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1

Modes of action of growth promoting agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term growth promotion applies to the increase in performance or productivity achieved in food producing animals following the addition to their diet of feed antibiotics or growth promoters. Numerous methods are available for the different animal species. Steroidal substances are widely used in cattle whilst in pigs and poultry a wide range of substances are used to influence the

John R. Walton

1983-01-01

2

Antibiotic resistance and hypermutability of Escherichia coli O157 from feedlot cattle treated with growth-promoting agents.  

PubMed

In a longitudinal study (165 days), we investigated the effect of growth-promoting agents (monensin and trenbolone acetate-estradiol) and an antibiotic (oxytetracycline) on the incidence in feedlot steers of Escherichia coli O157, including antibiotic-resistant and hypermutable isolates. Eighty steers in 16 pens were treated with eight combinations of promoters, and each treatment was duplicated. Fecal samples were collected at nine different sampling times for detection of E. coli O157. Overall, 50 E. coli O157 isolates were detected in treated animals, and none were found in untreated animals. Compared with untreated controls, there was a significant association between the utilization of growth-promoting agents or antibiotics and the shedding of E. coli O157 at day 137 (P = 0.03), when a prevalence peak was observed and 50% of the isolates were detected. Multiplex PCR assays were conducted for some virulence genes. PCR results indicated that all except one isolate possessed at least the Shiga toxin gene stx2. MICs for 12 antibiotics were determined, and eight oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli O157 strains were identified. Antibiotic-resistant strains were considered a distinct subpopulation of E. coli O157 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing. Seven of these antibiotic-resistant strains were isolated early in the study (on or before day 25), and among them two were also hypermutable as determined by rifampin mutation frequencies. The proportion of hypermutable strains among E. coli O157 isolates remained relatively constant throughout the study period. These results indicate that the use of growth-promoting agents and antibiotics in beef production may increase the risk of environmental contamination by E. coli O157. PMID:16300081

Lefebvre, Brigitte; Diarra, Moussa S; Giguère, Karine; Roy, Gabriel; Michaud, Sophie; Malouin, François

2005-11-01

3

Analytical strategies for residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents in food-producing animals—a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief introduction into the field of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents, the most important EU regulations and directives for the inspection of food-producing animals and animal products regarding the residue control of these substances are presented and discussed. Main attention in the review is on the methods of analysis in use today for the most important classes of

A. A. M. Stolker; U. A. Th. Brinkman

2005-01-01

4

Identification of volatiles produced by Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1, a fungal biocontrol agent that promotes plant growth.  

PubMed

Certain microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) have been reported to enhance the growth and development of plants. The biocontrol fungi, Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1 significantly improved the growth of tobacco seedlings in vitro when they were co-cultivated without physical contact. SPME Quadrupole GC/MS/MS revealed that CL-1 emited the volatiles ?-pinene, (-)-trans-caryophyllene, tetrahydro-2,2,5,5-tetramethylfuran, dehydroaromadendrene, and (+)-sativene. Potential roles of these volatiles in plant growth and development are discussed. Even though there were several fungal VOCs reported in the past that could influence plant growth, their exact mechanisms of action are not fully known. Fungal VOC-mediated plant growth promotion requires in-depth study in order for this technology to be used in large scale for crops, especially those grown under greenhouse conditions. PMID:24135990

Paul, Diby; Park, Kyung Seok

2013-01-01

5

Method for Promoting Plant Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to a method of promoting plant growth and more particularly to the use of certain synthetic brassinosteroids to promote plant cell elongation and cell division and thereby increase the vegetative growth of plants.

W. J. Meudt M. J. Thompson N. Mandava J. F. Worley

1980-01-01

6

The proximal promoter region of the human vascular endothelial growth factor gene has a G-quadruplex structure that can be targeted by G-quadruplex-interactive agents.  

PubMed

Previous studies on the functional analysis of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoter using the full-length VEGF promoter reporter revealed that the proximal 36-bp region (-85 to -50 relative to transcription initiation site) is essential for basal or inducible VEGF promoter activity in several human cancer cells. This region consists of a polypurine (guanine) tract that contains four runs of at least three contiguous guanines separated by one or more bases, thus conforming to a general motif capable of forming an intramolecular G-quadruplex. Here, we show that the G-rich strand in this region is able to form an intramolecular propeller-type parallel-stranded G-quadruplex structure in vitro by using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, dimethyl sulfate footprinting technique, the DNA polymerase stop assay, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and computer-aided molecular modeling. Two well-known G-quadruplex-interactive agents, TMPyP4 and Se2SAP, stabilize G-quadruplex structures formed by this sequence in the presence of a potassium ion, although Se2SAP is at least 10-fold more effective in binding to the G-quadruplex than TMPyP4. Between these two agents, Se2SAP better suppresses VEGF transcription in different cancer cell lines, including HEC1A and MDA-MB-231. Collectively, our results provide evidence that specific G-quadruplex structures can be formed in the VEGF promoter region, and that the transcription of this gene can be controlled by ligand-mediated G-quadruplex stabilization. Our results also provide further support for the idea that G-quadruplex structures may play structural roles in vivo and therefore might provide insight into novel methodologies for rational drug design. PMID:18413801

Sun, Daekyu; Liu, Wei-Jun; Guo, Kexiao; Rusche, Jadrian J; Ebbinghaus, Scot; Gokhale, Vijay; Hurley, Laurence H

2008-04-01

7

INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE ADHERENCE WITH ORAL AGENTS  

PubMed Central

Objectives The advent of oral therapies has dramatically changed the landscape of cancer therapy. Yet the degree to which patients actually take the prescribed agents as ordered remains unknown. This article outlines the challenges that oral chemotherapy agents present to both patients and providers and suggests interventions for promoting adherence. Data Sources Published articles and web resources. Conclusion Barriers and facilitators to medication adherence are reviewed and interventions to promote medication adherence are presented. Strategies that include patient education and symptom management can promote adherence. Implications for Nursing Practice Maximizing adherence to oral chemotherapy agents can have many positive outcomes, but most important is improvement in overall survival and life expectancy. Other outcomes include improved safety and quality of life. Patients risk improper dosing and an increase in disease recurrence when there is nonadherence with medications. Correct dosing, education, and symptom management are all critical to ensuring adherence. Nursing interventions that incorporate education, early symptom identification, and reminder prompts can improve outcomes.

Schneider, Susan M.; Hess, Kimberly; Gosselin, Tracy

2013-01-01

8

Effect of Abolishment of the Use of Antimicrobial Agents for Growth Promotion on Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Fecal Enterococci from Food Animals in Denmark  

PubMed Central

From 1995 to 2000, a total of 673 Enterococcus faecium and 1,088 Enterococcus faecalis isolates from pigs together with 856 E. faecium isolates from broilers were isolated and tested for susceptibility to four classes of antimicrobial agents used for growth promotion as part of the Danish program of monitoring for antimicrobial resistance. The four antimicrobials were avilamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, and virginiamycin. Major changes in the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion have occurred during the last 6 years in Denmark. The government banned the use of avoparcin in 1995 and of virginiamycin in 1998. Furthermore, the producers have voluntarily stopped all use beginning in 1999. The avoparcin ban in 1995 was followed by a decrease in the occurrence of glycopeptide-resistant E. faecium (GRE) in broilers, from 72.7% in 1995 to 5.8% in 2000. The occurrence of glycopeptide resistance among isolates from pigs remained constant at around 20% from 1995 to 1997. It was shown that, in GRE from pigs, the genes encoding macrolide and glycopeptide resistance were genetically linked and that, following the decrease in the use of tylosin during 1998 and 1999, the occurrence of GRE in pigs decreased to 6.0% in 2000. From 1995 to 1997 the occurrence of erythromycin resistance among E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from pigs was almost 90%. Use of tylosin decreased considerably during 1998 and 1999, and this decrease was followed by decreases in the occurrence of resistance to 46.7 and 28.1% among E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from pigs, respectively. Erythromycin resistance among E. faecium isolates from broilers reached a maximum of 76.3% in 1997 but decreased to 12.7% in 2000 concomitantly with more limited use of virginiamycin. Use of virginiamycin increased from 1995 to 1997 and was followed by an increased occurrence of virginiamycin resistance among E. faecium isolates in broilers, from 27.3% in 1995 to 66.2% in 1997. In January 1998 the use of virginiamycin was banned in Denmark, and the occurrence of virginiamycin resistance decreased to 33.9% in 2000. Use of avilamycin increased from 1995 to 1996 and was followed by an increase in avilamycin resistance among E. faecium isolates from broilers, from 63.6% in 1995 to 77.4% in 1996. Since 1996 avilamycin usage has decreased, followed by a decrease in resistance to 4.8% in 2000. Our observations show that it is possible to reduce the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in a national population of food animals when the selective pressure is removed. Cases in which resistance to vancomycin was linked to resistance to erythromycin were exceptions. In such cases resistance did not decrease until the use of both avoparcin and tylosin was limited.

Aarestrup, Frank M?ller; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Karl; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Bager, Flemming

2001-01-01

9

Effect of a novel botanical agent Drynol Cibotin on human osteoblast cells and implications for osteoporosis: promotion of cell growth, calcium uptake and collagen production.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a widespread problem afflicting millions of people. Drynol Cibotinis is a newly developed proprietary botanical combination of eight botanicals including Angelica sinensis, Glycine max, Wild yam, Ligustrum lucidum, Astragalus membranaceus, Cuscuta chinensis, Psoraleae corylifoliae, and Drynaria fortune. Each of the botanicals has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat osteoporosis. The effect of Drynol Cibotinis, with the specific combination of these anti-osteoporosis botanicals for promoting bone growth, was examined in this study. The effects of Drynol Cibotin on cell growth, apoptosis, cell spreading, calcium uptake and production of bone matrix proteins Collagen I and Laminin B2 on human osteoblast cells were assessed by BrdU incorporation, TUNEL assay, cell staining, intracellular Ca2+ measurement and Western blot analysis. The results showed that Drynol Cibotin significantly increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in osteoblasts (P < 0.01). In addition, Drynol Cibotin was found to promote cell spreading and greatly increase calcium uptake both instantaneously and in the long term (P < 0.01). Furthermore, Drynol Cibotin significantly increased production of two key extracellular matrix proteins in bone cells: Collagen I and Laminin B2. These results indicate that Drynol Cibotin alone or in combination with amino acids and vitamins may have prophylactic potentials in osteoporosis. PMID:19953582

Wegiel, Barbara; Persson, Jenny L

2010-06-01

10

Effects of actinobacteria on plant disease suppression and growth promotion.  

PubMed

Biological control and plant growth promotion by plant beneficial microbes has been viewed as an alternative to the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Bacteria and fungi that are naturally associated with plants and have a beneficial effect on plant growth by the alleviation of biotic and abiotic stresses were isolated and developed into biocontrol (BCA) and plant growth-promoting agents (PGPA). Actinobacteria are a group of important plant-associated spore-forming bacteria, which have been studied for their biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and interaction with plants. This review summarizes the effects of actinobacteria as BCA, PGPA, and its beneficial associations with plants. PMID:24092003

Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhang, Lixin; Suh, Joo-Won

2013-11-01

11

Potential role of human growth hormone in melanoma growth promotion.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Human growth hormone (HGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been shown to play a role in the malignant transformation and progression of a variety of cancers. HGH is also known to upregulate molecular signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of melanoma. Although HGH has previously been implicated in promoting the clinical growth of both benign and malignant melanocytic neoplasms, to our knowledge there are no conclusive studies demonstrating an increased risk of melanoma following HGH therapy. Nevertheless, there are reports of melanoma developing subsequent to HGH coadministered with either other hormones or following irradiation. OBSERVATION A 49-year-old white man presented with a new pigmented papule that was diagnosed as melanoma. The patient reported using HGH for 3 months prior to the diagnosis. His 51-year-old wife, who also was white, had also been using exogenous HGH for 3 months and had been diagnosed as having a melanoma 2 weeks prior. CONCLUSIONS Given the unlikelihood of 2 unrelated people developing melanoma within a short time span, it is reasonable to assume that a common environmental component (HGH or other shared exposure) contributed to the development of both melanomas. Because of the increased use of exogenous HGH as an antiaging agent, it is important to be aware of the growth-promoting effects of this hormone. Until better data are available that determines the true risk of exogenous HGH, its use as an antiaging agent merits increased surveillance. PMID:23069955

Handler, Marc Z; Ross, Andrew L; Shiman, Michael I; Elgart, George W; Grichnik, James M

2012-10-01

12

Photoperiod regulates elicitation of growth promotion but not induced resistance by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years, we have noticed that plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which consistently promote plant growth in greenhouse tests during spring, summer, and fall, fail to elicit plant growth promotion during the mid- winter under ambient light conditions. This report tests the hypothesis that photoperiod regulates elicitation of growth promotion and induced systemic resistance (ISR) by PGPR. A commercially available

J. W. Kloepper; A. Gutiérrez-Estrada; J. A. McInroy

2007-01-01

13

Potential Risk of Growth Promoter in Beef for Breast Cancer Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anabolic agents increase weight gain in meat-producing farm animals by enhancing protein deposition and improving feed conversion, as well as increasing the muscle-to-fat ratio. By promoting growth, reducing feed costs and improving the quality of meat pr...

L. Young

2000-01-01

14

Growth factors, tumor promoters, and cancer genes  

SciTech Connect

This book contains over 30 selections. Some of the titles are: Growth-regulated genes and human leukemias; Tyrosyl and phosphatidylinositol kinases of human erythrocyte membranes; Growth factors, oncogenes, and multistage carcinogenesis; Tumorigenic transformation of human teratocarcinoma cells by activated ras oncogene but not the homologous photo-oncogene; and Genes that cooperate with tumor promoters in transformation.

Colburn, N.H.; Moses, H.L.; Stanbridge, E.J.

1988-01-01

15

Interventional strategies to promote appropriate growth.  

PubMed

Appropriate growth of premature infants can be defined as growth that is not associated with adverse consequences in the short and the long term. Growth failure is associated with neurocognitive impairment. The goal of nutritional management therefore is the achievement of appropriate growth by ensuring that nutrient intakes are maintained at all times at adequate levels. Many impediments stand in the way of this goal. Parenteral administration of nutrients must begin immediately at birth and needs to be continued until enteral nutrition is fully established. While nutritional support is provided by parenteral nutrition, gut priming, also beginning at birth, stimulates the immature gastrointestinal tract to undergo maturation. Human milk is the preferred agent for gut priming because it is more effective and safer than alternative agents. As a source of nutrients, however, human milk is incomplete for the premature infant and requires supplementation (fortification) with nutrients. At the authors' institution, commercial human milk fortifiers and additional sources of protein are being used in efforts to achieve appropriate growth. Data from the authors' institution indicate that nutrient intakes, especially intakes of protein, have improved in recent years and are approaching adequate levels. Accordingly, growth of infants has improved to the point where on average only a mild degree of postnatal growth failure is observed. PMID:23887118

Ziegler, Ekhard E; Carlson, Susan J; Nelson, Steven E

2013-01-01

16

Brassinosteroids promote root growth in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Although brassinosteroids (BRs) are known to regulate shoot growth, their role in the regulation of root growth is less clear. We show that low concentrations of BRs such as 24-epicastasterone and 24-epibrassinolide promote root elongation in Arabidopsis wild-type plants up to 50% and in BR-deficient mutants such as dwf1-6 (cbb1) and cbb3 (which is allelic to cpd) up to 150%. The growth-stimulating effect of exogenous BRs is not reduced by the auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triidobenzoic acid. BR-deficient mutants show normal gravitropism, and 2,3,5-triidobenzoic acid or higher concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and naphtaleneacetic acid inhibit root growth in the mutants to the same extent as in wild-type plants. Simultaneous administration of 24-epibrassinolide and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid results in largely additive effects. Exogenous gibberellins do not promote root elongation in the BR-deficient mutants, and the sensitivity to the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid is not altered. Thus, the root growth-stimulating effect of BRs appears to be largely independent of auxin and gibberellin action. Furthermore, we analyzed BR interactions with other phytohormones on the gene expression level. Only a limited set of auxin- and ethylene-related genes showed altered expression levels. Genes related to other phytohormones barely showed changes, providing further evidence for an autonomous stimulatory effect of BR on root growth. PMID:14526105

Müssig, Carsten; Shin, Ga-Hee; Altmann, Thomas

2003-11-01

17

Brassinosteroids Promote Root Growth in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Although brassinosteroids (BRs) are known to regulate shoot growth, their role in the regulation of root growth is less clear. We show that low concentrations of BRs such as 24-epicastasterone and 24-epibrassinolide promote root elongation in Arabidopsis wild-type plants up to 50% and in BR-deficient mutants such as dwf1-6 (cbb1) and cbb3 (which is allelic to cpd) up to 150%. The growth-stimulating effect of exogenous BRs is not reduced by the auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triidobenzoic acid. BR-deficient mutants show normal gravitropism, and 2,3,5-triidobenzoic acid or higher concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and naphtaleneacetic acid inhibit root growth in the mutants to the same extent as in wild-type plants. Simultaneous administration of 24-epibrassinolide and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid results in largely additive effects. Exogenous gibberellins do not promote root elongation in the BR-deficient mutants, and the sensitivity to the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid is not altered. Thus, the root growth-stimulating effect of BRs appears to be largely independent of auxin and gibberellin action. Furthermore, we analyzed BR interactions with other phytohormones on the gene expression level. Only a limited set of auxin- and ethylene-related genes showed altered expression levels. Genes related to other phytohormones barely showed changes, providing further evidence for an autonomous stimulatory effect of BR on root growth.

Mussig, Carsten; Shin, Ga-Hee; Altmann, Thomas

2003-01-01

18

Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum  

PubMed Central

Background Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake and producing growth-promoting metabolites such as gibberellins and auxins. We screened roots of Ixeris repenes (L.) A. Gray, a common dune plant, for the isolation of gibberellin secreting endophytic fungi. Results We isolated 15 endophytic fungi from the roots of Ixeris repenes and screened them for growth promoting secondary metabolites. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 gave maximum plant growth when applied to waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii seedlings. Analysis of the culture filtrate of IR-3-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 (1.95 ng/ml, 3.83 ng/ml, 6.03 ng/ml and 2.35 ng/ml, respectively) along with other physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA12, GA15, GA19, GA20 and, GA24. The plant growth promotion and gibberellin producing capacity of IR-3-3 was much higher than the wild type Gibberella fujikuroi, which was taken as control during present study. GA5, a precursor of bioactive GA3 was reported for the first time in fungi. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 was identified as a new strain of Penicillium citrinum (named as P. citrinum KACC43900) through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Conclusion Isolation of new strain of Penicillium citrinum from the sand dune flora is interesting as information on the presence of Pencillium species in coastal sand dunes is limited. The plant growth promoting ability of this fungal strain may help in conservation and revegetation of the rapidly eroding sand dune flora. Penicillium citrinum is already known for producing mycotoxin citrinin and cellulose digesting enzymes like cellulase and endoglucanase, as well as xylulase. Gibberellins producing ability of this fungus and the discovery about the presence of GA5 will open new aspects of research and investigations.

Khan, Sumera Afzal; Hamayun, Muhammad; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kim, Ho-Youn; Suh, Seok-Jong; Hwang, Seon-Kap; Kim, Jong-Myeong; Lee, In-Jung; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kong, Won-Sik; Lee, Byung-Moo; Kim, Jong-Guk

2008-01-01

19

New agents promote neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease models.  

PubMed

Although researchers are pursuing "disease modifying" medications to slow or stop Parkinson's disease (PD) progression, a myriad of agents with protective properties in cell cultures and animal models have yielded few treatments in clinical practice. Developing safe and effective treatments with disease-modifying/neuroprotective mechanisms of action and identifying patients in the pre-motor phase will be a challenge. The implication of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, in the pathogenesis of PD at different levels makes it a promising candidate for developing efficient treatment based on correcting or bypassing the enzyme deficiency. TH is also the key enzyme for immunorreactivity in PD models and is used to assess the efficacy of novel disease-modifying medications. PD animal models are genetic: alpha-synuclein models, parkin (PINK 1 and DJ1) and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 or pharmacological and neurotoxic: reserpine, 6-hydroxydopamine, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine, rotenone, paraquat/maneb, and trichloroethylene. This review is focused on the state of art of PD models, the relationship with TH, and potential neuroprotective agents to treat PD. The latter include gene therapy, transplantation, erythropoietin, natural phenolic compounds, doxycycline, ethyl pyruvate, 9-methyl-beta-carboline, vascular endothelial growth factor, simvastatin, zonisamide, modafinil, melatonin, cannabinoids, rottlerin, fluoxetine, paroxetine, coenzyme Q10, N-acetylcysteine and vaccines like Bacille Calmette-Guerin, with different proposed mechanisms of action. Also of note is the link between hypovitaminosis D and neurodegeneration opening new perspectives in research with TH genes and PD models treated with vitamin D. Translational scientists can contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of PD and lead to more effective treatments. PMID:22483311

Santos, Claudia Maria Miranda

2012-06-01

20

Control of cell differentiation in cultured human cells by tumor promoting agents  

SciTech Connect

Unlike tumor initiators, the chemicals that promote tumor formation are devoid of mutagenic activity. These chemicals may exert their promotional effect by causing the expression of the mutated tumor genes in a process similar to gene expression during cell differentiation. Indeed, phorbol diesters and teleocidin have been shown to act as inducers of cell differentiation in a number of cell types. In cell differentiation studies with tumor promoters, the authors used 3 different human cell types, HO melanoma cells and the promyelocytic HL-60 and T lymphoid CEM leukemia cells. In the HO melanoma cells, the prototype phorbol diester phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), at doses as low as 10/sup -10/ to 10/sup -9/ M, induces a cell differentiation characterized by an inhibition of cell growth, increased synthesis of melanin, and induction of dendritelike structures. In this system, the authors demonstrated a relationship between the tumor-promoting activity of a series of phorbol diesters in vivo and the degree to which these agents induce differentiation in vitro. A similar relationship was demonstrated using the HL-60 cells.

Huberman, E.

1984-04-01

21

Multitrait plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea rhizosphere : Keratin degradation and growth promotion.  

PubMed

Plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, a beneficial microbe colonizing plant roots, enhanced crop productivity and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. The keratinous waste which comprises feathers, hairs, nails, skin and wool creates problem of solid waste management due to presence of highly recalcitrant keratin. The multi traits rhizobacteria effective to remove both keratine from the environment by producing keratinase enzyme and to eradicate the chemical fertilizer by providing different PGP activity is novel achievement. In the present study, the effective PM2 strain of PGPR was isolated from rhizospheric soil of mustard (Brassica juncea) field, Pantnagar and they were identified on the basis of different biochemical tests as belonging to Bacillus genera. Different plant growth promoting activity, feather degradation and keratinolytic activity was performed and found very effective toward all the parameters. Furthermore, the efficient strain PM2 was identified on the basis of 16s rRNA sequencing and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The strain PM2 might be used efficiently for keratinous waste management and PGP activity. Therefore, the present study suggests that Bacillus cereus have multi traits activity which extremely useful for different PGP activity and biotechnological process involving keratin hydrolysis, feather biodegradation or in the leather industry. PMID:24778758

Anwar, Mohmmad Shahbaz; Siddique, Mohammad Tahir; Verma, Amit; Rao, Yalaga Rama; Nailwal, Tapan; Ansari, Mohammad; Pande, Veena

2014-01-01

22

Growth-promotion of strawberry plants inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azospirillum brasilense (strains REC3, RLC1, PEC5) were root inoculated in strawberry plants of the cultivars ‘Milsei’, ‘Selva’ and ‘Camarosa’ to\\u000a assess plant growth-promoting effects. The bacteria were able to promote plant growth (expressed as root length, root area,\\u000a and dry weight of root and shoot), depending on the genotypes of plants and bacteria used, whereas the stolon production (3–4)\\u000a depended

Raúl O. Pedraza; Jessica Motok; Sergio M. Salazar; Alicia L. Ragout; María I. Mentel; María L. Tortora; María F. Guerrero-Molina; Beatriz C. Winik; Juan C. Díaz-Ricci

2010-01-01

23

Bangladesh: Promoting Higher Growth and Human Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report explores the potential for accelerating the rate of economic and social development in Bangladesh. Part I reviews recent developments and provides a macroeconomic framework for achieving higher overall growth. Part II then discusses the key are...

1987-01-01

24

Senescent Stromal-Derived Osteopontin Promotes Preneoplastic Cell Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in the tissue microenvironment collaborate with cell autonomous genetic changes to contribute to neoplastic progression. The importance of the microenvironment in neoplastic progression is underscored by studies showing that fibroblasts isolated from a tumor stimulate the growth of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells in xenograft models. Similarly, senescent fibroblasts promote preneoplastic cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Because senescent

Ermira Pazolli; Xianmin Luo; Sarah Brehm; Kelly Carbery; Jun-Jae Chung; Julie L. Prior; Jason Doherty; Shadmehr Demehri; Lorena Salavaggione; David Piwnica-Worms; Sheila A. Stewart

2009-01-01

25

Piriformospora indica, a Cultivable Plant-Growth-Promoting Root Endophyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi interact with plants as pathogens or benefactors and may influence yields in agroforestry and floriculture. Knowl- edge concerning plant-growth-promoting cultivable root endo- phytes is low (7), and most studies have been conducted with mycorrhizal fungi. These mutualists improve the growth of crops on poor soils with lower inputs of chemical fertilizers and pesticides (2, 9). Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi,

AJIT VARMA; SAVITA VERMA; NIRMAL SAHAY; BRITTA BUTEHORN; PHILIPP FRANKEN

1999-01-01

26

Plant growth promotion by Bacillus megaterium involves cytokinin signaling  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence indicates that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) influence plant growth and development by the production of phytohormones such as auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinins. Little is known on the genetic basis and signal transduction components that mediate the beneficial effects of PGPRs in plants. We recently reported the identification of a Bacillus megaterium strain that promoted growth of A. thaliana and P. vulgaris seedlings. In this addendum, the role of cytokinin signaling in mediating the plant responses to bacterial inoculation was investigated using A. thaliana mutants lacking one, two or three of the putative cytokinin receptors CRE1, AHK2 and AHK3, and RPN12 a gene involved in cytokinin signaling. We show that plant growth promotion by B. megaterium is reduced in AHK2-2 single and double mutant combinations and in RPN12. Furthermore, the triple cytokinin-receptor CRE1-12/AHK2-2/AHK3-3 knockout was insensitive to inoculation in terms of growth promotion and root developmental responses. Our results indicate that cytokinin receptors play a complimentary role in plant growth promotion by B. megaterium.

Ortiz-Castro, Randy; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo

2008-01-01

27

Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Materials for Promoting Progenitor Cell Growth Without Serum  

PubMed Central

The discovery of new active biomaterials for promoting progenitor cell growth and differentiation in serum-free medium is still proving more challenging for the clinical treatments of degenerative diseases. In this work, a conjugated polyelectrolyte, polythiophene derivative (PMNT), was discovered to significantly drive the cell cycle progression from G1 to S and G2 phases and thus efficiently promote the cell growth without the need of serum. Furthermore, the fluorescent characteristic of PMNT makes it simultaneously able to trace its cellular uptake and localization by cell imaging. cDNA microarray study shows that PMNT can greatly regulate genes related to cell growth or differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of cell growth or differentiation promotion by polyelectrolyte material without the need of serum, thereby providing an important demonstration of degenerative biomaterial discovery through polymer design.

Yang, Gaomai; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Shu

2013-01-01

28

Glutamate release promotes growth of malignant gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutamate neurotoxicity has been implicated in stroke, head trauma, multiple sclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Although recent data show that cultured glioma cells secrete glutamate, the growth potential of brain tumors has not yet been linked to an excitotoxic mechanism. Using bioluminescence detection of glutamate release from freshly prepared brain slices, we show that implanted glioma cells continue to secrete glutamate.

Takahiro Takano; Jane H.-C. Lin; Gregory Arcuino; Qun Gao; Jay Yang; Maiken Nedergaard

2001-01-01

29

Plant growth promotion by phosphate solubilizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Most agronomic soils contain large reserves of total phosphorus [P], but the fixation and precipitation of P cause P deficiency, and in turn, restrict the growth of crops severely. Phosphorus replenishment, especially in sustainable production systems, remains a major challenge as it is mainly fertilizer-dependent. Though the use of chemical P fertilizers is obviously the best means to circumvent P deficiency in different agro-ecosystems, their use is always limited due to its spiralling cost. A greater interest has, therefore, been generated to find an alternative yet inexpensive technology that could provide sufficient P to plants while reducing the dependence on expensive chemical P fertilizers. Among the heterogeneous and naturally abundant microbes inhabiting the rhizosphere, the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) including bacteria have provided an alternative biotechnological solution in sustainable agriculture to meet the P demands of plants. These organisms in addition to providing P to plants also facilitate plant growth by other mechanisms. Despite their different ecological niches and multiple functional properties, P-solubilizing bacteria have yet to fulfil their promise as commercial bio-inoculants. Current developments in our understanding of the functional diversity, rhizosphere colonizing ability, mode of actions and judicious application are likely to facilitate their use as reliable components in the management of sustainable agricultural systems. PMID:19789141

Zaidi, A; Khan, M S; Ahemad, M; Oves, M

2009-09-01

30

Epidermal growth factor promotes a neural phenotype in thymic epithelial cells and enhances neuropoietic cytokine expression  

PubMed Central

Neural crest-derived cells populate the thymus, and their coexistence with epithelial cells is required for proper organ development and T cell education function. We show here that epidermal growth factor (EGF), a major epithelial cell growth-enhancing agent, has a morphogenetic action to promote the expression of a neuronal phenotype (e.g., neurofilament expression) in cultured thymic epithelial cells that are characterized by a cytokeratin-positive epithelial cell background. The proliferation of such neurodifferentiated cells is also enhanced by EGF. Furthermore, the growth factor enhances cells that express the genes encoding the preprotachykinin A-generated neuropeptides and bipotential neuropoietic and lymphopoietic cytokines ciliary neurotrophic factor and interleukin-6. These cytokines also enhance the neuronal phenotype of thymic epithelial cells. Therefore, EGF appears to be a composite autocrine/paracrine neuromodulator in thymic stroma. This suggests that EGF may regulate thymus-dependent immune functions by promoting neuronal gene expression in neural crest- derived cells.

1995-01-01

31

Cocarcinogenic and tumor-promoting agents in tobacco carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

A series of 21 tobacco smoke components and related compounds werere applied to mouse skin (50 female ICR/Ha Swiss mice/group) three times weekly with a low dose (5 mug/application) of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The test compounds were of five classes: aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and long-chain acids and alcohols. The following compounds enhanced remarkably the carcinogenicity of B[a]P: catechol, pyrogallol, decane, undecane, pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, and fluoranthene. The following compounds inhibited B[a]P carcinogenicity completely: esculin, quercetin, squalene, and oleic acid. Phenol, eugenol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, hexadecane, and limonene partially inhibited B[a]P carcinogenicity. Six of the 21 compounds were also tested as tumor promoters im two-stage carcinogenesis. No direct correlation existed between tumor-promoting activity and cocarcinogenic activity. The cocarcinogens pyrogallol and catechol did not show tumor-promoting activity. Decane, tetradecane, anthralin, and phorbol myristate acetate showed both types of activity. Structure-activity relationships and possible modes of action were described. PMID:994224

Van Duuren, B L; Goldschmidt, B M

1976-06-01

32

Growth Promoting Effect of Hyaluronan Synthesis Promoting Substances on Japanese Eel Leptocephali  

PubMed Central

Hyaluronans (HAs) are glycosaminoglycans produced in the bodies of Anguilliform and Elopiform leptocephali, and play a role in metabolic energy. In mammals, HA synthesis-promoting substances (HASPS) up-regulate the expression of HA synthase (HAS) and increase the amount of HA in the body. In this study, Japanese eel leptocephali were fed a HASPS containing diet. We analyzed HAS1s and HAS2 expression, HA content, and their influence on growth. HASPS extracted from Grifola frondosa promoted HAS1s and HAS2 mRNA and HA content. Other than mammals, these results are first reported in vertebrate. Moreover, HASPS extracted from G. frondosa promoted leptocephalus growth. The relationship between growth and HA in the leptocephali is not yet clear. However, based on our results we hypothesize that HA is involved in the storage of energy, which is metabolized to sugars when needed for metabolic energy.

Kawakami, Yutaka; Nomura, Kazuharu; Tanaka, Hideki

2014-01-01

33

Nerve growth factor promotes human hemopoietic colony growth and differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotropic polypeptide necessary for the survival and growth of some central neurons, as well as sensory afferent and sympathetic neurons. Much is now known of the structural and functional characteristics of NGF, whose gene has recently been clones. Since it is synthesized in largest amounts by the male mouse submandibular gland, its role exclusively in nerve growth is questionable. These experiments indicate that NGF causes a significant stimulation of granulocyte colonies grown from human peripheral blood in standard hemopoietic methylcellulose assays. Further, NGF appears to act in a relatively selective fashion to induce the differentiation of eosinophils and basophils/mast cells. Depletion experiments show that the NGF effect may be T-cell dependent and that NGF augments the colony-stimulating effect of supernatants from the leukemic T-cell (Mo) line. The hemopoietic activity of NGF is blocked by {sup 125}I-polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to NGF. The authors conclude that NGF may indirectly act as a local growth factor in tissues other than those of the nervous system by causing T cells to synthesize or secrete molecules with colony-stimulating activity. In view of the synthesis of NGF in tissue injury, the involvement of basophils/mast cells and eosinophils in allergic and other inflammatory processes, and the association of mast cells with fibrosis and tissue repair, they postulate that NGF plays an important biological role in a variety of repair processes.

Matsuda, H.; Coughlin, M.D.; Bienenstock, J.; Denburg, J.A. (McMaster Univ. Health Sciences Center, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

1988-09-01

34

Growth-promotion of strawberry plants inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azospirillum brasilense (strains REC3, RLC1, PEC5) were root inoculated in strawberry plants of the cultivars 'Milsei', 'Selva' and 'Camarosa' to assess plant growth-promoting effects. The bacteria were able to pro- mote plant growth (expressed as root length, root area, and dry weight of root and shoot), depending on the genotypes of plants and bacteria used, whereas the stolon production (3-4)

Raul O. Pedraza; Jessica Motok; Sergio M. Salazar; Alicia L. Ragout; I. Mentel; Marõ ´ a; L. Tortora; F. Guerrero-Molina; Beatriz C. Winik; Juan C. Dõ ´ az-Ricci

2009-01-01

35

Characterization of effective chemopreventive agents in mammary gland in vitro using an initiation-promotion protocol.  

PubMed

Mouse mammary glands respond to carcinogen stimulus to form mammary lesions in organ culture. Prevention of the formation of mammary lesion has been utilized as a test to evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of classes of agents. In the present study we determined whether the effective chemopreventive agents are active against initiation or the promotion phase of lesion development. Mammary glands were subjected to 24 hours exposure to 2 mg/ml dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) followed by a 5 day exposure to 7,12-tetradecanoyl phorbol - 13 - acetate (TPA). This treatment protocol allows one to study initiation and promotion aspects of lesion development. Chemopreventive agents effective when present prior to the carcinogen were considered as anti-initiators, whereas agents effective when present after the DMBA treatment along with TPA were considered as anti-promoters. Within the chemopreventive agents evaluated, limonene, oltipraz, aspirin, curcumin and b-sitosterol were anti-initiators. Esculatin, thiolutin, silymarin, DHEA and a few others were found to be anti-promoters. Results presented in this report can be utilized to study the efficacy of these agents in vivo. PMID:1905902

Mehta, R G; Moon, R C

1991-01-01

36

Scarcity may promote cooperation in populations of simple agents.  

PubMed

In the study of the evolution of cooperation, resource limitations are usually assumed just to provide a finite population size. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that resource limitation may also generate dynamical payoffs able to modify the original structure of the games. Here we study analytically a phase transition from a homogeneous population of defectors when resources are abundant to the survival of unconditional cooperators when resources reduce below a threshold. To this end, we introduce a model of simple agents, with no memory or ability of recognition, interacting in well-mixed populations. The result might shed light on the role played by resource constraints on the origin of multicellularity. PMID:23496580

Requejo, R J; Camacho, J

2013-02-01

37

[Antibiotic growth promoters for the view of animal nutrition].  

PubMed

From 01. 07./09. 1999 on six further antibiotic growth promoters have been banned--with only four substances remaining in this group of feed additives. Therefore, the discussion on a possible induction of bacterial resistance by antibiotic growth promoters, especially in potentially pathogenic bacteria, will sooner or later come to an end which is not least in the interest of the reputation of animal husbandry and food of animal origin. Unfortunately, no short-term solution for health problems by legislation--especially in the gastrointestinal tract--during rearing and the beginning of the fattening period is possible as experiences in Sweden have distinctively shown. Anyway, growth promoting feed additives were not a cure-all of rearing problems, in spite of their use considerable amounts of antibiotics were prescribed during this period. But growth promoters (especially chinoxalines) were most suitable for the prophylaxis of a microbial imbalance in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, after the ban of these effective representatives of feed additives the amount of prescribed antimicrobial drugs for metaphylaxis and therapy should be critically observed. The questions of practicable alternatives will be primarily addressed to the fields of animal nutrition, veterinary medicine and feed industry. To answer these questions and to evolve new solutions (as well as to check their suitability in practice) is considerably more intricate than simply to ban these substances which is more attractive for the media, however. It is no progressive solution to give up antimicrobial growth promoters as feed additives and to use the same substances (for example olaquindox) as therapeutics now (prescribed by veterinarians) or to switch to zincoxide or copper (in a dosage high above all nutrient requirements) in order to prevent postweaning problems due to E. coli. But one has to take into consideration the reasons for the use of antibiotics (growth promoters and therapeutics) or other "aids" (e.g. ZnO, Cu) in food producing animals (especially in beef-cattle, pigs and poultry) in "modern" production systems. The matter for conflict is the contrast between a minimised use of antimicrobial substances, as science as well as general public demand, and the requirements of "modern" livestock industry (rationalisation, increase in performance, specialisation, concentration) and general economy (save of resources, lowering of production costs). These well-known and expected problems arise in an almost exemplary manner in the case of antibiotic growth promoting feed additives. Therefore it is most difficult to impart suggestions to the persons involved as well as to the public. PMID:10598354

Kamphues, J

1999-01-01

38

Influence of plant growth promoting bacteria and Cr 6+ on the growth of Indian mustard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cr6+ resistant plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), Pseudomonas sp. PsA4 and Bacillus sp. Ba32 were isolated from heavy metal contaminated soils and their plant growth promoting activity on the Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were assessed with different concentrations of Cr6+ in soil. Production of siderophores and the solubilization of phosphate were observed in both strains, PsA4 and Ba32. Production

M. Rajkumar; R. Nagendran; Kui Jae Lee; Wang Hyu Lee; Sung Zoo Kim

2006-01-01

39

Androgens Promote Prostate Cancer Cell Growth through Induction of Autophagy  

PubMed Central

Androgens regulate both the physiological development of the prostate and the pathology of prostatic diseases. However, the mechanisms by which androgens exert their regulatory activities on these processes are poorly understood. In this study, we have determined that androgens regulate overall cell metabolism and cell growth, in part, by increasing autophagy in prostate cancer cells. Importantly, inhibition of autophagy using either pharmacological or molecular inhibitors significantly abrogated androgen-induced prostate cancer cell growth. Mechanistically, androgen-mediated autophagy appears to promote cell growth by augmenting intracellular lipid accumulation, an effect previously demonstrated to be necessary for prostate cancer cell growth. Further, autophagy and subsequent cell growth is potentiated, in part, by androgen-mediated increases in reactive oxygen species. These findings demonstrate a role for increased fat metabolism and autophagy in prostatic neoplasias and highlight the potential of targeting underexplored metabolic pathways for the development of novel therapeutics.

Shi, Yan; Han, Jenny J.; Tennakoon, Jayantha B.; Mehta, Fabiola F.; Merchant, Fatima A.; Burns, Alan R.; Howe, Matthew K.; McDonnell, Donald P.

2013-01-01

40

Wingless Promotes Proliferative Growth in a Gradient-Independent Manner  

PubMed Central

Morphogens form concentration gradients that organize patterns of cells and control growth. It has been suggested that, rather than the intensity of morphogen signalling, it is its gradation that is the relevant modulator of cell proliferation. According to this view, the ability of morphogens to regulate growth during development depends on their graded distributions. Here, we describe an experimental test of this model for Wingless, one of the key organizers of wing development in Drosophila. Maximal Wingless signalling suppresses cellular proliferation. In contrast, we found that moderate and uniform amounts of exogenous Wingless, even in the absence of endogenous Wingless, stimulated proliferative growth. Beyond a few cell diameters from the source, Wingless was relatively constant in abundance and thus provided a homogeneous growth-promoting signal. Although morphogen signalling may act in combination with as yet uncharacterized graded growth-promoting pathways, we suggest that the graded nature of morphogen signalling is not required for proliferation, at least in the developing Drosophila wing, during the main period of growth.

Baena-Lopez, Luis Alberto; Franch-Marro, Xavier; Vincent, Jean-Paul

2009-01-01

41

Human milk oligosaccharides promote the growth of staphylococci.  

PubMed

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), which constitute a major component of human milk, promote the growth of particular bacterial species in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that HMO also interact with the bacterial communities present in human milk. To test this hypothesis, two experiments were conducted. First, milk samples were collected from healthy women (n = 16); culture-independent analysis of the bacterial communities was performed, HMO content was analyzed, and the relation between these factors was investigated. A positive correlation was observed between the relative abundance of Staphylococcus and total HMO content (r = 0.66). In a follow-up study, we conducted a series of in vitro growth curve experiments utilizing Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and HMO isolated from human milk. HMO exhibited stimulatory effects on bacterial growth under various nutritional conditions. Analysis of culture supernatants from these experiments revealed that HMO did not measurably disappear from the culture medium, indicating that the growth-enhancing effects were not a result of bacterial metabolism of the HMO. Instead, stimulation of growth caused greater utilization of amino acids in minimal medium. Collectively, the data provide evidence that HMO may promote the growth of Staphylococcus species in the lactating mammary gland. PMID:22562995

Hunt, K M; Preuss, J; Nissan, C; Davlin, C A; Williams, J E; Shafii, B; Richardson, A D; McGuire, M K; Bode, L; McGuire, M A

2012-07-01

42

Plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus rhizosphere.  

PubMed

Present study deals with the isolation of rhizobacteria and selection of plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus (Saffron) rhizosphere during its flowering period (October-November). Bacterial load was compared between rhizosphere and bulk soil by counting CFU/gm of roots and soil respectively, and was found to be ~40 times more in rhizosphere. In total 100 bacterial isolates were selected randomly from rhizosphere and bulk soil (50 each) and screened for in-vitro and in vivo plant growth promoting properties. The randomly isolated bacteria were identified by microscopy, biochemical tests and sequence homology of V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA gene. Polyphasic identification categorized Saffron rhizobacteria and bulk soil bacteria into sixteen different bacterial species with Bacillus aryabhattai (WRF5-rhizosphere; WBF3, WBF4A and WBF4B-bulk soil) common to both rhizosphere as well as bulk soil. Pseudomonas sp. in rhizosphere and Bacillus and Brevibacterium sp. in the bulk soil were the predominant genera respectively. The isolated rhizobacteria were screened for plant growth promotion activity like phosphate solubilization, siderophore and indole acetic acid production. 50 % produced siderophore and 33 % were able to solubilize phosphate whereas all the rhizobacterial isolates produced indole acetic acid. The six potential PGPR showing in vitro activities were used in pot trial to check their efficacy in vivo. These bacteria consortia demonstrated in vivo PGP activity and can be used as PGPR in Saffron as biofertilizers.This is the first report on the isolation of rhizobacteria from the Saffron rhizosphere, screening for plant growth promoting bacteria and their effect on the growth of Saffron plant. PMID:23749248

Ambardar, Sheetal; Vakhlu, Jyoti

2013-12-01

43

Growth promotion and yield enhancement of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

Although plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been reported to influence plant growth, yield and nutrient uptake by an array of mechanisms, the specific traits by which PGPR promote plant growth, yield and nutrient uptake were limited to the expression of one or more of the traits expressed at a given environment of plant-microbe interaction. We selected nine different isolates of PGPR from a pool of 233 rhizobacterial isolates obtained from the peanut rhizosphere on the basis of ACC-deaminase activity. The nine isolates were selected, initially, on the basis of germinating seed bioassay in which the root length of the seedling was enhanced significantly over the untreated control. All the nine isolates were identified as Pseudomonas spp. Four of these isolates, viz. PGPR1, PGPR2, PGPR4 and PGPR7 (all fluorescent pseudomonads), were the best in producing siderophore and indole acetic acid (IAA). In addition to IAA and siderophore-producing attributes, Pseudomonas fluorescens PGPR1 also possessed the characters like tri-calcium phosphate solubilization, ammonification and inhibited Aspergillus niger and A. flavus in vitro. P. fluorescens PGPR2 differed from PGPR1 in the sense that it did not show ammonification. In addition to the traits exhibited by PGPR1, PGPR4 showed strong in vitro inhibition to Sclerotium rolfsii. The performances of these selected plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial isolates were repeatedly evaluated for 3 years in pot and field trials. Seed inoculation of these three isolates, viz. PGPR1, PGPR2 and PGPR4, resulted in a significantly higher pod yield than the control, in pots, during rainy and post-rainy seasons. The contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in soil, shoot and kernel were also enhanced significantly in treatments inoculated with these rhizobacterial isolates in pots during both the seasons. In the field trials, however, there was wide variation in the performance of the PGPR isolates in enhancing the growth and yield of peanut in different years. Plant growth-promoting fluorescent pseudomonad isolates, viz. PGPR1, PGPR2 and PGPR4, significantly enhanced pod yield (23-26%, 24-28% and 18-24%, respectively), haulm yield and nodule dry weight over the control in 3 years. Other attributes like root length, pod number, 100-kernel mass, shelling out-turn and nodule number were also enhanced. Seed bacterization with plant growth-promoting P. fluorescens isolates, viz. PGPR1, PGPR2 and PGPR4, suppressed the soil-borne fungal diseases like collar rot of peanut caused by A. niger and PGPR4 also suppressed stem rot caused by S. rolfsii. Studies on the growth patterns of PGPR isolates utilizing the seed leachate as the sole source of C and N indicated that PGPR4 isolate was the best in utilizing the seed leachate of peanut, cultivar JL24. Studies on the rhizosphere competence of the PGPR isolates, evaluated on the basis of spontaneous rifampicin resistance, indicated that PGPR7 was the best rhizoplane colonizer and PGPR1 was the best rhizosphere colonizer. Although the presence of growth-promoting traits in vitro does not guarantee that an isolate will be plant growth promoting in nature, results suggested that besides ACC-deaminase activity of the PGPR isolates, expression of one or more of the traits like suppression of phytopathogens, solubilization of tri-calcium phosphate, production of siderophore and/or nodulation promotion might have contributed to the enhancement of growth, yield and nutrient uptake of peanut. PMID:15646384

Dey, R; Pal, K K; Bhatt, D M; Chauhan, S M

2004-01-01

44

Herbal plants and their derivatives as growth and health promoters in animal nutrition.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to summarize the effectiveness, modes of action and commercial application of herbal plants and their derivatives as growth promoters for animal. Feed supplements are a group of feed ingredients that can cause a desired animal response in a non-nutrient role such as pH shift, growth, or metabolic modifier (Hutjens, 1991). Common feed additives used in animal diets include immunostimulators, antimicrobials, antioxidants, pH control agents and enzymes. Herbal plants, are a new class of growth promoters and in recent years this feed additives have gained extensive attention in the feed industry. They are a wide variety of herbs, spices, and products derived thereof, and are mainly essential oils. Although numerous reports have demonstrated antioxidative and antimicrobial and immune stimulation efficacy in vitro, respective experimental in vivo evidence is still quite limited. A limited number of experimental comparisons of herbal plants feed additives with antibiotics or organic acid have suggested similar effects on the animal gut microflora. Gut microflora has significant effects on host nutrition, health, and growth performance by interacting with nutrient utilization and the development of gut system of the host. In addition, some phytogenic compounds seem to promote intestinal mucus production. However, the future of using herbs in animal feeding will in great measure depend on the knowledge of chemical structure, their value and characteristics of practical herbs or their extract physiological needs and well-being of animal, and, above all on consumer's preferences and expectations. PMID:21213046

Hashemi, Seyed Reza; Davoodi, Homa

2011-03-01

45

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638  

PubMed Central

Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT–PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar as an energy feedstock on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria as growth promoting agents.

Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Hoffman, Adam; Zhang, Yian-Biao; Walla, Michael D.; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Newman, Lee; Monchy, Sebastien

2010-01-01

46

Siderophores from Neighboring Organisms Promote the Growth of Uncultured Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary The majority of bacterial species do not grow on synthetic media. Many non-growers require growth factors from other bacteria, but the nature of these compounds is largely unknown. We show here that previously uncultured isolates from marine sediment biofilm grow on a Petri dish in the presence of cultured organisms from the same environment. The growth factors produced by one cultured helper strain were identified as new acyl-desferrioxamine siderophores. A panel of previously uncultured isolates exhibited a range of siderophore promiscuity for growth promotion. This siderophore-based approach has enabled the culturing of organisms only distantly related to previously cultured microbes. The lack of growth in the lab for many strains from this habitat stems from an inability to autonomously produce siderophores, and the resulting chemical dependence on other microorganisms regulates community establishment in the environment.

D'Onofrio, Anthony; Crawford, Jason M.; Stewart, Eric J.; Witt, Kathrin; Gavrish, Ekaterina; Epstein, Slava; Clardy, Jon; Lewis, Kim

2010-01-01

47

Growth promoting effect of organic impurities on growth kinetics of KAP and KDP crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental results of the influence of a variety of organic impurities differing in their chemical behavior on the growth rates of different faces of KAP and KDP crystals are presented. It was observed that, with increasing additive concentration in practically all experiments, an impurity leads first to an increase and then a decrease in the growth rate, passing through a maximum. These features of the influence of an additive on crystal growth kinetics depend on the chemical nature of both the impurity and the crystal face. The initial growth promoting effect of additives is discussed in terms of the chemical nature of the materials used in the experiments and changes in the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters involved in the crystal growth models. The analysis suggests that the growth promoting effect is not connected with a decrease in the edge free energy in a simple manner.

Kuznetsov, V. A.; Okhrimenko, T. M.; Rak, Miros?awa

1998-09-01

48

IMPACT OF METAL NANOPARTICLES ON THE PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizosphere is a site with complex interactions between the root and associated microorganisms and high microbial diversity. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living, root colonizing, soil-borne bacteria exert phytostimulatory actions, when applied to seeds or crops by a combination of physiological attributes. Soil microorganisms play a very important role in maintaining soil health, ecosystem functions and crop productivity. So far,

VIJENDRA KUMAR MISHRA; ASHOK KUMAR

49

Effect-based proteomic detection of growth promoter abuse.  

PubMed

Unregulated growth promoter use in food-producing animals is an issue of concern both from food safety and animal welfare perspectives. However, the monitoring of such practices is analytically challenging due to the concerted actions of users to evade detection. Techniques based on the monitoring of biological responses to exogenous administrations have been proposed as more sensitive methods to identify treated animals. This study has, for the first time, profiled plasma proteome responses in bovine animals to treatment with nortestosterone decanoate and 17?-oestradiol benzoate, followed by dexamethasone administration. Two-dimensional fluorescence differential in-gel electrophoresis analysis revealed a series of hepatic and acute-phase proteins within plasma whose levels were up- or down-regulated within phases of the treatment regime. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immuno-assays were developed to quantify responses of identified protein markers during the experimental treatment study with a view to developing methods which can be used as screening tools for growth promoter abuse detection. SPR analysis demonstrated the potential for plasma proteins to be used as indicative measures of growth promoter administrations and concludes that the sensitivity and robustness of any detection approach based on plasma proteome analysis would benefit from examination of a range of proteins representative of diverse biological processes rather being reliant on specific individual markers. PMID:23151655

McGrath, Terence F; van Meeuwen, Jeroen A; Massart, Anne-Cécile; de Pauw, Edwin; Delahaut, Philippe; Buijs, Jos; Bergwerff, Aldert A; Elliott, Christopher T; Mooney, Mark H

2013-02-01

50

Dynamic mast cell-stromal cell interactions promote growth of pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exists in a complex desmoplastic microenvironment, which includes cancer-associated fibroblasts (also known as pancreatic stellate cells, PSCs) and immune cells that provide a fibrotic niche that impedes successful cancer therapy. We have found that mast cells are essential for PDAC tumorigenesis. Whether mast cells contribute to the growth of PDAC and/or PSCs is unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that mast cells contribute to the growth of PSCs and tumor cells, thus contributing to PDAC development. Tumor cells promoted mast cell migration. Both tumor cells and PSCs stimulated mast cell activation. Conversely, mast cell-derived IL-13 and tryptase stimulated PSC proliferation. Treating tumor-bearing mice with agents that block mast cell migration and function depressed PDAC growth. Our findings suggest that mast cells exacerbate the cellular and extracellular dynamics of the tumor microenvironment found in PDAC. Therefore, targeting mast cells may inhibit stromal formation and improve therapy.

Ma, Ying; Hwang, Rosa F.; Logsdon, Craig D.; Ullrich, Stephen E.

2013-01-01

51

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638  

SciTech Connect

Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar as an energy feedstock on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria as growth promoting agents. Poplar is considered as the model tree species for the production of lignocellulosic biomass destined for biofuel production. The plant growth promoting endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638 can improve the growth of poplar on marginal soils by as much as 40%. This prompted us to sequence the genome of this strain and, via comparative genomics, identify functions essential for the successful colonization and endophytic association with its poplar host. Analysis of the genome sequence, combined with metabolite analysis and quantitative PCR, pointed to a remarkable interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host with the endophyte responsible for the production of a phytohormone, and a precursor for another that poplar is unable to synthesize, and where the production of the plant growth promoting compounds depended on the presence of plant synthesized compounds, such as sucrose, in the growth medium. Our results provide the basis to better understanding the synergistic interactions between poplar and Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria such as Enterobacter sp. 638 as growth promoting agents.

Taghavi, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Hoffman, A.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Walla, M. D.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.; Monchy, S.

2010-05-13

52

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning.  

PubMed

The rhizosphere supports the development and activity of a huge and diversified microbial community, including microorganisms capable to promote plant growth. Among the latter, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize roots of monocots and dicots, and enhance plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Modification of root system architecture by PGPR implicates the production of phytohormones and other signals that lead, mostly, to enhanced lateral root branching and development of root hairs. PGPR also modify root functioning, improve plant nutrition and influence the physiology of the whole plant. Recent results provided first clues as to how PGPR signals could trigger these plant responses. Whether local and/or systemic, the plant molecular pathways involved remain often unknown. From an ecological point of view, it emerged that PGPR form coherent functional groups, whose rhizosphere ecology is influenced by a myriad of abiotic and biotic factors in natural and agricultural soils, and these factors can in turn modulate PGPR effects on roots. In this paper, we address novel knowledge and gaps on PGPR modes of action and signals, and highlight recent progress on the links between plant morphological and physiological effects induced by PGPR. We also show the importance of taking into account the size, diversity, and gene expression patterns of PGPR assemblages in the rhizosphere to better understand their impact on plant growth and functioning. Integrating mechanistic and ecological knowledge on PGPR populations in soil will be a prerequisite to develop novel management strategies for sustainable agriculture. PMID:24062756

Vacheron, Jordan; Desbrosses, Guilhem; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Touraine, Bruno; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Muller, Daniel; Legendre, Laurent; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

2013-01-01

53

7-Phloroeckol promotes hair growth on human follicles in vitro.  

PubMed

7-Phloroeckol, phloroglucinol derivative isolated from marine brown algae, has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory responses and MMP inhibitory activities. In this study, we evaluated the hair growth-promoting effects of 7-phloroeckol in human hair follicles. To investigate cell viability of human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells in the presence or absence of 7-phloroeckol treatment, MTT assay was employed. Moreover, gene expression and protein concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. 7-Phloroeckol induced an increase in proliferation of DPCs and ORS cells. In addition, hair shaft growth was measured using the hair-follicle organ culture system. 7-Phloroeckol resulted in elongation of the hair shaft in cultured human hair follicles. 7-Phloroeckol induced an IGF-1 mRNA expression and protein concentration in DPCs and conditioned media, respectively. These results suggest that 7-phloroeckol promotes hair growth through stimulation of DPCs and ORS cells. PMID:24833298

Bak, Soon-Sun; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Se-Kwon

2014-08-01

54

Keratinocyte growth factor promotes melanosome transfer to keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Melanogenesis and melanosome transfer from the melanocytes to the neighboring keratinocytes are induced by ultraviolet radiation and modulated by autocrine and paracrine factors. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF/fibroblast growth factor (FGF)7) is a paracrine mediator of human keratinocyte growth and differentiation. We evaluated the influence of KGF on melanosome transfer in co-cultures of keratinocytes and melanocytes. Immunofluorescence analysis using anti-tyrosinase and anti-human cytokeratin antibodies, phagocytic assays using fluorescent latex beads, and ultrastructural analysis indicated that KGF is able to induce melanosome transfer acting only on the recipient keratinocytes and as a consequence of a general role of KGF in the promotion of the phagocytic process. Inhibition of proteinase-activated receptor-2, to block the Rho-dependent phagocytic pathway, or of the Src family tyrosine kinases, to inhibit the Rac-dependent pathway, showed that KGF promotes phagocytosis through both mechanisms. Increased expression of the KGF receptor (KGFR) on the keratinocytes by transfection led to increased phagocytosis of latex beads following KGF treatment, suggesting that the KGF effect is directly mediated by KGFR expression and activation. Moreover, confocal microscopic analysis revealed that KGFR localize in phagosomes during KGF-induced phagocytosis, suggesting a direct role of the receptor in regulating both the early steps of uptake and the intracellular traffic of the phagosomes. PMID:16354189

Cardinali, Giorgia; Ceccarelli, Simona; Kovacs, Daniela; Aspite, Nicaela; Lotti, Lavinia Vittoria; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Picardo, Mauro

2005-12-01

55

Host A(2B) adenosine receptors promote carcinoma growth.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that tumor-infiltrating immune cells can benefit the tumor by producing factors that promote angiogenesis and suppress immunity. Because the tumor microenvironment is characterized by high adenosine levels, we hypothesized that the low-affinity A(2B) adenosine receptor located on host immune cells may participate in these effects. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis in a Lewis lung carcinoma isograft model using A(2B) receptor knockout (A(2B)KO) mice. These mice exhibited significantly attenuated tumor growth and longer survival times after inoculation with Lewis lung carcinoma compared to wild type (WT) controls. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in A(2B)KO mice contained significantly lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared to tumors growing in WT animals. This difference was due to VEGF production by host cells, which comprised 30 +/- 2% of total tumor cell population. Stimulation of adenosine receptors on WT tumor-infiltrating CD45+ immune cells increased VEGF production fivefold, an effect not seen in tumor-associated CD45+ immune cells lacking A(2B) receptors. In contrast, we found no significant difference in VEGF production between CD45- tumor cells isolated from WT and A(2B)KO mice. Thus, our data suggest that tumor cells promote their growth by exploiting A(2B) adenosine receptor-dependent regulation of VEGF in host immune cells. PMID:18714400

Ryzhov, Sergey; Novitskiy, Sergey V; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Goldstein, Anna E; Carbone, David P; Biaggioni, Italo; Dikov, Mikhail M; Feoktistov, Igor

2008-09-01

56

Host A2B Adenosine Receptors Promote Carcinoma Growth1  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that tumor-infiltrating immune cells can benefit the tumor by producing factors that promote angiogenesis and suppress immunity. Because the tumor microenvironment is characterized by high adenosine levels, we hypothesized that the low-affinity A2B adenosine receptor located on host immune cells may participate in these effects. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis in a Lewis lung carcinoma isograft model using A2B receptor knockout (A2BKO) mice. These mice exhibited significantly attenuated tumor growth and longer survival times after inoculation with Lewis lung carcinoma compared to wild type (WT) controls. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in A2BKO mice contained significantly lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared to tumors growing in WT animals. This difference was due to VEGF production by host cells, which comprised 30 ± 2% of total tumor cell population. Stimulation of adenosine receptors on WT tumor-infiltrating CD45+ immune cells increased VEGF production fivefold, an effect not seen in tumor-associated CD45+ immune cells lacking A2B receptors. In contrast, we found no significant difference in VEGF production between CD45- tumor cells isolated from WT and A2BKO mice. Thus, our data suggest that tumor cells promote their growth by exploiting A2B adenosine receptor-dependent regulation of VEGF in host immune cells.

Ryzhov, Sergey; Novitskiy, Sergey V; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Goldstein, Anna E; Carbone, David P; Biaggioni, Italo; Dikov, Mikhail M; Feoktistov, Igor

2008-01-01

57

A Set of Imprinted Genes Required for Normal Body Growth Also Promotes Growth of Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells  

PubMed Central

In many normal tissues, proliferation rates decline postnatally causing somatic growth to slow. Previous evidence suggests that this decline is due in part to declining expression of growth-promoting imprinted genes including Mest, Plagl1, Peg3, Dlk1, and Igf2. Embryonal cancers are composed of cells that maintain embryonic characteristics and proliferate rapidly in childhood. We hypothesized that the abnormal persistent rapid proliferation in embryonal cancers occurs in part because of abnormal persistent high expression of growth-promoting imprinted genes. Analysis of microarray data showed elevated expression of MEST, PLAGL1, PEG3, DLK1, and IGF2 in various embryonal cancers, especially rhabdomyosarcoma, compared to non-embryonal cancers and normal tissues. Similarly, mRNA expression, assessed by real-time PCR, of MEST, PEG3, and IGF2 in rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines was increased compared to non-embryonal cancer cell lines. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of MEST, PLAGL1, PEG3, and IGF2 expression inhibited proliferation in Rh30 rhabdomyosarcoma cells. These finding suggest that the normal postnatal downregulation of growth-promoting imprinted genes fails to occur in some embryonal cancers, particularly rhabdomyosarcoma, and contributes to the persistent rapid proliferation of rhabdomyosarcoma cells, and, more generally, that failure of the mechanisms responsible for normal somatic growth deceleration can promote tumorigenesis.

Rezvani, Geoffrey; Lui, Julian C.K.; Barnes, Kevin M.; Baron, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

58

Modulations of the chicken cecal microbiome and metagenome in response to anticoccidial and growth promoter treatment.  

PubMed

With increasing pressures to reduce or eliminate the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion purposes in production animals, there is a growing need to better understand the effects elicited by these agents in order to identify alternative approaches that might be used to maintain animal health. Antibiotic usage at subtherapeutic levels is postulated to confer a number of modulations in the microbes within the gut that ultimately result in growth promotion and reduced occurrence of disease. This study examined the effects of the coccidiostat monensin and the growth promoters virginiamycin and tylosin on the broiler chicken cecal microbiome and metagenome. Using a longitudinal design, cecal contents of commercial chickens were extracted and examined using 16S rRNA and total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. A number of genus-level enrichments and depletions were observed in response to monensin alone, or monensin in combination with virginiamycin or tylosin. Of note, monensin effects included depletions of Roseburia, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus, and enrichments in Coprococcus and Anaerofilum. The most notable effect observed in the monensin/virginiamycin and monensin/tylosin treatments, but not in the monensin-alone treatments, was enrichments in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the metagenomic dataset identified enrichments in transport system genes, type I fimbrial genes, and type IV conjugative secretion system genes. No significant differences were observed with regard to antimicrobial resistance gene counts. Overall, this study provides a more comprehensive glimpse of the chicken cecum microbial community, the modulations of this community in response to growth promoters, and targets for future efforts to mimic these effects using alternative approaches. PMID:22114729

Danzeisen, Jessica L; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Isaacson, Richard E; Tu, Zheng Jin; Johnson, Timothy J

2011-01-01

59

Modulations of the Chicken Cecal Microbiome and Metagenome in Response to Anticoccidial and Growth Promoter Treatment  

PubMed Central

With increasing pressures to reduce or eliminate the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion purposes in production animals, there is a growing need to better understand the effects elicited by these agents in order to identify alternative approaches that might be used to maintain animal health. Antibiotic usage at subtherapeutic levels is postulated to confer a number of modulations in the microbes within the gut that ultimately result in growth promotion and reduced occurrence of disease. This study examined the effects of the coccidiostat monensin and the growth promoters virginiamycin and tylosin on the broiler chicken cecal microbiome and metagenome. Using a longitudinal design, cecal contents of commercial chickens were extracted and examined using 16S rRNA and total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. A number of genus-level enrichments and depletions were observed in response to monensin alone, or monensin in combination with virginiamycin or tylosin. Of note, monensin effects included depletions of Roseburia, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus, and enrichments in Coprococcus and Anaerofilum. The most notable effect observed in the monensin/virginiamycin and monensin/tylosin treatments, but not in the monensin-alone treatments, was enrichments in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the metagenomic dataset identified enrichments in transport system genes, type I fimbrial genes, and type IV conjugative secretion system genes. No significant differences were observed with regard to antimicrobial resistance gene counts. Overall, this study provides a more comprehensive glimpse of the chicken cecum microbial community, the modulations of this community in response to growth promoters, and targets for future efforts to mimic these effects using alternative approaches.

Danzeisen, Jessica L.; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Isaacson, Richard E.; Tu, Zheng Jin; Johnson, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

60

Promoting growth for preterm infants following hospital discharge.  

PubMed

Preterm infants, especially very preterm infants, are usually growth-restricted at the time of hospital discharge. Proposed interventions to promote catch-up growth following hospital discharge include multinutrient fortification of expressed breast milk for breastfed infants and nutrient-enriched formula milk for formula-fed infants. The current evidence to support these strategies is limited. Fortification of expressed breast milk may increase weight gain and skeletal and head growth during infancy, but more research is needed to define which nutrients confer most benefit, and which population of infants is likely to receive most benefit. Trials that have assessed feeding preterm infants with commercially available nutrient-enriched formula milk ('preterm' or 'postdischarge' formulae) compared with standard formula milk have not found consistent evidence of an effect on growth parameters or development, probably because ad libitum fed infants reduce their intake relative to the calorie-density of the milk. Future studies should focus on the effect of formulae enriched with protein and minerals rather than energy and assess the effect on lean mass and skeletal growth. PMID:21406452

Morgan, J A; Young, L; McCormick, F M; McGuire, W

2012-07-01

61

Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria for Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings  

SciTech Connect

Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance the revegetation of mine tailings and minimize the need for compost amendment. Twenty promising PGPB isolates were used as seed inoculants in a series of greenhouse studies to examine revegetation of an extremely acidic, high metal content tailings sample previously shown to require 15% compost amendment for normal plant growth. Several isolates significantly enhanced growth of two native species, quailbush and buffalo grass, in tailings. In this study, PGPB/compost outcomes were plant specific; for quailbush, PGPB were most effective in combination with 10% compost addition while for buffalo grass, PGPB enhanced growth in the complete absence of compost. Results indicate that selected PGPB can improve plant establishment and reduce the need for compost amendment. Further, PGPB activities necessary for aiding plant growth in mine tailings likely include tolerance to acidic pH and metals.

Grandlic, C.J.; Mendez, M.O.; Chorover, J.; Machado, B.; Maier, R.M.

2009-05-19

62

Thiazolidinediones Promote Axonal Growth through the Activation of the JNK Pathway  

PubMed Central

The axon is a neuronal process involved in protein transport, synaptic plasticity, and neural regeneration. It has been suggested that their structure and function are profoundly impaired in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous evidence suggest that Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-? (PPAR? promote neuronal differentiation on various neuronal cell types. In addition, we demonstrated that activation of PPAR?by thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs that selectively activate PPAR? prevent neurite loss and axonal damage induced by amyloid-? (A?). However, the potential role of TZDs in axonal elongation and neuronal polarity has not been explored. We report here that the activation of PPAR? by TZDs promoted axon elongation in primary hippocampal neurons. Treatments with different TZDs significantly increased axonal growth and branching area, but no significant effects were observed in neurite elongation compared to untreated neurons. Treatment with PPAR? antagonist (GW 9662) prevented TZDs-induced axonal growth. Recently, it has been suggested that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays an important role regulating axonal growth and neuronal polarity. Interestingly, in our studies, treatment with TZDs induced activation of the JNK pathway, and the pharmacological blockage of this pathway prevented axon elongation induced by TZDs. Altogether, these results indicate that activation of JNK induced by PPAR?activators stimulates axonal growth and accelerates neuronal polarity. These novel findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of PPAR? on neuronal differentiation and validate the use of PPAR? activators as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases.

Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.; Godoy, Juan A.; Alfaro, Ivan; Cabezas, Deny; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Bronfman, Miguel; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

2013-01-01

63

An update on alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters for broilers.  

PubMed

Livestock performance and feed efficiency are closely interrelated with the qualitative and quantitative microbial load of the animal gut, the morphological structure of the intestinal wall and the activity of the immune system. Antimicrobial growth promoters have made a tremendous contribution to profitability in intensive husbandry, but as a consequence of the increasing concern about the potential for antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria, the European Commission decided to ban all commonly used feed antibiotics. There are a number of non-therapeutic alternatives, including enzymes, (in)organic acids, probiotics, prebiotics, etheric oils and immunostimulants. Their efficacy and mode of action are briefly described in this review. PMID:20382054

Huyghebaert, Gerard; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

2011-02-01

64

HDM2 promotes WIP1-mediated medulloblastoma growth.  

PubMed

Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant childhood brain tumor. The protein phosphatase and oncogene WIP1 is over-expressed or amplified in a significant number of primary human medulloblastomas and cell lines. In the present study, we examine an important mechanism by which WIP1 promotes medulloblastoma growth using in vitro and in vivo models. Human cell lines and intracerebellar xenografted animal models were used to study the role of WIP1 and the major TP53 regulator, HDM2, in medulloblastoma growth. Stable expression of WIP1 enhances growth of TP53 wild-type medulloblastoma cells, compared with cells with stable expression of an empty-vector or mutant WIP1. In an animal model, WIP1 enhances proliferation and reduces the survival of immunodeficient mice bearing intracerebellar xenografted human medulloblastoma cells. Cells with increased WIP1 expression also exhibit increased expression of HDM2. HDM2 knockdown or treatment with the HDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a, the active enantomer of Nutlin-3, specifically inhibits the growth of medulloblastoma cells with increased WIP1 expression. Nutlin-3a does not affect growth of medulloblastoma cells with stable expression of an empty vector or of mutant WIP1. Knockdown of WIP1 or treatment with the WIP1 inhibitor CCT007093 results in increased phosphorylation of known WIP1 targets, reduced HDM2 expression, and reduced growth specifically in WIP1 wild-type and high-expressing medulloblastoma cells. Combined WIP1 and HDM2 inhibition is more effective than WIP1 inhibition alone in blocking growth of WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma cells. Our preclinical study supports a role for therapies that target WIP1 and HDM2 in the treatment of medulloblastoma. PMID:22379189

Buss, Meghan C; Read, Tracy-Ann; Schniederjan, Matthew J; Gandhi, Khanjan; Castellino, Robert C

2012-04-01

65

Endocrine fibroblast growth factor FGF19 promotes prostate cancer progression.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is the most common visceral malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in US men. There is broad evidence that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors are important in prostate cancer initiation and progression, but the contribution of particular FGFs in this disease is not fully understood. The FGF family members FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23 comprise a distinct subfamily that circulate in serum and act in an endocrine manner. These endocrine FGFs require ?-Klotho (KL) and/or ?-Klotho (KLB), two related single-pass transmembrane proteins restricted in their tissue distribution, to act as coreceptors along with classic FGF receptors (FGFR) to mediate potent biologic activity. Here we show that FGF19 is expressed in primary and metastatic prostate cancer tissues, where it functions as an autocrine growth factor. Exogenous FGF19 promoted the growth, invasion, adhesion, and colony formation of prostate cancer cells at low ligand concentrations. FGF19 silencing in prostate cancer cells expressing autocrine FGF19 decreased invasion and proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Consistent with these observations, KL and/or KLB were expressed in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, raising the possibility that additional endocrine FGFs may also exert biologic effects in prostate cancer. Our findings support the concept that therapies targeting FGFR signaling may have efficacy in prostate cancer and highlight FGF19 as a relevant endocrine FGF in this setting. PMID:23440425

Feng, Shu; Dakhova, Olga; Creighton, Chad J; Ittmann, Michael

2013-04-15

66

Biosensor-based detection of reduced sex hormone-binding globulin binding capacities in response to growth-promoter administrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth-promoting agents are illicitly used during animal rearing processes and the detection of their use is limited by new compounds and dosing practices that limit the efficiency of current testing which is based on residue analysis by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS\\/MS) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) methodology. An alternative approach is to use indirect biological evidence as a screening

Mark H. Mooney; Aldert A. Bergwerff; Jeroen A. van Meeuwen; Peter B. Luppa; Chris T. Elliott

2009-01-01

67

Approach to the development of a short-term whole-animal bioassay to distinguish initiating agents (incomplete carcinogens), promoting agents, complete carcinogens, and noncarcinogens in rat liver  

SciTech Connect

Utilizing data obtained from the published literature as well as further observations, the experimental findings reported in this paper serve to indicate an approach to the development of a short-term whole-animal bioassay capable of distinguishing agents that act at one or the other or both of the stages of initiation and promotion in rat liver. Because of the tissue specificity for both complete carcinogens and promoting agents, this bioassay system is not likely to identify the initiating and promoting capabilities of all carcinogenic agents and, thus, at present is not designed to replace the standard chronic bioassay systems. However, in view of the diverse metabolic capabilities of hepatic tissue, the system proposed may represent a model capable of distinguishing the stages of carcinogenesis at which many, if not most, specific carcinogenic chemicals exert their primary action. Test agents included diethylnitrosamine, dimethylbenzanthracene, proflavin, phenobarbital, butylated hydroxyanisole, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and red beet betalain pigments.

Goldsworthy, T.L.; Pitot, H.C.

1985-01-01

68

Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Promotes Kidney Growth and Repair via Alteration of Macrophage Responses  

PubMed Central

Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 controls the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of macrophages, which are recognized as scavengers and agents of the innate and the acquired immune systems. Because of their plasticity, macrophages are endowed with many other essential roles during development and tissue homeostasis. We present evidence that CSF-1 plays an important trophic role in postnatal organ growth and kidney repair. Notably, the injection of CSF-1 postnatally enhanced kidney weight and volume and was associated with increased numbers of tissue macrophages. Moreover, CSF-1 promotes postnatal renal repair in mice after ischemia-reperfusion injury by recruiting and influencing macrophages toward a reparative state. CSF-1 treatment rapidly accelerated renal repair with tubular epithelial cell replacement, attenuation of interstitial fibrosis, and functional recovery. Analysis of macrophages from CSF-1-treated kidneys showed increased expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and anti-inflammatory genes that are known CSF-1 targets. Taken together, these data suggest that CSF-1 is important in kidney growth and the promotion of endogenous repair and resolution of inflammatory injury.

Alikhan, Maliha A.; Jones, Christina V.; Williams, Timothy M.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Fletcher, Anne L.; Kett, Michelle M.; Sakkal, Samy; Samuel, Chrishan S.; Ramsay, Robert G.; Deane, James A.; Wells, Christine A.; Little, Melissa H.; Hume, David A.; Ricardo, Sharon D.

2011-01-01

69

Promotion effect of constituents from the root of Polygonum multiflorum on hair growth.  

PubMed

Two new compounds, gallic acid ester of torachrysone-8-O-?-D-glucoside (1) and (E)-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-xyloside (4), along with eight known compounds (2, 3, 5-10) were isolated from a 70% ethanol extract of Polygonum multiflorum roots. The structures were determined by (1)H and (13)C NMR, HMQC, and HMBC spectrometry. Extracts of P. multiflorum have been reported to promote hair growth in vivo. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of isolated compounds from P. multiflorum on promoting hair growth using dermal papilla cells (DPCs), which play an important role in hair growth. When DPCs were treated with compounds (1-10) from P. multiflorum, compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 10 increased the proliferation of DPCs compared with the control. Specifically, compound 2 (10 and 20 ?M) induced a greater increase in the proliferation of DPCs than minoxidil (10 ?M). Additionally, treatment of vibrissa follicles with compound 2 for 21 days increased hair-fiber length significantly. On the basis of this result, further investigation and optimization of these derivatives might help in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of alopecia. PMID:23896496

Sun, Ya Nan; Cui, Long; Li, Wei; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kang, Jung Il; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Young Ho

2013-09-01

70

Colony-stimulating factor-1 promotes kidney growth and repair via alteration of macrophage responses.  

PubMed

Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 controls the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of macrophages, which are recognized as scavengers and agents of the innate and the acquired immune systems. Because of their plasticity, macrophages are endowed with many other essential roles during development and tissue homeostasis. We present evidence that CSF-1 plays an important trophic role in postnatal organ growth and kidney repair. Notably, the injection of CSF-1 postnatally enhanced kidney weight and volume and was associated with increased numbers of tissue macrophages. Moreover, CSF-1 promotes postnatal renal repair in mice after ischemia-reperfusion injury by recruiting and influencing macrophages toward a reparative state. CSF-1 treatment rapidly accelerated renal repair with tubular epithelial cell replacement, attenuation of interstitial fibrosis, and functional recovery. Analysis of macrophages from CSF-1-treated kidneys showed increased expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and anti-inflammatory genes that are known CSF-1 targets. Taken together, these data suggest that CSF-1 is important in kidney growth and the promotion of endogenous repair and resolution of inflammatory injury. PMID:21762674

Alikhan, Maliha A; Jones, Christina V; Williams, Timothy M; Beckhouse, Anthony G; Fletcher, Anne L; Kett, Michelle M; Sakkal, Samy; Samuel, Chrishan S; Ramsay, Robert G; Deane, James A; Wells, Christine A; Little, Melissa H; Hume, David A; Ricardo, Sharon D

2011-09-01

71

Increased local dopamine secretion has growth promoting effects in cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Cholangiocarcinoma is a devastating cancer of biliary origin with limited treatment options. Symptoms are usually evident after blockage of the bile duct by the tumor, and at this late stage, they are relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Therefore, it is imperative that alternative treatment options are explored. We have previously shown that serotonin metabolism is dysregulated in cholangiocarcinoma leading to an increased secretion of serotonin, which has growth-promoting effects. Because serotonin and dopamine share the degradation machinery, we evaluated the secretion of dopamine from cholangiocarcinoma and its effects on cell proliferation. Using 4 cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and human biopsy samples, we demonstrated that there was an increase in mRNA and protein expression of the dopamine synthesis enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and dopa decarboxylase in cholangiocarcinoma. There was increased dopamine secretion from cholangiocarcinoma cell lines compared to H69 and HIBEC cholangiocytes and increased dopamine immunoreactivity in human biopsy samples. Furthermore, administration of dopamine to all cholangiocarcinoma cell lines studied increased proliferation by up to 30% which could be blocked by the pretreatment of the D2 and D4 dopamine receptor antagonists, whereas blocking dopamine production by ?-methyldopa administration suppressed growth by up to 25%. Administration of ?-methyldopa to nude mice also suppressed cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth. The data presented here represent the first evidence that dopamine metabolism is dysregulated in cholangiocarcinoma and that modulation of dopamine synthesis may represent an alternative target for the development of therapeutic strategies.

Coufal, Monique; Invernizzi, Pietro; Gaudio, Eugenio; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Frampton, Gabriel A.; Onori, Paolo; Franchitto, Antonio; Carpino, Guido; Ramirez, Jonathan C.; Alvaro, Domenico; Marzioni, Marco; Battisti, Guido; Benedetti, Antonio; DeMorrow, Sharon

2009-01-01

72

Comparative genomic analysis of four representative plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Pseudomonas  

PubMed Central

Background Some Pseudomonas strains function as predominant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Within this group, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens are non-pathogenic biocontrol agents, and some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains are PGPR. P. chlororaphis GP72 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with a fully sequenced genome. We conducted a genomic analysis comparing GP72 with three other pseudomonad PGPR: P. fluorescens Pf-5, P. aeruginosa M18, and the nitrogen-fixing strain P. stutzeri A1501. Our aim was to identify the similarities and differences among these strains using a comparative genomic approach to clarify the mechanisms of plant growth-promoting activity. Results The genome sizes of GP72, Pf-5, M18, and A1501 ranged from 4.6 to 7.1 M, and the number of protein-coding genes varied among the four species. Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) analysis assigned functions to predicted proteins. The COGs distributions were similar among the four species. However, the percentage of genes encoding transposases and their inactivated derivatives (COG L) was 1.33% of the total genes with COGs classifications in A1501, 0.21% in GP72, 0.02% in Pf-5, and 0.11% in M18. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that GP72 and Pf-5 were the most closely related strains, consistent with the genome alignment results. Comparisons of predicted coding sequences (CDSs) between GP72 and Pf-5 revealed 3544 conserved genes. There were fewer conserved genes when GP72 CDSs were compared with those of A1501 and M18. Comparisons among the four Pseudomonas species revealed 603 conserved genes in GP72, illustrating common plant growth-promoting traits shared among these PGPR. Conserved genes were related to catabolism, transport of plant-derived compounds, stress resistance, and rhizosphere colonization. Some strain-specific CDSs were related to different kinds of biocontrol activities or plant growth promotion. The GP72 genome contained the cus operon (related to heavy metal resistance) and a gene cluster involved in type IV pilus biosynthesis, which confers adhesion ability. Conclusions Comparative genomic analysis of four representative PGPR revealed some conserved regions, indicating common characteristics (metabolism of plant-derived compounds, heavy metal resistance, and rhizosphere colonization) among these pseudomonad PGPR. Genomic regions specific to each strain provide clues to its lifestyle, ecological adaptation, and physiological role in the rhizosphere.

2013-01-01

73

Biophysical basis of growth promotion in primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. by hormones versus light: solute accumulation and the growth potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid cell enlargement in primary leaves of bean is induced by bright white light (WL), gibberellic acid (GA3) or the cytokinin N6-benzyladenine (BA). In previous studies it has been show that all three agents cause an increase in wall extensibility, although by different mechanisms. Here we examine the effects of the three growth promoters on the osmotic potential difference (delta Psi), the accumulation of solutes (delta TSC), the wall yield threshold (Y) and the growth potential (delta Psi -Y). With GA3 and BA, but not WL, there was a rapid decline in delta Psi as measured by the osmotic concentration of expressed sap. Unlike WL, neither GA3 nor BA promoted the accumulation of osmotic solutes. The decline in delta Psi, however, was apparently counteracted by a decline in Y since the growth potential, as measured by the external-osmoticum method, remained unchanged. It is concluded that WL, GA3 and BA all promote cell enlargement of bean leaves by increasing one cellular growth parameter, wall extensibility. Only WL, however, promotes osmotic adjustment during growth.

Brock, T. G.; Cleland, R. E.

1990-01-01

74

P2X7R suppression promotes glioma growth through epidermal growth factor receptor signal pathway.  

PubMed

P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has been shown to mediate an anticancer effect via apoptosis in different types of cancer. However, whether P2X7R exerts a promoting or suppressive effect on brain glioma is still a controversial issue and its underlying mechanism remains unknown. We showed here that P2X7R suppression exerted a pro-growth effect on glioma through directly promoting cells proliferation and pro-angiogenesis, which was associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. The P2X7R was markedly downregulated by cells exposure to the P2X7R antagonist, brilliant blue G (BBG), moreover, the cells proliferation was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner and the expression of EGFR or p-EGFR protein was significantly upregulated. By constructing C6 cells with reduced expression of P2X7R using shRNA, we also demonstrated strong upregulation in cells proliferation and EGFR/p-EGFR expression. However, this effect of BBG was reversed in the presence of gefitinib or suramin. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography perfusion showed that the BBG or P2X7R shRNA promoted the tumor growth by about 40% and 50%, respectively, and significantly increased angiogenesis. Nissl and Ki-67 staining also confirmed that BBG or P2X7R shRNA notably increased the tumor growth. More importantly, either BBG or P2X7R shRNA could markedly upregulated the expression of EGFR, p-EGFR, HIF-1? and VEGF in glioma cells. In conclusion, P2X7R suppression exerts a promoting effect on glioma growth, which is likely to be related to upregulated EGFR, HIF-1? and VEGF expression. These findings provide important clues to the molecular basis of anticancer effect of targeting purinergic receptors. PMID:23523696

Fang, Jingqin; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Letian; Chen, Jinhua; Liang, Yi; Li, Xue; Xiang, Jianbo; Wang, Lili; Guo, Guangkuo; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Weiguo

2013-06-01

75

Fibronectin promotes rat Schwann cell growth and motility  

PubMed Central

Techniques are now available for culturing well characterized and purified Schwann cells. Therefore, we investigated the role of fibronectin in the adhesion, growth, and migration of cultured rat Schwann cells. Double-immunolabeling shows that, in primary cultures of rat sciatic nerve, Schwann cells (90%) rarely express fibronectin, whereas fibroblasts (10%) exhibit a granular cytoplasmic and fibrillar surface-associated fibronectin. Secondary cultures of purified Schwann cells do not express fibronectin. Exogenous fibronectin has a small effect on promoting the adhesion of Schwann cells to the substrate and does not significantly affect cell morphology, but it produced a surface fibrillar network on fibronectin on the secondary Schwann cells. Tritiated thymidine autoradiography revealed that addition of fibronectin to the medium, even at low concentrations, markedly stimulates Schwann cell proliferation, in both primary and secondary cultures. In addition, when cell migration was measured in a Boyden chamber assay, fibronectin was found to moderately, but clearly, stimulate directed migration or chemotaxis.

1982-01-01

76

Genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. strain JS.  

PubMed

Volatile and nonvolatile compounds emitted from the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. strain JS enhance the growth of tobacco and lettuce. Here, we report the high-quality genome sequence of this bacterium. Its 4.1-Mb genome reveals a number of genes whose products are possibly involved in promotion of plant growth or antibiosis. PMID:22740679

Song, Ju Yeon; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Ji-Seoung; Kim, Seon-Young; Jeong, Haeyoung; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Lee, Choong Hoon; Yu, Dong Su; Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Kwon, Suk Yoon; Kim, Jihyun F

2012-07-01

77

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. Strain JS  

PubMed Central

Volatile and nonvolatile compounds emitted from the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. strain JS enhance the growth of tobacco and lettuce. Here, we report the high-quality genome sequence of this bacterium. Its 4.1-Mb genome reveals a number of genes whose products are possibly involved in promotion of plant growth or antibiosis.

Song, Ju Yeon; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Ji-Seoung; Kim, Seon-Young; Jeong, Haeyoung; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Lee, Choong Hoon; Yu, Dong Su; Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Sun-Hyung

2012-01-01

78

Use of antimicrobial growth promoters in food animals and Enterococcus faecium resistance to therapeutic antimicrobial drugs in Europe.  

PubMed Central

Supplementing animal feed with antimicrobial agents to enhance growth has been common practice for more than 30 years and is estimated to constitute more than half the total antimicrobial use worldwide. The potential public health consequences of this use have been debated; however, until recently, clear evidence of a health risk was not available. Accumulating evidence now indicates that the use of the glycopeptide avoparcin as a growth promoter has created in food animals a major reservoir of Enterococcus faecium, which contains the high level glycopeptide resistance determinant vanA, located on the Tn1546 transposon. Furthermore, glycopeptide-resistant strains, as well as resistance determinants, can be transmitted from animals to humans. Two antimicrobial classes expected to provide the future therapeutic options for treatment of infections with vancomycin-resistant enterococci have analogues among the growth promoters, and a huge animal reservoir of resistant E. faecium has already been created, posing a new public health problem.

Wegener, H. C.; Aarestrup, F. M.; Jensen, L. B.; Hammerum, A. M.; Bager, F.

1999-01-01

79

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha promotes tumor growth by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? has been proved as an adjuvant therapy for tumor by FDA. However, the effect of chronic TNF-? expression for tumor is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of low-dose TNF-? on tumor growth. We confirmed that low-dose TNF-? promoted angiogenesis of tumor in vivo, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?, the transcription factor of VEGF, were both upregulated. Our results suggested that low-dose TNF-? was a powerful activator of angiogenesis in tumor and HIF-1?-VEGF pathway seemed to be the most important molecular mechanism. PMID:21740086

Jing, Yingying; Ma, Nannan; Fan, Tingting; Wang, Chenyang; Bu, Xinxin; Jiang, Guocheng; Li, Rong; Gao, Lu; Li, Ding; Wu, Mengchao; Wei, Lixin

2011-08-01

80

Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Plant Growth-Promoting Fungus Phoma sp. GS8-3 for Growth Promotion Effects on Tobacco  

PubMed Central

We extracted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by a plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF) Phoma sp. GS8-3 by gas chromatography and identified them by mass spectrometry. All of the identified compounds belonged to C4-C8 hydrocarbons. Volatiles varied in number and quantity by the culture period of the fungus (in days). 2-Methyl-propanol and 3-methyl-butanol formed the main components of the volatile blends for all the culture periods of fungus. Growth-promoting effects of the identified synthetic compounds were analyzed individually and in blends using tobacco plants. We found that the mixture of volatiles extracted from 3-day-old culture showed significant growth promotion in tobacco in vitro. The volatile blend showed better growth promotion at lower than higher concentrations. Our results confirm the potential role of volatile organic compounds in the mechanism of growth enhancement by GS8-3.

Naznin, Hushna Ara; Kimura, Minako; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2013-01-01

81

Hypoxia Promotes Tumor Growth in Linking Angiogenesis to Immune Escape  

PubMed Central

Despite the impressive progress over the past decade, in the field of tumor immunology, such as the identification of tumor antigens and antigenic peptides, there are still many obstacles in eliciting an effective immune response to eradicate cancer. It has become increasingly clear that tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in the control of immune protection. Tumors have evolved to utilize hypoxic stress to their own advantage by activating key biochemical and cellular pathways that are important in progression, survival, and metastasis. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play a determinant role in promoting tumor cell growth and survival. Hypoxia contributes to immune suppression by activating HIF-1 and VEGF pathways. Accumulating evidence suggests a link between hypoxia and tumor tolerance to immune surveillance through the recruitment of regulatory cells (regulatory T cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells). In this regard, hypoxia (HIF-1? and VEGF) is emerging as an attractive target for cancer therapy. How the microenvironmental hypoxia poses both obstacles and opportunities for new therapeutic immune interventions will be discussed.

Chouaib, Salem; Messai, Yosra; Couve, Sophie; Escudier, Bernard; Hasmim, Meriem; Noman, Muhammad Zaeem

2012-01-01

82

HE4 (WFDC2) gene overexpression promotes ovarian tumor growth.  

PubMed

Selective overexpression of Human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4) points to a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis but little is known about the role the HE4 gene or the gene product plays. Here we show that elevated HE4 serum levels correlate with chemoresistance and decreased survival rates in EOC patients. HE4 overexpression promoted xenograft tumor growth and chemoresistance against cisplatin in an animal model resulting in reduced survival rates. HE4 displayed responses to tumor microenvironment constituents and presented increased expression as well as nuclear translocation upon EGF, VEGF and Insulin treatment and nucleolar localization with Insulin treatment. HE4 interacts with EGFR, IGF1R, and transcription factor HIF1?. Constructs of antisense phosphorothio-oligonucleotides targeting HE4 arrested tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively these findings implicate increased HE4 expression as a molecular factor in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. Selective targeting directed towards the HE4 protein demonstrates therapeutic benefits for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:24389815

Moore, Richard G; Hill, Emily K; Horan, Timothy; Yano, Naohiro; Kim, KyuKwang; MacLaughlan, Shannon; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Tseng, YiTang Don; Padbury, James F; Miller, M Craig; Lange, Thilo S; Singh, Rakesh K

2014-01-01

83

Experimental study to test the potential tumor promotion effect of a tooth bleaching agent.  

PubMed

Carbamide Peroxide is routinely employed as a whitener for tooth enamel. Oral mucosa protection is recommended to avoid inflammatory reactions. Experimental work has demonstrated its irritative effect on gastric mucosa when swallowed. The activity of certain oxidizing agents as tumoral promoters has been demonstrated and associated to their capacity to induce hyperplasia. Within this context it seemed of interest to assess the possible action of carbamide peroxide as a tumoral promoter in oral mucosa with or without a precancerous condition. Its action was tested in 2 models which are highly sensitive to chemical cancerization: a) Dorsum skin or SENCAR mice treated with carbamide peroxide daily or twice a week with or without prior initiation with dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Control mice were submitted to the standard carcinogenesis protocol, i.e. initiation with DMBA and promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA). b) Hamster cheek pouch submitted to topical application of carbamide peroxide 3 times a week with or without prior initiation with DMBA, hamster cheek pouch submitted to repeated topical application of DMBA as a complete carcinogen: application twice a week in the control group and identical treatment + 1 weekly application of carbamide peroxide to evaluate its capacity to enhance the process. The effects were assessed between 1 and 14 weeks of treatment at different intervals for the different experimental protocols. The control cases exhibited hyperplasia and tumor induction in keeping with the known sequence for both carcinogenesis models. None of the cases revealed a promoter or enhancer capacity of carbamide peroxide. These results indicate the lack of risk involved in the application of carbamide peroxide even in oral mucosa with a precancerous condition due to the action of initiation agents such as tobacco and alcohol. PMID:15208934

Collet, A M; Palmieri, M; Molinari, B; Schwint, A E; Itoiz, M E

2001-01-01

84

Solubilization of zinc compounds by the diazotrophic, plant growth promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.  

PubMed

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus an endophytic diazotroph also encountered as rhizosphere bacterium is reported to possess different plant growth promoting characteristics. In this study, we assessed the zinc solubilizing potential of G. diazotrophicus under in vitro conditions with different Zn compounds using glucose or sucrose as carbon sources. G. diazotrophicus showed variations in their solubilization potential with the strains used and the Zn compounds tested. G. diazotrophicus PAl5 efficiently solubilized the Zn compounds tested and ZnO was effectively solubilized than ZnCO(3) or Zn(3)(PO(4))(2). The soluble Zn concentration was determined in the culture supernatant through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Gas chromatography coupled Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed 5-ketogluconic acid, a derivative of gluconic acid as the major organic acid produced by G. diazotrophicus PAl5 cultured with glucose as carbon source. This organic anion may be an important agent that helped in the solubilization of insoluble Zn compounds. PMID:16956644

Saravanan, V S; Madhaiyan, M; Thangaraju, M

2007-01-01

85

Monoclonal Antibodies to Ferric Pseudobactin, the Siderophore of Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonas putida B10  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies to ferric pseudobactin, the siderophore (microbial iron transport agent) of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida B10, have been developed. Three immunoglobulin G subclass 1-type monoclonal antibodies have been characterized. Each antibody appears to be unique on the basis of their reactions with ferric pseudobactin and with culture supernatants from other pseudomonads. None of the three cross-reacts with ferric pseudobactin-type siderophores produced by seven other pseudomonads. However, P. aeruginosa ATCC 15692 and P. fluorescens ATCC 17400 produced relatively high-molecular-mass compounds (mass greater than approximately 30,000 daltons) that did react with the antibodies. The compound from P. aeruginosa was not iron regulated, while the compound from P. fluorescens was produced only under iron-limiting conditions. A competitive assay using these antibodies has a detection limit of 5 × 10?12 mol of ferric pseudobactin. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of monoclonal antibodies reactive with siderophores.

Buyer, Jeffrey S.; Sikora, Lawrence J.; Kratzke, Marian G.

1990-01-01

86

Monoclonal Antibodies to Ferric Pseudobactin, the Siderophore of Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonas putida B10.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies to ferric pseudobactin, the siderophore (microbial iron transport agent) of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida B10, have been developed. Three immunoglobulin G subclass 1-type monoclonal antibodies have been characterized. Each antibody appears to be unique on the basis of their reactions with ferric pseudobactin and with culture supernatants from other pseudomonads. None of the three cross-reacts with ferric pseudobactin-type siderophores produced by seven other pseudomonads. However, P. aeruginosa ATCC 15692 and P. fluorescens ATCC 17400 produced relatively high-molecular-mass compounds (mass greater than approximately 30,000 daltons) that did react with the antibodies. The compound from P. aeruginosa was not iron regulated, while the compound from P. fluorescens was produced only under iron-limiting conditions. A competitive assay using these antibodies has a detection limit of 5 x 10 mol of ferric pseudobactin. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of monoclonal antibodies reactive with siderophores. PMID:16348116

Buyer, J S; Sikora, L J; Kratzke, M G

1990-02-01

87

Role of allelochemicals in plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for biocontrol of phytopathogens.  

PubMed

Soil borne fungal diseases pose serious constraints on agro-productivity. Biological control is non-hazardous strategy to control plant pathogens and improve crop productivity. PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) have long been used as plant disease control agents. PGPR produced a wide range of secondary compounds that may act as signals--that is, allelochemicals that include metabolites, siderophores, antibiotics, volatile metabolites, enzymes and others. Their mode of action and molecular mechanisms provide a great awareness for their application for crop disease management. The present review highlights the role of PGPR strains, specifically referring to allelochemicals produced and molecular mechanisms. Further research to fine tune combinations of allelochemicals, plant-microbe-pathogen interaction will ultimately lead to better disease control. PMID:24176815

Saraf, Meenu; Pandya, Urja; Thakkar, Aarti

2014-01-20

88

Response of intestinal microbiota to antibiotic growth promoters in chickens.  

PubMed

Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been used as feed additives to improve average daily weight gain and feed efficiency in food animals for more than five decades. However, use of AGPs is associated with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant human pathogens of animal origin, posing a significant threat to food safety and public health. Thus, development of novel alternatives to AGPs is important to mitigate antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens. To achieve this goal, the mode of action of AGPs should be elucidated. In this study, the response of the chicken gut microbiota to AGPs was examined using two culture-independent approaches: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing. PLFA analysis showed that AGP tylosin treatment changed composition of the microbiota in various intestinal sites; however, total viable bacterial biomass in intestine was not affected by tylosin treatment. PLFA analysis also revealed an abundant viable fungal population in chicken microbiota. Eight 16S rDNA libraries (96 clones per library) were constructed using ileal samples from chickens that received either antibiotic-free or medicated feed. The 16S rDNA clone analysis of the growth-relevant samples showed the AGP treatment influenced the diversity of ileum microbiota in the chickens primarily in the Firmicutes division. In particular, Lactobacillus spp. populations in the ileum of AGP-treated chickens were significantly lower than those from chickens receiving antibiotic-free feed. Together, this study revealed novel features of the intestinal microbiota in response to AGP treatment and suggested approach to develop potential alternatives to AGPs for mitigation of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens. PMID:23461609

Lin, Jun; Hunkapiller, Andree A; Layton, Alice C; Chang, Yun-Juan; Robbins, Kelly R

2013-04-01

89

The Promoting Effect of Ishige sinicola on Hair Growth  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the promoting effect of Ishige sinicola, an alga native to Jeju Island, Korea, on hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of I. sinicola extract for 21 days, I. sinicola extract increased hair-fiber length. After topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. The I. sinicola extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase. Treatment of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs) with I. sinicola extract resulted in increase of cell proliferation, which was accompanied by the increase of phospho-GSK3? level, ?-catenin, Cyclin E and CDK2, whereas p27kip1 was down-regulated. In particular, octaphlorethol A, an isolated component from the I. sinicola extract, inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase and increased the proliferation of DPCs. These results suggest that I. sinicola extract and octaphlorethol A, a principal of I. sinicola, have the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of DPCs followed by the activation of ?-catenin pathway, and the 5?-reductase inhibition.

Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Eun-JI; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Jeon, You-Jin; Kang, Sung-Myung; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2013-01-01

90

The promoting effect of Ishige sinicola on hair growth.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the promoting effect of Ishige sinicola, an alga native to Jeju Island, Korea, on hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of I. sinicola extract for 21 days, I. sinicola extract increased hair-fiber length. After topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. The I. sinicola extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase. Treatment of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs) with I. sinicola extract resulted in increase of cell proliferation, which was accompanied by the increase of phospho-GSK3? level, ?-catenin, Cyclin E and CDK2, whereas p27kip1 was down-regulated. In particular, octaphlorethol A, an isolated component from the I. sinicola extract, inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase and increased the proliferation of DPCs. These results suggest that I. sinicola extract and octaphlorethol A, a principal of I. sinicola, have the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of DPCs followed by the activation of ?-catenin pathway, and the 5?-reductase inhibition. PMID:23708185

Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Eun-Ji; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Jeon, You-Jin; Kang, Sung-Myung; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2013-06-01

91

Neuregulin1 signaling promotes dendritic spine growth through kalirin.  

PubMed

The biological functions of the neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and ERBB4 genes have received much recent attention due to several studies showing associations between these genes and schizophrenia. Moreover, reduced forebrain dendritic spine density is a consistent feature of schizophrenia. It is thus important to understand the mechanisms whereby NRG1 and erbB4 modulate spine morphogenesis. Here, we show that long-term incubation with NRG1 increases both spine size and density in cortical pyramidal neurons. NRG1 also enhances the content of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors in spines. Knockdown of ERBB4 expression prevented the effects of NRG1 on spine size, but not on spine density. The effects of NRG1 and erbB4 on spines were mediated by the RacGEF kalirin, a well-characterized regulator of dendritic spines. Finally, we show that environmental enrichment, known to promote spine growth, robustly enhances the levels of erbB4 protein in the forebrain. These findings provide a mechanistic link between NRG1 signaling and spine morphogenesis PMID:23742124

Cahill, Michael E; Remmers, Christine; Jones, Kelly A; Xie, Zhong; Sweet, Robert A; Penzes, Peter

2013-09-01

92

Perceptions of Growth Monitoring and Promotion among an International Panel of District Medical Officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth chart has been proposed as an educational tool to make the child's growth visible to both health workers and caregivers and to enhance communication between them. In the case of growth faltering, this would trigger timely corrective measures. Although the relevance of growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) has often been questioned in the literature, opinions of District Medical

Dominique Roberfroid; Pierre Lefèvre; Tom Hoerée; Patrick Kolsteren

93

The Role of Morphine in Animal Models of Human Cancer: Does Morphine Promote or Inhibit the Tumor Growth?  

PubMed Central

Morphine, a highly potent analgesic agent, is widely used to relieve pain and suffering of patients with cancer. Additionally, it has been reported that morphine is important in the regulation of cancerous tissue. Morphine relieves pain by acting directly on the central nervous system, although its activities on peripheral tissues are responsible for many adverse side effects. For these reasons, it is very important also to understand the role of morphine in cancer treatment. The published literature reporting the effect of morphine on tumor growth presents some discrepancies, with reports suggesting that morphine may either promote or inhibit the tumor growth. It has been also demonstrated that morphine modulates angiogenesis which is important for primary tumour growth, invasiveness, and the development of metastasis. This review will focus on the latest findings on the role of morphine in the regulation of cancer cell growth and angiogenesis.

Bimonte, Sabrina; Barbieri, Antonio; Palma, Giuseppe; Arra, Claudio

2013-01-01

94

Genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Enterobacter cloacae GS1.  

PubMed

Here, we present the genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae GS1. This strain proficiently colonizes rice roots and promotes plant growth by improving plant nutrition. Analyses of the E. cloacae GS1 genome will throw light on the genetic factors involved in root colonization, growth promotion, and ecological success of this rhizobacterium. PMID:22843603

Shankar, Manoharan; Ponraj, Paramasivan; Ilakiam, Devaraj; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

2012-08-01

95

Genome Sequences of Two Plant Growth-Promoting Fluorescent Pseudomonas Strains, R62 and R81  

PubMed Central

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains R62 and R81 have previously been isolated and characterized as part of the Indo-Swiss Collaboration in Biotechnology. Here we present the draft genome sequences of these two PGPR strains, with the aim of unraveling the mechanisms behind their ability to promote wheat growth.

Srivastava, R.; Wiemken, A.; Sharma, A. K.; Boller, T.

2012-01-01

96

INFLUENCE NETWORK AGENT EFFECTIVENESS IN PROMOTING COUPLES' HIV COUNSELING AND TESTING IN KIGALI, RWANDA  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify predictors of promotion of couples’ voluntary counseling and testing (CVCT) in Kigali, Rwanda Design Analysis of CVCT promotional agent (influential network leaders, INLs; influential network agents, INAs), and couple/invitation-level predictors of CVCT uptake. Methods Number of invitations and couples tested were evaluated by INL, INA, and couple/contextual factors. Multivariable logistic regression accounting for two-level clustering analyzed factors predictive of couples’ testing. Results 26 INLs recruited and mentored 118 INAs who delivered 24,991 invitations. 4,513 couples sought CVCT services after invitation. INAs distributed an average of 212 invitations resulting in an average of 38 couples tested/agent. Characteristics predictive of CVCT in multivariate analyses included the invitee and INA being socially acquainted (aOR=1.4;95%CI:1.2–1.6); invitations delivered after public endorsement (aOR=1.3;95%CI:1.1–1.5); and presence of a mobile testing unit (aOR=1.4;95%CI:1.0–2.0). In stratified analyses, predictors significant among cohabiting couples included invitation delivery to the couple (aOR=1.2;95%CI:1.0–1.4) in the home (aOR=1.3;95%CI:1.1–1.4), while among non-cohabiting couples predictors included invitations given by unemployed INAs (aOR=1.7;95%CI:1.1–2.7). Cohabiting couples with older men were more likely to test, while younger age was associated with testing among men in non-cohabiting unions. Conclusions Invitations distributed by influential people were successful in prompting couples to seek joint HIV testing, particularly if the invitation was given in the home to someone known to the INA, and accompanied by a public endorsement of CVCT. Mobile units also increased the number of couples tested. Country-specific strategies to promote CVCT programs are needed to reduce HIV transmission among those at highest risk for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

Wall, Kristin; Karita, Etienne; Nizam, Azhar; Bekan, Brigitte; Sardar, Gurkiran; Casanova, Debbie; Joseph, Dvora; De Clercq, Freya; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Bayingana, Roger; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

2013-01-01

97

Using detachment-promoting agents for the prevention of chronic peritoneal dialysis-associated infections.  

PubMed

Biofilms are known to be responsible for chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infections. Such infections are still frequent among patients in PD. The aim of this study was to develop a new approach in the prevention of chronic PD-related infection by regular injection of specific formulations containing detachment-promoting agents. A biofilm reactor system reproducing PD-like operating conditions was developed. A first set of experiments allowed the assessment of the anti-biofilm efficacy of various formulations. Then, experiments were performed for a longer duration and selected formulations were tested and compared with taurolidine. Biofilm removal was quantified by calculating the percentage of coverage reduction compared with an untreated control. A regular weekly treatment led to a 97% reduction of the surface coverage although a daily treatment with taurolidine still left 48% of the biomass on the surface. Such treatment is recommended to reduce the frequencies of chronic PD-related infections. PMID:19133019

Branger, Bernard; Marion, Karine; Bergeron, Emmanuelle; Perret, Cécile; Zabadani, Bachir; Reboul, Pascal; Freney, Jean

2008-12-01

98

Development of Novel Epidermal Growth Receptor-Based Radiopharmaceuticals: Imaging Agents for Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this research was to develop epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nuclear medicine breast cancer imaging agents. Our approach was to synthesize small molecule inhibitors of the EGFR tyrosine kinase (tk) suitable for labeling with single pho...

H. F. Van Brocklin

2001-01-01

99

Epidermal growth factor receptor-related protein: a potential therapeutic agent for colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims:Epidermal growth factor receptor is frequently implicated in epithelial cancers and is, therefore, being considered as a potential target for therapy. Recently, we reported the isolation and characterization of epidermal growth factor receptor–related protein, a negative regulator of epidermal growth factor receptor. To discern whether epidermal growth factor receptor-related protein could be an effective therapeutic agent for colorectal

Dorota J Marciniak; Lathika Moragoda; Ramzi M Mohammad; Yingjie Yu; Kiran K Nagothu; Amro Aboukameel; Fazlul H Sarkar; Volkan N Adsay; Arun K Rishi; Adhip P. N Majumdar

2003-01-01

100

Amelogenin as a promoter of nucleation and crystal growth of apatite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human dental enamel forms over a period of 2-4 years by substituting the enamel matrix, a protein gel mostly composed of a single protein, amelogenin with fibrous apatite nanocrystals. Self-assembly of amelogenin and the products of its selective proteolytic digestion are presumed to direct the growth of apatite fibers and their organization into bundles that eventually comprise the mature enamel, the hardest tissue in the mammalian body. This work aimed to establish the physicochemical and biochemical conditions for the growth of apatite crystals under the control of a recombinant amelogenin matrix (rH174) in combination with a programmable titration system. The growth of apatite substrates was initiated in the presence of self-assembling amelogenin particles. A series of constant titration rate experiments was performed that allowed for a gradual increase of the calcium and/or phosphate concentrations in the protein suspensions. We observed a significant amount of apatite crystals formed on the substrates following the titration of rH174 sols that comprised the initial supersaturation ratio equal to zero. The protein layers adsorbed onto the substrate apatite crystals were shown to act as promoters of nucleation and growth of calcium phosphates subsequently formed on the substrate surface. Nucleation lag time experiments have showed that rH174 tends to accelerate precipitation from metastable calcium phosphate solutions in proportion to its concentration. Despite their mainly hydrophobic nature, amelogenin nanospheres, the size and surface charge properties of which were analyzed using dynamic light scattering, acted as a nucleating agent for the crystallization of apatite. The biomimetic experimental setting applied in this study proves as convenient for gaining insight into the fundamental nature of the process of amelogenesis.

Uskokovi?, Vuk; Li, Wu; Habelitz, Stefan

2011-02-01

101

Intestinal alkaline phosphatase promotes gut bacterial growth by reducing the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates.  

PubMed

The intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in maintaining human health and well-being. Previously, we have shown that mice deficient in the brush-border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) suffer from dysbiosis and that oral IAP supplementation normalizes the gut flora. Here we aimed to decipher the molecular mechanism by which IAP promotes bacterial growth. We used an isolated mouse intestinal loop model to directly examine the effect of exogenous IAP on the growth of specific intestinal bacterial species. We studied the effects of various IAP targets on the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as on a few specific gut organisms. We determined the effects of ATP and other nucleotides on bacterial growth. Furthermore, we examined the effects of IAP on reversing the inhibitory effects of nucleotides on bacterial growth. We have confirmed that local IAP bioactivity creates a luminal environment that promotes the growth of a wide range of commensal organisms. IAP promotes the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and appears to exert its growth promoting effects by inactivating (dephosphorylating) luminal ATP and other luminal nucleotide triphosphates. We observed that compared with wild-type mice, IAP-knockout mice have more ATP in their luminal contents, and exogenous IAP can reverse the ATP-mediated inhibition of bacterial growth in the isolated intestinal loop. In conclusion, IAP appears to promote the growth of intestinal commensal bacteria by inhibiting the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates. PMID:24722905

Malo, Madhu S; Moaven, Omeed; Muhammad, Nur; Biswas, Brishti; Alam, Sayeda N; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Gul, Sarah Shireen; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Malo, Nondita S; Teshager, Abeba; Mohamed, Mussa M Rafat; Tao, Qingsong; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Hohmann, Elizabeth L; Warren, H Shaw; Robson, Simon C; Hodin, Richard A

2014-05-15

102

Endophytic bacteria isolated from orchid and their potential to promote plant growth.  

PubMed

Twelve endophytic bacteria were isolated from the meristem of in vitro Cymbidium eburneum orchid, and screened according to indole yield quantified by colorimetric assay, in vitro phosphate solubilization, and potential for plant growth promotion under greenhouse conditions. Eight strains with positive results were classified into the genus Paenibacillus by FAME profile, and evaluated for their ability to increase survival and promote the growth of in vitro germinated Cattleya loddigesii seedlings during the acclimatization process. The obtained results showed that all strains produced detectable indole levels and did not exhibit potential for solubilizing inorganic phosphate. Particularly, an increase of the total biomass and number of leaves was observed. Two strains of Paenibacillus macerans promoted plant growth under greenhouse conditions. None of the treatments had a deleterious effect on growth of inoculated plants. These results suggest that these bacterial effects could be potentially useful to promote plant growth during seedling acclimatization in orchid species other than the species of origin. PMID:23014841

Faria, Deise Cristina; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Melo, Itamar Soares; de Carvalho Costa, Francisco Eduardo

2013-02-01

103

Auxin promotes Arabidopsis root growth by modulating gibberellin response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of plant organs is influenced by a stream of the phytohormone auxin that flows from the shoot apex to the tip of the root. However, until now it has not been known how auxin regulates the cell proliferation and enlargement that characterizes organ growth. Here we show that auxin controls the growth of roots by modulating cellular responses

Xiangdong Fu; Nicholas P. Harberd

2003-01-01

104

[Growth hormone and IGF-1 as doping agents in competitive sport].  

PubMed

Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are often used by athletes as doping agents. It is estimated that up to 25% of sportsmen using anabolic-androgenic steroids also take GH. Available data do not confirm the influence of GH or IGF-1 preparations on physical performance improvement. However, there is some evidences for many adverse effects in athletes using this form of doping. Blood tests to detect growth hormone abuse are available since several years. Surprisingly, no one has been proven to use illegal doping agents influencing GH/IGF-1 axis. PMID:19885810

Jó?ków, Pawe?; Medra?, Marek

2009-01-01

105

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-04-24

106

Evaluation of Phytase Producing Bacteria for Their Plant Growth Promoting Activities  

PubMed Central

Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076–0.174?U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal activity. All isolates were positive for the above characteristics except for HCN production. The solubilization index for phosphorus on Pikovskaya agar plates was in the range of 2–4. Significant amount of IAA (7.19 to 35.03??g/mL) production and solubilized phosphate (189.53 to 746.84??g/mL) was noticed by these isolates at different time intervals. Besides that, a greenhouse study was also conducted with Indian mustard to evaluate the potential of these isolates to promote plant growth. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters and P uptake by plant were used as indicators. The plant growth promoting ability of bacterial isolates in pot experiments was correlated to IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and other in vitro tests. On the basis of present findings, isolate PB-06 was most promising in plant growth promotion with multiple growth promoting characteristics.

Singh, Prashant; Agrawal, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

107

Autoimmunity as a Double Agent in Tumor Killing and Cancer Promotion  

PubMed Central

Cancer immunotherapy through manipulation of the immune system holds great potential for the treatment of human cancers. However, recent trials targeting the negative immune regulators cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, programed death 1 (PD-1), and PD-1 receptor ligand (PD-L1) demonstrated that clinically significant antitumor responses were often associated with the induction of autoimmune toxicity. This finding suggests that the same immune mechanisms that elicit autoimmunity may also contribute to the destruction of tumors. Given the fact that the immunological identity of tumors might be largely an immunoprivileged self, autoimmunity may not represent a wholly undesirable outcome in the context of cancer immunotherapy. Rather, targeted killing of cancer cells and autoimmune damage to healthy tissues may be intricately linked through molecular mechanisms, in particular inflammatory cytokine signaling. On the other hand, since chronic inflammation is a well-recognized condition that promotes tumor development, it appears that autoimmunity can be a “double agent” in mediating either pro-tumor or antitumor effects. This review surveys the tumor-promoting and tumoricidal activities of several prominent cytokines: IFN-?, TNF-?, TGF-?, IL-17, IL-23, IL-4, and IL-13, produced by three major subsets of T helper cells that interact with innate immune cells. Many of these cytokines exert divergent and seemingly contradictory effects on cancer development in different human and animal models, suggesting a high degree of context dependence in their functions. We hypothesize that these inflammatory cytokines could mediate a feedback loop of autoimmunity, antitumor immunity, and tumorigenesis. Understanding the diverse and paradoxical roles of cytokines from autoimmune responses in the setting of cancer will advance the long-term goal of improving cancer immunotherapy, while minimizing the hazards of immune-mediated tissue damage and the possibility of de novo tumorigenesis, through proper monitoring and preventive measures.

Toomer, Kevin H.; Chen, Zhibin

2014-01-01

108

Promotion of Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root growth and tanshinone production by polysaccharide–protein fractions of plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus cereus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was to examine the effects of polysaccharides from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Bacillus cereus on the growth and tanshinone production of Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots. A polysaccharide fraction designated BPS was isolated from the hot water extract of B. cereus cells by ethanol precipitation. BPS applied to the root culture at 100–400mgl?1 a few days before the

Jiang-Lin Zhao; Li-Gang Zhou; Jian-Yong Wu

2010-01-01

109

Do Natural Disasters Promote Long-Run Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we investigate the long-run relationships among disasters, capital accumulation, total factor productivity, and economic growth. The cross-country empirical analysis demonstrates that higher frequencies of climatic disasters are correlated with higher rates of human capital accumulation, increases in total factor productivity, and economic growth. Though disaster risk reduces the expected rate of return to physical capital, risk also

Mark Skidmore; Hideki Toya

2002-01-01

110

Bacillus megaterium strain XTBG34 promotes plant growth by producing 2-pentylfuran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several chemical changes in soil are associated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. An endosporeforming bacterium,\\u000a strain XTBG34, was isolated from a Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden soil sample and identified as Bacillus megaterium. The strain’s volatiles had remarkable plant growth promotion activity in Arabidopsis thaliana plants; after 15 days treatment, the fresh weight of plants inoculated with XTBG34 was almost 2-fold compared

Changsong Zou; Zhifang Li; Diqiu Yu

2010-01-01

111

Induced Systemic Protection Against Tomato Late Blight Elicited by Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yan, Z., Reddy, M. S., Ryu, C.-M., McInroy, J. A., Wilson, M., and Kloepper, J. W. 2002. Induced systemic protection against tomato late blight elicited by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Phytopathology 92:1329-1333. Two strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Bacillus pumilus SE34 and Pseudomonas fluorescens 89B61, elicited systemic protection against late blight on tomato and reduced disease severity by a level

Zhinong Yan; M. S. Reddy; Choong-Min Ryu; John A. McInroy; Mark Wilson; Joseph W. Kloepper

2002-01-01

112

Plant growth-promoting activities of fluorescent pseudomonads, isolated from the Iranian soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent pseudomonads are among the most influencing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in plants rhizosphere. In this\\u000a research work the plant growth-promoting activities of 40 different strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas\\u000a putida, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) and maintained in the microbial collection of Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran, Iran,

P. Abbas-Zadeh; N. Saleh-Rastin; H. Asadi-Rahmani; K. Khavazi; A. Soltani; A. R. Shoary-Nejati; Mohammad Miransari

2010-01-01

113

Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

1999-01-01

114

Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor Treatment Promotes VEGF-A-Driven Blood Vessel Growth and Vascular Leakage but Disrupts Neovascular Perfusion  

PubMed Central

The Notch signaling pathway is essential for normal development due to its role in control of cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. It is also critically involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. A key enzyme in the activation of Notch signaling is the gamma-secretase protein complex and therefore, gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs)—originally developed for Alzheimer's disease—are now being evaluated in clinical trials for human malignancies. It is also clear that Notch plays an important role in angiogenesis driven by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A)—a process instrumental for tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of GSIs on tumor vasculature has not been conclusively determined. Here we report that Compound X (CX), a GSI previously reported to potently inhibit Notch signaling in vitro and in vivo, promotes angiogenic sprouting in vitro and during developmental angiogenesis in mice. Furthermore, CX treatment suppresses tumor growth in a mouse model of renal carcinoma, leads to the formation of abnormal vessels and an increased tumor vascular density. Using a rabbit model of VEGF-A-driven angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, we demonstrate that CX treatment promotes abnormal blood vessel growth characterized by vessel occlusion, disrupted blood flow, and increased vascular leakage. Based on these findings, we propose a model for how GSIs and other Notch inhibitors disrupt tumor blood vessel perfusion, which might be useful for understanding this new class of anti-cancer agents.

Kalen, Mattias; Nitzsche, Anja; Weber, Holger; Esser, Norbert; Yla-Herttuala, Seppo; Hellstrom, Mats

2011-01-01

115

Characterization of yeastolate fractions that promote insect cell growth and recombinant protein production  

PubMed Central

Yeastolate is effective in promoting growth of insect cell and enhancing production of recombinant protein, thus it is a key component in formulating serum-free medium for insect cell culture. However, yeastolate is a complex mixture and identification of the constituents responsible for cell growth promotion has not yet been achieved. This study used sequential ethanol precipitation to fractionate yeastolate ultrafiltrate (YUF) into six fractions (F1–F6). Fractions were characterized and evaluated for their growth promoting activities. Fraction F1 was obtained by 65% ethanol precipitation. When supplemented to IPL-41 medium at a concentration of 1 g L?1, fraction F1 showed 71% Sf-9 cell growth improvement and 22% ?-galactosidase production enhancement over YUF (at 1 g L?1 in IPL-41 medium). However, the superiority of F1 over YUF on promoting cell growth gradually diminished as its concentration in IPL-41 medium increased. At 4 g L?1, the relative activity of F1 was 93% whereas YUF was 100% at the same concentration. At 1 g L?1, four other fractions (F2–F5) precipitated with higher ethanol concentrations and F6, the final supernatant, showed growth promoting activities ranging from 32 to 80% as compared to YUF (100%). Interestingly, a synergistic effect on promoting cell growth was observed when F6 was supplemented in IPL-41 medium in presence of high concentrations of F1 (>3 g L?1). The results suggest that ethanol precipitation was a practical method to fractionate growth-promoting components from YUF, but more than one components contributed to the optimum growth of Sf-9 cells. Further fractionation, isolation and identification of individual active components would be needed to better understand the role of these components on the cell metabolism.

Shen, Chun Fang; Kiyota, Taira; Jardin, Barbara; Konishi, Yasuo

2007-01-01

116

Characterization of yeastolate fractions that promote insect cell growth and recombinant protein production.  

PubMed

Yeastolate is effective in promoting growth of insect cell and enhancing production of recombinant protein, thus it is a key component in formulating serum-free medium for insect cell culture. However, yeastolate is a complex mixture and identification of the constituents responsible for cell growth promotion has not yet been achieved. This study used sequential ethanol precipitation to fractionate yeastolate ultrafiltrate (YUF) into six fractions (F1-F6). Fractions were characterized and evaluated for their growth promoting activities. Fraction F1 was obtained by 65% ethanol precipitation. When supplemented to IPL-41 medium at a concentration of 1 g L(-1), fraction F1 showed 71% Sf-9 cell growth improvement and 22% beta-galactosidase production enhancement over YUF (at 1 g L(-1 )in IPL-41 medium). However, the superiority of F1 over YUF on promoting cell growth gradually diminished as its concentration in IPL-41 medium increased. At 4 g L(-1), the relative activity of F1 was 93% whereas YUF was 100% at the same concentration. At 1 g L(-1), four other fractions (F2-F5) precipitated with higher ethanol concentrations and F6, the final supernatant, showed growth promoting activities ranging from 32 to 80% as compared to YUF (100%). Interestingly, a synergistic effect on promoting cell growth was observed when F6 was supplemented in IPL-41 medium in presence of high concentrations of F1 (>3 g L(-1)). The results suggest that ethanol precipitation was a practical method to fractionate growth-promoting components from YUF, but more than one components contributed to the optimum growth of Sf-9 cells. Further fractionation, isolation and identification of individual active components would be needed to better understand the role of these components on the cell metabolism. PMID:19003015

Shen, Chun Fang; Kiyota, Taira; Jardin, Barbara; Konishi, Yasuo; Kamen, Amine

2007-05-01

117

ZBP-89 Promotes Growth Arrest through Stabilization of p53  

Microsoft Academic Search

coactivator p300 in the regulation of p21waf1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor whose associated gene is a target gene of p53. Therefore, we examined whether ZBP-89 might also inhibit cell growth by activating p53. In the present study, we demonstrate that elevated levels of ZBP-89 induce growth arrest and apoptosis in human gastrointestinal cell lines. The ZBP-89 protein accumulated within 4

LONGCHUAN BAI; JUANITA L. MERCHANT

2001-01-01

118

Plant Hormones Promote Growth in Lichen-Forming Fungi  

PubMed Central

The effect of plant hormones on the growth of lichen-forming fungi (LFF) was evaluated. The use of 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and indole-3-butyric acid resulted in a 99% and 57% increase in dry weight of the lichen-forming fungus Nephromopsis ornata. The results suggest that some plant hormones can be used as inducers or stimulators of LFF growth for large-scale culture.

Wang, Xin Yu; Wei, Xin Li; Luo, Heng; Kim, Jung A; Jeon, Hae Sook; Koh, Young Jin

2010-01-01

119

Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: role of visual presence and appearance  

PubMed Central

Anthropomorphic virtual agents can serve as powerful technological mediators to impact motivational outcomes such as self-efficacy and attitude change. Such anthropomorphic agents can be designed as simulated social models in the Bandurian sense, providing social influence as virtual ‘role models’. Of particular value is the capacity for designing such agents as optimized social models for a target audience and context. Importantly, the visual presence and appearance of such agents can have a major impact on motivation and affect regardless of the underlying technical sophistication. Empirical results of different instantiations of agent presence and appearance are reviewed for both autonomous virtual agents and avatars that represent a user.

Baylor, Amy L.

2009-01-01

120

Complete Genome of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1  

SciTech Connect

We report the complete sequence of the 5.7-Mbp genome of Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1, a metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that is highly tolerant to desiccation and capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and iron and of synthesizing phytohormones that stimulate seed germination and plant growth.

Matilla, M.A.; van der Lelie, D.; Pizarro-Tobias, P.; Roca, A.; Fernandez, M.; Duque, E.; Molina, L.; Wu, X.; Gomez, M. J.; Segura, A.; Ramos, J.-L.

2011-03-01

121

PROMOTION OF PLANT GROWTH BY SOIL BACTERIA THAT REGULATE PLANT ETHYLENE LEVELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the central the mechanisms used by many soil bacteria to directly promote plant growth is the production of the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. This enzyme facilitates plant growth as a consequence of the fact that it sequesters and cleaves plant- produced ACC (the immediate precursor of ethylene in plants), thereby lowering the level of ethylene in the plant.

Bernard R. Glick

122

Growth promoting effect of recombinant interleukin I and tumor necrosis factor for human astrocytoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human IL I has been demonstrated to stimulate the growth of rat astrocytes in vitro. To determine if IL I has a similar growth promoting effect upon human brain cells, two astrocytoma cell lines were tested for their ability to incorporate ³H-thymidine in response to various types of IL I and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The U373 astrocytoma was found

D. Giulian; C. A. Dinarello; D. C. Brown; L. B. Lachman

1986-01-01

123

Clove extract inhibits tumor growth and promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) have been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for thousands of years. Cloves possess antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties, but their potential anticancer activity remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects and biological mechanisms of ethyl acetate extract of cloves (EAEC) and the potential bioactive components responsible for its antitumor activity. The effects of EAEC on cell growth, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis were investigated using human cancer cell lines. The molecular changes associated with the effects of EAEC were analyzed by Western blot and (qRT)-PCR analysis. The in vivo effect of EAEC and its bioactive component was investigated using the HT-29 tumor xenograft model. We identified oleanolic acid (OA) as one of the components of EAEC responsible for its antitumor activity. Both EAEC and OA display cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines. Interestingly, EAEC was superior to OA and the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil at suppressing growth of colon tumor xenografts. EAEC promoted G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with EAEC and OA selectively increased protein expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and ?-H2AX and downregulated expression of cell cycle-regulated proteins. Moreover, many of these changes were at the mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional regulation by EAEC treatment. Our results demonstrate that clove extract may represent a novel therapeutic herb for the treatment of colorectal cancer, and OA appears to be one of the bioactive components. PMID:24854101

Liu, Haizhou; Schmitz, John C; Wei, Jianteng; Cao, Shousong; Beumer, Jan H; Strychor, Sandra; Cheng, Linyou; Liu, Ming; Wang, Cuicui; Wu, Ning; Zhao, Xiangzhong; Zhang, Yuyan; Liao, Joshua; Chu, Edward; Lin, Xiukun

2014-01-01

124

Inhibition of phospholipase D by agents that inhibit cell growth.  

PubMed

The phospholipases are an important class of enzymes for growth factor and oncogene intracellular signalling. The anti-tumor drug suramin was found to inhibit phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and trans-phosphatidylation by solubilized rat brain phospholipase D (PLD) with an IC50 of 15 microM. An azo analogue of suramin, which is a considerably more potent inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (PIPLC) than suramin, inhibited PLD with and IC50 of 58 microM. D-609, a xanthogenate compound with in vitro antitumor activity, inhibited PLD with an IC50 of 820 microM. The cytotoxic aminosteroid compound U-73, 122 was a weaker inhibitor of PLD with an IC50 of 78 microM. However, U-73, 122 was a more potent inhibitor of PLD in fibroblast membranes with an IC50 of 25 microM, while suramin was less active with an IC50 of 4.2 mM. The antitumor ether lipid drug ET-18-OCH3 did not inhibit solubilized or membrane PLD although it is a potent inhibitor of PIPLC. The results of the study show that the compounds tested have different abilities to inhibit PIPLC and PLD. Access of hydrophilic drugs to membrane PLD may be a limiting factor to their inhibitory activity. PMID:8352550

Gratas, C; Powis, G

1993-01-01

125

Rhizonin A from Burkholderia sp. KCTC11096 and its growth promoting role in lettuce seed germination.  

PubMed

We isolated and identified a gibberellin-producing Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096 from agricultural field soils. The culture filtrate of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) significantly increased the germination and growth of lettuce and Chinese cabbage seeds. The ethyl acetate extract of the PGPR culture showed significantly higher rate of lettuce seed germination and growth as compared to the distilled water treated control. The ethyl acetate fraction of the Burkholderia sp. was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation and we obtained for the first time from a Burkholderia sp. the plant growth promoting compound rhizonin A (1), which was characterized through NMR and MS techniques. Application of various concentrations of 1 significantly promoted the lettuce seed germination as compared to control. PMID:22759911

Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Abdul Latif; Hussain, Javid; Ali, Liaqat; Kamran, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

2012-01-01

126

Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in Mexico (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, with rapid growth occurring in the industrial and services sectors. A forward-thinking country on climate change, the nation recognizes that the threat of higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent weather-related disasters could pose a substantial risk to its expanding economy.

Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

2013-11-01

127

Ras1 Promotes Cellular Growth in the Drosophila Wing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ras GTPase links extracellular mitogens to intracellular mechanisms that control cell proliferation. To understand how Ras regulates proliferation in vivo, we activated or inactivated Ras in cell clones in the developing Drosophila wing. Cells lacking Ras were smaller, had reduced growth rates, accumulated in G1, and underwent apoptosis due to cell competition. Conversely, activation of Ras increased cell size

David A Prober; Bruce A Edgar

2000-01-01

128

Colonization and plant growth promoting characterization of endophytic Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain Zong1 isolated from Sophora alopecuroides root nodules  

PubMed Central

The endophytic strain Zong1 isolated from root nodules of the legume Sophora alopecuroides was characterized by conducting physiological and biochemical tests employing gfp-marking, observing their plant growth promoting characteristics (PGPC) and detecting plant growth parameters of inoculation assays under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that strain Zong1 had an effective growth at 28 ºC after placed at 4–60 ºC for 15 min, had a wide range pH tolerance of 6.0–11.0 and salt tolerance up to 5% of NaCl. Zong1 was resistant to the following antibiotics (?g/mL): Phosphonomycin (100), Penicillin (100) and Ampicillin (100). It could grow in the medium supplemented with 1.2 mmol/L Cu, 0.1% (w/v) methylene blue and 0.1–0.2% (w/v) methyl red, respectively. Zong1 is closely related to Pseudomonas chlororaphis based on analysis the sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Its expression of the gfp gene indicated that strain Zong1 may colonize in root or root nodules and verified by microscopic observation. Furthermore, co-inoculation with Zong1 and SQ1 (Mesorhizobium sp.) showed significant effects compared to single inoculation for the following PGPC parameters: siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, organic acid production, IAA production and antifungal activity in vitro. These results suggest strains P. chlororaphi Zong1 and Mesorhizobium sp. SQ1 have better synergistic or addictive effect. It was noteworthy that each growth index of co-inoculated Zong1+SQ1 in growth assays under greenhouse conditions is higher than those of single inoculation, and showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared to a negative control. Therefore, as an endophyte P. chlororaphis Zong1 may play important roles as a potential plant-growth promoting agent.

Zhao, Long Fei; Xu, Ya Jun; Ma, Zhan Qiang; Deng, Zhen Shan; Shan, Chang Juan; Wei, Ge Hong

2013-01-01

129

Effects of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) on yield, growth and nutrient contents of organically grown strawberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) on the fruit yield, growth and nutrient element content of strawberry cv. Fern were investigated under organic growing conditions between 2006 and 2008. The experimental plot was a completely randomized design with 3 replicates. Three PGPB strains (Pseudomonas BA-8, Bacillus OSU-142 and Bacillus M-3) were used alone or in combination as bio-fertilizer

Ahmet Esitken; Hilal E. Yildiz; Sezai Ercisli; M. Figen Donmez; Metin Turan; Adem Gunes

2010-01-01

130

A tumor growth inhibitory factor and a tumor growth promoting factor isolated from unfertilized ova of shad (Alosa sapidissima).  

PubMed

In the present study, a cytostatic tumor growth inhibitory peptide and a tumor growth promoting peptide with molecular weights of 20,000-30,000 Da have been identified in the supernatant fraction of unfertilized ova from Shad. The factors can be separated by gel chromatography, thus indicating that the factors are individual molecules. Both of the factors are nondialyzable, heat stable, and resistant to trypsin digestion and periodate oxidation. PMID:2930539

Sheid, B; Prat, J C; Gaetjens, E

1989-03-15

131

Dietary isoflavone increases insulin-like growth factor-I production, thereby promoting hair growth in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory neurons release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) upon activation. We previously demonstrated that CGRP increases insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) production in various tissues of mice including the skin. We demonstrated that isoflavone increases the CGRP synthesis in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in rats. Since IGF-I plays a critical role in hair growth, we hypothesized that isoflavones may promote

Juan Zhao; Naoaki Harada; Hiroki Kurihara; Naomi Nakagata; Kenji Okajima

2011-01-01

132

Interactions of Phenolic Acids, Metallic Ions and Chelating Agents on Auxin-Induced Growth  

PubMed Central

By growth experiments in indoleacetic acid-1-14C (IAA), and determination of the 14CO2 evolved, it has been shown directly that polyphenols synergize IAA-induced growth by counteracting IAA decarboxylation. Sinapic and ferulic acids act like polyphenols. Endogenous polyphenols doubtless exert the same influence in intact plants. Monophenols stimulate the decarboxylation of IAA under conditions where they depress growth. When Mn++ is present as well, this effect is enhanced. All these growth effects are paralleled by effects on the isolated IAA oxidizing enzyme of Avena. EDTA acts like the polyphenols in depressing the decarboxylation of IAA, and not synergizing with the growth induced by naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-D. However, since EDTA synergizes with IAA for growth even at optimal IAA concentrations, its growth promotion probably involves an additional effect. DIECA inhibits powerfully the destruction of IAA, but without causing much growth promotion, apparently because its decomposition products inhibit respiration. Mn++ aloné stimulates the decarboxylation of IAA, i.e. this ion promotes the IAA oxidase in vivo as it does in vitro. Nevertheless, it does not inhibit elongation, but at relatively high concentrations even stimulates it, both at low and high IAA levels. Since Mn++ also promotes the growth induced by NAA and 2,4-D, its growth action cannot rest primarily on modifying the metabolism of the auxins. Cobalt somewhat decreases the decarboxylation of IAA, but this cannot explain its growth promotion, since Co++, like Mn++, stimulates elongation even at optimal IAA concentrations, and acts with NAA just as well as with IAA. Ferrous ion, on the other hand, acts like the polyphenols. Floating pea stem sections exude enough organic matter to support bacteria which after 7 hours cause considerable decarboxylation of IAA. Avena coleoptile sections have a comparable though smaller effect after 12 hours. The present experiments, with those of others, point to a major role for polyphenolase in controlling hormone balance, since the introduction into a phenolic molecule of a second, adjacent hydroxyl group changes the action from auxin-destroying to auxin-preserving. Thus the phenol oxidizing enzymes must act as general growth controllers.

Tomaszewski, Miroslaw; Thimann, Kenneth V.

1966-01-01

133

Quercetin promotes glioma growth in a rat model.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that quercetin (Quer), a polyphenol widely found in vegetables, decreased glioma cell growth in vitro. Here, we asked whether this compound could affect glioma growth in an in vivo rat glioma model. We found that daily intraperitoneal Quer (50 mg/kg) injections lead to a concentration of 0.15 ?g of Quer per gram of brain tissue, which increased the tumor volume in a time dependent manner. We observed a small reduction in lymphocytic infiltration, a marker of good prognosis in gliomas that was accompanied by a small reduction in cell viability of peripheral T-cells. Moreover, after Quer treatment neither body weight alteration nor liver pathology markers were detected. Although in vitro studies and massive literature reports point to the antitumoral properties of Quer, the present results indicate that great caution has to be taken in the design of clinical trials and the indiscriminate use of this polyphenol as dietary supplement. PMID:24252772

Zamin, Lauren L; Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo C; Vargas, Jose; Demartini, Diogo Ribeiro; Meurer, Luise; Souza, Ana Paula; Bonorino, Cristina; Salbego, Christianne; Lenz, Guido

2014-01-01

134

PPAR? Promotes Growth and Invasion of Thyroid Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and no effective therapy is currently available. We show here that PPAR? levels are elevated in cells derived from ATC. Depletion of PPAR? in HTh74 ATC cells resulted in decreased cell growth, cell cycle arrest and a reduction in pRb and cyclin A and B1 levels. We further showed that both flank and orthotopic thyroid tumors derived from PPAR?-depleted cells grew more slowly than PPAR?-expressing cells. When PPAR? was overexpressed in more differentiated thyroid cancer BCPAP cells which lack PPAR?, there was increased growth and raised pRb and cyclin A and B1 levels. Finally, PPAR? depletion in ATC cells decreased their invasive capacity whereas overexpression in PTC cells increased invasiveness. These data suggest that PPAR? may play a detrimental role in thyroid cancer and that targeting it therapeutically may lead to improved treatment of advanced thyroid cancer.

Wood, William M.; Sharma, Vibha; Bauerle, Kevin T.; Pike, Laura A.; Zhou, Qiong; Fretwell, Deborah L.; Schweppe, Rebecca E.; Haugen, Bryan R.

2011-01-01

135

PPAR? Promotes Growth and Invasion of Thyroid Cancer Cells.  

PubMed

Undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and no effective therapy is currently available. We show here that PPAR? levels are elevated in cells derived from ATC. Depletion of PPAR? in HTh74 ATC cells resulted in decreased cell growth, cell cycle arrest and a reduction in pRb and cyclin A and B1 levels. We further showed that both flank and orthotopic thyroid tumors derived from PPAR?-depleted cells grew more slowly than PPAR?-expressing cells. When PPAR? was overexpressed in more differentiated thyroid cancer BCPAP cells which lack PPAR?, there was increased growth and raised pRb and cyclin A and B1 levels. Finally, PPAR? depletion in ATC cells decreased their invasive capacity whereas overexpression in PTC cells increased invasiveness. These data suggest that PPAR? may play a detrimental role in thyroid cancer and that targeting it therapeutically may lead to improved treatment of advanced thyroid cancer. PMID:22194735

Wood, William M; Sharma, Vibha; Bauerle, Kevin T; Pike, Laura A; Zhou, Qiong; Fretwell, Deborah L; Schweppe, Rebecca E; Haugen, Bryan R

2011-01-01

136

Partner switching promotes cooperation among myopic agents on a geographical plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the coupling dynamics between the evolution of cooperation and the evolution of partnership network on a geographical plane. While agents play networked prisoner’s dilemma games, they can dynamically adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputation. We incorporate geographical features into the process of the agent’s partner switching and investigate the corresponding effects. At each time step of the coevolution, a random agent can either update his strategy by imitation or adjust his partnership by switching from the lowest reputation partner to the highest reputation one among his neighbors. We differentiate two types of neighbors: geographical neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in terms of geographical distance) and connectivity neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in the partnership network in terms of geodesic distance). We find that switching to either geographical neighbors or connectivity neighbors enhances cooperation greatly in a wide parameter range. Cooperation can be favored in a much stricter condition when agents switch to connectivity neighbors more frequently. However, an increasing tendency of reconnecting to geographical neighbors shortens the geographical distance between a pair of partners on average. When agents consider the cost of geographical distance in adjusting the partnership, they are prone to reconnect to geographical neighbors.

Li, Yixiao; Min, Yong; Zhu, Xiaodong; Cao, Jie

2013-02-01

137

Promotion of root growth by the application of inosine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to verify the effect of inosine on plant growth. Rice (Oryza sativa L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seedlings were grown in a hydroponic system with different added concentrations of inosine (0, 7.2, 72 and 373??mol?L) in a greenhouse. The

Dai Tokuhisa; Takuro Shinano; Toshihiro Watanabe; Takuya Yamamura; Mitsuru Osaki

2010-01-01

138

Mature BDNF promotes the growth of glioma cells in vitro.  

PubMed

High-grade glioma is incurable and is associated with a short survival time and a poor prognosis. There are two forms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proBDNF and mature BDNF, which exert opposite effects. Their diverse actions are mediated through two different transmembrane receptor signalling systems: p75NTR and TrkB. The important roles of the BDNF/TrkB signalling system in tumour cell proliferation and survival have been demonstrated. However, few studies have been able to distinguish mature BDNF from proBDNF due to the limitation of specific antibodies. Using specific proBDNF antibodies, we demonstrated that the proBDNF/p75NTR pathway appears to inhibit malignant glioma cell growth and migration. In the present study using specific mature BDNF antibodies, we found that mature BDNF inhibited C6 glioma cell apoptosis and increased cell growth and migration in vitro. Our data suggest that the counterbalance between mature BDNF and proBDNF may regulate tumour growth. PMID:24064679

Xiong, Jing; Zhou, Li; Lim, Yoon; Yang, Miao; Zhu, Yu-Hong; Li, Zhi-Wei; Zhou, Fiona H; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhou, Xin-Fu

2013-12-01

139

NOV promoted the growth and migration of pancreatic cancer cells.  

PubMed

NOV, a member of the CCN (Cyr61, CTGF and NOV) family, is involved in diverse biological processes, such as cell adhesion, proliferation and angiogenesis. However, its function in pancreatic cancer remains poorly understood. Here, we found that the expression of NOV was up-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues. Moreover, over-expression of NOV in pancreatic cancer cells promoted cell proliferation and migration, while knock down the expression of NOV impaired the tumorigenecity of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, NOV induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and regulated the expression of multiple EMT marker. Taken together, our study suggested the important role of NOV in pancreatic cancer and NOV might be an important therapeutic target. PMID:24258112

Cui, Lei; Xie, Rong; Dang, Shenchun; Zhang, Qing; Mao, Shengfa; Chen, Jixiang; Qu, Jianguo; Zhang, Jianxin

2014-04-01

140

Highly enantioselective catalytic synthesis of neurite growth-promoting secoyohimbanes.  

PubMed

Natural products endowed with neuromodulatory activity and their underlying structural scaffolds may inspire the synthesis of novel neurotrophic compound classes. The spirocyclic secoyohimbane alkaloid rhynchophylline is the major component of the extracts of Uncaria species used in Chinese traditional medicine for treatment of disorders of the central nervous system. Based on the structure of rhynchophylline, a highly enantioselective and efficient organocatalyzed synthesis method was developed that gives access to the tetracyclic secoyohimbane scaffold, embodying a quaternary and three tertiary stereogenic centers in a one-pot multistep reaction sequence. Investigation of a collection of the secoyohimbanes in primary rat hippocampal neurons and embryonal stem cell-derived motor neurons led to discovery of compounds that promote neurite outgrowth and influence the complexity of neuronal network formation. PMID:23601639

Antonchick, Andrey P; López-Tosco, Sara; Parga, Juan; Sievers, Sonja; Schürmann, Markus; Preut, Hans; Höing, Susanne; Schöler, Hans R; Sterneckert, Jared; Rauh, Daniel; Waldmann, Herbert

2013-04-18

141

The Use of Growth Factors and Other Humoral Agents to Accelerate and Enhance Burn Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Objective: Certain cytokines, especially those known as growth factors, have been demonstrated to mediate or modulate burn wound healing. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that there are therapeutic advantages to the wound healing process when these agents are utilized. Positive effects have been reported for 4 types of wounds seen in the burn patient: partial-thickness wounds, full-thickness wounds, interstices of meshed skin grafts, and skin graft donor sites. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, Ovid, and Web of Science databases to identify pertinent articles regarding growth factors and other cytokines in burns and wound healing. Results: The current knowledge about cytokine growth factors and their potential therapeutic applications in burn wound healing are discussed and reviewed. Conclusions: Platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factors, epidermal growth factors, transforming growth factor alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor I, nerve growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and amnion-derived cellular cytokine solution have all been suggested to enhance the rate and quality of healing in 1 or more of these wounds encountered in burn care.

Ching, Yiu-Hei; Sutton, Thomas L.; Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Robson, Martin C.; Payne, Wyatt G.

2011-01-01

142

Promotion of growth by elevated carbon dioxide is coordinated through a flexible transcriptional network in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Although gibberellins (GAs) promote many developmental responses in plants, little is known about how the hormone interacts with environmental signals at the molecular level for regulating plant growth. Recently, we have demonstrated that inhibition of growth by the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) at ambient [CO2] (350 µmol CO2 mol-1) is reverted by elevated [CO2] (750 ?mol CO2 mol-1). Our finding points to an important role of elevated [CO2] as a signal allowing higher growth rates of low-GA plants. GA promotes plant growth via a complex transcriptional network that integrates multiple signaling pathways. Herein, we discuss how elevated [CO2] stimulates biomass accumulation in a GA-independent manner by regulating the expression of growth-related genes.

Ribeiro, Dimas M.; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Schippers, Jos H.M.

2013-01-01

143

Promotion of growth by elevated carbon dioxide is coordinated through a flexible transcriptional network in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Although gibberellins (GAs) promote many developmental responses in plants, little is known about how the hormone interacts with environmental signals at the molecular level for regulating plant growth. Recently, we have demonstrated that inhibition of growth by the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) at ambient [CO?] (350 µmol CO? mol(-1)) is reverted by elevated [CO?] (750 ?mol CO? mol(-1)). Our finding points to an important role of elevated [CO?] as a signal allowing higher growth rates of low-GA plants. GA promotes plant growth via a complex transcriptional network that integrates multiple signaling pathways. Herein, we discuss how elevated [CO?] stimulates biomass accumulation in a GA-independent manner by regulating the expression of growth-related genes. PMID:23333969

Ribeiro, Dimas M; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Schippers, Jos H M

2013-03-01

144

Effects of antimicrobial agents on growth and chemotaxis of Trichomonas vaginalis.  

PubMed

The motility of viable Trichomonas vaginalis organisms is readily demonstrable in a clinical wet mount or cultured specimens. We attempted to determine whether migration is a dynamic process such that the organisms move to avoid exposure to toxic antimicrobial agents. With the use of axenic cultures of T. vaginalis that were radiolabeled and assayed for chemotaxis in plastic multiwelled plates with a membrane filter inserted to trap organisms, the response of clinical isolates to various antimicrobial agents was studied. Chemotaxis was readily demonstrable and dependent upon factors including time of incubation, media used, and viscosity of media. Nitroimidazoles (e.g., metronidazole) which readily inhibited the growth of these organisms also caused significant chemorepulsion after minutes of exposure. The antifungal imidazoles ketoconazole and miconazole inhibited growth nearly as readily and caused chemorepulsion, but to a lesser degree. The spermicide Nonoxynol-9 also inhibited growth and caused significant chemorepulsion. The minimal concentrations of many compounds which inhibited growth were very similar to those which caused significant chemorepulsion. Imidazole and antibiotics (e.g., penicillin) which did not inhibit growth did not induce any chemotactic effects. Chemotaxis of T. vaginalis is an active and dynamic process, and the organisms display chemorepulsion shortly after exposure to toxic antimicrobial agents, well before toxicity can be demonstrated. PMID:3264130

Sugarman, B; Mummaw, N

1988-09-01

145

Effects of antimicrobial agents on growth and chemotaxis of Trichomonas vaginalis.  

PubMed Central

The motility of viable Trichomonas vaginalis organisms is readily demonstrable in a clinical wet mount or cultured specimens. We attempted to determine whether migration is a dynamic process such that the organisms move to avoid exposure to toxic antimicrobial agents. With the use of axenic cultures of T. vaginalis that were radiolabeled and assayed for chemotaxis in plastic multiwelled plates with a membrane filter inserted to trap organisms, the response of clinical isolates to various antimicrobial agents was studied. Chemotaxis was readily demonstrable and dependent upon factors including time of incubation, media used, and viscosity of media. Nitroimidazoles (e.g., metronidazole) which readily inhibited the growth of these organisms also caused significant chemorepulsion after minutes of exposure. The antifungal imidazoles ketoconazole and miconazole inhibited growth nearly as readily and caused chemorepulsion, but to a lesser degree. The spermicide Nonoxynol-9 also inhibited growth and caused significant chemorepulsion. The minimal concentrations of many compounds which inhibited growth were very similar to those which caused significant chemorepulsion. Imidazole and antibiotics (e.g., penicillin) which did not inhibit growth did not induce any chemotactic effects. Chemotaxis of T. vaginalis is an active and dynamic process, and the organisms display chemorepulsion shortly after exposure to toxic antimicrobial agents, well before toxicity can be demonstrated.

Sugarman, B; Mummaw, N

1988-01-01

146

Resuscitation Promoting Factor (Rpf) from Tomitella biformata AHU 1821T Promotes Growth and Resuscitates Non-Dividing Cells  

PubMed Central

Functional variation of Rpf, a growth factor found exclusively in Actinobacteria, is differentiated by its source and amino acid sequences. Only purified Rpf proteins from three species have been studied so far. To seek new Rpfs for use in future studies to understand their role in Actinobacteria, the objective of this study was to identify rpf gene homologs in Tomitella biformata AHU 1821T, a novel Actinobacteria isolated from permafrost ice wedge. Amplification using degenerate primers targeting the essential Rpf domain led to the discovery of a new rpf gene in T. biformata. Gene structure and the deduced Rpf domain amino acid sequence indicated that this rpf gene was not identical to previously studied Rpf. Phylogenetic analysis placed T. biformata Rpf in a monophyletic branch in the RpfB subfamily. The deduced amino acid sequence was 44.9% identical to RpfB in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the closest functionally tested Rpf. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli; the recombinant Rpf protein (rRpf) promoted the growth of dividing cells and resuscitated non-dividing cells of T. biformata. Compared to other studies, this Rpf was required at higher concentrations to promote its growth and to resuscitate itself from a non-dividing state. The resuscitation function was likely due to the highly conserved Rpf domain. This study provides evidence that a genetically unique but functional Rpf can be found in novel members of Actinobacteria and can lead to a better understanding of bacterial cytokines in this phylum.

Puspita, Indun Dewi; Uehara, Moe; Katayama, Taiki; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Kitagawa, Wataru; Kamagata, Yoichi; Asano, Kozo; Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Tanaka, Michiko

2013-01-01

147

Isolation and characterization of fluorescent pseudomonads and their effect on plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Seven isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads were evaluated for their effect on plant growth promoting traits, both under normal and saline conditions using tomato plants. Fifteen rhizosphere samples from crop fields' of rice, chilly, ragi, beans and garden soils from different regions of India were collected and used for further study. They were characterized morphologically and biochemically which led to a conclusion that they may belong to genus Pseudomonas. They were also analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. It was observed that all the isolates were able to produce these compounds, but to varying extent. But, isolate JUPF37 produced highest followed by JUPF32. Study showed that out of seven isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads, JUPF37 showed highest plant growth promoting traits both under normal and saline conditions. PMID:25004745

Anitha, G; Kumudini, B S

2014-07-01

148

Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. PMID:24144612

Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

2014-01-01

149

Promoting Self-Regulated Learning Skills in Agent-based Learning Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed computer environments that support learning by teaching, concept mapping, scaffolding, and the use of self regulated learning (SRL) skills by social interactions with virtual agents. More specifically, students teach a computer agent, Betty, and can monitor her progress by asking her questions and getting her to take quizzes. The system provides SRL support via dialog-embedded prompts. Our

Gautam BISWAS; Rod ROSCOE; Hogyeong JEONG; Brian SULCER

150

Transgenic tomato plants alter quorum sensing in plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

Two Gram-negative, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), denominated as M12 and M14, were classified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Burkholderia graminis species. Both strains were shown to produce a variety of N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing (QS) signalling molecules. The involvement of these molecules in plant growth promotion and the induction of protection against salt stress was examined. AHL production was evaluated in vitro by thin-layer chromatography using AHL biosensors, and the identity of the AHLs produced was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The in situ production of AHLs by M12 and M14 in the rhizosphere of Arabidopsis thaliana plants was detected by co-inoculation with green fluorescent protein-based biosensor strains and confocal laser scanning microscopy. To determine whether plant growth promotion and protection against salt stress were mediated by QS, these PGPRs were assayed on wild-type tomato plants, as well as their corresponding transgenics expressing YenI (short-chain AHL producers) and LasI (long-chain AHL producers). In wild-type tomato plants, only M12 promoted plant growth, and this effect disappeared in both transgenic lines. In contrast, M14 did not promote growth in wild-type tomatoes, but did so in the LasI transgenic line. Resistance to salt stress was induced by M14 in wild-type tomato, but this effect disappeared in both transgenic lines. The strain M12, however, did not induce salt resistance in wild-type tomato, but did so in LasI tomato plants. These results reveal that AHL QS signalling molecules mediate the ability of both PGPR strains M12 and M14 to promote plant growth and to induce protection against salt stress. PMID:18384507

Barriuso, Jorge; Ramos Solano, Beatriz; Fray, Rupert G; Cámara, Miguel; Hartmann, Anton; Gutiérrez Mañero, F Javier

2008-06-01

151

The effect of complexing agents on the oriented growth of electrodeposited microcrystalline cuprous oxide film  

SciTech Connect

Highlight: ? Cu{sub 2}O microcrystalline film is electrodeposited on ITO with complexing agents. ? As the stability constant increasing, the overpotential is negatively shifted. ? The formation energy of different planes is affected by overpotential. ? The overpotential can significantly alter the growth priority of different planes. ? The morphology of Cu{sub 2}O film is significantly modified by complexing agents. -- Abstract: Three conventional complexing agents, including lactic acid, citric acid and EDTA, are applied in the electrodeposition of microcrystalline cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) film on indium tin oxide glass substrate. Both scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction have been performed to characterize the morphology and texture of microcrystalline Cu{sub 2}O film. It is found that the stability constant of copper-based complex compound can obviously influence the deposition overpotential of Cu{sub 2}O, and the overpotential can significantly alter the growth priority of different planes, which results in oriented growth of Cu{sub 2}O grains. The quantitative relationships between the stability constant and the deposition overpotential of different complexing agents, as well as the relationship between the overpotential and the formation energy of microcrystalline cuprous oxide's (1 1 0), (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) planes are calculated, respectively.

Zhang, Zhen; Hu, Wenbin; Deng, Yida; Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Haoren [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wu, Yating, E-mail: tosunbear@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2012-09-15

152

Glycolysis supports embryonic muscle growth by promoting myoblast fusion.  

PubMed

Muscles ensure locomotion behavior of invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. They are highly specialized and form using conserved developmental programs. To identify new players in muscle development we screened Drosophila and zebrafish gene expression databases for orthologous genes expressed in embryonic muscles. We selected more than 100 candidates. Among them is the glycolysis gene Pglym78/pgam2, the attenuated expression of which results in the formation of thinner muscles in Drosophila embryos. This phenotype is also observed in fast muscle fibers of pgam2 zebrafish morphants, suggesting affected myoblast fusion. Indeed, a detailed analysis of developing muscles in Pglym78 RNAi embryos reveals loss of fusion-associated actin foci and an inefficient Notch decay in fusion competent myoblasts, both known to be required for fusion. In addition to Pglym78, our screen identifies six other genes involved in glycolysis or in pyruvate metabolism (Pfk, Tpi, Gapdh, Pgk, Pyk, and Impl3). They are synchronously activated in embryonic muscles and attenuation of their expression leads to similar muscle phenotypes, which are characterized by fibers with reduced size and the presence of unfused myoblasts. Our data also show that the cell size triggering insulin pathway positively regulates glycolysis in developing muscles and that blocking the insulin or target of rapamycin pathways phenocopies the loss of function phenotypes of glycolytic genes, leading to myoblast fusion arrest and reduced muscle size. Collectively, these data suggest that setting metabolism to glycolysis-stimulated biomass production is part of a core myogenic program that operates in both invertebrate and vertebrate embryos and promotes formation of syncytial muscles. PMID:24191061

Tixier, Vanessa; Bataillé, Laetitia; Etard, Christelle; Jagla, Teresa; Weger, Meltem; Daponte, Jean Philippe; Strähle, Uwe; Dickmeis, Thomas; Jagla, Krzysztof

2013-11-19

153

Toxicological assessment of selective pesticides towards plant growth promoting activities of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The study was designed to assess the effect of selected pesticides (metribuzin, glyphosate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, hexaconazole, metalaxyl and kitazin) at the recommended and higher rates on plant growth promoting activities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PS1 isolated from mustard (Brassica compestris) rhizosphere. The strain PS1 was specifically chosen owing to its substantial tolerance against pesticides, phosphate solubilization and considerable production of indole acetic acid, siderophores, exo-polysaccharides, HCN and ammonia. Plant growth promoting traits of the strain PS1 decreased consistently as the concentrations of each pesticide was increased from the recommended dose to the higher ones. Generally, the maximum toxicity to plant growth promoting traits was displayed by pesticides at three times the recommended field rate. However, the effect on the plant growth promoting activities of the P. aeruginosa strain PS1 at the recommended dose of each pesticide was less hazardous. This study revealed an additional aspect of the toxicological mechanisms of the pesticides through which they suppress the plant growth. PMID:21983319

Ahemad, Munees; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

2011-09-01

154

Synergistic effect of beneficial rhizosphere microflora in biocontrol and plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Biological systems are getting more relevance than chemical control of plant pathogens as they are not only eco-friendly and economic in approach but are also involved in improving the soil consistency and maintenance of natural soil flora. Plant growth promoting rhizosphere microorganisms were isolated from three different tree rhizospheres using selective culture media. Five microorganisms were selected from each rhizosphere soil based on their efficiency and screened for their ability to promote plant growth as a consortium. Each of the developed consortium has a phosphate solubilizer, nitrogen fixer, growth hormone producer, heterotrophic member and an antagonist. The plant growth promoting ability of the microbial members present in the consortium was observed by estimating the IAA production level and also by the nitrogenase activity of the nitrogen fixers. The biocontrol potentiality of the consortium and the antagonist present in the consortium were checked by both dual plate assay and cross-streaking technique. Consortial treatments effected very good growth promotion in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill and the treated plants also developed resistance against wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici though the effect was well pronounced with consortium developed from Santalum album. PMID:18792056

Kannan, Vijayaragahavan; Sureendar, Raman

2009-04-01

155

Use of impact fees to incentivize low-impact development and promote compact growth.  

PubMed

Low-impact development (LID) is an innovative stormwater management strategy that restores the predevelopment hydrology to prevent increased stormwater runoff from land development. Integrating LID into residential subdivisions and increasing population density by building more compact living spaces (e.g., apartment homes) can result in a more sustainable city by reducing stormwater runoff, saving infrastructural cost, increasing the number of affordable homes, and supporting public transportation. We develop an agent-based model (ABM) that describes the interactions between several decision-makers (i.e., local government, a developer, and homebuyers) and fiscal drivers (e.g., property taxes, impact fees). The model simulates the development of nine square miles of greenfield land. A more sustainable development (MSD) scenario introduces an impact fee that developers must pay if they choose not to use LID to build houses or apartment homes. Model simulations show homeowners selecting apartment homes 60% or 35% of the time after 30 years of development in MSD or business as usual (BAU) scenarios, respectively. The increased adoption of apartment homes results from the lower cost of using LID and improved quality of life for apartment homes relative to single-family homes. The MSD scenario generates more tax revenue and water savings than does BAU. A time-dependent global sensitivity analysis quantifies the importance of socioeconomic variables on the adoption rate of apartment homes. The top influential factors are the annual pay rates (or capital recovery factor) for single-family houses and apartment homes. The ABM can be used by city managers and policymakers for scenario exploration in accordance with local conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of impact fees and other policies in promoting LID and compact growth. PMID:23815440

Lu, Zhongming; Noonan, Douglas; Crittenden, John; Jeong, Hyunju; Wang, Dali

2013-10-01

156

Regulation of ribosome biogenesis by nucleostemin 3 promotes local and systemic growth in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Nucleostemin 3 (NS3) is an evolutionarily conserved protein with profound roles in cell growth and viability. Here we analyze cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous growth control roles of NS3 in Drosophila and demonstrate its GTPase activity using genetic and biochemical assays. Two null alleles of ns3, and RNAi, demonstrate the necessity of NS3 for cell autonomous growth. A hypomorphic allele highlights the hypersensitivity of neurons to lowered NS3 function. We propose that NS3 is the functional ortholog of yeast and human Lsg1, which promotes release of the nuclear export adapter from the large ribosomal subunit. Release of the adapter and its recycling to the nucleus are essential for sustained production of ribosomes. The ribosome biogenesis role of NS3 is essential for proper rates of translation in all tissues and is necessary for functions of growth-promoting neurons. PMID:23436180

Hartl, Tom A; Ni, Julie; Cao, Jian; Suyama, Kaye L; Patchett, Stephanie; Bussiere, Cyril; Gui, Dan Yi; Tang, Sheng; Kaplan, Daniel D; Fish, Matthew; Johnson, Arlen W; Scott, Matthew P

2013-05-01

157

Regulation of Ribosome Biogenesis by Nucleostemin 3 Promotes Local and Systemic Growth in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Nucleostemin 3 (NS3) is an evolutionarily conserved protein with profound roles in cell growth and viability. Here we analyze cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous growth control roles of NS3 in Drosophila and demonstrate its GTPase activity using genetic and biochemical assays. Two null alleles of ns3, and RNAi, demonstrate the necessity of NS3 for cell autonomous growth. A hypomorphic allele highlights the hypersensitivity of neurons to lowered NS3 function. We propose that NS3 is the functional ortholog of yeast and human Lsg1, which promotes release of the nuclear export adapter from the large ribosomal subunit. Release of the adapter and its recycling to the nucleus are essential for sustained production of ribosomes. The ribosome biogenesis role of NS3 is essential for proper rates of translation in all tissues and is necessary for functions of growth-promoting neurons.

Hartl, Tom A.; Ni, Julie; Cao, Jian; Suyama, Kaye L.; Patchett, Stephanie; Bussiere, Cyril; Gui, Dan Yi; Tang, Sheng; Kaplan, Daniel D.; Fish, Matthew; Johnson, Arlen W.; Scott, Matthew P.

2013-01-01

158

Promoting collective motion of self-propelled agents by distance-based influence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a dynamic model for a system consisting of self-propelled agents in which the influence of an agent on another agent is weighted by geographical distance. A parameter ? is introduced to adjust the influence: The smaller value of ? means that the closer neighbors have a stronger influence on the moving direction. We find that there exists an optimal value of ? leading to the highest degree of direction consensus. The value of optimal ? increases as the system size increases, while it decreases as the absolute velocity, the sensing radius, and the noise amplitude increase.

Yang, Han-Xin; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Liang

2014-03-01

159

The promotion of endothelial progenitor cells recruitment by nerve growth factors in tissue-engineered blood vessels.  

PubMed

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) mobilization and homing are critical to the development of an anti-thrombosis and anti-stenosis tissue-engineered blood vessel. The growth and activation of blood vessels are supported by nerves. We investigated whether nerve growth factors (NGF) can promote EPCs mobilization and endothelialization of tissue-engineered blood vessels. In vitro, NGF promoted EPCs to form more colonies, stimulated human EPCs to differentiate into endothelial cells, and significantly enhanced EPCs migration. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that NGF treatment increased the number of EPCs in the peripheral circulation of C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, the treatment of human EPCs with NGF facilitated their homing into wire-injured carotid arteries after injection into mice. Decellularized rat blood vessel matrix was incubated with EDC cross-linked collagen and bound to NGF protein using the bifunctional coupling agent N-succinmidyl3-(2-pyridyldit-hio) propionate (SPDP). The NGF-bound tissue-engineered blood vessel was implanted into rat carotid artery for 1 week and 1 month. NGF-bound blood vessels possessed significantly higher levels of endothelialization and patency than controls did. These results demonstrated that NGF can markedly increase EPCs mobilization and homing to vascular grafts. Neurotrophic factors such as NGF have a therapeutic potential for the construction of tissue-engineered blood vessels in vivo. PMID:20006381

Zeng, Wen; Yuan, Wei; Li, Li; Mi, Jianhong; Xu, Shangcheng; Wen, Can; Zhou, Zhenhua; Xiong, Jiaqiang; Sun, Jiansen; Ying, Dajun; Yang, Mingcan; Li, Xiaosong; Zhu, Chuhong

2010-03-01

160

Herbal plants and their derivatives as growth and health promoters in animal nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to summarize the effectiveness, modes of action and commercial application of herbal plants and their derivatives as growth promoters for animal. Feed supplements\\u000a are a group of feed ingredients that can cause a desired animal response in a non-nutrient role such as pH shift, growth,\\u000a or metabolic modifier (Hutjens, 1991). Common feed additives used

Seyed Reza Hashemi; Homa Davoodi

2011-01-01

161

Efficacy of Burkholderia cepacia MCI 7 in disease suppression and growth promotion of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated greenhouse experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of a maize-rhizosphere isolate of Burkholderia cepacia, applied as a seed coating, to promote maize growth in both uninfested soil and soil infested with a maize pathogenic strain\\u000a of Fusarium moniliforme, and to displace or negatively affect the population of F. moniliforme throughout plant growth. Results demonstrated that the B. cepacia

A. Bevivino; C. Dalmastri; S. Tabacchioni; L. Chiarini

2000-01-01

162

Interleukin6 promotes cervical tumor growth by VEGF-dependent angiogenesis via a STAT3 pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has received particular attention in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, although the underlying mechanism remains elusive. This study revealed that IL-6 promotes in vivo tumor growth of human cervical cancer C33A cells, but does not substantially alter their in vitro growth kinetics. The in vivo angiogenic assays showed that IL-6 increases angiogenic activity in human cervical cancer cells,

Lin-Hung Wei; Min-Liang Kuo; Chi-An Chen; Chia-Hung Chou; Kuo-Bau Lai; Chien-Nan Lee; Chang-Yao Hsieh; C-Y Hsieh

2003-01-01

163

Tumor-Promoting Phorbol Esters Inhibit Binding of Epidermal Growth Factor to Cellular Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor-promoting phorbol esters and related plant macrocyclic diterpenes inhibit the binding of epidermal growth factor to its receptors on HeLa cells. This effect shows marked structural specificity and correlates with other biological effects of these compounds on mouse skin and in cell culture systems. The active compounds inhibited binding of 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor with a 50 percent effective dose

Lih-Syng Lee; I. Bernard Weinstein

1978-01-01

164

Role of Hormonal System in the Manifestation of Growth Promoting and Antistress Action of Salicylic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) is an endogenous plant growth regulator. When applied to wheat plants in concentration similar to that\\u000a used in case of exogenous hormones (0.05 mM), SA causes growth promoting and protective effects against an abiotic stresses.\\u000a SA was shown to cause changes in hormonal system associated with transitory parallel accumulation of IAA and ABA with no change\\u000a in

F. M. Shakirova

165

Phototropins Promote Plant Growth in Response to Blue Light in Low Light Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are plant-specific blue light receptors for phototropism, chloroplast movement, leaf expansion, and stomatal opening. All these responses are thought to optimize photosynthesis by helping to capture light energy efficiently, reduce photodamage, and acquire CO2. However, experimental evidence for the promotion of plant growth through phototropins is lacking. Here, we report dramatic phototropin-dependent effects on plant growth.

Atsushi Takemiya; Shin-ichiro Inoue; Michio Doi; Toshinori Kinoshita; Ken-ichiro Shimazaki

2005-01-01

166

Review of Growth Inhibitory Peptide as a Biotherapeutic agent for tumor growth, adhesion, and metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review surveys the biological activities of an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived peptide termed the Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP), which is a synthetic 34 amino acid segment produced from the full length 590 amino acid AFP molecule. The GIP has been shown to be growth-suppressive in both fetal and tumor cells but not in adult terminally-differentiated cells. The mechanism of action

M. Muehlemann; K. D. Miller; M. Dauphinee; G. J. Mizejewski

2005-01-01

167

Update of Alpha Fetoprotein Growth-Inhibitory Peptides as Biotherapeutic Agents for Tumor Growth and Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present update describes the biological activities of an alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-derived peptide termed the growth-inhibitory peptide (GIP), which is a synthetic 34-amino acid segment produced from the native molecule. The GIP has been shown to be growth-suppressive in both fetal and tumor cells but not in adult cells. Even though its mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated,

G. J. Mizejewski; M. Muehlemann; M. Dauphinee

2006-01-01

168

Growth signaling promotes chronological aging in budding yeast by inducing superoxide anions that inhibit quiescence  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of growth signaling pathways protects against aging and age-related diseases in parallel with reduced oxidative stress. The relationships between growth signaling, oxidative stress and aging remain unclear. Here we report that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alterations in growth signaling pathways impact levels of superoxide anions that promote chronological aging and inhibit growth arrest of stationary phase cells in G0/G1. Factors that decrease intracellular superoxide anions in parallel with enhanced longevity and more efficient G0/G1 arrest include genetic inactivation of growth signaling pathways that inhibit Rim15p, which activates oxidative stress responses, and downregulation of these pathways by caloric restriction. Caloric restriction also reduces superoxide anions independently of Rim15p by elevating levels of H2O2, which activates superoxide dismutases. In contrast, high glucose or mutations that activate growth signaling accelerate chronological aging in parallel with increased superoxide anions and reduced efficiency of stationary phase G0/G1 arrest. High glucose also activates DNA damage responses and preferentially kills stationary phase cells that fail to arrest growth in G0/G1. These findings suggest that growth signaling promotes chronological aging in budding yeast by elevating superoxide anions that inhibit quiescence and induce DNA replication stress. A similar mechanism likely contributes to aging and age-related diseases in complex eukaryotes.

Weinberger, Martin; Mesquita, Ana; Carroll, Timothy; Marks, Laura; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Zhaojie; Ludovico, Paula; Burhans, William C.

2010-01-01

169

A chemical genetic approach identifies piperazine antipsychotics as promoters of CNS neurite growth on inhibitory substrates  

PubMed Central

Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) can result in lifelong loss of function due in part to the regenerative failure of CNS neurons. Inhibitory proteins derived from myelin and the astroglial scar are major barriers for the successful regeneration of injured CNS neurons. Previously, we described the identification of a novel compound, F05, which promotes neurite growth from neurons challenged with inhibitory substrates in vitro, and promotes axonal regeneration in vivo (Usher et al., 2010). To identify additional regeneration-promoting compounds, we used F05-induced gene expression profiles to query the Broad Institute Connectivity Map, a gene expression database of cells treated with >1,300 compounds. Despite no shared chemical similarity, F05-induced changes in gene expression were remarkably similar to those seen with a group of piperazine phenothiazine antipsychotics (PhAPs). In contrast to antipsychotics of other structural classes, PhAPs promoted neurite growth of CNS neurons challenged with two different glial derived inhibitory substrates. Our pharmacological studies suggest a mechanism whereby PhAPs promote growth through antagonism of calmodulin signaling, independent of dopamine receptor antagonism. These findings shed light on mechanisms underlying neurite-inhibitory signaling, and suggest that clinically approved antipsychotic compounds may be repurposed for use in CNS injured patients.

Johnstone, AL; Reierson, GW; Smith, RP; Goldberg, JL; Lemmon, VP; Bixby, JL

2012-01-01

170

Colonization of Morus alba L. by the plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1  

PubMed Central

Background Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum dematium, is a serious threat to the production and quality of mulberry leaves in susceptible varieties. Control of the disease has been a major problem in mulberry cultivation. Some strains of Burkholderia cepacia were reported to be useful antagonists of plant pests and could increase the yields of several crop plants. Although B. cepacia Lu10-1 is an endophytic bacterium obtained from mulberry leaves, it has not been deployed to control C. dematium infection in mulberry nor its colonization patterns in mulberry have been studied using GFP reporter or other reporters. The present study sought to evaluate the antifungal and plant-growth-promoting properties of strain Lu10-1, to clarify its specific localization within a mulberry plant, and to better understand its potential as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. Results Lu10-1 inhibited conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. dematium in vitro; when applied on leaves or to the soil, Lu10-1 also inhibited the development of anthracnose in a greenhouse, but the effectiveness varied with the length of the interval between the strain treatment and inoculation with the pathogen. Strain Lu10-1 could survive in both sterile and non-sterile soils for more than 60 days. The strain produced auxins, contributed to P solubilization and nitrogenase activity, and significantly promoted the growth of mulberry seedlings. The bacteria infected mulberry seedlings through cracks formed at junctions of lateral roots with the main root and in the zone of differentiation and elongation, and the cells were able to multiply and spread, mainly to the intercellular spaces of different tissues. The growth in all the tissues was around 1-5 × 105 CFU per gram of fresh plant tissue. Conclusions Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1 is an endophyte that can multiply and spread in mulberry seedlings rapidly and efficiently. The strain is antagonistic to C. dematium and acts as an efficient plant-growth-promoting agent on mulberry seedlings and is therefore a promising candidate as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent.

2010-01-01

171

Transcriptional activation of the human epidermal growth factor receptor promoter by human p53.  

PubMed Central

The human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promoter is activated by both wild-type and tumor-derived mutant p53. In this communication, we demonstrate that EGFR promoter sequence requirements for transactivation by wild-type and mutant p53 are different. Transient-expression assays with EGFR promoter deletions identified a wild-type human p53 response element, 5'-AGCTAGACGTCCGGGCAGCCCCCGGCG -3', from positions --265 to --239. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis and DNase I footprinting assays indicated that wild-type p53 binds sequence specifically to the response element. Using circularly permuted DNA fragments containing the p53-binding site, we show that wild-type p53 binding induces DNA bending at this site. We further show that the EGFR promoter is also activated by tumor-derived p53 mutants p53-143A, p53-175H, p53-248W, p53-273H, and p53-281G. However, the transactivation by mutant p53 does not require the wild-type p53-binding site. The minimal EGFR promoter from positions --104 to --20 which does not contain the wild-type p53-binding site is transactivated by the p53 mutants but not by the wild-type protein, showing a difference in the mechanism of transactivation by wild-type and mutant p53. Transactivation of the EGFR promoter by p53 may represent a novel mechanism of cell growth regulation.

Ludes-Meyers, J H; Subler, M A; Shivakumar, C V; Munoz, R M; Jiang, P; Bigger, J E; Brown, D R; Deb, S P; Deb, S

1996-01-01

172

Alcohol promotes mammary tumor growth through activation of VEGF-dependent tumor angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Alcohol consumption has been recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer. Experimental studies demonstrate that alcohol exposure promotes the progression of existing mammary tumors. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. In the present study, the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in alcohol promotion of breast cancer development was investigated using a mouse xenograft model of mammary tumors and a three-dimensional (3D) tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system. For the mouse xenograft model, mouse E0771 breast cancer cells were implanted into the mammary fat pad of C57BL6 mice. These mice were exposed to alcohol in their drinking water. For the 3D co-culture system, E0771 cells and MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were co-cultured with SVEC4-10EE2 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. The results demonstrated that alcohol increased tumor angiogenesis and accelerated tumor growth. Furthermore, it appeared that alcohol induced VEGF expression in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Blocking VEGF signaling by SU5416 inhibited tumor angiogenesis in the 3D tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system. Furthermore, injection of SU5416 into mice inhibited alcohol-promoted mammary tumor growth in vivo. These results indicate that alcohol may promote mammary tumor growth by stimulating VEGF-dependent angiogenesis.

LU, YANMIN; NI, FANG; XU, MEI; YANG, JINLIAN; CHEN, JI; CHEN, ZHUO; WANG, XINYI; LUO, JIA; WANG, SIYING

2014-01-01

173

Draft Genome Sequence of the Growth-Promoting Endophyte Paenibacillus sp. P22, Isolated from Populus.  

PubMed

Paenibacillus sp. P22 is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic endospore-forming bacterium isolated from poplar hybrid 741 (?[Populus alba × (P. davidiana + P. simonii) × P. tomentosa]). This bacterium shows strong similarities to Paenibacillus humicus, and important growth-promoting effects on in vitro grown explants of poplar hybrid 741 have been described. PMID:24723717

Hanak, Anne M; Nagler, Matthias; Weinmaier, Thomas; Sun, Xiaoliang; Fragner, Lena; Schwab, Clarissa; Rattei, Thomas; Ulrich, Kristina; Ewald, Dietrich; Engel, Marion; Schloter, Michael; Bittner, Romana; Schleper, Christa; Weckwerth, Wolfram

2014-01-01

174

Genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida S11.  

PubMed

Here we report the genome sequence of a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida S11. The length of the draft genome sequence is approximately 5,970,799 bp, with a G+C content of 62.4%. The genome contains 6,076 protein-coding sequences. PMID:23045515

Ponraj, Paramasivan; Shankar, Manoharan; Ilakkiam, Devaraj; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

2012-11-01

175

Genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. strain 916.  

PubMed

Bacillus sp. strain 916, isolated from the soil, showed strong activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Here, we present the high-quality draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain 916. Its 3.9-Mb genome reveals a number of genes whose products are possibly involved in promotion of plant growth or antibiosis. PMID:22965091

Wang, Xiaoyu; Luo, Chuping; Chen, Zhiyi

2012-10-01

176

Solubilization of zinc compounds by the diazotrophic, plant growth promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus an endophytic diazotroph also encountered as rhizosphere bacterium is reported to possess different plant growth promoting characteristics. In this study, we assessed the zinc solubilizing potential of G. diazotrophicus under in vitro conditions with different Zn compounds using glucose or sucrose as carbon sources. G. diazotrophicus showed variations in their solubilization potential with the strains used and the

V. S. Saravanan; M. Madhaiyan; M. Thangaraju

2007-01-01

177

Growth promotion of the juvenile clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, on sugars supplemented to the rearing water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft-bodied marine invertebrates are known to have the ability to uptake dissolved organic matter, but actual benefits to growth of these organisms have not been demonstrated. In the present study, the effects of sugars supplemented to the rearing water were tested on juveniles of the clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. Culture water supplemented with glucose at 10 and 100mgl?1 significantly promoted soft

Motoharu Uchida; Masaei Kanematsu; Tatsuo Miyoshi

2010-01-01

178

Genome of the Root-Associated Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Variovorax paradoxus Strain EPS.  

PubMed

Variovorax paradoxus is a ubiquitous betaproteobacterium involved in plant growth promotion, the degradation of xenobiotics, and quorum-quenching activity. The genome of V. paradoxus strain EPS consists of a single circular chromosome of 6,550,056 bp, with a 66.48% G+C content. PMID:24158554

Han, Jong-In; Spain, Jim C; Leadbetter, Jared R; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Goodwin, Lynne A; Han, Cliff S; Woyke, Tanja; Davenport, Karen W; Orwin, Paul M

2013-01-01

179

Promoting Economic Growth in the U.S. Grade Twelve. [Resource Unit II.] Project Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second unit of seven resource units for a twelfth grade course on value conflicts and policy decisions. The topic for this unit is promoting economic growth in the United States. The objectives are listed as to generalizations, skills, and values. The double-page format relates objectives to pertinent content, teaching procedures, and…

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

180

Targeting BMP9-Promoted Human Osteosarcoma Growth by Inactivation of Notch Signaling.  

PubMed

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone and is usually associated with poor prognosis due to its high incidence of metastasis and chemoresistance. Molecular pathogenesis of OS is poorly understood. We previously showed that OS cells are refractory to BMP9-induced osteogenesis and respond favorably to proliferation and tumor growth. Here we investigate if Notch signaling mediates the BMP9-promoted cell proliferation and tumor growth of human osteosarcoma (OS). We find that the expression of Notch1, Notch2, Notch3, DLL1, JAG1 and JAG2 is readily detected in most of the tested OS cell lines. BMP9-promoted OS cell proliferation, migration, and cell cycle S/G2 progression are effectively inhibited by a dominant-negative mutant of Notch1 (dnNotch1) or the ?-secretase inhibitor Compound E (ComE). Furthermore, BMP9-promoted tumor growth and osteolytic lesions in vivo are significantly inhibited by dnNotch1. BMP9 up-regulates the expression of Notch1, Notch3, DLL1, and JAG1 in OS cells. Accordingly, BMP9 stimulation induces a nuclear accumulation of NICD, which is blocked by ComE. Our results demonstrate that BMP9-promoted OS proliferation and tumor growth is at least in part mediated by Notch signaling, suggesting that osteogenic BMPs may function as upstream regulators of Notch signaling in OS tumorigenesis. Thus, pharmacologic intervention of Notch signaling may be explored as a new therapeutic strategy for human OS tumors. PMID:24605944

Li, Ruidong; Zhang, Wenwen; Cui, Jing; Shui, Wei; Yin, Liangjun; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Ning; Wu, Ningning; Nan, Guoxin; Chen, Xian; Wen, Sheng; Deng, Fang; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhou, Guolin; Liao, Zhan; Zhang, Junhui; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Zhengjian; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhonglin; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; He, Tong-Chuan; Deng, Zhong-Liang

2014-03-01

181

The European ban on growth-promoting antibiotics and emerging consequences for human and animal health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the ban of all food animal growth-promoting antibiotics by Sweden in 1986, the European Union banned avoparcin in 1997 and bacitracin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin in 1999. Three years later, the only attributable effect in humans has been a diminution in acquired resistance in enterococci isolated from human faecal carriers. There has been an increase in human infection from

Mark Casewell; Christian Friis; Enric Marco; Paul McMullin; Ian Phillips

2003-01-01

182

Can Choice Promote Education for All? Evidence from Growth in Private Primary Schooling in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines whether the recent growth in "low-fee private" (LFP) schools is able to promote Education for All by being accessible to the poor. Based primarily on a 13-village survey of 250 households and visits to 26 private and government schools in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, this paper explores who "chooses" private schooling, in the…

Harma, Joanna

2009-01-01

183

Effect of single application of Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth promotion in cotton plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important and economically cultivated cotton plant was selected to test the growth promotion by Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluroescens with and without pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Of these, T. viride was found to be more effective than P. fluroescens on shoot and root length elongation. Seed germination percentage, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight

V. Shanmugaiah; N. Balasubramanian; S. Gomathinayagam; P. T. Manoharan

2009-01-01

184

Effects of an androgenic growth promoter 17?-trenbolone on masculinization of Mosquitofish ( Gambusia affinis affinis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect normal hormone dependent processes through numerous mechanisms, including ligand mimicky. 17?-Trenbolone (TB), a pharmaceutical, androgenic, anabolic steroid, is a potent agonist of androgen receptors, and has been extensively used as a growth promoter for beef cattle in the US. The effects of TB on adult and newborn mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis affinis) were examined. Two forms

Kiyoaki Sone; Megumi Hinago; Misaki Itamoto; Yoshinao Katsu; Hajime Watanabe; Hiroshi Urushitani; Osamu Tooi; Louis J. Guillette Jr.; Taisen Iguchi

2005-01-01

185

Species-specificity of growth-promoting effects of prolactin during rat embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

In the early stages of embryonic development, many growth-promoting molecules must be provided by the maternal system. The molecules involved in growth processes may be either hormones or growth factors, or molecules that interact with such factors. The pregnancy related hormone, prolactin (PRL, MW 23 kDa) has been implicated in the control of embryonic growth. The growth-promoting potential of PRL and its species-specificity was investigated by culturing 9.5 d rat embryos in vitro for 48 h in depleted serum in the presence and absence of PRL from 3 different species. The growth-supporting capacity of the serum was reduced by removal of low molecular weight molecules by prolonged filtration of the serum using filters with a molecular weight exclusion of 30 kDa. This method provided a ‘semidefined’ medium (retenate) in which embryonic growth and development was significantly reduced, demonstrating that the low molecular weight fraction of serum may contain some growth-promoting factors. Addition of PRL (0.4–25.6 ng/ml) from different species (human, sheep and rat) to retenate significantly improved embryonic growth and development, suggesting that the developing embryo may utilise PRL. Amongst PRLs, rat PRL was found to be active at much lower concentrations than either of the other molecules, and human PRL had more effect in low concentrations than sheep PRL suggesting a species-specificity for this hormone. It may be that the PRL receptors of the rat embryos have greater affinity for the rat hormone as different responses for hormones from different species have been shown. These findings suggest that embryos may be able to utilise maternally derived PRL during organogenesis.

KARABULUT, AHMET KAGAN; PRATTEN, MARGARET K.

1998-01-01

186

[The growth promoting activity of two different kinds of reconstructed terminators in transgenic common carp].  

PubMed

The transgenic promoter directly affects the activity of transgenic gene. Choice of terminator has been proved to affect the activity of transgenic gene. Since the relevant theoretical research is rare, using the terminator of transgenic gene or the promoter gene to construct the transgenic vector has not come to the conclusion. In order to construct a better transgenic vector to nurture "all fish" growth hormone transgenic fish which has a rapid growth character, two different transgenic vectors were constructed separately by the terminator of beta-actin gene and the terminator of growth hormone gene. After micro-injection, we obtained the P0 generation of "all fish" transgenic fish farming groups. Comparing the activities of the two different transgenic vectors, the weight distribution of the breeding groups from growth hormone gene terminator transgenic vector felt into a normal distribution; however, the weight distribution of the breeding groups originated from beta-actin gene terminator exhibited a non-normal mode and in a rightist trend. The average weight of GH (Growth hormone) gene terminator transgenic groups was significantly higher than that of the beta-actin gene terminator transgenic groups. Interestingly, a fast-growth transgenic carp was found from a mixed farming group, which was positive for the growth hormone gene terminator. This result showed that "all fish" GH gene transgenic carp could grow fast, and the transgenic gene could inherit from generation to generation. Our results suggest that the growth hormone gene terminator transgenic vector has stronger growth-promoting activity than the beta-actin gene terminator transgenic vector. PMID:19689944

Zhong, Shan; Luo, Da-Ji; Wu, Gang; Xu, Jing; Wang, Ya-Ping; Zhu, Zuo-Yan

2009-08-01

187

Partial purification and characterization of proteins with growth promoting activities from ovine mammary gland secretions.  

PubMed

Developmental regulation of growth promoting activities in mammary secretions of pregnant Awassi ewes was defined, and growth factors contained in these secretions were partially purified and characterised. Mammary secretions from pregnant ewes enhanced fibroblast cell (AKR-2B) and mammary cell (CID-9 cell strain) proliferation to levels comparable to that induced by 10% Foetal calf serum. Major milk proteins in mammary secretions collected from pregnant ewes one month prior to lambing up to one week after lambing, were resolved by SDS-PAGE, while gelatinases were resolved by zymography. Gelatinase activity was noted prior to P134 and decreased thereafter to reach a minimum during lactation. This decrease was concomitant with the onset of casein production. It is during this critical developmental period that highest growth promoting activity in mammary secretions was detected. Secretions with highest growth promoting activity were fractionated by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Two heat-resistant, trypsin/chymotrypsin sensitive, growth-promoting activities were characterised. The first, designated ovine mammary derived growth factor-1 (oMDGF-1), had around a 30 kDa molecular weight and eluted at 0.65 M NaCl gradient on cation ion exchange chromatography. The second, oMDGF-2, eluted under gel filtration conditions at a molecular weight of 50 kDa and 150 kDa. oMDGF-1 induced changes in Connexin 43, but not in beta-casein mRNA expression by CID-9 mammary cells. In conclusion, growth factor activities in ewe mammary secretions peak during gestation at a period that overlaps maximal gelatinase expression and precedes milk protein synthesis. The factors modulate mammary cell function and may play a role in mammary gland development. PMID:11707361

Talhouk, R S; Maa'ni, F A; Kalaa'ni, N; Zoubian, G S; Simaa'n, C J; Abi-Sai'd, M; Hamadeh, S; Barbour, E; El-Sabban, M E

2001-10-01

188

Reduction of Bacterial Speck ( Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato ) of Tomato by Combined Treatments of Plant Growth-promoting Bacterium, Azospirillum brasilense , Streptomycin Sulfate, and Chemo-thermal Seed Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculation of tomato seeds with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense, or spraying tomato foliage with A. brasilense, streptomycin sulfate, or commercial copper bactericides, separately, before or after inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the casual agent of bacterial speck of tomato, had no lasting effect on disease severity or on plant height and dry weight. Seed inoculation with A.

Yoav Bashan; Luz E. de-Bashan

2002-01-01

189

Streptococcus pneumoniae Arginine Synthesis Genes Promote Growth and Virulence in Pneumococcal Meningitis.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major human pathogen causing pneumonia, sepsis and bacterial meningitis. Using a clinical phenotype based approach with bacterial whole-genome sequencing we identified pneumococcal arginine biosynthesis genes to be associated with outcome in patients with pneumococcal meningitis. Pneumococci harboring these genes show increased growth in human blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Mouse models of meningitis and pneumonia showed that pneumococcal strains without arginine biosynthesis genes were attenuated in growth or cleared, from lung, blood and CSF. Thus, S. pneumoniae arginine synthesis genes promote growth and virulence in invasive pneumococcal disease. PMID:24338350

Piet, Jurgen R; Geldhoff, Madelijn; van Schaik, Barbera D C; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Valls Seron, Mercedes; Jakobs, Marja E; Schipper, Kim; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; van der Poll, Tom; van Kampen, Antoine H C; Baas, Frank; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

2014-06-01

190

Growth Promotion of Yunnan Pine Early Seedlings in Response to Foliar Application of IAA and IBA  

PubMed Central

A field experiment was conducted using a 3 × 3 orthogonal regression design to explore the growth promotion of one-year-old Yunnan pine seedlings (Pinus yunnanensis Franch.) in response to foliar application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L?1 and IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L?1 in order to promote the growth during the seedlings’ early stage. The experiment was conducted at the Lufeng Village Forest Farm of Yiliang County in Kunming, Yunnan, China. The results showed that IAA and IBA were effective in growth promotion of Yunnan pine seedlings. The response of both growth increment and biomass accumulation to the concentration of IAA and IBA can be modeled using a bivariate surface response, and each growth index had a peak value. Growth indexes increased with the increase of the dosage of photohormones before reaching a peak value, and then decreased. The different growth indexes had various responses to the concentrations and ratio of IAA and IBA. The foliar application of IAA in combination with IBA showed the largest improvement on the biomass of the needles, followed by stems and roots. The higher ratio of IAA promoted stem diameter growth, root system development and biomass accumulation in the needles, while a higher ratio of IBA contributed to height growth and biomass accumulation in the stem. Based on the auxin effect equations on the different growth indexes and surface response, the optimum concentrations and the (IAA:IBA) ratios can be obtained. The optimum concentrations of IAA and IBA were 167 and 186, 310 and 217, 193 and 159, 191 and 221, and 206 and 186 mg·L?1, with corresponding ratios of 1:1.11, 1:0.70, 1:0.82, 1:1.15 and 1:0.90, respectively, at the maximum seedling height and collar diameter growth as well as biomass accumulation at the root, stem and needle. The above growth indexes were 22.00%, 79.80%, 48.65%, 82.20% and 107.00% higher than the control treatment.

Xu, Yulan; Zhang, Yuemin; Li, Yunfei; Li, Genqian; Liu, Daiyi; Zhao, Minchong; Cai, Nianhui

2012-01-01

191

Cdh1-Anaphase-Promoting Complex Targets Skp2 for Destruction in Transforming Growth Factor  Induced Growth Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a subunit of a ubiquitin ligase, Skp2 is implicated in facilitating cell cycle progression via degradation of various protein targets. We report here that Skp2 is rapidly degraded following cellular stimulation by the cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF-) and that this degradation stabilizes the cell cycle arrest protein p27. The Skp2 degradation is mediated by Cdh1-anaphase-promoting complex (APC), as

Weijun Liu; George Wu; Wenqi Li; David Lobur; Yong Wan

2007-01-01

192

Porcine skin gelatin hydrolysate promotes longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats.  

PubMed

Collagen hydrolysates (CHs) are mixtures of peptides obtained by partial hydrolysis of gelatin that are receiving scientific attention as potential oral supplements for the restoration of osteoarticular tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CHs for promoting longitudinal bone growth in growing rats. An in vitro study was carried out in osteoblast-like MG63 cells and the most effective CH on bone formation was selected among 36 various CHs. An in vivo study confirmed the functional effects of a selected CH with molecular weight of <3?kDa on longitudinal bone growth. CHs dose-dependently promoted the longitudinal bone growth and height of the growth plate in adolescent male rats, whereas gelatin failed to affect longitudinal bone growth. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the CH treated group were highly expressed in the growth plate. These results suggest that CHs isolated in this study may provide beneficial effects on bone metabolism of growing animals and humans. PMID:23631489

Leem, Kang-Hyun; Lee, Sena; Jang, Aera; Kim, Hye Kyung

2013-05-01

193

Identification and functional characteristics of chlorpyrifos-degrading and plant growth promoting bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain D10 with strong ability of degrading chlorpyrifos was isolated from rhizosphere of chives contaminated with pesticide. It was found that it's capable of utilizing chlorpyrifos as the sole source of carbon for growth, and within the first 4 days the extent of degradation at initial concentration of 100?mg?L(-1) was 60.0%. It also showed a high ability of degrading chlorpyrifos in sterilized soil, and the degradation reached up to 60.2% after 18 days. In addition, the strain D10 also showed multiple plant growth-promoting traits of phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore production. The results indicate that the strain D10 has potential in the application of pesticide-degrading and plant growth promotion. Strain D10 was identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus based on its morphological, physiological-biochemical properties and the 16S rRNA sequence analysis. PMID:23712768

Zhao, Lei; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Jiao

2014-05-01

194

Young Citizens as Health Agents: Use of Drama in Promoting Community Efficacy for HIV/AIDS  

PubMed Central

A community-based cluster randomized control trial in a medium-sized municipality in Tanzania was designed to increase local competence to control HIV/AIDS through actions initiated by children and adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. Representative groups from the 15 treatment communities reached mutual understanding about their objectives as health agents, prioritized their actions, and skillfully applied community drama (“skits”) to impart knowledge about the social realities and the microbiology of HIV/AIDS. In independently conducted surveys of neighborhood residents, differences were found between adults who did and did not witness the skits in their beliefs about the efficacy of children as HIV/AIDS primary change agents.

Kamo, Norifumi; Carlson, Mary; Brennan, Robert T.; Earls, Felton

2008-01-01

195

Mex3c regulates insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) expression and promotes postnatal growth  

PubMed Central

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) mediates the growth-promoting activities of growth hormone. How Igf1 expression is regulated posttranscriptionally is unclear. Caenorhabditis elegans muscle excess 3 (MEX-3) is involved in cell fate specification during early embryonic development through regulating mRNAs involved in specifying cell fate. The function of its mammalian homologue, MEX3C, is unknown. Here we show that MEX3C deficiency in Mex3c homozygous mutant mice causes postnatal growth retardation and background-dependent perinatal lethality. Hypertrophy of chondrocytes in growth plates is significantly impaired. Circulating and bone local production of IGF1 are both decreased in mutant mice. Mex3c mRNA is strongly expressed in the testis and the brain, and highly expressed in resting and proliferating chondrocytes of the growth plates. MEX3C is able to enrich multiple mRNA species from tissue lysates, including Igf1. Igf1 expression in bone is decreased at the protein level but not at the mRNA level, indicating translational/posttranslational regulation. We propose that MEX3C protein plays an important role in enhancing the translation of Igf1 mRNA, which explains the perinatal lethality and growth retardation observed in MEX3C-deficient mice.

Jiao, Yan; Bishop, Colin E.; Lu, Baisong

2012-01-01

196

Repression of HPV E6-activated RSV promoter activity by anti-cancer agents.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus E6 forms a complex with p53 tumor suppressor and E6-associated protein, leading to the degradation of p53 via the ubiquitination pathway, resulting in the oncogenesis of cervical carcinomas. Several viral and cellular gene promoters were shown to be transactivated by E6 oncogene. In this study, to understand the role of transcription activity of E6 related to cervical carcinogenesis, the effect of cervical cancer drugs on E6 induced transcription activity has been elucidated. Several viral promoter (RSV, CMV, SV40, and HIV)-luciferase reporter gene constructs, and eukaryotic E6 expression vector were prepared as an E6 transcription analysis system and an exogenous E6 protein source, respectively. It was shown that the promoters of RSV, SV40, and HIV, but not CMV, were transactivated by HPV 16 E6 in cervical cancer cell line. Several known cervical cancer drugs were investigated for their effects on transcription activity of E6 in SiHa stably transfected with E6-responsive promoters. Cervical cancer drugs consistently reduced luciferase activity, in transfectants with RSV-luc (SiHa/pRSV-luc, KCTC 0427BP) E6 mRNA also. Thus, in this study, we have demonstrated that the promoters of RSV, HIV, and SV40 were transactivated by E6 in cervical cancer cells. Three cervical cancer drugs downregulated RSV-luc transcription and E6 expression by a p53 independent pathway. RSV-luc promoter analysis system could be useful for understanding the role of transcription activity of E6 related to cervical cancer and also for screening drugs against cervical cancers caused by HPV infection. PMID:12719008

Kang, Yun Hee; Kang, Man-Jong; Paik, Sang Gi; Park, Sue Nie; Yoon, Do-Young

2003-03-01

197

A novel growth-promoting pathway formed by GDNF-overexpressing Schwann cells promotes propriospinal axonal regeneration, synapse formation, and partial recovery of function after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Descending propriospinal neurons (DPSN) are known to establish functional relays for supraspinal signals, and they display a greater growth response after injury than do the long projecting axons. However, their regenerative response is still deficient due to their failure to depart from growth supportive cellular transplants back into the host spinal cord, which contains numerous impediments to axon growth. Here we report the construction of a continuous growth-promoting pathway in adult rats, formed by grafted Schwann cells overexpressing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We demonstrate that such a growth-promoting pathway, extending from the axonal cut ends to the site of innervation in the distal spinal cord, promoted regeneration of DPSN axons through and beyond the lesion gap of a spinal cord hemisection. Within the distal host spinal cord, regenerated DPSN axons formed synapses with host neurons leading to the restoration of action potentials and partial recovery of function. PMID:23536080

Deng, Ling-Xiao; Deng, Ping; Ruan, Yiwen; Xu, Zao Cheng; Liu, Nai-Kui; Wen, Xuejun; Smith, George M; Xu, Xiao-Ming

2013-03-27

198

RAT TRACHEAL CELL CULTURE TRANSFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS AS CARCINOGENS AND PROMOTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A tracheal cell culture system which can be used for detection of hazardous environmental agents is described. The culture system makes use of primary tracheal cells that are isolated from rats by protease digestion of the tracheal epithelium. The epithelial cells are plated on a...

199

Learning To Listen to Mothers: A Trainers' Manual To Strengthen Communication Skills for Nutrition and Growth Promotion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counseling mothers of small children in effective growth monitoring and promotion is both an art and a science. Virtually all primary health care programs contain a Growth Monitoring and Promotion component (GMP). It is vital that supervisors and community health workers of GMP programs have a clear understanding of why communication skills are…

Vella, Jane; Uccellani, Valerie

200

Selective Activation of Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptors 1 and 3 Promotes Local Microvascular Network Growth  

PubMed Central

Proper spatial and temporal regulation of microvascular remodeling is critical to the formation of functional vascular networks, spanning the various arterial, venous, capillary, and collateral vessel systems. Recently, our group has demonstrated that sustained release of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) from biodegradable polymers promotes microvascular network growth and arteriolar expansion. In this study, we employed S1P receptor-specific compounds to activate and antagonize different combinations of S1P receptors to elucidate those receptors most critical for promotion of pharmacologically induced microvascular network growth. We show that S1P1 and S1P3 receptors act synergistically to enhance functional network formation via increased functional length density, arteriolar diameter expansion, and increased vascular branching in the dorsal skinfold window chamber model. FTY720, a potent activator of S1P1 and S1P3, promoted a 107% and 153% increase in length density 3 and 7 days after implantation, respectively. It also increased arteriolar diameters by 60% and 85% 3 and 7 days after implantation. FTY720-stimulated branching in venules significantly more than unloaded poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid). When implanted on the mouse spinotrapezius muscle, FTY720 stimulated an arteriogenic response characterized by increased tortuosity and collateralization of branching microvascular networks. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of S1P1 and S1P3 receptor-selective agonists (such as FTY720) in promoting microvascular growth for tissue engineering applications.

Sefcik, Lauren S.; Petrie Aronin, Caren E.; Awojoodu, Anthony O.; Shin, Soo J.; Mac Gabhann, Feilim; MacDonald, Timothy L.; Wamhoff, Brian R.; Lynch, Kevin R.; Peirce, Shayn M.

2011-01-01

201

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Dynamics Influences Response to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Targeted Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of gene expression of cancer cell lines exposed to erlotinib, a small molecule inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), showed a marked increase in EGFR mRNA in resistant cell lines but not in susceptible ones. Because cetuximab induces EGFR down-regulation, we explored the hypothesis that treatment with cetuximab would interfere with erlotinib-induced EGFR up-regulation and result in

Antonio Jimeno; Maria L. Amador; Nadia Bouraoud; Peter Kulesza; Anirban Maitra; Manuel Hidalgo

2005-01-01

202

Induction of reactive oxygen species generation inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promotes growth arrest in prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is one causative factor of the pathogenesis and aggressiveness of most of the cancer types, including prostate cancer (CaP). A moderate increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) induces cell proliferation whereas excessive amounts of ROS promote apoptosis. In this study, we explored the pro-oxidant property of 3,9-dihydroxy-2-prenylcoumestan (psoralidin [pso]), a dietary agent, on CaP (PC-3 and C4-2B) cells. Pso greatly induced ROS generation (more than 20-fold) that resulted in the growth inhibition of CaP cells. Overexpression of anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD2, and catalase, or pretreatment with the pharmacological inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated both pso-mediated ROS generation and pso-mediated growth inhibition in CaP cells. Furthermore, pso administration significantly inhibited the migratory and invasive property of CaP cells by decreasing the transcription of ?-catenin, and slug, which promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and by concurrently inducing E-cadherin expression in CaP cells. Pso-induced ROS generation in CaP cells resulted in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome-c release, and activation of caspase-3 and -9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which led to apoptosis. On the other hand, overexpression of anti-oxidants rescued pso-mediated effects on CaP cells. These findings suggest that increasing the threshold of intracellular ROS could prevent or treat CaP growth and metastasis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23475579

Das, Trinath P; Suman, Suman; Damodaran, Chendil

2014-07-01

203

Natamycin as a selective antifungal agent in media for growth of Legionella spp.  

PubMed

The growth of 18 different Legionella sp. strains and 76 different yeast isolates was tested on buffered charcoal yeast extract medium supplemented with alpha-ketoglutarate (BCYE alpha medium) and with natamycin, an antifungal agent. Bacterial growth was no different on BCYE alpha medium made with or without natamycin, whereas complete inhibition of yeasts occurred in BCYE alpha medium containing 200 to 500 micrograms of natamycin per ml. Selective BCYE alpha media made with natamycin rather than anisomycin had no (formulation with vancomycin, polymyxin B, and agar) or little (formulation with cefamandole, polymyxin B, and agar) inhibitory effect on the growth of 14 different Legionella sp. bacteria. Natamycin is an inexpensive alternative to anisomycin in the formulation of selective BCYE alpha media. PMID:8748300

Edelstein, P H; Edelstein, M A

1996-01-01

204

Stimulatory Effects of Arsenic-Tolerant Soil Fungi on Plant Growth Promotion and Soil Properties  

PubMed Central

Fifteen fungi were obtained from arsenic-contaminated agricultural fields in West Bengal, India and examined for their arsenic tolerance and removal ability in our previous study. Of these, the four best arsenic-remediating isolates were tested for plant growth promotion effects on rice and pea in the present study. A greenhouse-based pot experiment was conducted using soil inocula of individual fungi. The results indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant growth and improvement of soil properties in inoculated soils compared to the control. A significant increase in plant growth was recorded in treated soils and varied from 16–293%. Soil chemical and enzymatic properties varied from 20–222% and 34–760%, respectively, in inoculated soil. Plants inoculated with inocula of Westerdykella and Trichoderma showed better stimulatory effects on plant growth and soil nutrient availability than Rhizopus and Lasiodiplodia. These fungi improved soil nutrient content and enhanced plant growth. These fungi may be used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and improved soil properties in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils.

Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Gupta, Manjul; Vaish, Aradhana; Mannan, Shivee; Singh, Nandita; Tewari, Shri Krishna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

2012-01-01

205

Autocrine CSF-1 and CSF-1 receptor coexpression promotes renal cell carcinoma growth.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma is increasing in incidence but the molecular mechanisms regulating its growth remain elusive. Coexpression of the monocytic growth factor colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 and its receptor CSF-1R on renal tubular epithelial cells (TEC) will promote proliferation and antiapoptosis during regeneration of renal tubules. Here, we show that a CSF-1-dependent autocrine pathway is also responsible for the growth of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). CSF-1 and CSF-1R were coexpressed in RCCs and TECs proximally adjacent to RCCs. CSF-1 engagement of CSF-1R promoted RCC survival and proliferation and reduced apoptosis, in support of the likelihood that CSF-1R effector signals mediate RCC growth. In vivo CSF-1R blockade using a CSF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor decreased RCC proliferation and macrophage infiltration in a manner associated with a dramatic reduction in tumor mass. Further mechanistic investigations linked CSF-1 and epidermal growth factor signaling in RCCs. Taken together, our results suggest that budding RCC stimulates the proximal adjacent microenvironment in the kidney to release mediators of CSF-1, CSF-1R, and epidermal growth factor expression in RCCs. Furthermore, our findings imply that targeting CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling may be therapeutically effective in RCCs. PMID:22052465

Menke, Julia; Kriegsmann, Jörg; Schimanski, Carl Christoph; Schwartz, Melvin M; Schwarting, Andreas; Kelley, Vicki R

2012-01-01

206

Understanding the molecular basis of plant growth promotional effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on rice through protein profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KH-1 was found to exhibit plant growth promotional activity in rice under both in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. But the mechanism underlying such promotional activity of P. fluorescens is not yet understood clearly. In this study, efforts were made to elucidate the molecular responses of rice plants to P. fluorescens treatment through

Saveetha Kandasamy; Karthiba Loganathan; Raveendran Muthuraj; Saravanakumar Duraisamy; Suresh Seetharaman; Raguchander Thiruvengadam; Balasubramanian Ponnusamy; Samiyappan Ramasamy

2009-01-01

207

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C Promotes Tumor Lymphangiogenesis and Intralymphatic Tumor Growth1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many solid tumors produce vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), and its receptor, VEGFR-3, is expressed in tumor blood vessels. To study the role of VEGF-C in tumorigenesis, we implanted MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells overexpressing recombinant VEGF-C orthotopically into severe combined immunodeficient mice. VEGF-C increased tumor growth, but unlike VEGF, it had little effect on tumor angiogenesis. Instead, VEGF-C

Terhi Karpanen; Mikala Egeblad; Marika J. Karkkainen; Hajime Kubo; Kari Alitalo

2001-01-01

208

Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting endophytic diazotrophic bacteria from Korean rice cultivars.  

PubMed

We have isolated 576 endophytic bacteria from the leaves, stems, and roots of 10 rice cultivars and identified 12 of them as diazotrophic bacteria using a specific primer set of nif gene. Through 16S rDNA sequence analysis, nifH genes were confirmed in the two species of Penibacillus, three species of Microbacterium, three Bacillus species, and four species of Klebsiella. Rice seeds treated with these plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) showed improved plant growth, increased height and dry weight and antagonistic effects against fungal pathogens. In addition, auxin and siderophore producing ability, and phosphate solubilizing activity were studied for the possible mechanisms of plant growth promotion. Among 12 isolates tested, 10 strains have shown higher auxin producing activity, 6 isolates were confirmed as strains with high siderophore producing activity while 4 isolates turned out to have high phosphate-solubilizing activity. These results strongly suggest that the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria characterized in this study could be successfully used to promote plant growth and inducing fungal resistance in plants. PMID:23871145

Ji, Sang Hye; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Chun, Se-Chul

2014-01-20

209

IL-17A produced by ?? T cells promotes tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Interleukin (IL)-17A is expressed in the tumor microenvironment where it appears to contribute to tumor development, but its precise role in tumor immunity remains controversial. Here, we report mouse genetic evidence that IL-17A is critical for tumor growth. IL-17A-deficient mice exhibited reduced tumor growth, whereas systemic administration of recombinant mouse IL-17A promoted the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. The tumor-promoting effect of IL-17A was mediated through suppression of antitumor responses, especially CD8(+) T-cell responses. Furthermore, we found that IL-17A was produced mainly by V?4 ?? T cells, insofar as depleting V?4 ?? T cells reduced tumor growth, whereas adoptive transfer of V?4 ?? T cells promoted tumor growth. Mechanistic investigations showed that IL-17A induced CXCL5 production by tumor cells to enhance the infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) to tumor sites in a CXCL5/CXCR2-dependent manner. IL-17A also promoted the suppressive activity of MDSC to reinforce suppression of tumoral immunity. Moreover, we found that MDSC could induce IL-17A-producing ?? T cells via production of IL-1? and IL-23. Conversely, IL-17A could also enhance production of IL-1? and IL-23 in MDSC as a positive feedback. Together, our results revealed a novel mechanism involving cross-talk among ?? T cells, MDSCs, and tumor cells through IL-17A production. These findings offer new insights into how IL-17A influences tumor immunity, with potential implications for the development of tumor immunotherapy. PMID:24525743

Ma, Shoubao; Cheng, Qiao; Cai, Yifeng; Gong, Huanle; Wu, Yan; Yu, Xiao; Shi, Liyun; Wu, Depei; Dong, Chen; Liu, Haiyan

2014-04-01

210

Growth-promoting effects of pepsin- and trypsin-treated caseinomacropeptide from bovine milk on probiotics.  

PubMed

Probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are generally fastidious bacteria and require rich media for propagation. In milk-based media, they grow poorly, and nitrogen supplementation is required to produce high bacterial biomass levels. It has been reported that caseinomacropeptide (CMP), a 7-kDa peptide released from ?-casein during renneting or gastric digestion, exhibits some growth-promoting activity for lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. During the digestive process, peptides derived from CMP are detected in the intestinal lumen The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of peptic and tryptic digests of CMP on probiotic lactic acid bacteria growth in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth (MRS) and in milk during fermentation at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions. The study showed that pepsin-treated CMP used as supplements at 0·5 g/l can promote the growth of probiotics even in peptone-rich environments such as MRS. The effect was strain-dependent and evident for the strains that grow poorly in MRS, with an improvement of >1·5 times (P<0·05) by addition of pepsin-treated CMP. Trypsin-treated CMP was much less efficient as growth promoter. Moreover, pepsin-treated CMP was effective in promoting the growth in milk of all probiotic lactic acid bacteria tested, with biomass levels being improved significantly, by 1·7 to 2·6 times (P<0·05), depending on the strain. Thus, supplementation of MRS and of milk with pepsin-treated CMP would be advantageous for the production of high biomass levels for Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. PMID:24960102

Robitaille, Gilles; Champagne, Claude P

2014-08-01

211

Preparation of gold nanoparticles by surfactant-promoted reductive reaction without extra reducing agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) has been extensively applied in the solution-phase synthesis of many types of colloidal nanoparticles. However, the uses of CTAB were mainly considered as template or capping agents to form controllable shape and protect the product from agglomeration. Here it was discovered that CATB could serve as a very mild reductant to reduce gold salt precursors preparing gold nanoparticles (GNPs) at base environment. CTAB acted as the reducing agent suffering a partial degradation and forming CTA macro radicals. FTIR proved the formation of Csbnd Cl and/or Csbnd Br bond after CTAB degraded. The characterization of synthesized GNPs was examined by UV-Vis spectra, TEM and XRD. Several factors affecting the process of reaction, such as the amount of NaOH, the molar ratio of CTAB and HAuCl4, the reaction temperature, the effect of light and oxygen, and stirring were discussed.

Tang, Junqi; Huang, Jiamin; Man, Shi-Qing

2013-02-01

212

Preparation of gold nanoparticles by surfactant-promoted reductive reaction without extra reducing agent.  

PubMed

Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) has been extensively applied in the solution-phase synthesis of many types of colloidal nanoparticles. However, the uses of CTAB were mainly considered as template or capping agents to form controllable shape and protect the product from agglomeration. Here it was discovered that CATB could serve as a very mild reductant to reduce gold salt precursors preparing gold nanoparticles (GNPs) at base environment. CTAB acted as the reducing agent suffering a partial degradation and forming CTA macro radicals. FTIR proved the formation of CCl and/or CBr bond after CTAB degraded. The characterization of synthesized GNPs was examined by UV-Vis spectra, TEM and XRD. Several factors affecting the process of reaction, such as the amount of NaOH, the molar ratio of CTAB and HAuCl(4), the reaction temperature, the effect of light and oxygen, and stirring were discussed. PMID:23261633

Tang, Junqi; Huang, Jiamin; Man, Shi-Qing

2013-02-15

213

Multi agent system to promote Electronic Data Interchange in port systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the features of a web-based multi-agent system (MAS) which aims at supporting electronic data interchange (EDI) among seaport operators and providing interoperability among ports. The MAS architecture here proposed performs process automation, data integration, security and quality of managed information better than a tradional client-server. The case study is represented by the italian port of Taranto and

A. Amato; M. Calabrese; V. Di Lecce; A. Quarto

2008-01-01

214

p8 inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells and its expression is induced through pathways involved in growth inhibition and repressed by factors promoting cell growth  

PubMed Central

Background p8 is a stress-induced protein with multiple functions and biochemically related to the architectural factor HMG-I/Y. We analyzed the expression and function of p8 in pancreatic cancer-derived cells. Methods Expression of p8 was silenced in the human pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1 and BxPc-3 by infection with a retrovirus expressing p8 RNA in the antisense orientation. Cell growth was measured in control and p8-silenced cells. Influence on p8 expression of the induction of intracellular pathways promoting cellular growth or growth arrest was monitored. Results p8-silenced cells grew more rapidly than control cells transfected with the empty retrovirus. Activation of the Ras?Raf?MEK?ERK and JNK intracellular pathways down-regulated p8 expression. In addition, the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 up-regulates expression of p8. Conversely, p38 or TGF?-1 induced p8 expression whereas the specific p38 inhibitor SB203580 down-regulated p8 expression. Finally, TGF?-1 induction was in part mediated through p38. Conclusions p8 inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells. p8 expression is induced through pathways involved in growth inhibition and repressed by factors that promote cell growth. These results suggest that p8 belongs to a pathway regulating the growth of pancreatic cancer cells.

Malicet, Cedric; Lesavre, Nathalie; Vasseur, Sophie; Iovanna, Juan L

2003-01-01

215

Percutaneous Nonviral Delivery of Hepatocyte Growth Factor in an Osteotomy Gap Promotes Bone Repair in Rabbits: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was initially identified in cultured hepatocytes and subsequently reported to induce angiogenic, morphogenic, and antiapoptotic activity in various tissues. These properties suggest a potential influence of HGF on bone healing. We asked if gene transfer of human HGF (hHGF) into an osteotomy gap with a hemagglutinating virus of Japan-envelope (HVJ-E) vector promotes bone healing in rabbits. HVJ-E that contained either hHGF or control plasmid was percutaneously injected into the osteotomy gap of rabbit tibias on Day 14. The osteotomy gap was evaluated by radiography, pQCT, mechanical tests, and histology at Week 8. The expression of hHGF was evaluated by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry at Week 3. Radiography, pQCT, and histology suggested the hHGF group had faster fracture healing. Mechanical tests demonstrated the hHGF group had greater mechanical strength. The injected tissues at 3 weeks expressed hHGF mRNA by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. hHGF-positive immunohistochemical staining was observed in various cells at the osteotomy gap at Week 3. The data suggest delivery of hHGF plasmid into the osteotomy gap promotes fracture repair, and HGF could become a novel agent for fracture treatment.

Matsubara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Koji; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Tomita, Katsuro

2008-01-01

216

Promoter trapping in microalgae using the antibiotic paromomycin as selective agent.  

PubMed

The lack of highly active endogenous promoters to drive the expression of transgenes is one of the main drawbacks to achieving efficient transformation of many microalgal species. Using the model chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the paromomycin resistance APHVIII gene from Streptomyces rimosus as a marker, we have demonstrated that random insertion of the promoterless marker gene and subsequent isolation of the most robust transformants allows for the identification of novel strong promoter sequences in microalgae. Digestion of the genomic DNA with an enzyme that has a unique restriction site inside the marker gene and a high number of target sites in the genome of the microalga, followed by inverse PCR, allows for easy determination of the genomic region, which precedes the APHVIII marker gene. In most of the transformants analyzed, the marker gene is inserted in intragenic regions and its expression relies on its adequate insertion in frame with native genes. As an example, one of the new promoters identified was used to direct the expression of the APHVIII marker gene in C. reinhardtii, showing high transformation efficiencies. PMID:23211713

Vila, Marta; Díaz-Santos, Encarnación; de la Vega, Marta; Rodríguez, Herminia; Vargas, Angeles; León, Rosa

2012-12-01

217

Inactivation of Amphotericin B by Reducing Agents: Influences on Growth Inhibition of 'Candida albicans' and Lysis of Erythrocytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reducing agents, both organic and inorganic, decreased the biological activity of amphotericin B. Cysteine-HCl, sodium sulfite, sodium dithionite, and sodium thiosulfate annulled amphotericin-mediated growth inhibition of susceptible organisms. These comp...

M. R. Weis H. B. Levine

1972-01-01

218

Over-expression of platelet-derived growth factor-D promotes tumor growth and invasion in endometrial cancer.  

PubMed

The platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) was demonstrated to be able to promote tumor growth and invasion in human malignancies. However, little is known about its roles in endometrial cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression and functions of PDGF-D in human endometrial cancer. Alterations of PDGF-D mRNA and protein were determined by real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Up-regulation of PDGF-D was achieved by stably transfecting the pcDNA3-PDGF-D plasmids into ECC-1 cells; and knockdown of PDGF-D was achieved by transient transfection with siRNA-PDGF-D into Ishikawa cells. The MTT assay, colony formation assay and Transwell assay were used to detect the effects of PDGF-D on cellular proliferation and invasion. The xenograft assay was used to investigate the functions of PDGF-D in vivo. Compared to normal endometrium, more than 50% cancer samples showed over-expression of PDGF-D (p < 0.001), and high level of PDGF-D was correlated with late stage (p = 0.003), deep myometrium invasion (p < 0.001) and lympha vascular space invasion (p = 0.006). In vitro, over-expressing PDGF-D in ECC-1 cells significantly accelerated tumor growth and promoted cellular invasion by increasing the level of MMP2 and MMP9; while silencing PDGF-D in Ishikawa cells impaired cell proliferation and inhibited the invasion, through suppressing the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Moreover, we also demonstrated that over-expressed PDGF-D could induce EMT and knockdown of PDGF-D blocked the EMT transition. Consistently, in xenografts assay, PDGF-D over-expression significantly promoted tumor growth and tumor weights. We demonstrated that PDGF-D was commonly over-expressed in endometrial cancer, which was associated with late stage deep myometrium invasion and lympha vascular space invasion. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed PDGF-D could promote tumor growth and invasion through up-regulating MMP2/9 and inducing EMT. Thus, we propose targeting PDGF-D to be a potent strategy for endometrial cancer treatment. PMID:24646915

Wang, Yuan; Qiu, Haifeng; Hu, Weixu; Li, Shaoru; Yu, Jinjin

2014-01-01

219

Over-Expression of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-D Promotes Tumor Growth and Invasion in Endometrial Cancer  

PubMed Central

The platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) was demonstrated to be able to promote tumor growth and invasion in human malignancies. However, little is known about its roles in endometrial cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression and functions of PDGF-D in human endometrial cancer. Alterations of PDGF-D mRNA and protein were determined by real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Up-regulation of PDGF-D was achieved by stably transfecting the pcDNA3-PDGF-D plasmids into ECC-1 cells; and knockdown of PDGF-D was achieved by transient transfection with siRNA-PDGF-D into Ishikawa cells. The MTT assay, colony formation assay and Transwell assay were used to detect the effects of PDGF-D on cellular proliferation and invasion. The xenograft assay was used to investigate the functions of PDGF-D in vivo. Compared to normal endometrium, more than 50% cancer samples showed over-expression of PDGF-D (p < 0.001), and high level of PDGF-D was correlated with late stage (p = 0.003), deep myometrium invasion (p < 0.001) and lympha vascular space invasion (p = 0.006). In vitro, over-expressing PDGF-D in ECC-1 cells significantly accelerated tumor growth and promoted cellular invasion by increasing the level of MMP2 and MMP9; while silencing PDGF-D in Ishikawa cells impaired cell proliferation and inhibited the invasion, through suppressing the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Moreover, we also demonstrated that over-expressed PDGF-D could induce EMT and knockdown of PDGF-D blocked the EMT transition. Consistently, in xenografts assay, PDGF-D over-expression significantly promoted tumor growth and tumor weights. We demonstrated that PDGF-D was commonly over-expressed in endometrial cancer, which was associated with late stage deep myometrium invasion and lympha vascular space invasion. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed PDGF-D could promote tumor growth and invasion through up-regulating MMP2/9 and inducing EMT. Thus, we propose targeting PDGF-D to be a potent strategy for endometrial cancer treatment.

Wang, Yuan; Qiu, Haifeng; Hu, Weixu; Li, Shaoru; Yu, Jinjin

2014-01-01

220

Effect of antimicrobial growth promoter administration on the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) are antimicrobial agents administered to livestock in feed for prolonged periods to enhance feed efficiency. Beef cattle are primarily finished in confined feeding operations in Canada and the USA, and the administration of AGPs such as chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (Aureo S-700 G) is the standard. The impacts of AGPs on the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are currently uncertain; it is documented that AGPs administered to beef cattle pass through the rumen and enter the intestine. To ascertain the impacts of Aureo S-700 G on the small and large intestinal microbiota of beef cattle (mucosa-associated and within digesta), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for total bacteria were applied. Beef cattle were maintained in an experimental feedlot (five replicate pens per treatment), and AGP treatment cattle were administered Aureo S-700 G in feed, whereas control cattle were administered no antimicrobials. As the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle has not been extensively examined, clone library analysis was applied to ascertain the primary bacterial constituents of the intestinal microbiota. Results Comparative T-RFLP and qPCR analysis (n?=?122 samples) revealed that bacterial community fingerprints and bacterial load within digesta differed from those associated with mucosa. However, the administration of Aureo S-700 G did not affect bacterial community fingerprints or bacterial load within the small and large intestine relative to control cattle. Analysis of >1500 near full length 16S rDNA clones revealed considerably greater bacterial diversity in the large relative to the small intestine of beef cattle. Mucosa-associated bacterial communities in the jejunum were dominated by Proteobacteria, and differed conspicuously from those in the ileum and large intestine. Although the ileum contained bacterial clones that were common to the jejunum as well as the cecum, Firmicutes clones associated with mucosa dominated in the ileum, cecum, and descending colon. In the descending colon, clone library analysis did not reveal a difference in the richness or diversity of bacterial communities within digesta relative to those associated with mucosa. However, T-RFLP analysis indicated a significant difference in T-RF relative abundance (i.e. difference in relative taxon abundance) between mucosa-associated and digesta communities attributed in part to the differential abundance of Bacteriodes, Alistipes, Oscillibacter, and unclassified Clostridiales. Conclusions These data demonstrate that there was no significant difference in the composition of the predominant intestinal bacteria constituents within animals administered Aureo S-700 G and those not administered AGPs after a 28 day withdrawal period.

2013-01-01

221

Growth factors promote inositol uptake in BC3H1 cells.  

PubMed

BC3H1 cells induced to differentiate by serum withdrawal were found to incorporate substantially less [3H]inositol into their phosphoinositides than cells induced to differentiate by growth in the presence of high serum. This decrease was found to be due to a decline in the rate of [3H]inositol uptake by the serum-starved cells. Addition of purified growth factors such as TGF-beta, EGF and FGF to these cells promoted inositol uptake and lead to an increase in the incorporation of [3H]inositol into phosphoinositides. Stimulation of inositol uptake by TGF-beta required at least a 24 hr exposure to the growth factor. These data indicate that growth factors regulate phosphoinositide metabolism at many different levels including at the level of inositol uptake. PMID:1311564

Spizz, G; Pike, L J

1992-02-14

222

Growing the growth cone: remodeling the cytoskeleton to promote axon regeneration  

PubMed Central

Axon growth is driven by the movement of a growth cone, a specialized sensory-motile structure located at the tip of a growing neurite. Although stalled retraction bulbs have long been recognized as hallmarks of regeneration failure, mechanisms that control the formation and migration of the nerve endings are only beginning to be unraveled. Recent studies point to microtubules as key determinants for such processes, and emerging evidence suggests that regulators of the actin and microtubule dynamics in the growth cone might serve as attractive targets for controlling both the speed and trajectory of regenerating axons. This review discusses the potential and recent progress of directly modulating the growth cone machinery as a novel strategy to promote axon regeneration in the nervous system after injury.

Hur, Eun-Mi; Saijilafu; Zhou, Feng-Quan

2011-01-01

223

Growth-promoting effects of caseinomacropeptide from cow and goat milk on probiotics.  

PubMed

Caseinomacropeptide (CMP), a 7-kDa phosphoglycopolypeptide fragment released from ?-casein during milk renneting, is heterogeneous with respect to post-translational glycosylation. Several studies have reported that CMP has growth-promoting activity on lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycosylation and sequence variations between bovine and caprine CMP on the growth of two probiotics: Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595-M and Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67. The growth-promoting activities of CMP (mixture of glycosylated (gCMP) and non-glycosylated (aCMP) fractions), aCMP and gCMP were measured in a basal minimal culture medium using turbidimetric microplate assay at 37 °C. Supplementation of the culture media at 2 mg/ml significantly improved maximum growth by 1.5 to 1.8 times depending on the strain, the additive (CMP, aCMP, gCMP), and the bovine or caprine origin (P < 0.05). CMP preparations also decreased the time needed to reach the inflexion point of the growth curve and increase the cell density at that time (P < 0.05). The effects of CMP preparations were dose dependent and significantly superior to the effect of bovine ?-lactoglobulin added to the culture media. As gCMP and aCMP were as efficient as bovine and caprine CMP (P > 0.1), it was concluded that the presence of oligosaccharides linked to CMP was not essential for growth-promoting activity of CMP. PMID:23182022

Robitaille, Gilles

2013-02-01

224

Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting traits of a rhizobacteria: Pantoea agglomerans lma2.  

PubMed

The use of microbial technology in agriculture is expanding quickly with the identification of new bacterial strains which are more effective in promoting the growth of plants. The rhizobacteria that promote the growth of plants can have a positive effect on the productivity of crops especially when subjected to salt stress. A nitrogen-fixing bacterium was isolated from the wheat rhizosphere of an arid region. The strain was identified on the basis of tests API20E and 16S rRNA sequencing, as Pantoea agglomerans lma2. This strain degraded several carbon sources: sugars (fructose, ribose, dextrin, salicin...), lipids (lecithin, tributyrin and tween 80), proteins (gelatin, casein), grew on KCN and could grow from pH 4 to 8 and had an optimum at pH 7. The growth temperature showed a maximum at 30 degrees C and the bacteria could tolerate from 4 to 41 degrees C and the growth rate was higher when the NaCl concentration was between 100 and 300 mM. The performance of activities enhancing the growth of plants of P. agglomerans lma2 was significantly better in the presence of salt. Rates of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), siderophores production and solubilization of phosphate increased between 100 and 400 mM NaCl compared to the control without salt. The maximum values were saved to 300 mM for the production of siderophores (18.32%) and solubilization of phosphate (1061.49 microg mL(-1)) and 100 mM for the production of IAA (161 microg mL(-1)). A significant correlation existed between these three activities. These results showed that P. agglomerans lma2 with its Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and halophilic properties could constitute a good fertilizer in arid and saline zone. PMID:24175423

Silini-Chérif, H; Silini, A; Ghoul, M; Yadav, S

2012-03-15

225

Cladosporium sphaerospermum as a new plant growth-promoting endophyte from the roots of Glycine max (L.) Merr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi are plant symbionts that produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and protection against\\u000a herbivory and pathogens. Fourteen fungal samples were isolated from the roots of soybean cultivar Daemangkong and screened\\u000a on waito-c rice for their plant growth-promoting capacity. Twelve of the fungal isolates promoted plant growth, while two\\u000a inhibited it. The fungal isolate DK-1-1 induced

Muhammad Hamayun; Sumera Afzal Khan; Nadeem Ahmad; Dong-Sheng Tang; Sang-Mo Kang; Chae-In Na; Eun-Young Sohn; Young-Hyun Hwang; Dong-Hyun Shin; Byung-Hyun Lee; Jong-Guk Kim; In-Jung Lee

2009-01-01

226

The Quinoxaline Antitumor Agent (R+)XK469 Inhibits Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

The quinoxaline antitumor agent (R+)XK469 mediates its effects by topoisomerase IIB inhibition. This report describes a 14 year-old with relapsed neuroblastoma who experienced disease stabilization for 14 months while receiving (R+)XK469 monotherapy. Due to this favorable response, laboratory studies were undertaken to determine efficacy in the preclinical setting. (R+)XK469 inhibited proliferation, caused G2 cell cycle arrest of neuroblastoma cells in vitro, and inhibited growth of neuroblastoma xenograft tumors. These preclinical results, coupled with the favorable clinical response, demonstrate that (R+)XK469 and similar anti-tumor agents may be effective in the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma and warrant further testing.

Kakodkar, Nisha C.; Peddinti, Radhika; Kletzel, Morris; Tian, Yufeng; Guerrero, Lisa J.; Undevia, Samir D.; Geary, David; Chlenski, Alexandre; Yang, Qiwei; Salwen, Helen R.; Cohn, Susan L.

2014-01-01

227

Synergistic inhibitory effect of cationic peptides and antimicrobial agents on the growth of oral streptococci.  

PubMed

Although chlorhexidine is one of the most efficacious antimicrobial agents used for the prevention of dental caries, side effects limit its application. The effects of gaegurin 6 (GGN6), an animal-derived cationic peptide, and its derivatives PTP6 and PTP12 on the growth of oral streptococci were investigated to assess the potential of these agents for use in the prevention of dental caries. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the peptides for inhibition of the growth of oral streptococci (Streptococcus mutans , S. sobrinus, S. sanguis and S. gordonii) ranged from 1.2 to 8.2 muM. The peptides also exhibited marked synergistic antibacterial effects with chlorhexidine or xylitol. The most effective combinations (fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.5) were xylitol with GGN6 against S. gordonii 10558 and chlorhexidine with either GGN6 or PTP6 against S. sobrinus OMZ-175. These results indicate that cationic peptides alone or in combination with chlorhexidine or xylitol might prove effective for the inhibition of the growth of cariogenic oral streptococci in situ. PMID:14571120

Kim, Sukwon S; Kim, Sunkyu; Kim, Eunshin; Hyun, Byungkuk; Kim, Kack-Kyun; Lee, Byeong Jae

2003-01-01

228

Antiangiogenic Therapy Using Sunitinib Combined with Rapamycin Retards Tumor Growth But Promotes Metastasis1  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the synergistic effect of sunitinib and rapamycin on tumor growth and metastasis in murine breast cancer model. METHODS: The synergistic antitumor effect of sunitinib and rapamycin on tumor growth and metastasis was investigated. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in spleens and lungs were assessed. Tumor hypoxia, vessel density and micrometastasis were evaluated. Versican, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), arginase 1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) in the lungs and tumors were examined. IL-6 and TGF-? in the blood were evaluated. RESULTS: Synergism between sunitinib and rapamycin on tumor growth was observed. Sunitinib plus rapamycin reduced splenomegaly, MDSCs in spleens and lungs, and microvessel density in tumor microenvironment, while exacerbated hypoxia and promoted cancer lung metastasis. Sunitinib plus rapamycin markedly induced versican, IDO, arginase 1, IL-6, and TGF-? expression in the lungs, whereas it reduced IDO and IL-10 expression in the primary tumor tissues. IL-6 levels in the circulation were increased after rapamycin and combination therapies. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of sunitinib plus rapamycin reduced the tumor growth but promoted tumor metastasis. This study warrants that further mTOR inhibition treatment should be closely watched in clinical setting, especially combined with antiangiogenic therapy.

Yin, Tao; He, Sisi; Ye, Tinghong; Shen, Guobo; Wan, Yang; Wang, Yongsheng

2014-01-01

229

RNA interference against SPARC promotes the growth of U-87MG human malignant glioma cells  

PubMed Central

Malignant glioma is a highly invasive brain tumor resistant to conventional therapies. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) has been shown to facilitate glioma invasion. However, the effects of SPARC on cell growth have yet to be adequately elucidated. In this study, we constructed a plasmid expressing shRNA against SPARC, evaluated the effect of SPARCshRNA on SPARC expression and then assessed its effect on cell growth in U-87MG cells. Using plasmid-delivered shRNA, we effectively suppressed SPARC expression in U-87MG cells. Cell growth curves and colony formation assay suggested that the introduction of SPARCshRNA resulted in an increase of cell growth and colony formation. We also showed that knockdown of SPARC expression was capable of promoting the cell cycle progression from the G1 to S phase. However, no difference was found in the level of apoptosis. A molecular analysis of signal mediators indicated that the inhibition of p-c-Raf (Ser259) and accumulation of p-GSK-3? (Ser9) and p-AKT (Ser473) may be connected with the growth promotion by SPARC shRNA. Our study may provide an insight into the biological function of SPARC in glioma.

Liu, Haiyan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Haowen; Fan, Saijun; Feng, Shuang; Liu, Fenju

2011-01-01

230

PVC-piping promotes growth of Ralstonia pickettii in dialysis water treatment facilities.  

PubMed

Biofilms forming inside dialysis water treatment systems are one of the main sources of microbiological contamination. Among the bacteria found in biofilms, Ralstonia pickettii is frequently encountered in dialysis water treatment systems and has been shown to develop extreme oligotrophic talents. In Austria, R. pickettii was exclusively detected in high numbers in dialysis water treatment facilities equipped with chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) piping. In this laboratory study it was shown that PVC-C effectively promotes growth of R. pickettii biofilms, while residual organic carbon in purified dialysis water is sufficient for promoting substantial growth of planktic R. pickettii. This provides evidence that PVC-C is an unsuitable material for piping in dialysis water treatment systems. PMID:23985526

Dombrowsky, Matthias; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina

2013-01-01

231

Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9.  

PubMed

Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled "Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens" awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010). PMID:22675598

Neupane, Saraswoti; Högberg, Nils; Alström, Sadhna; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Lu, Megan; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C; Tapia, Roxanne; Fiebig, Anne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D

2012-03-19

232

Soybean growth-promotion by Pseudomonas sp. strain VS1 under salt stress.  

PubMed

In the present study, we employ Pseudomonas sp. strain VS1 showed in vitro plant growth-promotion characteristics and promoted soybean seed emergence under salt stress. Strain produced indole 3-acetic acid in the presence of salt stresses that exhibited high numbers of lateral root as compared to control. Bacterial strain exhibited growth in DF salt medium amended with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate through ACC deaminase activity. Bacterial-treated soybean seeds were subjected to salt stress and significantly enhanced emergence at 7 days after seeding. Strain untreated soybean plants had a 33% seed germination when 200 mM NaCl was applied at 0 DAS and the root length was significantly decreased compared to the strain treated plants (LSD0.05 = 0.21). Most importantly, the application of 200 mM NaCl at 0 DAS resulted in only a 9% of lateral root in untreated plants as compared to strain treated plants. PMID:24171253

Kasotia, Amrita; Jain, Shekhar; Vaishnav, Anukool; Kumari, Sarita; Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

2012-07-15

233

Acanthamoeba release compounds which promote growth of Listeria monocytogenes and other bacteria.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes can grow as a saphrophyte in diverse habitats, e.g., soil, rivers, lakes, and on decaying plant material. In these environments, the bacteria are frequently exposed to predatory protozoa such as Acanthamoeba. Although L. monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen it does not infect or survive intracellular in Acanthamoeba castellanii, unlike several other facultative intracellular bacteria. Instead, motile L. monocytogenes can form large aggregates on amoebal cells and are effectively phagocytosed and eventually digested by Acanthamoeba. Here, we demonstrate that non-motile L. monocytogenes represent a less preferred prey in co-cultures with A. castellanii. Moreover, we found that the presence of Acanthamoeba strongly promotes growth of the bacteria in non-nutrient saline, by releasing nutrients or other growth promoters. Thus, the lack of motility and ability to utilize amoebal metabolites may aid to avoid eradication by amoebal predation in low-nutrient environments. PMID:24562324

Fieseler, Lars; Doyscher, Dominik; Loessner, Martin J; Schuppler, Markus

2014-04-01

234

Screening of multiple metal and antibiotic resistant isolates and their plant growth promoting activity.  

PubMed

Heavy metal contamination has accelerated due to the rapid industrialization world wide. Accumulation of metals in excess can modify the structure of essential protein or can replace an essential element. Bradyrhizobium strains showed tolerance to cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc and copper. All the isolates showed maximum tolerance towards lead and zinc which was followed by nickel and chromium. These strains also showed tolerance towards most of the antibiotics. Bradyrhizobium strains were also tested for their Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) substances, all isolates produced good amount of indole acetic acid and were positive for ammonia but only three strains were positive for HCN and siderophore (RM1, RM2 and RM8), the rest isolates showed negative result. Based on the above intrinsic abilities of Bradyrhizobium species, these strains can be used for the growth promotion, as well for the detoxification of the heavy metals in metal polluted soils. PMID:24783803

Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

2014-01-15

235

Sugarcane Growth Promotion by the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1  

PubMed Central

The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1::pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and aerial plant tissues. Microscopic analysis was performed at 5, 10, and 18 days after inoculation. Under greenhouse conditions, P. agglomerans 33.1-inoculated sugarcane plants presented more dry mass 30 days after inoculation. Cross-colonization was confirmed by reisolation of the GFP-tagged strain. These data demonstrate that 33.1::pNKGFP is a superior colonizer of sugarcane due to its ability to colonize a number of different plant parts. The growth promotion observed in colonized plants may be related to the ability of P. agglomerans 33.1 to synthesize indoleacetic acid and solubilize phosphate. Additionally, this strain may trigger chitinase and cellulase production by plant roots, suggesting the induction of a plant defense system. However, levels of indigenous bacterial colonization did not vary between inoculated and noninoculated sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions, suggesting that the presence of P. agglomerans 33.1 has no effect on these communities. In this study, different techniques were used to monitor 33.1::pNKGFP during sugarcane cross-colonization, and our results suggested that this plant growth promoter could be used with other crops. The interaction between sugarcane and P. agglomerans 33.1 has important benefits that promote the plant's growth and fitness.

Rossetto, P. B.; Ferreira, A.; Tsui, S.; Lacava, P. T.; Mondin, M.; Azevedo, J. L.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A. A.

2012-01-01

236

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor promotes neovascularization by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor from neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) promotes angiogenesis. However, the exact mechanism is not known. We demonstrate that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was released by Gr-1+CD11b- neutrophils but not Gr-1-CD11b+ monocytes prestimulated with G- CSF in vitro and in vivo. Similarly, in vivo, concomitant with an increase in neutrophil numbers in circulation, G-CSF augmented plasma VEGF level in vivo. Local

Yuichi Ohki; Beate Heissig; Yayoi Sato; Haruyo Akiyama; Zhenping Zhu; Daniel J. Hicklin; Kazunori Shimada; Hideoki Ogawa; Hiroyuki Daida; Koichi Hattori; Akimichi Ohsaka

2005-01-01

237

Involvement of growth promoting hormones in Rho1ps gene expression in garden pea shoot apexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the possible involvements of plant hormones in actin filament organization in a garden pea shoot apex,\\u000a the effect of growth promoting hormones such as IAA, GA3, brassinolide (BL), and zeatin (Zea) on the gene expression ofRho1ps was investigated by northern blot analyses. Compared with the level ofRho1ps transcripts in hormone-untreated segments of the apex, the application

Nam Sang-June; Myeong-Min Lee; Sun-Hi Lee; June-Seung Lee; Seong-Ki Kim

1998-01-01

238

Phosphate-solubilizing peanut associated bacteria: screening for plant growth-promoting activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, attempts were made to identify the potential of bacterial strains for promoting Arachis hypogaea L. growth. Four hundred and thirty three bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere, phyllosphere and plant tissues from peanuts\\u000a cultivated in the producing area of Cordoba, Argentina. From this collection, 37 epiphytic isolates and 73 endophytic isolates\\u000a were selected on the basis of

Tania Taurian; María Soledad Anzuay; Jorge Guillermo Angelini; María Laura Tonelli; Liliana Ludueña; Dayana Pena; Fernando Ibáñez; Adriana Fabra

2010-01-01

239

Site-Specific Methylation of the Rat Prolactin and Growth Hormone Promoters Correlates with Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methylation patterns of the rat prolactin (rPRL) (positions 2440 to 220) and growth hormone (rGH) (positions 2360 to 2110) promoters were analyzed by bisulfite genomic sequencing. Two normal tissues, the anterior pituitary and the liver, and three rat pituitary GH3cell lines that differ considerably in their abilities to express both genes were tested. High levels of rPRL gene expression

V. NGO; D. GOURDJI; N. LAVERRIERE

1996-01-01

240

Long-term effect of growth promoting conditions on the exocrine pancreas of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Pancreatic adaptation following prolonged exposition to growth promoting conditions (protease inhibitor feeding, B II subtotal\\u000a gastrectomy, subtotal colectomy) was studied in rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: controls (n = 10),\\u000a sham-operated (n = 10), low dose protease inhibitor feeding (n = 10), B II subtotal gastrectomy (n = 10), and subtotal colectomy\\u000a (n = 10).

Bernd Glasbrenner; Peter Malfertheiner; Markus BiJchler; Friedrich Brändle; Helmut Friess; Hans Ditschuneit

1989-01-01

241

Molecular ecological analysis of porcine ileal microbiota responses to antimicrobial growth promoters1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation-independent microbial mo- lecular ecology approaches were used to examine the effects of antibiotic growth promoters on the pig ileal microbiota. Five-week-old barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. Three diets meet- ing or exceeding the minimum nutrient requirements were fed for 5 wk and supplemented as follows: 1) nega- tive control (no antibiotic; n =

C. T. Collier; M. R. Smiricky-Tjardes; D. M. Albin; J. E. Wubben; V. M. Gabert; B. Deplancke; D. Bane; D. B. Anderson; H. R. Gaskins

242

Promotion effect of acankoreoside J, a lupane-triterpene in Acanthopanax koreanum, on hair growth.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Acanthopanax koreanum and acankoreoside J from A. koreanum on the promotion of hair growth. When immortalized rat vibrissa dermal papilla cells were treated with extract of A. koreanum leaves, the proliferation of dermal papilla cells significantly increased. In particular, acankoreoside J among several components, isolated from A. koreanum leaves, markedly promoted the proliferation of the dermal papilla cells. When rat vibrissa follicles were treated with an acankoreoside J, the hair-fiber lengths of the vibrissa follicles increased significantly. We further investigated ?-catenin pathway and cell cycle regulation with respect to the effect of acankoreoside J on the proliferation of the dermal papilla cells. Treatment with acankoreoside J results in an increase of nuclear ?-catenin level, and up-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDK2, whereas, the expression of p27(kip1) was down-regulated in the dermal papilla cells. Taken together, these results suggest that acankoreoside J, a lupane-triterpene of A. koreanum, has the potential of promoting hair growth by promoting cell cycle progression of the dermal papilla cells, through the increase of nuclear ?-catenin, along with the up-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDK2, and down-regulation of p27(kip1). PMID:22941493

Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Jung-Il; Park, Doek-Bae; Lee, Young-Ki; Hyun, Jin-Won; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2012-08-01

243

Key physiological properties contributing to rhizosphere adaptation and plant growth promotion abilities of Azospirillum brasilense.  

PubMed

Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that is being increasingly used in agriculture in a commercial scale. Recent research has elucidated key properties of A. brasilense that contribute to its ability to adapt to the rhizosphere habitat and to promote plant growth. They include synthesis of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, nitric oxide, carotenoids, and a range of cell surface components as well as the ability to undergo phenotypic variation. Storage and utilization of polybetahydroxyalkanoate polymers are important for the shelf life of the bacteria in production of inoculants, products containing bacterial cells in a suitable carrier for agricultural use. Azospirillum brasilense is able to fix nitrogen, but despite some controversy, as judging from most systems evaluated so far, contribution of fixed nitrogen by this bacterium does not seem to play a major role in plant growth promotion. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of physiological properties of A. brasilense that are important for rhizosphere performance and successful interactions with plant roots. PMID:22092983

Fibach-Paldi, Sharon; Burdman, Saul; Okon, Yaacov

2012-01-01

244

Diversity of endophytic bacteria in ginseng and their potential for plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria have been found in virtually every plant studied, where they colonize the internal tissues of their host plant and can form a range of different beneficial relationships. The diversity of bacterial endophytes associated with ginseng plants of varying age levels in Korea was investigated. Fifty-one colonies were isolated from the interior of ginseng stems. Although a mixed composition of endophyte communities was recovered from ginseng based on the results of 16S rDNA analysis, bacteria of the genus Bacillus and Staphylococcus dominated in 1-year-old and 4-year-old plants, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clusters: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, and ?-Proteobacteria, with Firmicutes being predominant. To evaluate the plant growth promoting activities, 18 representative isolates were selected. Amplification of nifH gene confirmed the presence of diazotrophy in only two isolates. Half of the isolates solubilized mineral phosphate. Except four, all the other endophytic isolates produced significant amounts of indole acetic acid in nutrient broth. Iron sequestering siderophore production was detected in seven isolates. Isolates E-I-3 (Bacillus megaterium), E-I-4 (Micrococcus luteus), E-I-8 (B. cereus), and E-I-20 (Lysinibacillus fusiformis) were positive for most of the plant growth promoting traits, indicating their role in growth promotion of ginseng. PMID:21046332

Vendan, Regupathy Thamizh; Yu, Young Joon; Lee, Sun Hee; Rhee, Young Ha

2010-10-01

245

Use of NMR metabolomic plasma profiling methodologies to identify illicit growth-promoting administrations.  

PubMed

Detection of growth-promoter use in animal production systems still proves to be an analytical challenge despite years of activity in the field. This study reports on the capability of NMR metabolomic profiling techniques to discriminate between plasma samples obtained from cattle treated with different groups of growth-promoting hormones (dexamethasone, prednisolone, oestradiol) based on recorded metabolite profiles. Two methods of NMR analysis were investigated-a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG)-pulse sequence technique and a conventional (1)H NMR method using pre-extracted plasma. Using the CPMG method, 17 distinct metabolites could be identified from the spectra. (1)H NMR analysis of extracted plasma facilitated identification of 23 metabolites-six more than the alternative method and all within the aromatic region. Multivariate statistical analysis of acquired data from both forms of NMR analysis separated the plasma metabolite profiles into distinct sample cluster sets representative of the different animal study groups. Samples from both sets of corticosteroid-treated animals-dexamethasone and prednisolone-were found to be clustered relatively closely and had similar alterations to identified metabolite panels. Distinctive metabolite profiles, different from those observed within plasma from corticosteroid-treated animal plasma, were observed in oestradiol-treated animals and samples from these animals formed a cluster spatially isolated from control animal plasma samples. These findings suggest the potential use of NMR methodologies of plasma metabolite analysis as a high-throughput screening technique to aid detection of growth promoter use. PMID:22370585

Graham, Stewart F; Ruiz-Aracama, Ainhoa; Lommen, Arjen; Cannizzo, Francesca T; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Elliott, Christopher T; Mooney, Mark H

2012-04-01

246

Veterinary Drugs and Growth Promoters Residues in Meat and Processed Meats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Veterinary drugs, which comprise a large number of different types of substances, are generally intended for therapeutic (to control infectious diseases) and prophylactic (to prevent against infections) purposes in farm animals. Other substances with growth promoting effect may exert antimicrobial effect against the microbial flora in the gut to take maximum profit of nutrients in the feed or by affecting the animal’s metabolism. Most of these substances are orally active and can be administered either in the feed or in the drinking water. Other active hormones are applied in the form of small implants into the subcutaneous tissue of the ears. These are slow release (several weeks or months) devices and the ears are discarded at the slaughter. Growth promoters allow a better efficiency in the feed conversion rate. The net effect is an increased protein deposition, partly due to muscle proteases inhibition (Fiems, Buts, Boucque, Demeyer, & Cottyn, 1990), usually linked to fat utilization (Brockman & Laarveld, 1986). The result is a leaner meat (Lone, 1997) with some toughness derived from the production of connective tissue and collagen crosslinking (Miller, Judge, Diekman, Hudgens, & Aberle, 1989; Miller, Judge, & Schanbacher, 1990). Some recent fraudulent practices, consisting of the use of a kind of “cocktails” or mixtures of several substances like ?-agonists and corticosteroids at very low amounts (Monsón et al., 2007), are difficult to detect with modern analytical instrumentation. They try to obtain a synergistic effect for a similar growth promotion with lower probability of detection by official control laboratories (Reig & Toldrá, 2007).

Reig, Milagro; Toldrá, Fidel

247

Caspase 3 promotes surviving melanoma tumor cell growth after cytotoxic therapy.  

PubMed

Metastatic melanoma often relapses despite cytotoxic treatment, and hence the understanding of melanoma tumor repopulation is crucial for improving our current therapies. In this study, we aim to define the role of caspase 3 in melanoma tumor growth after cytotoxic therapy. We examined a paradigm-changing hypothesis that dying melanoma cells undergoing apoptosis during cytotoxic treatment activate paracrine signaling events that promote the growth of surviving tumor cells. We propose that caspase 3 has a key role in the initiation of the release of signals from dying cells to stimulate melanoma tumor growth. We created a model for tumor cell repopulation in which a small number of luciferase-labeled, untreated melanoma cells are seeded onto a layer of a larger number of unlabeled, lethally treated melanoma cells. We found that dying melanoma cells significantly stimulate the growth of living melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we observed that caspase 3 gene knockdown attenuated the growth-stimulating effect of irradiated, dying cells on living melanoma cell growth. Finally, we showed that caspase 3-mediated dying melanoma cell stimulation of living cell growth involves secreted prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Our study therefore suggests a counterintuitive strategy to inhibit caspase 3 for therapeutic gain in melanoma treatment. PMID:24434746

Donato, Anne L; Huang, Qian; Liu, Xinjian; Li, Fang; Zimmerman, Mary A; Li, Chuan-Yuan

2014-06-01

248

Critical effective methods to detect genotoxic carcinogens and neoplasm-promoting agents.  

PubMed Central

Neoplasia in fish can result from contamination of waters with carcinogens and promoters. Cancer in fish, therefore, is a possible indicator of cancer risk to man and serves as a guide to the need for preventive approaches involving improved means of waste disposal and environmental hygiene. Moreover, cancer in fish indicates that this important food source may be contaminated. Detection of genotoxic carcinogens to which fish are exposed can be achieved quickly and efficiently by carefully selected batteries of complementary in vitro and in vivo bioassays. One such battery consists of the Ames test, a reverse mutation assay in prokaryotic Salmonella typhimurium, and the Williams test, involving DNA repair in freshly explanted metabolically highly competent liver cells from diverse species, including humans. Determination of DNA-carcinogen adducts by varied techniques, including 32P-postlabeling, as well as DNA breakage, mammalian cell mutagenicity, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, or cell transformation represent additional approaches, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. More research is needed on systems to apprehend neoplasm promoters, but tests to determine interruption of intercellular communications through gap junctions appear promising. Other approaches rely on measurement of enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase and protein kinase C. Approaches to the definition of risk to fish or humans require characterization of the genotoxic or nongenotoxic properties of a chemical, relative potency data obtained in select, limited rodent bioassays, and knowledge of prevailing environmental concentrations of specific carcinogens.

Weisburger, J H; Williams, G M

1991-01-01

249

Involvement of hexokinase1 in plant growth promotion as mediated by Burkholderia phytofirmans.  

PubMed

Potato plantlets inoculated with strain PsJN of the bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans exhibit consistent and significant increases in plant growth under in vitro conditions, when compared with uninoculated plants. The greatest influence on the degree and type of growth enhancement that develops has been shown to be mediated by the sugar concentration in the agar media. Bacterial growth promotion has been suggested in other studies to be regulated by the sugar sensor enzyme hexokinase1, the role of which is activation of glucose phosphorylation. In this present study, we examined the co-relationship between root and stem development in potato plants treated with PsJN and the activity of hexokinase1. Plants grown in the presence of 1.5% and 3% sucrose showed increased levels of hexokinase1 activity only in the roots of inoculated plants, suggesting that the increased enzyme levels may be associated with root growth. Analysis for mRNA using reverse transcriptase did not reveal any significant differences in transcription levels of the gene between inoculated and uninoculated plants. When PsJN-inoculated plants were grown in 1.5% and 3% concentrations of glucose and fructose, stem height and mass, leaf number, root mass, and overall biomass increased. No growth promotion occurred when PsJN-inoculated plants were grown in 3% maltose. Subsequently, a hexokinase1 activity assay showed that PsJN-induced growth of potato plants was found to only occur when plants were grown in the presence of sugars that are recognized by the plant hexokinase1. The results suggest that PsJN may enhance sugar uptake in plants by direct or indirect stimulation of hexokinase1 activity in roots and this results in enhanced overall plant growth. PMID:24849083

Park, Jae Min; Lazarovits, George

2014-06-01

250

Molecular characterization and identification of plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.).  

PubMed

Root nodule accommodates various non-nodulating bacteria at varying densities. Present study was planned to identify and characterize the non-nodulating bacteria from the pea plant. Ten fast growing bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of cultivated pea plants. These bacterial isolates were unable to nodulate pea plants in nodulation assay, which indicate the non-rhizobial nature of these bacteria. Bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for plant growth promoting properties including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, root colonization and biofilm formation. Six isolates were able to produce IAA at varying level from 0.86 to 16.16 ?g ml(-1), with the isolate MSP9 being most efficient. Only two isolates, MSP2 and MSP10, were able to fix nitrogen. All isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphorus ranging from 5.57 to 11.73 ?g ml(-1), except MSP4. Bacterial isolates showed considerably better potential for colonization on pea roots. Isolates MSP9 and MSP10 were most efficient in biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride, which indicated their potential to withstand various biotic and abiotic stresses, whereas the remaining isolates showed a very poor biofilm formation ability. The most efficient plant growth promoting agents, MSP9 and MSP10, were phylogenetically identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Ochrobactrum and Enterobacter, respectively, with 99% similarity. It is suggested the potential endophytic bacterial strains, Ochrobactrum sp. MSP9 and Enterobacter sp. MSP10, can be used as biofertilizers for various legume and non-legume crops after studying their interaction with the host crop and field evaluation. PMID:24072498

Tariq, Mohsin; Hameed, Sohail; Yasmeen, Tahira; Zahid, Mehwish; Zafar, Marriam

2014-02-01

251

Prostaglandin E2 transactivates EGF receptor: A novel mechanism for promoting colon cancer growth and gastrointestinal hypertrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandins (PGs), bioactive lipid molecules produced by cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2), have diverse biological activities, including growth-promoting actions on gastrointestinal mucosa. They are also implicated in the growth of colonic polyps and cancers. However, the precise mechanisms of these trophic actions of PGs remain unclear. As activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) triggers mitogenic signaling in gastrointestinal

Rama Pai; Brian Soreghan; Imre L. Szabo; Meredith Pavelka; Dolgor Baatar; Andrzej S. Tarnawski

2002-01-01

252

Lysosomotropic Properties of Weakly Basic Anticancer Agents Promote Cancer Cell Selectivity In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Drug distribution in cells is a fundamentally important, yet often overlooked, variable in drug efficacy. Many weakly basic anticancer agents accumulate extensively in the acidic lysosomes of normal cells through ion trapping. Lysosomal trapping reduces the activity of anticancer drugs, since anticancer drug targets are often localized in the cell cytosol or nucleus. Some cancer cells have defective acidification of lysosomes, which causes a redistribution of trapped drugs from the lysosomes to the cytosol. We have previously established that such differences in drug localization between normal and cancer cells can contribute to the apparent selectivity of weakly basic drugs to cancer cells in vitro. In this work, we tested whether this intracellular distribution-based drug selectivity could be optimized based on the acid dissociation constant (pKa) of the drug, which is one of the determinants of lysosomal sequestration capacity. We synthesized seven weakly basic structural analogs of the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDA) with pKa values ranging from 5 to 12. The selectivity of each analog was expressed by taking ratios of anti-proliferative IC50 values of the inhibitors in normal fibroblasts to the IC50 values in human leukemic HL-60 cells. Similar selectivity assessments were performed in a pair of cancer cell lines that differed in lysosomal pH as a result of siRNA-mediated alteration of vacuolar proton ATPase subunit expression. Optimal selectivity was observed for analogs with pKa values near 8. Similar trends were observed with commercial anticancer agents with varying weakly basic pKa values. These evaluations advance our understanding of how weakly basic properties can be optimized to achieve maximum anticancer drug selectivity towards cancer cells with defective lysosomal acidification in vitro. Additional in vivo studies are needed to examine the utility of this approach for enhancing selectivity.

Ndolo, Rosemary A.; Luan, Yepeng; Duan, Shaofeng; Forrest, M. Laird; Krise, Jeffrey P.

2012-01-01

253

Promotion of couples' voluntary HIV counselling and testing in Lusaka, Zambia by influence network leaders and agents  

PubMed Central

Objectives Hypothesising that couples’ voluntary counselling and testing (CVCT) promotions can increase CVCT uptake, this study identified predictors of successful CVCT promotion in Lusaka, Zambia. Design Cohort study. Setting Lusaka, Zambia. Participants 68 influential network leaders (INLs) identified 320 agents (INAs) who delivered 29?119 CVCT invitations to heterosexual couples. Intervention The CVCT promotional model used INLs who identified INAs, who in turn conducted community-based promotion and distribution of CVCT invitations in two neighbourhoods over 18?months, with a mobile unit in one neighbourhood crossing over to the other mid-way through. Primary outcome The primary outcome of interest was couple testing (yes/no) after receipt of a CVCT invitation. INA, couple and invitation characteristics predictive of couples’ testing were evaluated accounting for two-level clustering. Results INAs delivered invitations resulting in 1727 couples testing (6% success rate). In multivariate analyses, INA characteristics significantly predictive of CVCT uptake included promoting in community-based (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.3; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.8) or health (aOR=1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0) networks versus private networks; being employed in the sales/service industry (aOR=1.5; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.1) versus unskilled manual labour; owning a home (aOR=0.7; 95% CI 0.6 to 0.9) versus not; and having tested for HIV with a partner (aOR=1.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) or alone (aOR=1.3; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) versus never having tested. Cohabiting couples were more likely to test (aOR=1.4; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.6) than non-cohabiting couples. Context characteristics predictive of CVCT uptake included inviting couples (aOR=1.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4) versus individuals; the woman (aOR=1.6; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.2) or couple (aOR=1.4; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.8) initiating contact versus the INA; the couple being socially acquainted with the INA (aOR=1.6; 95% CI 1.4 to 1.9) versus having just met; home invitation delivery (aOR=1.3; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) versus elsewhere; and easy invitation delivery (aOR=1.8; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.2) versus difficult as reported by the INA. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of influential people to promote CVCT and identified agent, couple and context-level factors associated with CVCT uptake in Lusaka, Zambia. We encourage the development of CVCT promotions in other sub-Saharan African countries to support sustained CVCT dissemination.

Wall, Kristin M; Kilembe, William; Nizam, Azhar; Vwalika, Cheswa; Kautzman, Michelle; Chomba, Elwyn; Tichacek, Amanda; Sardar, Gurkiran; Casanova, Deborah; Henderson, Faith; Mulenga, Joseph; Kleinbaum, David; Allen, Susan

2012-01-01

254

Fates and Impacts of the Genetically Modified Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Pseudomonas Fluorescens SBW25, Under Controlled and Field Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plant growth-promoting bacteria may be used in agriculture to minimize the utilization of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. This thesis studies one plant growth-promoting bacterial strain. Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25, and its interaction with winter ...

L. Jaderlund

2008-01-01

255

Stromal estrogen receptor-? promotes tumor growth by normalizing an increased angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Estrogens directly promote the growth of breast cancers that express the estrogen receptor ? (ER?). However, the contribution of stromal expression of ER? in the tumor microenvironment to the protumoral effects of estrogen has never been explored. In this study, we evaluated the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which 17?-estradiol (E2) impacts the microenvironment and modulates tumor development of ER?-negative tumors. Using different mouse models of ER-negative cancer cells grafted subcutaneously into syngeneic ovariectomized immunocompetent mice, we found that E2 potentiates tumor growth, increases intratumoral vessel density, and modifies tumor vasculature into a more regularly organized structure, thereby improving vessel stabilization to prevent tumor hypoxia and necrosis. These E2-induced effects were completely abrogated in ER?-deficient mice, showing a critical role of host ER?. Notably, E2 did not accelerate tumor growth when ER? was deficient in Tie2-positive cells, even in mice grafted with wild-type bone marrow. These results were extended by clinical evidence of ER?-positive stromal cell labeling in the microenvironment of human breast cancers. Together, our findings therefore show that E2 promotes the growth of ER?-negative cancer cells through the activation of stromal ER? (extra-hematopoietic Tie-2 positive cells), which normalizes tumor angiogenesis and allows an adaptation of blood supply to tumors, thereby preventing hypoxia and necrosis. These findings significantly deepen mechanistic insights into the impact of E2 on tumor development with potential consequences for cancer treatment. PMID:22523036

Péqueux, Christel; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Blacher, Silvia; Boudou, Frédéric; Adlanmerini, Marine; Fouque, Marie-José; Rochaix, Philippe; Noël, Agnès; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Krust, Andrée; Chambon, Pierre; Brouchet, Laurent; Arnal, Jean-François; Lenfant, Françoise

2012-06-15

256

HOXA9 promotes ovarian cancer growth by stimulating cancer-associated fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) often exhibit morphologic features of embryonic Müllerian duct–derived tissue lineages and colonize peritoneal surfaces that overlie connective and adipose tissues. However, the mechanisms that enable EOC cells to readily adapt to the peritoneal environment are poorly understood. In this study, we show that expression of HOXA9, a Müllerian-patterning gene, is strongly associated with poor outcomes in patients with EOC and in mouse xenograft models of EOC. Whereas HOXA9 promoted EOC growth in vivo, HOXA9 did not stimulate autonomous tumor cell growth in vitro. On the other hand, expression of HOXA9 in EOC cells induced normal peritoneal fibroblasts to express markers of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and to stimulate growth of EOC and endothelial cells. Similarly, expression of HOXA9 in EOC cells induced normal adipose- and bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to acquire features of CAFs. These effects of HOXA9 were due in substantial part to its transcriptional activation of the gene encoding TGF-?2 that acted in a paracrine manner on peritoneal fibroblasts and MSCs to induce CXCL12, IL-6, and VEGF-A expression. These results indicate that HOXA9 expression in EOC cells promotes a microenvironment that is permissive for tumor growth.

Ko, Song Yi; Barengo, Nicolas; Ladanyi, Andras; Lee, Ju-Seog; Marini, Frank; Lengyel, Ernst; Naora, Honami

2012-01-01

257

Disulfiram Is a DNA Demethylating Agent and Inhibits Prostate Cancer Cell Growth  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The clinical success of the nucleoside analogs 5-aza-cytidine (5-azaC) and 5-aza-2?deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) as DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors has spurred interest in the development of non-nucleoside inhibitors with improved pharmacologic and safety profiles. Because DNMT catalysis features attack of cytosine bases by an enzyme thiol group, we tested whether disulfiram (DSF), a thiol-reactive compound with known clinical safety, demonstrated DNMT inhibitory activity. METHODS Inhibition of DNMT1 activity by DSF was assessed using methyltransferase activity assays with recombinant DNMT1. Next, prostate cancer cell lines were exposed to DSF and assessed for: i) reduction of global 5-methyl cytosine (5meC) content using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); ii) gene-specific promoter demethylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP); and iii) gene-reactivation by real-time RT-PCR. DSF was also tested for growth inhibition using prostate cancer cell lines propagated in vitro in cell culture and in vivo as xenografts in nude mice. RESULTS Disulfiram showed a dose-dependent inhibition of DNMT1 activity on a hemimethylated DNA substrate. In prostate cancer cells in culture, DSF exposure led to reduction of global genomic 5meC content, increase in unmethylated APC and RARB gene promoters, and associated re-expression of these genes, but did not significantly alter prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression. DSF significantly inhibited growth and clonogenic survival of prostate cancer cell lines in culture and showed a trend for reduced growth of prostate cancer xenografts. CONCLUSIONS Disulfiram is a non-nucleoside DNMT1 inhibitor that can reduce global 5meC content, reactivate epigenetically silenced genes, and significantly inhibit growth in prostate cancer cell lines.

Lin, Jianqing; Haffner, Michael C.; Zhang, Yonggang; Lee, Byron H.; Brennen, W. Nathaniel; Britton, Justin; Kachhap, Sushant K.; Shim, Joong Sup; Liu, Jun O.; Nelson, William G.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Carducci, Michael A.

2011-01-01

258

Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Agents for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe visual loss and blindness over the age of 50 in developed countries. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered as a critical molecule in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), which characterizes the neovascular AMD. Anti-VEGF agents are considered the most promising way of effectively inhibition of the neovascular AMD process. VEGF is a heparin-binding glycoprotein with potent angiogenic, mitogenic and vascular permeability-enhancing activities specific for endothelial cells. Two anti-VEGF agents have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of neovascular AMD. Pegaptanib sodium, which is an aptamer and ranibizumab, which is a monoclonal antibody fragment. Another humanized monoclonal antibody is currently off-label used, bevacizumab. This paper aims to discuss in details the effectiveness, the efficacy and safety of these three anti-VEGF agents. New anti-VEGF compounds which are recently investigated for their clinical usage (VEGF-trap, small interfering RNA) are also discussed for their promising outcomes.

Zampros, Ilias; Praidou, Anna; Brazitikos, Periklis; Ekonomidis, Panagiotis; Androudi, Sofia

2012-01-01

259

Candida parapsilosis as a Potent Biocontrol Agent against Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus Species  

PubMed Central

Background: Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed stuff is a serious health problem and significant economic concerns. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of Candida parapsilosis IP1698 on mycelial growth and aflatoxin production in aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus species was investigated. Methods: Mycelial growth inhibitions of nine strains of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species in the presence of C. parapsilosis investigated by pour plate technique at different pH, temperature and time of incubation. Reduction of aflatoxin was evaluated in co-cultured fungi in yeast extract sucrose broth after seven days of incubation using HPLC method. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Results: The presence of the C. parapsilosis at different pH did not affect significantly the growth rate of Aspergillus isolates. On the other hand, temperature and time of incubation showed to be significantly effective when compared to controls without C. parapsilosis (P?0.05). In aflatoxigenic strains, minimum percentage of reductions in total aflatoxin and B1, B2, G1, G2 fractions were 92.98, 92.54, 77.48, 54.54 and 72.22 and maximum percentage of reductions were 99.59, not detectable, 94.42, and not detectable in both G1 and G2, respectively. Conclusion: C. parapsilosis might employ as a good biocontrol agent against growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species

Niknejad, F; Zaini, F; Faramarzi, MA; Amini, M; Kordbacheh, P; Mahmoudi, M; Safara, M

2012-01-01

260

CD43 Promotes Cells Transformation by Preventing Merlin-Mediated Contact Inhibition of Growth  

PubMed Central

In normal tissues, strict control of tissue size is achieved by regulating cell numbers. The mechanism that controls total cell number is known as contact inhibition of growth and it depends on the NF2/Merlin pathway. Negative regulation of this pathway by deleterious mutations or by oncogenes results in cell transformation and tumor progression. Here we provide evidence that the CD43 sialomucin cooperates with oncogenic signals to promote cell transformation by abrogating the contact inhibition of growth through a molecular mechanism that involves AKT-dependent Merlin phosphorylation and degradation. Accordingly, inhibition of endogenous CD43 expression by RNA interference in lung, cervix and colon human cancer cells impaired tumor growth in vivo. These data underscore a previously unidentified role for CD43 in non-hematopoietic tumor progression.

Camacho-Concha, Nohemi; Olivos-Ortiz, Amiel; Nunez-Rivera, Alfredo; Pedroza-Saavedra, Adolfo; Gutierrez-Xicotencatl, Lourdes; Rosenstein, Yvonne; Pedraza-Alva, Gustavo

2013-01-01

261

Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of plant-growth promoting Serratia proteamaculans S4  

PubMed Central

Serratia proteamaculans S4 (previously Serratia sp. S4), isolated from the rhizosphere of wild Equisetum sp., has the ability to stimulate plant growth and to suppress the growth of several soil-borne fungal pathogens of economically important crops. Here we present the non-contiguous, finished genome sequence of S. proteamaculans S4, which consists of a 5,324,944 bp circular chromosome and a 129,797 bp circular plasmid. The chromosome contains 5,008 predicted genes while the plasmid comprises 134 predicted genes. In total, 4,993 genes are assigned as protein-coding genes. The genome consists of 22 rRNA genes, 82 tRNA genes and 58 pseudogenes. This genome is a part of the project “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth-promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens” awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI’s Community Sequencing Program.

Goodwin, Lynne A.; Hogberg, Nils; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Alstrom, Sadhna; Bruce, David; Quintana, Beverly; Munk, Christine; Daligault, Hajnalka; Teshima, Hazuki; Davenport, Karen; Reitenga, Krista; Green, Lance; Chain, Patrick; Erkkila, Tracy; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Xu, Yan; Kunde, Yulia; Chertkov, Olga; Han, James; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Szeto, Ernest; Mavromatis, Kostas; Huntemann, Marcel; Nolan, Matt; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Markowitz, Victor; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D.

2013-01-01

262

Basic fibroblast growth factor promotes epidermal growth factor responsiveness and survival of mesencephalic neural precursor cells.  

PubMed

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induce proliferation of neural precursor cells from several central nervous system regions in vitro. We have previously described two neural precursor cell populations from 13.5 days postcoitium (dpc) mesencephalon, one forming colonies in response to EGF, present in the ventral mesencephalon, and other forming colonies in response to EGF + bFGF, mainly present in the dorsal mesencephalon. In the present work, we show that 13.5 dpc dorsal mesencephalic cells required bFGF only for 1 h to form colonies in response to EGF alone, indicating that these two growth factors act in sequence rather than simultaneously. Absence of bFGF at the beginning of the culture gave rise to very few colonies, even after the addition of EGF + bFGF, suggesting that cells responsive to bFGF were very labile in the primary culture condition. This result is in contrast with cells pretreated with bFGF, which could survive for up to 5 days in the absence of bFGF or EGF, and then were capable of efficiently forming colonies in response to EGF. Basic FGF was also able to support survival of EGF-responsive neural precursors from both ventral and dorsal mesencephalon. The population requiring bFGF to form colonies in response to EGF was identified at different developmental stages (11.5-15.5 dpc), with higher contribution to the total number of neural precursors cells detected (EGF-responsive plus bFGF-responsive) at early stages and in the dorsal region. We show that the differentiation effect of bFGF resulted in the appearance of the mRNA coding for the EGF receptor. Our data suggest that bFGF-responsive neural precursors are the source of EGF-responsive neural precursors. PMID:10398068

Santa-Olalla, J; Covarrubias, L

1999-07-01

263

Perceptions of growth monitoring and promotion among an international panel of district medical officers.  

PubMed

The growth chart has been proposed as an educational tool to make the child's growth visible to both health workers and caregivers and to enhance communication between them. In the case of growth faltering, this would trigger timely corrective measures. Although the relevance of growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) has often been questioned in the literature, opinions of District Medical Officers responsible for local implementation of GMP are unknown. The aim of this qualitative research was to explore the perceptions and difficulties of an international panel of District Medical Officers regarding GMP. As an exploratory study, in-depth interviews of an international panel of District Medical Officers (n=19) were conducted. Data were coded using the QSR Nudist 5.0 software. A discrepancy between intended purposes and practice of GMP was detected at two levels. First, lack of participation of care-givers was reported. Second, the District Medical Officers expressed a restrictive interpretation of the concept of growth monitoring. The communication with parents was never reported as a means or a result of GMP, neither as an evaluation criterion of programme efficiency. The growth chart was mainly considered a tool intended to be used by health services for the purpose of diagnosis. This two-fold discrepancy between the intention of international policy-planners and practice of local programme implementers could be a crucial factor affecting the performance of GMP. More emphasis should be put on social communication and involvement of caregivers. PMID:16262016

Roberfroid, Dominique; Lefèvre, Pierre; Hoerée, Tom; Kolsteren, Patrick

2005-09-01

264

Melatonin promotes seminal root elongation and root growth in transgenic rice after germination.  

PubMed

The effect of melatonin on root growth after germination was examined in transgenic rice seedlings expressing sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Enhanced melatonin levels were found in T(3) homozygous seedlings because of the ectopic overexpression of sheep NAT, which is believed to be the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in animals. Compared with wild-type rice seeds, the transgenic rice seeds showed enhanced seminal root growth and an analogous number of adventitious roots 4 and 10 days after seeding on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium. The enhanced initial seminal root growth in the transgenic seedlings matched their increased root biomass well. We also found that treatment with 0.5 and 1 ?M melatonin promoted seminal root growth of the wild type under continuous light. These results indicate that melatonin plays an important role in regulating both seminal root length and root growth after germination in monocotyledonous rice plants. This is the first report on the effects of melatonin on root growth in gain-of-function mutant plants that produce high levels of melatonin. PMID:22640001

Park, Sangkyu; Back, Kyoungwhan

2012-11-01

265

Does health promote economic growth? Portuguese case study: from dictatorship to full democracy.  

PubMed

This paper revisits the debate on health and economic growth (Deaton in J Econ Lit 51:113-158, 2003) focusing on the Portuguese case by testing the relationship between growth and health. We test Portuguese insights, using time series data from 1960 to 2005, taking into account different variables (life expectancy, labour, capital, infant mortality) and considering the years that included major events on the political scene, such as the dictatorship and a closed economy (1960-1974), a revolution (1974) and full democracy and an open economy (1975-2005), factors that influence major economic, cultural, social and politic indicators. Therefore the analysis is carried out adopting Lucas' (J Monet Econ 22(1):3-42, 1988) endogenous growth model that considers human capital as one factor of production, it adopts a VAR (vector autoregressive) model to test the causality between growth and health. Estimates based on the VAR seem to confirm that economic growth influences the health process, but health does not promote growth, during the period under study. PMID:23807534

Morgado, Sónia Maria Aniceto

2014-07-01

266

Water soluble carbon nano-onions from wood wool as growth promoters for gram plants.  

PubMed

Water-soluble carbon nano-onions (wsCNOs) isolated from wood wool-a wood-based pyrolysis waste product of wood, can enhance the overall growth rate of gram (Cicer arietinum) plants. Treatment of plants with upto 30 ?g mL(-1) of wsCNOs for an initial 10 day period in laboratory conditions led to an increase in the overall growth of the plant biomass. In order to examine the growth stimulating effects of wsCNOs under natural conditions, 10 day-old plants treated with and without wsCNOs were transplanted into soil of standard carbon and nitrogen composition. We observed an enhanced growth rate of the wsCNOs pre-treated plants in soil, which finally led to an increased productivity of plants in terms of a larger number of grams. On analyzing the carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) content for the shoot and fruit sections of the plants treated with and without wsCNOs, only a minor difference in the composition was noticed. However, a slight increase in the percentage of carbon and hydrogen in shoots reflects the synthesis of more organic biomass in the case of treated plants. This work shows that wsCNOs are non-toxic to plant cells and can act as efficient growth stimulants which can be used as benign growth promoters. PMID:23099536

Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Roy, Manas; Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

2012-12-21

267

CLE6 expression recovers gibberellin deficiency to promote shoot growth in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Small peptides act as local signals during plant development, but few studies have examined their interaction with phytohormone signaling. Here, we show that application of gibberellin (GA) to Arabidopsis shoots induces substantial accumulation of transcripts encoded by CLE6, a member of the CLAVATA/ESR-RELATED (CLE) gene family, in the root stele, followed by promotion of organ growth by CLE6 in GA-deficient plants. The long-distance effect of GA4 was demonstrated by the observation that its application to the shoot apex of the GA-deficient mutant ga3ox1/ga3ox2 rescued the short-root phenotype. Microarray analysis was used to identify root-expressed genes that respond to systemic application of GA, and CLE6 was selected for further analysis. CLE6 was highly expressed in roots at the young seedling stage, and CLE6 promoter activity was strong in hypocotyls and roots, especially in root stele cells at branch points. Application of CLE6 peptide had no obvious effect on the growth and development of GA-deficient mutant plants. Nonetheless, the fact that ectopic over-expression of CLE6 in the GA-deficient mutant promoted root growth and branching, petiole elongation, bolting rate and stem length showed that CLE6 expression partially compensates for the GA deficiency. Reciprocal grafting of GA-deficient mutant plants to 35S::CLE6 transformants complemented the shoot phenotype associated with GA deficiency, demonstrating the systemic effect of CLE6 from root to shoot. These data suggest that root-expressed CLE6 is systemically involved in shoot growth under GA action in Arabidopsis. PMID:24528333

Bidadi, Haniyeh; Matsuoka, Keita; Sage-Ono, Kimiyo; Fukushima, Jun; Pitaksaringkarn, Weerasak; Asahina, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Sawa, Shinichiro; Fukuda, Hiroo; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu; Ono, Michiyuki; Satoh, Shinobu

2014-04-01

268

ATG5 is induced by DNA-damaging agents and promotes mitotic catastrophe independent of autophagy  

PubMed Central

Anticancer drug therapy activates both molecular cell death and autophagy pathways. Here we show that even sublethal concentrations of DNA-damaging drugs, such as etoposide and cisplatin, induce the expression of autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5), which is both necessary and sufficient for the subsequent induction of mitotic catastrophe. We demonstrate that ATG5 translocates to the nucleus, where it physically interacts with survivin in response to DNA-damaging agents both in vitro and in carcinoma tissues obtained from patients who had undergone radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. As a consequence, elements of the chromosomal passenger complex are displaced during mitosis, resulting in chromosome misalignment and segregation defects. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy does not prevent ATG5-dependent mitotic catastrophe, but shifts the balance to an early caspase-dependent cell death. Our data suggest a dual role for ATG5 in response to drug-induced DNA damage, where it acts in two signalling pathways in two distinct cellular compartments, the cytosol and the nucleus.

Maskey, Dipak; Yousefi, Shida; Schmid, Ines; Zlobec, Inti; Perren, Aurel; Friis, Robert; Simon, Hans-Uwe

2013-01-01

269

Nerve Growth Factor Promoter Activity Revealed in Mice Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein  

PubMed Central

Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its precursor proNGF are perhaps the best described growth factors of the mammalian nervous system. There remains, however, a paucity of information regarding the precise cellular sites of proNGF/NGF synthesis. Here we report the generation of transgenic mice in which the NGF promoter controls the ectopic synthesis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). These transgenic mice provide an unprecedented resolution of both neural cells (e.g., neocortical and hippocampal neurons) and non-neural cells (e.g., renal interstitial cells and thymic reticular cells) that display NGF promoter activity from postnatal development to adulthood. Moreover, the transgene is inducible by injury. At 2 days after sciatic nerve ligation, a robust population of EGFP-positive cells is seen in the proximal nerve stump. These transgenic mice offer novel insights into the cellular sites of NGF promoter activity and can be used as models for investigating the regulation of proNGF/NGF expression after injury.

Kawaja, Michael D.; Smithson, Laura J.; Elliott, Janet; Trinh, Gina; Crotty, Anne-Marie; Michalski, Bernadeta; Fahnestock, Margaret

2012-01-01

270

Mitochondrially targeted ceramides preferentially promote autophagy, retard cell growth, and induce apoptosis.  

PubMed

C(6)-pyridinium (D-erythro-2-N-[6'-(1''-pyridinium)-hexanoyl]sphingosine bromide [LCL29]) is a cationic mitochondrion-targeting ceramide analog that promotes mitochondrial permeabilization and cancer cell death. In this study, we compared the biological effects of that compound with those of D-erythro-C(6)-ceramide, its non-mitochondrion-targeting analog. In MCF7 cells it was found that C(6)-pyridinium ceramide preferentially promoted autophagosome formation and retarded cell growth more extensively than its uncharged analog. This preferential inhibition of cell growth was also observed in breast epithelial cells and other breast cancer cells. In addition, this compound could promote Bax translocation to mitochondria. This redistribution of Bax in MCF7 cells could be blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk but via a Bid-independent signaling pathway. Moreover, C(6)-pyridinium ceramide-induced translocation of Bax to mitochondria led to mitochondrial permeabilization and cell death. Overall, we show that mitochondrial targeting of C(6)-pyridinium ceramide significantly enhances cellular response to this compound. PMID:21081756

Hou, Qi; Jin, Junfei; Zhou, Hui; Novgorodov, Sergei A; Bielawska, Alicja; Szulc, Zdzislaw M; Hannun, Yusuf A; Obeid, Lina M; Hsu, Yi-Te

2011-02-01

271

Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ? CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ? The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have been studied in vitro and in vivo. ? CYP4Z1 regulates expression and production of VEGF-A and TIMP-2. ? CYP4Z1-induced angiogenesis is associated with PI3K and ERK1/2 activation. ? CYP4Z1 may be an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy.

Yu, Wei [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Guifang [Department of Pathology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Pathology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cai, Xiaojun [Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Falck, John R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China) [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

2012-10-01

272

Nitric oxide mediates angiogenesis in vivo and endothelial cell growth and migration in vitro promoted by substance P.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the effects of nitric oxide (NO) generators and endogenous production of NO elicited by substance P (SP) in the angiogenesis process. Angiogenesis was monitored in the rabbit cornea in vivo and in vitro by measuring the growth and migration of endothelial cells isolated from coronary postcapillary venules. The angiogenesis promoted in the rabbit cornea by [Sar9]-SP-sulfone, a stable and selective agonist for the tachykinin NK1 receptor, and by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), was potentiated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Conversely, the NO synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), given systemically, inhibited angiogenesis elicited by [Sar9]-SP-sulfone and by PGE1. Endothelial cells exposed to SNP exhibited an increase in thymidine incorporation and in total cell number. Exposure of the cells to NO generating drugs, such as SNP, isosorbide dinitrate, and glyceryl trinitrate, produced a dose-dependent increase in endothelial cell migration. Capillary endothelial cell proliferation and migration produced by SP were abolished by pretreatment with the NO synthase inhibitors N omega-mono-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), and L-NAME. Exposure of the cells to SP activated the calcium-dependent NO synthase. Angiogenesis and endothelial cell growth and migration induced by basic fibroblast growth factor were not affected by NO synthase inhibitors. These data indicate that NO production induced by vasoactive agents, such as SP, functions as an autocrine regulator of the microvascular events necessary for neovascularization and mediates angiogenesis. Images

Ziche, M; Morbidelli, L; Masini, E; Amerini, S; Granger, H J; Maggi, C A; Geppetti, P; Ledda, F

1994-01-01

273

AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity  

SciTech Connect

Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

Mitchell, Darrion L. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)] [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States); DiMario, Joseph X., E-mail: joseph.dimario@rosalindfranklin.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)

2010-01-15

274

Alkamides Isolated from Plants Promote Growth and Alter Root Development in Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

To date, several classes of hormones have been described that influence plant development, including auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, and, more recently, brassinosteroids. However, it is known that many fungal and bacterial species produce substances that alter plant growth that, if naturally present in plants, might represent novel classes of plant growth regulators. Alkamides are metabolites widely distributed in plants with a broad range of biological activities. In this work, we investigated the effects of affinin, an alkamide naturally occurring in plants, and its derivates, N-isobutyl-2E-decenamide and N-isobutyl-decanamide, on plant growth and early root development in Arabidopsis. We found that treatments with affinin in the range of 10-6 to 10-4 m alter shoot and root biomass production. This effect correlated with alteration on primary root growth, lateral root formation, and root hair elongation. Low concentrations of affinin (7 × 10-6–2.8 × 10-5 m) enhanced primary root growth and root hair elongation, whereas higher concentrations inhibited primary root growth that related with a reduction in cell proliferating activity and cell elongation. N-isobutyl-2E-decenamide and N-isobutyl-decanamide were found to stimulate root hair elongation at concentrations between 10-8 to 10-7 m. Although the effects of alkamides were similar to those produced by auxins on root growth and cell parameters, the ability of the root system to respond to affinin was found to be independent of auxin signaling. Our results suggest that alkamides may represent a new group of plant growth promoting substances with significant impact on root development and opens the possibility of using these compounds for improved plant production.

Ramirez-Chavez, Enrique; Lopez-Bucio, Jose; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Molina-Torres, Jorge

2004-01-01

275

Metal ion-promoted hydrolysis of the antioxidant cardioprotective agent dexrazoxane (ICRF-187) and its one-ring open hydrolysis products to its metal-chelating active form  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metal ion-promoted hydrolysis of the doxorubicin cardioprotective agent dexrazoxane (ICRF-187) has been studied by HPLC and spectrophotometrically. Dexrazoxane is thought to be cardioprotective through the ability of its rings-opened hydrolysis product (D) to chelate loosely bound iron, thus preventing iron-based oxygen free radical damage. While neither Mg(II) nor Ca(II) promoted the hydrolysis of the opening of the first dexrazoxane

Joan L. Buss; Brian B. Hasinoff

1997-01-01

276

Transforming growth factor-beta activation promotes genetic context-dependent invasion of immortalized melanocytes.  

PubMed

Accumulation of distinct sets of genetic/epigenetic alterations is thought to contribute to stepwise progression of human cutaneous melanomas. We found evidence of frequent tumor cell autonomous transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signal activation in both premalignant and malignant stages of human cutaneous melanoma histogenesis and investigated its potential causative roles using human organotypic skin cultures. PTEN deficiency and Braf activation, two common coincident genetic alterations found in primary cutaneous melanomas, were first introduced into human melanocytes previously immortalized by the SV40 large T antigen and telomerase. These changes individually supported anchorage-independent growth and conferred benign, hyperplastic growth in a skin-like environment. In addition, PTEN deficiency combined with Braf activation together induced a melanoma in situ-like phenotype without dermal invasion. Further addition of cell autonomous TGF-beta activation in the context of PTEN deficiency and Braf activation promoted dermal invasion in skin cultures without significantly promoting proliferation in vitro and in vivo. This proinvasive phenotype of cell autonomous TGF-beta activation is genetic context-dependent, as hyperactivating the TGF-beta type I receptor without PTEN deficiency and Braf activation failed to induce an invasive behavior. Evidence of genetic interactions among PTEN deficiency, Braf activation, and cell autonomous TGF-beta activation shows that distinct stages of human melanoma are genetically tractable in the proper tissue architecture. PMID:18519684

Lo, Roger S; Witte, Owen N

2008-06-01

277

Potential for plant growth promotion of rhizobacteria associated with Salicornia growing in Tunisian hypersaline soils.  

PubMed

Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands. PMID:23781499

Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

2013-01-01

278

Diversity, Biocontrol, and Plant Growth Promoting Abilities of Xylem Residing Bacteria from Solanaceous Crops  

PubMed Central

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the solanaceous crops of economic and cultural importance and is widely cultivated in the state of Goa, India. Eggplant cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that colonizes the xylem tissue. In this study, 167 bacteria were isolated from the xylem of healthy eggplant, chilli, and Solanum torvum Sw. by vacuum infiltration and maceration. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) grouped these xylem residing bacteria (XRB) into 38 haplotypes. Twenty-eight strains inhibited growth of R. solanacearum and produced volatile and diffusible antagonistic compounds and plant growth promoting substances in vitro. Antagonistic strains XB86, XB169, XB177, and XB200 recorded a biocontrol efficacy greater than 85% against BW and exhibited 12%–22 % increase in shoot length in eggplant in the greenhouse screening. 16S rRNA based identification revealed the presence of 23 different bacterial genera. XRB with high biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities were identified as strains of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptomyces sp., Enterobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp. This study is the first report on identity of bacteria from the xylem of solanaceous crops having traits useful in cultivation of eggplant.

Achari, Gauri A.

2014-01-01

279

Trichoderma gamsii (NFCCI 2177): A newly isolated endophytic, psychrotolerant, plant growth promoting, and antagonistic fungal strain.  

PubMed

An endophytic fungus has been isolated from the lateral roots of lentil (Lens esculenta Moench), growing under mountain ecosystem of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). While the fungus was observed as fast growing with white scanty mycelium turning to turmeric brown in 5 days of incubation at 25?°C, it also produced a unique odor. The fungus exhibited growth between 4 and 30?°C (optimum 25?°C) and tolerated pH between 2.0 and 13.5 (optimum 4-6). Based on phenotypic (colony morphology and microscopy) and genotypic (18S rRNA analysis) characters, the fungus was identified as Trichoderma gamsii (99% similarity). The fungus was evaluated for its plant growth promotion and biocontrol properties. The fungus was found to be positive for phosphate solubilization, chitinase activity, and production of ammonia and salicylic acid, while the results for production of IAA, HCN, and siderophores were negative. Out of the seven phytopathogenic fungi tested, it showed antagonism against six. Bioassays conducted under green house using four test crops (two cereals and two legumes) showed its potential in plant growth promotion. The fungus has potential to be developed as a bioformulation for application under mountain ecosystem. PMID:23564225

Rinu, K; Sati, Priyanka; Pandey, Anita

2014-05-01

280

Vascular CD39/ENTPD1 directly promotes tumor cell growth by scavenging extracellular adenosine triphosphate.  

PubMed

Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to boost immune responses in the tumor microenvironment but might also contribute directly to cancer cell death. CD39/ENTPD1 is the dominant ectonucleotidase expressed by endothelial cells and regulatory T cells and catalyzes the sequential hydrolysis of ATP to AMP that is further degraded to adenosine by CD73/ecto-5'-nucleotidase. We have previously shown that deletion of Cd39 results in decreased growth of transplanted tumors in mice, as a result of both defective angiogenesis and heightened innate immune responses (secondary to loss of adenosinergic immune suppression). Whether alterations in local extracellular ATP and adenosine levels as a result of CD39 bioactivity directly affect tumor growth and cytotoxicity has not been investigated to date. We show here that extracellular ATP exerts antitumor activity by directly inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cancer cell death. ATP-induced antiproliferative effects and cell death are, in large part, mediated through P2X(7) receptor signaling. Tumors in Cd39 null mice exhibit increased necrosis in association with P2X(7) expression. We further demonstrate that exogenous soluble NTPDase, or CD39 expression by cocultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, stimulates tumor cell proliferation and limits cell death triggered by extracellular ATP. Collectively, our findings indicate that local expression of CD39 directly promotes tumor cell growth by scavenging extracellular ATP. Pharmacological or targeted inhibition of CD39 enzymatic activity may find utility as an adjunct therapy in cancer management. PMID:21390184

Feng, Lili; Sun, Xiaofeng; Csizmadia, Eva; Han, Lihui; Bian, Shu; Murakami, Takashi; Wang, Xin; Robson, Simon C; Wu, Yan

2011-03-01

281

Semaphorin3A regulates neuronal polarization by suppressing axon formation and promoting dendrite growth.  

PubMed

Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a secreted factor known to guide axon/dendrite growth and neuronal migration. We found that it also acts as a polarizing factor for axon/dendrite development in cultured hippocampal neurons. Exposure of the undifferentiated neurite to localized Sema3A suppressed its differentiation into axon and promoted dendrite formation, resulting in axon formation away from the Sema3A source, and bath application of Sema3A to polarized neurons promoted dendrite growth but suppressed axon growth. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging showed that Sema3A elevated the cGMP but reduced cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and its axon suppression is attributed to the downregulation of PKA-dependent phosphorylation of axon determinants LKB1 and GSK-3?. Downregulating Sema3A signaling in rat embryonic cortical progenitors via in utero electroporation of siRNAs against the Sema3A receptor neuropilin-1 also resulted in polarization defects in vivo. Thus, Sema3A regulates the earliest step of neuronal morphogenesis by polarizing axon/dendrite formation. PMID:21835341

Shelly, Maya; Cancedda, Laura; Lim, Byung Kook; Popescu, Andrei T; Cheng, Pei-lin; Gao, Hongfeng; Poo, Mu-ming

2011-08-11

282

Endophytic fungi produce gibberellins and indoleacetic acid and promotes host-plant growth during stress.  

PubMed

We isolated and examined two endophytic fungi for their potential to secrete phytohormones viz. gibberellins (GAs) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) and mitigate abiotic stresses like salinity and drought. The endophytic fungi Phoma glomerata LWL2 and Penicillium sp. LWL3 significantly promoted the shoot and allied growth attributes of GAs-deficient dwarf mutant Waito-C and Dongjin-beyo rice. Analysis of the pure cultures of these endophytic fungi showed biologically active GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7) in various quantities. The cultures of P. glomerata and Penicillium sp. also contained IAA. The culture application and endophytic-association with host-cucumber plants significantly increased the plant biomass and related growth parameters under sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol induced salinity and drought stress as compared to control plants. The endophytic symbiosis resulted in significantly higher assimilation of essential nutrients like potassium, calcium and magnesium as compared to control plants during salinity stress. Endophytic-association reduced the sodium toxicity and promoted the host-benefit ratio in cucumber plants as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The symbiotic-association mitigated stress by compromising the activities of reduced glutathione, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Under stress conditions, the endophyte-infection significantly modulated stress through down-regulated abscisic acid, altered jasmonic acid, and elevated salicylic acid contents as compared to control. In conclusion, the two endophytes significantly reprogrammed the growth of host plants during stress conditions. PMID:22960869

Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Kamran, Muhammad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Lee, In-Jung

2012-01-01

283

Coexisting Curtobacterium bacterium promotes growth of white-rot fungus Stereum sp.  

PubMed

White-rot basidiomycetes are the main decomposers of woody biomass in forest ecosystems. Little is known, however, about the interactions between white-rot fungi and other microorganisms in decayed wood. A wood-rotting fungus, Stereum sp. strain TN4F, was isolated from a fruit body, and its coexisting cultivable bacteria were isolated from its substrate; natural white-rot decayed wood. The effects of bacteria on fungal growth were examined by confrontational assay in vitro. A growth-promoting bacterium for this Stereum strain was identified as Curtobacterium sp. TN4W-19, using 16SrRNA sequencing. A confrontational assay revealed that Curtobacterium sp. TN4W-19 significantly promoted the mycelial growth of Stereum sp. TN4F in the direction of the bacterial colony, without direct contact between the mycelium and bacterial cells. This is the first report of a positive interaction between a white-rot fungus and a coexisting bacterial strain in vitro. PMID:22101455

Kamei, Ichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Enami, Daisuke; Meguro, Sadatoshi

2012-02-01

284

Promoting sustainable economic growth and industrialisation: solution to mass unemployment and poverty.  

PubMed

This paper analysed the twin-problems of unemployment and poverty. The methodology adopted in the analyses was a combination of the historical and logico-mathematical research perspectives. The results showed that the technologically advanced nations (TANs) experienced mass unemployment, low productivity, high inflation and prevalent poverty problems for many centuries before they achieved industrial revolution (IR). When they achieved the modern IR, not only did the mass unemployment problem disappear, but also, there were not enough adults persons to fill the employment openings created by the industrialisation. Consequently, industrialists resorted to employing children who worked in factories for many hours everyday, and prevented them from receiving education. Unemployment and poverty, therefore are symptoms of stagnation and lack of industrialisation (the disease). The long-term solution to mass unemployment and poverty therefore is industrialisation, for there is no industrialised nation that is poor. The short-term solution is promoting sustainable economic growth and competence-building. However, because achieving sustainable economic growth, competence-building and industrialisation are learning processes, Nigeria and other developing nations need to develop good educational systems. They should also establish suitable frameworks for training university graduates, scientists and engineers in particular in a curriculum-based scheme to acquire complementary practical skills in the economy outside campuses. This is how the poor nations can achieve sustainable growth, build-up individual and national competence, promote industrialisation and eliminate unemployment and poverty problems, speedily. PMID:20161924

Ogbimi, F E

2007-01-01

285

Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase ? (LPAAT?) Promotes the Tumor Growth of Human Osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Background Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone with poorly characterized molecular pathways important in its pathogenesis. Increasing evidence indicates that elevated lipid biosynthesis is a characteristic feature of cancer. We sought to investigate the role of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase ? (LPAAT?, aka, AGPAT2) in regulating the proliferation and growth of human osteosarcoma cells. LPAAT? can generate phosphatidic acid, which plays a key role in lipid biosynthesis as well as in cell proliferation and survival. Although elevated expression of LPAAT? has been reported in several types of human tumors, the role of LPAAT? in osteosarcoma progression has yet to be elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings Endogenous expression of LPAAT? in osteosarcoma cell lines is analyzed by using semi-quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of LPAAT? and silencing LPAAT? expression is employed to determine the effect of LPAAT? on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration in vitro and osteosarcoma tumor growth in vivo. We have found that expression of LPAAT? is readily detected in 8 of the 10 analyzed human osteosarcoma lines. Exogenous expression of LPAAT? promotes osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration, while silencing LPAAT? expression inhibits these cellular characteristics. We further demonstrate that exogenous expression of LPAAT? effectively promotes tumor growth, while knockdown of LPAAT? expression inhibits tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft model of human osteosarcoma. Conclusions/Significance Our results strongly suggest that LPAAT? expression may be associated with the aggressive phenotypes of human osteosarcoma and that LPAAT? may play an important role in regulating osteosarcoma cell proliferation and tumor growth. Thus, targeting LPAAT? may be exploited as a novel therapeutic strategy for the clinical management of osteosarcoma. This is especially attractive given the availability of selective pharmacological inhibitors.

Rastegar, Farbod; Gao, Jian-Li; Shenaq, Deana; Luo, Qing; Shi, Qiong; Kim, Stephanie H.; Jiang, Wei; Wagner, Eric R.; Huang, Enyi; Gao, Yanhong; Shen, Jikun; Yang, Ke; He, Bai-Cheng; Chen, Liang; Zuo, Guo-Wei; Luo, Jinyong; Luo, Xiaoji; Bi, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Mi; Hu, Ning; Wang, Linyuan; Luther, Gaurav; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; He, Tong-Chuan

2010-01-01

286

Type I TARPs promote dendritic growth of early postnatal neocortical pyramidal cells in organotypic cultures.  

PubMed

The ionotropic ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate glutamate receptors (AMPARs) have been implicated in the establishment of dendritic architecture. The transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) regulate AMPAR function and trafficking into synaptic membranes. In the current study, we employ type I and type II TARPs to modulate expression levels and function of endogenous AMPARs and investigate in organotypic cultures (OTCs) of rat occipital cortex whether this influences neuronal differentiation. Our results show that in early development [5-10 days in vitro (DIV)] only the type I TARP ?-8 promotes pyramidal cell dendritic growth by increasing spontaneous calcium amplitude and GluA2/3 expression in soma and dendrites. Later in development (10-15 DIV), the type I TARPs ?-2, ?-3 and ?-8 promote dendritic growth, whereas ?-4 reduced dendritic growth. The type II TARPs failed to alter dendritic morphology. The TARP-induced dendritic growth was restricted to the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells and it did not affect interneurons. Moreover, we studied the effects of short hairpin RNA-induced knockdown of endogenous ?-8 and showed a reduction of dendritic complexity and amplitudes of spontaneous calcium transients. In addition, the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of ?-8 was required for dendritic growth. Single-cell calcium imaging showed that the ?-8 CT domain increases amplitude but not frequency of calcium transients, suggesting a regulatory mechanism involving the ?-8 CT domain in the postsynaptic compartment. Indeed, the effect of ?-8 overexpression was reversed by APV, indicating a contribution of NMDA receptors. Our results suggest that selected type I TARPs influence activity-dependent dendritogenesis of immature pyramidal neurons. PMID:24667327

Hamad, Mohammad I K; Jack, Alexander; Klatt, Oliver; Lorkowski, Markus; Strasdeit, Tobias; Kott, Sabine; Sager, Charlotte; Hollmann, Michael; Wahle, Petra

2014-04-01

287

Inoculation of tomato plants ( Solanum lycopersicum ) with growth-promoting Bacillus subtilis retards whitefly Bemisia tabaci development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root inoculation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with a Bacillus subtilis strain BEB-DN (BsDN) isolated from the rhizosphere of cultivated potato plants was able to promote growth and to generate an induced systemic\\u000a resistance (ISR) response against virus-free Bemisia tabaci. Growth promotion was evident 3 weeks after inoculation. No changes in oviposition density, preference and nymphal number\\u000a in the early stages

José Humberto Valenzuela-Soto; María Gloria Estrada-Hernández; Enrique Ibarra-Laclette; John Paul Délano-Frier

2010-01-01

288

Impact of zinc-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on lentil grown in zinc-amended soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though zinc is a plant nutrient at low levels, Zn ions can be highly phytotoxic at higher concentrations found in contaminated\\u000a soils. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to decrease this toxicity. Indeed, in addition to their role in plant-growth\\u000a promotion, rhizobacteria also reduce the toxicity of heavy metals. In turn, they can be effective for crops grown in metal-contaminated

Parvaze Ahmad Wani; Almas Zaidi

2008-01-01

289

Insights from the draft genome of Paenibacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488, a promising plant growth promoting bacterium.  

PubMed

Paenibacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488, a plant growth-promoting bacterium was isolated from Sahiwal cow's milk. The strain shows antagonism against phytopathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and Alternaria solani. Its genome contains gene clusters involved in nonribosomal synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in antimicrobial activities. The genome sequence of P. lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 provides the genetic basis for application of this bacterial strain in plant growth promotion, plant protection and degradation of organic pollutants. PMID:24140292

Chaudhry, Vasvi; Chauhan, Puneet S; Mishra, Aradhana; Goel, Ridhi; Asif, Mehar H; Mantri, Shrikant S; Bag, Sumit K; Singh, Sunil K; Sawant, Samir V; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

2013-12-01

290

Bacteria able to control foot and root rot and to promote growth of cucumber in salinated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to test known bacterial plant growth-promoting strains for their ability to promote cucumber\\u000a plant growth in salinated soil and to improve cucumber fruit yield by protecting these plants against soil-borne pathogens.\\u000a Fifty-two plant-beneficial bacterial strains were evaluated for their ability to protect plants against cucumber foot and\\u000a root rot after bacterization of the

Dilfuza Egamberdieva; Zulfiya Kucharova; Kakhramon Davranov; Gabriele Berg; Natasha Makarova; Tatyana Azarova; Vladimir Chebotar; Igor Tikhonovich; Faina Kamilova; Shamil Z. Validov; Ben Lugtenberg

2011-01-01

291

Tumor Necrosis Factor Regulates Responses to Nerve Growth Factor, Promoting Neural Cell Survival but Suppressing Differentiation of Neuroblastoma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes survival of neurons, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) contributes to cell death triggered by NGF depletion, through TNF- receptor (TNFR) 1. In contrast to this effect, TNF- can promote neural cell survival via TNF- receptor TNFR2. Although these findings demonstrate pivotal roles of TNF- and NGF in cell fate decisions, cross-talk between these signaling pathways

Yoshinori Takei; Ronald Laskey

2008-01-01

292

S100A9 Interaction with TLR4 Promotes Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

By breeding TRAMP mice with S100A9 knock-out (S100A9?/?) animals and scoring the appearance of palpable tumors we observed a delayed tumor growth in animals devoid of S100A9 expression. CD11b+ S100A9 expressing cells were not observed in normal prostate tissue from control C57BL/6 mice but were readily detected in TRAMP prostate tumors. Also, S100A9 expression was observed in association with CD68+ macrophages in biopsies from human prostate tumors. Delayed growth of TRAMP tumors was also observed in mice lacking the S100A9 ligand TLR4. In the EL-4 lymphoma model tumor growth inhibition was observed in S100A9?/? and TLR4?/?, but not in RAGE?/? animals lacking an alternative S100A9 receptor. When expression of immune-regulating genes was analyzed using RT-PCR the only common change observed in mice lacking S100A9 and TLR4 was a down-regulation of TGF? expression in splenic CD11b+ cells. Lastly, treatment of mice with a small molecule (ABR-215050) that inhibits S100A9 binding to TLR4 inhibited EL4 tumor growth. Thus, S100A9 and TLR4 appear to be involved in promoting tumor growth in two different tumor models and pharmacological inhibition of S100A9-TLR4 interactions is a novel and promising target for anti-tumor therapies.

Kallberg, Eva; Vogl, Thomas; Liberg, David; Olsson, Anders; Bjork, Per; Wikstrom, Pernilla; Bergh, Anders; Roth, Johannes; Ivars, Fredrik; Leanderson, Tomas

2012-01-01

293

Phytohormonal basis for the plant growth promoting action of naturally occurring biostimulators.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in the use of naturally occurring 'biostimulators' for enhancing the growth of agricultural and horticultural crops. Bacteria, fungi and protozoa, as well as marine algae-based seaweed extracts, can produce or contain biostimulators. The activity of biostimulators to promote plant growth is often attributed to their ability to directly or indirectly provide mineral nutrients (mostly N, but also P, S and other macro- and micro-nutrients) to plants. Alternatively, biostimulators are postulated to increase the plant's ability to assimilate these mineral nutrients, often in return for photo-assimilates (as occurs with certain bacteria and fungi associations). Although optimal growth of plants depends on the availability of adequate mineral nutritients, that growth (and also development, including reproduction) is also regulated by plant hormones (phytohormones), including gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins. This review describes and discusses the evidence that the presence or application of biostimulators also increases plant growth directly via phytohormone action and also influences the plant's ability to control its own hormone biosynthesis and homeostasis. Finally, it discusses the need for a better understanding of the role(s) that are played by the naturally occurring biostimulators associated with the plant in the crop field. It is suggested that better understanding will allow for optimal crop yield returns, since disruptions of phytohormone homeostasis in plant organs and tissues can yield either beneficial or sub-optimal outcomes. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24375470

Kurepin, Leonid V; Zaman, Mohammad; Pharis, Richard P

2014-07-01

294

Promoting healthy growth: what are the priorities for research and action?  

PubMed

Healthy growth from conception through the first 2 y of life is the foundation for adequate organ formation and function, a strong immune system, physical health, and neurological and cognitive development. Recent studies identified several low-cost interventions to address undernutrition during this age period and noted the lower returns on investment of intervening after this critical period. Although these interventions should be implemented widely, it is recognized that existing nutrition solutions, even if universally applied, would only avert a minority fraction of the estimated death and disability due to undernutrition. This paper reviews some of the knowledge and learning needed to close this "impact gap." Five areas are prioritized for future research: 1) study healthy growth from a lifecycle perspective, because maternal, fetal, and newborn outcomes are connected; 2) understand why growth faltering begins so early in breast-fed infants in the developing world; 3) apply new tools and technologies to study long-recognized problems such as the interaction between nutrition and infection; 4) explore new hypotheses for understanding nutrient assimilation and use to discover and develop intervention leads; and 5) understand the role of the environment in healthy growth and the potential synergistic benefits of multi-sectoral interventions. Policymakers are urged to invest in nutrition-specific and -sensitive interventions to promote healthy growth from conception through the first 2 y of life because of their immediate and long-term health and development benefits. PMID:22516734

Piwoz, Ellen; Sundberg, Shelly; Rooke, Jenny

2012-03-01

295

Isolation and characterization of the hamster gadd153 gene. Activation of promoter activity by agents that damage DNA  

SciTech Connect

A group of five cDNA clones, representing the gadd genes, were recently isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as genes induced upon growth arrest and after DNA damage. We have isolated and characterized one of these genes, gadd153. The gene spans five kilobases and contains four exons. The 5'-flanking region of the gene, within 420 base pairs of the transcription initiation site, contains a number of cis elements associated with transcriptional regulation in other genes. These include a Hogness box, ATAAAA, an inverted GCCAAT box; seven SP1 transcription factor binding sites, and an AP-1 site. This region is rich in G + C content (greater than 70%) and contains an unusually long stretch of alternating CpG residues. The 800-base pair region immediately upstream of the transcription start site can drive expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, but only in its endogenous orientation, in three different cell lines: HeLa, CHO, and Jurkat. The gadd153 promoter is strongly activated by methyl methanesulfonate, hydrogen peroxide, and UV irradiation, but not by growth arrest signals. This suggests that separate and very different regulatory pathways are involved in the induction of the gadd153 gene by growth cessation and DNA damage.

Luethy, J.D.; Fargnoli, J.; Park, J.S.; Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Holbrook, N.J. (National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1990-09-25

296

EGFRvIII promotes glioma angiogenesis and growth through the NF-?B, interleukin-8 pathway  

PubMed Central

Sustaining a high growth rate requires tumors to exploit resources in their microenvironment. One example of this is the extensive angiogenesis that is a typical feature of high-grade gliomas. Here, we show that expression of the constitutively active mutant epidermal growth factor receptor, ?EGFR (EGFRvIII, EGFR*, de2-7EGFR) is associated with significantly higher expression levels of the pro-angiogenic factor interleukin (IL)-8 in human glioma specimens and glioma stem cells. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of ?EGFR in different glioma cell lines caused up to 60-fold increases in the secretion of IL-8. Xenografts of these cells exhibit increased neovascularization, which is not elicited by cells overexpressing wildtype (wt)EGFR or ?EGFR with an additional kinase domain mutation. Analysis of the regulation of IL-8 by site-directed mutagenesis of its promoter showed that ?EGFR regulates its expression through the transcription factors nuclear factor (NF)-?B, activator protein 1 (AP-1) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP). Glioma cells overexpressing ?EGFR showed constitutive activation and DNA binding of NF-?B, overexpression of c-Jun and activation of its upstream kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and overexpression of C/EBP?. Selective pharmacological or genetic targeting of the NF-?B or AP-1 pathways efficiently blocked promoter activity and secretion of IL-8. Moreover, RNA interference-mediated knock-down of either IL-8 or the NF-?B subunit p65, in ?EGFR-expressing cells attenuated their ability to form tumors and to induce angiogenesis when injected subcutaneously into nude mice. On the contrary, the overexpression of IL-8 in glioma cells lacking ?EGFR potently enhanced their tumorigenicity and produced highly vascularized tumors, suggesting the importance of this cytokine and its transcription regulators in promoting glioma angiogenesis and tumor growth.

Bonavia, R; Inda, MM; Vandenberg, S; Cheng, S-Y; Nagane, M; Hadwiger, P; Tan, P; Sah, DWY; Cavenee, WK; Furnari, FB

2012-01-01

297

Spermidine Promotes Human Hair Growth and Is a Novel Modulator of Human Epithelial Stem Cell Functions  

PubMed Central

Background Rapidly regenerating tissues need sufficient polyamine synthesis. Since the hair follicle (HF) is a highly proliferative mini-organ, polyamines may also be important for normal hair growth. However, the role of polyamines in human HF biology and their effect on HF epithelial stem cells in situ remains largely unknown. Methods and Findings We have studied the effects of the prototypic polyamine, spermidine (0.1–1 µM), on human scalp HFs and human HF epithelial stem cells in serum-free organ culture. Under these conditions, spermidine promoted hair shaft elongation and prolonged hair growth (anagen). Spermidine also upregulated expression of the epithelial stem cell-associated keratins K15 and K19, and dose-dependently modulated K15 promoter activity in situ and the colony forming efficiency, proliferation and K15 expression of isolated human K15-GFP+ cells in vitro. Inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, ornithine decarboyxlase (ODC), downregulated intrafollicular K15 expression. In primary human epidermal keratinocytes, spermidine slightly promoted entry into the S/G2-M phases of the cell cycle. By microarray analysis of human HF mRNA extracts, spermidine upregulated several key target genes implicated e.g. in the control of cell adherence and migration (POP3), or endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial functions (SYVN1, NACA and SLC25A3). Excess spermidine may restrict further intrafollicular polyamine synthesis by inhibiting ODC gene and protein expression in the HF's companion layer in situ. Conclusions These physiologically and clinically relevant data provide the first direct evidence that spermidine is a potent stimulator of human hair growth and a previously unknown modulator of human epithelial stem cell biology.

Biro, Tamas; Abu Bakar, Mohd Hilmi; Sugawara, Koji; Philpott, Michael P.; Harrison, Wesley; Pietila, Marko; Paus, Ralf

2011-01-01

298

B-RAF kinase drives developmental axon growth and promotes axon regeneration in the injured mature CNS.  

PubMed

Activation of intrinsic growth programs that promote developmental axon growth may also facilitate axon regeneration in injured adult neurons. Here, we demonstrate that conditional activation of B-RAF kinase alone in mouse embryonic neurons is sufficient to drive the growth of long-range peripheral sensory axon projections in vivo in the absence of upstream neurotrophin signaling. We further show that activated B-RAF signaling enables robust regenerative growth of sensory axons into the spinal cord after a dorsal root crush as well as substantial axon regrowth in the crush-lesioned optic nerve. Finally, the combination of B-RAF gain-of-function and PTEN loss-of-function promotes optic nerve axon extension beyond what would be predicted for a simple additive effect. We conclude that cell-intrinsic RAF signaling is a crucial pathway promoting developmental and regenerative axon growth in the peripheral and central nervous systems. PMID:24733831

O'Donovan, Kevin J; Ma, Kaijie; Guo, Hengchang; Wang, Chen; Sun, Fang; Han, Seung Baek; Kim, Hyukmin; Wong, Jamie K; Charron, Jean; Zou, Hongyan; Son, Young-Jin; He, Zhigang; Zhong, Jian

2014-05-01

299

Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from commercial broiler chickens receiving growth-promoting doses of bacitracin or virginiamycin  

PubMed Central

Antibacterial agents such as zinc bacitracin (ZB) and virginiamycin (VG) are used as growth promoting agents (GP) in broiler chicken production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of ZB and VG on the emergence of antibacterial resistance in a commercial broiler chicken farm. Three trials were conducted using 3 different diets: one without antibacterial agents, one containing VG, and one with ZB. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated and tested for their susceptibility to various antibacterial agents. The occurrence of the resistance genes vatD, ermB, and bcrR in Enterococcus spp. isolates was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Comparative quantification of vatD and bcrR genes in total deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracts from litter was done by SYBR Green Real-Time PCR (QPCR). Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from diet groups had different levels of resistance to various antibacterial agents over time. These GPs did not select for specific antibacterial agent resistance (AAR) in Enterococcus spp. The use of GPs seemed to lower the percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to some antibacterial agents. The presence of the bcrR gene could not explain all resistant phenotypes to ZB. Genes other than vatD and ermB might be involved in the resistance to VG in Enterococcus spp. Use of GPs was not associated with presence of the bcrR gene in DNA extracts from litter, but use of VG was associated with vatD presence.

Thibodeau, Alexandre; Quessy, Sylvain; Guevremont, Evelyne; Houde, Alain; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa Sory; Letellier, Ann

2008-01-01

300

Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spinach respectively over the non-bacterized control. Considering all the parameters tested, there were similarities but no significant difference at P < 0.05 between the overall performances of the two organisms.

Adesemoye, A.O.; Obini, M.; Ugoji, E.O.

2008-01-01

301

The Mitochondrial Chaperone TRAP1 Promotes Neoplastic Growth by Inhibiting Succinate Dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Summary We report that the mitochondrial chaperone TRAP1, which is induced in most tumor types, is required for neoplastic growth and confers transforming potential to noncancerous cells. TRAP1 binds to and inhibits succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), the complex II of the respiratory chain. The respiratory downregulation elicited by TRAP1 interaction with SDH promotes tumorigenesis by priming the succinate-dependent stabilization of the proneoplastic transcription factor HIF1? independently of hypoxic conditions. These findings provide a mechanistic clue to explain the switch to aerobic glycolysis of tumors and identify TRAP1 as a promising antineoplastic target.

Sciacovelli, Marco; Guzzo, Giulia; Morello, Virginia; Frezza, Christian; Zheng, Liang; Nannini, Nazarena; Calabrese, Fiorella; Laudiero, Gabriella; Esposito, Franca; Landriscina, Matteo; Defilippi, Paola; Bernardi, Paolo; Rasola, Andrea

2013-01-01

302

Inhibition of Melanoma Growth by Small Molecules that Promote the Mitochondrial Localization of ATF2  

PubMed Central

Purpose Effective therapy for malignant melanoma, the leading cause of death from skin cancer, remains an area of significant unmet need in oncology. The elevated expression of PKC? in advanced metastatic melanoma results in the increased phosphorylation of the transcription factor ATF2 on threonine 52, which causes its nuclear localization and confers its oncogenic activities. The nuclear-to-mitochondrial translocation of ATF2 following genotoxic stress promotes apoptosis, a function that is largely lost in melanoma cells, due to its confined nuclear localization. Therefore, promoting the nuclear export of ATF2, which sensitizes melanoma cells to apoptosis, represents a novel therapeutic modality. Experimental Design We conducted a pilot high-throughput screen of 3,800 compounds to identify small molecules that promote melanoma cell death by inducing the cytoplasmic localization of ATF2. The imaging-based ATF2 translocation assay was performed using UACC903 melanoma cells that stably express doxycycline-inducible GFP-ATF2. Results We identified 2 compounds (SBI-0089410 and SBI-0087702) that promoted the cytoplasmic localization of ATF2, reduced cell viability, inhibited colony formation, cell motility, anchorage-free growth, and increased mitochondrial membrane permeability. SBI-0089410 inhibited the TPA-induced membrane tranlocation of PKC isoforms, whereas both compounds decreased ATF2 phosphorylation by PKC? and ATF2 transcriptional activity. Overexpression of either constitutively active PKC? or phosphomimic mutant ATF2T52E attenuated the cellular effects of the compounds. Conclusion The imaging-based high-throughput screen provides a proof-of-concept for the identification of small molecules that block the oncogenic addiction to PKC? signaling by promoting ATF2 nuclear export, resulting in mitochondrial membrane leakage and melanoma cell death.

Varsano, Tal; Lau, Eric; Feng, Yongmei; Garrido, Marine; Milan, Loribelle; Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Hassig, Christian A.; Ronai, Ze'ev A.

2013-01-01

303

Effects of plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from copper tailings on plants in sterilized and non-sterilized tailings.  

PubMed

Ten strains of Cu-tolerant bacteria with potential plant growth-promoting ability were isolated by selecting strains with the ability to use 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate as a sole nitrogen source (designated ACC-B) or fix nitrogen (designated FLN-B) originating from the rhizosphere of plants growing on copper tailings. All 10 strains proved to have intrinsic ability to produce indole acetic acid and siderophores, and most of them could mobilize insoluble phosphate. In addition, a greenhouse study showed that ACC-B, FLN-B and a mixture of both had similar, potent ability to stimulate growth of Pennisetum purpureum, Medicago sativa and Oenothera erythrosepala plants grown on sterilized tailings. For instance, above-ground biomass of P. purpureum was 278-357% greater after 60d growth on sterilized tailings in their presence. They could also significantly promote the growth of the plants grown on non-sterilized tailings, though the growth-promoting effects were much weaker. So, strategies for using of the plant growth-promoting bacteria in the practice of phytoremediation deserve further studies to get higher growth-promoting efficiency. PMID:24289981

Liu, Weiqiu; Yang, Chao; Shi, Si; Shu, Wensheng

2014-02-01

304

Ameliorative effects of inoculation with the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas sp. DW1 on growth of eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.) seedlings under salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of inoculation with the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas sp. DW1 on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) growth, mineral uptake and activities of the antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) of plant leaves under salinity stress. The study was conducted in pot experiments using eggplant (S. melongena

Qinglin Fu; Chen Liu; Nengfei Ding; Yicheng Lin; Bin Guo

2010-01-01

305

Steroids and growth promoting factors in the regulation of expression of genes and gene networks.  

PubMed

Steroid hormones and growth promoting factors regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in cellular growth and differentiation. In many cases, cellular proliferation and differentiation-specific pathways are mutually exclusive. As an example for the mechanism of mutual exclusion, transcription factors responsible for pathway-specific gene expression interact with each other. Steroid hormone receptors inhibit the action of the transcription factor AP-1 (Fos/Jun) and vice versa. This inhibitory interaction is predominantly effected at the level of protein-protein contact without the need for the interfering transcription factor to bind to DNA. In some cases the two pathways function additively or even synergistically resulting in cooperation of the transcription factors in regulation of gene expression. The examples to be discussed in this text document how elaborate and important cross-talks between signal transduction pathways are. This is particularly demonstrated by the fine tuning and reversibility of these processes. PMID:1525067

Cato, A C; König, H; Ponta, H; Herrlich, P

1992-09-01

306

Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth  

SciTech Connect

Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Nishiofuku, Mariko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

2008-03-07

307

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? promotes colonic inflammation and tumor growth.  

PubMed

Although epidemiologic and experimental evidence strongly implicates chronic inflammation and dietary fats as risk factors for cancer, the mechanisms underlying their contribution to carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here we present genetic evidence demonstrating that deletion of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) attenuates colonic inflammation and colitis-associated adenoma formation/growth. Importantly, PPAR? is required for dextran sodium sulfate induction of proinflammatory mediators, including chemokines, cytokines, COX-2, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in vivo. We further show that activation of PPAR? induces COX-2 expression in colonic epithelial cells. COX-2-derived PGE2 stimulates macrophages to produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines that are responsible for recruitment of leukocytes from the circulation to local sites of inflammation. Our results suggest that PPAR? promotes colonic inflammation and colitis-associated tumor growth via the COX-2-derived PGE2 signaling axis that mediates cross-talk between tumor epithelial cells and macrophages. PMID:24763687

Wang, Dingzhi; Fu, Lingchen; Ning, Wei; Guo, Lixia; Sun, Xiaofei; Dey, Sudhansu K; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T; DuBois, Raymond N

2014-05-13

308

Prosaposin, a regulator of estrogen receptor alpha, promotes breast cancer growth.  

PubMed

Prosaposin, a secreted protein, is a well-known pleiotropic growth factor. Although a previous report has indicated that prosaposin is overexpressed in breast cancer cell lines, the role of prosaposin in the development of breast cancer remains to be identified. Here, we first revealed that prosaposin upregulated estrogen receptor alpha expression, nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity by western blot, immunofluorescence assay and dual luciferase reporter gene assay, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated prosaposin upregulated estrogen receptor alpha expression through MAPK-signaling pathway using MAPK inhibitor. Proliferation assay and tumor xenograft experiments in nude mice (n = 6 per group) further confirmed prosaposin could promote breast cancer growth significantly in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggested that prosaposin might enhance estrogen receptor alpha-mediated signaling axis and play a role in breast cancer development and progression. PMID:22738294

Wu, Yihong; Sun, Linlin; Zou, Weiying; Xu, Jiejie; Liu, Haiou; Wang, Wenzhong; Yun, Xiaojing; Gu, Jianxin

2012-10-01

309

PCB-95 Promotes Dendritic Growth via Ryanodine Receptor-Dependent Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background: Aroclor 1254 (A1254) interferes with normal dendritic growth and plasticity in the developing rodent brain, but the mechanism(s) mediating this effect have yet to be established. Non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) enhance the activity of ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium ion (Ca2+) channels, which play a central role in regulating the spatiotemporal dynamics of intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Ca2+ signaling is a predominant factor in shaping dendritic arbors, but whether PCB potentiation of RyR activity influences dendritic growth is not known. Objective: We determined whether RyR activity is required for PCB effects on dendritic growth. Methods and Results: Golgi analysis of hippocampi from weanling rats confirmed that developmental exposure via the maternal diet to NDL PCB-95 (2,2´,3,5´6-pentachlorobiphenyl), a potent RyR potentiator, phenocopies the dendrite-promoting effects of A1254. Dendritic growth in dissociated cultures of primary hippocampal neurons and in hippocampal slice cultures is similarly enhanced by PCB-95 but not by PCB-66 (2,3,4´,4-tetrachlorobiphenyl), a congener with negligible effects on RyR activity. The dendrite-promoting effects of PCB-95 are evident at concentrations as low as 2 pM and are inhibited by either pharmacologic blockade or siRNA knockdown of RyRs. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that environmentally relevant levels of NDL PCBs modulate neuronal connectivity via RyR-dependent effects on dendritic arborization. In addition, these findings identify RyR channel dysregulation as a novel mechanism contributing to dysmorphic dendritogenesis associated with heritable and environmentally triggered neurodevelopmental disorders.

Wayman, Gary A.; Yang, Dongren; Bose, Diptiman D.; Lesiak, Adam; Ledoux, Veronica; Bruun, Donald; Pessah, Isaac N.

2012-01-01

310

Induction of Drought Tolerance in Cucumber Plants by a Consortium of Three Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Strains  

PubMed Central

Our previous work showed that a consortium of three plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) strains (Bacillus cereus AR156, Bacillus subtilis SM21, and Serratia sp. XY21), termed as BBS for short, was a promising biocontrol agent. The present study investigated its effect on drought tolerance in cucumber plants. After withholding watering for 13 days, BBS-treated cucumber plants had much darker green leaves and substantially lighter wilt symptoms than control plants. Compared to the control, the BBS treatment decreased the leaf monodehydroascorbate (MDA) content and relative electrical conductivity by 40% and 15%, respectively; increased the leaf proline content and the root recovery intension by 3.45-fold and 50%, respectively; and also maintained the leaf chlorophyll content in cucumber plants under drought stress. Besides, in relation to the control, the BBS treatment significantly enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and mitigated the drought-triggered down-regulation of the expression of the genes cAPX, rbcL, and rbcS encoding cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxy/oxygenase (Rubisco) large and small subunits, respectively, in cucumber leaves. However, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity was undetected in none of the culture solutions of three BBS constituent strains. These results indicated that BBS conferred induced systemic tolerance to drought stress in cucumber plants, by protecting plant cells, maintaining photosynthetic efficiency and root vigor and increasing some of antioxidase activities, without involving the action of ACC deaminase to lower plant ethylene levels.

Wang, Chao; Gu, Chun; Niu, Dong-Dong; Liu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Yun-Peng; Guo, Jian-Hua

2012-01-01

311

Stress adaptations in a Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacterium (PGPR) with increasing salinity in the coastal agricultural soils.  

PubMed

The costs associated with soil salinity are potentially enormous and the effects of salinity may impact heavily on agriculture, biodiversity and the environment. As the saline areas under agriculture are increasing every year across the globe, it is of much public concern. Agricultural crops and soil microorganisms are affected with salinity. As Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been reported to be contributing to the plant health, the osmotolerance mechanisms of these PGPRs are of importance. Pseudomonas fluorescens MSP-393 is a proven biocontrol agent for many of the crops grown in saline soils of coastal ecosystem. Studies revealed that the root colonization potential of the strain was not hampered with higher salinity in soil. As a means of salt tolerance, the strain de novo -synthesized, the osmolytes, Ala, Gly, Glu, Ser, Thr, and Asp in their cytosol. To understand the mechanism of salt tolerance, the proteome analysis of the bacteria was carried out employing 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF. Peptide mass fingerprinting and in silico investigation revealed the up regulation of many of salt regulated proteins. It could be ascertained that the osmotolerance mechanisms of MSP-393 viz. de novo synthesis of osmolytes and over production of salt stress proteins effectively nullified the detrimental effects of high osmolarity. MSP-393 could serve as a suitable bioinoculant for crops grown in saline soils. PMID:18702073

Paul, Diby; Nair, Sudha

2008-10-01

312

Hypoxia shifts activity of neuropeptide Y in Ewing sarcoma from growth-inhibitory to growth-promoting effects  

PubMed Central

Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive malignancy driven by an oncogenic fusion protein, EWS-FLI1. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), and two of its receptors, Y1R and Y5R are up-regulated by EWS-FLI1 and abundantly expressed in ES cells. Paradoxically, NPY acting via Y1R and Y5R stimulates ES cell death. Here, we demonstrate that these growth-inhibitory actions of NPY are counteracted by hypoxia, which converts the peptide to a growth-promoting factor. In ES cells, hypoxia induces another NPY receptor, Y2R, and increases expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme that cleaves NPY to a shorter form, NPY3-36. This truncated peptide no longer binds to Y1R and, therefore, does not stimulate ES cell death. Instead, NPY3-36 acts as a selective Y2R/Y5R agonist. The hypoxia-induced increase in DPPIV activity is most evident in a population of ES cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, rich in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Consequently, NPY, acting via Y2R/Y5Rs, preferentially stimulates proliferation and migration of hypoxic ALDHhigh cells. Hypoxia also enhances the angiogenic potential of ES by inducing Y2Rs in endothelial cells and increasing the release of its ligand, NPY3-36, from ES cells. In summary, hypoxia acts as a molecular switch shifting NPY activity away from Y1R/Y5R-mediated cell death and activating the Y2R/Y5R/DPPIV/NPY3-36 axis, which stimulates ES CSCs and promotes angiogenesis. Hypoxia-driven actions of the peptide such as these may contribute to ES progression. Due to the receptor-specific and multifaceted nature of NPY actions, these findings may inform novel therapeutic approaches to ES.

Galli, Susana; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; Earnest, Joshua Patrick; Shabbir, Asim; Everhart, Lindsay M.; Wang, Shuo; Martin, Samantha; Horton, Meredith; Mahajan, Akanksha; Christian, David; O'Neill, Alison; Wang, Hongkun; Zhuang, Tingting; Czarnecka, Magdalena; Johnson, Michael D.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Kitlinska, Joanna

2013-01-01

313

Ovarian tumor growth regression using a combination of vascular targeting agents anginex or topomimetic 0118 and the chemotherapeutic irofulven  

PubMed Central

Combination of chemotherapeutic agents and angiogenesis inhibitors is now commonly employed in the clinic to treat cancer. Here, we used angiostatic agents anginex and 0118, in combination with the chemotherapeutic irofulven, to treat human ovarian tumor xenografts in mice. General linear mixed models were used to statistically analyze tumor growth curves. Overall, combination of a low, non-toxic dose of irofulven with either angiogenesis inhibitor was more effective at inhibiting tumor growth than any of the single-agent therapies. For example, the anginex/irofulven and 0118/irofulven combinations inhibited tumor growth relative to controls by 92% (p<0.0001) and 96% (p<0.0001), respectively, with the 0118/irofulven combinations yielding 100% complete responses. This study suggests that combination therapy of 0118 or anginex and irofulven may be highly effective in the clinical setting.

Dings, Ruud P.M.; Van Laar, Emily S.; Webber, Jeremy; Zhang, Yan; Griffin, Robert J.; Waters, Stephen J.; MacDonald, John R.; Mayo, Kevin H.

2011-01-01

314

Modeling hairy root tissue growth in in vitro environments using an agent-based, structured growth model.  

PubMed

An agent-based model for simulating the in vitro growth of Beta vulgaris hairy root cultures is described. The model fitting is based on experimental results and can be used as a virtual experimentator for root networks. It is implemented in the JAVA language and is designed to be easily modified to describe the growth of diverse biological root networks. The basic principles of the model are outlined, with descriptions of all of the relevant algorithms using the ODD protocol, and a case study is presented in which it is used to simulate the development of hairy root cultures of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) in a Petri dish. The model can predict various properties of the developing network, including the total root length, branching point distribution, segment distribution and secondary metabolite accumulation. It thus provides valuable information that can be used when optimizing cultivation parameters (e.g., medium composition) and the cultivation environment (e.g., the cultivation temperature) as well as how constructional parameters change the morphology of the root network. An image recognition solution was used to acquire experimental data that were used when fitting the model and to evaluate the agreement between the simulated results and practical experiments. Overall, the case study simulation closely reproduced experimental results for the cultures grown under equivalent conditions to those assumed in the simulation. A 3D-visualization solution was created to display the simulated results relating to the state of the root network and its environment (e.g., oxygen and nutrient levels). PMID:24218303

Lenk, Felix; Sürmann, Almuth; Oberthür, Patrick; Schneider, Mandy; Steingroewer, Juliane; Bley, Thomas

2014-06-01

315

Promoting healthy behaviors to prevent chronic disease in panama and trinidad & tobago: results of the women as agents of change project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to address the growing burden of chronic diseases in the Americas, the Pan American Health Organization implemented the Women as Agents of Change project in Panama and Trinidad & Tobago. The project focused on low income, middle aged women and promoted increased physical activity, intake of 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, and yearly screening for cervical

Sarah C. White; Irene Agurto; Nuria Araguas

2006-01-01

316

Suppression of Cancer Cell Growth by Promoting Cyclin D1 Degradation  

PubMed Central

Summary The cyclin D1 proto-oncoprotein is a crucial regulator in cell cycle progression and aberrant overexpression of cyclin D1 is linked to tumorigenesis of many different cancer types. By screening ubiquitinated cyclin D1 as a substrate with a deubiquitinase library, we have identified USP2 as a specific deubiquitinase for cyclin D1. USP2 directly interacts with cyclin D1 and promotes its stabilization by antagonizing ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Conversely, USP2 knockdown destabilizes cyclin D1 and induces growth arrest in the human cancer lines where cell growth is dependent on cyclin D1 expression. Notably, cyclin D1 is not universally required for cell cycle progression. Inactivation of USP2 has either very mild effects on cell growth in normal human fibroblasts or no effect in the cancer cells that do not express cyclin D1. These findings suggest that targeting USP2 is an effective approach to induce growth suppression in the cancer cells addicted to cyclin D1 expression.

Shan, Jing; Zhao, Wenhui; Gu, Wei

2010-01-01

317

Mesotrypsin promotes malignant growth of breast cancer cells through shedding of CD109  

PubMed Central

Serine proteases have been implicated in many stages of cancer development, facilitating tumor cell growth, invasion, and metastasis, and naturally occurring serine protease inhibitors have shown promise as potential anticancer therapeutics. Optimal design of inhibitors as potential therapeutics requires the identification of the specific serine proteases involved in disease progression and the functional targets responsible for the tumor-promoting properties. Here, we use the HMT-3522 breast cancer progression series grown in 3D organotypic culture conditions to find that serine protease inhibitors cause morphological reversion of the malignant T4-2 cells, assessed by inhibition of proliferation and formation of acinar structures with polarization of basal markers, implicating serine protease activity in their malignant growth behavior. We identify PRSS3/mesotrypsin upregulation in T4-2 cells as compared to their nonmalignant progenitors, and show that knockdown of PRSS3 attenuates, and treatment with recombinant purified mesotrypsin enhances, the malignant growth phenotype. Using proteomic methods, we identify CD109 as the functional proteolytic target of mesotrypsin. Our study identifies a new mediator and effector of breast cancer growth and progression.

Hockla, Alexandra; Radisky, Derek C.

2010-01-01

318

Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Vascular Growth In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Stem cell therapies are promising strategies to regenerate human injured tissues, including ischemic myocardium. Here, we examined the acquisition of properties associated with vascular growth by human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs), and whether they promoted vascular growth in vivo. UCBMSCs were induced in endothelial cell-specific growth medium (EGM-2) acquiring new cell markers, increased Ac-LDL uptake, and migratory capacity as assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, indirect immunofluorescence, and invasion assays. Angiogenic and vasculogenic potentials could be anticipated by in vitro experiments showing self organization into Matrigel-mediated cell networks, and activation of circulating angiogenic-supportive myeloid cells. In mice, following subcutaneous co-injection with Matrigel, UCBMSCs modified to co-express bioluminescent (luciferases) and fluorescent proteins were demonstrated to participate in the formation of new microvasculature connected with the host circulatory system. Response of UCBMSCs to ischemia was explored in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). UCBMSCs transplanted using a fibrin patch survived 4 weeks post-implantation and organized into CD31+network structures above the infarcted myocardium. MI-treated animals showed a reduced infarct scar and a larger vessel-occupied area in comparison with MI-control animals. Taken together, the presented results show that UCBMSCs can be induced in vitro to acquire angiogenic and vasculogenic properties and contribute to vascular growth in vivo.

Soler-Botija, Carolina; Pujal, Josep M.; Galvez-Monton, Carolina; Prat-Vidal, Cristina; Llucia-Valldeperas, Aida; Blanco, Jeronimo; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

2012-01-01

319

Interleukin-1 beta and neurotrophin-3 synergistically promote neurite growth in vitro  

PubMed Central

Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) are considered to exert detrimental effects during brain trauma and in neurodegenerative disorders. Consistently, it has been demonstrated that IL-1? suppresses neurotrophin-mediated neuronal cell survival rendering neurons vulnerable to degeneration. Since neurotrophins are also well known to strongly influence axonal plasticity, we investigated here whether IL-1? has a similar negative impact on neurite growth. We analyzed neurite density and length of organotypic brain and spinal cord slice cultures under the influence of the neurotrophins NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4. In brain slices, only NT-3 significantly promoted neurite density and length. Surprisingly, a similar increase of neurite growth was induced by IL-1?. Additionally, both factors increased the number of brain slices displaying maximal neurite growth. Furthermore, the co-administration of IL-1? and NT-3 significantly increased the number of brain slices displaying maximal neurite growth compared to single treatments. These data indicate that these two factors synergistically stimulate two distinct aspects of neurite outgrowth, namely neurite density and neurite length from acute organotypic brain slices.

2011-01-01

320

Promotion of the Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 growth and acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by flavonoids.  

PubMed

An unexpected promotion effect of Ginkgo leaf on the growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was investigated. Component analysis of Ginkgo leaf was carried out and flavonoids were determined as the potential key metabolites. Then the flavonoids feeding experiments were carried out. Results showed that addition of only 10 mg/L flavonoids to the fermentation broth can promote butanol and ABE titre up to 14.5 and 17.8 g/L after 5 days of fermentation, that is, 74 and 68 % higher than the control. A 2.2-fold biomass also has been achieved. Furthermore, by employing such novel founding, we easily exploited flavonoids from soybean and some agriculture wastes as the wide-distributed and economic feasible ABE fermentation promoter. The mechanism of the above effects was investigated from the perspective of oxidation-reduction potential. This work opens a new way in the efforts to increase the titer of butanol. PMID:24510404

Wang, Lan; Xia, Menglei; Zhang, Lianhua; Chen, Hongzhang

2014-07-01

321

Biomimetic scaffold combined with electrical stimulation and growth factor promotes tissue engineered cardiac development.  

PubMed

Toward developing biologically sound models for the study of heart regeneration and disease, we cultured heart cells on a biodegradable, microfabricated poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) scaffold designed with micro-structural features and anisotropic mechanical properties to promote cardiac-like tissue architecture. Using this biomimetic system, we studied individual and combined effects of supplemental insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and electrical stimulation (ES). On culture day 8, all tissue constructs could be paced and expressed the cardiac protein troponin-T. IGF-1 reduced apoptosis, promoted cell-to-cell connectivity, and lowered excitation threshold, an index of electrophysiological activity. ES promoted formation of tissue-like bundles oriented in parallel to the electrical field and a more than ten-fold increase in matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) gene expression. The combination of IGF-1 and ES increased 2D projection length, an index of overall contraction strength, and enhanced expression of the gap junction protein connexin-43 and sarcomere development. This culture environment, designed to combine cardiac-like scaffold architecture and biomechanics with molecular and biophysical signals, enabled functional assembly of engineered heart muscle from dissociated cells and could serve as a template for future studies on the hierarchy of various signaling domains relative to cardiac tissue development. PMID:24240126

Park, Hyoungshin; Larson, Benjamin L; Kolewe, Martin E; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Freed, Lisa E

2014-02-15

322

Imprinting and Promoter Usage of Insulin-Like Growth Factor II in Twin Discordant Placenta  

PubMed Central

Case reports from infant twins suggest that abnormal genomic imprinting may be one of the important causes of twin discordance, but it is unknown whether abnormal genomic imprinting occurs in the placenta. Therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between the imprinting of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) in placenta and twin discordance. We analyzed the imprinting and promoter usage of IGF-II in placenta of normal twins (T0 group), weight discordance (T1 group), and phenotype discordance (T2 group). We found the incidence of loss of imprinting (LOI) for IGF-II was higher in the T2 group than that in the T0 and T1 groups, while there was no difference between T0 and T1 groups. The transcripts of promoter 3 were lower in the T2 group than in the T0 and T1 groups, and lower in the twin placenta with LOI than in those with normal imprinting. Our findings indicate that the promoter 3 specific LOI of the IGF-II gene may be closely related with phenotype discordance, not weight discordance.

Luo, Yan-Min; Fang, Qun; Shi, Hui-Juan; Huang, Lin-Huan; Liang, Run-Cai; Zhuang, Guang-Lun

2010-01-01

323

Transgenic Studies with a Keratin Promoter-Driven Growth Hormone Transgene: Prospects for Gene Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keratinocytes are potentially appealing vehicles for the delivery of secreted gene products because they can be transferred to human skin by the relatively simple procedure of grafting. Adult human keratinocytes can be efficiently propagated in culture with sufficient proliferative capacity to produce enough epidermis to cover the body surface of an average adult. However, the feasibility of delivering secreted proteins through skin grafting rests upon (i) the strength of the promoter in keratinocytes and (ii) the efficiency of protein transport through the basement membrane of the stratified epithelium and into the bloodstream. In this paper, we use transgenic technology to demonstrate that the activity of the human keratin 14 promoter remains high in adult skin and that keratinocyte-derived human growth hormone (hGH) can be produced, secreted, and transported to the bloodstream of mice with efficiency that is sufficient to exceed by an order of magnitude the circulating hGH concentration in growing children. Transgenic skin grafts from these adults continue to produce and secrete hGH stably, at ? 1/10 physiological levels in the bloodstream of nontransgenic recipient mice. These studies underscore the utility of the keratin 14 promoter for expressing foreign transgenes in keratinocytes and demonstrate that keratinocytes can be used as effective vehicles for transporting factors to the bloodstream and for eliciting metabolic changes. These findings have important implications for considering the keratinocyte as a possible vehicle for gene therapy.

Wang, Xiaoming; Zinkel, Sandra; Polonsky, Kenneth; Fuchs, Elaine

1997-01-01

324

Adipose tissue displays trophic properties on normal lung cellular components without promoting cancer cells growth.  

PubMed

Surgical removal is the mainstay for early lung cancer treatment and persistent air leaks represent one of the most common clinical complications after lung surgery. Adipose tissue transplantation has been proposed as a new strategy for regenerative therapy after breast cancer surgery; however its efficacy and safety of lung tissue healing after lung resections are unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the biological activity of adipose tissue to facilitate lung tissue healing and evaluate its effect on cancer cells growth, thus providing insight for a possible clinical application. Different in vitro cellular models were used to prove the potential biologic effect of autologous fat tissue (AFT) in repairing injured lung tissue, and in vivo xenograft models were used to evaluate tumor promoting potential of AFT on putative residual cancer cells. Treatment of both embryonic (WI-38) and adult lung fibroblasts and of normal bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC-KT) with AFT samples, harvested from subcutaneous tissue layer of 20 patients undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy, improved wound healing and cell proliferation indicating a trophic effect on both mesenchymal and epithelial cell types. Conversely AFT-conditioned medium was unable to stimulate in vitro proliferation of a lung adenocarcinoma reporter cellular system (A549). Moreover, co-injection of AFT and A549 cells in nude mice did not promote engraftment and progression of A549 cells. These preclinical findings provide preliminary evidence on the potential efficacy of AFT to accelerate lung tissue repair without undesired tumor promoting effects on putative residual cancer cells. PMID:23129305

Andriani, F; Facchinetti, F; Furia, S; Roz, L; Bursomanno, S; Bertolini, G; Carniti, C; Sozzi, G; Pastorino, U

2013-06-01

325

BDNF Alters ERK/p38 MAPK Activity Ratios to Promote Differentiation in Growth Plate Chondrocytes  

PubMed Central

The ERK and p38 MAPK pathways are well-known transducers of signals that regulate proliferation and differentiation, but precisely how these pathways control growth plate chondrocyte development is unclear. For example, the ERK pathway has been reported to be required by some investigators but inhibitory to chondrocyte development by others. Moreover, how these two pathways interact to regulate chondrocyte development is even less clear. Using primary bovine growth plate chondrocytes and murine ATDC5 cells, we demonstrate that the ERK and p38 pathways have opposing effects on proliferation but are both absolutely required for differentiation. Two factors that promote chondrocyte differentiation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and C-type natriuretic peptide, increase p38 activity while decreasing, but not completely inhibiting, ERK activity. The attenuation of ERK activity by BDNF occurs via p38-dependent raf-1 inhibition. The inhibition of raf-1 by p38 is direct, because purified p38 protein inhibits the kinase activity of purified active raf-1 as well as raf-1 immunoprecipitated from chondrocyte lysates. Moreover, IGF-I, which stimulates proliferation, suppresses p38 activation. This work describes a model wherein unopposed IGF-I promotes high ERK/p38 activity ratios favoring proliferation, whereas BDNF signals a transition to differentiation by decreasing the ERK/p38 activity ratio without completely inhibiting ERK, which involves the direct inhibition of raf-1 by p38.

2012-01-01

326

Preliminary study on XAGE-1b gene and its mechanism for promoting tumor cell growth  

PubMed Central

The XAGE-1b gene has been identified in numerous malignancies in the human body. However, little is known regarding its mechanism for promoting tumorigenesis in adenoid cystic carcinoma. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between tumor cell growth and the XAGE-1b gene. The constructed PCMV-Myc plasmid vector containing the XAGE-1b gene and transfected adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC)-2 cells was applied to study cell cycle alterations and anti-apoptotic effects. These were assessed by flow cytometry with PI staining and the measurement of cell content at its Sub-G1 phase, respectively. The fluorescence intensity representing the regulation of XAGE-1b on the transcription factors located downstream of the signaling pathway using the Mercury pathway profiling system was also detected. XAGE-1b over expression promoted cell growth by shortening G0-G1 and prolonging the G2-M phase. Additionally, XAGE-1b overexpression enhanced the anti-apoptotic effects induced by tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and serum deprivation in ACC-2 cells. The results of the present study suggested that XAGE-1b gene is crucial in the tumorigenesis of ACC, and its mechanism should be further investigated.

ZHOU, BO; LI, TINGXIU; LIU, YANG; ZHU, NAISHUO

2013-01-01

327

Interleukin 22 Signaling Promotes Cell Growth in Mantle Cell Lymphoma1  

PubMed Central

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a specific type of aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We recently found that IL-22RA1, one of the two subunits of the interleukin 22 (IL-22) receptor, is expressed in MCL cell lines but not benign lymphocytes. In view of normal functions of IL-22 signaling, we hypothesized that the aberrant expression of IL-22RA1 may contribute to the deregulation of various cell signaling pathways, thereby promoting cell growth in MCL. In this study, we first demonstrated the expression of IL-22RA1 in all three MCL cell lines and eight frozen tumors examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. In support of the concept that IL-22 signaling is biologically important in MCL, we found that MCL cells treated with recombinant IL-22 had a significant increase in cell growth that was associated with STAT3 activation. To investigate the mechanism underlying the aberrant expression of IL-22RA1, we analyzed the gene promoter of IL-22RA1, and we found multiple binding sites for NF-?B, a transcriptional factor strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of MCL. Pharmacologic inhibition of NF-?B resulted in a substantial reduction in the level of IL-22RA1 protein expression in MCL cells. To conclude, IL-22RA is aberrantly expressed in MCL, and we have provided evidence that IL-22 signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of MCL.

Gelebart, Pascal; Zak, Zoulika; Dien-Bard, Jennifer; Anand, Mona; Lai, Raymond

2011-01-01

328

Field monitoring of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria by colony immunoblotting.  

PubMed

Inoculant plant-growth-promoting bacteria are emerging as an important component of sustainable agriculture. There is a need to develop inexpensive methods for enumerating these organisms after their application in the field, to better understand their survival and impacts on yields. Immunoblotting is one potential method to measure viable cells, but the high cost of the conventionally used nylon membranes makes this method prohibitive. In this study, less expensive alternative materials such as filter papers, glossy photo papers, and transparencies for the purpose of colony immunoblotting were evaluated and the best substance was chosen for further studies. Whatman filter paper No. 541 combined with a 0.01 mol·L(-1) H(2)SO(4) rinsing step gave similar results to nylon membranes but <20% of the overall cost of the original colony immunoblotting assay. The application of the modified immunoblot method was tested on nonsterile clay soil samples that were spiked with high numbers (>10(7) CFU·g(-1)) of the plant-growth-promoting bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens , Azospirillum brasilense , or Rhizobium leguminosarum . The modified protocol allowed the identification and recovery of over 50% of the inoculated cells of all three strains, amidst a background of the native soil microflora. Subsequently, the survival of P. fluorescens was successfully monitored for several months after application to field-grown rice at Jerilderie, New South Wales, Australia, thus validating the procedure. PMID:22017658

Krishnen, Ganisan; Kecskés, Mihály L; Rose, Michael T; Geelan-Small, Peter; Amprayn, Khanok-on; Pereg, Lily; Kennedy, Ivan R

2011-11-01

329

Genomic insights into the versatility of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum amazonense  

PubMed Central

Background The species Azospirillum amazonense belongs to a well-known genus of plant growth-promoting bacteria. This bacterium is found in association with several crops of economic importance; however, there is a lack of information on its physiology. In this work, we present a comprehensive analysis of the genomic features of this species. Results Genes of A. amazonense related to nitrogen/carbon metabolism, energy production, phytohormone production, transport, quorum sensing, antibiotic resistance, chemotaxis/motility and bacteriophytochrome biosynthesis were identified. Noteworthy genes were the nitrogen fixation genes and the nitrilase gene, which could be directly implicated in plant growth promotion, and the carbon fixation genes, which had previously been poorly investigated in this genus. One important finding was that some A. amazonense genes, like the nitrogenase genes and RubisCO genes, were closer phylogenetically to Rhizobiales members than to species of its own order. Conclusion The species A. amazonense presents a versatile repertoire of genes crucial for its plant-associated lifestyle.

2011-01-01

330

Down-Regulation of miR-3928 Promoted Osteosarcoma Growth.  

PubMed

Background: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy in children and young adults. Most failures of osteosarcoma treatment were due to resistance to chemotherapy. Development of new therapy required elucidation underlying molecular mechanism. Many miRNAs have been proved to be involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. Methods: MiR-3928 expression level was assayed by qRT-PCR. MiRNA mimics or ASO were transfected for up-regulation or down-regulation of miR-3928 expression. Cell proliferation was assayed by formazan test. Apoptosis and cell cycle were assayed by FACS. MiR-3928 targeted genes were predicated by bioinformatics algorithm (TargetScanHuman). The correlation between targeted gene and miR-3928 was analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis. Results: MiR-3928 was down-regulated in osteosarcoma tissues. Over-expression of miR-3928 inhibited tumor growth, induced cell apoptosis, increased the percent of cells in G1 phrase and decreased the percent of cells in S phrase. Down-regulation of miR-3928 promoted cell proliferation. ERBB3, IL-6R and CDK6 may be the targeted genes of miR-3928. Conclusions: Down-expression of miR-3928 in osteosarcoma promoted tumor growth by targeting ERBB3, IL-6R and CDK6. MiR-3928 may be a potential therapy target worth further investigation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24854843

Xu, Haidong; Liu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianning

2014-01-01

331

Encapsulation of plant growth-promoting bacteria in alginate beads enriched with humic acid.  

PubMed

The key to achieving successful, reproducible results following the introduction of beneficial microbes into soil relies on the survival rate of the inoculated bacteria in a heterogeneous soil environment and hence an improved encapsulation method was developed. Owing to the constraints associated with the inoculum formulation, in this study, encapsulation of a plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) isolate Bacillus subtilis CC-pg104 was attempted with alginate by enriching the bead microenvironment with humic acid. High viability of the encapsulated bacteria was observed with minimum cell loss upon storage for 5 months. Steady and constant cell release from the bead was observed for 1 week at different pH. Encapsulated cells remained active as evidenced by their ability to solubilize calcium phosphate in vitro. Successful plant growth promotion of lettuce by the encapsulated bacteria under gnotobiotic and sterile environment was also achieved. Feasibility of this improved encapsulation technique is mainly due to the dual benefits of humic acid to microbe and plant and its chemical properties allowing an easy mixing with alginate without interfering in the formation of the alginate gel beads by cross-linking with Ca2+ ions. Thus, the encapsulation method described in this study can be effectively used to protect the PGPB inoculum from adverse conditions of the soil for their successful establishment in the rhizosphere. PMID:16619210

Young, Chiu-Chung; Rekha, P D; Lai, Wei-An; Arun, A B

2006-09-01

332

Analysis of the abilities of endophytic bacteria associated with banana tree roots to promote plant growth.  

PubMed

A total of 40 endophytic bacterial isolates obtained from banana tree roots were characterized for their biotechnological potential for promoting banana tree growth. All isolates had at least one positive feature. Twenty isolates were likely diazotrophs and formed pellicles in nitrogen-free culture medium, and 67% of these isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus sp. The isolates EB-04, EB-169, EB-64, and EB-144 had N fixation abilities as measured by the Kjeldahl method and by an acetylene reduction activity assay. Among the 40 isolates, 37.5% were capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and the isolates EB-47 and EB-64 showed the highest solubilization capacity. The isolate EB-53 (Lysinibacillus sp.) had a high solubilization index, whereas 73% of the isolates had low solubilization indices. The synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the presence of L-tryptophan was detected in 40% of the isolates. The isolate EB-40 (Bacillus sp.) produced the highest amount of IAA (47.88 ?g/ml) in medium supplemented with L-tryptophan and was able to synthesize IAA in the absence of L-tryptophan. The isolates EB-126 (Bacillus subtilis) and EB-47 (Bacillus sp.) were able to simultaneously fix nitrogen, solubilize phosphate and produce IAA in vitro. The results of this study demonstrated that the isolates analyzed here had diverse abilities and all have the potential to be used as growth-promoting microbial inoculants for banana trees. PMID:24390835

Andrade, Leandro Fernandes; de Souza, Gleika Larisse Oliveira Dorasio; Nietsche, Silvia; Xavier, Adelica Aparecida; Costa, Marcia Regina; Cardoso, Acleide Maria Santos; Pereira, Marlon Cristian Toledo; Pereira, Débora Francine Gomes Silva

2014-01-01

333

Recombinant keratinocyte growth factor 1 in tobacco potentially promotes wound healing in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Keratinocyte growth factor 1 (KGF1) is a growth factor that promotes epidermal cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and wound repair. It is expressed at low levels in a form of inclusion body in E. coli. In order to increase its expression and activity, we produced tobacco plants expressing KGF1 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using a potato virus X (PVX)-based vector (pgR107). The vector contained the sequence encoding the KGF1 gene fused with a green florescence protein. The recombinant plasmid was introduced into leaf cells of Nicotiana benthamiana (a wild Australian tobacco) via Agrobacterium-mediated agroinfiltration. As determined by fluorescence and Western blot of leaf extracts, the KGF1 gene was correctly translated into the tobacco plants. The recombinant KGF1 was purified from plant tissues by heparin affinity chromatography, and cell proliferation in NIH/3T3 cells was stimulated by the purified KGF1. The purified KGF1 was also applied to the wounds of type-II diabetic rats. KGF1 had accumulated to levels as high as 530? ? g/g fresh weight in the leaves of agroinfected plants. We show that plant-derived KGF1 can promote the proliferation of NIH/3T3 cells and have significant effects on the type-II diabetic rat. The present findings indicated that KGF1 from tobacco maintains its biological activity, implying prospective industrial production in a plant bioreactor. PMID:24783215

Feng, Zhi-Guo; Pang, Shi-Feng; Guo, Ding-Jiong; Yang, Yue-Tao; Liu, Bin; Wang, Ji-Wei; Zheng, Ke-Qin; Lin, Yi

2014-01-01

334

Mixtures of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria enhance biological control of multiple cucumber pathogens.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains INR7 (Bacillus pumilus), GB03 (Bacillus subtilis), and ME1 (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens) were tested singly and in combinations for biological control against multiple cucumber pathogens. Investigations under greenhouse conditions were conducted with three cucumber pathogens-Colletotrichum orbiculare (causing anthracnose), Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans (causing angular leaf spot), and Erwinia tracheiphila(causing cucurbit wilt disease)-inoculated singly and in all possible combinations. There was a general trend across all experiments toward greater suppression and enhanced consistency against multiple cucumber pathogens using strain mixtures. The same three PGPR strains were evaluated as seed treatments in two field trials over two seasons, and two strains, IN26 (Burkholderia gladioli) and INR7 also were tested as foliar sprays in one of the trials. In the field trials, the efficacy of induced systemic resistance activity was determined against introduced cucumber pathogens naturally spread within plots through placement of infected plants into the field to provide the pathogen inoculum. PGPR-mediated disease suppression was observed against angular leaf spot in 1996 and against a mixed infection of angular leaf spot and anthracnose in 1997. The three-way mixture of PGPR strains (INR7 plus ME1 plus GB03) as a seed treatment showed intensive plant growth promotion and disease reduction to a level statistically equivalent to the synthetic elicitor Actigard applied as a spray. PMID:18944848

Raupach, G S; Kloepper, J W

1998-11-01

335

Activating Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ? Mutant Promotes Tumor Growth in vivo by Enhancing Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?(PPAR?) is expressed in a variety of cancer cells. The addition of ligand activates the receptor by inducing a conformational change in the receptor, which can be recapitulated by mutation. To investigate the role of activated PPAR? signaling in breast cancer, we compared the function of a constitutively active PPAR? (P?CA) mutant with the wild-type PPAR? in ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis in vivo. Tumor cells transduced with either PPAR? or P?CA were implanted into immune competent FVB mice. Enhanced tumor growth was observed in P?CA-transduced celsl, which was associated with increased angiogenesis and endothelial stem cells as evidenced by increased number of cells stained with von Willebrand factor (vWF), c-Kit, CD133 and CD31. Genome-wide expression profiling identified a group of genes within the angiogenesis pathway, including Angptl4, as targets of activated PPAR?; P?CA also induced Angptl4 protein secretion in ErbB2-transformed mammary epithelial cells. Angptl4 promoted vascular endothelial cell migration and conversely immuno-depletion of Angptl4 reduced P?CA-mediated cellular migration. Collectively, these studies suggest that activated PPAR? induces Angptl4 to promote tumor growth through enhanced angiogenesis in vivo.

Tian, Lifeng; Zhou, Jie; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Liang, Bing; Ojeifo, John O.; Wang, Min; Hyslop, Terry; Wang, Chenguang; Pestell, Richard G.

2009-01-01

336

cAMP and Schwann cells promote axonal growth and functional recovery after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Central neurons regenerate axons if a permissive environment is provided; after spinal cord injury, however, inhibitory molecules are present that make the local environment nonpermissive. A promising new strategy for inducing neurons to overcome inhibitory signals is to activate cAMP signaling. Here we show that cAMP levels fall in the rostral spinal cord, sensorimotor cortex and brainstem after spinal cord contusion. Inhibition of cAMP hydrolysis by the phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor rolipram prevents this decrease and when combined with Schwann cell grafts promotes significant supraspinal and proprioceptive axon sparing and myelination. Furthermore, combining rolipram with an injection of db-cAMP near the graft not only prevents the drop in cAMP levels but increases them above those in uninjured controls. This further enhances axonal sparing and myelination, promotes growth of serotonergic fibers into and beyond grafts, and significantly improves locomotion. These findings show that cAMP levels are key for protection, growth and myelination of injured CNS axons in vivo and recovery of function. PMID:15156204

Pearse, Damien D; Pereira, Francisco C; Marcillo, Alexander E; Bates, Margaret L; Berrocal, Yerko A; Filbin, Marie T; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

2004-06-01

337

A Trypanosoma brucei Kinesin Heavy Chain Promotes Parasite Growth by Triggering Host Arginase Activity  

PubMed Central

Background In order to promote infection, the blood-borne parasite Trypanosoma brucei releases factors that upregulate arginase expression and activity in myeloid cells. Methodology/Principal findings By screening a cDNA library of T. brucei with an antibody neutralizing the arginase-inducing activity of parasite released factors, we identified a Kinesin Heavy Chain isoform, termed TbKHC1, as responsible for this effect. Following interaction with mouse myeloid cells, natural or recombinant TbKHC1 triggered SIGN-R1 receptor-dependent induction of IL-10 production, resulting in arginase-1 activation concomitant with reduction of nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity. This TbKHC1 activity was IL-4R?-independent and did not mirror M2 activation of myeloid cells. As compared to wild-type T. brucei, infection by TbKHC1 KO parasites was characterized by strongly reduced parasitaemia and prolonged host survival time. By treating infected mice with ornithine or with NO synthase inhibitor, we observed that during the first wave of parasitaemia the parasite growth-promoting effect of TbKHC1-mediated arginase activation resulted more from increased polyamine production than from reduction of NO synthesis. In late stage infection, TbKHC1-mediated reduction of NO synthesis appeared to contribute to liver damage linked to shortening of host survival time. Conclusion A kinesin heavy chain released by T. brucei induces IL-10 and arginase-1 through SIGN-R1 signaling in myeloid cells, which promotes early trypanosome growth and favors parasite settlement in the host. Moreover, in the late stage of infection, the inhibition of NO synthesis by TbKHC1 contributes to liver pathogenicity.

De Muylder, Geraldine; Daulouede, Sylvie; Lecordier, Laurence; Uzureau, Pierrick; Morias, Yannick; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Caljon, Guy; Herin, Michel; Holzmuller, Philippe; Semballa, Silla; Courtois, Pierrette; Vanhamme, Luc; Stijlemans, Benoit; De Baetselier, Patrick; Barrett, Michael P.; Barlow, Jillian L.; McKenzie, Andrew N. J.; Barron, Luke; Wynn, Thomas A.; Beschin, Alain; Vincendeau, Philippe; Pays, Etienne

2013-01-01

338

Rhizoremediation of diesel-contaminated soil using the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Gordonia sp. S2RP17  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) was isolated and identified as Gordonia sp. S2RP-17, which showed ACC deaminase and siderophore synthesizing activities. Its maximum specific growth rate was 0.54 ± 0.12 d?1 at 5,000 mg L?1 of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and its maximum diesel degradation rate was 2,434.0 ± 124.4 mg L?1 d?1 at 20,000 mg L?1 of TPH. The growth of Zea mays was significantly promoted by the inoculation of Gordonia

Sun Hwa Hong; HeeWook Ryu; Jaisoo Kim; Kyung-Suk Cho

2011-01-01

339

An evaluation of carrier agents for desferoxamine, an up-regulator of vascular endothelial growth factor.  

PubMed

Avascularity and hypoxia result in avascular necrosis and play a negative role in fracture healing. The FDA-approved iron chelating agent, desferoxamine (DFO) in a liquid form, has been shown to induce angiogenesis and improve fracture healing through upregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor. We were concerned that local injection of DFO would either fail to adequately deliver sufficient drug to the desired site or lead to undesired delivery to adjacent sites. Therefore, a sustained release delivery system was desirable to direct DFO to the intended site. Calcium sulfate pellets, collagen sponges, and demineralized cortical bone matrix were all evaluated as potentially controlled release systems for DFO using a fetal mouse metatarsal angiogenesis assay. Angiogenesis was analyzed using a vascularity grading scale, by measuring the mean vessel length of the 5 longest vessels, and by counting the mean number of vessels per metatarsal. Although there was some evidence of angiogenesis with all three carriers, DFO loaded CaSO4 pellets increased vascularity grading, the mean length of the five longest vessels, and the mean number of vessels, all by statistically significant margins versus the control. These results suggest that CaSO4 pellets could be used as a viable, nontoxic, controlled release system for DFO in clinical situations where increased angiogenesis and bone growth are desirable. PMID:22262572

Hertzberg, Brian P; Holt, Joshua B; Graff, Ronald D; Gilbert, Shawn R; Dahners, Laurence E

2013-05-01

340

Role of cAMP in the promotion of colorectal cancer cell growth by Prostaglandin E2  

PubMed Central

Background Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a product of the cyclooxygenase (COX) reaction, stimulates the growth of colonic epithelial cells. It is inferred that the abrogation of prostaglandins' growth-promoting effects as a result of COX inhibition underlies the advantageous effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Despite this appreciation, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure since cell culture studies have yielded discrepant results regarding PGE2's mitogenicity. Methods We have employed several alternative approaches to score cell proliferation and apoptosis of 4 CRC cell lines exposed to PGE2 under various conditions. To investigate the role of cAMP in PGE2's functions, activation of the cAMP pathway was assessed at different levels (changes in cAMP levels and PKA activity) in cells subjected to specific manipulations including the use of specific inhibitors or prostanoid receptor-selective agonists/antagonists. Results Our data document that the dose-response curve to PGE2 is 'bell-shaped', with nano molar concentrations of PGE2 being more mitogenic than micro molar doses. Remarkably, mitogenicity inversely correlates with the ability of PGE2 doses to raise cAMP levels. Consistent with a major role for cAMP, cAMP raising agents and pertussis toxin revert the mitogenic response to PGE2. Accordingly, use of prostanoid receptor-selective agonists argues for the involvement of the EP3 receptor and serum deprivation of HT29 CRC cells specifically raises the levels of Gi-coupled EP3 splice variants. Conclusion The present data indicate that the mitogenic action of low PGE2 doses in CRC cells is mediated via Gi-proteins, most likely through the EP3 receptor subtype, and is superimposed by a second, cAMP-dependent anti-proliferative effect at higher PGE2 doses. We discuss how these findings contribute to rationalize conflictive literature data on the proliferative action of PGE2.

Loffler, Ivonne; Grun, Michael; Bohmer, Frank D; Rubio, Ignacio

2008-01-01

341

DNA Promoter Methylation-dependent Transcription of the Double C2-like Domain ? (DOC2B) Gene Regulates Tumor Growth in Human Cervical Cancer.  

PubMed

Double C2-like domain ? (DOC2B) gene encodes for a calcium-binding protein, which is involved in neurotransmitter release, sorting, and exocytosis. We have identified the promoter region of the DOC2B gene as hypermethylated in pre-malignant, malignant cervical tissues, and cervical cancer cell lines by methylation-sensitive dimethyl sulfoxide-polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite genome sequencing; whereas, it was unmethylated in normal cervical tissues (p < 0.05). The promoter hypermethylation was inversely associated with mRNA expression in SiHa, CaSki, and HeLa cells and treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine restored DOC2B expression. The region -630 to +25 bp of the DOC2B gene showed robust promoter activity by a luciferase reporter assay and was inhibited by in vitro artificial methylation with Sss1 methylase prior to transient transfections. Overexpression of the DOC2B gene in SiHa cells when compared with controls showed significantly reduced colony formation, cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest, and repressed cell migration and invasion (p < 0.05). Ectopic expression of DOC2B resulted in anoikis-mediated cell death and repressed tumor growth in a nude mice xenograft model (p < 0.05). DOC2B expressing cells showed a significant increase in intracellular calcium level (p < 0.05), impaired AKT1 and ERK1/2 signaling, and induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Our results show that promoter hypermethylation and silencing of the DOC2B gene is an early and frequent event during cervical carcinogenesis and whose reduced expression due to DNA promoter methylation may lead to selective cervical tumor growth. PMID:24570007

Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Bhat, Samatha; Radhakrishnan, Raghu; Aithal, Abhijit; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Pandey, Deeksha; Rai, Lavanya; Kushtagi, Pralhad; Mundyat, Gopinath Puthiya; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

2014-04-11

342

Influence of inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on tomato plant growth and nematode reproduction under greenhouse conditions  

PubMed Central

Numerous species of soil bacteria which flourish in the rhizosphere of plants or around plant tissues stimulate plant growth and reduce nematode population by antagonistic behavior. These bacteria are collectively known as PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria). The effects of six isolates of PGPR Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, were studied on tomato plant growth and root knot nematode reproduction after 45 days from nematode infection. The highest number of shoot dry weight/g (43.00 g) was detected in the plant treated with S. marcescens; then P. putida (34.33 g), B. amyloliquefaciens (31.66 g), P. fluorescens (30.0 g), B. subtilis (29.0 g), B. cereus (27.0 g) and nematode alone (untreated) 20 g/plant. While the highest number of plant height was observed when plant was treated with S. marcescens, P. fluorescens, P. putida, B. amyloliquefaciens and P. putida 52.66, 50.66, 48 and 48 cm respectively. No significant differences were seen between previous treatments but only had significant differences compared with untreated plant. The highest number of fruit/plant was observed when plants were treated with S. marcescens (10.66), then B. amyloliquefaciens (8.66), P. putida (8), P. fluorescens (8) and B. cereus (7.66). No significant differences between the last 4 treatments, but all had significant differences compared with untreated plants. The highest weight of plant yield (g) was observed with S. marcescens (319.6 g/plant) and the lowest weight of plant yield was observed in plants treated with nematode alone (untreated). On the other hand, the lowest numbers of J2/10 g of soil (78), galls/root, (24.33) galls/root, egg masses/root (12.66) and egg/egg masses were observed in the plants treated with S. marcescens.

Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Massoud, Samia I.; Abdelmoneim, Tamer S.

2012-01-01

343

Inhibition of the growth of Neisseria meningitidis by reduced ferritin and other iron-binding agents.  

PubMed Central

Serogroups of N. meningitidis were characterized as virulent or avirulent according to their capacity to establish meningococcal infection in mice. An agar plate diffusion technique demonstrated that iron had a definite growth-supporting role for both of these meningococcal types. The avirulent strains could use ionic or chelated iron as well as the virulent strains. Iron-reversible growth inhibition occurred to the same extent for both bacterial types in the presence of the synthetic iron-chelating agents Desferal and ethylenediamine-di-orthohydroxy phenylacetic acid. A difference in response was demonstrated for these bacterial types when grown in the presence of various iron-binding proteins from animal body fluids and tissues. The growth of the avirulent strain was inhibited to a greater degree by egg white conalbumin. The humoral iron-binding protein transferrin showed a significant inhibitory capacity only when used in conjunction with bicarbonate. Under conditions of increased iron saturation of this protein, the avirulent strain was inhibited to the furthest extent. In the presence of ferritin, the cellular iron-binding protein, which had been reduced, inhibition of the growth of either strain type did not occur on iron-poor media (less than 5 micrograms/100 ml). However, with the incorporation of iron into the media, the inhibitory effect of the protein became evident. As the concentration of iron increased, the inhibition increased to a certain level and subsequently declined. A substantial difference in the ability of the avirulent type to grow in the presence of reduced horse spleen ferritin was observed. For this microorganism, a correlation appears to exist between the capacity to grow by utilizing the available iron in the presence of reduced ferritin and the ability to establish infection. The host protein ferritin, in the reduced state, apart from simply being a storage protein for iron, can prevent the growth of a procaryotic organism. Our experiments suggest a role for ferritin in the prevention of emningococcal disease. A cehmotherapeutic potential for Desferal is also implied. Images

Calver, G A; Kenny, C P; Kushner, D J

1979-01-01

344

Dynamin 2 Mediates PDGFR?-SHP-2-Promoted Glioblastoma Growth and Invasion  

PubMed Central

Dynamin 2 (Dyn2), a large GTPase, is involved in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-promoted cell migration. However, molecular mechanisms by which Dyn2 regulates RTK-induced cell migration have not been established. Recently we reported that SHP-2 and PI3K mediate PDGFR?-promoted glioma tumor growth and invasion. Here, we show that Dyn2 is an effector downstream of the PDGFR?-PI3K/SHP-2 signaling in glioma cells. Depletion of endogenous Dyn2 by shRNAs inhibited PDGFR?-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, Erk1/2, Rac1 and Cdc42 activities, glioma cell migration and survival in vitro, tumor growth and invasion in the brains of mice. Dyn2 binds to SHP-2, PI3K and co-localizes with PDGFR? at the invasive fronts in PDGF-A-stimulated glioma cells. Inhibition of SHP-2 by siRNA knockdown abrogated Dyn2 association with activated PDGFR? and PDGFR? activation of Rac1 and Cdc42, glioma cell migration, thereby establishing a link between SHP-2 interaction with Dyn2 and the PDGFR? signaling. Furthermore, a dominant negative SHP-2 C459S mutant inhibited PDGF-A-stimulated glioma cell migration, phosphorylation of Dyn2 and concomitantly blocked PDGFR?-induced Src activation. Inhibition of Src by Src inhibitors attenuated PDGF-A-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and Dyn2 and glioma cell migration. Additionally, mutations of binding sites to PI3K, SHP-2 or Src of PDGFR? impaired PDGFR?-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and Dyn2, and Dyn2 association with activated PDGFR?. Taken together, this study identifies Dyn2 as an effector that mediates PDGFR?-SHP-2-induced glioma tumor growth and invasion, suggesting that targeting the PDGFR?-SHP-2-Dyn2 pathway may be beneficial to patients with malignant glioblastomas.

Feng, H; Liu, KW; Guo, P; Zhang, P; Cheng, T; McNiven, MA; Johnson, GR; Hu, B; Cheng, SY

2011-01-01

345

In vivo hair growth-promoting effect of rice bran extract prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid.  

PubMed

The potential hair growth-promoting activity of rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) and major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid, policosanol, ?-oryzanol, and ?-tocotrienol, were evaluated with the histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in C57BL/6 mice. RB-SCE showed hair growth-promoting potential to a similar extent as 3% minoxidil, showing that the hair follicles were induced to be in the anagen stage. The numbers of the hair follicles were significantly increased. In addition, mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) were also significantly increased and that of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) decreased in RB-SCE-treated groups. Among the major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid and ?-oryzanol induced the formation of hair follicles according to examination of histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that RB-SCE, particularly linoleic acid and ?-oryzanol, promotes hair growth and suggests RB-SCE can be applied as hair loss treatment. PMID:24389480

Choi, Jae-Suk; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Woi-Sook; Moon, Jin-Nam; Cheon, Eun Jin; Kim, Joo-Wan; Jung, Sung Kyu; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

2014-01-01

346

Tyrosine Phosphorylation Inhibits PKM2 to Promote the Warburg Effect and Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

The Warburg effect describes a pro-oncogenic metabolism switch such that cancer cells take up more glucose than normal tissue and favor incomplete oxidation of glucose even in the presence of oxygen. To better understand how tyrosine kinase signaling, which is commonly increased in tumors, regulates the Warburg effect, we performed phosphoproteomic studies. We found that oncogenic forms of fibroblast growth factor receptor type 1 inhibit the pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform by direct phosphorylation of PKM2 tyrosine residue 105 (Y105). This inhibits the formation of active, tetrameric PKM2 by disrupting binding of the PKM2 cofactor fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Furthermore, we found that phosphorylation of PKM2 Y105 is common in human cancers. The presence of a PKM2 mutant in which phenylalanine is substituted for Y105 (Y105F) in cancer cells leads to decreased cell proliferation under hypoxic conditions, increased oxidative phosphorylation with reduced lactate production, and reduced tumor growth in xenografts in nude mice. Our findings suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation regulates PKM2 to provide a metabolic advantage to tumor cells, thereby promoting tumor growth.

Hitosugi, Taro; Kang, Sumin; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Chung, Tae-Wook; Elf, Shannon; Lythgoe, Katherine; Dong, Shaozhong; Lonial, Sagar; Wang, Xu; Chen, Georgia Z.; Xie, Jianxin; Gu, Ting-Lei; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Roesel, Johannes L.; Boggon, Titus J.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Gilliland, D. Gary; Cantley, Lewis C.; Kaufman, Jonathan; Chen, Jing

2010-01-01

347

Inhibition of alanine aminotransferase in silico and in vivo promotes mitochondrial metabolism to impair malignant growth.  

PubMed

Cancer cells commonly exhibit increased nonoxidative D-glucose metabolism whereas induction of mitochondrial metabolism may impair malignant growth. We have first used an in silico method called elementary mode analysis to identify inhibition of ALAT (L-alanine aminotransferase) as a putative target to promote mitochondrial metabolism. We then experimentally show that two competitive inhibitors of ALAT, L-cycloserine and ?-chloro-L-alanine, inhibit L-alanine production and impair D-glucose uptake of LLC1 Lewis lung carcinoma cells. The latter inhibition is linked to an initial energy deficit, as quantified by decreased ATP content, which is then followed by an activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and subsequently increased respiration rates and mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, culminating in ATP replenishment in ALAT-inhibited LLC1 cells. Moreover, we observe altered phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase 14), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2), and Rb1 (retinoblastoma 1) proteins, as well as decreased expression of Cdc25a (cell decision cycle 25 homolog A) and Cdk4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4). Importantly, these sequelae of ALAT inhibition culminate in similarly reduced anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth rates of LLC1 cells, together suggesting that inhibition of ALAT efficiently impairs cancer growth by counteracting the Warburg effect due to compensatory activation of mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:21540181

Beuster, Gregor; Zarse, Kim; Kaleta, Christoph; Thierbach, René; Kiehntopf, Michael; Steinberg, Pablo; Schuster, Stefan; Ristow, Michael

2011-06-24

348

Bone marrow adipocytes promote tumor growth in bone via FABP4-dependent mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Incidence of skeletal metastases and death from prostate cancer greatly increases with age and obesity, conditions which increase marrow adiposity. Bone marrow adipocytes are metabolically active components of bone metastatic niche that modulate the function of neighboring cells; yet the mechanisms of their involvement in tumor behavior in bone have not been explored. In this study, using experimental models of intraosseous tumor growth and diet-induced obesity, we demonstrate the promoting effects of marrow fat on growth and progression of skeletal prostate tumors. We reveal that exposure to lipids supplied by marrow adipocytes induces expression of lipid chaperone FABP4, pro-inflammatory interleukin IL-1?, and oxidative stress protein HMOX-1 in metastatic tumor cells and stimulates their growth and invasiveness. We show that FABP4 is highly overexpressed in prostate skeletal tumors from obese mice and in bone metastasis samples from prostate cancer patients. In addition, we provide results suggestive of bi-directional interaction between FABP4 and PPAR? pathways that may be driving aggressive tumor cell behavior in bone. Together, our data provide evidence for functional relationship between bone marrow adiposity and metastatic prostate cancers and unravel the FABP4/IL-1? axis as a potential therapeutic target for this presently incurable disease.

Herroon, Mackenzie K.; Rajagurubandara, Erandi; Hardaway, Aimalie L.; Powell, Katelyn; Turchick, Audrey; Feldmann, Daniel; Podgorski, Izabela

2013-01-01

349

Disruption of Lysosome Function Promotes Tumor Growth and Metastasis in Drosophila*  

PubMed Central

Lysosome function is essential to many physiological processes. It has been suggested that deregulation of lysosome function could contribute to cancer. Through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we have discovered that mutations disrupting lysosomal degradation pathway components contribute to tumor development and progression. Loss-of-function mutations in the Class C vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) gene, deep orange (dor), dramatically promote tumor overgrowth and invasion of the RasV12 cells. Knocking down either of the two other components of the Class C VPS complex, carnation (car) and vps16A, also renders RasV12 cells capable for uncontrolled growth and metastatic behavior. Finally, chemical disruption of the lysosomal function by feeding animals with antimalarial drugs, chloroquine or monensin, leads to malignant tumor growth of the RasV12 cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence for a causative role of lysosome dysfunction in tumor growth and invasion and indicate that members of the Class C VPS complex behave as tumor suppressors.

Chi, Congwu; Zhu, Huanhu; Han, Min; Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaohui; Xu, Tian

2010-01-01

350

CD73 has distinct roles in nonhematopoietic and hematopoietic cells to promote tumor growth in mice.  

PubMed

CD73 is overexpressed in many types of human and mouse cancers and is implicated in the control of tumor progression. However, the specific contribution from tumor or host CD73 expression to tumor growth remains unknown to date. Here, we show that host CD73 promotes tumor growth in a T cell-dependent manner and that the optimal antitumor effect of CD73 blockade requires inhibiting both tumor and host CD73. Notably, enzymatic activity of CD73 on nonhematopoietic cells limited tumor-infiltrating T cells by controlling antitumor T cell homing to tumors in multiple mouse tumor models. In contrast, CD73 on hematopoietic cells (including CD4?CD25? Tregs) inhibited systemic antitumor T cell expansion and effector functions. Thus, CD73 on hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells has distinct adenosinergic effects in regulating systemic and local antitumor T cell responses. Importantly, pharmacological blockade of CD73 using its selective inhibitor or an anti-CD73 mAb inhibited tumor growth and completely restored efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy in mice. These findings suggest that both tumor and host CD73 cooperatively protect tumors from incoming antitumor T cells and show the potential of targeting CD73 as a cancer immunotherapy strategy. PMID:21537079

Wang, Long; Fan, Jie; Thompson, Linda F; Zhang, Yi; Shin, Tahiro; Curiel, Tyler J; Zhang, Bin

2011-06-01

351

MHC-mismatched mice liver transplantation promotes tumor growth in liver graft.  

PubMed

Liver transplantation is a final therapeutic option for treatment of hepatic malignancies, but local recurrence remains high after surgery. However, the underlying mechanisms of local tumor recurrence are still unknown. We speculated that immunological status of transplanted liver may contribute to the progress of tumor development. CT-26 tumor cells are injected into graft after allogeneic or syngeneic liver transplantation. The growth pattern of tumor and the co-relationship of regulatory T cell and effector T cells in liver graft were observed and investigated at 3d, 6d, 9d and 15d post-transplantation. The Hepatic Replacement Area of tumor in allogeneic grafts was significantly larger than that in syngeneic grafts. The activation of tumor growth in allografts was due to the dysfunction of effector T cells mediated by regulatory T cells in liver graft. Using nude mice model, we further confirmed that regulatory T cells from allograft significantly weaken the function of effector T cells in vivo. Our data has showed that MHC-mismatched mice liver transplantation can promote tumor growth in liver graft. For the first time, we demonstrated that susceptibility to tumor development in liver graft is due to the down-regulation of effector T cells' function mediated by the regulatory T cells. PMID:24880081

Yan, Sheng; Ding, Yuan; Tian, Yang; Lu, Zhongjie; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Qiyi; Ye, Yufu; Zhou, Lin; Xie, Haiyang; Chen, Hui; Zheng, Minghao; Zheng, Shusen

2014-08-28

352

The Drosophila homolog of human tumor suppressor TSC-22 promotes cellular growth, proliferation, and survival.  

PubMed

TSC22D1, which encodes transforming growth factor beta-stimulated clone 22 (TSC-22), is thought to be a tumor suppressor because its expression is lost in many glioblastoma, salivary gland, and prostate cancers. TSC-22 is the founding member of the TSC-22/DIP/Bun family of leucine zipper transcription factors; its functions have not been investigated in a multicellular environment. Genetic studies in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster often provide fundamental insights into mechanisms disrupted in carcinogenesis, because of the strong evolutionary conservation of molecular mechanisms between flies and humans. Whereas humans and mice have four TSC-22 domain genes with numerous isoforms, Drosophila has only one TSC-22 domain gene, bunched (bun), which encodes both large and small protein isoforms. Surprisingly, Drosophila Bun proteins promote cellular growth and proliferation in ovarian follicle cells. Loss of both large isoforms has the strongest phenotypes, including increased apoptosis. Cultured S2 cells depleted for large Bun isoforms show increased apoptosis and less frequent cell division, with decreased cell size. Altogether, these data indicate that Drosophila TSC-22/DIP/Bun proteins are necessary for cellular growth, proliferation, and survival both in culture and in an epithelial context. Previous work demonstrated that bun prevents recruitment of epithelial cells to a migratory fate and, thus, maintains epithelial organization. We speculate that reduced TSC22D1 expression generally reduces cellular fitness and only contributes to carcinogenesis in specific tissue environments. PMID:18375761

Wu, Xiaodong; Yamada-Mabuchi, Megumu; Morris, Erick J; Tanwar, Pradeep Singh; Dobens, Leonard; Gluderer, Silvia; Khan, Sabina; Cao, Jing; Stocker, Hugo; Hafen, Ernst; Dyson, Nick J; Raftery, Laurel A

2008-04-01

353

N2-fixation and seedling growth promotion of lodgepole pine by endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa.  

PubMed

We inoculated lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia (Dougl.) Engelm.) with Paenibacillus polymyxa P2b-2R, a diazotrophic bacterium previously isolated from internal stem tissue of a naturally regenerating pine seedling to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation and seedling growth promotion by this microorganism. Seedlings generated from pine seed inoculated with strain P2b-2R were grown for up to 13 months in a N-limited soil mix containing 0.7 mM available N labeled as Ca((15)NO3)2 to facilitate detection of N2-fixation. Strain P2b-2R developed a persistent endophytic population comprising 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1) plant tissue inside pine roots, stems, and needles during the experiment. At the end of the growth period, P2b-2R had reduced seedling mortality by 14 % and (15)N foliar N abundance 79 % and doubled foliar N concentration and seedling biomass compared to controls. Our results suggest that N2-fixation by P. polymyxa enhanced growth of pine seedlings and support the hypothesis that plant-associated diazotrophs capable of endophytic colonization can satisfy a significant proportion of the N required by tree seedlings growing under N-limited conditions. PMID:23420205

Anand, Richa; Grayston, Susan; Chanway, Christopher

2013-08-01

354

Canonical BMP-Smad signalling promotes neurite growth in rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons.  

PubMed

Ventral midbrain (VM) dopaminergic (DA) neurons project to the dorsal striatum via the nigrostriatal pathway to regulate voluntary movements, and their loss leads to the motor dysfunction seen in Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite recent progress in the understanding of VM DA neurogenesis, the factors regulating nigrostriatal pathway development remain largely unknown. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family regulates neurite growth in the developing nervous system and may contribute to nigrostriatal pathway development. Two related members of this family, BMP2 and growth differentiation factor (GDF)5, have neurotrophic effects, including promotion of neurite growth, on cultured VM DA neurons. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating their effects on DA neurons are unknown. By characterising the temporal expression profiles of endogenous BMP receptors (BMPRs) in the developing and adult rat VM and striatum, this study identified BMP2 and GDF5 as potential regulators of nigrostriatal pathway development. Furthermore, through the use of noggin, dorsomorphin and BMPR/Smad plasmids, this study demonstrated that GDF5- and BMP2-induced neurite outgrowth from cultured VM DA neurons is dependent on BMP type I receptor activation of the Smad 1/5/8 signalling pathway. PMID:24682653

Hegarty, Shane V; Collins, Louise M; Gavin, Aisling M; Roche, Sarah L; Wyatt, Sean L; Sullivan, Aideen M; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

2014-06-01

355

Platelets Promote Tumor Growth and Metastasis via Direct Interaction between Aggrus/Podoplanin and CLEC-2  

PubMed Central

The platelet aggregation-inducing factor Aggrus, also known as podoplanin, is frequently upregulated in several types of tumors and enhances hematogenous metastasis by interacting with and activating the platelet receptor CLEC-2. Thus, Aggrus–CLEC-2 binding could be a therapeutic molecular mechanism for cancer therapy. We generated a new anti-human Aggrus monoclonal antibody, MS-1, that suppressed Aggrus–CLEC-2 binding, Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation, and Aggrus-mediated tumor metastasis. Interestingly, the MS-1 monoclonal antibody attenuated the growth of Aggrus-positive tumors in vivo. Moreover, the humanized chimeric MS-1 antibody, ChMS-1, also exhibited strong antitumor activity against Aggrus-positive lung squamous cell carcinoma xenografted into NOD-SCID mice compromising antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic and complement-dependent cytotoxic activities. Because Aggrus knockdown suppressed platelet-induced proliferation in vitro and tumor growth of the lung squamous cell carcinoma in vivo, Aggrus may be involved in not only tumor metastasis but also tumor growth by promoting platelet-tumor interaction, platelet activation, and secretion of platelet-derived factors in vivo. Our results indicate that molecular target drugs inhibiting specific platelet–tumor interactions can be developed as antitumor drugs that suppress both metastasis and proliferation of tumors such as lung squamous cell carcinoma.

Takagi, Satoshi; Sato, Shigeo; Oh-hara, Tomoko; Takami, Miho; Koike, Sumie; Mishima, Yuji; Hatake, Kiyohiko; Fujita, Naoya

2013-01-01

356

Platelets promote tumor growth and metastasis via direct interaction between Aggrus/podoplanin and CLEC-2.  

PubMed

The platelet aggregation-inducing factor Aggrus, also known as podoplanin, is frequently upregulated in several types of tumors and enhances hematogenous metastasis by interacting with and activating the platelet receptor CLEC-2. Thus, Aggrus-CLEC-2 binding could be a therapeutic molecular mechanism for cancer therapy. We generated a new anti-human Aggrus monoclonal antibody, MS-1, that suppressed Aggrus-CLEC-2 binding, Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation, and Aggrus-mediated tumor metastasis. Interestingly, the MS-1 monoclonal antibody attenuated the growth of Aggrus-positive tumors in vivo. Moreover, the humanized chimeric MS-1 antibody, ChMS-1, also exhibited strong antitumor activity against Aggrus-positive lung squamous cell carcinoma xenografted into NOD-SCID mice compromising antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic and complement-dependent cytotoxic activities. Because Aggrus knockdown suppressed platelet-induced proliferation in vitro and tumor growth of the lung squamous cell carcinoma in vivo, Aggrus may be involved in not only tumor metastasis but also tumor growth by promoting platelet-tumor interaction, platelet activation, and secretion of platelet-derived factors in vivo. Our results indicate that molecular target drugs inhibiting specific platelet-tumor interactions can be developed as antitumor drugs that suppress both metastasis and proliferation of tumors such as lung squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23991201

Takagi, Satoshi; Sato, Shigeo; Oh-hara, Tomoko; Takami, Miho; Koike, Sumie; Mishima, Yuji; Hatake, Kiyohiko; Fujita, Naoya

2013-01-01

357

Polyvinyl formal surface promotes continuous growth of Vero cells in protein-free medium.  

PubMed

The effect of polyvinyl formal (PVF) culture surface on the growth of 10 mammalian continuous cell lines, including Swiss 3T6, NCTC clone 929 L, BHK-21 clone 13, CHO-K1, PK 15, A 431, HeLa, MDCK, LLC-MK2 and Vero in protein-free 1:1 mixture of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and Ham's F12 supplemented with trace elements and L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate, was investigated. Most of the cell lines showed only some initial proliferation on PVF similar to the polystyrene (PS) surface of commercially available culture flasks. In contrast, proliferation of monkey kidney cell line Vero was by far greater on PVF than on PS or poly-D-lysine treated culture surface. In addition, Vero cells on PVF could be subcultured in the protein-free medium without any significant decrease of growth rate in successive passages. These results showed that PVF provides a culture surface which selectively promotes continuous growth of Vero cells in protein-free, chemically defined medium. PMID:1610559

Cinatl, J; Cinatl, J; Rabenau, H; Doerr, H W

1992-03-01

358

Tumor cell surface heparan sulfate as cryptic promoters or inhibitors of tumor growth and metastasis  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans, present at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix that surrounds cells, are important mediators of complex biological processes. Furthermore, it is now apparent that cells dynamically regulate the structure of their heparan sulfate “coat” to differentially regulate extracellular signals. In the present study, the importance of sequence information contained within tumor cell-surface heparan sulfate was investigated. Herein, we demonstrate that the heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan coat present on tumor cells contains bioactive sequences that impinge on tumor-cell growth and metastasis. Importantly, we find that growth promoting as well as growth inhibiting sequences are contained within the polysaccharide coat. Furthermore, we find that the dynamic balance between these distinct polysaccharide populations regulates specific intracellular signal-transduction pathways. This study not only provides a framework for the development of polysaccharide-based anti-cancer molecules but also underscores the importance of understanding a cell's polysaccharide array in addition to its protein complement, to understand how genotype translates to phenotype in this postgenomic age.

Liu, Dongfang; Shriver, Zachary; Venkataraman, Ganesh; El Shabrawi, Yosuf; Sasisekharan, Ram

2002-01-01

359

Endothelin-1 promotes vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells.  

PubMed

Chondrosarcoma is the second most common sarcoma in bone malignancy and is characterized by a high metastatic potential. Angiogenesis is essential for the cancer metastasis. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the relationship of ET-1 with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that the expression of ET-1 and VEGF were correlated with tumor stage and were significantly higher than that in the normal cartilage. Exogenous ET-1 with chondrosarcoma cells promoted VEGF expression and subsequently increased migration and tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells. ET-1 increased VEGF expression and angiogenesis through ETAR, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), Akt and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) signaling cascades. Knockdown of ET-1 decreased VEGF expression and also abolished chondrosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro as well as angiogenesis effects in the chick chorioallantoic membrane and Matrigel plug nude mice model in vivo. In addition, in the xenograft tumor angiogenesis model, knockdown of ET-1 significantly reduced tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis. Taken together, these results indicate that ET-1 occurs through ETAR, ILK and Akt, which in turn activates HIF-1?, resulting in the activation of VEGF expression and contributing to the angiogenesis and tumor growth of human chondrosarcoma cells. PMID:23584483

Wu, M-H; Huang, C-Y; Lin, J-A; Wang, S-W; Peng, C-Y; Cheng, H-C; Tang, C-H

2014-03-27

360

Fe-Chlorophyllin Promotes the Growth of Wheat Roots Associated with Nitric Oxide Generation  

PubMed Central

Effects of Fe-chlorophyllin on the growth of wheat root were investigated in this study. We found that Fe-chlorophyllin can promote root growth. The production of nitric oxide in wheat root was detected using DAF-2DA fluorescent emission. The intensity of fluorescent in the presence of 0.1 mg/L Fe-chlorophyllin was near to that observed with the positive control of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the nitric oxide donor. IAA oxidase activity decreased with all treatments of Fe-chlorophyllin from 0.01 to 10 mg/L. At the relatively lower Fe-chlorophyllin concentration of 0.1 mg/L, the activity of IAA oxidase displayed a remarkable decrease, being 40.1% lower than the control. Meanwhile, Fe-chlorophyllin treatment could increase the activities of reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), as determined using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that Fe-chlorophyllin contributes to the growth of wheat root associated with nitric oxide generation.

Tong, Min; Zhang, Liefeng; Wang, Yifan; Jiang, Hui; Ren, Yong

2010-01-01

361

Growth mechanisms of MgO nanocrystals via a sol-gel synthesis using different complexing agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the preparation of nanostructured materials, it is important to optimize synthesis parameters in order to obtain the desired material. This work investigates the role of complexing agents, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, in the production of MgO nanocrystals. Results from simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (STA) show that the two different synthesis routes yield precursors with different thermal profiles. It is found that the thermal profiles of the precursors can reveal the effects of crystal growth during thermal annealing. X-ray diffraction confirms that the final products are pure, single phase and of cubic shape. It is also found that complexing agents can affect the rate of crystal growth. The structures of the oxalic acid and tartaric acid as well as the complexation sites play very important roles in the formation of the nanocrystals. The complexing agents influence the rate of growth which affects the final crystallite size of the materials. Surprisingly, it is also found that oxalic acid and tartaric acid act as surfactants inhibiting crystal growth even at a high temperature of 950°C and a long annealing time of 36 h. The crystallite formation routes are proposed to be via linear and branched polymer networks due to the different structures of the complexing agents.

Mastuli, Mohd Sufri; Kamarulzaman, Norlida; Nawawi, Mohd Azizi; Mahat, Annie Maria; Rusdi, Roshidah; Kamarudin, Norashikin

2014-03-01

362

Growth mechanisms of MgO nanocrystals via a sol-gel synthesis using different complexing agents  

PubMed Central

In the preparation of nanostructured materials, it is important to optimize synthesis parameters in order to obtain the desired material. This work investigates the role of complexing agents, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, in the production of MgO nanocrystals. Results from simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (STA) show that the two different synthesis routes yield precursors with different thermal profiles. It is found that the thermal profiles of the precursors can reveal the effects of crystal growth during thermal annealing. X-ray diffraction confirms that the final products are pure, single phase and of cubic shape. It is also found that complexing agents can affect the rate of crystal growth. The structures of the oxalic acid and tartaric acid as well as the complexation sites play very important roles in the formation of the nanocrystals. The complexing agents influence the rate of growth which affects the final crystallite size of the materials. Surprisingly, it is also found that oxalic acid and tartaric acid act as surfactants inhibiting crystal growth even at a high temperature of 950°C and a long annealing time of 36 h. The crystallite formation routes are proposed to be via linear and branched polymer networks due to the different structures of the complexing agents.

2014-01-01

363

An agent-based computational study of wealth distribution in function of resource growth interval using NetLogo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an agent-based computational model that simulates the distribution of wealth in three classes: upper, middle and lower. The experimental data show us that: (1) the wealth of economy based on renewable resources is increasing if the resource growth interval is decreasing with the condition that the other factors remained unchanged; (2) the wealth of an economy based on

Romulus-catalin Damaceanu

2008-01-01

364

CDK9 Regulates AR Promoter Selectivity and Cell Growth through Serine 81 Phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Previously we determined that S81 is the highest stoichiometric phosphorylation on the androgen receptor (AR) in response to hormone. To explore the role of this phosphorylation on growth, we stably expressed wild-type and S81A mutant AR in LHS and LAPC4 cells. The cells with increased wild-type AR expression grow faster compared with parental cells and S81A mutant-expressing cells, indicating that loss of S81 phosphorylation limits cell growth. To explore how S81 regulates cell growth, we tested whether S81 phosphorylation regulates AR transcriptional activity. LHS cells stably expressing wild-type and S81A mutant AR showed differences in the regulation of endogenous AR target genes, suggesting that S81 phosphorylation regulates promoter selectivity. We next sought to identify the S81 kinase using ion trap mass spectrometry to analyze AR-associated proteins in immunoprecipitates from cells. We observed cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)9 association with the AR. CDK9 phosphorylates the AR on S81 in vitro. Phosphorylation is specific to S81 because CDK9 did not phosphorylate the AR on other serine phosphorylation sites. Overexpression of CDK9 with its cognate cyclin, Cyclin T, increased S81 phosphorylation levels in cells. Small interfering RNA knockdown of CDK9 protein levels decreased hormone-induced S81 phosphorylation. Additionally, treatment of LNCaP cells with the CDK9 inhibitors, 5,6-dichloro-1-?-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole and Flavopiridol, reduced S81 phosphorylation further, suggesting that CDK9 regulates S81 phosphorylation. Pharmacological inhibition of CDK9 also resulted in decreased AR transcription in LNCaP cells. Collectively these results suggest that CDK9 phosphorylation of AR S81 is an important step in regulating AR transcriptional activity and prostate cancer cell growth.

Gordon, Vicki; Bhadel, Shriti; Wunderlich, Winfried; Zhang, JoAnn; Ficarro, Scott B.; Mollah, Sahana A.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Xenarios, Ioannis; Hahn, William C.; Conaway, Mark; Carey, Michael F.; Gioeli, Daniel

2010-01-01

365

Secreted Pyomelanin of Legionella pneumophila Promotes Bacterial Iron Uptake and Growth under Iron-Limiting Conditions  

PubMed Central

Iron acquisition is critical to the growth and virulence of Legionella pneumophila. Previously, we found that L. pneumophila uses both a ferrisiderophore pathway and ferrous iron transport to obtain iron. We now report that two molecules secreted by L. pneumophila, homogentisic acid (HGA) and its polymerized variant (HGA-melanin, a pyomelanin), are able to directly mediate the reduction of various ferric iron salts. Furthermore, HGA, synthetic HGA-melanin, and HGA-melanin derived from bacterial supernatants enhanced the ability of L. pneumophila and other species of Legionella to take up radiolabeled iron. Enhanced iron uptake was not observed with a ferrous iron transport mutant. Thus, HGA and HGA-melanin mediate ferric iron reduction, with the resulting ferrous iron being available to the bacterium for uptake. Upon further testing of L. pneumophila culture supernatants, we found that significant amounts of ferric and ferrous iron were associated with secreted HGA-melanin. Importantly, a pyomelanin-containing fraction obtained from a wild-type culture supernatant was able to stimulate the growth of iron-starved legionellae. That the corresponding supernatant fraction obtained from a nonpigmented mutant culture did not stimulate growth demonstrated that HGA-melanin is able to both promote iron uptake and enhance growth under iron-limiting conditions. Indicative of a complementary role in iron acquisition, HGA-melanin levels were inversely related to the levels of siderophore activity. Compatible with a role in the ecology and pathogenesis of L. pneumophila, HGA and HGA-melanin were effective at reducing and releasing iron from both insoluble ferric hydroxide and the mammalian iron chelates ferritin and transferrin.

Zheng, Huaixin; Chatfield, Christa H.; Liles, Mark R.

2013-01-01

366

Truncated fibronectin. An autologous growth-promoting substance secreted by renal carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The human renal carcinoma cell (RCC) line ACHN proliferates in the absence of exogenous growth factors and secretes a 178-kilodalton growth-promoting substance (GPS). Complementary DNA (cDNA) was isolated that coded for polypeptides antigenically cross-reactive with GPS. Nucleotide sequencing of the cDNA showed strong homology with human fibronectin (FN). The deletion of an adenine in human FN codon 1482 caused a reading-frame shift that predicted early termination of translation after 1518 amino acid residues. Western immunoblotting human FN and GPS with anti-human FN antibodies showed that GPS was a truncated FN. Previous work found that malignant cells synthesized, bound, and deposited into the extracellular matrix decreased amounts of FN. Addition of this substance to transformed cells changed their morphology but not their rate of growth. By contrast, partial proteolysis of FN resulted in a prominent 180-kilodalton fragment that stimulated DNA synthesis. Similar to this finding, the authors showed that truncation of fibronectin during synthesis appeared to unmask latent DNA synthetic stimulating activity. Polymerase chain reaction methods using genomic DNA from normal kidneys and RCC and primers specific for the GPS-human FN gene showed two products of identical size, indicating that genomic amplification did not cause activation of the human FN gene in RCC to produce GPS. Restriction-fragment length analysis demonstrated identical patterns in DNA extracted from both normal kidneys and RCC, suggesting that chromosomal rearrangements did not activate the GPS-human FN gene. This study showed that genetic changes detectable only by DNA sequencing can explain the activation of the normal human FN gene to produce GPS, a product important for autologous growth stimulation of RCC. PMID:1348659

Kochevar, G J; Stanek, J A; Rucker, E B

1992-05-01

367

Secreted pyomelanin of Legionella pneumophila promotes bacterial iron uptake and growth under iron-limiting conditions.  

PubMed

Iron acquisition is critical to the growth and virulence of Legionella pneumophila. Previously, we found that L. pneumophila uses both a ferrisiderophore pathway and ferrous iron transport to obtain iron. We now report that two molecules secreted by L. pneumophila, homogentisic acid (HGA) and its polymerized variant (HGA-melanin, a pyomelanin), are able to directly mediate the reduction of various ferric iron salts. Furthermore, HGA, synthetic HGA-melanin, and HGA-melanin derived from bacterial supernatants enhanced the ability of L. pneumophila and other species of Legionella to take up radiolabeled iron. Enhanced iron uptake was not observed with a ferrous iron transport mutant. Thus, HGA and HGA-melanin mediate ferric iron reduction, with the resulting ferrous iron being available to the bacterium for uptake. Upon further testing of L. pneumophila culture supernatants, we found that significant amounts of ferric and ferrous iron were associated with secreted HGA-melanin. Importantly, a pyomelanin-containing fraction obtained from a wild-type culture supernatant was able to stimulate the growth of iron-starved legionellae. That the corresponding supernatant fraction obtained from a nonpigmented mutant culture did not stimulate growth demonstrated that HGA-melanin is able to both promote iron uptake and enhance growth under iron-limiting conditions. Indicative of a complementary role in iron acquisition, HGA-melanin levels were inversely related to the levels of siderophore activity. Compatible with a role in the ecology and pathogenesis of L. pneumophila, HGA and HGA-melanin were effective at reducing and releasing iron from both insoluble ferric hydroxide and the mammalian iron chelates ferritin and transferrin. PMID:23980114

Zheng, Huaixin; Chatfield, Christa H; Liles, Mark R; Cianciotto, Nicholas P

2013-11-01

368

Expression of SATB1 Promotes the Growth and Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (SATB1) has been identified as a genome organizer that reprograms chromatin organization and transcription profiles. SATB1 promotes tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis in several cancer types. The association between SATB1 and colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been studied intensively. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of SATB1 on CRC growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo and its correlation with overall survival and clinicopathological factors in CRC patients. Stable SATB1 knockdown and SATB1-overexpressing cell lines were established. SATB1 knockdown decreased cell growth, colony formation, migration, and invasion and increased apoptosis in CRC cells in vitro (p<0.05), whereas SATB1 overexpression had the opposite effect. SATB1 overexpression increased tumor growth and metastasis to lung and liver in vivo by using xenograft animal models (p<0.05). Thus, SATB1 promoted an aggressive CRC phenotype in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemical analysis of 560 CRC specimens showed that SATB1 expression was significantly higher in CRC tissues than in matched non-tumor mucosa (p<0.001). In addition, SATB1 expression was significantly higher in patients with poorly differentiated tumors, higher invasion depth, distant metastasis, and advanced TNM stage. SATB1-positive patients had a poorer prognosis than SATB1-negative patients, and SATB1 was identified as an independent prognostic factor for CRC (p?=?0.009). Strikingly, we also evaluated SATB2 expression in CRC and found that SATB2 was more abundantly expressed in non-cancerous mucosa compared to colorectal cancer tissues (p<0.001). However, SATB2 expression had no influence on prognosis of CRC patients (p?=?0.836). SATB1 expression was significantly associated with shorter survival time either in SATB2-positive patients or in SATB2-negative patients (p<0.001). In conclusion, our findings indicated an important role for SATB1 in CRC tumorigenesis and metastasis. Therefore, SATB1 may represent an important prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for CRC.

Ji, Hong; Guan, Xiaoya; Xu, Wei; Dong, Bin; Zhao, Min; Wei, Meng; Ye, Chunxiang; Sun, Yuan; Yuan, Xiaosun; Yang, Chen; Hao, Chunyi

2014-01-01

369

Expression of SATB1 Promotes the Growth and Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer.  

PubMed

Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (SATB1) has been identified as a genome organizer that reprograms chromatin organization and transcription profiles. SATB1 promotes tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis in several cancer types. The association between SATB1 and colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been studied intensively. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of SATB1 on CRC growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo and its correlation with overall survival and clinicopathological factors in CRC patients. Stable SATB1 knockdown and SATB1-overexpressing cell lines were established. SATB1 knockdown decreased cell growth, colony formation, migration, and invasion and increased apoptosis in CRC cells in vitro (p<0.05), whereas SATB1 overexpression had the opposite effect. SATB1 overexpression increased tumor growth and metastasis to lung and liver in vivo by using xenograft animal models (p<0.05). Thus, SATB1 promoted an aggressive CRC phenotype in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemical analysis of 560 CRC specimens showed that SATB1 expression was significantly higher in CRC tissues than in matched non-tumor mucosa (p<0.001). In addition, SATB1 expression was significantly higher in patients with poorly differentiated tumors, higher invasion depth, distant metastasis, and advanced TNM stage. SATB1-positive patients had a poorer prognosis than SATB1-negative patients, and SATB1 was identified as an independent prognostic factor for CRC (p?=?0.009). Strikingly, we also evaluated SATB2 expression in CRC and found that SATB2 was more abundantly expressed in non-cancerous mucosa compared to colorectal cancer tissues (p<0.001). However, SATB2 expression had no influence on prognosis of CRC patients (p?=?0.836). SATB1 expression was significantly associated with shorter survival time either in SATB2-positive patients or in SATB2-negative patients (p<0.001). In conclusion, our findings indicated an important role for SATB1 in CRC tumorigenesis and metastasis. Therefore, SATB1 may represent an important prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:24971456

Zhang, Yi; Tian, Xiuyun; Ji, Hong; Guan, Xiaoya; Xu, Wei; Dong, Bin; Zhao, Min; Wei, Meng; Ye, Chunxiang; Sun, Yuan; Yuan, Xiaosun; Yang, Chen; Hao, Chunyi

2014-01-01

370

The HMGB1/RAGE inflammatory pathway promotes pancreatic tumor growth by regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics  

PubMed Central

Tumor cells require increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to support anabolism and proliferation. The precise mechanisms regulating this process in tumor cells are unknown. Here, we show that the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and one of its primary ligands, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), are required for optimal mitochondrial function within tumors. We found that RAGE is present in the mitochondria of cultured tumor cells as well as primary tumors. RAGE and HMGB1 coordinately enhanced tumor cell mitochondrial complex I activity, ATP production, tumor cell proliferation and migration. Lack of RAGE or inhibition of HMGB1 release diminished ATP production and slowed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. These findings link, for the first time, the HMGB1–RAGE pathway with changes in bioenergetics. Moreover, our observations provide a novel mechanism within the tumor microenvironment by which necrosis and inflammation promote tumor progression.

Kang, R; Tang, D; Schapiro, NE; Loux, T; Livesey, KM; Billiar, TR; Wang, H; Van Houten, B; Lotze, MT; Zeh, HJ

2013-01-01

371

The HMGB1/RAGE inflammatory pathway promotes pancreatic tumor growth by regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics.  

PubMed

Tumor cells require increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to support anabolism and proliferation. The precise mechanisms regulating this process in tumor cells are unknown. Here, we show that the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and one of its primary ligands, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), are required for optimal mitochondrial function within tumors. We found that RAGE is present in the mitochondria of cultured tumor cells as well as primary tumors. RAGE and HMGB1 coordinately enhanced tumor cell mitochondrial complex I activity, ATP production, tumor cell proliferation and migration. Lack of RAGE or inhibition of HMGB1 release diminished ATP production and slowed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. These findings link, for the first time, the HMGB1-RAGE pathway with changes in bioenergetics. Moreover, our observations provide a novel mechanism within the tumor microenvironment by which necrosis and inflammation promote tumor progression. PMID:23318458

Kang, R; Tang, D; Schapiro, N E; Loux, T; Livesey, K M; Billiar, T R; Wang, H; Van Houten, B; Lotze, M T; Zeh, H J

2014-01-30

372

MiR-25 promotes gastric cancer cells growth and motility by targeting RECK.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play prominent roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here, we confirmed that miR-25 was significantly increased in human GC tissues and cell lines. Forced expression of miR-25 remarkably enhanced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in GC cells, whereas inhibition of miR-25 by inhibitor caused significant suppression of proliferation and significant increase of apoptosis. Moreover, inhibition of miR-25 significantly decreased migration and invasion of GC cells. Finally, reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK) was found to be a target of miR-25. Overexpression of RECK could significantly reverse the oncogenic effect of miR-25. Taken together, miR-25 might promote GC cells growth and motility partially by targeting RECK. PMID:24078004

Zhao, Hongying; Wang, Yu; Yang, Liu; Jiang, Rongke; Li, Wenqing

2014-01-01

373

The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Promotes Uptake of Influenza A Viruses (IAV) into Host Cells  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses (IAV) bind to sialic-acids at cellular surfaces and enter cells by using endocytotic routes. There is evidence that this process does not occur constitutively but requires induction of specific cellular signals, including activation of PI3K that promotes virus internalization. This implies engagement of cellular signaling receptors during viral entry. Here, we present first indications for an interplay of IAV with receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). As representative RTK family-members the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the c-Met receptor were studied. Modulation of expression or activity of both RTKs resulted in altered uptake of IAV, showing that these receptors transmit entry relevant signals upon virus binding. More detailed studies on EGFR function revealed that virus binding lead to clustering of lipid-rafts, suggesting that multivalent binding of IAV to cells induces a signaling platform leading to activation of EGFR and other RTKs that in turn facilitates IAV uptake.

Eierhoff, Thorsten; Hrincius, Eike R.; Rescher, Ursula; Ludwig, Stephan; Ehrhardt, Christina

2010-01-01

374

IQGAP3 Promotes EGFR-ERK Signaling and the Growth and Metastasis of Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Proteins of the IQGAP family display complicated and often contradictory activities in tumorigenesis. IQGAP1 has well documented oncogenic potential and IQGAP2 has putative tumor-suppressive function. IQGAP3 is the latest addition to this family and its role in cancer development remains to be defined. Here we demonstrate IQGAP3 expression is markedly increased in lung cancer tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression of IQGAP3 promoted tumor cell growth, and migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of IQGAP3 exhibited opposite effects. Moreover, suppression of IQGAP3 in a lung cancer cell line caused a reduction in the tumorigenicity of these cells in lung tissue after intravenous injection. Furthermore, we showed that IQGAP3 is able to interact with ERK1 and enhance its phosphorylation following treatment with EGF. These data suggest that IQGAP3 may contribute to the pathogenesis of lung cancer by modulating EGFR-ERK signaling.

Xu, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Song; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jun

2014-01-01

375

DeltaNp63alpha-mediated induction of epidermal growth factor receptor promotes pancreatic cancer cell growth and chemoresistance.  

PubMed

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly resistant to current chemotherapy regimens, in part due to alterations in the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. p53 homolog p63 is a transcription factor essential for the development and differentiation of epithelial surfaces. However its function in cancer is controversial and its role in PDAC is not known. We discovered that ?Np63? was the predominantly expressed p63 variant in pancreatic cancer cell lines. ?Np63? protein and mRNA levels were high in T3M4, BxPC3 and COLO-357 pancreatic cancer cells and low in ASPC-1 and PANC-1 cells. Overexpression of ?Np63? in PANC-1 cells and shRNA-mediated knockdown in T3M4 cells indicated that ?Np63? promoted anchorage-dependent and -independent growth, motility and invasion, and enhanced resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathways contribute to the biological aggressiveness of PDAC, and we found that the motogenic effects of ?Np63? were augmented in presence of EGF. Ectopic expression of ?Np63? resulted in upregulation of EGFR and ?1-integrin in PANC-1 cells. Conversely, ?Np63? knockdown had an opposite effect in T3M4 cells. ?Np63? potentiated EGF-mediated activation of ERK, Akt and JNK signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and functional reporter assays demonstrated that ?Np63? activated EGFR transcription. 14-3-3? transcription was also positively regulated by ?Np63? and we have previously shown that 14-3-3? contributes to chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Conversely, shRNA-mediated knockdown of 14-3-3? led to abrogation of the ?Np63? effects on cell proliferation and invasion. Thus, p53 homolog ?Np63? enhances the oncogenic potential of pancreatic cancer cells through trans-activation of EGFR and 14-3-3?. PMID:22053213

Danilov, Alexey V; Neupane, Divas; Nagaraja, Archana Sidalaghatta; Feofanova, Elena V; Humphries, Leigh Ann; DiRenzo, James; Korc, Murray

2011-01-01

376

DeltaNp63alpha-Mediated Induction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth and Chemoresistance  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly resistant to current chemotherapy regimens, in part due to alterations in the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. p53 homolog p63 is a transcription factor essential for the development and differentiation of epithelial surfaces. However its function in cancer is controversial and its role in PDAC is not known. We discovered that ?Np63? was the predominantly expressed p63 variant in pancreatic cancer cell lines. ?Np63? protein and mRNA levels were high in T3M4, BxPC3 and COLO-357 pancreatic cancer cells and low in ASPC-1 and PANC-1 cells. Overexpression of ?Np63? in PANC-1 cells and shRNA-mediated knockdown in T3M4 cells indicated that ?Np63? promoted anchorage-dependent and -independent growth, motility and invasion, and enhanced resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathways contribute to the biological aggressiveness of PDAC, and we found that the motogenic effects of ?Np63? were augmented in presence of EGF. Ectopic expression of ?Np63? resulted in upregulation of EGFR and ?1-integrin in PANC-1 cells. Conversely, ?Np63? knockdown had an opposite effect in T3M4 cells. ?Np63? potentiated EGF-mediated activation of ERK, Akt and JNK signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and functional reporter assays demonstrated that ?Np63? activated EGFR transcription. 14-3-3? transcription was also positively regulated by ?Np63? and we have previously shown that 14-3-3? contributes to chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Conversely, shRNA-mediated knockdown of 14-3-3? led to abrogation of the ?Np63? effects on cell proliferation and invasion. Thus, p53 homolog ?Np63? enhances the oncogenic potential of pancreatic cancer cells through trans-activation of EGFR and 14-3-3?.

Danilov, Alexey V.; Neupane, Divas; Nagaraja, Archana Sidalaghatta; Feofanova, Elena V.; Humphries, Leigh Ann; DiRenzo, James; Korc, Murray

2011-01-01

377

Growth hormone and insulinlike growth factor 1 promote intestinal uptake and hepatic release of glutamine in sepsis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on whole body and gastrointestinal (GI), hepatic, femoral, and renal glutamine (GLN) uptake and release in septic piglets. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The GI metabolism of GLN is impaired during sepsis, and this may contribute to a breakdown of the gut's mucosal barrier. GH treatment has produced increased GI GLN uptake in surgical stress. Little is known about the effects of GH and IGF-1 in sepsis. METHODS: Twenty-four piglets were randomized to three groups of eight each: a GH group received a bolus of 16 IU of Genotropin; an IGF-1 group received a continuous infusion of 1.3 mg/hour of IGF-1; and a control group received saline. After surgical preparation, sepsis was induced with live Escherichia coli bacteria. Using isotope technique, whole body turnover and organ-specific absolute uptake and release were measured before and 4 hours after sepsis. RESULTS: After sepsis, both GH and IGF-1 treatment increased GI GLN uptake compared with controls and induced hepatic release of GLN. GLN release from skeletal muscle was diminished in all groups after sepsis. Whole body GLN turnover was increased in the GH and IGF-1 groups compared with the controls, before and after sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: GH and IGF-1 treatment induced increased GI net uptake of GLN. GH and IGF-1 treatment also promoted absolute and net release of GLN from the liver. This release might facilitate increased GI uptake despite reduced hindleg release in the early phase of sepsis.

Balteskard, L; Unneberg, K; Mjaaland, M; Jenssen, T G; Revhaug, A

1998-01-01

378

Effect of metal tolerant plant growth promoting bacteria on growth and metal accumulation in Zea mays plants grown in fly ash amended soil.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of the application of fly ash (FA) into Garden soil (GS), with and without inoculation of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), on the growth and metal uptake by Zea mays plants. Three FA tolerant PGPB strains, Pseudomonas sp. PS5, PS14, and Bacillus sp. BC29 were isolated from FA contaminated soils and assessed for their plant growth promoting features on the Z. mays plants. All three strains were also examined for their ability to solubilize phosphate and to produce Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), siderophores, and hydrogencynide acid (HCN) production. Although inoculation of all strains significantly enhanced the growth of plants at both the concentration of FA but maximum growth was observed in plants inoculated with BC29 and PS14 at low level (25%) of FA concentration. The experimental results explored the plant growth promoting features of selected strains which not only enhanced growth and biomass of plants but also protected them from toxicity of FA. PMID:23819272

Kumar, Kalpna V; Patra, D D

2013-01-01

379

RPRD1B promotes tumor growth by accelerating the cell cycle in endometrial cancer.  

PubMed

RPRD1B, the regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain containing 1B gene, functions as a cell cycle manipulator and has been found overexpressed in a small panel of endometrial cancer types. In the present study, we investigated the roles of RPRD1B in endometrial cancer using various in vitro and in vivo experiments. According to our results, RPRD1B mRNA was significantly upregulated in endometrial cancer tissues (P=0.0012). RPRD1B overexpression was correlated with tumor stage (P=0.0004), histology type (P=0.0146) and depth of myometrial invasion (P=0.024). In vitro, RPRD1B promoted cellular proliferation (P=0.032 for MTT assay and P=0.018 for colony formation assay), and accelerated the cell cycle (P=0.007) by upregulating cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6, while knockdown of RPRD1B suppressed cellular proliferation (P=0.02 for MTT assay and P=0.031 for colony formation assay), and led to G1 phase arrest (P=0.025) through downregulating cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6. Consistently, in the nude mice model, RPRD1B overexpression significantly accelerated the tumor xenograft growth (P=0.0012), accompanied by elevated Ki-67 and cyclin D1. In addition, we demonstrated that downregulating RPRD1B could sensitize Ishikawa cells to Raloxifene (P=0.01). In summary, we demonstrated that RPRD1B was frequently overexpressed in human endometrial cancer. Both in vitro and in vivo, over-abundant RPRD1B could promote tumor growth and accelerate cellular cell cycle. In addition, knockdown of RPRD1B also increased cell sensitivity to Raloxifene, making RPRD1B a potent therapeutic target for endometrial cancer, particularly in patients with resistance to the selective ER modulators. PMID:24452636

Wang, Yuan; Qiu, Haifeng; Hu, Weixu; Li, Shaoru; Yu, Jinjin

2014-03-01

380

Tumor-derived IL-35 promotes tumor growth by enhancing myeloid cell accumulation and angiogenesis.  

PubMed

IL-35 is a member of the IL-12 family of cytokines that is comprised of an IL-12 p35 subunit and an IL-12 p40-related protein subunit, EBV-induced gene 3 (EBI3). IL-35 functions through IL-35R and has a potent immune-suppressive activity. Although IL-35 was demonstrated to be produced by regulatory T cells, gene-expression analysis revealed that it is likely to have a wider distribution, including expression in cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-35 is produced in human cancer tissues, such as large B cell lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and melanoma. To determine the roles of tumor-derived IL-35 in tumorigenesis and tumor immunity, we generated IL-35-producing plasmacytoma J558 and B16 melanoma cells and observed that the expression of IL-35 in cancer cells does not affect their growth and survival in vitro, but it stimulates tumorigenesis in both immune-competent and Rag1/2-deficient mice. Tumor-derived IL-35 increases CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cell accumulation in the tumor microenvironment and, thereby, promotes tumor angiogenesis. In immune-competent mice, spontaneous CTL responses to tumors are diminished. IL-35 does not directly inhibit tumor Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell activation, differentiation, and effector functions. However, IL-35-treated cancer cells had increased expression of gp130 and reduced sensitivity to CTL destruction. Thus, our study indicates novel functions for IL-35 in promoting tumor growth via the enhancement of myeloid cell accumulation, tumor angiogenesis, and suppression of tumor immunity. PMID:23345334

Wang, Zhihui; Liu, Jin-Qing; Liu, Zhenzhen; Shen, Rulong; Zhang, Guoqiang; Xu, Jianping; Basu, Sujit; Feng, Youmei; Bai, Xue-Feng

2013-03-01