, agglomeration and growth. The general role of renal cellular injury in promoting these responses and the specific role of urinary oxalate in producing injury is emphasized, and the signaling pathways that lead to the observed changes in cell surface properties and in the viability and growth of renal cells are discussed. Particular attention is paid to evidence linking oxalate-induced activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 to changes in gene expression and to the activation of a second signaling pathway involving ceramide. The effects of the lipid signals, arachidonic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine and ceramide, on mitochondrial function are considered in some detail since many of the actions of oxalate appear to be secondary to increased production of reactive oxygen molecules within these organelles. Data from these studies and from a variety of other studies in vitro and in vivo were used to construct a model that illustrates possible mechanisms by which an increase in urinary oxalate levels leads to an increase in kidney stone formation. Further studies will be required to assess the validity of various aspects of this proposed model and to determine effective strategies for countering these responses in stone-forming individuals. PMID:14766409

Scheid, Cheryl R; Cao, Lu-Cheng; Honeyman, Thomas; Jonassen, Julie A

2004-01-01

381

Phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.  

PubMed

The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum. PMID:25023078

Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M

2014-07-01

382

Globoside (Gb4) promotes activation of ERK by interaction with the epidermal growth factor receptor  

PubMed Central

Background Globoside (Gb4), a globo-series glycosphingolipid (GSL), has been characterized as a stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA), and is highly expressed during embryogenesis as well as in cancer tissues. However, the functional role and molecular mechanism of Gb4 is so far unknown. Methods GSLs were preferentially inhibited by treatment with D-threo-1-ethylenedioxyphenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-pyrrolidino-1-propanol (EtDO-P4), a nanomolar inhibitor of GSL synthesis, in two carcinoma cell lines, HCT116 and MCF7. The effect of EtDO-P4 was examined by MTT assay, FACS analysis, wound assay, western blotting, and RTK array analysis. The functional role of Gb4 was determined by the exogenous addition of various GSLs, and an assay utilizing GSL-coated latex beads. Results Both cell lines contained higher levels of neutral GSLs than of sialic acid-containing GSLs. Gb4 was one of the major neutral GSLs. The depletion of total GSLs caused significant reduction of cell proliferation, but had less effect on cell apoptosis or motility. EtDO-P4 treatment also suppressed activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-induced ERK pathway and various receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The reduced activation of ERK was restored by the exogenous addition of Gb4, but not by the addition of gangliosides (GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a). The GSL-coated bead assay indicated that Gb4 forms a complex with EGFR, but not with other RTKs. Conclusions Gb4 promotes activation of EGFR-induced ERK signaling through direct interaction with EGFR. General significance A globo-series GSL, Gb4, promotes EGFR-induced MAPK signaling, resulting in cancer cell proliferation. These findings suggest a possible application of Gb4 in cancer diagnostics and drug targeting. PMID:22542783

Park, Seung-Yeol; Kwak, Chan-Yeong; Shayman, James A.; Kim, Jung Hoe

2013-01-01

383

Influenza Promotes Collagen Deposition via ?v?6 Integrin-mediated Transforming Growth Factor ? Activation.  

PubMed

Influenza infection exacerbates chronic pulmonary diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A central pathway in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is epithelial injury leading to activation of transforming growth factor ? (TGF?). The mechanism and functional consequences of influenza-induced activation of epithelial TGF? are unclear. Influenza stimulates toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which can increase RhoA activity, a key event prior to activation of TGF? by the ?v?6 integrin. We hypothesized that influenza would stimulate TLR3 leading to activation of latent TGF? via ?v?6 integrin in epithelial cells. Using H1152 (IC50 6.1 ?m) to inhibit Rho kinase and 6.3G9 to inhibit ?v?6 integrins, we demonstrate their involvement in influenza (A/PR/8/34 H1N1) and poly(I:C)-induced TGF? activation. We confirm the involvement of TLR3 in this process using chloroquine (IC50 11.9 ?m) and a dominant negative TLR3 construct (pZERO-hTLR3). Examination of lungs from influenza-infected mice revealed augmented levels of collagen deposition, phosphorylated Smad2/3, ?v?6 integrin, and apoptotic cells. Finally, we demonstrate that ?v?6 integrin-mediated TGF? activity following influenza infection promotes epithelial cell death in vitro and enhanced collagen deposition in vivo and that this response is diminished in Smad3 knock-out mice. These data show that H1N1 and poly(I:C) can induce ?v?6 integrin-dependent TGF? activity in epithelial cells via stimulation of TLR3 and suggest a novel mechanism by which influenza infection may promote collagen deposition in fibrotic lung disease. PMID:25339175

Jolly, Lisa; Stavrou, Anastasios; Vanderstoken, Gilles; Meliopoulos, Victoria A; Habgood, Anthony; Tatler, Amanda L; Porte, Joanne; Knox, Alan; Weinreb, Paul; Violette, Shelia; Hussell, Tracy; Kolb, Martin; Stampfli, Martin R; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Jenkins, Gisli

2014-12-19

384

Growth mechanisms of MgO nanocrystals via a sol-gel synthesis using different complexing agents  

PubMed Central

In the preparation of nanostructured materials, it is important to optimize synthesis parameters in order to obtain the desired material. This work investigates the role of complexing agents, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, in the production of MgO nanocrystals. Results from simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (STA) show that the two different synthesis routes yield precursors with different thermal profiles. It is found that the thermal profiles of the precursors can reveal the effects of crystal growth during thermal annealing. X-ray diffraction confirms that the final products are pure, single phase and of cubic shape. It is also found that complexing agents can affect the rate of crystal growth. The structures of the oxalic acid and tartaric acid as well as the complexation sites play very important roles in the formation of the nanocrystals. The complexing agents influence the rate of growth which affects the final crystallite size of the materials. Surprisingly, it is also found that oxalic acid and tartaric acid act as surfactants inhibiting crystal growth even at a high temperature of 950°C and a long annealing time of 36 h. The crystallite formation routes are proposed to be via linear and branched polymer networks due to the different structures of the complexing agents. PMID:24650322

2014-01-01

385

Identification of metabolites of the antitumor agent d -limonene capable of inhibiting protein isoprenylation and cell growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limonene has been shown to be an effective, nontoxic chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent in chemically induced rat mammary-cancer models. The present study characterized circulating metabolites of limonene in female rats and determined their effects on cell growth. Metabolism of limonene was analyzed in plasma extracts by gas chromatography. Rapid conversion of limonene to two major metabolites was detected. These metabolites

Pamela L. Crowelll; Shouzhong Lin; Edwin Vedejs; Michael N. Gould

1992-01-01

386

Oxygen and Air Nanobubble Water Solution Promote the Growth of Plants, Fishes, and Mice  

PubMed Central

Nanobubbles (<200 nm in diameter) have several unique properties such as long lifetime in liquid owing to its negatively charged surface, and its high gas solubility into the liquid owing to its high internal pressure. They are used in variety of fields including diagnostic aids and drug delivery, while there are no reports assessing their effects on the growth of lives. Nanobubbles of air or oxygen gas were generated using a nanobubble aerator (BUVITAS; Ligaric Company Limited, Osaka, Japan). Brassica campestris were cultured hydroponically for 4 weeks within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Sweetfish (for 3 weeks) and rainbow trout (for 6 weeks) were kept either within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Finally, 5 week-old male DBA1/J mice were bred with normal free-chaw and free-drinking either of oxygen-nanobubble water or of normal water for 12 weeks. Oxygen-nanobubble significantly increased the dissolved oxygen concentration of water as well as concentration/size of nanobubbles which were relatively stable for 70 days. Air-nanobubble water significantly promoted the height (19.1 vs. 16.7 cm; P<0.05), length of leaves (24.4 vs. 22.4 cm; P<0.01), and aerial fresh weight (27.3 vs. 20.3 g; P<0.01) of Brassica campestris compared to normal water. Total weight of sweetfish increased from 3.0 to 6.4 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 3.0 to 10.2 kg in air-nanobubble water. In addition, total weight of rainbow trout increased from 50.0 to 129.5 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 50.0 to 148.0 kg in air-nanobubble water. Free oral intake of oxygen-nanobubble water significantly promoted the weight (23.5 vs. 21.8 g; P<0.01) and the length (17.0 vs. 16.1 cm; P<0.001) of mice compared to that of normal water. We have demonstrated for the first time that oxygen and air-nanobubble water may be potentially effective tools for the growth of lives. PMID:23755221

Ebina, Kosuke; Shi, Kenrin; Hirao, Makoto; Hashimoto, Jun; Kawato, Yoshitaka; Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Morimoto, Tokimitsu; Koizumi, Kota; Yoshikawa, Hideki

2013-01-01

387

A Scabies Mite Serpin Interferes with Complement-Mediated Neutrophil Functions and Promotes Staphylococcal Growth  

PubMed Central

Background Scabies is a contagious skin disease caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The disease is highly prevalent worldwide and known to predispose to secondary bacterial infections, in particular by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Reports of scabies patients co-infected with methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pose a major concern for serious down-stream complications. We previously reported that a range of complement inhibitors secreted by the mites promoted the growth of S. pyogenes. Here, we show that a recently characterized mite serine protease inhibitor (SMSB4) inhibits the complement-mediated blood killing of S. aureus. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood killing of S. aureus was measured in whole blood bactericidal assays, counting viable bacteria recovered after treatment in fresh blood containing active complement and phagocytes, treated with recombinant SMSB4. SMSB4 inhibited the blood killing of various strains of S. aureus including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive isolates. Staphylococcal growth was promoted in a dose-dependent manner. We investigated the effect of SMSB4 on the complement-mediated neutrophil functions, namely phagocytosis, opsonization and anaphylatoxin release, by flow cytometry and in enzyme linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISA). SMSB4 reduced phagocytosis of S. aureus by neutrophils. It inhibited the deposition of C3b, C4b and properdin on the bacteria surface, but did not affect the depositions of C1q and MBL. SMSB4 also inhibited C5 cleavage as indicated by a reduced C5b-9 deposition. Conclusions/Significance We postulate that SMSB4 interferes with the activation of all three complement pathways by reducing the amount of C3 convertase formed. We conclude that SMSB4 interferes with the complement-dependent killing function of neutrophils, thereby reducing opsonization, phagocytosis and further recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. As a consequence secreted scabies mites complement inhibitors, such as SMSB4, provide favorable conditions for the onset of S. aureus co-infection in the scabies-infected microenvironment by suppressing the immediate host immune response. PMID:24945501

Swe, Pearl M.; Fischer, Katja

2014-01-01

388

The ABA Receptor PYL8 Promotes Lateral Root Growth by Enhancing MYB77-Dependent Transcription of Auxin-Responsive Genes  

PubMed Central

The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, development, and abiotic stress responses. ABA signaling is mediated by a group of receptors known as the PYR1/PYL/RCAR family, which includes the pyrabactin resistance 1–like protein PYL8. Under stress conditions, ABA signaling activates SnRK2 protein kinases to inhibit lateral root growth after emergence from the primary root. However, even in the case of persistent stress, lateral root growth eventually recovers from inhibition. We showed that PYL8 is required for the recovery of lateral root growth, following inhibition by ABA. PYL8 directly interacted with the transcription factors MYB77, MYB44, and MYB73. The interaction of PYL8 and MYB77 increased the binding of MYB77 to its target MBSI motif in the promoters of multiple auxin-responsive genes. Compared to wild-type seedlings, the lateral root growth of pyl8 mutant seedlings and myb77 mutant seedlings was more sensitive to inhibition by ABA. The recovery of lateral root growth was delayed in pyl8 mutant seedlings in the presence of ABA, and the defect was rescued by exposing pyl8 mutant seedlings to the auxin IAA (3-indoleacetic acid). Thus, PYL8 promotes lateral root growth independently of the core ABA-SnRK2 signaling pathway by enhancing the activities of MYB77 and its paralogs, MYB44 and MYB73, to augment auxin signaling. PMID:24894996

Wang, Xingang; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Gao, Jinghui; Wang, Pengcheng; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Zhu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

2015-01-01

389

The absence of CD47 promotes nerve fiber growth from cultured ventral mesencephalic dopamine neurons.  

PubMed

In ventral mesencephalic organotypic tissue cultures, two timely separated sequences of nerve fiber growth have been observed. The first appearing nerve fiber pattern is a long-distance outgrowth that occurs before astrocytes start to proliferate and migrate to form an astrocytic monolayer that finally surrounds the tissue slice. These long-distance growing nerve fibers are retracted as the astrocytes migrate, and are followed by a secondary outgrowth. The secondary outgrowth is persistent in time but reaches short distances, comparable with outgrowth seen from a dopaminergic graft implanted to the brain. The present study was focused on the interaction between the astrocytes and the long-distance growing non-glial associated nerve fibers. Cross talk between astroglia and neurite formation might occur through the integrin-associated protein CD47. CD47 serves as a ligand for signal regulatory protein (SIRP) ? and as a receptor for the extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). Embryonic day 14 ventral mesencephalic tissue from CD47(+/+) and CD47(-/-) mice was used to investigate astrocytic migration and the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) -positive outgrowth that occurred remote from the astrocytes. TH-immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the non-glial-associated nerve fiber outgrowth in CD47(-/-) cultures reached significantly longer distances and higher density compared to nerve fibers formed in CD47(+/+) cultures at 14 days in vitro. These nerve fibers often had a dotted appearance in CD47(+/+) cultures. No difference in the astrocytic migration was observed. Further investigations revealed that the presence of CD47 in control culture did neither hamper non-glial-associated growth through SIRP? nor through TSP-1 since similar outgrowth was found in SIRP? mutant cultures and in CD47(+/+) cultures treated with blocking antibodies against the TSP-1, respectively, as in the control cultures. In conclusion, long-distance growing nerve fiber formation is promoted by the absence of CD47, even though the presence of astrocytes is not inhibited. PMID:23049778

Marschinke, Franziska; Hashemian, Sanaz; Matozaki, Takashi; Oldenborg, Per-Arne; Strömberg, Ingrid

2012-01-01

390

The Absence of CD47 Promotes Nerve Fiber Growth from Cultured Ventral Mesencephalic Dopamine Neurons  

PubMed Central

In ventral mesencephalic organotypic tissue cultures, two timely separated sequences of nerve fiber growth have been observed. The first appearing nerve fiber pattern is a long-distance outgrowth that occurs before astrocytes start to proliferate and migrate to form an astrocytic monolayer that finally surrounds the tissue slice. These long-distance growing nerve fibers are retracted as the astrocytes migrate, and are followed by a secondary outgrowth. The secondary outgrowth is persistent in time but reaches short distances, comparable with outgrowth seen from a dopaminergic graft implanted to the brain. The present study was focused on the interaction between the astrocytes and the long-distance growing non-glial associated nerve fibers. Cross talk between astroglia and neurite formation might occur through the integrin-associated protein CD47. CD47 serves as a ligand for signal regulatory protein (SIRP) ? and as a receptor for the extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). Embryonic day 14 ventral mesencephalic tissue from CD47+/+ and CD47?/? mice was used to investigate astrocytic migration and the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) –positive outgrowth that occurred remote from the astrocytes. TH-immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the non-glial-associated nerve fiber outgrowth in CD47?/? cultures reached significantly longer distances and higher density compared to nerve fibers formed in CD47+/+ cultures at 14 days in vitro. These nerve fibers often had a dotted appearance in CD47+/+ cultures. No difference in the astrocytic migration was observed. Further investigations revealed that the presence of CD47 in control culture did neither hamper non-glial-associated growth through SIRP? nor through TSP-1 since similar outgrowth was found in SIRP? mutant cultures and in CD47+/+ cultures treated with blocking antibodies against the TSP-1, respectively, as in the control cultures. In conclusion, long-distance growing nerve fiber formation is promoted by the absence of CD47, even though the presence of astrocytes is not inhibited. PMID:23049778

Marschinke, Franziska; Hashemian, Sanaz; Matozaki, Takashi; Oldenborg, Per-Arne; Strömberg, Ingrid

2012-01-01

391

Microbial populations and activities in the rhizoplane of rock-weathering desert plants. II. Growth promotion of cactus seedlings.  

PubMed

Four bacterial species isolated from the rhizoplane of cacti growing in bare lava rocks were assessed for growth promotion of giant cardon cactus seedlings (Pachycereus pringlei). These bacteria fixed N(2), dissolved P, weathered extrusive igneous rock, marble, and limestone, and significantly mobilized useful minerals, such as P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in rock minerals. Cardon cactus seeds inoculated with these bacteria were able to sprout and grow normally without added nutrients for at least 12 months in pulverized extrusive igneous rock (ancient lava flows) mixed with perlite. Cacti that were not inoculated grew less vigorously and some died. The amount of useful minerals (P, K, Fe, Mg) for plant growth extracted from the pulverized lava, measured after cultivation of inoculated plants, was significant. This study shows that rhizoplane bacteria isolated from rock-growing cacti promote growth of a cactus species, and can help supply essential minerals for a prolonged period of time. PMID:15375736

Puente, M E; Li, C Y; Bashan, Y

2004-09-01

392

Draft Genome Sequence of Rahnella aquatilis Strain HX2, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Isolated from Vineyard Soil in Beijing, China  

PubMed Central

Rahnella aquatilis strain HX2 is a plant growth-promoting, disease-suppressive rhizobacterium that was isolated from a vineyard soil in Beijing, China. Here, we report the genome sequence of this strain, which provides a valuable resource for future research examining the mechanisms of traits associated with plant growth promotion and biocontrol. PMID:23144397

Guo, Yanbin; Jiao, Ziwei; Li, Lei; Wu, Di; Crowley, David E.

2012-01-01

393

Infection of clover by plant growth promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 267 and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii studied by mTn5- gus A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 267, isolated from soil, produced pseudobactin A, 7-sulfonic acid derivatives of pseudobactin A and several B group vitamins. In coinoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain 24.1, strain 267 promoted clover growth and enhanced symbiotic nitrogen fixation under controlled conditions. To better understand the beneficial effect of P. fluorescens 267 on clover inoculated with

Monika Marek-Kozaczuk; Joanna Kopci?ska; Barbara ?otocka; W?adys?aw Golinowski; Anna Skorupska

2000-01-01

394

Determination of cypermethrin degradation potential of soil bacteria along with plant growth-promoting characteristics.  

PubMed

The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is in extensive use since 1980s for insect control. However, its toxicity toward aquatic animals and humans requires its complete removal from contaminated areas that can be done using indigenous microbes through bioremediation. In this study, three bacterial strains isolated from agricultural soil and identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MCm5, Brevibacillus parabrevis FCm9, and Sphingomonas sp. RCm6 were found highly efficient in degrading cypermethrin and other pyrethroids. These bacterial strains were able to degrade more than 85 % of cypermethrin (100 mg L(-1)) within 10 days. Degradation kinetics of cypermethrin (200 mg kg(-1)) in soils inoculated with isolates MCm5, FCm9, and RCm6 suggested time-dependent disappearance of cypermethrin with rate constants of 0.0406, 0.0722, and 0.0483 d(-1) following first-order rate kinetics. Enzyme assays for Carboxylesterase, 3-PBA dioxygenase, Phenol hydroxylase, and Catechol-1,2 dioxygenase showed higher activities with cypermethrin treated cell-free extracts compared to non-treated cell-free extracts. Meanwhile, SDS-PAGE analysis showed upregulation of some bands in cypermethrin-treated cells. This might suggest that cypermethrin degradation in these strains involves inducible enzymes. Besides, the isolates displayed substantial plant growth-promoting traits such as phosphate solubilization, Indole acetic acid production, and ammonia production. Implying the efficient biodegradation potential along with multiple biological properties, these isolates can be valuable candidates for the development of bioremediation strategies. PMID:25194282

Akbar, Shamsa; Sultan, Sikander; Kertesz, Michael

2015-01-01

395

Poly-ADP ribosylation of PTEN by tankyrases promotes PTEN degradation and tumor growth.  

PubMed

PTEN [phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10], a phosphatase and critical tumor suppressor, is regulated by numerous post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, and SUMOylation, which affect PTEN localization and protein stability. Here we report ADP-ribosylation as a new post-translational modification of PTEN. We identified PTEN as a novel substrate of tankyrases, which are members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). We showed that tankyrases interact with and ribosylate PTEN, which promotes the recognition of PTEN by a PAR-binding E3 ubiquitin ligase, RNF146, leading to PTEN ubiquitination and degradation. Double knockdown of tankyrase1/2 stabilized PTEN, resulting in the subsequent down-regulation of AKT phosphorylation and thus suppressed cell proliferation and glycolysis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, tankyrases were up-regulated and negatively correlated with PTEN expression in human colon carcinomas. Together, our study revealed a new regulation of PTEN and highlighted a role for tankyrases in the PTEN-AKT pathway that can be explored further for cancer treatment. PMID:25547115

Li, Nan; Zhang, Yajie; Han, Xin; Liang, Ke; Wang, Jiadong; Feng, Lin; Wang, Wenqi; Songyang, Zhou; Lin, Chunru; Yang, Liuqing; Yu, Yonghao; Chen, Junjie

2015-01-15

396

Effect of gamma irradiated sodium alginate on red amaranth ( Amaranthus cruentus L.) as growth promoter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the growth promotion behavior of sodium alginate (SA) on vegetable (red amaranth, Amaranthus cruentus L.), 3% aqueous solution of SA was irradiated by ?-radiation (Co-60) of various total doses (12.5-50.0 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h. Viscosity of the irradiated SA was found to decrease with increase in the radiation dose. The average molecular weight was also decreased from 10 4 to 10 3 orders. Red amaranth was cultivated in 18 different individual plots and SA solution (150 ppm) was applied on red amaranth after 10 days of seedlings at every 6 days interval. The morphological characters of vegetables were studied randomly in different unit plots. The irradiated SA of 37.5 kGy at 150 ppm solution showed the best performance. Dry matter of red amaranth significantly increased at 37.5 kGy of irradiated alginate treatment which was about 50% higher than that of the untreated samples. The effect of SA on red amaranth was found significant increase; i.e. plant height (17.8%), root length (12.7%), number of leaf (5.4%) and maximum leaf area (2%) compared to that of the control vegetative plant production.

Mollah, M. Z. I.; Khan, Mubarak A.; Khan, Ruhul A.

2009-01-01

397

Genome Sequencing of a Mung Bean Plant Growth Promoting Strain of P. aeruginosa with Biocontrol Ability  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 is a mung bean rhizosphere strain that produces secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes contributing to excellent antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, one of the prevalent fungal pathogens of mung bean. Genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine generating 1,354,732 reads (6,772,433 sequenced bases) achieving ~25-fold coverage of the genome. Reference genome assembly using MIRA 3.4.0 yielded 198 contigs. The draft genome of PGPR2 encoded 6803 open reading frames, of which 5314 were genes with predicted functions, 1489 were genes of known functions, and 80 were RNA-coding genes. Strain specific and core genes of P. aeruginosa PGPR2 that are relevant to rhizospheric habitat were identified by pangenome analysis. Genes involved in plant growth promoting function such as synthesis of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, trehalose, mineral scavenging siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, chitinases, acyl homoserine lactones, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and phytases were identified. In addition, niche-specific genes such as phosphate solubilising 3-phytase, adhesins, pathway-specific transcriptional regulators, a diguanylate cyclase involved in cellulose synthesis, a receptor for ferrienterochelin, a DEAD/DEAH-box helicase involved in stress tolerance, chemotaxis/motility determinants, an HtpX protease, and enzymes involved in the production of a chromanone derivative with potent antifungal activity were identified. PMID:25184130

Illakkiam, Devaraj; Shankar, Manoharan; Ponraj, Paramasivan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

2014-01-01

398

Genome Sequencing of a Mung Bean Plant Growth Promoting Strain of P. aeruginosa with Biocontrol Ability.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 is a mung bean rhizosphere strain that produces secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes contributing to excellent antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, one of the prevalent fungal pathogens of mung bean. Genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine generating 1,354,732 reads (6,772,433 sequenced bases) achieving ~25-fold coverage of the genome. Reference genome assembly using MIRA 3.4.0 yielded 198 contigs. The draft genome of PGPR2 encoded 6803 open reading frames, of which 5314 were genes with predicted functions, 1489 were genes of known functions, and 80 were RNA-coding genes. Strain specific and core genes of P. aeruginosa PGPR2 that are relevant to rhizospheric habitat were identified by pangenome analysis. Genes involved in plant growth promoting function such as synthesis of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, trehalose, mineral scavenging siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, chitinases, acyl homoserine lactones, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and phytases were identified. In addition, niche-specific genes such as phosphate solubilising 3-phytase, adhesins, pathway-specific transcriptional regulators, a diguanylate cyclase involved in cellulose synthesis, a receptor for ferrienterochelin, a DEAD/DEAH-box helicase involved in stress tolerance, chemotaxis/motility determinants, an HtpX protease, and enzymes involved in the production of a chromanone derivative with potent antifungal activity were identified. PMID:25184130

Illakkiam, Devaraj; Shankar, Manoharan; Ponraj, Paramasivan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

2014-01-01

399

Omentin-1 promotes the growth of neural stem cells via activation of Akt signaling.  

PubMed

Omentin is a novel adipokine, which is expressed in and released from omental adipose tissue. In the present study, the effect of omentin on neural stem cells (NSCs) was investigated. NSCs are a subtype of stem cell in the nervous system, which are able to self?renew and generate neurons and glia for repairing neural lesions. Mouse NSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro. Treatment with recombinant omentin for 3 and 5 days significantly increased the size of NSC neurospheres (P<0.01) and enhanced NSC cell viability in normal conditions. In addition, omentin protected against the decrease in cell viability induced by the pro?inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor??. In the NSCs, incubation of omentin for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 16 h enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt at the Thr308 site and of AS160 at the Ser318 site, peaking 6 h after treatment. Additionally, treatment with LY294002 (10 µM), a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3?kinase/Akt signaling, eliminated the omentin?induced increase in neurosphere size and cell viability. Overall, the present study provided the first evidence, to the best of our knowledge, that omentin promotes the growth and survival of NSCs in vitro through activation of the Akt signaling pathway. These results may contribute to the understanding of the role of omentin in the nervous system. PMID:25394413

Zhao, Li-Rong; Du, Yu-Jun; Chen, Lei; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Jia, Xiao-Yan; Pan, Yue-Hai; Liu, Jian-Feng; Liu, Bin

2015-03-01

400

Promotive effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 for epithelial sealing to titanium implants.  

PubMed

Improvement of oral epithelial adhesion to titanium (Ti) may significantly enhance the efficacy of dental implants. Here, we investigated whether insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) improved the sealing of the peri-implant epithelium (PIE) around the implant. Right maxillary first molars were extracted from rats and replaced with experimental implants. After 4 weeks of IGF-1 treatment, the implant-PIE interface exhibited a band of immunoreactive laminin-332 (Ln-5), similar to the tooth-junctional epithelium interface, that was partially absent in the untreated group. Immunoelectron microscopy showed a characteristic Ln-5-positive band including hemidesmosomes at both the apical and upper portions of the implant-PIE interface in the IGF-1-treated group. We also investigated the effects of IGF-1/PI3K inhibitors on the dynamics of rat oral epithelial cells (OECs) grown on Ti plates. In OECs cultured with IGF-1, adhesion protein expression increased, cell adherence to Ti plates was higher, and proliferation was faster, whereas migration and apoptosis were induced in the absence of IGF-1 or in the presence of both IGF-1 and a PI3K inhibitor. These data suggest that PI3K mediates the promotive effects of IGF-1, and that IGF-1 is effective at enhancing epithelial integration around Ti implants. PMID:23505067

Atsuta, Ikiru; Ayukawa, Yasunori; Furuhashi, Akihiro; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Koyano, Kiyoshi

2013-10-01

401

Plant growth-promoting trait of rhizobacteria isolated from soil contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals.  

PubMed

Three hundred and seventy-four rhizobacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere soil (RS) or rhizoplane (RP) of Echinochloa crus-galli, Carex leiorhyncha, Commelina communis, Persicaria lapathifolia, Carex kobomugi, and Equisetum arvense, grown in contaminated soil with petroleum and heavy metals. The isolates were screened for plant growth-promoting potential (PGPP), including indole acetic acid (IAA) productivity, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, and siderophore(s) synthesis ability. IAA production was detected in 86 isolates (23.0%), ACC deaminase activity in 168 isolates (44.9%), and siderophore(s) synthesis in 213 isolates (57.0%). Among the rhizobateria showing PGPP, 162 rhizobacteria had multiple traits showing more than two types of PGPP. The PGPP-having rhizobateria were more abundant in the RP (82%) samples than the RS (75%). There was a negative correlation (-0.656, p < 0.05) between the IAA-producers and the ACC deaminase producers. Clustering analysis by principal component analysis showed that RP was the most important factor influencing ecological distribution and physiological characterization of PGPP-possesing rhizobateria. PMID:20372032

Koo, So-Yeon; Hong, Sun Hwa; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-suk

2010-03-01

402

Practices and Challenges of Growth Monitoring and Promotion in Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The use of growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) has become widespread. It is a potential contributor towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals of halving hunger and reducing child mortality by two-thirds within 2015. Yet, GMP appears to be a prerequisite for good child health but several studies have shown that there is a discrepancy between the purpose and the practice of GMP. The high prevalence of malnutrition in many developing countries seems to confirm this fact. A descriptive qualitative study was carried out from April to September 2011. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted amongst mothers and health workers. Data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis technique, with the support of ATLAS.ti 5.0 software. The results suggest that most mothers were aware of the need for regular weight monitoring while health workers also seemed to be well-aware and to practise GMP according to the international guidelines. However, there was a deficit in maternal knowledge with regard to child-feeding and a lack of basic resources to keep and/or to buy healthful and nutritionally-rich food. Furthermore, the role of the husband was not always supportive of proper child-feeding. In general, GMP is unlikely to succeed if mothers lack awareness of proper child-feeding practices, and if they are not supported by their husbands. PMID:25395907

Moser, Albine; Blanco, Roman; Spigt, Mark; Dinant, Geert Jan

2014-01-01

403

Utilization Of Rocks And Ectomycorrhizal Fungi To Promote Growth Of Eucalypt  

PubMed Central

The utilization of rocks as fertilizers is limited by their low solubility. However, solubilization may be achieved by some micro-organisms, such as ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMf). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of seven isolates of ECMf to solubilize two rocks, alkaline breccia and granite, and to liberate potassium and phosphorus for Eucalyptus dunnii seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Fungal inoculants were produced in a peat-vermiculite-liquid medium mixture and added to the planting substrate at 10 %. Rocks were ground up and added at 0.500 mg and 16.0 mg per plant, as a source of phosphorus and potassium, respectively. Other nutrients were added and E. dunnii seeds were sown. Control plants, non-inoculated, were fertilized with the same amount of phosphorus and potassium using soluble forms. After 90 days, the plant height, shoot dry weight, root length, phosphorus and potassium contents, and mycorrhizal colonization were evaluated. Alkaline breccia was more efficient than granite as a source of phosphorus and potassium for the plants, and may be an alternative to conventional fertilizers. Isolates UFSC-Pt22 (Pisolithus sp.) and UFSC-Pt186 (Pisolithus microcarpus) were the most efficient in promoting plant growth, mainly when combined with alkaline breccia to replace potassium and phosphorus fertilizers, respectively. PMID:24031543

Luciano, Alves; Vetúria L., Oliveira; Germano N., Silva Filho

2010-01-01

404

Utilization of rocks and ectomycorrhizal fungi to promote growth of eucalypt.  

PubMed

The utilization of rocks as fertilizers is limited by their low solubility. However, solubilization may be achieved by some micro-organisms, such as ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMf). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of seven isolates of ECMf to solubilize two rocks, alkaline breccia and granite, and to liberate potassium and phosphorus for Eucalyptus dunnii seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Fungal inoculants were produced in a peat-vermiculite-liquid medium mixture and added to the planting substrate at 10 %. Rocks were ground up and added at 0.500 mg and 16.0 mg per plant, as a source of phosphorus and potassium, respectively. Other nutrients were added and E. dunnii seeds were sown. Control plants, non-inoculated, were fertilized with the same amount of phosphorus and potassium using soluble forms. After 9