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1

Modes of action of growth promoting agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term growth promotion applies to the increase in performance or productivity achieved in food producing animals following the addition to their diet of feed antibiotics or growth promoters. Numerous methods are available for the different animal species. Steroidal substances are widely used in cattle whilst in pigs and poultry a wide range of substances are used to influence the

John R. Walton

1983-01-01

2

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): Their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents.  

PubMed

Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action, leading to a more efficient use for biocontrol strategies to improve cropping systems. PMID:23411488

Beneduzi, Anelise; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M P

2012-12-18

3

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): Their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents  

PubMed Central

Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action, leading to a more efficient use for biocontrol strategies to improve cropping systems.

Beneduzi, Anelise; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

2012-01-01

4

Susceptibility of clostridia from farm animals to 21 antimicrobial agents including some used for growth promotion.  

PubMed

The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 21 antimicrobial agents were determined by an agar dilution method against 68 strains of 18 Clostridium species isolated from caeca of pigs, cattle and poultry. Of the therapeutically used antibiotics, chloramphenicol was most active in vitro followed by penicillin G, the lincosamides and tetracycline. Penicillin-resistant Cl. butyricum strains produced a beta-lactamase. Avoparcin, carbadox, monensin, nitrovin and virginiamycin were the most effective of the growth promoting antimicrobial agents. Many clostridial species were naturally resistant to flavomycin and Cl. sporogenes was naturally resistant additionally to bacitracin, tiamulin, the lincosamides and virginiamycin component M. The macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin resistant strains showed four different patterns of resistance to the antibiotics. One of these resistance patterns was the natural resistance of Cl. sporogenes to the lincosamides and virginiamycin component M which is a streptogramin group A antibiotic. PMID:6643330

Dutta, G N; Devriese, L A; Van Assche, P F

1983-10-01

5

Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food animals to antimicrobial growth promoters and related therapeutic agents in Denmark.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to describe the occurrence of acquired resistance to antimicrobials used for growth promotion among bacteria isolated from swine, cattle and poultry in Denmark. Resistance to structurally related therapeutic agents was also examined. Three categories of bacteria were tested: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium), 2) zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica), and 3) animal pathogens (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus hyicus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). All antimicrobials used as growth promoters in Denmark and some structurally related therapeutic agents (in brackets) were included: Avilamycin, avoparcin (vancomycin), bacitracin, carbadox, flavomycin, monensin, olaquindox, salinomycin, spiramycin (erythromycin, lincomycin), tylosin (erythromycin, lincomycin), and virginiamycin (pristinamycin). Bacterial species intrinsically resistant to an antimicrobial were not tested towards that antimicrobial. Breakpoints for growth promoters were established by population distribution of the bacteria tested. A total of 2,372 bacterial isolates collected during October 1995 to September 1996 were included in the study. Acquired resistance to all currently used growth promoting antimicrobials was found. A frequent occurrence of resistance were observed to avilamycin, avoparcin, bacitracin, flavomycin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin, whereas resistance to carbadox, monensin, olaquindox and salinomycin was less frequent. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. The highest levels of resistance was observed among enterococci, whereas less resistance was observed among zoonotic bacteria and bacteria pathogenic to animals. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed. The results show the present level of resistance to growth promoters in bacteria from food animals in Denmark. They will form the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies, thereby enabling the determination of trends over time. PMID:9725794

Aarestrup, F M; Bager, F; Jensen, N E; Madsen, M; Meyling, A; Wegener, H C

1998-06-01

6

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria as Biocontrol Agents Against Soil-Borne Plant Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Soil-borne diseases are responsible for major crop losses worldwide. Alternatives to the use of synthetic chemicals for disease\\u000a control are increasingly being sought due to among other reasons, the detrimental effects of these compounds on the environment.\\u000a In this chapter, biological control of soil-borne plant diseases by means of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is\\u000a reviewed with emphasis on cereals.

Nico Labuschagne; T. Pretorius; A. Idris

7

Integrated biological control of bacterial speck and spot of tomato under field conditions using foliar biological control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of foliar bacterial biological control agents and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) was investigated to determine whether biological control of bacterial speck of tomato, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, and bacterial spot of tomato, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Xanthomonas vesicatoria, could be improved. Three foliar biological control agents and two selected PGPR strains were employed

P. Ji; H. L. Campbell; J. W. Kloepper; J. B. Jones; T. V. Suslow; M. Wilson

2006-01-01

8

Integrated biological control of bacterial speck and spot of tomato under Weld conditions using foliar biological control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of foliar bacterial biological control agents and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) was investigated to deter- mine whether biological control of bacterial speck of tomato, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, and bacterial spot of tomato, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Xanthomonas vesicatoria, could be improved. Three foliar biological control agents and two selected PGPR strains were

P. Ji; H. L. Campbell; J. W. Kloepper; J. B. Jones; T. V. Suslow; M. Wilson

2006-01-01

9

Effect of Abolishment of the Use of Antimicrobial Agents for Growth Promotion on Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Fecal Enterococci from Food Animals in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1995 to 2000, a total of 673 Enterococcus faecium and 1,088 Enterococcus faecalis isolates from pigs together with 856 E. faecium isolates from broilers were isolated and tested for susceptibility to four classes of antimicrobial agents used for growth promotion as part of the Danish program of monitoring for antimicrobial resistance. The four antimicrobials were avilamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, and

FRANK MØLLER AARESTRUP; ANNE METTE SEYFARTH; HANNE-DORTHE EMBORG; KARL PEDERSEN; R. S. Hendriksen; F. Bager

2001-01-01

10

Identification of Volatiles Produced by Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1, a Fungal Biocontrol Agent That Promotes Plant Growth.  

PubMed

Certain microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) have been reported to enhance the growth and development of plants. The biocontrol fungi, Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1 significantly improved the growth of tobacco seedlings in vitro when they were co-cultivated without physical contact. SPME Quadrupole GC/MS/MS revealed that CL-1 emited the volatiles ?-pinene, (-)-trans-caryophyllene, tetrahydro-2,2,5,5-tetramethylfuran, dehydroaromadendrene, and (+)-sativene. Potential roles of these volatiles in plant growth and development are discussed. Even though there were several fungal VOCs reported in the past that could influence plant growth, their exact mechanisms of action are not fully known. Fungal VOC-mediated plant growth promotion requires in-depth study in order for this technology to be used in large scale for crops, especially those grown under greenhouse conditions. PMID:24135990

Paul, Diby; Park, Kyung Seok

2013-10-16

11

BACTÉRIAS ENDOFÍTICAS COMO AGENTES PROMOT ORES DO CRESCIMENT O DE PLANT AS DE TOMATEIRO E DE INIBIÇÃO IN VITRO DE Ralstonia solanacearum 1 Endophytic bacteria as agents of plant growth promotion in tomato and inhibition in vitro of Ralstonia solanacearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of one hundred and fifty isolates of endophytic bacteria from leaves, stems and roots of healthy tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.), fifty three showed ability to promote tomato plant growth, among these, ten isolates UFV-E17, UFV-E22, UFV- E25, UFV-E26, UFV-E27, Bacillus cereus (UFV-E29), UFV-E49, UFLA 06-LS, UFLA 08-LS and UFLA 11-LS, provided the largest plant growth promotion. Weekly assessment of

Patrícia Baston Barretti; Ricardo Magela de Souza; Edson Ampélio Pozza

12

Method for Promoting Plant Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to a method of promoting plant growth and more particularly to the use of certain synthetic brassinosteroids to promote plant cell elongation and cell division and thereby increase the vegetative growth of plants.

W. J. Meudt M. J. Thompson N. Mandava J. F. Worley

1980-01-01

13

Proximal promoter region of the human vascular endothelial growth factor gene has a G-quadruplex structure which can be targeted by G-quadruplex-interactive agents  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on the functional analysis of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoter using the full-length VEGF promoter reporter revealed that the proximal 36-bp region (?85 to ?50 relative to transcription initiation site) is essential for basal or inducible VEGF promoter activity in several human cancer cells. This region consists of a polypurine (guanine) tract that contains four runs of at least three contiguous guanines separated by one or more bases, thus conforming to a general motif capable of forming an intramolecular G-quadruplex. Here, we demonstrated that the G-rich strand in this region is able to form an intramolecular propeller-type parallel-stranded G-quadruplex structure in vitro by using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), dimethyl sulfate (DMS) footprinting technique, DNA polymerase stop assay, CD spectroscopy, and computer-aided molecular modeling. Two well-known G-quadruplex interactive agents, TMPyP4 and Se2SAP, stabilize G-quadruplex structures formed by this sequence in the presence of potassium ion, although Se2SAP is at least 10 fold more effective in binding to the G-quadruplex than TMPyP4. Between these two agents, Se2SAP better suppresses VEGF transcription in different cancer cell lines, including HEC-A1 and MDA-MB-231. Collectively, our results provide evidence that specific G-quadruplex structures can be formed in the VEGF promoter region, and that the transcription of this gene can be controlled by ligand-mediated G-quadruplex stabilization. Our results also provide further support for the idea that G-quadruplex structures may play structural roles in vivo and therefore might provide insight into novel methodologies for rational drug design.

Sun, Daekyu; Liu, Wei-Jun; Guo, Kexiao; Rusche, Jadrian J.; Ebbinghaus, Scot; Gokhale, Vijay; Hurley, Laurence H.

2008-01-01

14

The proximal promoter region of the human vascular endothelial growth factor gene has a G-quadruplex structure that can be targeted by G-quadruplex-interactive agents.  

PubMed

Previous studies on the functional analysis of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoter using the full-length VEGF promoter reporter revealed that the proximal 36-bp region (-85 to -50 relative to transcription initiation site) is essential for basal or inducible VEGF promoter activity in several human cancer cells. This region consists of a polypurine (guanine) tract that contains four runs of at least three contiguous guanines separated by one or more bases, thus conforming to a general motif capable of forming an intramolecular G-quadruplex. Here, we show that the G-rich strand in this region is able to form an intramolecular propeller-type parallel-stranded G-quadruplex structure in vitro by using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, dimethyl sulfate footprinting technique, the DNA polymerase stop assay, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and computer-aided molecular modeling. Two well-known G-quadruplex-interactive agents, TMPyP4 and Se2SAP, stabilize G-quadruplex structures formed by this sequence in the presence of a potassium ion, although Se2SAP is at least 10-fold more effective in binding to the G-quadruplex than TMPyP4. Between these two agents, Se2SAP better suppresses VEGF transcription in different cancer cell lines, including HEC1A and MDA-MB-231. Collectively, our results provide evidence that specific G-quadruplex structures can be formed in the VEGF promoter region, and that the transcription of this gene can be controlled by ligand-mediated G-quadruplex stabilization. Our results also provide further support for the idea that G-quadruplex structures may play structural roles in vivo and therefore might provide insight into novel methodologies for rational drug design. PMID:18413801

Sun, Daekyu; Liu, Wei-Jun; Guo, Kexiao; Rusche, Jadrian J; Ebbinghaus, Scot; Gokhale, Vijay; Hurley, Laurence H

2008-04-01

15

Delftia sp. JD2: a potential Cr(VI)-reducing agent with plant growth-promoting activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chromium (Cr)-resistant bacterium isolated from soil containing 6,000 mg\\/kg of Cr was identified based on 16S rRNA gene\\u000a sequence analysis as Delftia, and designated as JD2. Growth of JD2 was accompanied with reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in liquid medium initially containing\\u000a 100 mg\\/L Cr(VI), the maximum concentration allowing growth. JD2 showed NADH\\/NADPH-dependent reductase activity associated\\u000a with the soluble fraction of

María A. Morel; Martha C. Ubalde; Victoria Braña; Susana Castro-Sowinski

2011-01-01

16

INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE ADHERENCE WITH ORAL AGENTS  

PubMed Central

Objectives The advent of oral therapies has dramatically changed the landscape of cancer therapy. Yet the degree to which patients actually take the prescribed agents as ordered remains unknown. This article outlines the challenges that oral chemotherapy agents present to both patients and providers and suggests interventions for promoting adherence. Data Sources Published articles and web resources. Conclusion Barriers and facilitators to medication adherence are reviewed and interventions to promote medication adherence are presented. Strategies that include patient education and symptom management can promote adherence. Implications for Nursing Practice Maximizing adherence to oral chemotherapy agents can have many positive outcomes, but most important is improvement in overall survival and life expectancy. Other outcomes include improved safety and quality of life. Patients risk improper dosing and an increase in disease recurrence when there is nonadherence with medications. Correct dosing, education, and symptom management are all critical to ensuring adherence. Nursing interventions that incorporate education, early symptom identification, and reminder prompts can improve outcomes.

Schneider, Susan M.; Hess, Kimberly; Gosselin, Tracy

2013-01-01

17

Effect of Abolishment of the Use of Antimicrobial Agents for Growth Promotion on Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Fecal Enterococci from Food Animals in Denmark  

PubMed Central

From 1995 to 2000, a total of 673 Enterococcus faecium and 1,088 Enterococcus faecalis isolates from pigs together with 856 E. faecium isolates from broilers were isolated and tested for susceptibility to four classes of antimicrobial agents used for growth promotion as part of the Danish program of monitoring for antimicrobial resistance. The four antimicrobials were avilamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, and virginiamycin. Major changes in the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion have occurred during the last 6 years in Denmark. The government banned the use of avoparcin in 1995 and of virginiamycin in 1998. Furthermore, the producers have voluntarily stopped all use beginning in 1999. The avoparcin ban in 1995 was followed by a decrease in the occurrence of glycopeptide-resistant E. faecium (GRE) in broilers, from 72.7% in 1995 to 5.8% in 2000. The occurrence of glycopeptide resistance among isolates from pigs remained constant at around 20% from 1995 to 1997. It was shown that, in GRE from pigs, the genes encoding macrolide and glycopeptide resistance were genetically linked and that, following the decrease in the use of tylosin during 1998 and 1999, the occurrence of GRE in pigs decreased to 6.0% in 2000. From 1995 to 1997 the occurrence of erythromycin resistance among E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from pigs was almost 90%. Use of tylosin decreased considerably during 1998 and 1999, and this decrease was followed by decreases in the occurrence of resistance to 46.7 and 28.1% among E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from pigs, respectively. Erythromycin resistance among E. faecium isolates from broilers reached a maximum of 76.3% in 1997 but decreased to 12.7% in 2000 concomitantly with more limited use of virginiamycin. Use of virginiamycin increased from 1995 to 1997 and was followed by an increased occurrence of virginiamycin resistance among E. faecium isolates in broilers, from 27.3% in 1995 to 66.2% in 1997. In January 1998 the use of virginiamycin was banned in Denmark, and the occurrence of virginiamycin resistance decreased to 33.9% in 2000. Use of avilamycin increased from 1995 to 1996 and was followed by an increase in avilamycin resistance among E. faecium isolates from broilers, from 63.6% in 1995 to 77.4% in 1996. Since 1996 avilamycin usage has decreased, followed by a decrease in resistance to 4.8% in 2000. Our observations show that it is possible to reduce the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in a national population of food animals when the selective pressure is removed. Cases in which resistance to vancomycin was linked to resistance to erythromycin were exceptions. In such cases resistance did not decrease until the use of both avoparcin and tylosin was limited.

Aarestrup, Frank M?ller; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Karl; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Bager, Flemming

2001-01-01

18

Nodal Promotes Glioblastoma Cell Growth  

PubMed Central

Nodal is a member of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Recent studies in ovarian, breast, prostate, and skin cancer cells suggest that Nodal also regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion in cancer cells. However, it appears to exert both tumor-suppressing and tumor-promoting effects, depending on the cell type. To further understand the role of Nodal in tumorigenesis, we examined the effect of Nodal in glioblastoma cell growth and spheroid formation using U87 cell line. Treatment of U87 with recombinant Nodal significantly increased U87 cell growth. In U87 cells stably transfected with the plasmid encoding Nodal, Smad2 phosphorylation was strongly induced and cell growth was significantly enhanced. Overexpression of Nodal also resulted in tight spheroid formation. On the other hand, the cells stably transfected with Nodal siRNA formed loose spheroids. Nodal is known to signal through activin receptor-like kinase 4 (ALK4) and ALK7 and the Smad2/3 pathway. To determine which receptor and Smad mediate the growth promoting effect of Nodal, we transfected siRNAs targeting ALK4, ALK7, Smad2, or Smad3 into Nodal-overexpressing cells and observed that cell growth was significantly inhibited by ALK4, ALK7, and Smad3 siRNAs. Taken together, these findings suggest that Nodal may have tumor-promoting effects on glioblastoma cells and these effects are mediated by ALK4, ALK7, and Smad3.

De Silva, Tanya; Ye, Gang; Liang, Yao-Yun; Fu, Guodong; Xu, Guoxiong; Peng, Chun

2012-01-01

19

Effect of a novel botanical agent Drynol Cibotin on human osteoblast cells and implications for osteoporosis: promotion of cell growth, calcium uptake and collagen production.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a widespread problem afflicting millions of people. Drynol Cibotinis is a newly developed proprietary botanical combination of eight botanicals including Angelica sinensis, Glycine max, Wild yam, Ligustrum lucidum, Astragalus membranaceus, Cuscuta chinensis, Psoraleae corylifoliae, and Drynaria fortune. Each of the botanicals has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat osteoporosis. The effect of Drynol Cibotinis, with the specific combination of these anti-osteoporosis botanicals for promoting bone growth, was examined in this study. The effects of Drynol Cibotin on cell growth, apoptosis, cell spreading, calcium uptake and production of bone matrix proteins Collagen I and Laminin B2 on human osteoblast cells were assessed by BrdU incorporation, TUNEL assay, cell staining, intracellular Ca2+ measurement and Western blot analysis. The results showed that Drynol Cibotin significantly increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in osteoblasts (P < 0.01). In addition, Drynol Cibotin was found to promote cell spreading and greatly increase calcium uptake both instantaneously and in the long term (P < 0.01). Furthermore, Drynol Cibotin significantly increased production of two key extracellular matrix proteins in bone cells: Collagen I and Laminin B2. These results indicate that Drynol Cibotin alone or in combination with amino acids and vitamins may have prophylactic potentials in osteoporosis. PMID:19953582

Wegiel, Barbara; Persson, Jenny L

2010-06-01

20

Effects of actinobacteria on plant disease suppression and growth promotion.  

PubMed

Biological control and plant growth promotion by plant beneficial microbes has been viewed as an alternative to the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Bacteria and fungi that are naturally associated with plants and have a beneficial effect on plant growth by the alleviation of biotic and abiotic stresses were isolated and developed into biocontrol (BCA) and plant growth-promoting agents (PGPA). Actinobacteria are a group of important plant-associated spore-forming bacteria, which have been studied for their biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and interaction with plants. This review summarizes the effects of actinobacteria as BCA, PGPA, and its beneficial associations with plants. PMID:24092003

Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhang, Lixin; Suh, Joo-Won

2013-10-05

21

Potential role of human growth hormone in melanoma growth promotion.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Human growth hormone (HGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been shown to play a role in the malignant transformation and progression of a variety of cancers. HGH is also known to upregulate molecular signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of melanoma. Although HGH has previously been implicated in promoting the clinical growth of both benign and malignant melanocytic neoplasms, to our knowledge there are no conclusive studies demonstrating an increased risk of melanoma following HGH therapy. Nevertheless, there are reports of melanoma developing subsequent to HGH coadministered with either other hormones or following irradiation. OBSERVATION A 49-year-old white man presented with a new pigmented papule that was diagnosed as melanoma. The patient reported using HGH for 3 months prior to the diagnosis. His 51-year-old wife, who also was white, had also been using exogenous HGH for 3 months and had been diagnosed as having a melanoma 2 weeks prior. CONCLUSIONS Given the unlikelihood of 2 unrelated people developing melanoma within a short time span, it is reasonable to assume that a common environmental component (HGH or other shared exposure) contributed to the development of both melanomas. Because of the increased use of exogenous HGH as an antiaging agent, it is important to be aware of the growth-promoting effects of this hormone. Until better data are available that determines the true risk of exogenous HGH, its use as an antiaging agent merits increased surveillance. PMID:23069955

Handler, Marc Z; Ross, Andrew L; Shiman, Michael I; Elgart, George W; Grichnik, James M

2012-10-01

22

Photoperiod regulates elicitation of growth promotion but not induced resistance by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years, we have noticed that plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which consistently promote plant growth in greenhouse tests during spring, summer, and fall, fail to elicit plant growth promotion during the mid- winter under ambient light conditions. This report tests the hypothesis that photoperiod regulates elicitation of growth promotion and induced systemic resistance (ISR) by PGPR. A commercially available

J. W. Kloepper; A. Gutiérrez-Estrada; J. A. McInroy

2007-01-01

23

The use of bitter kola Garcinia kola dry seed powder as a natural growth-promoting agent for African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus fingerlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dietary Garcinia kola seed meal on growth and body composition was investigated in catfish Clarias gariepinus. Fingerlings of about 50 g were fed diets supplemented with four concentrations (50, 100, 150 and 200 g kg) of G. kola seed powder for eight weeks. Fish fed supplemented diets showed significantly improved growth performance and feed utilisation over the

A A Dada; N E Oviawe

2011-01-01

24

Soil inoculation with the biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea and the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices results in mutual inhibition, plant growth promotion and alteration of soil microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between the biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea IK 726 and a tomato\\/Glomus intraradices BEG87 symbiosis were examined with and without wheat bran, which served as a food base for C. rosea. In soil without wheat bran amendment, inoculation with C. rosea increased plant growth and altered shoot nutrient content resulting in an increase and decrease in P and N content,

Sabine Ravnskov; Birgit Jensen; Inge M. B. Knudsen; Lars Bødker; Dan Funck Jensen; Leszek Karli?ski; John Larsen

2006-01-01

25

Aryl-heteroaryl derivatives as novel wake-promoting agents.  

PubMed

In search of a next generation molecule to the novel wake-promoting agent modafinil, a series of aryl-heteroayl-derived wakefulness enhancing agents (in rats) was developed. From this work, compound 16 was separated into its enantiomers to profile them individually. PMID:23110414

Lesur, Brigitte; Lin, Yin G; Marcy, Val R; Aimone, Lisa D; Gruner, John; Bacon, Edward R; Chatterjee, Sankar

2012-12-26

26

Enterobacter : Role in Plant Growth Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is believed that inoculation with rhizobacteria containing plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics consequently promote\\u000a root and shoot growth. Further evaluation of these bacteria exhibiting multiple PGP traits on soil–plant system is needed\\u000a to uncover their efficacy as effective PGP rhizobacteria (PGPR) or PGP bacteria (PGPB) depending upon their nature. The genera\\u000a within the family Enterobacteriaceae that feature members described

Chaitanya Kumar Jha; Abhinav Aeron; Baldev V. Patel; Dinesh K. Maheshwari; Meenu Saraf

27

Mechanism of plant growth promotion by rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

Plant growth results from interaction of roots and shoots with the environment. The environment for roots is the soil or planting medium which provide structural support as well as water and nutrients to the plant. Roots also support the growth and functions of a complex of microorganisms that can have a profound effect on the growth anti survival of plants. These microorganisms constitute rhizosphere microflora and can be categorized as deleterious, beneficial, or neutral with respect to root/plant health. Beneficial interactions between roots and microbes do occur in rhizosphere and can be enhanced. Increased plant growth and crop yield can be obtained upon inoculating seeds or roots with certain specific root-colonizing bacteria- 'plant growth promoting rhizobacteria'. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which plant growth promoting rhizobacteria may stimulate plant growth. PMID:12561941

Gupta, A; Gopal, M; Tilak, K V

2000-09-01

28

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous species of soil bacteria which flourish in the rhizosphere of plants, but which may grow in, on, or around plant tissues, stimulate plant growth by a plethora of mechanisms. These bacteria are collectively known as PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria). The search for PGPR and investigation of their modes of action are increasing at a rapid pace as efforts

J. Kevin Vessey

2003-01-01

29

Potential Risk of Growth Promoter in Beef for Breast Cancer Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anabolic agents increase weight gain in meat-producing farm animals by enhancing protein deposition and improving feed conversion, as well as increasing the muscle-to-fat ratio. By promoting growth, reducing feed costs and improving the quality of meat pr...

L. Young

2000-01-01

30

CD73 promotes tumor growth and metastasis  

PubMed Central

Our recent data and that of others demonstrate that both tumor and host CD73-generated adenosine promote tumor growth and metastasis in a multifactorial manner. Results with small molecule inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies against CD73 in multiple tumor models suggest that CD73 is a previously unappreciated important target for effective cancer therapy.

Zhang, Bin

2012-01-01

31

Special Agents Can Promote Cooperation in the Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperation is ubiquitous in our real life but everyone would like to maximize her own profits. How does cooperation occur in the group of self-interested agents without centralized control? Furthermore, in a hostile scenario, for example, cooperation is unlikely to emerge. Is there any mechanism to promote cooperation if populations are given and play rules are not allowed to change?

Xin Wang; Jing Han; Huawei Han

2011-01-01

32

Special Agents Can Promote Cooperation in the Population  

PubMed Central

Cooperation is ubiquitous in our real life but everyone would like to maximize her own profits. How does cooperation occur in the group of self-interested agents without centralized control? Furthermore, in a hostile scenario, for example, cooperation is unlikely to emerge. Is there any mechanism to promote cooperation if populations are given and play rules are not allowed to change? In this paper, numerical experiments show that complete population interaction is unfriendly to cooperation in the finite but end-unknown Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (RPD). Then a mechanism called soft control is proposed to promote cooperation. According to the basic idea of soft control, a number of special agents are introduced to intervene in the evolution of cooperation. They comply with play rules in the original group so that they are always treated as normal agents. For our purpose, these special agents have their own strategies and share knowledge. The capability of the mechanism is studied under different settings. We find that soft control can promote cooperation and is robust to noise. Meanwhile simulation results demonstrate the applicability of the mechanism in other scenarios. Besides, the analytical proof also illustrates the effectiveness of soft control and validates simulation results. As a way of intervention in collective behaviors, soft control provides a possible direction for the study of reciprocal behaviors.

Wang, Xin; Han, Jing; Han, Huawei

2011-01-01

33

Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor Promotes Vascular Repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intravascular injury to arteries can result in thickening of the intimal smooth muscle layer adjacent to the lumen by migration and proliferation of cells from the underlying medial smooth muscle layer accompanied by deposition of extracellular matrix. This pathological response, which decreases lumen diameter, might, in part, be the result of the access of smooth muscle cells to plasma and platelet-derived growth factors as a consequence of denudation of the overlying confluent monolayer of vascular endothelial cells. Injured rat carotid arteries were treated by i.v. administration of acidic fibroblast growth factor, a heparin-binding protein that is chemotactic and mitogenic for vascular endothelial cells. The growth factor treatment resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of intimal thickening with parallel promotion of endothelial regeneration over the injured area. Therefore, acidic fibroblast growth factor might be efficacious in the prevention of restenosis caused by intimal thickening following angioplasty in humans.

Bjornsson, Thorir D.; Dryjski, Maciej; Tluczek, John; Mennie, Robert; Ronan, John; Mellin, Theodore N.; Thomas, Kenneth A.

1991-10-01

34

Method for growth promotion in animals  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for growth promotion in animals consists in percutaneous application of an electromagnetic field having a frequency of from 25 to 150 MHz and a power of from 30 to 40 W, to the region of the epididymal lobules of the spermatic cords and the epididymides, said application of an electromagnetic field being carried until a subcutaneous induration appears in the aforesaid region, that is, within an exposure time of from 10 to 20 s.

1985-06-04

35

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria: Applications and Perspectives In Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizobacteria that exert beneficial effects on plant growth and development are referred to as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). In recent years, the use of PGPR to promote plant growth has increased in various parts of the world. PGPR can affect plant growth by production and release of secondary metabolites (plant growth regulators\\/phytohormones\\/biologically active substances), lessening or preventing deleterious effects

Zahir A Zahir; Muhammad Arshad; William T Frankenberger

2003-01-01

36

Fetal growth promotion in allergic children.  

PubMed

Several in vitro studies have suggested the presence of Th2-skewed immunity during pregnancy in infants with atopic diseases. Our study indicated that allergic infants showed a higher birth weight and shorter gestational period at birth than those of non-allergic peers. Moreover, allergic mothers gave birth to neonates whose birth weights and gestational ages were higher and shorter than those of the non-allergic mothers, respectively. Thus, our data clearly demonstrated the promotion of intrauterine growth, either in the allergic children, or allergic mothers. Such an intrauterine environment favorable for the fetal growth may also accelerate the development of allergic diseases in their offspring that are most probably caused by the Th2-oriented immunity. PMID:15943600

Kawano, Yutaka; Morikawa, Miki; Watanabe, Misa; Ohshiba, Akihiro; Noma, Takeshi; Odajima, Hiroshi

2005-06-01

37

How the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Azospirillum Promotes Plant Growth—A Critical Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 35 years of studies of Azospirillum–plant interaction, over 20 proposals were suggested for the mechanism of action by which Azospirillum spp., the most intensively studied plant growth-promoting bacteria, enhances plant growth. The proposals include a single phytohormone activity, multiple phytohormones, nitrogen fixation, assortments of small-sized molecules and enzymes, enhanced membrane activity, proliferation of the root system, enhanced

Yoav Bashan; Luz E. de-Bashan

2010-01-01

38

Promotion of Plant Growth by Bacterial ACC Deaminase  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, there has been only limited commercial use of plant growth-promoting bacteria in agriculture, horticulture, and silviculture. However, with recent progress toward understanding the mechanisms that these organisms utilize to facilitate plant growth, the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria is expected to continue to increase worldwide. One of the key mechanisms employed by plant growth-promoting bacteria to facilitate plant

Bernard R. Glick; Biljana Todorovic; Jennifer Czarny; Zhenyu Cheng; Jin Duan; Brendan McConkey

2007-01-01

39

Methods and compositions comprising Trichoderma atroviride for the biological control of soil borne plant pathogens and promoting plant growth  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to Trichoderma atroviride strains and their use as biological control agents or plant growth promoters. Methods and compositions for biological control of soil borne plant pathogens, and increasing plant yield using T. atroviride are also provided.

2013-03-12

40

Ethylene Promotes Elongation Growth and Auxin Promotes Radial Growth in Ranunculus sceleratus Petioles 1  

PubMed Central

Submergence induces elongation in the petioles of Ranunculus sceleratus L., after a rise in endogenous ethylene levels in the tissue. Petioles of isolated leaves also elongate 100% in 24 hours when treated with ethylene gas, without a change in the radius. Application of silver thiosulfate, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), abscisic acid (ABA), or methyl jasmonate inhibits this elongation response. Gibberellic acid treatment promotes ethylene-induced elongation, without an effect on the radius. Indoelastic acid (IAA) induces radial growth in the petioles, irrespective of the presence or absence of added ethylene. High concentrations of IAA will also induce elongation growth, but this is largely due to auxin-induced ethylene synthesis; treatment with silver thiosulfate, AVG, ABA, or methyl jasmonate inhibit this auxin-promoted elongation growth. However, the radial growth induced by IAA is not affected by gibberellic acid, and not specifically inhibited by ABA, methyl jasmonate, silver thiosulfate, or AVG. These results support the idea that petiole cell elongation during “accommodation growth” can be separated from radial expansion. The radial expansion may well be regulated by IAA. However, effects of high levels of IAA are probably anomalous, since they do not mimic normal developmental patterns.

Smulders, Marinus J. M.; Horton, Roger F.

1991-01-01

41

Modulations of the Chicken Cecal Microbiome and Metagenome in Response to Anticoccidial and Growth Promoter Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing pressures to reduce or eliminate the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion purposes in production animals, there is a growing need to better understand the effects elicited by these agents in order to identify alternative approaches that might be used to maintain animal health. Antibiotic usage at subtherapeutic levels is postulated to confer a number of modulations in

Jessica L. Danzeisen; Hyeun Bum Kim; Richard E. Isaacson; Zheng Jin Tu; Timothy J. Johnson

2011-01-01

42

An agent-based learning framework for modeling microbial growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall idea of this paper is to study the intelligent behavior of microbes in a binary substrate environment with agent-based learning models. Study of microbial growth enables understanding of industrially relevant processes such as fermentation, biodegradation of pollutants, antibody production using hybridoma cells, etc. Artificial intelligence techniques such as genetic algorithms and agent-based learning methodologies have been used to

Santhoji Katare; Venkat Venkatasubramanian

2001-01-01

43

Induction of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by inflammatory agents and tumor promoters  

SciTech Connect

The production of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity (MEG-CSA) was assayed in acetic acid extracts of skin from mice topically treated with inflammatory and tumor-promoting agents. A rapid induction of MEG-CSA was found in skin treated both with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a strong tumor promoter, and with mezerein, a weak tumor promoter, but no induction was found in untreated skin. The time course of induction of MEG-CSA following treatment of skin with PMA or mezerein was very similar to that previously demonstrated for the induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by these agents. The induced MEG-CSA was found in both the epidermis and the dermis. Pretreatment of the skin with US -methasone abrogated the MEG-CSA induction. The cell number response curve suggests that the MEG-CSA acts directly on the progenitor cells of the megakaryocyte colonies. That topical administration of diterpene esters results in the rapid, local induction of MEG-CSA which can be blocked by US -methasone pretreatment suggests a mechanism for the thrombocytosis associated with some inflammatory states. The indirect action in which diterpene esters induce in certain cells the production or release of growth regulatory factors for other cell types may also aid in understanding their carcinogenic properties.

Clark, D.A.; Dessypris, E.N.; Koury, M.J.

1987-03-01

44

PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING ACTIVITY OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies on the effects of humic substances (HS) on plants, under conditions of adequate mineral nutrition, consistently show stimulation of plant growth. Enhancement of root growth was usually more apparent than stimulation of shoot growth. Both increase in root length and development of secondary r...

45

Plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides produced from tomato waste.  

PubMed

Tomato juice waste was hydrolyzed with acid. Tomato juice waste (500 g; wet weight) was heated with 0.5 N HCl (2.5 l) at 70 degrees C for 4 h. After neutralization, the growth-promoting extracts (300 g; dry weight) in the plants were produced from the tomato waste. The acid extract significantly promoted the growth of cockscomb (Celosia argentea L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings. We have recognized potent plant growth-promoting substances in the acid extract from tomato waste. The most effective components in the active fraction were almost all oligogalacturonic acids (DP 6-12). This paper is the first report that plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides can be directly produced from tomato juice waste. It is possible that the substances from the tomato waste can become useful plant growth regulators in the agriculture field in the future. PMID:11762911

Suzuki, Toshisada; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Tsubura, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Shigeki; Kusakabe, Isao; Yamada, Kosumi; Miki, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Koji

2002-01-01

46

Growth promoting substance in yeast extract for methylotrophic growth of Candida boidinii.  

PubMed

A growth-promoting substance (GPS) for methylotrophic yeasts was purified from yeast extract. The purified GPS showed growth promotion by reducing the lag time of the growth of methylotrophic Candida boidinii, while the growth rate at the exponential phase was the same as that of growth without GPS. GPS was finally identified to be L-proline by the criteria of instrumental analysis and chemical shift assignments. PMID:16926518

Adachi, Osao; Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Toyama, Hirohide; Matsushita, Kazunobu

2006-08-01

47

Promotion of Growth of Tumour Cells in Acutely Inflamed Tissues  

PubMed Central

Acute inflammatory reactions were induced in rats by the intravenous injection of cellulose sulphate (CS) or an extract of normal rat lung homogenate (LH), or by intraperitoneal injections of Compound 48/80. These treatments greatly increased survival and clonogenic growth in the lungs of rats of intravenously injected allogeneic W-256 and Y-P388 tumour cells. Increase in the dose of intravenously injected CS caused a logarithmic increase in colony forming efficiency (CFE) of tumour cells in the lungs. CFE was not stimulated by the intravenous injection of rats with pharmacological mediators of inflammation (histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin and prostaglandins PGE1 and PGF2?) which are released from tissues by agents which induce inflammation. Stimulation of CFE by CS occurred in adrenalectomized rats but was inhibited by treatment of rats with an anti-inflammatory steroid, dexamethasone. CFE was stimulated by CS in tumour immunized rats; the inflammatory state did not prevent the expression of immunity but “rescued” a proportion (approximately 20%) of the injected tumour cells from immunodestruction in the lungs. A higher proportion of tumours grew in the paws of rats when a small number of W-256 cells were injected interdigitally into the acute inflammatory swellings produced by the local injection of paws with LH or CS. CS is a “synthetic heparin” which causes marked prolongation of blood clotting time and also increases fibrinolytic activity of the blood. Anticoagulant treatment of rats with heparin did not affect CFE. Thus, there was no direct correlation between blood clotting time and CFE of blood borne tumour cells in the rat. The mechanisms which may be responsible for the nonspecific growth promoting effects of inflammatory reactions induced by various types of tissue injury on tumour induction and growth are discussed. ImagesFig. 2

van den Brenk, H. A. S.; Stone, M.; Kelly, H.; Orton, C.; Sharpington, C.

1974-01-01

48

Targeting and timing promotional activities: An agent-based model for the takeoff of new products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many marketing efforts focus on promotional activities that support the launch of new products. Promotional strategies may play a crucial role in the early stages of the product life cycle, and determine to a large extent the diffusion of a new product. This paper proposes an agent-based model to simulate the efficacy of different promotional strategies that support the launch

S. A. Delre; W. Jager; T. H. A. Bijmolt; M. A. Janssenb

2007-01-01

49

Promoting the development of secure mobile agent applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a software architecture and a development environment for the implementation of applications based on secure mobile agents. Recent breakthroughs in mobile agent security have unblocked this technology, but there is still one important issue to overcome: the complexity of programming applications using these security solutions. Our proposal aims to facilitate and speed up the process

Carles Garrigues; Sergi Robles; Joan Borrell; Guillermo Navarro-Arribas

2010-01-01

50

Root Colonization by Inoculated Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain rhizobacteria referred to as 'plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria' (PGPR) can contribute to the biological control of plant pathogens and improve plant growth. They enhance root development either directly by producing phytohormones, or indirectly by inhibiting pathogens through the synthesis of different compounds. PGPR are likely to be of great interest in sustainable crop protection and have drawn much attention in

E. Benizri; E. Baudoin; A. Guckert

2001-01-01

51

Piriformospora indica, a Cultivable Plant-Growth-Promoting Root Endophyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi interact with plants as pathogens or benefactors and may influence yields in agroforestry and floriculture. Knowl- edge concerning plant-growth-promoting cultivable root endo- phytes is low (7), and most studies have been conducted with mycorrhizal fungi. These mutualists improve the growth of crops on poor soils with lower inputs of chemical fertilizers and pesticides (2, 9). Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi,

AJIT VARMA; SAVITA VERMA; NIRMAL SAHAY; BRITTA BUTEHORN; PHILIPP FRANKEN

1999-01-01

52

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria: Potential Green Alternative for Plant Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the benefits of agriculture is gaining worldwide importance and acceptance and appears to be the trend for the future. PGPR are bioresources which may be viewed as a novel and potential tool for providing substantial benefits to the agriculture. These beneficial, free-living bacteria enhance emergence, colonize roots, stimulate growth and enhance yield.

S. Niranjan Raj; H. S. SHETTY; M. S. REDDY

53

Environmental uses of plant growth-promoting bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ,Pl ant growth-promoting,bacteria,(PGPB) are commonly used to improve crop yields. In addition to their agricultural usefulness, there are potential benefits in environmental applications. For example, species of Azospirillum can increase bioremediation of wastewater by ,microalgae by increasing algal proliferation and metabolism. Additionally, these genera and ,several other bacterial species may prevent soil erosion in arid ,zones by improving growth

Yoav Bashan; M. Esther Puente; Juan-Pablo Hernandez

54

5-FLUOROURACIL AS A SELECTIVE AGENT FOR GROWTH OF LEPTOSPIRAE  

PubMed Central

Johnson, Russell C. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), and Palmer Rogers. 5-Fluorouracil as a selective agent for growth of leptospirae. J. Bacteriol. 87:422–426. 1964.—The use of 5-fluorouracil (FU) as a selective agent for the growth of leptospirae was investigated. Both the growth rate and the final cell yield of Leptospira pomona were unaltered with FU added to the medium at concentrations varying from 50 to 1,000 ?g/ml. Growth of this organism was initiated with as few as five organisms per ml in the FU medium. With C14-FU, it was demonstrated that FU was not incorporated into L. pomona nucleic acids. Other leptospirae tested grew normally in the presence of FU. By use of the FU medium, L. canicola was successfully isolated from contaminated urine of experimentally infected dogs. Also, contaminated cultures of leptospirae were purified by passage through the FU medium. Images

Johnson, Russell C.; Rogers, Palmer

1964-01-01

55

Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake

Sumera Afzal Khan; Muhammad Hamayun; Hyeokjun Yoon; Ho-Youn Kim; Seok-Jong Suh; Seon-Kap Hwang; Jong-Myeong Kim; In-Jung Lee; Yeon-Sik Choo; Ung-Han Yoon; Won-Sik Kong; Byung-Moo Lee; Jong-Guk Kim

2008-01-01

56

Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Materials for Promoting Progenitor Cell Growth Without Serum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of new active biomaterials for promoting progenitor cell growth and differentiation in serum-free medium is still proving more challenging for the clinical treatments of degenerative diseases. In this work, a conjugated polyelectrolyte, polythiophene derivative (PMNT), was discovered to significantly drive the cell cycle progression from G1 to S and G2 phases and thus efficiently promote the cell growth without the need of serum. Furthermore, the fluorescent characteristic of PMNT makes it simultaneously able to trace its cellular uptake and localization by cell imaging. cDNA microarray study shows that PMNT can greatly regulate genes related to cell growth or differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of cell growth or differentiation promotion by polyelectrolyte material without the need of serum, thereby providing an important demonstration of degenerative biomaterial discovery through polymer design.

Yang, Gaomai; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Shu

2013-04-01

57

Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Materials for Promoting Progenitor Cell Growth Without Serum  

PubMed Central

The discovery of new active biomaterials for promoting progenitor cell growth and differentiation in serum-free medium is still proving more challenging for the clinical treatments of degenerative diseases. In this work, a conjugated polyelectrolyte, polythiophene derivative (PMNT), was discovered to significantly drive the cell cycle progression from G1 to S and G2 phases and thus efficiently promote the cell growth without the need of serum. Furthermore, the fluorescent characteristic of PMNT makes it simultaneously able to trace its cellular uptake and localization by cell imaging. cDNA microarray study shows that PMNT can greatly regulate genes related to cell growth or differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of cell growth or differentiation promotion by polyelectrolyte material without the need of serum, thereby providing an important demonstration of degenerative biomaterial discovery through polymer design.

Yang, Gaomai; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Shu

2013-01-01

58

Selectin ligands promote ultrasound contrast agent adhesion under shear flow.  

PubMed

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging has shown promise in the field of molecular imaging. This technique relies upon the adhesion of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) to targeted molecular markers of disease. This is accomplished by coating the surface of the contrast agent with a ligand that specifically binds to the intended molecular marker. Most UCA particles remain in the blood space, and their retention is influenced by the forces imposed by blood flow. For a UCA bound to a molecular target on the vascular endothelium, blood flow imposes a dislodging force that counteracts retention. Additionally, contrast agent adhesion to the molecular marker requires rapid binding kinetics, especially in rapid blood flow. The ability of a ligand:target bond complex to mediate fast adhesion and withstand dislodging force is necessary for efficient ultrasound-based molecular imaging. In the current study, we describe a flow-based adhesion assay which, combined with a novel automated tracking algorithm, enables quick determination of the ability of a targeting ligand to mediate effective contrast agent adhesion. This system was used to explore the adhesion of UCA targeted to the proinflammatory endothelial protein P-selectin via four targeting ligands, which revealed several interesting adhesive behaviors. Contrast agents targeted with glycoconjugate ligands modeled on P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 exhibited primarily unstable or transient adhesion, while UCA targeted with an anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody exhibited primarily firm adhesion, although the efficiency with which these agents were recruited to the target surface was relatively low. PMID:17009850

Rychak, J J; Li, B; Acton, S T; Leppänen, A; Cummings, R D; Ley, K; Klibanov, A L

59

[Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].  

PubMed

An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness < 0.005 mm) on winter wheat growth, soil moisture and nutrition conditions, and precipitation use. All the three measures promoted winter wheat growth, enhanced grain yield and precipitation use efficiency, and improved soil moisture and nutritional regimes. These positive effects were more obvious when the straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass. PMID:21548293

Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

2011-01-01

60

Public policy implications of promoting growth.  

PubMed

Translating the new science of growth into constructive policy will not happen naturally. Rather, the emerging science will need to be reframed to address certain core policy requirements. First, the complexity of early genetic and environmental interactions should be respected as their impact may vary in different, real-world settings. Second, the scale of impact is important to gauge as early-life interactions, while real, may not account for a large portion of later outcomes. Third, judgments regarding critical periods and the amenability of early-life influences to later intervention should be made cautiously as the etiologic nature or timing of early-life interactions do not, per se, determine if their life course effects are amenable to later interventions. Fourth, there is a need for incremental efficacy, such that the new science significantly enhances the impact of extant policy-based interventions. Finally, the translation of the new developmental science into policy should be viewed in a historical context and responsive to social and cultural needs. This provides a basis for reframing the new science of growth in a manner that best ensures that the science receives the constructive policy response it so urgently demands. PMID:23502155

Wise, Paul H

2013-01-22

61

Growth-promotion of plants with depolymerized alginates by irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alginate has been degraded by gamma-ray irradiation from a Co-60 source in liquid state (aqueous solution) and in solid state (powder form). The irradiated alginate with a molecular weight less than 104 shows a strong effect on the growth-promotion of rice and peanut. Low concentration of degraded alginate from 4% solution irradiated at 100 kGy is effective for the growth-promotion of plants and the suitable concentrations are ca 50 ppm for rice and ca 100 ppm for peanut.

Hien, N. Q.; Nagasawa, N.; Tham, L. X.; Yoshii, F.; Dang, V. H.; Mitomo, H.; Makuuchi, K.; Kume, T.

2000-07-01

62

Importance of Biofilm Formation in Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacterial Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Among the diverse soil microflora, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mark an important role in enhancing plant growth\\u000a through a range of beneficial effects. This is often achieved by forming biofilms in the rhizosphere, which has advantages\\u000a over planktonic mode of bacterial existence. However, the biofilm formation of PGPR has been overlooked in past research.\\u000a This chapter focuses on new

Gamini Seneviratne; M. Weerasekara; K. Seneviratne; J. Zavahir; M. Kecskés; I. Kennedy

63

Growth-promoting Effect of Ethanol on Oat Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE effects of carbon dioxide on the growth of etiolated oat seedlings1-promotion of the mesocotyl and depression of the coleoptile-have been under investigation for some time2,3 and the observed behaviour has been attributed to a prolongation of the activity of the nodal meristem2. Attempts have recently been made to correlate these growth phenomena with auxin metabolism by supplying indoleacetic acid

C. L. Mer

1958-01-01

64

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Mycorrhizal Fungi in Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) encourage plant growth by producing growth regulators, facilitating nutrient uptake, accelerating mineralization, reducing plant stress, stimulating nodulation, providing nitrogen fixation, promoting mycorrhizal fungi, suppressing plant diseases, and funct...

65

Chapter 7 Plant Growth-Promoting Actions of Rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rhizosphere as compared to bulk soil is rich in nutrients because of root exudation and deposits. As a consequence, the number of bacteria surrounding plant roots is 10–100 times higher than in bulk soil. These rhizobacteria, based on their effects on plants, can be largely divided into beneficial, deleterious, or neutral bacteria. The beneficial bacteria, also called plant growth-promoting

Stijn Spaepen; Jos Vanderleyden; Yaacov Okon

2009-01-01

66

Piriformospora indica, a Cultivable Plant-Growth-Promoting Root Endophyte  

PubMed Central

Piriformospora indica (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycota) is a newly described cultivable endophyte that colonizes roots. Inoculation with the fungus and application of fungal culture filtrate promotes plant growth and biomass production. Due to its ease of culture, this fungus provides a model organism for the study of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and a new tool for improving plant production systems.

Varma, Ajit; Savita Verma; Sudha; Sahay, Nirmal; Butehorn, Britta; Franken, Philipp

1999-01-01

67

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are the rhizosphere bacteria that can enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms like phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, biological nitrogen fixation, rhizosphere engineering, production of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC), quorum sensing (QS) signal interference and inhibition of biofilm formation, phytohormone production, exhibiting antifungal activity, production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), induction of systemic resistance, promoting beneficial plant-microbe symbioses, interference with pathogen toxin production etc. The potentiality of PGPR in agriculture is steadily increased as it offers an attractive way to replace the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and other supplements. Growth promoting substances are likely to be produced in large quantities by these rhizosphere microorganisms that influence indirectly on the overall morphology of the plants. Recent progress in our understanding on the diversity of PGPR in the rhizosphere along with their colonization ability and mechanism of action should facilitate their application as a reliable component in the management of sustainable agricultural system. The progress to date in using the rhizosphere bacteria in a variety of applications related to agricultural improvement along with their mechanism of action with special reference to plant growth-promoting traits are summarized and discussed in this review. PMID:22805914

Bhattacharyya, P N; Jha, D K

2011-12-24

68

Piriformospora indica, a cultivable plant-growth-promoting root endophyte  

PubMed

Piriformospora indica (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycota) is a newly described cultivable endophyte that colonizes roots. Inoculation with the fungus and application of fungal culture filtrate promotes plant growth and biomass production. Due to its ease of culture, this fungus provides a model organism for the study of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and a new tool for improving plant production systems. PMID:10347070

Varma; Savita; Sudha; Sahay; Butehorn; Franken

1999-06-01

69

Promoting Moral Growth through Pluralism and Social Justice Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Issues of morality, including deciding among competing values and negotiating obligations to self and community, are pervasive and saturate many aspects of life. This article explores the role of educating for pluralism and social justice in promoting moral growth among college students. James Rest's four-component model of moral maturity frames…

Stewart, Dafina Lazarus

2012-01-01

70

Basic and clinical pharmacology of new motility promoting agents.  

PubMed

Recent research has provided new information about drugs that could be used to treat functional motility disorders. Promotility drugs accelerate gastric emptying or colonic transit and these properties may contribute to their efficacy in treating symptoms associated with gastroparesis, functional dyspepsia or constipation. 5-Hydroxytryptamine4 receptors are targets for drugs (tegaserod, renzapride) that treat symptoms in constipated irritable bowel syndrome patients and in gastroparesis. Drugs acting at motilin (erythromycin) and cholecystokinin-1 (dexloxiglumide) receptors accelerate gastric emptying. Dexloxiglumide might be useful in the treatment of functional dyspepsia particularly that associated with lipid intake. Alvimopan is a mu-opioid receptor antagonist that does not cross the blood brain barrier. Alvimopan is effective in treating postsurgical ileus and perhaps opiate-induced bowel dysfunction. Successes and failures of recent efforts to develop promotility agents revealed opportunities and challenges for developing new promotility drugs. The pharmacological properties of partial agonists might be exploited to develop effective promotility drugs. However, opposing actions of promotility agents on motility (increased contraction vs decreased accommodation) limit the clinical efficacy of drugs with these opposing actions. Selection of appropriate patient populations for evaluation of new drugs is also critical. PMID:16185302

Galligan, J J; Vanner, S

2005-10-01

71

[Antibiotic growth promoters for the view of animal nutrition].  

PubMed

From 01. 07./09. 1999 on six further antibiotic growth promoters have been banned--with only four substances remaining in this group of feed additives. Therefore, the discussion on a possible induction of bacterial resistance by antibiotic growth promoters, especially in potentially pathogenic bacteria, will sooner or later come to an end which is not least in the interest of the reputation of animal husbandry and food of animal origin. Unfortunately, no short-term solution for health problems by legislation--especially in the gastrointestinal tract--during rearing and the beginning of the fattening period is possible as experiences in Sweden have distinctively shown. Anyway, growth promoting feed additives were not a cure-all of rearing problems, in spite of their use considerable amounts of antibiotics were prescribed during this period. But growth promoters (especially chinoxalines) were most suitable for the prophylaxis of a microbial imbalance in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, after the ban of these effective representatives of feed additives the amount of prescribed antimicrobial drugs for metaphylaxis and therapy should be critically observed. The questions of practicable alternatives will be primarily addressed to the fields of animal nutrition, veterinary medicine and feed industry. To answer these questions and to evolve new solutions (as well as to check their suitability in practice) is considerably more intricate than simply to ban these substances which is more attractive for the media, however. It is no progressive solution to give up antimicrobial growth promoters as feed additives and to use the same substances (for example olaquindox) as therapeutics now (prescribed by veterinarians) or to switch to zincoxide or copper (in a dosage high above all nutrient requirements) in order to prevent postweaning problems due to E. coli. But one has to take into consideration the reasons for the use of antibiotics (growth promoters and therapeutics) or other "aids" (e.g. ZnO, Cu) in food producing animals (especially in beef-cattle, pigs and poultry) in "modern" production systems. The matter for conflict is the contrast between a minimised use of antimicrobial substances, as science as well as general public demand, and the requirements of "modern" livestock industry (rationalisation, increase in performance, specialisation, concentration) and general economy (save of resources, lowering of production costs). These well-known and expected problems arise in an almost exemplary manner in the case of antibiotic growth promoting feed additives. Therefore it is most difficult to impart suggestions to the persons involved as well as to the public. PMID:10598354

Kamphues, J

72

Residues from veterinary medicinal products, growth promoters and performance enhancers in food-producing animals: a European Union perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The authors present an overview of the presence of residues from veterinary medicinal products, growth-promoting agents and performance enhancers in food-producing animals, as a result of administering these substances - legally or illegally - on farms. The current situation in the European Union (EU) is represented by an analysis of the 2004 results from the national residue monitoring plans

Largo Natale Palli

73

Improvement of plant growth and nickel uptake by nickel resistant-plant-growth promoting bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, among a collection of Ni-resistant bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of Alyssum serpyllifolium and Phleum phleoides grown on serpentine soil, five plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were selected based on their ability to utilize 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) as the sole N source and promote seedling growth. All of the strains tested positive for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and

Ying Ma; Mani Rajkumar; Helena Freitas

2009-01-01

74

Enhanced plant growth by siderophores produced by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific strains of the Pseudomonas fluorescens-putida group have recently been used as seed inoculants on crop plants to promote growth and increase yields. These pseudomonads, termed plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), rapidly colonize plant roots of potato, sugar beet and radish, and cause statistically significant yield increases up to 144% in field tests1-5. These results prompted us to investigate the mechanism

Joseph W. Kloepper; John Leong; Martin Teintze; Milton N. Schroth

1980-01-01

75

Human Milk Oligosaccharides Promote the Growth of Staphylococci  

PubMed Central

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), which constitute a major component of human milk, promote the growth of particular bacterial species in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that HMO also interact with the bacterial communities present in human milk. To test this hypothesis, two experiments were conducted. First, milk samples were collected from healthy women (n = 16); culture-independent analysis of the bacterial communities was performed, HMO content was analyzed, and the relation between these factors was investigated. A positive correlation was observed between the relative abundance of Staphylococcus and total HMO content (r = 0.66). In a follow-up study, we conducted a series of in vitro growth curve experiments utilizing Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and HMO isolated from human milk. HMO exhibited stimulatory effects on bacterial growth under various nutritional conditions. Analysis of culture supernatants from these experiments revealed that HMO did not measurably disappear from the culture medium, indicating that the growth-enhancing effects were not a result of bacterial metabolism of the HMO. Instead, stimulation of growth caused greater utilization of amino acids in minimal medium. Collectively, the data provide evidence that HMO may promote the growth of Staphylococcus species in the lactating mammary gland.

Hunt, K. M.; Preuss, J.; Nissan, C.; Davlin, C. A.; Williams, J. E.; Shafii, B.; Richardson, A. D.; McGuire, M. K.; Bode, L.

2012-01-01

76

Plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus rhizosphere.  

PubMed

Present study deals with the isolation of rhizobacteria and selection of plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus (Saffron) rhizosphere during its flowering period (October-November). Bacterial load was compared between rhizosphere and bulk soil by counting CFU/gm of roots and soil respectively, and was found to be ~40 times more in rhizosphere. In total 100 bacterial isolates were selected randomly from rhizosphere and bulk soil (50 each) and screened for in-vitro and in vivo plant growth promoting properties. The randomly isolated bacteria were identified by microscopy, biochemical tests and sequence homology of V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA gene. Polyphasic identification categorized Saffron rhizobacteria and bulk soil bacteria into sixteen different bacterial species with Bacillus aryabhattai (WRF5-rhizosphere; WBF3, WBF4A and WBF4B-bulk soil) common to both rhizosphere as well as bulk soil. Pseudomonas sp. in rhizosphere and Bacillus and Brevibacterium sp. in the bulk soil were the predominant genera respectively. The isolated rhizobacteria were screened for plant growth promotion activity like phosphate solubilization, siderophore and indole acetic acid production. 50 % produced siderophore and 33 % were able to solubilize phosphate whereas all the rhizobacterial isolates produced indole acetic acid. The six potential PGPR showing in vitro activities were used in pot trial to check their efficacy in vivo. These bacteria consortia demonstrated in vivo PGP activity and can be used as PGPR in Saffron as biofertilizers.This is the first report on the isolation of rhizobacteria from the Saffron rhizosphere, screening for plant growth promoting bacteria and their effect on the growth of Saffron plant. PMID:23749248

Ambardar, Sheetal; Vakhlu, Jyoti

2013-06-01

77

Siderophores from Neighboring Organisms Promote the Growth of Uncultured Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary The majority of bacterial species do not grow on synthetic media. Many non-growers require growth factors from other bacteria, but the nature of these compounds is largely unknown. We show here that previously uncultured isolates from marine sediment biofilm grow on a Petri dish in the presence of cultured organisms from the same environment. The growth factors produced by one cultured helper strain were identified as new acyl-desferrioxamine siderophores. A panel of previously uncultured isolates exhibited a range of siderophore promiscuity for growth promotion. This siderophore-based approach has enabled the culturing of organisms only distantly related to previously cultured microbes. The lack of growth in the lab for many strains from this habitat stems from an inability to autonomously produce siderophores, and the resulting chemical dependence on other microorganisms regulates community establishment in the environment.

D'Onofrio, Anthony; Crawford, Jason M.; Stewart, Eric J.; Witt, Kathrin; Gavrish, Ekaterina; Epstein, Slava; Clardy, Jon; Lewis, Kim

2010-01-01

78

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638  

PubMed Central

Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT–PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar as an energy feedstock on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria as growth promoting agents.

Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Hoffman, Adam; Zhang, Yian-Biao; Walla, Michael D.; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Newman, Lee; Monchy, Sebastien

2010-01-01

79

TNF? reverse signaling promotes sympathetic axon growth and target innervation.  

PubMed

Reverse signaling via members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily controls multiple aspects of immune function. Here we document TNF? reverse signaling in the nervous system to our knowledge for the first time and show that it has a crucial role in establishing sympathetic innervation. During postnatal development, sympathetic axons express TNF? as they grow and branch in their target tissues, which in turn express TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1). In culture, soluble forms of TNFR1 act directly on postnatal sympathetic axons to promote growth and branching by a mechanism that depends on membrane-integrated TNF? and on downstream activation of ERK. Sympathetic innervation density is substantially lower in several tissues in postnatal and adult mice lacking either TNF? or TNFR1. These findings reveal that target-derived TNFR1 acts as a reverse-signaling ligand for membrane-integrated TNF? to promote growth and branching of sympathetic axons. PMID:23749144

Kisiswa, Lilian; Osório, Catarina; Erice, Clara; Vizard, Thomas; Wyatt, Sean; Davies, Alun M

2013-06-09

80

Plant growth promotion traits of phosphobacteria isolated from Puna, Argentina.  

PubMed

The ability of soil microorganisms to solubilize phosphate is an important trait of plant growth-promoting bacteria leading to increased yields and smaller use of fertilizers. This study presents the isolation and characterization of phosphobacteria from Puna, northwestern Argentina and the ability to produce phosphate solubilization, alkaline phosphatase, siderophores, and indole acetic acid. The P-solubilizing activity was coincidental with a decrease in pH values of the tricalcium phosphate medium for all strains after 72 h of incubation. All the isolates showed the capacity to produce siderophores and indoles. Identification by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these strains belong to the genera Pantoea, Serratia, Enterobacter, and Pseudomonas. These isolates appear attractive for exploring their plant growth-promoting activity and potential field application. PMID:21442320

Viruel, Emilce; Lucca, María E; Siñeriz, Faustino

2011-03-26

81

Eect of Plant Growth Promoting Bacillus Strains on Pine and Spruce Seedling Growth and Mycorrhizal Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rifamycin-resistant derivatives of plant growth promoting Bacillus polymyxa strains L6, Pw-2, and S20 were used to evaluate the interaction of bacterial-mycorrhizal co-inoculation on pine and spruce seedling growth. We were particularly interested in determining if the mechanism by which bacteria stimulated seedling growth depended on the presence of ectomycorrhizae. Mycorrhizal inoculum was introduced by adding 2 ml of one of

M. SHISHIDO; H. B. MASSICOTTEãand; C. P. CHANWAY

1996-01-01

82

Molecular basis of plant growth promotion and biocontrol by rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) are used as inoculants for biofertilization, phytostimulation and biocontrol. The interactions of PGPRs with their biotic environment, for example with plants and microorganisms, are often complex. Substantial advances in elucidating the genetic basis of the beneficial effects of PGPRs on plants have been made, some from whole-genome sequencing projects. This progress will lead to a more efficient

Guido V Bloemberg; Ben J. J Lugtenberg

2001-01-01

83

Promotion of plant growth by polymers of lactic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymers of L-lactic acid are shown to promote plant growth. Dry weight of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and corn (Zea mays L) was more than doubled when plants were grown in media containing the dimer of L-lactic acid, L-lactoyllactic acid. Higher polymers were equally effective at increasing plant biomass. Monomeric lactic acid and polymers of D-lactic acid showed no biological

Alan M. Kinnersley; Taylor C. Scott; John H. Yopp; George H. Whitten

1990-01-01

84

Endophytic colonization of spruce by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated internal tissue colonization of hybrid spruce (Picea glauca×P. engelmannii) seedlings by two plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains, Bacillus polymyxa strain Pw-2R and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Sm3-RN, using surface sterilization-dilution plating and immunofluorescent antibody staining assays. Both strains were consistently detected inside spruce root and stem tissues 5 months after seed inoculation according to a surface sterilization-dilution plating assay.

Masahiro Shishido; Colette Breuil; Christopher P. Chanway

1999-01-01

85

Genetic and Phenotypic Diversity of Plant Growth Promoting Bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bacilli are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive or variable, endospore-forming bacteria that exhibit resistance\\u000a to environmental stress and produce peptide antibiotics, peptide signal molecules, and extracellular enzymes. Bacillus and Paenibacillus genera include the best knowing nitrogen-fixing species. Another characteristic of bacilli is their great potential in producing\\u000a substances that promote direct plant growth by the production of phytohormones (mainly indolic

Anelise Beneduzi; Luciane M. P. Passaglia

86

Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria  

DOEpatents

A material and method is disclosed for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10 to about 60 C until the dissolved oxygen is removed. No Drawings

Adler, H.I.

1984-10-09

87

Evidence that fibroblast growth factor promotes lens fibre differentiation.  

PubMed

Lens epithelial cells from newborn rats undergo changes characteristic of fibre differentiation when cultured with rat neural retina or with a soluble mitogenic factor present in calf retina-conditioned medium. Mitogens have been isolated from retina in other laboratories, but have not previously been shown to promote fibre differentiation in mammalian lens. We prepared eye-derived growth factors I and II and alpha- and beta-retina-derived growth factors from bovine retinas. These factors all promoted lens fibre differentiation in our culture system, as assessed by morphological changes and the appearance of fibre cell-specific crystallins. There is now strong evidence that these retina-derived factors are identical to the acidic and basic forms of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), which is present in a variety of tissues. We found that acidic and basic FGF from rat brain also promoted lens fibre differentiation, suggesting that FGF is the factor from the retina responsible for inducing lens fibre differentiation. PMID:3665571

Chamberlain, C G; McAvoy, J W

1987-09-01

88

The Receptor Tyrosine Phosphatase Cryp? Promotes Intraretinal Axon Growth  

PubMed Central

Retinal ganglion cell axons grow towards the optic fissure in close contact with the basal membrane, an excellent growth substratum. One of the ligands of receptor tyrosine phosphatase CRYP? is located on the retinal and tectal basal membranes. To analyze the role of this RPTP and its ligand in intraretinal growth and guidance of ganglion cell axons, we disrupted ligand- receptor interactions on the retinal basal membrane in culture. Antibodies against CRYP? strongly reduced retinal axon growth on the basal membrane, and induced a dramatic change in morphology of retinal growth cones, reducing the size of growth cone lamellipodia. A similar effect was observed by blocking the ligand with a CRYP? ectodomain fusion protein. These effects did not occur, or were much reduced, when axons were grown either on laminin-1, on matrigel or on basal membranes with glial endfeet removed. This indicates that a ligand for CRYP? is located on glial endfeet. These results show for the first time in vertebrates that the interaction of a receptor tyrosine phosphatase with its ligand is crucial not only for promotion of retinal axon growth but also for maintenance of retinal growth cone lamellipodia on basal membranes.

Ledig, Matthias M.; Haj, Fawaz; Bixby, John L.; Stoker, Andrew W.; Mueller, Bernhard K.

1999-01-01

89

Macrophages promote epithelial repair through hepatocyte growth factor secretion.  

PubMed

Macrophages play a critical role in intestinal wound repair. However, the mechanisms of macrophage-assisted wound repair remain poorly understood. We aimed to characterize more clearly the repair activities of murine and human macrophages. Murine macrophages were differentiated from bone marrow cells and human macrophages from monocytes isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors (HD) or Crohn's disease (CD) patients or isolated from the intestinal mucosa of HD. In-vitro models were used to study the repair activities of macrophages. We found that murine and human macrophages were both able to promote epithelial repair in vitro. This function was mainly cell contact-independent and relied upon the production of soluble factors such as the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Indeed, HGF-silenced macrophages were less capable of promoting epithelial repair than control macrophages. Remarkably, macrophages from CD patients produced less HGF than their HD counterparts (HGF level: 84?±?27?pg/mg of protein and 45?±?34?pg/mg of protein, respectively, for HD and CD macrophages, P?promoting epithelial repair (repairing activity: 90·1?±?4·6 and 75·8?±?8·3, respectively, for HD and CD macrophages, P?promote epithelial repair through the secretion of HGF. The deficiency of CD macrophages to secrete HGF and to promote epithelial repair might contribute to the impaired intestinal mucosal healing in CD patients. PMID:23773083

D'Angelo, F; Bernasconi, E; Schäfer, M; Moyat, M; Michetti, P; Maillard, M H; Velin, D

2013-10-01

90

Genistein demethylates the promoter of CHD5 and inhibits neuroblastoma growth in vivo.  

PubMed

Neuroblastoma (NB) is a type of tumor usually found in children under 5 years of age, which originates from lesions in the nervous system and has fast growth and early transformation characteristics. Similar to other cancer types, some typical tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), such as P53 and CHD5 are silenced in NB because of high methylation at promoter zones. In the present study, our results showed that genistein, an element found in soy, is an epigenetic modifier able to decrease hypermethylation levels of CHD5, and enhances the expression of CHD5 as well as p53, possibly contributing to inhibition of NB growth in vivo and tumor microvessel formation. Furthermore, genistein acts as a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor to significantly decrease the expression of DNMT3b. Our study indicates that genistein plays an important role in inhibiting NB growth in vivo, probably preventing tumorigenesis risk as a kind of therapeutic agent for NB treatment in the future. PMID:22960751

Li, Hui; Xu, Weijue; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Xiong; Xu, Lingcang; Lv, Zhibao

2012-09-06

91

Dynamic mast cell-stromal cell interactions promote growth of pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exists in a complex desmoplastic microenvironment, which includes cancer-associated fibroblasts [also known as pancreatic stellate cells (PSC)] and immune cells that provide a fibrotic niche that impedes successful cancer therapy. We have found that mast cells are essential for PDAC tumorigenesis. Whether mast cells contribute to the growth of PDAC and/or PSCs is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mast cells contribute to the growth of PSCs and tumor cells, thus contributing to PDAC development. Tumor cells promoted mast cell migration. Both tumor cells and PSCs stimulated mast cell activation. Conversely, mast cell-derived interleukin (IL)-13 and tryptase stimulated PSC proliferation. Treating tumor-bearing mice with agents that block mast cell migration and function depressed PDAC growth. Our findings suggest that mast cells exacerbate the cellular and extracellular dynamics of the tumor microenvironment found in PDAC. Therefore, targeting mast cells may inhibit stromal formation and improve therapy. PMID:23633481

Ma, Ying; Hwang, Rosa F; Logsdon, Craig D; Ullrich, Stephen E

2013-04-30

92

Monitoring for antibiotic resistance in enterococci consequent upon feeding growth promoters active against gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Commercial chicken and pig farms, using different growth promoters, were monitored for enterococci resistant to a range of antibacterial agents. Due to inconsistent findings attributed to uncontrollable factors, chickens kept under experimental conditions were also studied. A total of 4216 isolates from all the surveys were examined. Resistant isolates were often encountered, even in control groups, suggesting complex population changes not necessarily solely connected with the influence of the growth promoters. It was concluded that comprehensive methods for differentiating strains are necessary to unravel this problem. PMID:3921723

Linton, A H; Hinton, M H; Al-Chalaby, Z A

1985-03-01

93

Identification of Novel Pharmacological Activities of an Antifungal Agent, Nystatin, to Promote Dendritic Cell Maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an unbiased functional screen to identify agents activating dendritic cells (DCs), we recently developed a DC-based biosensor system, in which a stable murine DC line XS106 was engineered to express the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) gene under the control of the IL-1? promoter. Here we report that nystatin (NYT), an antifungal drug of the family of polyene macrolide antibiotics,

Yasushi Ogawa; Norikatsu Mizumoto; Hiroaki Tanaka; Hironori Matsushima; Akira Takashima

2006-01-01

94

The Nature of Tumor-promoting Agents in Tobacco Products1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The results available so far suggest to us the following tentative conclusions. First, there are at least two agents extracted by aqueous barium hydroxide from commercial cigarette tobacco that are required simultaneouslyin order to exhibit tumor-promoting activity. One of the agentsis soluble in 80% methanol and is probably soluble in 95% methanol. The other is insoluble in 80% methanol

Fred G. Bock

95

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning  

PubMed Central

The rhizosphere supports the development and activity of a huge and diversified microbial community, including microorganisms capable to promote plant growth. Among the latter, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize roots of monocots and dicots, and enhance plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Modification of root system architecture by PGPR implicates the production of phytohormones and other signals that lead, mostly, to enhanced lateral root branching and development of root hairs. PGPR also modify root functioning, improve plant nutrition and influence the physiology of the whole plant. Recent results provided first clues as to how PGPR signals could trigger these plant responses. Whether local and/or systemic, the plant molecular pathways involved remain often unknown. From an ecological point of view, it emerged that PGPR form coherent functional groups, whose rhizosphere ecology is influenced by a myriad of abiotic and biotic factors in natural and agricultural soils, and these factors can in turn modulate PGPR effects on roots. In this paper, we address novel knowledge and gaps on PGPR modes of action and signals, and highlight recent progress on the links between plant morphological and physiological effects induced by PGPR. We also show the importance of taking into account the size, diversity, and gene expression patterns of PGPR assemblages in the rhizosphere to better understand their impact on plant growth and functioning. Integrating mechanistic and ecological knowledge on PGPR populations in soil will be a prerequisite to develop novel management strategies for sustainable agriculture.

Vacheron, Jordan; Desbrosses, Guilhem; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Touraine, Bruno; Moenne-Loccoz, Yvan; Muller, Daniel; Legendre, Laurent; Wisniewski-Dye, Florence; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

2013-01-01

96

[The work of community health agents in health promotion: an integrative literature review].  

PubMed

This article is an integrative review that aimed to evaluate the available evidence in the literature on the development of strategies operationalized by community health agents for health promotion. Three databases were used - BDTD, LILACS and SciELO - and 2,179 publications were found, of which 58 were selected for analysis. The results were summarized in three empirical categories: Health promotion: challenges in reorienting the health care model, Educational practice in the daily work of community health agents and Vocational training in the perspective of Primary Health Care. The conclusion is that the construction of a model of care based on health promotion requires the incorporation of new educational, care-related and institutional practices. PMID:23887792

Pereira, Iara Cristina; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

97

Study of mechanisms for plant growth promotion elicited by rhizobacteria in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize plant roots and exert beneficial effects on plant health and development. We are investigating the mechanisms by which PGPR elicit plant growth promotion from the viewpoint of signal transduction pathways within plants. We report here our first study to determine if well-characterized PGPR strains, which previously demonstrated growth promotion of various other plants, also enhance

Choong-Min Ryu; Chia-Hui Hu; Robert D. Locy; Joseph W. Kloepper

2005-01-01

98

Host A(2B) adenosine receptors promote carcinoma growth.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that tumor-infiltrating immune cells can benefit the tumor by producing factors that promote angiogenesis and suppress immunity. Because the tumor microenvironment is characterized by high adenosine levels, we hypothesized that the low-affinity A(2B) adenosine receptor located on host immune cells may participate in these effects. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis in a Lewis lung carcinoma isograft model using A(2B) receptor knockout (A(2B)KO) mice. These mice exhibited significantly attenuated tumor growth and longer survival times after inoculation with Lewis lung carcinoma compared to wild type (WT) controls. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in A(2B)KO mice contained significantly lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared to tumors growing in WT animals. This difference was due to VEGF production by host cells, which comprised 30 +/- 2% of total tumor cell population. Stimulation of adenosine receptors on WT tumor-infiltrating CD45+ immune cells increased VEGF production fivefold, an effect not seen in tumor-associated CD45+ immune cells lacking A(2B) receptors. In contrast, we found no significant difference in VEGF production between CD45- tumor cells isolated from WT and A(2B)KO mice. Thus, our data suggest that tumor cells promote their growth by exploiting A(2B) adenosine receptor-dependent regulation of VEGF in host immune cells. PMID:18714400

Ryzhov, Sergey; Novitskiy, Sergey V; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Goldstein, Anna E; Carbone, David P; Biaggioni, Italo; Dikov, Mikhail M; Feoktistov, Igor

2008-09-01

99

Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria for Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings  

SciTech Connect

Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance the revegetation of mine tailings and minimize the need for compost amendment. Twenty promising PGPB isolates were used as seed inoculants in a series of greenhouse studies to examine revegetation of an extremely acidic, high metal content tailings sample previously shown to require 15% compost amendment for normal plant growth. Several isolates significantly enhanced growth of two native species, quailbush and buffalo grass, in tailings. In this study, PGPB/compost outcomes were plant specific; for quailbush, PGPB were most effective in combination with 10% compost addition while for buffalo grass, PGPB enhanced growth in the complete absence of compost. Results indicate that selected PGPB can improve plant establishment and reduce the need for compost amendment. Further, PGPB activities necessary for aiding plant growth in mine tailings likely include tolerance to acidic pH and metals.

Grandlic, C.J.; Mendez, M.O.; Chorover, J.; Machado, B.; Maier, R.M.

2009-05-19

100

Plant growth-promoting bacteria for phytostabilization of mine tailings.  

PubMed

Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance the revegetation of mine tailings and minimize the need for compost amendment. Twenty promising PGPB isolates were used as seed inoculants in a series of greenhouse studies to examine revegetation of an extremely acidic, high metal contenttailings sample previously shown to require 15% compost amendment for normal plant growth. Several isolates significantly enhanced growth of two native species, quailbush and buffalo grass, in tailings. In this study, PGPB/compost outcomes were plant specific; for quailbush, PGPB were most effective in combination with 10% compost addition while for buffalo grass, PGPB enhanced growth in the complete absence of compost. Results indicate that selected PGPB can improve plant establishment and reduce the need for compost amendment. Further, PGPB activities necessary for aiding plant growth in mine tailings likely include tolerance to acidic pH and metals. PMID:18409640

Grandlic, Christopher J; Mendez, Monica O; Chorover, Jon; Machado, Blenda; Maier, Raina M

2008-03-15

101

Interactions between linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and water hardness ions. II. Reducing hardness sensitivity by the addition of micelle promotion agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agents which promote micellization of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) improve LAS hard-water detergency performance by\\u000a reducing water hardness sensitivity. A model is proposed which correlates micellization and water hardness tolerance. The\\u000a ability of inorganic salts and cosurfactants to act as micelle promotion agents is discussed.

Michael F. Cox; K. Lee Matheson

1985-01-01

102

Establishment of a detection system for demethylating agents using an endogenous promoter CpG island.  

PubMed

Disturbances of epigenetic information that result in changes in DNA methylation patterns are involved in carcinogenesis and other human disorders. Detection of agents that can cause epigenetic alterations--i.e. epimutagens--is therefore an important objective. We have developed and now describe the first detection system for demethylating agents that involves an endogenous promoter CpG island (CGI). After screening 10 promoter CGIs of genes silenced in human cancers, a CGI of the FLJ32130 gene was found to respond sensitively to a known demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), by abundantly re-expressing its mRNA. After introducing the Hyg(r)-EGFP fusion gene into exon 3 of the FLJ32130 gene by homologous recombination, we isolated one clone that had the expected recombination outcomes and designated it F117. Two subclones (F117-47 and F117-123) of this original clone that did not share its propensity for leaky expression of the Hyg(r)-EGFP mRNA were then isolated, and methylation of their 5' CGI was confirmed. The addition of 5-aza-dC at doses of 0.1 microM or higher led to their 5' CGI being demethylated, and to Hyg(r)-EGFP being expressed; the anticipated fluorescence was readily confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. We believe that this is the first assay system that detects agents that disturb the methylated status of a CGI that regulates an endogenous promoter. PMID:15542106

Okochi-Takada, Eriko; Ichimura, Shizue; Kaneda, Atsushi; Sugimura, Takashi; Ushijima, Toshikazu

2004-12-21

103

The Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Germination, Seedling Growth and Yield of Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on seed germination, seedling growth and yield of field grown maize were evaluated in three experiments. In these experiments six bacterial strains include P.putida strain R-168, P.fluorescens strain R-93, P.fluorescens DSM 50090, P.putida DSM291, A.lipoferum DSM 1691, A.brasilense DSM 1690 were used. Results of first study showed seed Inoculation significantly enhanced seed germination

A. Gholami; S. Shahsavani; S. Nezarat

2009-01-01

104

Thiazolidinediones Promote Axonal Growth through the Activation of the JNK Pathway  

PubMed Central

The axon is a neuronal process involved in protein transport, synaptic plasticity, and neural regeneration. It has been suggested that their structure and function are profoundly impaired in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous evidence suggest that Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-? (PPAR? promote neuronal differentiation on various neuronal cell types. In addition, we demonstrated that activation of PPAR?by thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs that selectively activate PPAR? prevent neurite loss and axonal damage induced by amyloid-? (A?). However, the potential role of TZDs in axonal elongation and neuronal polarity has not been explored. We report here that the activation of PPAR? by TZDs promoted axon elongation in primary hippocampal neurons. Treatments with different TZDs significantly increased axonal growth and branching area, but no significant effects were observed in neurite elongation compared to untreated neurons. Treatment with PPAR? antagonist (GW 9662) prevented TZDs-induced axonal growth. Recently, it has been suggested that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays an important role regulating axonal growth and neuronal polarity. Interestingly, in our studies, treatment with TZDs induced activation of the JNK pathway, and the pharmacological blockage of this pathway prevented axon elongation induced by TZDs. Altogether, these results indicate that activation of JNK induced by PPAR?activators stimulates axonal growth and accelerates neuronal polarity. These novel findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of PPAR? on neuronal differentiation and validate the use of PPAR? activators as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases.

Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.; Godoy, Juan A.; Alfaro, Ivan; Cabezas, Deny; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Bronfman, Miguel; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

2013-01-01

105

Embryonic Morphogen Nodal Promotes Breast Cancer Growth and Progression  

PubMed Central

Breast cancers expressing human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-associated genes are more likely to progress than well-differentiated cancers and are thus associated with poor patient prognosis. Elevated proliferation and evasion of growth control are similarly associated with disease progression, and are classical hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we demonstrate that the hESC-associated factor Nodal promotes breast cancer growth. Specifically, we show that Nodal is elevated in aggressive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t human breast cancer cell lines, compared to poorly aggressive MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Nodal knockdown in aggressive breast cancer cells via shRNA reduces tumour incidence and significantly blunts tumour growth at primary sites. In vitro, using Trypan Blue exclusion assays, Western blot analysis of phosphorylated histone H3 and cleaved caspase-9, and real time RT-PCR analysis of BAX and BCL2 gene expression, we demonstrate that Nodal promotes expansion of breast cancer cells, likely via a combinatorial mechanism involving increased proliferation and decreased apopotosis. In an experimental model of metastasis using beta-glucuronidase (GUSB)-deficient NOD/SCID/mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII) mice, we show that although Nodal is not required for the formation of small (<100 cells) micrometastases at secondary sites, it supports an elevated proliferation:apoptosis ratio (Ki67:TUNEL) in micrometastatic lesions. Indeed, at longer time points (8 weeks), we determined that Nodal is necessary for the subsequent development of macrometastatic lesions. Our findings demonstrate that Nodal supports tumour growth at primary and secondary sites by increasing the ratio of proliferation:apoptosis in breast cancer cells. As Nodal expression is relatively limited to embryonic systems and cancer, this study establishes Nodal as a potential tumour-specific target for the treatment of breast cancer.

Quail, Daniela F.; Zhang, Guihua; Walsh, Logan A.; Siegers, Gabrielle M.; Dieters-Castator, Dylan Z.; Findlay, Scott D.; Broughton, Heather; Putman, David M.; Hess, David A.; Postovit, Lynne-Marie

2012-01-01

106

Endocrine fibroblast growth factor FGF19 promotes prostate cancer progression.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is the most common visceral malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in US men. There is broad evidence that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors are important in prostate cancer initiation and progression, but the contribution of particular FGFs in this disease is not fully understood. The FGF family members FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23 comprise a distinct subfamily that circulate in serum and act in an endocrine manner. These endocrine FGFs require ?-Klotho (KL) and/or ?-Klotho (KLB), two related single-pass transmembrane proteins restricted in their tissue distribution, to act as coreceptors along with classic FGF receptors (FGFR) to mediate potent biologic activity. Here we show that FGF19 is expressed in primary and metastatic prostate cancer tissues, where it functions as an autocrine growth factor. Exogenous FGF19 promoted the growth, invasion, adhesion, and colony formation of prostate cancer cells at low ligand concentrations. FGF19 silencing in prostate cancer cells expressing autocrine FGF19 decreased invasion and proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Consistent with these observations, KL and/or KLB were expressed in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, raising the possibility that additional endocrine FGFs may also exert biologic effects in prostate cancer. Our findings support the concept that therapies targeting FGFR signaling may have efficacy in prostate cancer and highlight FGF19 as a relevant endocrine FGF in this setting. PMID:23440425

Feng, Shu; Dakhova, Olga; Creighton, Chad J; Ittmann, Michael

2013-02-25

107

Matrigel promotes retinoblastoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Cells derived from retinoblastomas grow slowly in vitro and only very rarely form tumors in nude mice. Matrigel, a mixture of components normally found in basement membranes, promotes the growth of Y-79 and WERI-Rb1 retinoblastoma (Rb) cells when added to suspension cultures of the 2 Rb cell lines. It also substantially increases cell adhesion in vitro. Y-79 cells, seeded into a Matrigel matrix, form round colonies over a 3-week period similar to those of control, weakly metastatic murine melanoma cells. In vivo, s.c. co-injection of Matrigel with either Y-79 or WERI-Rb 1 cells into nude mice promotes retinoblastoma tumor formation. Transplantation of as few as 1,000 cells allows for xenografting under these conditions, while no tumors were observed in the absence of Matrigel, even at 10 x 10(6) cells/inoculum. The tumors produced have the expected morphology and express an mRNA for a highly specific retina/retinoblastoma marker protein, the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. Thus, the xenografts obtained maintain the original morphological and molecular characteristics of the injected cells and represent a useful model for in vivo studies of retinoblastoma growth and treatment. PMID:1521911

Albini, A; Melchiori, A; Garofalo, A; Noonan, D M; Basolo, F; Taraboletti, G; Chader, G J; Gavazzi, R

1992-09-01

108

Unraveling the Mystery of Erythropoietin-Stimulating Agents in Cancer Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESA) are approved for use in treating chemotherapy-induced anemia in patients with nonmyeloid malignancies. However, recent clinical trials have shown evidence of inferior overall survival and\\/or locore- gional control of tumors in patients receiving ESAs. Given these concerning data, current studies are focused on elucidat- ing the biological mechanisms by which ESAs may contribute to cancer promotion. Evidence

Kelly A. May; Fadlo R. Khuri

109

From an atypical wake-promoting agent to potent histamine-3 receptor inverse agonists.  

PubMed

Utilizing atypical wake-promoting agent modafinil (inactive in both rH(3) and hH(3) binding assays) as a launching pad, a series of sulfinyl- and sulfone-derived H(3) receptor inverse agonists were developed. Brain-permeable compound 27, a potent member of the series displayed excellent selectivity against related family members (H(1), H(2), and H(4) receptors). PMID:23205610

Dunn, Derek; Raddatz, Rita; Ator, Mark A; Bacon, Edward R; Chatterjee, Sankar

2013-03-01

110

Promotion effect of constituents from the root of Polygonum multiflorum on hair growth.  

PubMed

Two new compounds, gallic acid ester of torachrysone-8-O-?-D-glucoside (1) and (E)-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-xyloside (4), along with eight known compounds (2, 3, 5-10) were isolated from a 70% ethanol extract of Polygonum multiflorum roots. The structures were determined by (1)H and (13)C NMR, HMQC, and HMBC spectrometry. Extracts of P. multiflorum have been reported to promote hair growth in vivo. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of isolated compounds from P. multiflorum on promoting hair growth using dermal papilla cells (DPCs), which play an important role in hair growth. When DPCs were treated with compounds (1-10) from P. multiflorum, compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 10 increased the proliferation of DPCs compared with the control. Specifically, compound 2 (10 and 20 ?M) induced a greater increase in the proliferation of DPCs than minoxidil (10 ?M). Additionally, treatment of vibrissa follicles with compound 2 for 21 days increased hair-fiber length significantly. On the basis of this result, further investigation and optimization of these derivatives might help in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of alopecia. PMID:23896496

Sun, Ya Nan; Cui, Long; Li, Wei; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kang, Jung Il; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Young Ho

2013-07-11

111

Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Promotes Kidney Growth and Repair via Alteration of Macrophage Responses  

PubMed Central

Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 controls the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of macrophages, which are recognized as scavengers and agents of the innate and the acquired immune systems. Because of their plasticity, macrophages are endowed with many other essential roles during development and tissue homeostasis. We present evidence that CSF-1 plays an important trophic role in postnatal organ growth and kidney repair. Notably, the injection of CSF-1 postnatally enhanced kidney weight and volume and was associated with increased numbers of tissue macrophages. Moreover, CSF-1 promotes postnatal renal repair in mice after ischemia-reperfusion injury by recruiting and influencing macrophages toward a reparative state. CSF-1 treatment rapidly accelerated renal repair with tubular epithelial cell replacement, attenuation of interstitial fibrosis, and functional recovery. Analysis of macrophages from CSF-1-treated kidneys showed increased expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and anti-inflammatory genes that are known CSF-1 targets. Taken together, these data suggest that CSF-1 is important in kidney growth and the promotion of endogenous repair and resolution of inflammatory injury.

Alikhan, Maliha A.; Jones, Christina V.; Williams, Timothy M.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Fletcher, Anne L.; Kett, Michelle M.; Sakkal, Samy; Samuel, Chrishan S.; Ramsay, Robert G.; Deane, James A.; Wells, Christine A.; Little, Melissa H.; Hume, David A.; Ricardo, Sharon D.

2011-01-01

112

Nodal promotes growth and invasion in human gliomas.  

PubMed

Uncontrolled growth and diffused invasion are major causes of mortality in patients with malignant gliomas. Nodal has been shown to have a central role in the tumorigenic signaling pathways of malignant melanoma. In this study, we show that grade IV human glioma cell lines expressed different levels of Nodal, paralleled to the potential for cell invasiveness. Treatment of glioma cell lines with recombinant Nodal (rNodal) increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) secretion and cell invasiveness. The ectopic expression of Nodal in GBM glioma cells that expressed Nodal at low level resulted in increased MMP-2 secretion, enhanced cell invasiveness, raised cell proliferation rates in vitro, increased tumor growth in vivo, and was associated with poor survival in a mice xenograft model. In contrast, the knockdown of Nodal expression in U87MG glioma cells with high Nodal expression level had reduced MMP-2 secretion, less cell invasiveness, lower tumor growth in vivo and longer lifespan in mice with U87MG/shNodal cell xenografts. In addition, Nodal knockdown promoted the reversion of malignant glioma cells toward a differentiated astrocytic phenotype. Furthermore, our data support the notion that Nodal may regulate glioma progression through the induction of the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and Cripto-1 through activated Smad. PMID:20383200

Lee, C-C; Jan, H-J; Lai, J-H; Ma, H-I; Hueng, D-Y; Lee, Y-C Gladys; Cheng, Y-Y; Liu, L-W; Wei, H-W; Lee, H-M

2010-04-12

113

Application of plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with composts and macrofauna for growth promotion of Pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were reported to influence the growth, yield, and nutrient uptake by an array of mechanisms. We selected seven different plant growth-promoting traits and antagonistic ability to screen 207 bacteria isolated from composts. Fifty-four percent of PGPB were from farm waste compost (FWC), 56% from rice straw compost (RSC), 64% from Gliricidia vermicompost (GVC), and 41% from

B. Hameeda; O. P. Rupela; Gopal Reddy; K. Satyavani

2006-01-01

114

Comparative genomic analysis of four representative plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Pseudomonas  

PubMed Central

Background Some Pseudomonas strains function as predominant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Within this group, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens are non-pathogenic biocontrol agents, and some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains are PGPR. P. chlororaphis GP72 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with a fully sequenced genome. We conducted a genomic analysis comparing GP72 with three other pseudomonad PGPR: P. fluorescens Pf-5, P. aeruginosa M18, and the nitrogen-fixing strain P. stutzeri A1501. Our aim was to identify the similarities and differences among these strains using a comparative genomic approach to clarify the mechanisms of plant growth-promoting activity. Results The genome sizes of GP72, Pf-5, M18, and A1501 ranged from 4.6 to 7.1 M, and the number of protein-coding genes varied among the four species. Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) analysis assigned functions to predicted proteins. The COGs distributions were similar among the four species. However, the percentage of genes encoding transposases and their inactivated derivatives (COG L) was 1.33% of the total genes with COGs classifications in A1501, 0.21% in GP72, 0.02% in Pf-5, and 0.11% in M18. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that GP72 and Pf-5 were the most closely related strains, consistent with the genome alignment results. Comparisons of predicted coding sequences (CDSs) between GP72 and Pf-5 revealed 3544 conserved genes. There were fewer conserved genes when GP72 CDSs were compared with those of A1501 and M18. Comparisons among the four Pseudomonas species revealed 603 conserved genes in GP72, illustrating common plant growth-promoting traits shared among these PGPR. Conserved genes were related to catabolism, transport of plant-derived compounds, stress resistance, and rhizosphere colonization. Some strain-specific CDSs were related to different kinds of biocontrol activities or plant growth promotion. The GP72 genome contained the cus operon (related to heavy metal resistance) and a gene cluster involved in type IV pilus biosynthesis, which confers adhesion ability. Conclusions Comparative genomic analysis of four representative PGPR revealed some conserved regions, indicating common characteristics (metabolism of plant-derived compounds, heavy metal resistance, and rhizosphere colonization) among these pseudomonad PGPR. Genomic regions specific to each strain provide clues to its lifestyle, ecological adaptation, and physiological role in the rhizosphere.

2013-01-01

115

Proepithelin Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Biology by Promoting Cell Growth, Migration, and Anchorage-Independent Growth  

PubMed Central

The growth factor proepithelin has recently emerged as an important regulator of transformation in several physiological and pathological systems. In this study, we determined the biological roles of proepithelin in prostate cancer cells using purified human recombinant proepithelin as well as proepithelin-depletion strategies. Proepithelin promoted the migration of androgen-dependent and -independent human prostate cancer cells; androgen-independent DU145 cells were the more responsive. In these cells, proepithelin additionally stimulated wound closure, invasion, and promotion of cell growth in vitro. These effects required the activation of both the Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. We have analyzed proepithelin expression levels in different available prostate cancer microarray studies using the Oncomine database and found a statistically significant increase in proepithelin mRNA expression levels in prostate cancers compared with nonneoplastic controls. Notably, depletion of endogenous proepithelin by siRNA and antisense strategies impaired the ability of DU145 cells to grow and migrate after serum withdrawal and inhibited anchorage-independent growth. Our results provide the first evidence for a role of proepithelin in stimulating the migration, invasion, proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. This study supports the hypothesis that proepithelin may play a critical role as an autocrine growth factor in the establishment and initial progression of prostate cancer. Furthermore, proepithelin may prove to be a useful clinical marker for the diagnosis of prostate tumors.

Monami, Giada; Emiliozzi, Velia; Bitto, Alessandro; Lovat, Francesca; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Goldoni, Silvia; Fassan, Matteo; Serrero, Ginette; Gomella, Leonard G.; Baffa, Raffaele; Iozzo, Renato V.; Morrione, Andrea

2009-01-01

116

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. Strain JS  

PubMed Central

Volatile and nonvolatile compounds emitted from the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. strain JS enhance the growth of tobacco and lettuce. Here, we report the high-quality genome sequence of this bacterium. Its 4.1-Mb genome reveals a number of genes whose products are possibly involved in promotion of plant growth or antibiosis.

Song, Ju Yeon; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Ji-Seoung; Kim, Seon-Young; Jeong, Haeyoung; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Lee, Choong Hoon; Yu, Dong Su; Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Sun-Hyung

2012-01-01

117

YIELD AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF STRAWBERRY TO PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA INOCULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to examine the effect of inoculation of plant growth-promotion Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on phenological data, total yield and fruit quality characteristics of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) cv. ‘Fern’ during 2006 and 2007. All bacterial root inoculations significantly increased yield per plant (1.98–20.85%), average fruit weight (3.05–19.26%) and first quality fruit ratio (10.30–32.05%) compared to control, whereas

Y. Erturk; S. Ercisli; R. Cakmakci

2012-01-01

118

Effect of Trichoderma on plant growth: A balance between inhibition and growth promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of lettuce (Latuca sativa L.) germination and growth in nonsterilized potting compost of 0.1% and 1.0% w\\/w incorporation of fermenter biomass inocula of six strains of Trichoderma was investigated. Except for strains WT and T35 at 0.1 % w\\/w, all inocula inhibited germination. Biomass of strains WT, T35, 20, and 47 at 1.0% promoted shoot fresh weight, whereas

M. A. Ousley; J. M. Lynch; J. M. Whipps

1993-01-01

119

Modelling The Growth of 2G Mobile Services: An Agent Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple agent based model of the growth of GSM mobile subscribers using SDML (strictly declarative modelling language) is described. This model specifically addresses the role of the Short Message Service (SMS) in that growth. Significantly, the agent based approach considers some of the broader socio-economic factors that determine uptake, the complex interactions between the services under consideration and the

D G Mansbridge; L E Sacks

120

Vasoactive agents affect growth and protein synthesis of cultured rat mesangial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vasoactive agents affect growth and protein synthesis of cultured rat mesangial cells. Mesangial cell (MC) proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation are hallmarks of chronic glomerular disease. The present in vitro study examined the effects of the vasoactive agents angiotensin II (Ang II), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and serotonin (5-HT) on growth and protein biosynthesis of cultured rat MCs after 72

Albert Wolthuis; Adriana Boes; H Peter Rodemann; Joris Grond

1992-01-01

121

Transforming growth factor-? activates c-Myc to promote palatal growth.  

PubMed

During palatogenesis, the palatal mesenchyme undergoes increased cell proliferation resulting in palatal growth, elevation and fusion of the two palatal shelves. Interestingly, the palatal mesenchyme expresses all three transforming growth factor (TGF) ? isoforms (1, 2, and 3) throughout these steps of palatogenesis. However, the role of TGF? in promoting proliferation of palatal mesenchymal cells has never been explored. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of TGF? on human embryonic palatal mesenchymal (HEPM) cell proliferation. Our results showed that all isoforms of TGF?, especially TGF?3, increased HEPM cell proliferation by up-regulating the expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases as well as c-Myc oncogene. TGF? activated both Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways to induce c-Myc gene expression. Furthermore, TBE1 is the only functional Smad binding element (SBE) in the c-Myc promoter and Smad4, activated by TGF?, binds to the TBE1 to induce c-Myc gene activity. We conclude that HEPM proliferation is manifested by the induction of c-Myc in response to TGF? signaling, which is essential for complete palatal confluency. Our data highlights the potential role of TGF? as a therapeutic molecule to correct cleft palate by promoting growth. PMID:22573578

Zhu, Xiujuan; Ozturk, Ferhat; Liu, Changchih; Oakley, Gregory G; Nawshad, Ali

2012-10-01

122

Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.  

PubMed

Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2?mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5?-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500?µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5?-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5?µg/mL and 5??M, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth. PMID:22517595

Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

2012-04-20

123

Isolation and screening of phlD (+) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria antagonistic to Ralstonia solanacearum.  

PubMed

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is important widely grown vegetable in India and its productivity is affected by bacterial wilt disease infection caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. To prevent this disease infection a study was conducted to isolate and screen effective plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) antagonistic to R. solanacearum. A total 297 antagonistic bacteria were isolated through dual culture inoculation technique, out of which forty-two antagonistic bacteria were found positive for phlD gene by PCR amplification using two primer sets Phl2a:Phl2b and B2BF:BPR4. The genetic diversity of phlD (+) bacteria was studied by amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis and demonstrated eleven groups at 65% similarity level. Out of these 42 phlD (+) antagonistic isolates, twenty exhibited significantly fair plant growth promoting activities like phosphate solubilization (0.92-5.33%), 25 produced indole acetic acid (1.63-7.78 ?g ml(-1)) and few strains show production of antifungal metabolites (HCN and siderophore). The screening of PGPR (phlD (+)) for suppression of bacterial wilt disease in glass house conditions was showed ten isolated phlD (+) bacteria were able to suppress infection of bacterial wilt disease in tomato plant (var. Arka vikas) in the presence R. solanacearum. The PGPR (phlD (+)) isolates s188, s215 and s288 was observed to be effective plant growth promoter as it shows highest dry weight per plant (3.86, 3.85 and 3.69 g plant(-1) respectively). The complete absence of wilt disease symptoms in tomato crop plants was observed by these treatments compared to negative control. Therefore inoculation of tomato plant with phlD (+) isolate s188 and other similar biocontrol agents may prove to be a positive strategy for checking wilt disease and thus improving plant vigor. PMID:22805950

Ramadasappa, Srinivasamurthy; Rai, Ashwani K; Jaat, Ranjeet Singh; Singh, Aqbal; Rai, Rhitu

2011-12-14

124

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Is a Plant Growth Promotion Factor Produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens B161  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas fluorescens B16 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. To determine the factors involved in plant growth promotion by this organism, we mutagenized wild-type strain B16 using VKm elements and isolated one mutant, K818, which is defective in plant growth promotion, in a rockwool culture system. A cosmid clone, pOK40, which complements the mutant K818, was isolated from a genomic library

Okhee Choi; Jinwoo Kim; Jung-Gun Kim; Yeonhwa Jeong; Jae Sun; Chang Seuk Park; Ingyu Hwang

2008-01-01

125

Rhizobacteria-Mediated Growth Promotion of Tomato Leads to Protection Against Cucumber mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Murphy, J. F., Reddy, M. S., Ryu, C.-M., Kloepper, J. W., and Li, R. 2003. Rhizobacteria-mediated growth promotion of tomato leads to protection against Cucumber mosaic virus. Phytopathology 93:1301- 1307. We evaluated combinations of two strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) formulated with the carrier chitosan for the ability to induce growth promotion of tomato plants and resistance to infection

John F. Murphy; M. S. Reddy; Choong-Min Ryu; Joseph W. Kloepper; Ruhui Li

2003-01-01

126

Protein expression changes in skeletal muscle in response to growth promoter abuse in beef cattle.  

PubMed

The fraudulent treatment of cattle with growth promoting agents (GPAs) is a matter of great concern for the European Union (EU) authorities and consumers. It has been estimated that 10% of animals are being illegally treated in the EU. In contrast, only a much lower percentage of animals (<0.5%) are actually found as being noncompliant by conventional analytical methods. Thus, it has been proposed that methods should be developed that can detect the use of the substances via the biological effects of these substances on target organs, such as the alteration of protein expression profiles. Here we present a study aimed at evaluating if a correlation exists between the treatment with GPAs and alterations in the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) protein pattern obtained from the biceps brachii skeletal muscle from mixed-bred cattle. After image analysis and statistical evaluation, protein spots that differentiate between treated and control groups were selected for analysis by mass spectrometry. A set of proteins could be defined that accurately detect the use of glucocorticoids and ?(2)-agonists as growth promoters through the changes caused in muscle differentiation. As a further validation, we repeated the analysis using an independent set of samples from a strain of pure-bred cattle and verified these proteins by Western blot analysis. PMID:21425879

Stella, Roberto; Biancotto, Giancarlo; Krogh, Morten; Angeletti, Roberto; Pozza, Giandomenico; Sorgato, Maria Catia; James, Peter; Andrighetto, Igino

2011-04-25

127

Solubilization of zinc compounds by the diazotrophic, plant growth promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.  

PubMed

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus an endophytic diazotroph also encountered as rhizosphere bacterium is reported to possess different plant growth promoting characteristics. In this study, we assessed the zinc solubilizing potential of G. diazotrophicus under in vitro conditions with different Zn compounds using glucose or sucrose as carbon sources. G. diazotrophicus showed variations in their solubilization potential with the strains used and the Zn compounds tested. G. diazotrophicus PAl5 efficiently solubilized the Zn compounds tested and ZnO was effectively solubilized than ZnCO(3) or Zn(3)(PO(4))(2). The soluble Zn concentration was determined in the culture supernatant through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Gas chromatography coupled Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed 5-ketogluconic acid, a derivative of gluconic acid as the major organic acid produced by G. diazotrophicus PAl5 cultured with glucose as carbon source. This organic anion may be an important agent that helped in the solubilization of insoluble Zn compounds. PMID:16956644

Saravanan, V S; Madhaiyan, M; Thangaraju, M

2006-09-07

128

Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on young apple tree growth and fruit yield under orchard conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of rootstocks (M9 and MM 106), cultivars (Granny Smith and Stark Spur Golden) and growth promoting rhizobacteria (OSU-142, OSU-7, BA-8 and M-3) on the tree growth and yield at apple (Malus domestica Borkh) trees were studied in a clay loam soil in the eastern Anatolia region of Turkey in 2002–2004. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were capable of

Rafet Aslanta?; Ramazan Çakmakçi; Fikrettin ?ahin

2007-01-01

129

Gibberellin production and plant growth promotion by a newly isolated strain of Gliomastix murorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi are known to play a vital role in the growth and development of their host plants. We isolated eleven endophytic\\u000a fungi from the roots of sand-dune plant Elymus mollis and their growth-promoting ability was studied on waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii. We found that eight fungal isolates promoted growth of both plants. Fungal isolate EM-7-1 induced maximum growth

Sumera Afzal Khan; Muhammad Hamayun; Ho-Youn Kim; Hyeok-Jun Yoon; In-Jung Lee; Jong-Guk Kim

2009-01-01

130

Axon sprouting in the spinal cord: growth promoting and growth inhibitory mechanisms.  

PubMed

After lesions in the central nervous system (CNS), the affected nerve fibers usually cannot regenerate and reconnect to their original target cells. One important reason for this failure to regenerate is the presence of neurite growth inhibitory molecules in the myelin sheath of central nerve fibers. Despite the absence of regeneration fiber growth can occur after CNS lesions from intact nerve fibers unaffected by the lesion. These fibers can form new collaterals and sprout into the region denervated by the lesion, thereby increasing their terminal arbors in a process called collateral sprouting. A certain functional compensation for the nerve fibers lost by the lesion can be achieved by this mechanism. In the spinal cord, collateral sprouting is extensive after lesions in young postnatal animals and decreases with increasing age. In the spinal cord of adult animals, axon sprouting can be observed but is strongly restricted. The factors that determine the amount of sprouting found after lesions at different ages are still largely unknown. Recent evidence suggests that the myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitors that suppress regeneration also restrict collateral sprouting in the spinal cord. In addition, the expression of growth-associated molecules, in particular the growth-associated protein GAP-43, by the sprouting nerve fibers appears to be an important determinant of the sprouting response. The robustness of the sprouting response is thus likely to be controlled by intrinsic growth determinants of the sprouting neuron as well as by the growth promoting and growth inhibitory properties of the microenvironment of the sprouting fibers. PMID:9453362

Kapfhammer, J P

1997-12-01

131

ADAM12 Transmembrane and Secreted Isoforms Promote Breast Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

Increased levels of ADAM12 have been reported in a variety of human cancers. We have previously reported that urinary ADAM12 is predictive of disease status in breast cancer patients and that ADAM12 protein levels in urine increase with progression of disease. On the basis of these findings, the goal of this study was to elucidate the contribution of ADAM12 in breast tumor growth and progression. Overexpression of both the ADAM12-L (transmembrane) and ADAM12-S (secreted) isoforms in human breast tumor cells resulted in a significantly higher rate of tumor take and increased tumor size. Cells expressing the enzymatically inactive form of the secreted isoform, ADAM12-S, had tumor take rates and tumor volumes similar to those of wild-type cells, suggesting that the tumor-promoting activity of ADAM12-S was a function of its proteolytic activity. Of the two isoforms, only the secreted isoform, ADAM12-S, enhanced the ability of tumor cells to migrate and invade in vitro and resulted in a higher incidence of local and distant metastasis in vivo. This stimulatory effect of ADAM12-S on migration and invasion was dependent on its catalytic activity. Expression of both ADAM12 isoforms was found to be significantly elevated in human malignant breast tissue. Taken together, our results suggest that ADAM12 overexpression results in increased tumor take, tumor size, and metastasis in vivo. These findings suggest that ADAM12 may represent a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.

Roy, Roopali; Rodig, Scott; Bielenberg, Diane; Zurakowski, David; Moses, Marsha A.

2011-01-01

132

"GROWTH-PROMOTING SUBSTANCE" AND ELONGATION OF ROOTS.  

PubMed

The vertical elongation of normal roots of Lupinus seedlings proceeds at constant rate over periods of 4 to 5 hours. The decapitation of a root stops its elongation for a variable length of time, followed by a period of renewed elongation at a rate lower than that of the normal root. The tipping of the decapitated root with a tip of a coleoptile of Zea induces a decrease in the rate of elongation of the root. The same effect can be obtained with the diffusate from tips of coleoptile of Avena and to a lesser extent with diffusate of root tips. The reduction in the rate of elongation of the root determined by diffusate from the lower half of the tip of a coleoptile placed horizontally is more pronounced than the inhibition elicited by the diffusate of the upper half of the same tip. Various experiments with the diffusate of tips support the idea that under the conditions used the growth-promoting substance of the coleoptile tip or root tip inhibits the elongation of the decapitated root. PMID:19872734

Navez, A E

1933-05-20

133

Neuregulin1 signaling promotes dendritic spine growth through kalirin.  

PubMed

The biological functions of the neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and ERBB4 genes have received much recent attention due to several studies showing associations between these genes and schizophrenia. Moreover, reduced forebrain dendritic spine density is a consistent feature of schizophrenia. It is thus important to understand the mechanisms whereby NRG1 and erbB4 modulate spine morphogenesis. Here, we show that long-term incubation with NRG1 increases both spine size and density in cortical pyramidal neurons. NRG1 also enhances the content of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors in spines. Knockdown of ERBB4 expression prevented the effects of NRG1 on spine size, but not on spine density. The effects of NRG1 and erbB4 on spines were mediated by the RacGEF kalirin, a well-characterized regulator of dendritic spines. Finally, we show that environmental enrichment, known to promote spine growth, robustly enhances the levels of erbB4 protein in the forebrain. These findings provide a mechanistic link between NRG1 signaling and spine morphogenesis PMID:23742124

Cahill, Michael E; Remmers, Christine; Jones, Kelly A; Xie, Zhong; Sweet, Robert A; Penzes, Peter

2013-06-27

134

Evaluation of cinnamon and garlic as antibiotic growth promoter substitutions on performance, immune responses, serum biochemical and haematological parameters in broiler chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with cinnamon and garlic powder as growth promoter agents on performance, carcase traits, immune responses, serum biochemistry, haematological parameters and thigh meat sensory evaluation in broilers. A total of 288, day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to six treatments with four replicates. The dietary treatments consisted of

Mehdi Toghyani; Majid Toghyani; Abbasali Gheisari; Gholamreza Ghalamkari; Shahin Eghbalsaied

2011-01-01

135

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria affect the growth and nutrient uptake of Fraxinus americana container seedlings.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are important catalysts that regulate the functional properties of agricultural systems. However, there is little information on the effect of PGPR inoculation on the growth and nutrient accumulation of forest container seedlings. This study determined the effects of a growth medium inoculated with PGPR on the nutrient uptake, nutrient accumulation, and growth of Fraxinus americana container seedlings. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the dry matter accumulation of the F. americana aerial parts with delayed seedling emergence time. Under fertilized conditions, the accumulation time of phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) in the F. americana aerial parts was 13 days longer due to PGPR inoculation. PGPR increased the maximum daily P and K accumulations in fertilized seedlings by 9.31 and 10.44 %, respectively, but had little impact on unfertilized ones. Regardless of fertilizer application, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids, and organic acids significantly increased because of PGPR inoculation. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the root, shoot, and leaf yields by 19.65, 22.94, and 19.44 %, respectively, as well as the P and K contents by 8.33 and 10.60 %, respectively. Consequently, the N, P, and K uptakes increased by 19.85, 31.97, and 33.95 %, respectively. Hence, PGPR inoculation with fertilizer can be used as a bioenhancer for plant growth and nutrient uptake in forest container seedling nurseries. PMID:22777281

Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

2012-07-10

136

Variation in growth and ion uptake of maize due to inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity decreases plant growth and photosynthetic activity besides resulting in nutrient imbalance in plants. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can induce plant tolerance to salinity by producing various hormones and enhancing the availability of nutrients from soil matrix. A pot study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different PGPR strains on maize growth and ions uptake under salt

Sajid M. Nadeem; Zahir A. Zahir; M. Naveed; M. Arshad; S. M. Shahzad

2006-01-01

137

The Role of Morphine in Animal Models of Human Cancer: Does Morphine Promote or Inhibit the Tumor Growth?  

PubMed Central

Morphine, a highly potent analgesic agent, is widely used to relieve pain and suffering of patients with cancer. Additionally, it has been reported that morphine is important in the regulation of cancerous tissue. Morphine relieves pain by acting directly on the central nervous system, although its activities on peripheral tissues are responsible for many adverse side effects. For these reasons, it is very important also to understand the role of morphine in cancer treatment. The published literature reporting the effect of morphine on tumor growth presents some discrepancies, with reports suggesting that morphine may either promote or inhibit the tumor growth. It has been also demonstrated that morphine modulates angiogenesis which is important for primary tumour growth, invasiveness, and the development of metastasis. This review will focus on the latest findings on the role of morphine in the regulation of cancer cell growth and angiogenesis.

Bimonte, Sabrina; Barbieri, Antonio; Palma, Giuseppe; Arra, Claudio

2013-01-01

138

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Enterobacter cloacae GS1  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae GS1. This strain proficiently colonizes rice roots and promotes plant growth by improving plant nutrition. Analyses of the E. cloacae GS1 genome will throw light on the genetic factors involved in root colonization, growth promotion, and ecological success of this rhizobacterium.

Shankar, Manoharan; Ponraj, Paramasivan; Ilakiam, Devaraj; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

2012-01-01

139

Genome sequences of two plant growth-promoting fluorescent Pseudomonas strains, R62 and R81.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains R62 and R81 have previously been isolated and characterized as part of the Indo-Swiss Collaboration in Biotechnology. Here we present the draft genome sequences of these two PGPR strains, with the aim of unraveling the mechanisms behind their ability to promote wheat growth. PMID:22628504

Mathimaran, N; Srivastava, R; Wiemken, A; Sharma, A K; Boller, T

2012-06-01

140

History of the Use of Antibiotic as Growth Promoters in European Poultry Feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feeds has been permitted in the member states of the European Union during the last 50 yr. However, concerns about development of antimicrobial resistance and about transference of antibiotic resistance genes from animal to human microbiota, led to withdraw approval for antibiotics as growth promoters in the European Union since January 1,

J. I. R. Castanon

2007-01-01

141

Genome Sequences of Two Plant Growth-Promoting Fluorescent Pseudomonas Strains, R62 and R81  

PubMed Central

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains R62 and R81 have previously been isolated and characterized as part of the Indo-Swiss Collaboration in Biotechnology. Here we present the draft genome sequences of these two PGPR strains, with the aim of unraveling the mechanisms behind their ability to promote wheat growth.

Srivastava, R.; Wiemken, A.; Sharma, A. K.; Boller, T.

2012-01-01

142

Improvement of plant growth and nickel uptake by nickel resistant-plant-growth promoting bacteria.  

PubMed

In this study, among a collection of Ni-resistant bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of Alyssum serpyllifolium and Phleum phleoides grown on serpentine soil, five plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were selected based on their ability to utilize 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) as the sole N source and promote seedling growth. All of the strains tested positive for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and phosphate solubilization. In addition, four of the strains exhibited significant levels of siderophores production. Further, the efficiency of PGPB in enhancing Ni solubilization in soils was analyzed. Compared with control treatment, inoculation of PGPB strains significantly increased the concentrations of bioavailable Ni. Furthermore, a pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of inoculating Ni-resistant PGPB on the plant growth and the uptake of Ni by Brassica juncea and B. oxyrrhina in soil contaminated with 450 mg kg(-1) Ni. Psychrobacter sp. SRA2 significantly increased the fresh (351%) and dry biomass (285%) of the B. juncea test plants (p<0.05), whereas Psychrobacter sp. SRA1 and Bacillus cereus SRA10 significantly increased the accumulation of Ni in the root and shoot tissues of B. juncea compared with non-inoculated controls. This result indicates that the strains SRA1 and SRA10 facilitated the release of Ni from the non-soluble phases in the soil, thus enhancing the availability of Ni to plants. A significant increase, greater than that of the control, was also noted for growth parameters of the B. oxyrrhina test plants when the seeds were treated with strain SRA2. This effect can be attributed to the utilization of ACC, solubilization of phosphate and production of IAA. The results of the study revealed that the inoculation of Ni mobilizing strains Psychrobacter sp. SRA1 and B. cereus SRA10 increases the efficiency of phytoextraction directly by enhancing the metal accumulation in plant tissues and the efficient PGPB, Psychrobacter sp. SRA2 increases indirectly by promoting the growth of B. juncea and B. oxyrrhina. PMID:19147283

Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Freitas, Helena

2008-12-07

143

Colonization of Arabidopsis roots by Trichoderma atroviride promotes growth and enhances systemic disease resistance through jasmonic acid\\/ethylene and salicylic acid pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma spp. are common soil fungi used as biocontrol agents due to their capacity to produce antibiotics, induce systemic resistance\\u000a in plants and parasitize phytopathogenic fungi of major agricultural importance. The present study investigated whether colonization\\u000a of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings by Trichoderma atroviride affected plant growth and development. Here it is shown that T. atroviride promotes growth in Arabidopsis. Moreover,

Miguel Angel Salas-Marina; Miguel Angel Silva-Flores; Edith Elena Uresti-Rivera; Ernestina Castro-Longoria; Alfredo Herrera-Estrella; Sergio Casas-Flores

144

INFLUENCE NETWORK AGENT EFFECTIVENESS IN PROMOTING COUPLES' HIV COUNSELING AND TESTING IN KIGALI, RWANDA  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify predictors of promotion of couples’ voluntary counseling and testing (CVCT) in Kigali, Rwanda Design Analysis of CVCT promotional agent (influential network leaders, INLs; influential network agents, INAs), and couple/invitation-level predictors of CVCT uptake. Methods Number of invitations and couples tested were evaluated by INL, INA, and couple/contextual factors. Multivariable logistic regression accounting for two-level clustering analyzed factors predictive of couples’ testing. Results 26 INLs recruited and mentored 118 INAs who delivered 24,991 invitations. 4,513 couples sought CVCT services after invitation. INAs distributed an average of 212 invitations resulting in an average of 38 couples tested/agent. Characteristics predictive of CVCT in multivariate analyses included the invitee and INA being socially acquainted (aOR=1.4;95%CI:1.2–1.6); invitations delivered after public endorsement (aOR=1.3;95%CI:1.1–1.5); and presence of a mobile testing unit (aOR=1.4;95%CI:1.0–2.0). In stratified analyses, predictors significant among cohabiting couples included invitation delivery to the couple (aOR=1.2;95%CI:1.0–1.4) in the home (aOR=1.3;95%CI:1.1–1.4), while among non-cohabiting couples predictors included invitations given by unemployed INAs (aOR=1.7;95%CI:1.1–2.7). Cohabiting couples with older men were more likely to test, while younger age was associated with testing among men in non-cohabiting unions. Conclusions Invitations distributed by influential people were successful in prompting couples to seek joint HIV testing, particularly if the invitation was given in the home to someone known to the INA, and accompanied by a public endorsement of CVCT. Mobile units also increased the number of couples tested. Country-specific strategies to promote CVCT programs are needed to reduce HIV transmission among those at highest risk for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

Wall, Kristin; Karita, Etienne; Nizam, Azhar; Bekan, Brigitte; Sardar, Gurkiran; Casanova, Debbie; Joseph, Dvora; De Clercq, Freya; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Bayingana, Roger; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

2013-01-01

145

Inside the root microbiome: Bacterial root endophytes and plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Bacterial root endophytes reside in a vast number of plant species as part of their root microbiome, with some being shown to positively influence plant growth. Endophyte community structure (species diversity: richness and relative abundances) within the plant is dynamic and is influenced by abiotic and biotic factors such as soil conditions, biogeography, plant species, microbe-microbe interactions and plant-microbe interactions, both at local and larger scales. Plant-growth-promoting bacterial endophytes (PGPBEs) have been identified, but the predictive success at positively influencing plant growth in field conditions has been limited. Concurrent to the development of modern molecular techniques, the goal of predicting an organism's ability to promote plant growth can perhaps be realized by more thorough examination of endophyte community dynamics. This paper reviews the drivers of endophyte community structure relating to plant growth promotion, the mechanisms of plant growth promotion, and the current and future use of molecular techniques to study these communities. PMID:23935113

Gaiero, Jonathan R; McCall, Crystal A; Thompson, Karen A; Day, Nicola J; Best, Anna S; Dunfield, Kari E

2013-08-08

146

Growth promotion of cucumber by pure cultures of gibberellin-producing Phoma sp. GAH7  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beneficial effects of plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) on plant growth and development are well documented. However,\\u000a limited information is available on gibberellin (GA) production capacity of PGPF of endophytic origin. In current study, 11\\u000a fungal endophytes were isolated from cucumber roots and then screened on Waito-C rice, in order to identify plant growth promoting\\u000a fungal strains. The fungal

Muhammad Hamayun; Sumera Afzal Khan; Abdul Latif Khan; Dong-Sheng Tang; Javid Hussain; Bashir Ahmad; Yasir Anwar; In-Jung Lee

2010-01-01

147

Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil bacteria are very important in biogeochemical cycles and have been used for crop production for decades. Plant–bacterial\\u000a interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health and soil fertility. Free-living soil bacteria beneficial\\u000a to plant growth, usually referred to as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), are capable of promoting plant growth\\u000a by colonizing the plant root. PGPR are

Rifat Hayat; Safdar Ali; Ummay Amara; Rabia Khalid; Iftikhar Ahmed

2010-01-01

148

Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producing soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria that contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase facilitate plant\\u000a growth and development by decreasing plant ethylene levels, especially following a variety of environmental stresses. In this\\u000a review, the physiological basis for this growth-promotion effect is examined in some detail. In addition, models are presented\\u000a that endeavour to explain (i) the seemingly paradoxical effects of ethylene on a

Bernard R. Glick; Zhenyu Cheng; Jennifer Czarny; Jin Duan

2007-01-01

149

Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producing soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plant growth-promoting bacteria that contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase facilitate plant\\u000a growth and development by decreasing plant ethylene levels, especially following a variety of environmental stresses. In this\\u000a review, the physiological basis for this growth-promotion effect is examined in some detail. In addition, models are presented\\u000a that endeavour to explain (i) the seemingly paradoxical effects of ethylene on a

Bernard R. Glick; Zhenyu Cheng; Jennifer Czarny; Jin Duan

150

Growth promotion ability of zoysiagrass rhizosphere fungi in consecutive plantings of wheat and soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several isolates ofPhoma sp., certain nonsporulating fungi, as well asPenicillium andTrichoderma, all isolated from zoysiagrass rhizosphere, promoted growth of wheat and soybean under greenhouse conditions. However, the\\u000a ability of these rhizosphere fungi to enhance plant growth varied with the crop tested. For example, most of the fungi effectively\\u000a promoted the growth of wheat, whereas only a few fungi were effective

Manchanahally Byrappa Shivanna; Manchanahally Shivanna Meera; Koji Kageyama; Mitsuro Hyakumachi

1996-01-01

151

Growth and Allocation of Resources in Economics: The Agent-Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some agent-based models for growth and allocation of resources are described. The first class considered consists of conservative models, where the number of agents and the size of resources are constant during time evolution. The second class is made up of multiplicative noise models and some of their extensions to continuous-time. In this paper, we present a survey on some

Enrico Scalasa; Mauro Gallegatic; Eric Guercid; David Mase; Alessandra Tedeschif

152

Firms formation and growth in the model with heterogeneous agents and monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we extend the agent-based model of firms' formation and growth proposed in [4]. In [4] the firms creation, expansion or contraction results from the interaction of heterogeneous utility maximizers. While the original model was able to replicate the power law distribution in the firms' sizes agents in the model set their utility maximizing effort levels completely freely

Peter Marko

2008-01-01

153

PROBIOTICS: GROWTH-PROMOTING FACTORS PRODUCED BY MICROORGANISMS.  

PubMed

Several species of protozoa, during their logarithmic phases of growth, produce substances that prolong the logarithmic phase in other species. The effect is not as striking as the inhibition of growth caused by antibiotics, but a consistent 50-percent increase in growth has been obtained with Tetrahymena pyriformis in response to a factor produced by Colpidium campylum. PMID:14242024

LILLY, D M; STILLWELL, R H

1965-02-12

154

Auxin promotes Arabidopsis root growth by modulating gibberellin response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of plant organs is influenced by a stream of the phytohormone auxin that flows from the shoot apex to the tip of the root. However, until now it has not been known how auxin regulates the cell proliferation and enlargement that characterizes organ growth. Here we show that auxin controls the growth of roots by modulating cellular responses

Xiangdong Fu; Nicholas P. Harberd

2003-01-01

155

Endophytic bacteria isolated from orchid and their potential to promote plant growth.  

PubMed

Twelve endophytic bacteria were isolated from the meristem of in vitro Cymbidium eburneum orchid, and screened according to indole yield quantified by colorimetric assay, in vitro phosphate solubilization, and potential for plant growth promotion under greenhouse conditions. Eight strains with positive results were classified into the genus Paenibacillus by FAME profile, and evaluated for their ability to increase survival and promote the growth of in vitro germinated Cattleya loddigesii seedlings during the acclimatization process. The obtained results showed that all strains produced detectable indole levels and did not exhibit potential for solubilizing inorganic phosphate. Particularly, an increase of the total biomass and number of leaves was observed. Two strains of Paenibacillus macerans promoted plant growth under greenhouse conditions. None of the treatments had a deleterious effect on growth of inoculated plants. These results suggest that these bacterial effects could be potentially useful to promote plant growth during seedling acclimatization in orchid species other than the species of origin. PMID:23014841

Faria, Deise Cristina; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Melo, Itamar Soares; de Carvalho Costa, Francisco Eduardo

2012-09-27

156

Effects of Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Yield, Growth, and Some Physiological Characteristics of Wheat and Barley Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009 a greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effects of boron (B) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments, applied either alone or in combination, on yield, plant growth, leaf total chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, membrane leakage, and leaf relative water content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Bezostiya) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Tokak) plants. Results showed

Metin Turan; Medine Gulluce; Fikrettin ?ahin

2012-01-01

157

The effect of plant growth promoting bacteria on growth and nutrient uptake of maize in two different soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of ecological conditions effecting on bacterial inoculants is important when introducing microbes for increasing plant growth and productivity. In this study the influence of two different soil types on the stimulatory effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for maize was investigated. The investigations were carried out in pot experiments with calcareous calcisol soil taken from Sirdarya, Uzbekistan and

Dilfuza Egamberdiyeva

2007-01-01

158

Growth promotion of ivy (Hedera helix L.) by paclobutrazol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paclobutrazol was applied to juvenile ivy plants in an attempt to induce the mature form by the inhibition of gibberellin biosynthesis. Contrary to expectation, shoot elongation and adventitious root formation on aerial shoots were promoted.

Barbara A. Horrell; Paula E. Jameson; Peter Bannister

1989-01-01

159

Effect of Growth Rate on Resistance of Candida albicans Biofilms to Antifungal Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A perfused biofilm fermentor, which allows growth-rate control of adherent microbial populations, was used to assess whether the susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to antifungal agents is dependent on growth rate. Biofilms were generated under conditions of glucose limitation and were perfused with drugs at a high concentration (20 times the MIC). Amphotericin B produced a greater reduction in the

GEORGE S. BAILLIE; L. JULIA DOUGLAS

1998-01-01

160

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-Enriched Bio-organic Fertilizer Suppressed Fusarium Wilt and Promoted the Growth of Banana Plants.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-04-10

161

Plant-growth promoting effect of newly isolated rhizobacteria varies between two Arabidopsis ecotypes  

PubMed Central

Various rhizobacteria are known for their beneficial effects on plants, i. e. promotion of growth and induction of systemic resistance against pathogens. These bacteria are categorized as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and are associated with plant roots. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of plant growth promotion in vivo is still very limited, but interference of bacteria with plant hormone metabolism is suggested to play a major role. To obtain new growth promoting bacteria, we started a quest for rhizobacteria that are naturally associated to Arabidopsis thaliana. A suite of native root-associated bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized roots of the Arabidopsis ecotype Gol-1 derived from a field site near Golm (Berlin area, Germany). We found several Pseudomonas and a Microbacterium species and tested these for growth promotion effects on the Arabidopsis ecotypes Gol-1 and Col-0, and for growth-promotion associated traits, such as auxin production, ACC deaminase activity and phosphate solubilization capacity. We showed that two of the bacteria strains promote plant growth with respect to rosette diameter, stalk length and accelerate development and that the effects were greater when bacteria were applied to Col-0 compared with Gol-1. Furthermore, the capability of promoting growth was not explained by the tested metabolic properties of the bacteria, suggesting that further bacterial traits are required. The natural variation of growth effects, combined with the extensive transgenic approaches available for the model plant Arabidopsis, will build a valuable tool to augment our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the natural Arabidopsis - PGPR association.

Schwachtje, Jens; Karojet, Silke; Kunz, Sabine; Brouwer, Stephan; van Dongen, Joost T.

2012-01-01

162

Plant-growth promoting effect of newly isolated rhizobacteria varies between two Arabidopsis ecotypes.  

PubMed

Various rhizobacteria are known for their beneficial effects on plants, i. e. promotion of growth and induction of systemic resistance against pathogens. These bacteria are categorized as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and are associated with plant roots. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of plant growth promotion in vivo is still very limited, but interference of bacteria with plant hormone metabolism is suggested to play a major role. To obtain new growth promoting bacteria, we started a quest for rhizobacteria that are naturally associated to Arabidopsis thaliana. A suite of native root-associated bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized roots of the Arabidopsis ecotype Gol-1 derived from a field site near Golm (Berlin area, Germany). We found several Pseudomonas and a Microbacterium species and tested these for growth promotion effects on the Arabidopsis ecotypes Gol-1 and Col-0, and for growth-promotion associated traits, such as auxin production, ACC deaminase activity and phosphate solubilization capacity. We showed that two of the bacteria strains promote plant growth with respect to rosette diameter, stalk length and accelerate development and that the effects were greater when bacteria were applied to Col-0 compared with Gol-1. Furthermore, the capability of promoting growth was not explained by the tested metabolic properties of the bacteria, suggesting that further bacterial traits are required. The natural variation of growth effects, combined with the extensive transgenic approaches available for the model plant Arabidopsis, will build a valuable tool to augment our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the natural Arabidopsis - PGPR association. PMID:22580689

Schwachtje, Jens; Karojet, Silke; Kunz, Sabine; Brouwer, Stephan; van Dongen, Joost T

2012-05-14

163

Effects of floral and foliar application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield, growth and nutrition of sweet cherry  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2003 and 2005, plant growth promoting effects of Pseudomonas BA-8 and Bacillus OSU-142 were tested alone or combinations on sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cv. 0900 Ziraat in terms of yield, growth, nutrient composition of leaves in the province of Konya, Turkey. The presence of Pseudomonas BA-8, Bacillus OSU-142 and BA-8+OSU-142 stimulated plant growth and resulted in significant yield

Ahmet Esitken; Lutfi Pirlak; Metin Turan; Fikrettin Sahin

2006-01-01

164

Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat roots by wheat germ agglutinin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate.  

PubMed

Thirty-two isolates were obtained from wheat rhizosphere by wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). Most isolates were able to produce indole acetic acid (65.6%) and siderophores (59.3%), as well as exhibited phosphate solubilization (96.8%). Fourteen isolates displayed three plant growth-promoting traits. Among these strains, two phosphate-dissolving ones, WS29 and WS31, were evaluated for their beneficial effects on the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum Wan33). Strain WS29 and WS31 significantly promoted the development of lateral roots by 34.9% and 27.6%, as well as increased the root dry weight by 25.0% and 25.6%, respectively, compared to those of the control. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons and phylogenetic positions, both isolates were determined to belong to the genus Bacillus. The proportion of isolates showing the properties of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) was higher than in previous reports. The efficiency of the isolation of PGPR strains was also greatly increased by WGA labeled with FITC. The present study indicated that WGA could be used as an effective tool for isolating PGPR strains with high affinity to host plants from wheat roots. The proposed approach could facilitate research on biofertilizers or biocontrol agents. PMID:22538646

Zhang, Jian; Liu, Jingyang; Meng, Liyuan; Ma, Zhongyou; Tang, Xinyun; Cao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Leni

2012-04-27

165

Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and kinetin as ways to promote corn growth and yield in a short-growing-season area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The base temperature for germination of corn is approximately 10°C, which results in slow germination and emergence of corn crops sown into cool soils. The effects of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and kinetin on grain and sweet corn emergence, plant growth and yield were studied under short season conditions in 1996 and 1997. Two PGPR strains (Serratia proteamaculans 1-102 and Serratia

B. Pan; Y. M. Bai; S. Leibovitch; D. L. Smith

1999-01-01

166

Uptake of phosphate and promotion of vegetative growth in glucose-exuding rice plants ( Oryza sativa) inoculated with plant growth-promoting bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured phosphorus uptake by rice plants inoculated with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) using Pseudomonas sp. strain PAC, Serratia sp. strain CMR165, and Azospirillum brasilense strain FT326. We measured plant growth parameters and phosphate solubilization and uptake. Results show that the ability to solubilize phosphates varied among PGPB strains. Strain FT326 was unable to solubilize phosphates. In the presence of

Magalí Nico; Claudia M. Ribaudo; Juan I. Gori; María L. Cantore; José A. Curá

167

Coccidia-induced mucogenesis promotes the onset of necrotic enteritis by supporting Clostridium perfringens growth.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that a host mucogenic response to an intestinal coccidial infection promotes the onset of necrotic enteritis (NE). A chick NE model was used in which birds were inoculated with Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima and subsequently with Clostridium perfringens (EAM/CP). A second group of EAM/CP-infected birds was treated with the ionophore narasin (NAR/EAM/CP). These groups were compared to birds that were either non-infected (NIF), or infected only with E. acervulina and E. maxima (EAM), or C. perfringens (CP). The impact of intestinal coccidial infection and anti-coccidial treatment on host immune responses and microbial community structure were evaluated with histochemical-, cultivation- and molecular-based techniques. Barrier function was compromised in EAM/CP-infected birds as indicated by elevated CFUs for anaerobic bacteria and C. perfringens in the spleen when compared to NIF controls at day 20, with a subsequent increase in intestinal NE lesions and mortality at day 22. These results correlate positively with a host inflammatory response as evidenced by increased ileal interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma RNA expression. Concurrent increases in chicken intestinal mucin RNA expression, and goblet cell number and theca size indicate that EAM/CP induced an intestinal mucogenic response. Correspondingly, the growth of mucolytic bacteria and C. perfringens as well as alpha toxin production was greatest in EAM/CP-infected birds. The ionophore narasin, which directly eliminates coccidia, reduced goblet cell theca size, IL-10 and IFN-gamma expression, the growth of mucolytic bacteria including C. perfringens, coccidial and NE lesions and mortality in birds that were co-infected with coccidia and C. perfringens. Collectively the data support the hypothesis that coccidial infection induces a host mucogenic response providing a growth advantage to C. perfringens, the causative agent of NE. PMID:18068809

Collier, C T; Hofacre, C L; Payne, A M; Anderson, D B; Kaiser, P; Mackie, R I; Gaskins, H R

2007-12-19

168

Has Widening Inequality Promoted or Retarded US Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States has recently enjoyed faster economic growth than any other large industrialized country. The US also has the highest level of inequality among the G7 countries and has seen inequality increase faster than most other industrialized nations. The combination of rapid American economic growth and high and rising US inequality raises a question: Has rising inequality contributed to

Gary Burtless

2003-01-01

169

Do Natural Disasters Promote Long-Run Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we investigate the long-run relationships among disasters, capital accumulation, total factor productivity, and economic growth. The cross-country empirical analysis demonstrates that higher frequencies of climatic disasters are correlated with higher rates of human capital accumulation, increases in total factor productivity, and economic growth. Though disaster risk reduces the expected rate of return to physical capital, risk also

Mark Skidmore; Hideki Toya

2002-01-01

170

Growth Monitoring and Promotion: The Behavioral Issues. Behavioral Issues in Child Survival Programs: Monograph Number Six.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite its potential for reducing infant mortality, growth monitoring and promotion (GM/P) has been very difficult to implement due to the need for active involvement of mothers, health workers, and the community in its implementation. The monograph, the...

A. Brownlee

1990-01-01

171

Promotion of plant growth by phytohormone-producing endophytic microbes of sugar beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three plant-growth-promoting isolates of endophytic bacteria from sugar beet roots produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in\\u000a vitro in a chemically defined medium. The three isolates were selected from 221 endophytic bacteria isolated from surface-disinfected\\u000a beet roots and evaluated for potential to produce IAA and to promote beet growth under gnotobiotic and glasshouse conditions.\\u000a The inoculation of roots of beet by three

Yingwu Shi; Kai Lou; Chun Li

2009-01-01

172

Plant growth-promoting bacteria that confer resistance to water stress in tomatoes and peppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work reported here evaluates whether bacteria populating arid and salty environments can confer resistance in tomato and pepper plants to water stress. Plant growth-promoting bacteria that have ACC deaminase activity were isolated from soil samples taken from the Arava region of southern Israel. One of these strains, Achromobacter piechaudii ARV8 [Mayak et al., Plant growth-promoting bacteria that confer resistance

Shimon Mayak; Tsipora Tirosh; Bernard R. Glick

2004-01-01

173

A Model For the Lowering of Plant Ethylene Concentrations by Plant Growth-promoting Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was previously shown that a number of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria contain an enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, that catalyses the cleavage of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, the immediate precursor of ethylene in plants. Moreover, experimental evidence indicated that the activity of this enzyme was the key factor in the ability of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to stimulate the elongation of plant roots. In

Bernard R. Glick; Donna M. Penrose; Jiping Li

1998-01-01

174

Effects of inoculation of plant-growth promoting bacteria on Ni uptake by Indian mustard  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, among a collection of Ni resistant bacterial strains isolated from serpentine soil, two plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), Ps29C and Bm4C were selected based on their ability to utilize ACC as the sole N source and promote seedling growth in roll towel assay. The Ni resistant PGPB, Ps29C and Bm4C were characterized as Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus

Mani Rajkumar; Helena Freitas

2008-01-01

175

Bacillus megaterium strain XTBG34 promotes plant growth by producing 2-pentylfuran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several chemical changes in soil are associated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. An endosporeforming bacterium,\\u000a strain XTBG34, was isolated from a Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden soil sample and identified as Bacillus megaterium. The strain’s volatiles had remarkable plant growth promotion activity in Arabidopsis thaliana plants; after 15 days treatment, the fresh weight of plants inoculated with XTBG34 was almost 2-fold compared

Changsong Zou; Zhifang Li; Diqiu Yu

2010-01-01

176

Plant growth-promoting activities of fluorescent pseudomonads, isolated from the Iranian soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent pseudomonads are among the most influencing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in plants rhizosphere. In this\\u000a research work the plant growth-promoting activities of 40 different strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas\\u000a putida, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) and maintained in the microbial collection of Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran, Iran,

P. Abbas-Zadeh; N. Saleh-Rastin; H. Asadi-Rahmani; K. Khavazi; A. Soltani; A. R. Shoary-Nejati; Mohammad Miransari

2010-01-01

177

Antifungal Compounds of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Its Action Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are bacteria that colonize plant roots and then promote plant growth and\\/or reduce\\u000a disease or insect damage via exudation of some active metabolites. Antagonistic PGPR have attracted much attention in their\\u000a role in reducing plant diseases, especially strains of the genus Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Burkholdeira, and there is now an increasing number of PGPR being

C. Quan; X. Wang; S. Fan

178

Biosensor-based detection of reduced sex hormone-binding globulin binding capacities in response to growth-promoter administrations.  

PubMed

Growth-promoting agents are illicitly used during animal rearing processes and the detection of their use is limited by new compounds and dosing practices that limit the efficiency of current testing which is based on residue analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology. An alternative approach is to use indirect biological evidence as a screening tool to identify growth-promoter treated animals thus improving the effectiveness of residue testing through the targeted sampling of these animals. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein which binds and controls the levels of sex-hormones within the circulation. Using a biosensor assay based on measurement of binding to an immobilised 1alpha-dihydrotestosterone (1alpha-DHT) derivative, reduced SHBG binding capacities were detected in growth-promoter treated animals. During the course of a veal treatment regime based on repeated oestradiol benzoate, nortestosterone decanoate and dexamethasone administrations, treated male and female calves were shown to have significantly lower SHBG capacities. To assess the effectiveness of using SHBG binding capacities as a biomarker of treatment and to investigate the role of individual growth-promoter components to the SHBG capacity lowering effects, adult heifer animals were subjected to repeated doses of nortestosterone decanoate. These animals also demonstrated a reduction in SHBG capacity levels at Day 39 of the study, in contrast to oestradiol benzoate treated adult steers who were found to have unaltered levels. These findings suggest that the measurement of SHBG binding capacities using a biosensor assay has potential in the identification of illegally treated animals, particularly those exposed to androgens. PMID:19286035

Mooney, Mark H; Bergwerff, Aldert A; van Meeuwen, Jeroen A; Luppa, Peter B; Elliott, Chris T

2008-08-28

179

Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor Treatment Promotes VEGF-A-Driven Blood Vessel Growth and Vascular Leakage but Disrupts Neovascular Perfusion  

PubMed Central

The Notch signaling pathway is essential for normal development due to its role in control of cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. It is also critically involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. A key enzyme in the activation of Notch signaling is the gamma-secretase protein complex and therefore, gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs)—originally developed for Alzheimer's disease—are now being evaluated in clinical trials for human malignancies. It is also clear that Notch plays an important role in angiogenesis driven by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A)—a process instrumental for tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of GSIs on tumor vasculature has not been conclusively determined. Here we report that Compound X (CX), a GSI previously reported to potently inhibit Notch signaling in vitro and in vivo, promotes angiogenic sprouting in vitro and during developmental angiogenesis in mice. Furthermore, CX treatment suppresses tumor growth in a mouse model of renal carcinoma, leads to the formation of abnormal vessels and an increased tumor vascular density. Using a rabbit model of VEGF-A-driven angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, we demonstrate that CX treatment promotes abnormal blood vessel growth characterized by vessel occlusion, disrupted blood flow, and increased vascular leakage. Based on these findings, we propose a model for how GSIs and other Notch inhibitors disrupt tumor blood vessel perfusion, which might be useful for understanding this new class of anti-cancer agents.

Kalen, Mattias; Nitzsche, Anja; Weber, Holger; Esser, Norbert; Yla-Herttuala, Seppo; Hellstrom, Mats

2011-01-01

180

Gamma-secretase inhibitor treatment promotes VEGF-A-driven blood vessel growth and vascular leakage but disrupts neovascular perfusion.  

PubMed

The Notch signaling pathway is essential for normal development due to its role in control of cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. It is also critically involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. A key enzyme in the activation of Notch signaling is the gamma-secretase protein complex and therefore, gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs)--originally developed for Alzheimer's disease--are now being evaluated in clinical trials for human malignancies. It is also clear that Notch plays an important role in angiogenesis driven by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A)--a process instrumental for tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of GSIs on tumor vasculature has not been conclusively determined. Here we report that Compound X (CX), a GSI previously reported to potently inhibit Notch signaling in vitro and in vivo, promotes angiogenic sprouting in vitro and during developmental angiogenesis in mice. Furthermore, CX treatment suppresses tumor growth in a mouse model of renal carcinoma, leads to the formation of abnormal vessels and an increased tumor vascular density. Using a rabbit model of VEGF-A-driven angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, we demonstrate that CX treatment promotes abnormal blood vessel growth characterized by vessel occlusion, disrupted blood flow, and increased vascular leakage. Based on these findings, we propose a model for how GSIs and other Notch inhibitors disrupt tumor blood vessel perfusion, which might be useful for understanding this new class of anti-cancer agents. PMID:21533193

Kalén, Mattias; Heikura, Tommi; Karvinen, Henna; Nitzsche, Anja; Weber, Holger; Esser, Norbert; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Hellström, Mats

2011-04-14

181

Understanding Youth Development: Promoting Positive Pathways of Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For more than two decades, the Family and Youth Services Bureau (FYSB) has been promoting the strengths of an approach known as positive youth development. That approach suggests that each community must create a vision of what it wants for all young peop...

1997-01-01

182

Promoters maintain their relative activity levels under different growth conditions.  

PubMed

Most genes change expression levels across conditions, but it is unclear which of these changes represents specific regulation and what determines their quantitative degree. Here, we accurately measured activities of ?900 S. cerevisiae and ?1800 E. coli promoters using fluorescent reporters. We show that in both organisms 60-90% of promoters change their expression between conditions by a constant global scaling factor that depends only on the conditions and not on the promoter's identity. Quantifying such global effects allows precise characterization of specific regulation-promoters deviating from the global scale line. These are organized into few functionally related groups that also adhere to scale lines and preserve their relative activities across conditions. Thus, only several scaling factors suffice to accurately describe genome-wide expression profiles across conditions. We present a parameter-free passive resource allocation model that quantitatively accounts for the global scaling factors. It suggests that many changes in expression across conditions result from global effects and not specific regulation, and provides means for quantitative interpretation of expression profiles. PMID:24169404

Keren, Leeat; Zackay, Ora; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Barenholz, Uri; Dekel, Erez; Sasson, Vered; Aidelberg, Guy; Bren, Anat; Zeevi, Danny; Weinberger, Adina; Alon, Uri; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

2013-10-29

183

Thymidine Phosphorylase is Angiogenic and Promotes Tumor Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor was previously identified as the sole angiogenic activity present in platelets; it is now known to be thymidine phosphorylase (TP). The effect of TP on [methyl-^3H]thymidine uptake does not arise from de novo DNA synthesis and the molecule is not a growth factor. Despite this, TP is strongly angiogenic in a rat sponge and freeze-injured

Amir Moghaddam; Hua-Tang Zhang; Tai-Ping D. Fan; De-En Hu; Vivien C. Lees; Helen Turley; Stephen B. Fox; Kevin C. Gatter; Adrian L. Harris; Roy Bicknell

1995-01-01

184

Role of metal resistant plant growth promoting bacteria in ameliorating fly ash to the growth of Brassica juncea.  

PubMed

In this study, we have shown that the plant growth promoting bacterial strain NBRI K24 and strain NBRI K3 from fly ash (FA) contaminated soil reduce the toxicity of Ni and Cr in Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and promote plant growth under pot culture experiments. Isolated strains NBRI K24 and NBRI K3 were characterized based on the 16S rDNA sequencing and identified as Enterobacter aerogenes and Rahnella aquatilis respectively. Both the strains were siderophore producing and found capable of stimulating plant biomass and enhance phytoextraction of metals (Ni and Cr) from FA by metal accumulating plant i.e. B. juncea. Concurrent production of siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA) and phosphate solubilization revealed their plant growth promotion potential. PMID:19487076

Kumar, Kalpna V; Srivastava, Shubhi; Singh, N; Behl, H M

2009-05-09

185

Isolation and characterization of new plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Those bacterial endophytes that also provide some benefit to plants may be considered to be plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and can facilitate plant growth by a number of different mechanisms. In the work that is reported here, soil samples from several locales around the world were used as a starting point for the isolation of new endophytes. Subsequently, those newly

Shimaila Rashid; Trevor C. Charles; Bernard R. Glick

186

PROMOTION OF PLANT GROWTH BY SOIL BACTERIA THAT REGULATE PLANT ETHYLENE LEVELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the central the mechanisms used by many soil bacteria to directly promote plant growth is the production of the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. This enzyme facilitates plant growth as a consequence of the fact that it sequesters and cleaves plant- produced ACC (the immediate precursor of ethylene in plants), thereby lowering the level of ethylene in the plant.

Bernard R. Glick

187

Evaluating Pseudomonas aeruginosa as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some parameters of growth were examined in three test crops as indices of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Crops include Abelmoschus esculentus L. (okra), Lycopersicon esculentum L. (tomato) and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach). This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of PGPR in West Africa and determine whether the inoculation method has an impact on PGPR's effectiveness.

Anthony O. Adesemoye; Esther O. Ugoji

2009-01-01

188

Brain peptides and glial growth. II. Identification of cells that secrete glia-promoting factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glia-promoting factors (GPFs) are brain peptides which stimulate growth of specific macroglial populations in vitro. To identify the cellular sources of GPFs, we examined enriched brain cell cultures and cell lines derived from the nervous system for the production of growth factors. Ameboid microglia se- creted astroglia-stimulating peptides, while growing neurons were the best source of the oligodendroglia- stimulating factors.

Dana Giulian; Douglas G. Young

1986-01-01

189

Interactions of feed enzymes and antibiotic growth promoters on broiler performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Addition of enzymes to broiler feed, particularly those containing high levels of wheat and fat, have given useful benefits even in the presence of antibiotic growth promoters. Enzyme supplementation frequently gives improved litter conditions and better overall growth performance. Some of these benefits come from improvement in fat digestibility which is frequently observed in feeds treated with enzymes.

C. A. Adams

190

Complete Genome of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1  

SciTech Connect

We report the complete sequence of the 5.7-Mbp genome of Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1, a metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that is highly tolerant to desiccation and capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and iron and of synthesizing phytohormones that stimulate seed germination and plant growth.

Matilla, M.A.; van der Lelie, D.; Pizarro-Tobias, P.; Roca, A.; Fernandez, M.; Duque, E.; Molina, L.; Wu, X.; Gomez, M. J.; Segura, A.; Ramos, J.-L.

2011-03-01

191

Characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria associated with chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to influence plant growth by various direct or indirect mechanisms. In search of efficient PGPR strains with multiple activities, a total of 150 bacterial isolates belonging to Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Azotobacter and Rhizobium were isolated from different rhizospheric soil of chick pea in the vicinity of Allahabad. These test isolates were biochemically characterized and

B. Joseph; R. Ranjan Patra; R. Lawrence

2007-01-01

192

Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: role of visual presence and appearance  

PubMed Central

Anthropomorphic virtual agents can serve as powerful technological mediators to impact motivational outcomes such as self-efficacy and attitude change. Such anthropomorphic agents can be designed as simulated social models in the Bandurian sense, providing social influence as virtual ‘role models’. Of particular value is the capacity for designing such agents as optimized social models for a target audience and context. Importantly, the visual presence and appearance of such agents can have a major impact on motivation and affect regardless of the underlying technical sophistication. Empirical results of different instantiations of agent presence and appearance are reviewed for both autonomous virtual agents and avatars that represent a user.

Baylor, Amy L.

2009-01-01

193

A hair growth-promoting effect of Chinese black tea extract in mice.  

PubMed

Chinese black tea extract (CBTE) fermented with Aspergillus sp. significantly promoted hair growth after 2 weeks of topical application in shaved 6 week-old male C3H/He mice. The hair growth-promoting effect of CBTE was potentiated synergistically by capsaicin, which has no effect on hair growth by itself. CBTE displayed an affinity for estrogen receptor (ER)?, with an IC50 value of 74.8 µg/mL. This effect of CBTE might be mediated by the ERs, since a similar effect induced by orally administered soy isoflavone, a mixture of ERs ligands, has been reported to be synergistically potentiated by capsaicin. PMID:23832356

Hou, I-Ching; Oi, Yasuyuki; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Yano, Yoshihisa; Fukami, Harukazu; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

2013-07-07

194

Effects of inoculation of plant-growth promoting bacteria on Ni uptake by Indian mustard.  

PubMed

In this study, among a collection of Ni resistant bacterial strains isolated from serpentine soil, two plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), Ps29C and Bm4C were selected based on their ability to utilize ACC as the sole N source and promote seedling growth in roll towel assay. The Ni resistant PGPB, Ps29C and Bm4C were characterized as Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus megaterium, respectively, on the basis of their 16s rDNA sequences. Assessment of the parameters of plant growth promotion revealed the intrinsic ability of the strains for the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of insoluble phosphate. Further, the plant growth promoting activity of Ps29C and Bm4C on the Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were assessed with different concentrations of Ni in soil. Inoculation of Ps29C or Bm4C promoted plant growth and protected the plant from Ni toxicity. However, the maximum growth was observed in the plants inoculated with strain Bm4C. Inoculation with Ps29C or Bm4C had little influence on the accumulation of Ni in root and shoot system, but produced a much larger aboveground biomass. The present observations showed that the strains Ps29C and Bm4C protect the plants against the inhibitory effects of nickel, probably due to the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of phosphate. The above results provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of Ni contaminated soil. PMID:17826991

Rajkumar, Mani; Freitas, Helena

2007-09-10

195

Ras1 Promotes Cellular Growth in the Drosophila Wing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ras GTPase links extracellular mitogens to intracellular mechanisms that control cell proliferation. To understand how Ras regulates proliferation in vivo, we activated or inactivated Ras in cell clones in the developing Drosophila wing. Cells lacking Ras were smaller, had reduced growth rates, accumulated in G1, and underwent apoptosis due to cell competition. Conversely, activation of Ras increased cell size

David A Prober; Bruce A Edgar

2000-01-01

196

Pyrroloquinoline quinone is a plant growth promotion factor produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens B16.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas fluorescens B16 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. To determine the factors involved in plant growth promotion by this organism, we mutagenized wild-type strain B16 using OmegaKm elements and isolated one mutant, K818, which is defective in plant growth promotion, in a rockwool culture system. A cosmid clone, pOK40, which complements the mutant K818, was isolated from a genomic library of the parent strain. Tn3-gusA mutagenesis of pOK40 revealed that the genes responsible for plant growth promotion reside in a 13.3-kb BamHI fragment. Analysis of the DNA sequence of the fragment identified 11 putative open reading frames, consisting of seven known and four previously unidentified pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) biosynthetic genes. All of the pqq genes showed expression only in nutrient-limiting conditions in a PqqH-dependent manner. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis of culture filtrates confirmed that wild-type B16 produces PQQ, whereas mutants defective in plant growth promotion do not. Application of wild-type B16 on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants cultivated in a hydroponic culture system significantly increased the height, flower number, fruit number, and total fruit weight, whereas none of the strains that did not produce PQQ promoted tomato growth. Furthermore, 5 to 1,000 nm of synthetic PQQ conferred a significant increase in the fresh weight of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings, confirming that PQQ is a plant growth promotion factor. Treatment of cucumber leaf discs with PQQ and wild-type B16 resulted in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that PQQ acts as an antioxidant in plants. PMID:18055583

Choi, Okhee; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Jung-Gun; Jeong, Yeonhwa; Moon, Jae Sun; Park, Chang Seuk; Hwang, Ingyu

2007-11-30

197

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Is a Plant Growth Promotion Factor Produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens B161  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas fluorescens B16 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. To determine the factors involved in plant growth promotion by this organism, we mutagenized wild-type strain B16 using ?Km elements and isolated one mutant, K818, which is defective in plant growth promotion, in a rockwool culture system. A cosmid clone, pOK40, which complements the mutant K818, was isolated from a genomic library of the parent strain. Tn3-gusA mutagenesis of pOK40 revealed that the genes responsible for plant growth promotion reside in a 13.3-kb BamHI fragment. Analysis of the DNA sequence of the fragment identified 11 putative open reading frames, consisting of seven known and four previously unidentified pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) biosynthetic genes. All of the pqq genes showed expression only in nutrient-limiting conditions in a PqqH-dependent manner. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis of culture filtrates confirmed that wild-type B16 produces PQQ, whereas mutants defective in plant growth promotion do not. Application of wild-type B16 on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants cultivated in a hydroponic culture system significantly increased the height, flower number, fruit number, and total fruit weight, whereas none of the strains that did not produce PQQ promoted tomato growth. Furthermore, 5 to 1,000 nm of synthetic PQQ conferred a significant increase in the fresh weight of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings, confirming that PQQ is a plant growth promotion factor. Treatment of cucumber leaf discs with PQQ and wild-type B16 resulted in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that PQQ acts as an antioxidant in plants.

Choi, Okhee; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Jung-Gun; Jeong, Yeonhwa; Moon, Jae Sun; Park, Chang Seuk; Hwang, Ingyu

2008-01-01

198

Rhizonin A from Burkholderia sp. KCTC11096 and its growth promoting role in lettuce seed germination.  

PubMed

We isolated and identified a gibberellin-producing Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096 from agricultural field soils. The culture filtrate of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) significantly increased the germination and growth of lettuce and Chinese cabbage seeds. The ethyl acetate extract of the PGPR culture showed significantly higher rate of lettuce seed germination and growth as compared to the distilled water treated control. The ethyl acetate fraction of the Burkholderia sp. was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation and we obtained for the first time from a Burkholderia sp. the plant growth promoting compound rhizonin A (1), which was characterized through NMR and MS techniques. Application of various concentrations of 1 significantly promoted the lettuce seed germination as compared to control. PMID:22759911

Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Abdul Latif; Hussain, Javid; Ali, Liaqat; Kamran, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

2012-07-03

199

What Is Expected from the Genus Azospirillum as a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bacteria capable of stimulating plant growth are generally known as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). Among them are\\u000a Azospirillum species that influence plant growth through different mechanisms. Azospirillum is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the alphaproteobacteria phylum. On the basis of the newly discovered species\\u000a (at present 15), it is present not only in a wide diversity of plants, including

Veronica Massena Reis; Kátia Regina dos Santos Teixeira; Raúl Osvaldo Pedraza

200

Effect of Uncoupling Agents and Respiratory Inhibitors on the Growth of Streptococcus agalactiae  

PubMed Central

2,4-Dinitrophenol, dicoumarol, carbonylcyanide, m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone and pentachlorophenol all depressed aerobic molar growth yields of Streptococcus agalactiae to values equal to, or less than, those supported by substrate level phosphorylation. When the only source of energy was from substrate phosphorylation (anaerobic growth conditions), there was also a severe depression of the molar growth yield by the same four uncoupling agents. These results indicate that the effect of these agents is to uncouple both substrate and oxidative phosphorylation in S. agalactiae. Amytal inhibited glucose utilization, reduced the amount of O2 used per mole of substrate and reduced the molar cell yield to that supported by substrate phosphorylation. Atebrin inhibited the respiration rate, but final O2 consumed per mole of substrate was unchanged, and the respiration was coupled to biosynthesis. Rotenone had no effect on respiration, substrate utilization, or on molar growth yields.

Mickelson, M. N.

1974-01-01

201

Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield, growth and nutrient contents in organically growing raspberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2003 and 2005, plant growth promoting effects of two Bacillus strains OSU-142 (N2-fixing) and M3 (N2-fixing and phosphate solubilizing) were tested alone or in combinations on organically grown primocane fruiting raspberry (cv. Heritage) plants in terms of yield, growth, nutrient composition of leaves and variation of soil nutrient element composition in the province of Erzurum, Turkey. The results showed

Emine Orhan; Ahmet Esitken; Sezai Ercisli; Metin Turan; Fikrettin Sahin

2006-01-01

202

Growth performance and antibiotic tolerance patterns of nursery and finishing pigs fed growth-promoting levels of antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of growth-promoting levels of antibiotics in diets for nursery and finishing pigs on growth performance and antibiotic tolerance patterns. Gilts (n=200, initial body weight was 6.2±0.003kg), were allotted based on body weight to one of four treatments in a 2×2 factorial randomized complete block design. Nursery treatments consisted of feeding

J. P. Holt; E. van Heugten; A. K. Graves; M. T. See; W. E. M. Morrow

2011-01-01

203

PPAR? Promotes Growth and Invasion of Thyroid Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and no effective therapy is currently available. We show here that PPAR? levels are elevated in cells derived from ATC. Depletion of PPAR? in HTh74 ATC cells resulted in decreased cell growth, cell cycle arrest and a reduction in pRb and cyclin A and B1 levels. We further showed that both flank and orthotopic thyroid tumors derived from PPAR?-depleted cells grew more slowly than PPAR?-expressing cells. When PPAR? was overexpressed in more differentiated thyroid cancer BCPAP cells which lack PPAR?, there was increased growth and raised pRb and cyclin A and B1 levels. Finally, PPAR? depletion in ATC cells decreased their invasive capacity whereas overexpression in PTC cells increased invasiveness. These data suggest that PPAR? may play a detrimental role in thyroid cancer and that targeting it therapeutically may lead to improved treatment of advanced thyroid cancer.

Wood, William M.; Sharma, Vibha; Bauerle, Kevin T.; Pike, Laura A.; Zhou, Qiong; Fretwell, Deborah L.; Schweppe, Rebecca E.; Haugen, Bryan R.

2011-01-01

204

Promoting Growth in Sri Lanka: Lessons from East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

June 1995Why---despite solid progress in human development and in the reduction of consumption poverty---has Sri Lanka's per capita income fallen far behind the dynamic East Asian economies? Sri Lanka's weaker growth performance was the result of several factors, including Sri Lanka's lower investment and (especially) domestic savings rates, its lower average productivity of investment (return on capital), its weak agricultural

Sadiq Ahmed; Priya Ranjan

1999-01-01

205

Mature BDNF promotes the growth of glioma cells in vitro.  

PubMed

High-grade glioma is incurable and is associated with a short survival time and a poor prognosis. There are two forms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proBDNF and mature BDNF, which exert opposite effects. Their diverse actions are mediated through two different transmembrane receptor signalling systems: p75NTR and TrkB. The important roles of the BDNF/TrkB signalling system in tumour cell proliferation and survival have been demonstrated. However, few studies have been able to distinguish mature BDNF from proBDNF due to the limitation of specific antibodies. Using specific proBDNF antibodies, we demonstrated that the proBDNF/p75NTR pathway appears to inhibit malignant glioma cell growth and migration. In the present study using specific mature BDNF antibodies, we found that mature BDNF inhibited C6 glioma cell apoptosis and increased cell growth and migration in vitro. Our data suggest that the counterbalance between mature BDNF and proBDNF may regulate tumour growth. PMID:24064679

Xiong, Jing; Zhou, Li; Lim, Yoon; Yang, Miao; Zhu, Yu-Hong; Li, Zhi-Wei; Zhou, Fiona H; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhou, Xin-Fu

2013-09-20

206

Interactions of phenolic acids, metallic ions and chelating agents on auxin-induced growth.  

PubMed

By growth experiments in indoleacetic acid-1-(14)C (IAA), and determination of the (14)CO(2) evolved, it has been shown directly that polyphenols synergize IAA-induced growth by counteracting IAA decarboxylation. Sinapic and ferulic acids act like polyphenols. Endogenous polyphenols doubtless exert the same influence in intact plants. Monophenols stimulate the decarboxylation of IAA under conditions where they depress growth. When Mn(++) is present as well, this effect is enhanced. All these growth effects are paralleled by effects on the isolated IAA oxidizing enzyme of Avena.EDTA acts like the polyphenols in depressing the decarboxylation of IAA, and not synergizing with the growth induced by naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-D. However, since EDTA synergizes with IAA for growth even at optimal IAA concentrations, its growth promotion probably involves an additional effect.DIECA inhibits powerfully the destruction of IAA, but without causing much growth promotion, apparently because its decomposition products inhibit respiration.Mn(++) aloné stimulates the decarboxylation of IAA, i.e. this ion promotes the IAA oxidase in vivo as it does in vitro. Nevertheless, it does not inhibit elongation, but at relatively high concentrations even stimulates it, both at low and high IAA levels. Since Mn(++) also promotes the growth induced by NAA and 2,4-D, its growth action cannot rest primarily on modifying the metabolism of the auxins.Cobalt somewhat decreases the decarboxylation of IAA, but this cannot explain its growth promotion, since Co(++), like Mn(++), stimulates elongation even at optimal IAA concentrations, and acts with NAA just as well as with IAA. Ferrous ion, on the other hand, acts like the polyphenols.Floating pea stem sections exude enough organic matter to support bacteria which after 7 hours cause considerable decarboxylation of IAA. Avena coleoptile sections have a comparable though smaller effect after 12 hours.The present experiments, with those of others, point to a major role for polyphenolase in controlling hormone balance, since the introduction into a phenolic molecule of a second, adjacent hydroxyl group changes the action from auxin-destroying to auxin-preserving. Thus the phenol oxidizing enzymes must act as general growth controllers. PMID:16656422

Tomaszewski, M; Thimann, K V

1966-11-01

207

Aptamer Antagonists of Myelin-Derived Inhibitors Promote Axon Growth  

PubMed Central

Myelin of the adult central nervous system (CNS) is one of the major sources of inhibitors of axon regeneration following injury. The three known myelin-derived inhibitors (Nogo, MAG, and OMgp) bind with high affinity to the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) on axons and limit neurite outgrowth. Here we show that RNA aptamers can be generated that bind with high affinity to NgR, compete with myelin-derived inhibitors for binding to NgR, and promote axon elongation of neurons in vitro even in the presence of these inhibitors. Aptamers may have key advantages over protein antagonists, including low immunogenicity and the possibility of ready modification during chemical synthesis for stability, signaling, or immobilization. This first demonstration that aptamers can directly influence neuronal function suggests that aptamers may prove useful for not only healing spinal cord and other neuronal damage, but may be more generally useful as neuromodulators.

Wang, Yuxuan; Khaing, Zin Z.; Li, Na; Hall, Brad; Schmidt, Christine E.; Ellington, Andrew D.

2010-01-01

208

Galectin-3 promotes neural cell adhesion and neurite growth.  

PubMed

Galectin-3 is a member of the galectin family and belongs to a group of soluble beta-galactoside-binding animal lectins. The molecule is expressed by neural and nonneural cells intra- (cytoplasm and nucleus) as well as extra-cellularly (plasma membrane and extracellular space). By using an in vitro cell-substratum adhesion assay, we have addressed the question whether galectin-3 present in the extracellular milieu may support the adhesion and/or neurite outgrowth of neural cells in a manner analogous to cell adhesion molecules. Galectin-3 was immobilized as a substratum and various cell types, N2A (neuroblastoma), PC12 (pheochromocytoma), and TSC (transformed Schwann cells) cell lines, neural cells from early postnatal mouse cerebellum, and dorsal root ganglion neurons from newborn mice were allowed to adhere to the lectin. Here we show that all cell types studied specifically adhered to galectin-3 by the following criteria: 1) the number of adherent cells was dependent on the galectin-3 concentration used for coating; 2) adhesion of cells to galectin-3, but not to collagen type I or laminin was inhibited by polyclonal antibodies to galectin-3; 3) upon addition of asialofetuin (a polyvalent carrier of terminal beta-galactosides) to the cell suspension prior to the adhesion assay, cell adhesion to galectin-3 was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner; and 4) cell adhesion to galectin-3 was abolished by treatment of cells with endo-beta-galactosidase. In addition, the adhesion of dorsal root ganglion neurons to galectin-3 could be inhibited by lactose. Notably, substratum-bound galectin-3 promoted the outgrowth of neurites from dorsal root ganglia explants and this neurite outgrowth promoting activity could be inhibited by polyclonal antibodies to galectin-3. PMID:9843155

Pesheva, P; Kuklinski, S; Schmitz, B; Probstmeier, R

1998-12-01

209

Tobacco growth enhancement and blue mold disease protection by rhizobacteria: Relationship between plant growth promotion and systemic disease protection by PGPR strain 90-166  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on plant growth and systemic protection against blue mold disease of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), caused by Peronospora tabacina, was investigated in the greenhouse. Five PGPR strains with known plant growth promotion and induced resistance activities in other crops were used in these studies. PGPR strains were applied as seed treatments alone at planting

Shouan Zhang; Munagala S. Reddy; Joseph W. Kloepper

2004-01-01

210

Bacteria considered as biocontrol agents to control growth of white clover on golf courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recreational areas, such as parks and golf courses, plants like white clover are considered as weeds. In an attempt to identify biocontrol agents that can be used to control growth of clover, a number of bacterial isolates were studied. Two approaches were considered: soil treatment for suppression of Rhizobium leguminosarum, a symbiotic bacteria providing clover with nitrogen, and direct

Zahra S. Omer; Karin Jacobsson; Thomas H. Eberhard; Leif K.-H. Johansson

2010-01-01

211

The Effects of Biological Control Agents on Population Growth and Spread of Melaleuca quinquenervia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two biological control agents in reducing population growth and spread of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia, a subtropical tree native to Australia, and invasive in Florida, Puerto Rico, and the Bahamas. While in Florida two insects Oxyops vitiosa (weevil), and Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (psyllid) have been established as biocontrol

Lucero Sevillano Garcia Mayeya

2010-01-01

212

Mycobacterium tuberculosis rrn promoters: differential usage and growth rate-dependent control.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a slow-growing pathogen and is characterized by a low content of RNA per unit of DNA. rRNAs represent a major proportion of the total RNA pool, and the entire requirement for rRNA is met by transcription from a single rrn operon that is driven by two promoters, P1 and P3. This study attempted to analyze the specific role of the rrn promoter in determining the characteristically low levels of RNA in M. tuberculosis. For this purpose, the activity of the M. tuberculosis rrn promoter as a function of the growth rate was studied by rrn-lacZ promoter fusion, hybridization, and primer extension analysis in M. smegmatis. rrn promoter signals were faithfully recognized in M. smegmatis cultures harboring the rrn-lacZ promoter construct. In M. smegmatis cultures that displayed doubling times varying between 3.06 and 6.5 h, beta-galactosidase activity increased approximately sixfold in proportion to the growth rate (mu). There was a corresponding increase in the amount of lacZ-specific mRNA, while the plasmid copy number remained essentially unchanged. For any given mu, the P3 promoter was approximately twofold more efficiently utilized than the P1 promoter. Since both promoters of the M. tuberculosis rrn operon are regulatable as a function of growth rate in M. smegmatis cultures, it is implied that the inherent structure or sequence of the rrn promoter per se is not primarily responsible for the observed lack of modulation of RNA synthesis in M. tuberculosis. PMID:10400591

Verma, A; Sampla, A K; Tyagi, J S

1999-07-01

213

Susceptibilities of Candida spp. to antifungal agents visualized by two-dimensional scatterplots of relative growth.  

PubMed Central

The growth of 811 clinical yeast isolates in the presence of single concentrations of antifungal agents was measured spectrophotometrically and expressed as a percentage of growth in inhibitor-free control cultures. Two-dimensional scatterplots of the relative growth data allowed for the simple visual determination of some susceptibility trends, including correlations in relative growth between different agents and in relative susceptibilities between different yeast species. A positive susceptibility correlation was found for relative growth results with the azole antifungal agents fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole for 504 Candida albicans isolates. The relative growth scatterplots for fluconazole versus itraconazole showed that 50 (9.9%) of 504 C. albicans isolates were outliers with respect to the 95% confidence limits for a line of correlated relative growth established with an initial test panel of 59 isolates of this species. The outlying isolates were relatively less susceptible to fluconazole than to itraconazole under the conditions of the test. Most of the outliers were received in 1993 and 1994; only 3.9% of the isolates received in 1991 and 1992 and 1.7% of the isolates received before 1991 showed this differential susceptibility. In addition, most of the outliers came from patients with human immunodeficiency virus infections. The relative growth scatterplots confirmed the known high susceptibility of most Candida parapsilosis isolates to both fluconazole and itraconazole and the specifically low susceptibility of Candida krusei isolates to fluconazole. The scatterplots also illustrated a tendency towards lower (and correlative) relative growth among oral isolates obtained from AIDS patients who responded to azole antifungal treatment than among isolates from clinical nonresponders.

Odds, F C; Dams, G; Just, G; Lewi, P

1996-01-01

214

STAT6 expression in glioblastoma promotes invasive growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive malignant primary brain tumor, characterized by rapid growth, diffuse infiltration\\u000a of cells into both adjacent and remote brain regions, and a generalized resistance to currently available treatment modalities.\\u000a Recent reports in the literature suggest that Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) play important roles\\u000a in the regulation of GBM pathophysiology.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  STAT6 protein expression

Barbara C Merk; Jennifer L Owens; Maria-Beatriz S Lopes; Corinne M Silva; Isa M Hussaini

2011-01-01

215

Effects of autoclaving and charcoal on root-promoting substances present in water extracts made from gelling agents.  

PubMed

The root-promoting ability of water extracts made from gelling agents (agar and Gelrite) was investigated using the mungbean rooting bioassay. Autoclaving these water extracts decreased the number of roots in mungbean cuttings compared to the controls. The addition of activated charcoal to the water extracts from Agar Bacteriological and Agar Commercial Gel had no effect on their root-promoting ability. Extracts with exogenous indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) which were treated by autoclaving or via a freeze-thaw cycle, significantly increased rooting. However, incorporation of activated charcoal to similar IBA-containing extracts reduced rooting. Our results indicate that more attention should be given to the choice of gelling agent and its interaction with other additives in the media used during tissue culture. PMID:16274988

Arthur, G D; Stirk, W A; Van Staden, J

2005-11-07

216

Growth/differentiation factor-15: prostate cancer suppressor or promoter?  

PubMed

Deregulation of expression and function of cytokines belonging to the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) family is often associated with various pathologies. For example, this cytokine family has been considered a promising target for cancer therapy. However, the detailed functions of several cytokines from the TGF-? family that could have a role in cancer progression and therapy remain unclear. One of these molecules is growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), a divergent member of the TGF-? family. This stress-induced cytokine has been proposed to possess immunomodulatory functions and its high expression is often associated with cancer progression, including prostate cancer (PCa). However, studies clearly demonstrating the mechanisms for signal transduction and functions in cell interaction, cancer progression and therapy are still lacking. New GDF-15 roles have recently been identified for modulating osteoclast differentiation and for therapy for PCa bone metastases. Moreover, GDF-15 is as an abundant cytokine in seminal plasma with immunosuppressive properties. We discuss studies that focus on the regulation of GDF-15 expression and its role in tissue homeostasis, repair and the immune response with an emphasis on the role in PCa development. PMID:22370725

Va?hara, P; Hampl, A; Kozubík, A; Sou?ek, K

2012-02-28

217

Partner switching promotes cooperation among myopic agents on a geographical plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the coupling dynamics between the evolution of cooperation and the evolution of partnership network on a geographical plane. While agents play networked prisoner’s dilemma games, they can dynamically adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputation. We incorporate geographical features into the process of the agent’s partner switching and investigate the corresponding effects. At each time step of the coevolution, a random agent can either update his strategy by imitation or adjust his partnership by switching from the lowest reputation partner to the highest reputation one among his neighbors. We differentiate two types of neighbors: geographical neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in terms of geographical distance) and connectivity neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in the partnership network in terms of geodesic distance). We find that switching to either geographical neighbors or connectivity neighbors enhances cooperation greatly in a wide parameter range. Cooperation can be favored in a much stricter condition when agents switch to connectivity neighbors more frequently. However, an increasing tendency of reconnecting to geographical neighbors shortens the geographical distance between a pair of partners on average. When agents consider the cost of geographical distance in adjusting the partnership, they are prone to reconnect to geographical neighbors.

Li, Yixiao; Min, Yong; Zhu, Xiaodong; Cao, Jie

2013-02-01

218

Resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) from Tomitella biformata AHU 1821(T) promotes growth and resuscitates non-dividing cells.  

PubMed

Functional variation of Rpf, a growth factor found exclusively in Actinobacteria, is differentiated by its source and amino acid sequences. Only purified Rpf proteins from three species have been studied so far. To seek new Rpfs for use in future studies to understand their role in Actinobacteria, the objective of this study was to identify rpf gene homologs in Tomitella biformata AHU 1821(T), a novel Actinobacteria isolated from permafrost ice wedge. Amplification using degenerate primers targeting the essential Rpf domain led to the discovery of a new rpf gene in T. biformata. Gene structure and the deduced Rpf domain amino acid sequence indicated that this rpf gene was not identical to previously studied Rpf. Phylogenetic analysis placed T. biformata Rpf in a monophyletic branch in the RpfB subfamily. The deduced amino acid sequence was 44.9% identical to RpfB in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the closest functionally tested Rpf. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli; the recombinant Rpf protein (rRpf) promoted the growth of dividing cells and resuscitated non-dividing cells of T. biformata. Compared to other studies, this Rpf was required at higher concentrations to promote its growth and to resuscitate itself from a non-dividing state. The resuscitation function was likely due to the highly conserved Rpf domain. This study provides evidence that a genetically unique but functional Rpf can be found in novel members of Actinobacteria and can lead to a better understanding of bacterial cytokines in this phylum. PMID:23100022

Dewi Puspita, Indun; Uehara, Moe; Katayama, Taiki; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Kitagawa, Wataru; Kamagata, Yoichi; Asano, Kozo; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Tanaka, Michiko

2012-10-26

219

A high-throughput model for screening anti-tumor agents capable of promoting polymerization of tubulin in vitro1  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To establish a high-throughput model for screening anti-tumor agents capable of promoting the polymeriza- tion of tubulin in vitro. METHODS: Tubulin was prepared in different purity for two screening steps. The first step was a high-throughput screening (HTS) for a set of 1500 samples using the GTP-containing tubulin and the end-reading method. The second step was performed on 119

Wei HU; Hui DONG; Yue-zhong LI; Xi-tao HU; Guan-jun HAN; Yin-bo QU

220

Chemotherapeutic Agents Up-regulate the Cytomegalovirus Promoter: Implications for Bioluminescence Imaging of Tumor Response to Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioluminescence imaging is widely used to evaluate tumor growth and response to therapy in living animals. In cells expressing luciferase under the control of a constitutive promoter, light output in part depends on viable cell number, so that changes in bioluminescence intensity may be corre- lated with changes in viable tumor mass over time. We have found that treatment of

Robert U. Svensson; J. Matthew Barnes; Oskar W. Rokhlin; Michael B. Cohen; Michael D. Henry

221

Potential Risk of Growth Promoter in Beef for Breast Cancer Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of anabolic agents has become an important practice in the meat-producing industry, as such agents increase weight gain by enhancing protein deposition and improving feed conversion, as well as increasing the muscle-to-fat ratio. As a result, feed...

Y. C. Lin

2001-01-01

222

Potential Risk of Growth Promoter in Beef for Breast Cancer Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anabolic agents have been widely used for meat-producing farm animals since such agents were observed to increase weight gain by enhancing protein deposition and improving feed conversion, as well as increasing the muscle-to- fat ratio. Thus, the use of s...

C. L. Young

1999-01-01

223

Proton pump activation and growth promotion by cinchomeronic acid in radish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinchomeronic acid (CA, 3,4-dicarboxypyridine or 4-carboxynicotinic acid) promoted hypocotyl elongation of radish seedlings when added to the medium or applied to the hypocotyls. On microscopic observation of epidermal cells of the plant, the length of each cell was elongated several times when compared to those of the controls. The mechanism of the plant-growth promotion by CA was investigated with plasma

Hiroshi Nishitani; Kouji Nishitsuji; Katsuzumi Okumura; Hiroshi Taguchi

1996-01-01

224

Sustained VEGF delivery via PLGA nanoparticles promotes vascular growth  

PubMed Central

Technologies to increase tissue vascularity are critically important to the fields of tissue engineering and cardiovascular medicine. Currently, limited technologies exist to encourage angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in a controlled manner. In the present study, we describe an injectable controlled release system consisting of VEGF encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). The majority of VEGF was released gradually over 2–4 days from the NPs as determined by an ELISA release kinetics experiment. An in vitro aortic ring bioassay was used to verify the bioactivity of VEGF-NPs compared with empty NPs and no treatment. A mouse femoral artery ischemia model was then used to measure revascularization in VEGF-NP-treated limbs compared with limbs treated with naked VEGF and saline. 129/Sv mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and a region of the common femoral artery and vein was ligated and excised. Mice were then injected with VEGF-NPs, naked VEGF, or saline. After 4 days, three-dimensional microcomputed tomography angiography was used to quantify vessel growth and morphology. Mice that received VEGF-NP treatment showed a significant increase in total vessel volume and vessel connectivity compared with 5 ?g VEGF, 2.5 ?g VEGF, and saline treatment (all P < 0.001). When the yield of the fabrication process was taken into account, VEGF-NPs were over an order of magnitude more potent than naked VEGF in increasing blood vessel volume. Differences between the VEGF-NP group and all other groups were even greater when only small-sized vessels under 300 ?m diameter were analyzed. In conclusion, sustained VEGF delivery via PLGA NPs shows promise for encouraging blood vessel growth in tissue engineering and cardiovascular medicine applications.

Golub, Justin S.; Kim, Young-tae; Duvall, Craig L.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.; Gupta, Divya; Lin, Angela S.; Weiss, Daiana; Robert Taylor, W.

2010-01-01

225

Plant growth promoting potential of bacteria isolated on N free media from rhizosphere of Cassia occidentalis.  

PubMed

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are an attractive eco-friendly alternative to chemicals in agriculture. While the rhizospheres of crop plants have been well studied with the objective of screening PGPR, weeds, which play an important role in maintaining ecological balance, have largely been ignored. The rhizosphere of a luxuriantly growing, medicinal weed, Cassia occidentalis was analysed by enumerating PGPR on N free media from the most diverse stage of plant (determined by profiles obtained on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). Each isolate was tested for other plant growth promotion assays including production of cellulase, indole acetic acid (IAA), ammonia, HCN, siderophore and chitinase to select for ones possessing multi-trait plant growth promoting (PGP) properties. Selected isolates were used for bacterization of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo to evaluate their efficacy in promoting plant's growth in seedling germination and axenic pot conditions. Thirty five isolates were analysed further for the array of PGP properties they exhibit. A total of 6 isolates were shortlisted on the basis of maximum traits positive, amount of phosphate solubilized and IAA produced. V. radiata responded well to seed bacterization during seedling germination. A maximum increase of approximately 36 and 60 % was observed for shoot and root length, respectively in V. radiata in axenic pot culture over control plants. Extensive branching of roots was also observed with isolate NL, which produced the maximum amount of IAA. Present study investigated the plant growth promoting isolates obtained on N free media in the rhizosphere of C. occidentalis, which have the potential to be used as inoculants for other crops. This provides a new dimension to the significance of weeds in agricultural ecosystems. The study opens up possibilities for utilization of this property of weeds in plant growth promotion, and subsequent enhancement of yield for agricultural crops. PMID:22806725

Arun, B; Gopinath, B; Sharma, Shilpi

2012-06-08

226

Partner switching promotes cooperation among myopic agents on a geographical plane.  

PubMed

We study the coupling dynamics between the evolution of cooperation and the evolution of partnership network on a geographical plane. While agents play networked prisoner's dilemma games, they can dynamically adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputation. We incorporate geographical features into the process of the agent's partner switching and investigate the corresponding effects. At each time step of the coevolution, a random agent can either update his strategy by imitation or adjust his partnership by switching from the lowest reputation partner to the highest reputation one among his neighbors. We differentiate two types of neighbors: geographical neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in terms of geographical distance) and connectivity neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in the partnership network in terms of geodesic distance). We find that switching to either geographical neighbors or connectivity neighbors enhances cooperation greatly in a wide parameter range. Cooperation can be favored in a much stricter condition when agents switch to connectivity neighbors more frequently. However, an increasing tendency of reconnecting to geographical neighbors shortens the geographical distance between a pair of partners on average. When agents consider the cost of geographical distance in adjusting the partnership, they are prone to reconnect to geographical neighbors. PMID:23496584

Li, Yixiao; Min, Yong; Zhu, Xiaodong; Cao, Jie

2013-02-28

227

Spinal cord injury triggers an intrinsic growth-promoting state in nociceptors.  

PubMed

Although most investigations of the mechanisms underlying chronic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) have examined the central nervous system (CNS), recent studies have shown that nociceptive primary afferent neurons display persistent hyperexcitability and spontaneous activity in their peripheral branches and somata in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after SCI. This suggests that SCI-induced alterations of primary nociceptors contribute to central sensitization and chronic pain after SCI. Does SCI also promote growth of these neurons' fibers, as has been suggested in some reports? The present study tests the hypothesis that SCI induces an intrinsic growth-promoting state in DRG neurons. This was tested by dissociating DRG neurons 3 days or 1 month after spinal contusion injury at thoracic level T10 and measuring neuritic growth 1 day later. Neurons cultured 3 days after SCI exhibited longer neurites without increases in branching ("elongating growth"), compared to neurons from sham-treated or untreated (naïve) rats. Robust promotion of elongating growth was found in small and medium-sized neurons (but not large neurons) from lumbar (L3-L5) and thoracic ganglia immediately above (T9) and below (T10-T11) the contusion site, but not from cervical DRG. Elongating growth was also found in neurons immunoreactive to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), suggesting that some of the neurons exhibiting enhanced neuritic growth were nociceptors. The same measurements made on neurons dissociated 1 month after SCI revealed no evidence of elongating growth, although evidence for accelerated initiation of neurite outgrowth was found. Under certain conditions this transient growth-promoting state in nociceptors might be important for the development of chronic pain and hyperreflexia after SCI. PMID:21939395

Bedi, Supinder S; Lago, Michael T; Masha, Luke I; Crook, Robyn J; Grill, Raymond J; Walters, Edgar T

2011-11-04

228

Isolation and characterization of alginate-derived oligosaccharides with root growth-promoting activities.  

PubMed

Lytic digestion of poly(mannuronate), poly(guluronate), and alginate with an alginate lyase from Alteromonas macleodii was used to prepare mixtures of unsaturated oligosaccharides. Four oligosaccharides isolated from the alginate lyase-lysate by anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose were found to be the major components of the root growth-promoting lysate. The oligosaccharides were analyzed by NMR and SIMS and identified as di- and tri-saccharides having O-(4-deoxy-L-erythro-hex-4-enopyranosyluronic acid)-1--> at the nonreducing terminus. The trisaccharides from the lysate were found to have root growth-promoting activity in a barley bioassay. PMID:8039175

Natsume, M; Kamo, Y; Hirayama, M; Adachi, T

1994-05-20

229

bantam miRNA promotes systemic growth by connecting insulin signaling and ecdysone production.  

PubMed

During the development of multicellular organisms, body growth is controlled at the scale of the organism by the activity of long-range signaling molecules, mostly hormones. These systemic factors coordinate growth between developing tissues and act as relays to adjust body growth in response to environmental changes [1]. In target organs, long-range signals act in concert with tissue-autonomous ones to regulate the final size of a given tissue. In Drosophila, the steroid hormone ecdysone plays a dual role: peaks of secretion promote developmental transitions and maturation, while basal production negatively controls the speed of growth. The antagonistic action of ecdysone and the conserved insulin/insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway regulate systemic growth and modulate final body size [2, 3]. Here we unravel an unexpected role of bantam microRNA in controlling body size in Drosophila. Our data unveil that, in addition to its well-characterized function in autonomously inducing tissue growth [4-9], bantam activity in ecdysone-producing cells promotes systemic growth by repressing ecdysone release. We also provide evidence that the regulation of ecdysone production by insulin signaling relies on the repression of bantam activity. These results identify a molecular mechanism that underlies the crosstalk between these two hormones and add a new layer of complexity to the well-characterized role of bantam in growth control. PMID:23477723

Boulan, Laura; Martín, David; Milán, Marco

2013-03-07

230

Growth inhibitory effect of shelf life extending agents on Bacillus subtilis IAM 1026.  

PubMed

Natural shelf life extending agents and sugar fatty acid esters that might inhibit the growth of B. subtilis IAM 1026 were screened, and the effective agents were as follows: beta-thujaplicin (Hinokitiol) and chitosan, inhibited the growth of IAM 1026 at a concentration of 0.001% ; epsilon-polylysine and M-1695 (a sugar fatty acid ester) at 0.005%; citrus seed extract, thiamin lauryl sulfate, and grapefruit seed extract at 0.01%; CT-1695 and L-1695 (sugar fatty acid esters) at 0.05%; pectin digests and SM-800 (a sugar fatty acid ester) at 0.5%; water pepper seed extract and the sugar fatty acid esters SM-1000 and CE-1695 at 1.0%. The growth inhibitory effects of the agents in custard cream were not necessarily similar to those in liquid culture. The agent that showed the highest inhibitory effect in custard cream was 0.3% beta-thujaplicin, followed by 0.3% epsilon-polylysine. PMID:17629249

Mitsuboshi, Saori; Obitsu, Rie; Muramatsu, Kanako; Furube, Kentaro; Yoshitake, Shigehiro; Kiuchi, Kan

2007-06-01

231

Ni/SiO2 Promoted Growth of Carbon Nanofibers  

SciTech Connect

The temporal changes to supported Ni sites during the growth of graphitic carbon nanofibers (GCNs) via the decomposition of chlorobenzene over Ni/SiO{sub 2} at 873 K have been investigated. The reaction of chlorobenzene with hydrogen also generated benzene, via catalytic hydrodechlorination, as the principal competing reaction. Reaction selectivity was found to be time dependent with a switch from a preferential hydrodechlorination to a predominant decomposition that generated an increasingly more structured carbon product over prolonged time-on-stream. These findings are discussed in terms of Cl/catalyst interaction(s) leading to metal site restructuring, the latter manifest in a sintering and faceting of the Ni metal particles. The pressure exerted on the metal/support interface due to fiber formation was of sufficient magnitude to extract the Ni particle from the support; the occurrence of an entrapped Ni particle at the fiber tip is a feature common to the majority of GCNs with the incorporation of Ni fragments along the length of the GCN. Metal site restructuring has been probed by temperature-programmed reduction of the passivated samples, H{sub 2} chemisorption/temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and XANES/EXAFS analyses. This restructuring serves to enhance destructive chemisorption and/or facilitate carbon diffusion to generate the resultant GCN. The nature of the carbonaceous product has been characterized by a combination of TEM-EDX, SEM, XRD and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO).

Keane,M.; Jacobs, G.; Patterson, P.

2006-01-01

232

Use of impact fees to incentivize low-impact development and promote compact growth.  

PubMed

Low-impact development (LID) is an innovative stormwater management strategy that restores the predevelopment hydrology to prevent increased stormwater runoff from land development. Integrating LID into residential subdivisions and increasing population density by building more compact living spaces (e.g., apartment homes) can result in a more sustainable city by reducing stormwater runoff, saving infrastructural cost, increasing the number of affordable homes, and supporting public transportation. We develop an agent-based model (ABM) that describes the interactions between several decision-makers (i.e., local government, a developer, and homebuyers) and fiscal drivers (e.g., property taxes, impact fees). The model simulates the development of nine square miles of greenfield land. A more sustainable development (MSD) scenario introduces an impact fee that developers must pay if they choose not to use LID to build houses or apartment homes. Model simulations show homeowners selecting apartment homes 60% or 35% of the time after 30 years of development in MSD or business as usual (BAU) scenarios, respectively. The increased adoption of apartment homes results from the lower cost of using LID and improved quality of life for apartment homes relative to single-family homes. The MSD scenario generates more tax revenue and water savings than does BAU. A time-dependent global sensitivity analysis quantifies the importance of socioeconomic variables on the adoption rate of apartment homes. The top influential factors are the annual pay rates (or capital recovery factor) for single-family houses and apartment homes. The ABM can be used by city managers and policymakers for scenario exploration in accordance with local conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of impact fees and other policies in promoting LID and compact growth. PMID:23815440

Lu, Zhongming; Noonan, Douglas; Crittenden, John; Jeong, Hyunju; Wang, Dali

2013-07-15

233

Promotion of Efficient Cooperation by Sharing Environment with an Agent Having a Body in Real World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, agents have widely surfaced as existences that interact with humans. In face-to-face communication, we can confidently communicate through each other’s bodies. In our future ubiquitous society, realization will increase that the place that receives information and the information content are closely related. In this study in a cooperative task experiment, we clarified how the body’s role in the information processing activity in the real world with agents and the relation between information and environment influence agent evaluation. We found that an agent with a body in the real world is more likely to follow instructions than an agent in the virtual world, suggesting that the body plays an important role in real-world based interaction.

Naito, Hisashi; Takeuchi, Yugo

234

Chemokine receptor CXCR3 promotes growth of glioma  

PubMed Central

Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The poor prognosis and minimally successful treatments of GBM indicates a need to identify new therapeutic targets. In this study, we examined the role of CXCR3 in glioma progression using the GL261 murine model of malignant glioma. Intracranial GL261 tumors express CXCL9 and CXCL10 in vivo. Glioma-bearing CXCR3-deficient mice had significantly shorter median survival time and reduced numbers of tumor-infiltrated natural killer and natural killer T cells as compared with tumor-bearing wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, pharmacological antagonism of CXCR3 with NBI-74330 prolonged median survival times of both tumor-bearing WT and CXCR3-deficient mice when compared with vehicle-treated groups. NBI-74330 treatment did not impact tumor infiltration of lymphocytes and microglia. A small percentage of GL261 cells were identified as CXCR3+, which was similar to the expression of CXCR3 in several grade IV human glioma cell lines (A172, T98G, U87, U118 and U138). When cultured as gliomaspheres (GS), the human and murine lines increased CXCR3 expression; CXCR3 expression was also found in a primary human GBM-derived GS. Additionally, CXCR3 isoform A was expressed by all lines, whereas CXCR3-B was detected in T98G-, U118- and U138-GS cells. CXCL9 or CXCL10 induced in vitro glioma cell growth in GL261- and U87-GS as well as inhibited cell loss in U138-GS cells and this effect was antagonized by NBI-74330. The results suggest that CXCR3 antagonism exerts a direct anti-glioma effect and this receptor may be a potential therapeutic target for treating human GBM.

Liu, Che; Luo, Defang; Reynolds, Brent A.; Meher, Geeta; Katritzky, Alan R.; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Craig J.; Bhadha, Cyrus P.; Harrison, Jeffrey K.

2011-01-01

235

VCC-1, a novel chemokine, promotes tumor growth  

SciTech Connect

We have identified a novel human gene by transcriptional microarray analysis, which is co-regulated in tumors and angiogenesis model systems with VEGF expression. Isolation of cDNA clones containing the full-length VCC-1 transcript from both human and mouse shows a 119 amino acid protein with a 22 amino acid cleavable signal sequence in both species. Comparison of the protein product of this gene with hidden Markov models of all known proteins shows weak but significant homology with two known chemokines, SCYA17 and SCYA16. Northern analysis of human tissues detects a 1 kb band in lung and skeletal muscle. Murine VCC-1 expression can also be detected in lung as well as thyroid, submaxillary gland, epididymis, and uterus tissues by slot blot analysis. By quantitative real time RT-PCR 71% of breast tumors showed 3- to 24-fold up-regulation of VCC-1. In situ hybridization of breast carcinomas showed strong expression of the gene in both normal and transformed mammary gland ductal epithelial cells. In vitro, human microvascular endothelial cells grown on fibronectin increase VCC-1 expression by almost 100-fold. In addition, in the mouse angioma endothelial cell line PY4.1 the gene was over-expressed by 28-fold 6 h after induction of tube formation while quiescent and proliferating cells showed no change. VCC-1 expression is also increased by VEGF and FGF treatment, about 6- and 5-fold, respectively. Finally, 100% of mice injected with NIH3T3 cells over-expressing VCC-1 develop rapidly progressing tumors within 21 days while no growth is seen in any control mice injected with NIH3T3 cells containing the vector alone. These results strongly suggest that VCC-1 plays a role in angiogenesis and possibly in the development of tumors in some tissue types.

Weinstein, Edward J. [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Head, Richard [Department of Genomics and Biotechnology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Griggs, David W. [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Sun Duo [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Evans, Robert J. [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Swearingen, Michelle L. [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Westlin, Marisa M. [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Mazzarella, Richard [Department of Genomics and Biotechnology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States)]. E-mail: richard.a.mazzarella@pfizer.com

2006-11-10

236

Exopolysaccharide-Producing Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Under Salinity Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can play an important role in alleviating soil salinity stress during plant growth and bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) can also help to mitigate salinity stress by reducing the content of Na+ available for plant uptake. In this study, native bacterial strains of wheat rhizosphere in soils of Varanasi, India, were screened to identify the EPS-producing salt-tolerant

S. K. UPADHYAY; J. S. SINGH; D. P. SINGH

2011-01-01

237

Evidence that far-infrared radiation promotes growth of xenopus laevis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most ectotherms, environmental temperature has differential effects on growth and differentiation. For example, amphibian size at maturity decreases with increasing temperature. To address how radiant heat in the form of far-infrared radiation (FIR) may affect development of the aquatic ectotherm Xenopus laevis, we continuously irradiated swimming larvae as they developed into young adults. Here we report evidence that FIR promotes growth of these organisms in an aqueous environment.

Shiurba, Robert; Hirabayashi, Tatsuo; Kiyokawa, Shin; Fukui, Akimasa; Miyanaga, Yuko; Kojima, Issey; Asashima, Makoto

1999-01-01

238

Phototropins Promote Plant Growth in Response to Blue Light in Low Light Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are plant-specific blue light receptors for phototropism, chloroplast movement, leaf expansion, and stomatal opening. All these responses are thought to optimize photosynthesis by helping to capture light energy efficiently, reduce photodamage, and acquire CO2. However, experimental evidence for the promotion of plant growth through phototropins is lacking. Here, we report dramatic phototropin-dependent effects on plant growth.

Atsushi Takemiya; Shin-ichiro Inoue; Michio Doi; Toshinori Kinoshita; Ken-ichiro Shimazaki

2005-01-01

239

The salt stress relief and growth promotion effect of Rs5 on cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the Rs-5 bacteria strain, identified as Klebsiella oxytoca and isolated with ACC as the sole nitrogen source, on salt stressed cotton seedling growth was studied. It was demonstrated\\u000a that Rs-5 could obviously relieve salt stress and promote cotton seedling growth. After treatment with Rs-5, the individual\\u000a plant height and dry weight of cotton increased by 14.9 and

Haitao Yue; Wenping Mo; Chun Li; Yuanyuan Zheng; Hui Li

2007-01-01

240

Plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas bearing catabolic plasmids: Naphthalene degradation and effect on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two IncP-9 naphthalene degradative plasmids pOV17 and pBS216 were transferred into plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas which were represented by species P. aureofaciens, P. chlororaphis, P. fluorescens, and P. putida. The strains with the same plasmid differed significantly by their growth parameters, stability of the plasmid and plant protective effect from naphthalene action. Strains P. putida 53a(pOV17) and P. chlororaphis PCL1391(pOV17) demonstrated

Tatyana O. Anokhina; Olga V. Volkova; Irina F. Puntus; Andrei E. Filonov; Vladimir V. Kochetkov; Alexander M. Boronin

2006-01-01

241

Alleviation of Salt Stress in Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) by Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of inoculation with plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on eggplant growth, yield, and mineral content under salt stress [0, 25, and 50 mM sodium chloride (NaCl)]. The PGPR strains Xanthobacter autotrophicus BM13, Enterobacter aerogenes BM10, and Bacillus brevis FK2 were isolated from the salt-affected maize and kidney bean fields. The increase in salinity decreased

Samy A. M. Abd El-Azeem; Mohmmed W. M. Elwan; Jwa-Kyung Sung; Yong Sik Ok

2012-01-01

242

Review of Growth Inhibitory Peptide as a Biotherapeutic agent for tumor growth, adhesion, and metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review surveys the biological activities of an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived peptide termed the Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP), which is a synthetic 34 amino acid segment produced from the full length 590 amino acid AFP molecule. The GIP has been shown to be growth-suppressive in both fetal and tumor cells but not in adult terminally-differentiated cells. The mechanism of action

M. Muehlemann; K. D. Miller; M. Dauphinee; G. J. Mizejewski

2005-01-01

243

Update of Alpha Fetoprotein Growth-Inhibitory Peptides as Biotherapeutic Agents for Tumor Growth and Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present update describes the biological activities of an alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-derived peptide termed the growth-inhibitory peptide (GIP), which is a synthetic 34-amino acid segment produced from the native molecule. The GIP has been shown to be growth-suppressive in both fetal and tumor cells but not in adult cells. Even though its mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated,

G. J. Mizejewski; M. Muehlemann; M. Dauphinee

2006-01-01

244

miR-125b Inhibits Connexin43 and Promotes Glioma Growth.  

PubMed

MicroRNA is strongly associated with tumor growth and development. This study examined the potential roles of miR-125b in glioma growth. We found that miR-125b promotes glioma cell line growth and clone formation, and protects the glioma cells from apoptosis in vitro. The miR-125b-transfected glioma cells also demonstrated increased growth after in vivo transplantation. We further identified that miR-125b inhibits Connexin43 expression, and the overexpression of Connexin43 antagonizes the effects of miR-125b in cell growth and anti-apoptosis. We conclude that miR-125b regulates glioma growth partly through Connexin43 protein. PMID:24046143

Jin, Zheng; Xu, Songbai; Yu, Hongquan; Yang, Boyu; Zhao, Hongguang; Zhao, Gang

2013-09-18

245

Aberrant upregulation of ASCL2 by promoter demethylation promotes the growth and resistance to 5-fluorouracil of gastric cancer cells.  

PubMed

Achaete scute-like 2 (ASCL2), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, plays an essential role in the maintenance of adult intestinal stem cells. However, the function of ASCL2 in gastric cancer (GC) is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the roles and regulatory transcription mechanisms of ASCL2 in GC. Gene expression and methylation data analysis showed that ASCL2 was upregulated and hypomethylated in GC tissues. Using real-time RT-PCR and pyrosequencing analysis, we confirmed that ASCL2 was overexpressed and hypomethylated in GC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. We then investigated the mechanisms underlying the aberrant expression of ASCL2 in GC and found that treatment with a methylation inhibitor induced ASCL2 expression in GC cell lines. MBD-sequencing assay also revealed hypermethylation of the promoter region of ASCL2 in GC cell lines, which barely expressed the ASCL2 gene. Furthermore, ASCL2 expression levels were inversely correlated with GC patient survival. Ectopic overexpression of ASCL2 showed that ASCL2 increased cell growth and promoted resistance to 5-fluorouracil in GC cells. These results suggest that ASCL2 might play an important role in gastric tumor growth and chemoresistance, and could be a useful prognostic marker for GC patients. PMID:23181270

Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Park, Jong-Lyul; Baek, Su-Jin; Noh, Seung-Moo; Song, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Yong Sung

2013-02-14

246

A chemical genetic approach identifies piperazine antipsychotics as promoters of CNS neurite growth on inhibitory substrates  

PubMed Central

Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) can result in lifelong loss of function due in part to the regenerative failure of CNS neurons. Inhibitory proteins derived from myelin and the astroglial scar are major barriers for the successful regeneration of injured CNS neurons. Previously, we described the identification of a novel compound, F05, which promotes neurite growth from neurons challenged with inhibitory substrates in vitro, and promotes axonal regeneration in vivo (Usher et al., 2010). To identify additional regeneration-promoting compounds, we used F05-induced gene expression profiles to query the Broad Institute Connectivity Map, a gene expression database of cells treated with >1,300 compounds. Despite no shared chemical similarity, F05-induced changes in gene expression were remarkably similar to those seen with a group of piperazine phenothiazine antipsychotics (PhAPs). In contrast to antipsychotics of other structural classes, PhAPs promoted neurite growth of CNS neurons challenged with two different glial derived inhibitory substrates. Our pharmacological studies suggest a mechanism whereby PhAPs promote growth through antagonism of calmodulin signaling, independent of dopamine receptor antagonism. These findings shed light on mechanisms underlying neurite-inhibitory signaling, and suggest that clinically approved antipsychotic compounds may be repurposed for use in CNS injured patients.

Johnstone, AL; Reierson, GW; Smith, RP; Goldberg, JL; Lemmon, VP; Bixby, JL

2012-01-01

247

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATIONS FOR HAIR GROWTH-PROMOTING ACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk ( Asteraceae), Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn (Malvaceae), Nardostachys Jatamansi ( Valerianaceae) is a well known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. Hair formulation of Eclipta alba Hassk ( Asteraceae ) 10% w\\/v, Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn ( Malvaceae ) 10 %

R. M. Thorat; V. M. Jadhav; V. J. Kadam

248

Inoculants of plant growth-promoting bacteria for use in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the current state of bacterial inoculants for contemporary agriculture in developed and developing countries is critically evaluated from the point of view of their actual status and future use. Special emphasis is given to two new concepts of inoculation, as yet unavailable commercially: (i) synthetic inoculants under development for plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) (Bashan and Holguin, 1998), and

Yoav Bashan

1998-01-01

249

Antibiotic potential of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) against Sclerotium rolfsii  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of culture filtrates of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and medium of inhibitory zone of interaction of Sclerotium rolfsii with PGPR, viz. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens 4, Pseudomonas fluorescens 4 (new) and Pseudomonas sp. varied from sample to sample. In all the culture filtrates of PGPRs, P. aeruginosa had nine phenolic acids in which

Amitabh Singh; Sudarshan Maurya; Rashmi Singh; U. P. Singh

2012-01-01

250

Can Choice Promote Education for All? Evidence from Growth in Private Primary Schooling in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines whether the recent growth in "low-fee private" (LFP) schools is able to promote Education for All by being accessible to the poor. Based primarily on a 13-village survey of 250 households and visits to 26 private and government schools in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, this paper explores who "chooses" private schooling, in the…

Harma, Joanna

2009-01-01

251

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida S11  

PubMed Central

Here we report the genome sequence of a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida S11. The length of the draft genome sequence is approximately 5,970,799 bp, with a G+C content of 62.4%. The genome contains 6,076 protein-coding sequences.

Ponraj, Paramasivan; Shankar, Manoharan; Ilakkiam, Devaraj; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

2012-01-01

252

Chronic stress promotes tumor growth through increased BDNF production and neo-innervation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in response to chronic biobehavioral stress results in high levels of catecholamines and persistent activation of adrenergic signaling, which promotes tumor growth and progression. However it is unknown how catecholamine levels within the tumor exceed systemic levels in circulation. I hypothesized that neo-innervation of tumors is required for stress-mediated effects on tumor

Julie K Allen

2012-01-01

253

Plant growth promoting bacteria enhance water stress resistance in green gram plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth promoting bacterial (PGPB) strains Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf1 and endophytic Bacillus subtilis EPB5, EPB22, EPB 31 were tested for their capacity to induce water stress related proteins and enzymes in green gram (Vigna radiata) plants. Among the different bacteria used, P. fluorescens Pf1 increased the vigour index, fresh weight and dry weight of green gram seedlings in vitro. Quantitative

D. Saravanakumar; M. Kavino; T. Raguchander; P. Subbian; R. Samiyappan

2011-01-01

254

Steroidogenic enzyme gene expression profiles in the testis of cattle treated with illicit growth promoters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the effect of illicit growth promoters (GPs) upon the cattle transcriptome has drawn the increasing attention of the scientific community. In the present study, the pre-transcriptional effects of three different illicit protocols on a set of target genes, including steroidogenic enzymes and three related transcription factors, were estimated in cattle testis.Beef cattle were administered with dexamethasone (DEX) orally (group

Rosa M. Lopparelli; Vanessa Zancanella; Mery Giantin; Licia Ravarotto; Giandomenico Pozza; Clara Montesissa; Mauro Dacasto

2011-01-01

255

Effects of an androgenic growth promoter 17?-trenbolone on masculinization of Mosquitofish ( Gambusia affinis affinis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect normal hormone dependent processes through numerous mechanisms, including ligand mimicky. 17?-Trenbolone (TB), a pharmaceutical, androgenic, anabolic steroid, is a potent agonist of androgen receptors, and has been extensively used as a growth promoter for beef cattle in the US. The effects of TB on adult and newborn mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis affinis) were examined. Two forms

Kiyoaki Sone; Megumi Hinago; Misaki Itamoto; Yoshinao Katsu; Hajime Watanabe; Hiroshi Urushitani; Osamu Tooi; Louis J. Guillette Jr.; Taisen Iguchi

2005-01-01

256

Mixtures of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for induction of systemic resistance against multiple plant diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of induced systemic resistance using strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have concentrated on the use of individual PGPR as inducers against multiple diseases of a single crop. To date, few reports have examined the potential of PGPR strain mixtures to induce systemic resistance against diseases of several different plant hosts. The objective of this study was to select

Kanchalee Jetiyanon; Joseph W Kloepper

2002-01-01

257

Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613T  

PubMed Central

Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613T, a novel halophilic Bacillus species isolated from a salted Thai food, produced antimicrobial compounds against plant pathogens and promoted plant growth by volatile emission. We determined the 3.8-Mb genome sequence of B. siamensis KCTC 13613T to reveal the plant-beneficial effect at the genomic level.

Jeong, Haeyoung; Jeong, Da-Eun; Kim, Sun Hong; Song, Geun Cheol; Park, Soo-Young; Ryu, Choong-Min; Park, Seung-Hwan

2012-01-01

258

Genome Sequence of Herbaspirillum sp. Strain GW103, a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 was isolated from rhizosphere soil of the reed Phragmites australis on reclaimed land. Here we report the 5.05-Mb draft genome sequence of the strain, providing bioinformation about the agronomic benefits of this strain, such as multiple traits relevant to plant root colonization and plant growth promotion.

Lee, Gun Woong; Lee, Kui-Jae

2012-01-01

259

Biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica by Rhizobium and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on lentil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biocontrol of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica was studied on lentil using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) namely Pseudomonas putida, P. alcaligenes, Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus pumilus and root nodule bacterium Rhizobium sp. Pseudomonas putida caused greater inhibitory effect on the hatching and penetration of M. javanica followed by P. alcaligenes, P. polymyxa and B. pumilus. Inoculation of any PGPR species

Zaki A. Siddiqui; G. Baghel; M. S. Akhtar

2007-01-01

260

Promotion of hair growth by ginseng radix on cultured mouse vibrissal hair follicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 70% methanol extract from red ginseng (steamed and dried roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, a kind of Ginseng Radix) had superior activity to that of white ginseng (peeled and dried root of P. ginseng, another kind of Ginseng Radix) in a hair growth promoting assay using mouse vibrissal follicles in organ culture. Of the major constituents of

Hideaki Matsuda; Miho Yamazaki; Yusuke Asanuma; Michinori Kubo

2003-01-01

261

Promotion of Sorghum Callus Growth by the s-Triazine Herbicides 1  

PubMed Central

Growth-promoting action of simazine and other s-triazine herbicides was detected by the use of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L]. Moench) callus tissue and the chlorophyll retention test. Soil application of simazine [2-chloro-4, 6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine] at sublethal levels nearly doubled the growth-promoting action of sorghum root exudates. Treated plants yielded up to 26% more total protein than untreated plants. This indicated that the level of callus growth-promoting action in the root exudate of the plant has a positive effect on its final total protein yield and confirms a positive effect of simazine on total protein content in certain instances. The results may provide a new understanding of the mode of action of s-triazines applied at sublethal levels in increasing protein content and certain enzymic activities of treated plants. It is speculated that the growth-promoting action of these herbicides is hormonal in nature and most likely kinetin-like.

Nadar, Hassan M.; Clegg, Max D.; Maranville, Jerry W.

1975-01-01

262

Solubilization of zinc compounds by the diazotrophic, plant growth promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus an endophytic diazotroph also encountered as rhizosphere bacterium is reported to possess different plant growth promoting characteristics. In this study, we assessed the zinc solubilizing potential of G. diazotrophicus under in vitro conditions with different Zn compounds using glucose or sucrose as carbon sources. G. diazotrophicus showed variations in their solubilization potential with the strains used and the

V. S. Saravanan; M. Madhaiyan; M. Thangaraju

2007-01-01

263

Antimicrobial Growth Promoters and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. in Poultry and Swine, Denmark  

PubMed Central

The use of antimicrobial growth promoters in Danish food animal production was discontinued in 1998. Contrary to concerns that pathogen load would increase; we found a significant decrease in Salmonella in broilers before and after slaughter of swine and pork and no change in the prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers.

Wegener, Henrik C.

2003-01-01

264

Genome sequence of Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103, a plant growth-promoting bacterium.  

PubMed

Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 was isolated from rhizosphere soil of the reed Phragmites australis on reclaimed land. Here we report the 5.05-Mb draft genome sequence of the strain, providing bioinformation about the agronomic benefits of this strain, such as multiple traits relevant to plant root colonization and plant growth promotion. PMID:22815460

Lee, Gun Woong; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chae, Jong-Chan

2012-08-01

265

Chain-growth polymerization of 2-chlorothiophenes promoted by Lewis acids.  

PubMed

Lewis acids promote the polymerization of several 2-chloroalkylenedioxythiophenes, providing high-molecular-weight conjugated polymers. The proposed mechanism is a cationic chain-growth polymerization, as confirmed by end-capping reactions and a linear correlation of molecular weight with percent conversion. The "living" character of this process was used to prepare new block copolymers. PMID:23137337

Bonillo, Baltasar; Swager, Timothy M

2012-11-09

266

Netrin-1 Promotes Thalamic Axon Growth and Is Required for Proper Development of the Thalamocortical Projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thalamocortical axon (TCA) projection originates in dorsal thalamus, conveys sensory input to the neocortex, and has a critical role in cortical development. We show that the secreted axon guidance molecule netrin-1 acts in vitro as an attractant and growth promoter for dorsal thalamic axons and is required for the proper development of the TCA projection in vivo .A s

Janet E. Braisted; Susan M. Catalano; Robert Stimac; Timothy E. Kennedy; Marc Tessier-Lavigne; Carla J. Shatz; Dennis D. M. O'Leary

2000-01-01

267

Promoting Literacy Growth in Young Children. The First Steps Series. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's capacity for learning to read and write at school is directly linked to the experiences children have at home with language, books, and writing. This videotape shows how parents can provide a home environment that promotes literacy growth for their children. The 25-minute video first highlights the elements of a literacy-rich…

1999

268

Burkholderia cenocepacia conditional growth mutant library created by random promoter replacement of essential genes.  

PubMed

Identification of essential genes by construction of conditional knockouts with inducible promoters allows the identification of essential genes and creation of conditional growth (CG) mutants that are then available as genetic tools for further studies. We used large-scale transposon delivery of the rhamnose-inducible promoter, PrhaB followed by robotic screening of rhamnose-dependent growth to construct a genomic library of 106 Burkholderia cenocepacia CG mutants. Transposon insertions were found where PrhaB was in the same orientation of widely conserved, well-characterized essential genes as well as genes with no previous records of essentiality in other microorganisms. Using previously reported global gene-expression analyses, we demonstrate that PrhaB can achieve the wide dynamic range of expression levels required for essential genes when the promoter is delivered randomly and mutants with rhamnose-dependent growth are selected. We also show specific detection of the target of an antibiotic, novobiocin, by enhanced sensitivity of the corresponding CG mutant (PrhaB controlling gyrB expression) within the library. Modulation of gene expression to achieve 30-60% of wild-type growth created conditions for specific hypersensitivity demonstrating the value of the CG mutant library for chemogenomic experiments. In summary, CG mutants can be obtained on a large scale by random delivery of a tightly regulated inducible promoter into the bacterial chromosome followed by a simple screening for the CG phenotype, without previous information on gene essentiality. PMID:23389959

Bloodworth, Ruhi A M; Gislason, April S; Cardona, Silvia T

2013-02-07

269

Genome of the Root-Associated Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Variovorax paradoxus Strain EPS  

PubMed Central

Variovorax paradoxus is a ubiquitous betaproteobacterium involved in plant growth promotion, the degradation of xenobiotics, and quorum-quenching activity. The genome of V. paradoxus strain EPS consists of a single circular chromosome of 6,550,056 bp, with a 66.48% G+C content.

Han, Jong-In; Spain, Jim C.; Leadbetter, Jared R.; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff S.; Woyke, Tanja; Davenport, Karen W.

2013-01-01

270

ALTERNATIVES TO THE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS AS GROWTH PROMOTERS FOR MONOGASTRIC ANIMALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, more and more is becoming known about the mode of action of antibiotics as growth promoters (AMGP), particularly in relation to the development of microbial resistance. Consequently, the use of these AMGP is already restricted or forbidden in many countries. Therefore, to compensate for the possible decrease in production, a lot of work is now being done to investigate

Martin W. A. Verstegen; Barbara A. Williams

2002-01-01

271

The European ban on growth-promoting antibiotics and emerging consequences for human and animal health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the ban of all food animal growth-promoting antibiotics by Sweden in 1986, the European Union banned avoparcin in 1997 and bacitracin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin in 1999. Three years later, the only attributable effect in humans has been a diminution in acquired resistance in enterococci isolated from human faecal carriers. There has been an increase in human infection from

Mark Casewell; Christian Friis; Enric Marco; Paul McMullin; Ian Phillips

2003-01-01

272

A comparative analysis on the factors promoting China's economic growth based on demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

By applying co-integration test and variance decomposition to the quarterly data from Q1 2000 to Q3 2010, this paper conducts an empirical study on the demand factors that promote the economic growth of China. The conclusions are as follows: consumption, investment and net exports all have influence on China's actual output, among which, consumption makes a greater contribution to the

Tang Anbao; Zhao Danhua

2011-01-01

273

Genome of the Root-Associated Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Variovorax paradoxus Strain EPS.  

PubMed

Variovorax paradoxus is a ubiquitous betaproteobacterium involved in plant growth promotion, the degradation of xenobiotics, and quorum-quenching activity. The genome of V. paradoxus strain EPS consists of a single circular chromosome of 6,550,056 bp, with a 66.48% G+C content. PMID:24158554

Han, Jong-In; Spain, Jim C; Leadbetter, Jared R; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Goodwin, Lynne A; Han, Cliff S; Woyke, Tanja; Davenport, Karen W; Orwin, Paul M

2013-10-24

274

Effect of Growth Rate on Resistance of Candida albicans Biofilms to Antifungal Agents  

PubMed Central

A perfused biofilm fermentor, which allows growth-rate control of adherent microbial populations, was used to assess whether the susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to antifungal agents is dependent on growth rate. Biofilms were generated under conditions of glucose limitation and were perfused with drugs at a high concentration (20 times the MIC). Amphotericin B produced a greater reduction in the number of daughter cells in biofilm eluates than ketoconazole, fluconazole, or flucytosine. Similar decreases in daughter cell counts were observed when biofilms growing at three different rates were perfused with amphotericin B. In a separate series of experiments, intact biofilms, resuspended biofilm cells, and newly formed daughter cells were removed from the fermentor and were exposed to a lower concentration of amphotericin B for 1 h. The susceptibility profiles over a range of growth rates were then compared with those obtained for planktonic cells grown at the same rates under glucose limitation in a chemostat. Intact biofilms were resistant to amphotericin B at all growth rates tested, whereas planktonic cells were resistant only at low growth rates (?0.13 h?1). Cells resuspended from biofilms were less resistant than intact biofilm populations but more resistant than daughter cells; the susceptibilities of both these cell types were largely independent of growth rate. Our findings indicate that the amphotericin B resistance of C. albicans biofilms is not simply due to a low growth rate but depends on some other feature of the biofilm mode of growth.

Baillie, George S.; Douglas, L. Julia

1998-01-01

275

Transcriptional activation of the human epidermal growth factor receptor promoter by human p53.  

PubMed Central

The human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promoter is activated by both wild-type and tumor-derived mutant p53. In this communication, we demonstrate that EGFR promoter sequence requirements for transactivation by wild-type and mutant p53 are different. Transient-expression assays with EGFR promoter deletions identified a wild-type human p53 response element, 5'-AGCTAGACGTCCGGGCAGCCCCCGGCG -3', from positions --265 to --239. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis and DNase I footprinting assays indicated that wild-type p53 binds sequence specifically to the response element. Using circularly permuted DNA fragments containing the p53-binding site, we show that wild-type p53 binding induces DNA bending at this site. We further show that the EGFR promoter is also activated by tumor-derived p53 mutants p53-143A, p53-175H, p53-248W, p53-273H, and p53-281G. However, the transactivation by mutant p53 does not require the wild-type p53-binding site. The minimal EGFR promoter from positions --104 to --20 which does not contain the wild-type p53-binding site is transactivated by the p53 mutants but not by the wild-type protein, showing a difference in the mechanism of transactivation by wild-type and mutant p53. Transactivation of the EGFR promoter by p53 may represent a novel mechanism of cell growth regulation.

Ludes-Meyers, J H; Subler, M A; Shivakumar, C V; Munoz, R M; Jiang, P; Bigger, J E; Brown, D R; Deb, S P; Deb, S

1996-01-01

276

Hepatocyte growth factor activates tumor stromal fibroblasts to promote tumorigenesis in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), as the activated fibroblasts in tumor stroma, are important modifiers of tumor progression. However, the mechanisms underlying stromal fibroblast activation and their promotion of tumor growth remain largely unknown in gastric cancer. Here, we show that normal fibroblasts (NFs) from non-cancerous regions of gastric cancer exhibit the traits of CAFs when grown together with gastric cancer cells in vivo. Activation of NFs can be induced by co-culture with gastric cancer cells, while deprivation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) using a neutralizing antibody inhibits the activation of NFs. Moreover, we identify HGF as an important factor from CAFs that acts in a paracrine manner to promote tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that HGF may play a pivotal role in the regulatory circuit between gastric cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts, and neutralization of HGF inhibits both activation and tumor-promoting properties of CAFs. PMID:23402812

Wu, Xiongyan; Chen, Xuehua; Zhou, Quan; Li, Pu; Yu, Beiqin; Li, Jianfang; Qu, Ying; Yan, Jun; Yu, Yingyan; Yan, Min; Zhu, Zhenggang; Liu, Bingya; Su, Liping

2013-02-09

277

Plant–microbe interactions promoting plant growth and health: perspectives for controlled use of microorganisms in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-associated microorganisms fulfill important functions for plant growth and health. Direct plant growth promotion by\\u000a microbes is based on improved nutrient acquisition and hormonal stimulation. Diverse mechanisms are involved in the suppression\\u000a of plant pathogens, which is often indirectly connected with plant growth. Whereas members of the bacterial genera Azospirillum and Rhizobium are well-studied examples for plant growth promotion, Bacillus,

Gabriele Berg

2009-01-01

278

Growth Promotion of Yunnan Pine Early Seedlings in Response to Foliar Application of IAA and IBA  

PubMed Central

A field experiment was conducted using a 3 × 3 orthogonal regression design to explore the growth promotion of one-year-old Yunnan pine seedlings (Pinus yunnanensis Franch.) in response to foliar application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L?1 and IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L?1 in order to promote the growth during the seedlings’ early stage. The experiment was conducted at the Lufeng Village Forest Farm of Yiliang County in Kunming, Yunnan, China. The results showed that IAA and IBA were effective in growth promotion of Yunnan pine seedlings. The response of both growth increment and biomass accumulation to the concentration of IAA and IBA can be modeled using a bivariate surface response, and each growth index had a peak value. Growth indexes increased with the increase of the dosage of photohormones before reaching a peak value, and then decreased. The different growth indexes had various responses to the concentrations and ratio of IAA and IBA. The foliar application of IAA in combination with IBA showed the largest improvement on the biomass of the needles, followed by stems and roots. The higher ratio of IAA promoted stem diameter growth, root system development and biomass accumulation in the needles, while a higher ratio of IBA contributed to height growth and biomass accumulation in the stem. Based on the auxin effect equations on the different growth indexes and surface response, the optimum concentrations and the (IAA:IBA) ratios can be obtained. The optimum concentrations of IAA and IBA were 167 and 186, 310 and 217, 193 and 159, 191 and 221, and 206 and 186 mg·L?1, with corresponding ratios of 1:1.11, 1:0.70, 1:0.82, 1:1.15 and 1:0.90, respectively, at the maximum seedling height and collar diameter growth as well as biomass accumulation at the root, stem and needle. The above growth indexes were 22.00%, 79.80%, 48.65%, 82.20% and 107.00% higher than the control treatment.

Xu, Yulan; Zhang, Yuemin; Li, Yunfei; Li, Genqian; Liu, Daiyi; Zhao, Minchong; Cai, Nianhui

2012-01-01

279

Colonization of Morus alba L. by the plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1  

PubMed Central

Background Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum dematium, is a serious threat to the production and quality of mulberry leaves in susceptible varieties. Control of the disease has been a major problem in mulberry cultivation. Some strains of Burkholderia cepacia were reported to be useful antagonists of plant pests and could increase the yields of several crop plants. Although B. cepacia Lu10-1 is an endophytic bacterium obtained from mulberry leaves, it has not been deployed to control C. dematium infection in mulberry nor its colonization patterns in mulberry have been studied using GFP reporter or other reporters. The present study sought to evaluate the antifungal and plant-growth-promoting properties of strain Lu10-1, to clarify its specific localization within a mulberry plant, and to better understand its potential as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. Results Lu10-1 inhibited conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. dematium in vitro; when applied on leaves or to the soil, Lu10-1 also inhibited the development of anthracnose in a greenhouse, but the effectiveness varied with the length of the interval between the strain treatment and inoculation with the pathogen. Strain Lu10-1 could survive in both sterile and non-sterile soils for more than 60 days. The strain produced auxins, contributed to P solubilization and nitrogenase activity, and significantly promoted the growth of mulberry seedlings. The bacteria infected mulberry seedlings through cracks formed at junctions of lateral roots with the main root and in the zone of differentiation and elongation, and the cells were able to multiply and spread, mainly to the intercellular spaces of different tissues. The growth in all the tissues was around 1-5 × 105 CFU per gram of fresh plant tissue. Conclusions Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1 is an endophyte that can multiply and spread in mulberry seedlings rapidly and efficiently. The strain is antagonistic to C. dematium and acts as an efficient plant-growth-promoting agent on mulberry seedlings and is therefore a promising candidate as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent.

2010-01-01

280

Effect of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas spp. on compatible solutes, antioxidant status and plant growth of maize under drought stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting yield of dryland crops. Rhizobacterial populations of stressed soils\\u000a are adapted and tolerant to stress and can be screened for isolation of efficient stress adaptive\\/tolerant, plant growth promoting\\u000a rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains that can be used as inoculants for crops grown in stressed ecosystems. The effect of inoculation\\u000a of five drought tolerant

V. Sandhya; Sk. Z. Ali; Minakshi Grover; Gopal Reddy; B. Venkateswarlu

2010-01-01

281

Cdh1-Anaphase-Promoting Complex Targets Skp2 for Destruction in Transforming Growth Factor  Induced Growth Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a subunit of a ubiquitin ligase, Skp2 is implicated in facilitating cell cycle progression via degradation of various protein targets. We report here that Skp2 is rapidly degraded following cellular stimulation by the cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF-) and that this degradation stabilizes the cell cycle arrest protein p27. The Skp2 degradation is mediated by Cdh1-anaphase-promoting complex (APC), as

Weijun Liu; George Wu; Wenqi Li; David Lobur; Yong Wan

2007-01-01

282

Modulation of the anti-cancer efficacy of microtubule-targeting agents by cellular growth conditions.  

PubMed

Mitotic spindle-disrupting agents target and disrupt microtubule dynamics. These agents include clinically important chemotherapies, including taxanes (paclitaxel (Taxol), docetaxel (Taxotere)) and vinca alkaloids (vincristine (Oncovin), vinblastine). Taxanes are a standard component of treatment for many malignancies, often in conjunction with other cytotoxic agents. However, the optimal sequencing of these treatments and whether efficacy may be influenced by in vitro cellular growth conditions remain incompletely investigated. Yet such preclinical investigations may guide clinical decision making. We therefore studied the effect of cell density on rapid killing by paclitaxel and vincristine. Breast, ovarian and prostate cancer cells were sensitive to rapid killing by either agent when grown at low density, but were markedly resistant when grown at high density, i.e. nearly confluent. The resistance of densely growing cells to rapid killing by these drugs translated to increased clonogenic survival. Pretreatment of densely growing cancer cells with cisplatin followed by paclitaxel, partially reversed the treatment resistance. Gene ontology associations from microarray analyses of cells grown at low and high density, suggested roles for membrane signal transduction and adhesion, but potentially also DNA damage repair and metabolism. Taken together, the treatment resistance at higher cell density may be associated with a lower proportion of active cycling in cells growing at high density as well as transduction of survival signals induced by increased cell-cell adhesion. Collectively these findings suggest mechanisms by which growth conditions may contribute to resistance to rapid killing by microtubule-disrupting drugs. PMID:20234172

Dorsey, Jay F; Dowling, Melissa L; Kim, Mijin; Voong, Ranh; Solin, Lawrence J; Kao, Gary D

2010-05-15

283

Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.  

PubMed

Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

2008-05-14

284

Porcine skin gelatin hydrolysate promotes longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats.  

PubMed

Collagen hydrolysates (CHs) are mixtures of peptides obtained by partial hydrolysis of gelatin that are receiving scientific attention as potential oral supplements for the restoration of osteoarticular tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CHs for promoting longitudinal bone growth in growing rats. An in vitro study was carried out in osteoblast-like MG63 cells and the most effective CH on bone formation was selected among 36 various CHs. An in vivo study confirmed the functional effects of a selected CH with molecular weight of <3?kDa on longitudinal bone growth. CHs dose-dependently promoted the longitudinal bone growth and height of the growth plate in adolescent male rats, whereas gelatin failed to affect longitudinal bone growth. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the CH treated group were highly expressed in the growth plate. These results suggest that CHs isolated in this study may provide beneficial effects on bone metabolism of growing animals and humans. PMID:23631489

Leem, Kang-Hyun; Lee, Sena; Jang, Aera; Kim, Hye Kyung

2013-04-30

285

ACC deaminase and IAA producing growth promoting bacteria from the rhizosphere soil of tropical rice plants.  

PubMed

Beneficial plant-associated bacteria play a key role in supporting and/or promoting plant growth and health. Plant growth promoting bacteria present in the rhizosphere of crop plants can directly affect plant metabolism or modulate phytohormone production or degradation. We isolated 355 bacteria from the rhizosphere of rice plants grown in the farmers' fields in the coastal rice field soil from five different locations of the Ganjam district of Odisha, India. Six bacteria producing both ACC deaminase (ranging from 603.94 to 1350.02?nmol ?-ketobutyrate mg(-1) ?h(-1) ) and indole acetic acid (IAA; ranging from 10.54 to 37.65??M?ml(-1) ) in pure cultures were further identified using polyphasic taxonomy including BIOLOG((R)) , FAME analysis and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates resulted into five major clusters to include members of the genera Bacillus, Microbacterium, Methylophaga, Agromyces, and Paenibacillus. Seed inoculation of rice (cv. Naveen) by the six individual PGPR isolates had a considerable impact on different growth parameters including root elongation that was positively correlated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. The cultures also had other plant growth attributes including ammonia production and at least two isolates produced siderophores. Study indicates that presence of diverse rhizobacteria with effective growth-promoting traits, in the rice rhizosphere, may be exploited for a sustainable crop management under field conditions. PMID:23681643

Bal, Himadri Bhusan; Das, Subhasis; Dangar, Tushar K; Adhya, Tapan K

2013-05-17

286

Biological control and plant growth promoting capacity of rhizobacteria on pepper under greenhouse and field conditions.  

PubMed

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 and Novosphingobium pentaromativorans KUDC1065 isolated from Dokdo Island, S. Korea are capable of eliciting induced systemic resistance (ISR) in pepper against bacterial spot disease. The present study aimed to determine whether plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains including strain KUDC1013, strain KUDC1065, and Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 either singly or in combinations were evaluated to have the capacity for potential biological control and plant growth promotion effect in the field trials. Under greenhouse conditions, the induced systemic resistance (ISR) effect of treatment with strains KUDC1013 and KUDC1065 differed according to pepper growth stages. Drenching of 3-week-old pepper seedlings with the KUDC-1013 strain significantly reduced the disease symptoms. In contrast, treatment with the KUDC1065 strain significantly protected 5-week-old pepper seedlings. Under field conditions, peppers treated with PGPR mixtures containing E681 and KUDC1013, either in a two-way combination, were showed greater effect on plant growth than those treated with an individual treatment. Collectively, the application of mixtures of PGPR strains on pepper might be considered as a potential biological control under greenhouse and field conditions. PMID:22752900

Hahm, Mi-Seon; Sumayo, Marilyn; Hwang, Ye-Ji; Jeon, Seon-Ae; Park, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jai Youl; Ahn, Joon-Hyung; Kim, Byung-Soo; Ryu, Choong-Min; Ghim, Sa-Youl

2012-06-30

287

Acetylation of Androgen Receptor Enhances Coactivator Binding and Promotes Prostate Cancer Cell Growth  

PubMed Central

Modification by acetylation occurs at ?-amino lysine residues of histones and transcription factors. Unlike phosphorylation, a direct link between transcription factor acetylation and cellular growth or apoptosis has not been established. We show that the nuclear androgen receptor (AR), a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator, is acetylated in vivo. The acetylation of the AR is induced by ligand dihydrotestosterone and by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors in living cells. Direct AR acetylation augmented p300 binding in vitro. Constructs mimicking neutral polar substitution acetylation (ARK630Q, ARK630T) enhanced p300 binding and reduced N-CoR/HDAC/Smad3 corepressor binding, whereas charged residue substitution (ARK630R) reduced p300 binding and enhanced corepressor binding. The AR acetylation mimics promoted cell survival and growth of prostate cancer cells in soft agar and in nude mice and augmented transcription of a subset of growth control target gene promoters. Thus, transcription factor acetylation regulates coactivator/corepressor complex binding, altering expression of specific growth control genes to promote aberrant cellular growth in vivo.

Fu, Maofu; Rao, Mahadev; Wang, Chenguang; Sakamaki, Toshiyuki; Wang, Jian; Di Vizio, Dolores; Zhang, Xueping; Albanese, Chris; Balk, Steven; Chang, Chawnshang; Fan, Saijun; Rosen, Eliot; Palvimo, Jorma J.; Janne, Olli A.; Muratoglu, Selen; Avantaggiati, Maria Laura; Pestell, Richard G.

2003-01-01

288

Growth promoting effect of organic impurities on growth kinetics of KAP and KDP crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental results of the influence of a variety of organic impurities differing in their chemical behavior on the growth rates of different faces of KAP and KDP crystals are presented. It was observed that, with increasing additive concentration in practically all experiments, an impurity leads first to an increase and then a decrease in the growth rate, passing through

V. A Kuznetsov; T. M Okhrimenko; Miros?awa Rak

1998-01-01

289

Influence of pesticides on the growth rate and plant-growth promoting traits of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro study to examine the effect of different pesticides on the growth and survival of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 was carried out. Monocrotophos, Lindane and Dichlorvos had the most lethal actions against Gluconacetobacter grown on LGIP medium, while Endosulphan, Chlorpyriphos, and Malathion effects were intermediate. Herbicides generally appeared to have no adverse effect on the growth and survival

M. Madhaiyan; S. Poonguzhali; K. Hari; V. S. Saravanan; Tongmin Sa

2006-01-01

290

Madm (Mlf1 adapter molecule) cooperates with Bunched A to promote growth in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background The TSC-22 domain family (TSC22DF) consists of putative transcription factors harboring a DNA-binding TSC-box and an adjacent leucine zipper at their carboxyl termini. Both short and long TSC22DF isoforms are conserved from flies to humans. Whereas the short isoforms include the tumor suppressor TSC-22 (Transforming growth factor-?1 stimulated clone-22), the long isoforms are largely uncharacterized. In Drosophila, the long isoform Bunched A (BunA) acts as a growth promoter, but how BunA controls growth has remained obscure. Results In order to test for functional conservation among TSC22DF members, we expressed the human TSC22DF proteins in the fly and found that all long isoforms can replace BunA function. Furthermore, we combined a proteomics-based approach with a genetic screen to identify proteins that interact with BunA. Madm (Mlf1 adapter molecule) physically associates with BunA via a conserved motif that is only contained in long TSC22DF proteins. Moreover, Drosophila Madm acts as a growth-promoting gene that displays growth phenotypes strikingly similar to bunA phenotypes. When overexpressed, Madm and BunA synergize to increase organ growth. Conclusions The growth-promoting potential of long TSC22DF proteins is evolutionarily conserved. Furthermore, we provide biochemical and genetic evidence for a growth-regulating complex involving the long TSC22DF protein BunA and the adapter molecule Madm. See minireview at http://jbiol.com/content/9/1/8.

2010-01-01

291

Overexpression of the human insulinlike growth factor I receptor promotes ligand-dependent neoplastic transformation.  

PubMed Central

The human insulinlike growth factor I receptor was overexpressed in NIH 3T3 cells as well as human and rat primary fibroblast strains. The NIH 3T3 cells displayed a ligand-dependent, highly transformed phenotype. When exposed to insulinlike growth factor I or supraphysiologic levels of insulin, NIH 3T3 cells that expressed high levels of receptors formed aggregates in tissue culture dishes, colonies in soft agar, and tumors in nude mice. Expression of 1 million receptors per cell, a 40-fold increase above the base-line level, was required for anchorage-independent growth. Primary fibroblasts that expressed high levels of receptors displayed a ligand-dependent change in morphology and an increase in saturation density but did not acquire a fully transformed phenotype. The results demonstrate that when amplified, this ubiquitous growth factor receptor behaves like an oncogenic protein and is capable of promoting neoplastic growth in vivo. Images

Kaleko, M; Rutter, W J; Miller, A D

1990-01-01

292

A Novel Growth-Promoting Pathway Formed by GDNF-Overexpressing Schwann Cells Promotes Propriospinal Axonal Regeneration, Synapse formation, and Partial Recovery of Function after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Descending propriospinal neurons (DPSN) are known to establish functional relays for supraspinal signals, and they display a greater growth response after injury than do the long projecting axons. However, their regenerative response is still deficient due to their failure to depart from growth supportive cellular transplants back into the host spinal cord, which contains numerous impediments to axon growth. Here we report the construction of a continuous growth-promoting pathway in adult rats, formed by grafted Schwann cells (SCs) overexpressing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We demonstrate that such a growth-promoting pathway, extending from the axonal cut ends to the site of innervation in the distal spinal cord, promoted regeneration of DPSN axons through and beyond the lesion gap of a spinal cord hemisection. Within the distal host spinal cord, regenerated DPSN axons formed synapses with host neurons leading to the restoration of action potentials and partial recovery of function.

Deng, Lingxiao; Deng, Ping; Ruan, Yiwen; Xu, Zao Cheng; Liu, Naikui; Wen, Xuejun; Smith, George M.; Xu, Xiao-Ming

2013-01-01

293

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Dynamics Influences Response to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Targeted Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of gene expression of cancer cell lines exposed to erlotinib, a small molecule inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), showed a marked increase in EGFR mRNA in resistant cell lines but not in susceptible ones. Because cetuximab induces EGFR down-regulation, we explored the hypothesis that treatment with cetuximab would interfere with erlotinib-induced EGFR up-regulation and result in

Antonio Jimeno; Maria L. Amador; Nadia Bouraoud; Peter Kulesza; Anirban Maitra; Manuel Hidalgo

2005-01-01

294

Effects of Phorbol Ester Tumor Promoters and Nerve Growth Factor on Neurite Outgrowth in Cultured Human Neuroblastoma Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of phorbol ester tumor promoters on neurite outgrowth was studied in cultured human neuroblastoma cell lines and in cultured embryonic chick and neonatal rat sym pathetic ganglia. Promoters inhibited nerve growth factor (NGF)-stimulated neurite outgrowth in sympathetic ganglia while nonpromoting structural congeners did not, in keeping with previous results in embryonic sensory ganglia. In contra distinction, promoters reversibly

Walter Spinelli; Kenneth H. Sonnenfeld; Douglas N. Ishii

1982-01-01

295

Combined effect of volatile antimicrobial agents on the growth of Penicillium notatum.  

PubMed

Widely used antimicrobial volatile organic compounds, such as sulphur dioxide and ethanol but also selected aroma compounds such as carvacrol, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde, were tested single and in binary combination for their effect on Penicillium notatum growth in vapour phase at 30 degrees C. Aroma compounds were more efficient compared to sulphur dioxide and ethanol. AITC and cinnamaldehyde had the highest inhibition activity on the growth of P. notatum with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.8 and 3.9 micromol/L of air, respectively. The impact of agents combined two by two was assessed using two criteria, the increase of growth delay and the reduction of growth rate. A synergistic activity was identified for six combinations; ethanol/carvacrol, sulphur dioxide/carvacrol, sulphur dioxide/AITC, sulphur dioxide/cinnamaldehyde, AITC/cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde/carvacrol. The advantage of these combinations is to reduce the concentration of each agent and their relative impact in organoleptic properties. PMID:17011661

Tunc, S; Chollet, E; Chalier, P; Preziosi-Belloy, L; Gontard, N

2006-10-02

296

Transforming growth factor-beta and breast cancer: Tumor promoting effects of transforming growth factor-?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transforming growth factor (TGF)-?s are potent growth inhibitors of normal epithelial cells. In established tumor cell systems, however, the preponderant experimental evidence suggests that TGF-?s can foster tumor-host interactions that indirectly support the viability and\\/or progression of cancer cells. The timing of this 'TGF-? switch' during the progressive transformation of epithelial cells is not clear. More recent evidence also

Nancy Dumont; Carlos L Arteaga

2000-01-01

297

Agents.  

PubMed

Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists. PMID:12132261

Chambers, David W

2002-01-01

298

Promotion of growth and hydrogen ion efflux by auxin in roots of maize pretreated with ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors.  

PubMed

Low concentrations of auxin (e.g. 10(-10)m) do not promote the growth of intact seedling roots of maize (Zea mays L. Bear Hybrid WF 9 x 38). Higher concentrations are inhibitory. When the roots are pretreated with the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors, cobalt and aminoethoxyvinylglycine, auxin (10(-10) to 10(-8)m) strongly promotes their growth. The promotion of growth by auxin in pretreated roots is preceded by enhanced hydrogen ion secretion from the roots. The data indicate that hormone-enhanced hydrogen ion secretion may play a role in the rapid promotion of root growth by auxin. The ability of auxin to promote the growth of intact roots is discussed in relation to the Cholodny/Went hypothesis of hormonal control of root geotropism. PMID:16662442

Mulkey, T J; Kuzmanoff, K M; Evans, M L

1982-07-01

299

Revegetation of a lakeside barren area by the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

The growth stimulation of wild plants by several bacterial species showing plant growth-promoting capabilities was examined in a barren lakeside area at Lake Paro, Korea. Microbial numbers and activities in the field soil were monitored for 73 days after inoculation of the bacteria. The acridine orange direct counts for the total soil bacterial populations ranged between 2.0-2.3x10(9) cells/g soil and 1.4-1.8x10(9) cells/g soil in the inoculated and uninoculated soils, respectively. The numbers of Pseudomonas spp., which is known as a typical plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, and the total microbial activity were higher in the inoculated soil compared to those in the uninoculated soil. The average shoot and root lengths of the wild plants grown in the inoculated soil were 17.3 cm and 12.4 cm, respectively, and longer than those of 11.4 cm and 8.5 cm in the uninoculated soil. The total dry weight of the harvested wild plants was also higher in the inoculated soil (42.0 g) compared to the uninoculated soil (35.1 g). The plant growth-promoting capabilities of the inoculated bacteria may be used for the rapid revegetation of barren or disturbed land, and as biofertilizer in agriculture. PMID:17483804

Ahn, Tae-Seok; Ka, Jong-Ok; Lee, Geon-Hyoung; Song, Hong-Gyu

2007-04-01

300

RAT TRACHEAL CELL CULTURE TRANSFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS AS CARCINOGENS AND PROMOTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A tracheal cell culture system which can be used for detection of hazardous environmental agents is described. The culture system makes use of primary tracheal cells that are isolated from rats by protease digestion of the tracheal epithelium. The epithelial cells are plated on a...

301

Characterization of cis-regulatory elements of the vascular endothelial growth inhibitor gene promoter  

PubMed Central

VEGI (vascular endothelial growth inhibitor), a member of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily, has been reported to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation, angiogenesis and tumour growth. We identified and cloned approx. 2.2 kb of the VEGI promoter from mouse cerebral endothelial cells. The promoter contained an atypical TATA-box-binding protein sequence TAAAAAA residing at ?32/?26 relative to the transcription initiation site (+1), 83 bp upstream from the ATG start codon. To investigate critical sequences in the VEGI promoter, a series of deleted and truncated segments were constructed from a 2300 bp promoter construct (?2201/+96) linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Transient transfection of cerebral microvascular cells (bEND.3) and rat C6 glioma cells demonstrated that a 1700 bp deletion from the ?2201 to ?501 did not significantly affect promoter activity; however, a truncated construct (?501/+96) lacking the region between ?312 and ?57 resulted in nearly 90% loss of promoter activity. A consensus NF-?B (nuclear factor ?B) and several SP1 (specificity protein-1)-binding sequences were identified within the deleted segment. Supershift analysis revealed that NF-?B subunits, p50 and p65, interacted with the VEGI promoter. Exposure of cerebral endothermic cells to the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor-?, increased VEGI mRNA levels and DNA-binding activities, whereas an NF-?B inhibitor attenuated this increase. In addition, p65 overexpression enhanced, whereas p50 overexpression decreased, the luciferase activity. Furthermore, mutation of the NF-?B DNA binding site blocked this p65- and tumour necrosis factor-?-induced luciferase activity. These findings suggest that the transcription factor NF-?B plays an important role in the regulation of VEGI expression.

2005-01-01

302

Promoting School Renewal through Change Agent Strategies: Factors Influencing Teacher Adoption of a Statewide Change Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined factors prompting K-12 teachers to adopt statewide educational reform measures being promoted by Partnerships Advancing the Learning of Math and Science (PALMS), a cooperative statewide systemic initiative, funded by the Massachusetts Department of Education and the National Science Foundation, to implement state reform…

Fuller, June Lade

303

Biological control of Phyllanthus amarus stem blight (Corynespora cassiicola) by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preliminary screening of bacterial antagonist, B. subtilis (CBE4) isolated from rhizosphere of P. amarus was found to be effective in inhibiting the radial growth of C. cassiicola and the inhibition zone was 22.0 mm. It was followed by the endophyte P. fluorescens (ENPF1) and P. chlororaphis isolate (BCA). Biocontrol agents CBE4, BCA and ENPF1, selected based on their performance

S. Mathiyazhagana; K. Kavithaa; S. Nakkeeran; R. Radjacommare; G. Chandrasekara; W. G. D. Fernando

304

Growth-promoting effects of caseinomacropeptide from cow and goat milk on probiotics.  

PubMed

Caseinomacropeptide (CMP), a 7-kDa phosphoglycopolypeptide fragment released from ?-casein during milk renneting, is heterogeneous with respect to post-translational glycosylation. Several studies have reported that CMP has growth-promoting activity on lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycosylation and sequence variations between bovine and caprine CMP on the growth of two probiotics: Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595-M and Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67. The growth-promoting activities of CMP (mixture of glycosylated (gCMP) and non-glycosylated (aCMP) fractions), aCMP and gCMP were measured in a basal minimal culture medium using turbidimetric microplate assay at 37 °C. Supplementation of the culture media at 2 mg/ml significantly improved maximum growth by 1.5 to 1.8 times depending on the strain, the additive (CMP, aCMP, gCMP), and the bovine or caprine origin (P < 0.05). CMP preparations also decreased the time needed to reach the inflexion point of the growth curve and increase the cell density at that time (P < 0.05). The effects of CMP preparations were dose dependent and significantly superior to the effect of bovine ?-lactoglobulin added to the culture media. As gCMP and aCMP were as efficient as bovine and caprine CMP (P > 0.1), it was concluded that the presence of oligosaccharides linked to CMP was not essential for growth-promoting activity of CMP. PMID:23182022

Robitaille, Gilles

2012-11-27

305

Optimize Flue Gas Settings to Promote Microalgae Growth in Photobioreactors via Computer Simulations.  

PubMed

Flue gas from power plants can promote algal cultivation and reduce greenhouse gas emissions(1). Microalgae not only capture solar energy more efficiently than plants(3), but also synthesize advanced biofuels(2-4). Generally, atmospheric CO2 is not a sufficient source for supporting maximal algal growth(5). On the other hand, the high concentrations of CO2 in industrial exhaust gases have adverse effects on algal physiology. Consequently, both cultivation conditions (such as nutrients and light) and the control of the flue gas flow into the photo-bioreactors are important to develop an efficient "flue gas to algae" system. Researchers have proposed different photobioreactor configurations(4,6) and cultivation strategies(7,8) with flue gas. Here, we present a protocol that demonstrates how to use models to predict the microalgal growth in response to flue gas settings. We perform both experimental illustration and model simulations to determine the favorable conditions for algal growth with flue gas. We develop a Monod-based model coupled with mass transfer and light intensity equations to simulate the microalgal growth in a homogenous photo-bioreactor. The model simulation compares algal growth and flue gas consumptions under different flue-gas settings. The model illustrates: 1) how algal growth is influenced by different volumetric mass transfer coefficients of CO2; 2) how we can find optimal CO2 concentration for algal growth via the dynamic optimization approach (DOA); 3) how we can design a rectangular on-off flue gas pulse to promote algal biomass growth and to reduce the usage of flue gas. On the experimental side, we present a protocol for growing Chlorella under the flue gas (generated by natural gas combustion). The experimental results qualitatively validate the model predictions that the high frequency flue gas pulses can significantly improve algal cultivation. PMID:24121788

He, Lian; Chen, Amelia B; Yu, Yi; Kucera, Leah; Tang, Yinjie

2013-10-01

306

Platelet-derived growth factor-BB accelerates prostate cancer growth by promoting the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) favor cancer growth by facilitating immunosuppression status in tumor microenvironment. However, the function and mechanism of MSCs in initiating and developing prostate cancer remains to be fully understood. In this study, we first found that MSCs promoted prostate cancer (PCa) tumor growth in vivo and cell proliferation in vitro by using PCs cell strain RM-1. Both exogenous and endogenous MSCs could be recruited into the tumor microenvironment by using bone-marrow transplantation model. We further demonstrated that PDGF-BB produced by RM-1 cell promoted MSCs proliferation in vivo and in vitro, which was abrogated by Si-RNA specific to PDGF-BB. And inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and anti-inflammatory cytokine transformation growth factor alpha, further increased the ability of RM-1 to produce PDGF-BB. Overall, PCa cells produced PDGF-BB favors the proliferation of MSCs, which may elicit immunosuppressive function and enable PCa cells to escape from the immunity surveillance in tumor inflammatory microenvironment. PMID:23297038

Cheng, Jiwen; Ye, Huama; Liu, Zhiyong; Xu, Chuanliang; Zhang, Zhensheng; Liu, Yan; Sun, Yinghao

2013-07-01

307

Preparation of gold nanoparticles by surfactant-promoted reductive reaction without extra reducing agent.  

PubMed

Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) has been extensively applied in the solution-phase synthesis of many types of colloidal nanoparticles. However, the uses of CTAB were mainly considered as template or capping agents to form controllable shape and protect the product from agglomeration. Here it was discovered that CATB could serve as a very mild reductant to reduce gold salt precursors preparing gold nanoparticles (GNPs) at base environment. CTAB acted as the reducing agent suffering a partial degradation and forming CTA macro radicals. FTIR proved the formation of CCl and/or CBr bond after CTAB degraded. The characterization of synthesized GNPs was examined by UV-Vis spectra, TEM and XRD. Several factors affecting the process of reaction, such as the amount of NaOH, the molar ratio of CTAB and HAuCl(4), the reaction temperature, the effect of light and oxygen, and stirring were discussed. PMID:23261633

Tang, Junqi; Huang, Jiamin; Man, Shi-Qing

2012-11-05

308

Cladosporium sphaerospermum as a new plant growth-promoting endophyte from the roots of Glycine max (L.) Merr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi are plant symbionts that produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and protection against\\u000a herbivory and pathogens. Fourteen fungal samples were isolated from the roots of soybean cultivar Daemangkong and screened\\u000a on waito-c rice for their plant growth-promoting capacity. Twelve of the fungal isolates promoted plant growth, while two\\u000a inhibited it. The fungal isolate DK-1-1 induced

Muhammad Hamayun; Sumera Afzal Khan; Nadeem Ahmad; Dong-Sheng Tang; Sang-Mo Kang; Chae-In Na; Eun-Young Sohn; Young-Hyun Hwang; Dong-Hyun Shin; Byung-Hyun Lee; Jong-Guk Kim; In-Jung Lee

2009-01-01

309

GC–MS SPME profiling of rhizobacterial volatiles reveals prospective inducers of growth promotion and induced systemic resistance in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and plant growth studies of Bacilli strains GB03 and IN937a revealed that the volatile components 2,3-butanediol and acetoin trigger plant growth promotion in Arabidopsis. Differences in growth promotion when cytokinin-signaling mutants are exposed to GB03 versus IN937a volatiles suggest a divergence in chemical signaling for these two bacterial strains. To provide a comprehensive chemical profile of bacterial volatiles emitted

Mohamed A. Farag; Choong-Min Ryu; Lloyd W. Sumner; Paul W. Pared

2006-01-01

310

Biocontrol of Cucumber Diseases in the Field by Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria With and Without Methyl Bromide Fumigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raupach, G. S., and Kloepper, J. W. 2000. Biocontrol of cucumber diseases in the field by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria with and without methyl bromide fumigation. Plant Dis. 84:1073-1075. Field trials were conducted in 1996 and 1997 to determine the effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains, which previously were found to induce systemic resistance in cucumber, on cucumber plant growth

G. S. Raupach; J. W. Kloepper

2000-01-01

311

Application of plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE) isolated from Solanum nigrum L. for phytoextraction of Cd-polluted soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE) can assist their host plants cope with contaminant-induced stress responses, which can improve plant growth. In this study, four heavy metals resistant endophytic bacteria, Serratia nematodiphila LRE07, Enterobacter aerogenes LRE17, Enterobacter sp. LSE04 and Acinetobacter sp. LSE06, were isolated from Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. grown in metal-polluted soil. Their plant growth promoting properties such as

Liang Chen; Shenglian Luo; Xiao Xiao; Hanjun Guo; Jueliang Chen; Yong Wan; Bo Li; Taoying Xu; Qiang Xi; Chan Rao; Chengbin Liu; Guangming Zeng

2010-01-01

312

Proteomic analysis of the response of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4 to nickel stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plant growth-promoting bacteria can alleviate the inhibitory effects of various heavy metals on plant growth, via decreasing levels of stress-induced ethylene. However, little has been done to detect any mechanisms specific for heavy metal resistance of this kind of bacteria. Here, we investigate the response of the wild-type plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4 to nickel stress using proteomic

Zhenyu Cheng; Yi-Yun C Wei; Wilson WL Sung; Bernard R Glick; Brendan J McConkey

2009-01-01

313

Ethylene promotes hyponastic growth through interaction with ROTUNDIFOLIA3/CYP90C1 in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Upward leaf movement, called hyponastic growth, is employed by plants to cope with adverse environmental conditions. Ethylene is a key regulator of this process and, in Arabidopsis thaliana, hyponasty is induced by this phytohormone via promotion of epidermal cell expansion in a proximal zone of the abaxial side of the petiole. ROTUNDIFOLIA3/CYP90C1 encodes an enzyme which was shown to catalyse C-23 hydroxylation of several brassinosteroids (BRs) - phytohormones involved in, for example, organ growth, cell expansion, cell division, and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. This study tested the interaction between ethylene and BRs in regulating hyponastic growth. A mutant isolated in a forward genetic screen, with reduced hyponastic response to ethylene treatment, was allelic to rot3. The cause of the reduced hyponastic growth in this mutant was examined by studying ethylene-BR interaction during local cell expansion, pharmacological inhibition of BR synthesis and ethylene effects on transcription of BR-related genes. This work demonstrates that rot3 mutants are impaired in local cell expansion driving hyponasty. Moreover, the inhibition of BR biosynthesis reduces ethylene-induced hyponastic growth and ethylene increases sensitivity to BR in promoting cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Together, the results show that ROT3 modulates ethylene-induced petiole movement and that this function is likely BR related. PMID:23264517

Polko, Joanna K; Pierik, Ronald; van Zanten, Martijn; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Peeters, Anton J M

2012-12-21

314

RNA interference against SPARC promotes the growth of U-87MG human malignant glioma cells  

PubMed Central

Malignant glioma is a highly invasive brain tumor resistant to conventional therapies. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) has been shown to facilitate glioma invasion. However, the effects of SPARC on cell growth have yet to be adequately elucidated. In this study, we constructed a plasmid expressing shRNA against SPARC, evaluated the effect of SPARCshRNA on SPARC expression and then assessed its effect on cell growth in U-87MG cells. Using plasmid-delivered shRNA, we effectively suppressed SPARC expression in U-87MG cells. Cell growth curves and colony formation assay suggested that the introduction of SPARCshRNA resulted in an increase of cell growth and colony formation. We also showed that knockdown of SPARC expression was capable of promoting the cell cycle progression from the G1 to S phase. However, no difference was found in the level of apoptosis. A molecular analysis of signal mediators indicated that the inhibition of p-c-Raf (Ser259) and accumulation of p-GSK-3? (Ser9) and p-AKT (Ser473) may be connected with the growth promotion by SPARC shRNA. Our study may provide an insight into the biological function of SPARC in glioma.

Liu, Haiyan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Haowen; Fan, Saijun; Feng, Shuang; Liu, Fenju

2011-01-01

315

The OXI1 Kinase Pathway Mediates Piriformospora indica-Induced Growth Promotion in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes roots of many plant species and promotes growth and resistance to certain plant pathogens. Despite its potential use in agriculture, little is known on the molecular basis of this beneficial plant-fungal interaction. In a genetic screen for plants, which do not show a P. indica- induced growth response, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant in the OXI1 (Oxidative Signal Inducible1) gene. OXI1 has been characterized as a protein kinase which plays a role in pathogen response and is regulated by H2O2 and PDK1 (3-PHOSPHOINOSITIDE-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE1). A genetic analysis showed that double mutants of the two closely related PDK1.1 and PDK1.2 genes are defective in the growth response to P. indica. While OXI1 and PDK1 gene expression is upregulated in P. indica-colonized roots, defense genes are downregulated, indicating that the fungus suppresses plant defense reactions. PDK1 is activated by phosphatidic acid (PA) and P. indica triggers PA synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Under beneficial co-cultivation conditions, H2O2 formation is even reduced by the fungus. Importantly, phospholipase D (PLD)?1 or PLD? mutants, which are impaired in PA synthesis do not show growth promotion in response to fungal infection. These data establish that the P. indica-stimulated growth response is mediated by a pathway consisting of the PLD-PDK1-OXI1 cascade.

Camehl, Iris; Drzewiecki, Corinna; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Shahollari, Bationa; Sherameti, Irena; Forzani, Celine; Munnik, Teun; Hirt, Heribert; Oelmuller, Ralf

2011-01-01

316

The OXI1 kinase pathway mediates Piriformospora indica-induced growth promotion in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes roots of many plant species and promotes growth and resistance to certain plant pathogens. Despite its potential use in agriculture, little is known on the molecular basis of this beneficial plant-fungal interaction. In a genetic screen for plants, which do not show a P. indica- induced growth response, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant in the OXI1 (Oxidative Signal Inducible1) gene. OXI1 has been characterized as a protein kinase which plays a role in pathogen response and is regulated by H?O? and PDK1 (3-PHOSPHOINOSITIDE-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE1). A genetic analysis showed that double mutants of the two closely related PDK1.1 and PDK1.2 genes are defective in the growth response to P. indica. While OXI1 and PDK1 gene expression is upregulated in P. indica-colonized roots, defense genes are downregulated, indicating that the fungus suppresses plant defense reactions. PDK1 is activated by phosphatidic acid (PA) and P. indica triggers PA synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Under beneficial co-cultivation conditions, H?O? formation is even reduced by the fungus. Importantly, phospholipase D (PLD)?1 or PLD? mutants, which are impaired in PA synthesis do not show growth promotion in response to fungal infection. These data establish that the P. indica-stimulated growth response is mediated by a pathway consisting of the PLD-PDK1-OXI1 cascade. PMID:21625539

Camehl, Iris; Drzewiecki, Corinna; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Shahollari, Bationa; Sherameti, Irena; Forzani, Celine; Munnik, Teun; Hirt, Heribert; Oelmüller, Ralf

2011-05-19

317

Ethylene promotes hyponastic growth through interaction with ROTUNDIFOLIA3/CYP90C1 in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Upward leaf movement, called hyponastic growth, is employed by plants to cope with adverse environmental conditions. Ethylene is a key regulator of this process and, in Arabidopsis thaliana, hyponasty is induced by this phytohormone via promotion of epidermal cell expansion in a proximal zone of the abaxial side of the petiole. ROTUNDIFOLIA3/CYP90C1 encodes an enzyme which was shown to catalyse C-23 hydroxylation of several brassinosteroids (BRs) – phytohormones involved in, for example, organ growth, cell expansion, cell division, and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. This study tested the interaction between ethylene and BRs in regulating hyponastic growth. A mutant isolated in a forward genetic screen, with reduced hyponastic response to ethylene treatment, was allelic to rot3. The cause of the reduced hyponastic growth in this mutant was examined by studying ethylene–BR interaction during local cell expansion, pharmacological inhibition of BR synthesis and ethylene effects on transcription of BR-related genes. This work demonstrates that rot3 mutants are impaired in local cell expansion driving hyponasty. Moreover, the inhibition of BR biosynthesis reduces ethylene-induced hyponastic growth and ethylene increases sensitivity to BR in promoting cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Together, the results show that ROT3 modulates ethylene-induced petiole movement and that this function is likely BR related.

Peeters, Anton J. M.

2013-01-01

318

Promotion of Efficient Cooperation by Sharing Environment with an Agent Having a Body in Real World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, agents have widely surfaced as existences that interact with humans. In face-to-face communication, we can confidently\\u000a communicate through each other’s bodies. In our future ubiquitous society, realization will increase that the place that receives\\u000a information and the information content are closely related. In this study in a cooperative task experiment, we clarified\\u000a how the body’s role in the information

Hisashi Naito; Yugo Takeuchi

2009-01-01

319

Cloning and Characterization of the GNA11 Promoter and its Regulation by Early Growth Response 1.  

PubMed

GNAQ and GNA11, encoding the G-proteins G?q and G?11 , are members of the G?q /G?11 subfamily, which transmits signals from the cell surface to intracellular signalling cascades. The GNAQ promoter was already characterized, and regulation by the transcription factor early growth response 1 (Egr-1) was demonstrated. Interestingly, in silico analysis revealed putative Egr-1 binding sites in sequences potentially representing the GNA11 promoter. However, the GNA11 promoter has not been characterized so far. Therefore, the purpose of the study was the characterization of the GNA11 promoter and investigation of its potential regulation by Egr-1. The putative GNA11 promoter was cloned, and deletion constructs were generated. Luciferase assays were performed, and essential regulatory regions identified between nt-805/-177. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), one specific Egr-1 binding site at nt-475/-445 was identified. An Egr-1 expression plasmid was generated, which evoked increased Egr-1 content in nuclear extracts and a > 2-fold increase in GNA11 promoter activity in construct nt-805/+54 (p = 0.035). Finally, real-time PCR analysis was performed, and an increased G?11 mRNA (p = 0.035) expression induced by Egr-1 was found. Here, we characterize for the first time the GNA11 promoter and its specific interaction with Egr-1. Both the GNAQ and the GNA11 promoter appear to be regulated by the same transcription factor, Egr-1, which may be a molecular mechanism leading to G?q -/G?11 -associated phenotypes. PMID:23802749

Klenke, Stefanie; Siffert, Winfried; Frey, Ulrich Hermann

2013-07-19

320

Rhizoremediation of Cadmium Soil Using a Cadmium-Resistant Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizopseudomonad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three pseudomonad strains (MKRh1, MKRh3, and MKRh4) isolated from rhizospheres showed a high growth potential in the presence\\u000a of cadmium, with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 mM for cadmium chloride (CdCl2). Among them, isolate MKRh3 was specifically chosen as the most favorable cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium\\u000a based on its higher 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid deaminase activity, siderophore production, phosphate solubilization,\\u000a and

Velmurugan Ganesan

2008-01-01

321

Growth management and sustainable transport: Do growth management policies promote transit use?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advocates of sustainable development typically consider mass transit to be more sustainable than their automobile-dependent alternatives and desire policies that can achieve higher use of urban mass transit. In this paper, we hypothesize that state-level growth management policies should increase transit use in two ways: first, by limiting core abandonment while accommodating potential increases in population, reducing development elsewhere; and

Brian Deal; Jae Hong Kim; Arnab Chakraborty

2009-01-01

322

A lay health advisor program to promote community capacity and change among change agents.  

PubMed

The Charlotte REACH 2010 project focuses on cardiovascular disease and diabetes among African Americans in a geographically defined community. The goal of the project is to create changes in individual behaviors, community capacity, change agents, and systemic policies and actions that will result in the reduction of health disparities related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The project consists of three main components: lay health advisors as change agents, targeted interventions (exercise, nutrition, smoking cessation, primary care), and environmental and systemic interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe the lay health advisor intervention using qualitative methodologies that were developed to document changes in community capacity and change among change agents. Lay health advisors report that they have internalized their role as a community advocate and have made positive changes in their own personal health behavior. Their understanding of the underlying causes of poor health has expanded to include social and institutional factors and they have begun to shift their emphasis toward advocacy for social and institutional change. PMID:17105806

Plescia, Marcus; Groblewski, Martha; Chavis, LaTonya

2006-11-14

323

Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9.  

PubMed

Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled "Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens" awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010). PMID:22675598

Neupane, Saraswoti; Högberg, Nils; Alström, Sadhna; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Lu, Megan; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C; Tapia, Roxanne; Fiebig, Anne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D

2012-03-05

324

Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9  

PubMed Central

Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens” awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).

Hogberg, Nils; Alstrom, Sadhna; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Lu, Megan; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Tapia, Roxanne; Fiebig, Anne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D.

2012-01-01

325

Stimulation of the Growth of Tomato, Pepper and Mung Bean Plants by the Plant Growth Promoting Bacterium Enterobacter cloacae CAL3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB), Enterobacter cloacae CAL3, on the growth of tomato, pepper and mung bean plants was evaluated. Seedlings were grown on vermiculite and supplied with Murashige and Skoog nutrient solutions. In parallel the plants were also inoculated with bacterial suspension. The present study highlights the potential for stimulating growth of plants by application of

S. Mayak; T. Tirosh; B. R. Glick

2001-01-01

326

Synergistic inhibitory effect of cationic peptides and antimicrobial agents on the growth of oral streptococci.  

PubMed

Although chlorhexidine is one of the most efficacious antimicrobial agents used for the prevention of dental caries, side effects limit its application. The effects of gaegurin 6 (GGN6), an animal-derived cationic peptide, and its derivatives PTP6 and PTP12 on the growth of oral streptococci were investigated to assess the potential of these agents for use in the prevention of dental caries. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the peptides for inhibition of the growth of oral streptococci (Streptococcus mutans , S. sobrinus, S. sanguis and S. gordonii) ranged from 1.2 to 8.2 muM. The peptides also exhibited marked synergistic antibacterial effects with chlorhexidine or xylitol. The most effective combinations (fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.5) were xylitol with GGN6 against S. gordonii 10558 and chlorhexidine with either GGN6 or PTP6 against S. sobrinus OMZ-175. These results indicate that cationic peptides alone or in combination with chlorhexidine or xylitol might prove effective for the inhibition of the growth of cariogenic oral streptococci in situ. PMID:14571120

Kim, Sukwon S; Kim, Sunkyu; Kim, Eunshin; Hyun, Byungkuk; Kim, Kack-Kyun; Lee, Byeong Jae

327

Active agents of health promotion? The school's role in supporting the HPV vaccination programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

By providing a place in which children can be accessed, the school has long been a site for population-level health initiatives. Recent policy shifts towards health-promoting schools have however re-cast the school from passive host to active collaborator in public health. This paper examines secondary school teachers' views of their roles as partners in Scotland's human papilloma virus vaccination programme.

Jennifer Spratt; Janet Shucksmith; Kate Philip; Rebekah McNaughton

2012-01-01

328

Effects of inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on metal uptake by Brassica juncea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was carried out with Brassica juncea to critically evaluate effects of bacterial inoculation on the uptake of heavy metals from Pb–Zn mine tailings by plants. Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria and phosphate and potassium solubilizers, might play an important role in the further development of phytoremediation techniques. The presence of these beneficial bacteria stimulated

S. C. Wu; K. C. Cheung; Y. M. Luo; M. H. Wong

2006-01-01

329

Voting on welfare reform Stemming migration, assisting the needy, or promoting economic growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This paper examines the influences on voting by members of the House of Representatives on the Carter Administration's welfare\\u000a reform legislation. The analysis finds some support for the hypothesis that voting by national legislators responded to the\\u000a potential mobility of welfare recipients from low to high benefit states. Defining the public interest as promoting economic\\u000a growth and the special

Dennis Coates

2000-01-01

330

Induction of systemic resistance by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria against red rot disease in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) belonging to fluorescent pseudomonads group were isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere.\\u000a Selected strains were studied for the induced systemic resistance (ISR) againstColletotrichum falcatum Went causing red rot disease in the sugarcane stalks by three different resistance evaluation methods. The talc based formulations\\u000a of the PGPR strains were prepared and applied through different methods and in different

R. Viswanathan; R. Samiyappan

1999-01-01

331

Effects of growth-promoting implants on morphology of Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles in finishing steers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth-promoting implants lead to increased muscle accretion in ruminants. To elucidate the effects at a cellular level, muscle fiber distribution and cross-sectional area (CSA) of longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles were compared in implanted and control steers. Sixty-four Charolais steers were assigned to one of four treatments (16 steers\\/treatment): (1) no implant, (2) Synovex-S® (estradiol benzoate+progesterone), (3) Ralgro® (zeranol)

Sonja Fritsche; Morse B. Solomon; Ernest W. Paroczay; Theron S. Rumsey

2000-01-01

332

Induced Systemic Resistance and Promotion of Plant Growth by Bacillus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kloepper, J. W., Ryu, C.-M., and Zhang, S. 2004. Induced systemic resis- tance and promotion of plant growth by Bacillus spp. Phytopathology 94:1259-1266. Elicitation of induced systemic resistance (ISR) by plant-associated bacteria was initially demonstrated using Pseudomonas spp. and other gram-negative bacteria. Several reviews have summarized various aspects of the large volume of literature on Pseudomonas spp. as elicitors of

Joseph W. Kloepper; Choong-Min Ryu; Shouan Zhang

2004-01-01

333

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria as transplant amendments and their effects on indigenous rhizosphere microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were conducted in Florida on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) to monitor the population dynamics of two plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains (Bacillus subtilis strain GBO3 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain IN937a) applied in the potting media at seeding and at various times after transplanting to the field during the growing season. In-field drenches of an aqueous bacterial formulation were

N. Kokalis-Burelle; J. W. Kloepper; M. S. Reddy

2006-01-01

334

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended

Safiyh Taghavi; Daniel van der Lelie; Adam Hoffman; Yian-Biao Zhang; Michael D. Walla; Jaco Vangronsveld; Lee Newman; Sébastien Monchy

2010-01-01

335

Paenibacillus BRF-1 has biocontrol ability against Phialophora gregata disease and promotes soybean growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-positive bacterium BRF-1 isolated from the rhizosphere of root-rotten diseased soybean plants shows strong antifungal activity on plates. In the present study, the ability of BRF-1 to control brown stem rot disease and to promote plant growth was examined using soybean plants grown in pots. Brown stem rot is a severe soil-borne disease of soybean that is caused by the

Keqin Zhou; Masumi Yamagishi; Mitsuru Osaki

2008-01-01

336

Siderophore mediated plant growth promotion at low temperature by mutant of fluorescent pseudomonad?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cold resistant mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 was developed, which could grow equally well at 25 and 10 C and its effect on plant growth promotion under in vitro and in situ conditions was observed. Siderophore estimation revealed it to be a siderophore-overproducing mutant (17-fold increase) when\\u000a compared to its wild type counterpart. A gnotobiotic root elongation assay

Vandana Katiyar; Reeta Goel

2004-01-01

337

Genotypic coadaptation in plant growth promotion of forage species by Bacillus polymyxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a plant growth promoting strain ofBacillus polymyxa was investigated using genotypically-defined mixtures of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Addition ofB. polymyxa to a mixture of the species did not induce significant yield effects in perennial ryegrass, but resulted in a 23% (P<0.05) yield increase in the clover component. The clover yield

C. P. Chanway; F. B. Holl; R. Turkington

1988-01-01

338

Mesotrypsin promotes malignant growth of breast cancer cells through shedding of CD109  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serine proteases have been implicated in many stages of cancer development, facilitating tumor cell growth, invasion, and\\u000a metastasis, and naturally occurring serine protease inhibitors have shown promise as potential anticancer therapeutics. Optimal\\u000a design of inhibitors as potential therapeutics requires the identification of the specific serine proteases involved in disease\\u000a progression and the functional targets responsible for the tumor-promoting properties. Here,

Alexandra Hockla; Derek C. Radisky; Evette S. Radisky

2010-01-01

339

Sugarcane growth promotion by the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1.  

PubMed

The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1::pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and aerial plant tissues. Microscopic analysis was performed at 5, 10, and 18 days after inoculation. Under greenhouse conditions, P. agglomerans 33.1-inoculated sugarcane plants presented more dry mass 30 days after inoculation. Cross-colonization was confirmed by reisolation of the GFP-tagged strain. These data demonstrate that 33.1::pNKGFP is a superior colonizer of sugarcane due to its ability to colonize a number of different plant parts. The growth promotion observed in colonized plants may be related to the ability of P. agglomerans 33.1 to synthesize indoleacetic acid and solubilize phosphate. Additionally, this strain may trigger chitinase and cellulase production by plant roots, suggesting the induction of a plant defense system. However, levels of indigenous bacterial colonization did not vary between inoculated and noninoculated sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions, suggesting that the presence of P. agglomerans 33.1 has no effect on these communities. In this study, different techniques were used to monitor 33.1::pNKGFP during sugarcane cross-colonization, and our results suggested that this plant growth promoter could be used with other crops. The interaction between sugarcane and P. agglomerans 33.1 has important benefits that promote the plant's growth and fitness. PMID:22865062

Quecine, M C; Araújo, W L; Rossetto, P B; Ferreira, A; Tsui, S; Lacava, P T; Mondin, M; Azevedo, J L; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A A

2012-08-03

340

Phosphate-solubilizing peanut associated bacteria: screening for plant growth-promoting activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, attempts were made to identify the potential of bacterial strains for promoting Arachis hypogaea L. growth. Four hundred and thirty three bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere, phyllosphere and plant tissues from peanuts\\u000a cultivated in the producing area of Cordoba, Argentina. From this collection, 37 epiphytic isolates and 73 endophytic isolates\\u000a were selected on the basis of

Tania Taurian; María Soledad Anzuay; Jorge Guillermo Angelini; María Laura Tonelli; Liliana Ludueña; Dayana Pena; Fernando Ibáñez; Adriana Fabra

2010-01-01

341

The effect of long-term exposure to combinations of growth promoters in Long Evans rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure (45 days) to growth promoters: clenbuterol (CB: 1mgkg?1bw) and\\/or dexamethasone (DEX: 0.1mgkg?1bw), in adrenal gland morphology, and the possibility of recovery after the withdrawal of drug treatment. Animals were sacrificed at different days of withdrawal (W0, W5, W10, W15 and W20), and adrenal glands processed for histopathology

J. C. Illera; L. Peña; M. M. Martínez-Mateos; L. Camacho; A. Blass; P. Garcia-Partida; M. J. Illera; G. Silván

2007-01-01

342

Isolation of micropropagated strawberry endophytic bacteria and assessment of their potential for plant growth promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty endophytic bacteria were isolated from the meristematic tissues of three varieties of strawberry cultivated in vitro,\\u000a and further identified, by FAME profile, into the genera Bacillus and Sphingopyxis. The strains were also characterized according to indole acetic acid production, phosphate solubilization and potential for\\u000a plant growth promotion. Results showed that 15 strains produced high levels of IAA and all

Armando C. F. Dias; Francisco E. C. Costa; Fernando D. Andreote; Paulo T. Lacava; Manoel A. Teixeira; Laura C. Assumpção; Welington L. Araújo; João L. Azevedo; Itamar S. Melo

2009-01-01

343

Pyochelin: Novel Structure of an Iron-Chelating Growth Promoter for Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyochelin, an endogenous growth promoter that solubilizes ferric iron, has been isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including clinical strains. The structure of pyochelin has been assigned as 2-(2-o-hydroxyphenyl-2-thiazolin-4-yl)-3-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxyl ic acid and is of a different type from those previously assigned to siderophores (siderochromes) from bacteria. The assignment rests on 1H and 13C NMR data, high-resolution (including field desorption) mass spectrometry, and

Charles D. Cox; Kenneth L. Rinehart; Michael L. Moore; J. Carter Cook

1981-01-01

344

Sugarcane Growth Promotion by the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1  

PubMed Central

The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1::pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and aerial plant tissues. Microscopic analysis was performed at 5, 10, and 18 days after inoculation. Under greenhouse conditions, P. agglomerans 33.1-inoculated sugarcane plants presented more dry mass 30 days after inoculation. Cross-colonization was confirmed by reisolation of the GFP-tagged strain. These data demonstrate that 33.1::pNKGFP is a superior colonizer of sugarcane due to its ability to colonize a number of different plant parts. The growth promotion observed in colonized plants may be related to the ability of P. agglomerans 33.1 to synthesize indoleacetic acid and solubilize phosphate. Additionally, this strain may trigger chitinase and cellulase production by plant roots, suggesting the induction of a plant defense system. However, levels of indigenous bacterial colonization did not vary between inoculated and noninoculated sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions, suggesting that the presence of P. agglomerans 33.1 has no effect on these communities. In this study, different techniques were used to monitor 33.1::pNKGFP during sugarcane cross-colonization, and our results suggested that this plant growth promoter could be used with other crops. The interaction between sugarcane and P. agglomerans 33.1 has important benefits that promote the plant's growth and fitness.

Rossetto, P. B.; Ferreira, A.; Tsui, S.; Lacava, P. T.; Mondin, M.; Azevedo, J. L.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A. A.

2012-01-01

345

Transforming Growth Factor-?1 Promotes the Morphological and Functional Differentiation of the Myofibroblast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The myofibroblast is responsible for the generation of contractile force associated with wound contraction and pathological contractures and is characterized by the presence of ?-smooth muscle (?-sm) actin-containing stress fibers, vinculin-containing fibronexus adhesion complexes, and fibronectin fibrils containing the ED-A splice variant. Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) can promote the expression of ?-sm actin in myofibroblasts, but the functional significance of

Melville B. Vaughan; Eric W. Howard; James J. Tomasek

2000-01-01

346

Panchagavya and Andrographis paniculata as Alternatives to Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Broiler Production and Carcass Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biological experiment was conducted to study the effect of panchagavya and Andrographis paniculata as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoter on broiler production and carcass characteristics with one hundred and eighty commercial, straight run day-old broiler chicks. The chicks were fed basal diet (T ), 1 basal diet with virginiamycin -20 mg\\/kg (T ), basal diet with panchagavya -7.5 g\\/kg

2006-01-01

347

Effect of the lipid-lowering agent bezafibrate on tumour growth rate in vivo.  

PubMed Central

The growth rate of the MAC16 tumour in cachectic animals was significantly enhanced by the hypolipidemic agent bezafibrate, while the growth rate of a histologically similar tumour, the MAC13, which grows without an effect on host body compartments was unaffected. Growth of the MAC16 in vitro was unaffected by bezafibrate, suggesting that it was an in vivo phenomenon only. The stimulatory effect of bezafibrate correlated with the maximum plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) arising from the catabolism of adipose tissue. Accumulation of 14C-lipid from 1-14C-triolein administered by intragastric intubation was enhanced in heart, gastrocnemius muscle and tumour of bezafibrate treated animals, while the total lipid absorption did not differ from solvent treated controls. The increased lipid accumulation in the heart, but not the tumour correlated with an increased tissue lipoprotein lipase level. The increased tumour level may arise from an increased uptake of FFA arising from a weakening of the bonds between FFA and albumin. These results suggest that growth of certain tumours is dependent on maintaining sufficient lipid levels and that the lipid mobilising effect of the tumour may be necessary to sustain tumour growth.

Mulligan, H. D.; Tisdale, M. J.

1991-01-01

348

Tumour growth kinetics assessment: added value to RECIST in cancer patients treated with molecularly targeted agents  

PubMed Central

Background: Treatment effect is categorised into four classes by RECIST based on the evolution of the size of target lesions and the occurrence of new lesions, irrespective of tumour growth kinetics before treatment. This study aimed at evaluating the added value of tumour growth kinetics assessment to RECIST in patients treated with molecularly targeted agents (MTAs). Methods: On-study imaging, along with pre-baseline imaging, of patients treated with MTA(s) in clinical trials at Institut Curie were centrally reviewed. The tumour growth ratio (TGr), defined as the ratio of the slope of tumour growth before treatment and the slope of tumour growth on treatment between the nadir and disease progression, was calculated for each patient. Results: A total of 50 patients included in 18 trials were eligible for the study. Among the 44 patients who withdrew from the study because of disease progression according to the investigators' assessment, 18 patients (41%) had a TGr <0.9. Among these 18 patients, 5 had disease progression according to RECIST 1.1 based on our retrospective reassessment of on-study imaging and occurrence of no new lesion during study treatment. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that a substantial proportion of patients treated with MTAs have discontinued treatment although being potentially benefitted from them.

Le Tourneau, C; Servois, V; Dieras, V; Ollivier, L; Tresca, P; Paoletti, X

2012-01-01

349

Veterinary Drugs and Growth Promoters Residues in Meat and Processed Meats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Veterinary drugs, which comprise a large number of different types of substances, are generally intended for therapeutic (to control infectious diseases) and prophylactic (to prevent against infections) purposes in farm animals. Other substances with growth promoting effect may exert antimicrobial effect against the microbial flora in the gut to take maximum profit of nutrients in the feed or by affecting the animal’s metabolism. Most of these substances are orally active and can be administered either in the feed or in the drinking water. Other active hormones are applied in the form of small implants into the subcutaneous tissue of the ears. These are slow release (several weeks or months) devices and the ears are discarded at the slaughter. Growth promoters allow a better efficiency in the feed conversion rate. The net effect is an increased protein deposition, partly due to muscle proteases inhibition (Fiems, Buts, Boucque, Demeyer, & Cottyn, 1990), usually linked to fat utilization (Brockman & Laarveld, 1986). The result is a leaner meat (Lone, 1997) with some toughness derived from the production of connective tissue and collagen crosslinking (Miller, Judge, Diekman, Hudgens, & Aberle, 1989; Miller, Judge, & Schanbacher, 1990). Some recent fraudulent practices, consisting of the use of a kind of “cocktails” or mixtures of several substances like ?-agonists and corticosteroids at very low amounts (Monsón et al., 2007), are difficult to detect with modern analytical instrumentation. They try to obtain a synergistic effect for a similar growth promotion with lower probability of detection by official control laboratories (Reig & Toldrá, 2007).

Reig, Milagro; Toldrá, Fidel

350

Use of NMR metabolomic plasma profiling methodologies to identify illicit growth-promoting administrations.  

PubMed

Detection of growth-promoter use in animal production systems still proves to be an analytical challenge despite years of activity in the field. This study reports on the capability of NMR metabolomic profiling techniques to discriminate between plasma samples obtained from cattle treated with different groups of growth-promoting hormones (dexamethasone, prednisolone, oestradiol) based on recorded metabolite profiles. Two methods of NMR analysis were investigated-a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG)-pulse sequence technique and a conventional (1)H NMR method using pre-extracted plasma. Using the CPMG method, 17 distinct metabolites could be identified from the spectra. (1)H NMR analysis of extracted plasma facilitated identification of 23 metabolites-six more than the alternative method and all within the aromatic region. Multivariate statistical analysis of acquired data from both forms of NMR analysis separated the plasma metabolite profiles into distinct sample cluster sets representative of the different animal study groups. Samples from both sets of corticosteroid-treated animals-dexamethasone and prednisolone-were found to be clustered relatively closely and had similar alterations to identified metabolite panels. Distinctive metabolite profiles, different from those observed within plasma from corticosteroid-treated animal plasma, were observed in oestradiol-treated animals and samples from these animals formed a cluster spatially isolated from control animal plasma samples. These findings suggest the potential use of NMR methodologies of plasma metabolite analysis as a high-throughput screening technique to aid detection of growth promoter use. PMID:22370585

Graham, Stewart F; Ruiz-Aracama, Ainhoa; Lommen, Arjen; Cannizzo, Francesca T; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Elliott, Christopher T; Mooney, Mark H

2012-02-28

351

Key physiological properties contributing to rhizosphere adaptation and plant growth promotion abilities of Azospirillum brasilense.  

PubMed

Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that is being increasingly used in agriculture in a commercial scale. Recent research has elucidated key properties of A. brasilense that contribute to its ability to adapt to the rhizosphere habitat and to promote plant growth. They include synthesis of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, nitric oxide, carotenoids, and a range of cell surface components as well as the ability to undergo phenotypic variation. Storage and utilization of polybetahydroxyalkanoate polymers are important for the shelf life of the bacteria in production of inoculants, products containing bacterial cells in a suitable carrier for agricultural use. Azospirillum brasilense is able to fix nitrogen, but despite some controversy, as judging from most systems evaluated so far, contribution of fixed nitrogen by this bacterium does not seem to play a major role in plant growth promotion. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of physiological properties of A. brasilense that are important for rhizosphere performance and successful interactions with plant roots. PMID:22092983

Fibach-Paldi, Sharon; Burdman, Saul; Okon, Yaacov

2011-10-03

352

Screening of Brazilian cacti rhizobacteria for plant growth promotion under drought.  

PubMed

Drought is one of the major problems worldwide. The search for new and efficient microorganisms, from unexplored environments, to be used in association with plants to alleviate the negative effects imposed by water stress, is an interesting alternative. Thus, cacti-associated bacteria from the Brazilian semi-arid region were isolated based on their ability to grow in medium with reduced water availability. Strains were tested for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS), as well as in vitro plant growth promotion traits. A great proportion of the isolates belong to the genus Bacillus. From a total of forty-eight bacteria, 65% were able to grow in medium with reduced water availability (0.919Aw), exopolysaccharide production was observed for 65% of the strains. The production of indole acetic acid (IAA) exceeding 51?gmL(-1) was observed for 4% and the high solubilization of Ca-P was verified for 6% of the isolates. No strain was able to produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN), 71% produced ammonia and 79% showed a halo of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) degradation. Zea mays L. growth promotion under water stress (30% of field capacity) was achieved by two strains of Bacillus spp. This is the first report to describe cacti-associated bacteria from Brazilian semi-arid with plant growth-promoting abilities. PMID:23279812

Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; Santos, Suikinai Nobre; Silva, João Luiz da; Parma, Márcia Maria; Avila, Luciana Aparecida; Visconti, Alexandre; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Melo, Itamar Soares de

2012-12-29

353

Mass spectrometric analysis of muscle samples to detect potential antibiotic growth promoter misuse in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometric methods were developed and validated for the analysis in chicken muscle of a range of antibiotic growth promoters: spiramycin, tylosin, virginiamycin and bacitracin, and separately for two marker metabolites of carbadox (quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid and 1,4-bisdesoxycarbadox), and a marker metabolite of olaquindox (3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid). The use of these compounds as antibiotic growth promoters has been banned by the European Commission. This study aimed to develop methods to detect their residues in muscle samples as a means of checking for the use of these drugs during the rearing of broiler chickens. When fed growth-promoting doses for 6 days, spiramycin (31.4 µg kg(-1)), tylosin (1.0 µg kg(-1)), QCA (6.5 µg kg(-1)), DCBX (71.2 µg kg(-1)) and MQCA (0.2 µg kg(-1)) could be detected in the muscle 0 days after the withdrawal of fortified feed. Only spiramycin could consistently be detected beyond a withdrawal period of 1 day. All analytes showed stability to a commercial cooking process, therefore raw or cooked muscle could be used for monitoring purposes. PMID:22784097

Gibson, R; Cooper, K M; Kennedy, D G; Elliott, C T

2012-07-12

354

Simultaneous immunochemical detection of four banned antibiotic growth promoters in raw and cooked poultry tissue.  

PubMed

Spiramycin, tylosin, bacitracin and virginiamycin are among a group of antibiotic growth promoters that have been banned in the European Union since the 1999 Council. This was due to concerns over the development of resistant bacteria emerging between humans and animals with the threat of antibiotics no longer being able to be used effectively to treat human infections. A sensitive and fast immunochemical method is presented for the determination of these four antibiotic growth promoters simultaneously in poultry tissue. The method employs methanol extraction followed by sample clean-up by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with determination by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA). The limit of detection (LOD) was less than 1 ng g(-1) and the detection capability (CC?) was 3 ng g(-1) or less for all four antibiotic growth promoters. Validation was completed with both raw and cooked chicken, therefore either matrix could be used for the monitoring of these banned drugs. In a feeding trial no residues of either bacitracin or virginiamycin were found in medicated birds even without a withdrawal period. In the case of tylosin and spiramycin much higher residues level were detected immunochemically than was the case by mass spectrometry. PMID:23789918

McNamee, S E; Cunningham, R; Elliott, C T

2013-06-21

355

Perspective of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing ACC deaminase in stress agriculture.  

PubMed

Ethylene is a gaseous plant growth hormone produced endogenously by almost all plants. It is also produced in soil through a variety of biotic and abiotic mechanisms, and plays a key role in inducing multifarious physiological changes in plants at molecular level. Apart from being a plant growth regulator, ethylene has also been established as a stress hormone. Under stress conditions like those generated by salinity, drought, waterlogging, heavy metals and pathogenicity, the endogenous production of ethylene is accelerated substantially which adversely affects the root growth and consequently the growth of the plant as a whole. Certain plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) contain a vital enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, which regulates ethylene production by metabolizing ACC (an immediate precursor of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants) into alpha-ketobutyrate and ammonia. Inoculation with PGPR containing ACC deaminase activity could be helpful in sustaining plant growth and development under stress conditions by reducing stress-induced ethylene production. Lately, efforts have been made to introduce ACC deaminase genes into plants to regulate ethylene level in the plants for optimum growth, particularly under stressed conditions. In this review, the primary focus is on giving account of all aspects of PGPR containing ACC deaminase regarding alleviation of impact of both biotic and abiotic stresses onto plants and of recent trends in terms of introduction of ACC deaminase genes into plant and microbial species. PMID:17665234

Saleem, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Hussain, Sarfraz; Bhatti, Ahmad Saeed

2007-07-31

356

Non-nuclear estrogen receptor ? signaling promotes cardiovascular protection but not uterine or breast cancer growth in mice  

PubMed Central

Steroid hormone receptors function classically in the nucleus as transcription factors. However, recent data indicate that there are also non-nuclear subpopulations of steroid hormone receptors, including estrogen receptors (ERs), that mediate membrane-initiated signaling of unclear basis and significance. Here we have shown that an estrogen-dendrimer conjugate (EDC) that is excluded from the nucleus stimulates endothelial cell proliferation and migration via ER?, direct ER?-G?i interaction, and endothelial NOS (eNOS) activation. Analysis of mice carrying an estrogen response element luciferase reporter, ER-regulated genes in the mouse uterus, and eNOS enzyme activation further indicated that EDC specifically targets non-nuclear processes in vivo. In mice, estradiol and EDC equally stimulated carotid artery reendothelialization in an ER?- and G protein–dependent manner, and both agents attenuated the development of neointimal hyperplasia following endothelial injury. In contrast, endometrial carcinoma cell growth in vitro and uterine enlargement and MCF-7 cell breast cancer xenograft growth in vivo were stimulated by estradiol but not EDC. Thus, EDC is a non-nuclear selective ER modulator (SERM) in vivo, and in mice, non-nuclear ER signaling promotes cardiovascular protection. These processes potentially could be harnessed to provide vascular benefit without increasing the risk of uterine or breast cancer.

Chambliss, Ken L.; Wu, Qian; Oltmann, Sarah; Konaniah, Eddy S.; Umetani, Michihisa; Korach, Kenneth S.; Thomas, Gail D.; Mineo, Chieko; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Kim, Sung Hoon; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Maggi, Adriana; Dineen, Sean P.; Roland, Christina L.; Hui, David Y.; Brekken, Rolf A.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.; Shaul, Philip W.

2010-01-01

357

Non-nuclear estrogen receptor alpha signaling promotes cardiovascular protection but not uterine or breast cancer growth in mice.  

PubMed

Steroid hormone receptors function classically in the nucleus as transcription factors. However, recent data indicate that there are also non-nuclear subpopulations of steroid hormone receptors, including estrogen receptors (ERs), that mediate membrane-initiated signaling of unclear basis and significance. Here we have shown that an estrogen-dendrimer conjugate (EDC) that is excluded from the nucleus stimulates endothelial cell proliferation and migration via ERalpha, direct ERalpha-Galphai interaction, and endothelial NOS (eNOS) activation. Analysis of mice carrying an estrogen response element luciferase reporter, ER-regulated genes in the mouse uterus, and eNOS enzyme activation further indicated that EDC specifically targets non-nuclear processes in vivo. In mice, estradiol and EDC equally stimulated carotid artery reendothelialization in an ERalpha- and G protein-dependent manner, and both agents attenuated the development of neointimal hyperplasia following endothelial injury. In contrast, endometrial carcinoma cell growth in vitro and uterine enlargement and MCF-7 cell breast cancer xenograft growth in vivo were stimulated by estradiol but not EDC. Thus, EDC is a non-nuclear selective ER modulator (SERM) in vivo, and in mice, non-nuclear ER signaling promotes cardiovascular protection. These processes potentially could be harnessed to provide vascular benefit without increasing the risk of uterine or breast cancer. PMID:20577047

Chambliss, Ken L; Wu, Qian; Oltmann, Sarah; Konaniah, Eddy S; Umetani, Michihisa; Korach, Kenneth S; Thomas, Gail D; Mineo, Chieko; Yuhanna, Ivan S; Kim, Sung Hoon; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Maggi, Adriana; Dineen, Sean P; Roland, Christina L; Hui, David Y; Brekken, Rolf A; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Shaul, Philip W

2010-06-23

358

Acrylamide biodegradation ability and plant growth-promoting properties of Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969.  

PubMed

Species of the genus Variovorax are often isolated from nitrile or amide-containing organic compound-contaminated soil. However, there have been few biological characterizations of Variovorax and their contaminant-degrading enzymes. Previously, we reported a new soil isolate, Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969, and its nitrile hydratase that transforms the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid into an amide metabolite. In this study, we showed that CGMCC 4969 is able to degrade acrylamide, a neurotoxicant and carcinogen in animals, during cell growth in a mineral salt medium as well as in its resting state. Resting cells rapidly hydrolyzed 600 mg/L acrylamide to acrylic acid with a half-life of 2.5 min. In in vitro tests, CGMCC 4969 showed plant growth-promoting properties; it produced a siderophore, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, and the phytohormone salicylic acid. Interestingly, in soil inoculated with this strain, 200 mg/L acrylamide was completely degraded in 4 days. Gene cloning and overexpression in the Escherichia coli strain Rosetta (DE3) pLysS resulted in the production of an aliphatic amidase of 345 amino acids that hydrolyzed acrylamide into acrylic acid. The amidase contained a conserved catalytic triad, Glu59, Lys 134, and Cys166, and an "MRHGDISSS" amino acid sequence at the N-terminal region. Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969, which is able to use acrylamide for cell growth and rapidly degrade acrylamide in soil, shows promising plant growth-promoting properties. As such, it has the potential to be developed into an effective Bioaugmentation strategy to promote growth of field crops in acrylamide-contaminated soil. PMID:23546990

Liu, Zhong-Hua; Cao, Yu-Min; Zhou, Qian-Wen; Guo, Kun; Ge, Feng; Hou, Jun-Yi; Hu, Si-Yi; Yuan, Sheng; Dai, Yi-Jun

2013-04-02

359

Growth promotion of Xanthium italicum by application of rhizobacterial isolates of Bacillus aryabhattai in microcosm soil.  

PubMed

This study was conducted using rhizobacteria, which are able to exert beneficial effects upon plant growth in the infertile soil collected from barren lakeside areas. Four strains of plant growth promoting bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of a common wild plant, Erigeron canadensis. Isolated strains LS9, LS11, LS12, and LS15 were identified as Bacillus aryabhattai by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. B. aryabhattai LS9, LS11, LS12, and LS15 could solubilize 577.9, 676.8, 623.6, and 581.3 mg/L of 0.5% insoluble calcium phosphate within 2 days of incubation. Production of indole acetic acid, a typical growth promoting phytohormone auxin, by strain LS15 was 471.3 mg/L in 2 days with the addition of auxin precursor L-tryptophan. All the strains also produced other phytohormones such as indole butyric acid, gibberellins, and abscisic acid, and strain LS15 showed the highest production rate of gibberellin (GA(3)), 119.0 ?g/mg protein. Isolated bacteria were used in a microcosm test for growth of wild plant Xanthium italicum, which can be utilized as a pioneer plant in barren lands. Seed germination was facilitated, and the lengths of roots, and shoots and the dry weights of germinated seedlings after 16 days were higher than those of the uninoculated control plants. Root lengths of seedlings of X. italicum increased by 121.1% in LS11-treated samples after 16 days. This plant growth-promoting capability of B. aryabhattai strains may be utilized as an environmentally friendly means of revegetating barren lands, especially sensitive areas such as lakeside lands. PMID:22367936

Lee, Sol; Ka, Jong-Ok; Song, Hong-Gyu

2012-02-27

360

Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on rooting and root growth of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) stem cuttings.  

PubMed

The effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the rooting and root growth of semi-hardwood and hardwood kiwifruit stem cuttings were investigated. The PGPR used were Bacillus RC23, Paenibacillus polymyxa RC05, Bacillus subtilis OSU142, Bacillus RC03, Comamonas acidovorans RC41, Bacillus megaterium RC01 and Bacillus simplex RC19. All the bacteria showed indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing capacity. Among the PGPR used, the highest rooting ratios were obtained at 47.50% for semi-hardwood stem cuttings from Bacillus RC03 and Bacillus simplex RC19 treatments and 42.50% for hardwood stem cuttings from Bacillus RC03. As well, Comamonas acidovorans RC41 inoculations indicated higher value than control treatments. The results suggest that these PGPR can be used in organic nursery material production and point to the feasibility of synthetic auxin (IBA) replacement by organic management based on PGPR. PMID:21157636

Erturk, Yasar; Ercisli, Sezai; Haznedar, Ayhan; Cakmakci, Ramazan

2010-05-07

361

GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS OF PLANT-GROWTH PROMOTION IN ARABIDOPSIS TRIGGERED BY VOLATILE CHEMICALS FROM RHIZOBACTERIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) constitute a wide range of root-colonizing bacteria that can enhance plant growth by increasing seed germination, plant weight, and crop yields. Some PGPR strains regulate plant growth by mimicking synthesis of plant hormones including indole-3-acetic acid...

362

Cadaverine production by Azospirillum brasilense and its possible role in plant growth promotion and osmotic stress mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamines are considered as plant growth regulating compounds; among them, cadaverine has been correlated with root growth promotion or osmotic stress mitigation in some plant species. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of bacterial Azospirillum brasilense Az39 strain to produce cadaverine in chemically defined medium and inoculated plants, and to correlate this capacity with root growth

Fabricio Cassán; Santiago Maiale; Oscar Masciarelli; Alfonso Vidal; Virginia Luna; Oscar Ruiz

2009-01-01

363

?-Catenin promotes prostate cancer cell growth and progression by altering cell cycle and survival gene profiles  

PubMed Central

Background ?-Catenin is a unique member of ?-catenin/armadillo domain superfamily proteins and its primary expression is restricted to the brain. However, ?-catenin is upregulated in human prostatic adenocarcinomas, although the effects of ?-catenin overexpression in prostate cancer are unclear. We hypothesized that ?-catenin plays a direct role in prostate cancer progression by altering gene profiles of cell cycle regulation and cell survival. Results We employed gene transfection and small interfering RNA to demonstrate that increased ?-catenin expression promoted, whereas its knockdown suppressed prostate cancer cell viability. ?-Catenin promoted prostate cancer cell colony formation in soft agar as well as tumor xenograft growth in nude mice. Deletion of either the amino-terminal or carboxyl-terminal sequences outside the armadillo domains abolished the tumor promoting effects of ?-catenin. Quantitative RT2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays demonstrated gene alterations involved in cell cycle and survival regulation. ?-Catenin overexpression upregulated cyclin D1 and cdc34, increased phosphorylated histone-H3, and promoted the entry of mitosis. In addition, ?-catenin overexpression resulted in increased expression of cell survival genes Bcl-2 and survivin while reducing the cell cycle inhibitor p21Cip1. Conclusion Taken together, our studies suggest that at least one consequence of an increased expression of ?-catenin in human prostate cancer is the alteration of cell cycle and survival gene profiles, thereby promoting tumor progression.

Zeng, Yan; Abdallah, Agustin; Lu, Jian-Ping; Wang, Tao; Chen, Yan-Hua; Terrian, David M; Kim, Kwonseop; Lu, Qun

2009-01-01

364

Autocrine CSF-1 and CSF-1 Receptor Co-expression Promotes Renal Cell Carcinoma Growth  

PubMed Central

Renal cell carcinoma is increasing in incidence but the molecular mechanisms regulating its growth remain elusive. Co-expression of the monocytic growth factor CSF-1 and its receptor CSF-1R on renal tubular epithelial cells (TEC) will promote proliferation and anti-apoptosis during regeneration of renal tubules. Here we show that a CSF-1-dependent autocrine pathway is also responsible for the growth of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). CSF-1 and CSF-1R were co-expressed in RCC and TEC proximally adjacent to RCC. CSF-1 engagement of CSF-1R promoted RCC survival and proliferation and reduced apoptosis, in support of the likelihood that CSF-1R effector signals mediate RCC growth. In vivo CSF-1R blockade using a CSF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor decreased RCC proliferation and macrophage infiltration in a manner associated with a dramatic reduction in tumor mass. Further mechanistic investigations linked CSF-1 and EGF signaling in RCC. Taken together, our results suggest that budding RCC stimulates the proximal adjacent microenvironment in the kidney to release mediators of CSF-1, CSF-1R and EGF expression in RCC. Further, our findings imply that targeting CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling may be therapeutically effective in RCC.

Menke, Julia; Kriegsmann, Jorg; Schimanski, Carl Christoph; Schwartz, Melvin M.; Schwarting, Andreas; Kelley, Vicki R.

2011-01-01

365

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-? Promotes Adipogenic Changes in Growth Plate Chondrocytes In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Chondrocytes and adipocytes are two differentiated cell types which are both derived from mesenchymal cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), a transcription factor involved in lineage determination during adipogenesis, is able to induce adipogenic differentiation in growth plate chondrocytes. Isolated epiphyseal chondrocytes were infected with a PPAR? adenovirus or treated with the PPAR? agonist ciglitazone. Both of these treatments resulted in lipid droplet accumulation and expression of the adipogenic markers aP2, lipoprotein lipase, and adipsin in chondrocytes. Proteoglycan matrix synthesis was decreased in the PPAR?-infected cells, as was the expression of the chondrogenic genes Col2a1 and aggrecan. Growth plate cells transfected with a PPAR? expression plasmid under the control of the collagen ?1(II) promoter also demonstrated a similar adipogenic changes. Terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes induced by thyroid hormone was also inhibited by overexpression of PPAR? and ciglitazone treatment, with decreased expression of alkaline phosphatase and Runx2/Cbfa1 genes. These in vitro data suggest that PPAR? is able to promote adipogenic differentiation in growth plate chondrocytes, while negatively regulating chondrogenic differentiation and terminal differentiation.

Wang, Lai; Shao, Yvonne Y.; Ballock, R. Tracy

2006-01-01

366

Critical effective methods to detect genotoxic carcinogens and neoplasm-promoting agents.  

PubMed Central

Neoplasia in fish can result from contamination of waters with carcinogens and promoters. Cancer in fish, therefore, is a possible indicator of cancer risk to man and serves as a guide to the need for preventive approaches involving improved means of waste disposal and environmental hygiene. Moreover, cancer in fish indicates that this important food source may be contaminated. Detection of genotoxic carcinogens to which fish are exposed can be achieved quickly and efficiently by carefully selected batteries of complementary in vitro and in vivo bioassays. One such battery consists of the Ames test, a reverse mutation assay in prokaryotic Salmonella typhimurium, and the Williams test, involving DNA repair in freshly explanted metabolically highly competent liver cells from diverse species, including humans. Determination of DNA-carcinogen adducts by varied techniques, including 32P-postlabeling, as well as DNA breakage, mammalian cell mutagenicity, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, or cell transformation represent additional approaches, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. More research is needed on systems to apprehend neoplasm promoters, but tests to determine interruption of intercellular communications through gap junctions appear promising. Other approaches rely on measurement of enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase and protein kinase C. Approaches to the definition of risk to fish or humans require characterization of the genotoxic or nongenotoxic properties of a chemical, relative potency data obtained in select, limited rodent bioassays, and knowledge of prevailing environmental concentrations of specific carcinogens.

Weisburger, J H; Williams, G M

1991-01-01

367

Evidence that androgen-independent stromal growth factor signals promote androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cell growth in vivo.  

PubMed

Activation of tumor-stromal interactions is considered to play a critical role in the promotion of tumorigenesis. To discover new therapeutic targets for hormone-refractory prostate tumor growth under androgen ablation therapy, androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells and the derived sublines, E9 (androgen-low-sensitive), and AIDL (androgen-insensitive), were recombined with androgen-dependent embryonic rat urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM). Tumors of E9 + UGM and AIDL + UGM were approximately three times as large as those of LNCaP + UGM. Tumors grown in castrated hosts exhibited reduced growth as compared with those in intact hosts. However, in castrated hosts, E9 + UGM and AIDL + UGM tumors were still approximately twice as large as those of LNCaP + UGM. Cell proliferation in tumors of E9 + UGM and AIDL + UGM grown in castrated host, was significantly higher than that in tumors of LNCaP + UGM. In vitro, expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and IGF-I, but not FGF-7 mRNA, was significantly reduced in UGM under androgen starvation. In cell culture, E9 cells were responsive to FGF-2 and FGF-7 stimulation, while AIDL responded to FGF-7 and IGF-1. Expression of FGFR1 and FGFR2 was considerably higher in E9 than those in LNCaP, similarly expression of FGFR2 and IGF-IR were elevated in AIDL. These data suggest that activation of prostate cancer cell growth through growth factor receptor expression may result in the activity of otherwise androgen-independent stromal growth factor signals such as FGF-7 under conditions of androgen ablation. PMID:19293288

Ishii, Kenichiro; Imamura, Tetsuya; Iguchi, Kazuhiro; Arase, Shigeki; Yoshio, Yuko; Arima, Kiminobu; Hirano, Kazuyuki; Sugimura, Yoshiki

2009-03-17

368

Mesenchymal Stem Cell 1 (MSC1)-Based Therapy Attenuates Tumor Growth Whereas MSC2-Treatment Promotes Tumor Growth and Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, there are many promising clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cell-based therapies of numerous diseases. Increasingly, however, there is a concern over the use of MSCs because they home to tumors and can support tumor growth and metastasis. For instance, we established that MSCs in the ovarian tumor microenvironment promoted tumor growth and favored angiogenesis. In parallel studies, we also developed a new approach to induce the conventional mixed pool of MSCs into two uniform but distinct phenotypes we termed MSC1 and MSC2. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we tested the in vitro and in vivo stability of MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes as well as their effects on tumor growth and spread. In vitro co-culture of MSC1 with various cancer cells diminished growth in colony forming units and tumor spheroid assays, while conventional MSCs or MSC2 co-culture had the opposite effect in these assays. Co-culture of MSC1 and cancer cells also distinctly affected their migration and invasion potential when compared to MSCs or MSC2 treated samples. The expression of bioactive molecules also differed dramatically among these samples. MSC1-based treatment of established tumors in an immune competent model attenuated tumor growth and metastasis in contrast to MSCs- and MSC2-treated animals in which tumor growth and spread was increased. Also, in contrast to these groups, MSC1-therapy led to less ascites accumulation, increased CD45+leukocytes, decreased collagen deposition, and mast cell degranulation. Conclusion/Significance These observations indicate that the MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes may be convenient tools for the discovery of critical components of the tumor stroma. The continued investigation of these cells may help ensure that cell based-therapy is used safely and effectively in human disease.

Waterman, Ruth S.; Henkle, Sarah L.; Betancourt, Aline M.

2012-01-01

369

Fates and Impacts of the Genetically Modified Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Pseudomonas Fluorescens SBW25, Under Controlled and Field Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plant growth-promoting bacteria may be used in agriculture to minimize the utilization of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. This thesis studies one plant growth-promoting bacterial strain. Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25, and its interaction with winter ...

L. Jaderlund

2008-01-01

370

Brain peptides and glial growth. II. Identification of cells that secrete glia-promoting factors  

PubMed Central

Glia-promoting factors (GPFs) are brain peptides which stimulate growth of specific macroglial populations in vitro. To identify the cellular sources of GPFs, we examined enriched brain cell cultures and cell lines derived from the nervous system for the production of growth factors. Ameboid microglia secreted astroglia-stimulating peptides, while growing neurons were the best source of the oligodendroglia- stimulating factors. These secretion products co-purified by gel filtration, anion exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with GPFs isolated from goldfish and rat brain. Our findings suggest that glial growth in the central nervous system is regulated in part by a signaled release of peptides from specific secretory cells.

1986-01-01

371

Brain peptides and glial growth. II. Identification of cells that secrete glia-promoting factors.  

PubMed

Glia-promoting factors (GPFs) are brain peptides which stimulate growth of specific macroglial populations in vitro. To identify the cellular sources of GPFs, we examined enriched brain cell cultures and cell lines derived from the nervous system for the production of growth factors. Ameboid microglia secreted astroglia-stimulating peptides, while growing neurons were the best source of the oligodendroglia-stimulating factors. These secretion products co-purified by gel filtration, anion exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with GPFs isolated from goldfish and rat brain. Our findings suggest that glial growth in the central nervous system is regulated in part by a signaled release of peptides from specific secretory cells. PMID:3949881

Giulian, D; Young, D G

1986-03-01

372

Fatty acids identified in the Burmese python promote beneficial cardiac growth.  

PubMed

Burmese pythons display a marked increase in heart mass after a large meal. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of this physiological heart growth with the goal of applying this knowledge to the mammalian heart. We found that heart growth in pythons is characterized by myocyte hypertrophy in the absence of cell proliferation and by activation of physiological signal transduction pathways. Despite high levels of circulating lipids, the postprandial python heart does not accumulate triglycerides or fatty acids. Instead, there is robust activation of pathways of fatty acid transport and oxidation combined with increased expression and activity of superoxide dismutase, a cardioprotective enzyme. We also identified a combination of fatty acids in python plasma that promotes physiological heart growth when injected into either pythons or mice. PMID:22034436

Riquelme, Cecilia A; Magida, Jason A; Harrison, Brooke C; Wall, Christopher E; Marr, Thomas G; Secor, Stephen M; Leinwand, Leslie A

2011-10-28

373

Fatty Acids Identified in the Burmese Python Promote Beneficial Cardiac Growth  

PubMed Central

Burmese pythons display a dramatic increase in heart mass after a large meal. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of this physiological heart growth, with the goal of applying this knowledge to the mammalian heart. We found that heart growth in pythons is characterized by myocyte hypertrophy in the absence of cell proliferation and by activation of PI3K/Akt/mTor signaling pathways. Despite high levels of circulating lipids, the postprandial python heart does not accumulate triglycerides or fatty acids. Instead, there is robust activation of pathways of fatty acid transport and oxidation combined with increased expression and activity of the cardioprotective enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Finally, we identified a combination of fatty acids in python plasma that promotes physiological heart growth when injected into either pythons or mice.

Riquelme, Cecilia A.; Magida, Jason A.; Harrison, Brooke C.; Wall, Christopher E.; Marr, Thomas G.; Secor, Stephen M.; Leinwand, Leslie A.

2012-01-01

374

Water soluble carbon nano-onions from wood wool as growth promoters for gram plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-soluble carbon nano-onions (wsCNOs) isolated from wood wool--a wood-based pyrolysis waste product of wood, can enhance the overall growth rate of gram (Cicer arietinum) plants. Treatment of plants with upto 30 ?g mL-1 of wsCNOs for an initial 10 day period in laboratory conditions led to an increase in the overall growth of the plant biomass. In order to examine the growth stimulating effects of wsCNOs under natural conditions, 10 day-old plants treated with and without wsCNOs were transplanted into soil of standard carbon and nitrogen composition. We observed an enhanced growth rate of the wsCNOs pre-treated plants in soil, which finally led to an increased productivity of plants in terms of a larger number of grams. On analyzing the carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) content for the shoot and fruit sections of the plants treated with and without wsCNOs, only a minor difference in the composition was noticed. However, a slight increase in the percentage of carbon and hydrogen in shoots reflects the synthesis of more organic biomass in the case of treated plants. This work shows that wsCNOs are non-toxic to plant cells and can act as efficient growth stimulants which can be used as benign growth promoters.

Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Roy, Manas; Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

2012-11-01

375

Candida parapsilosis as a Potent Biocontrol Agent against Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus Species  

PubMed Central

Background: Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed stuff is a serious health problem and significant economic concerns. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of Candida parapsilosis IP1698 on mycelial growth and aflatoxin production in aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus species was investigated. Methods: Mycelial growth inhibitions of nine strains of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species in the presence of C. parapsilosis investigated by pour plate technique at different pH, temperature and time of incubation. Reduction of aflatoxin was evaluated in co-cultured fungi in yeast extract sucrose broth after seven days of incubation using HPLC method. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Results: The presence of the C. parapsilosis at different pH did not affect significantly the growth rate of Aspergillus isolates. On the other hand, temperature and time of incubation showed to be significantly effective when compared to controls without C. parapsilosis (P?0.05). In aflatoxigenic strains, minimum percentage of reductions in total aflatoxin and B1, B2, G1, G2 fractions were 92.98, 92.54, 77.48, 54.54 and 72.22 and maximum percentage of reductions were 99.59, not detectable, 94.42, and not detectable in both G1 and G2, respectively. Conclusion: C. parapsilosis might employ as a good biocontrol agent against growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species

Niknejad, F; Zaini, F; Faramarzi, MA; Amini, M; Kordbacheh, P; Mahmoudi, M; Safara, M

2012-01-01

376

Effects of antiinflammatory agents on mouse skin tumor promotion, epidermal DNA synthesis, phorbol ester-induced cellular proliferation, and production of plasminogen activator.  

PubMed

The antinflammatory ateroids fluocinoine acetonide, fluocinonide, and fluclorolone acetonide were found to be very effectiveinhibitory agents of mouse skin tumor promotion. These steroids also drastically inhibited epidermal DNA synthesis and epidermal cellular proliferation induced by a phorbal ester tumor promoter. In addition, these compounds were potent inhibitors, of plasminogen activator production in tumor cell cultures. The clinically used non-steroidal antiinflammatory agents oxyphenbutazone, indomethacin, and Seclazone also inhibite tumor promotion but were much less effective. Although these agents are useful against inflammatory disorders in general when given p.o., in our studies they had little effect on inflammation and epidermal cellular proliferation induced by a phorbol ester tumor promoter when given topically. The afore mentioned nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents also had little effect on epidermal DNA synthesis. Oxyphenbutazone and indomethacin were less potent inhibitors of plasminogen activator production in tumor cells than were the antiinflammatory steroids, and Seclazone produced a negligible inhibition. There is, therefore, a general correlation in the potencies of a series of steroidal antiinflammatory agents for inhibition of tumor promotion and their ability to inhibit plasminogen activator production by tumor cell cultures and epidermal DNA synthesis. PMID:856468

Viaje, A; Slaga, T J; Wigler, M; Weinstein, I B

1977-05-01

377

Lysosomotropic Properties of Weakly Basic Anticancer Agents Promote Cancer Cell Selectivity In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Drug distribution in cells is a fundamentally important, yet often overlooked, variable in drug efficacy. Many weakly basic anticancer agents accumulate extensively in the acidic lysosomes of normal cells through ion trapping. Lysosomal trapping reduces the activity of anticancer drugs, since anticancer drug targets are often localized in the cell cytosol or nucleus. Some cancer cells have defective acidification of lysosomes, which causes a redistribution of trapped drugs from the lysosomes to the cytosol. We have previously established that such differences in drug localization between normal and cancer cells can contribute to the apparent selectivity of weakly basic drugs to cancer cells in vitro. In this work, we tested whether this intracellular distribution-based drug selectivity could be optimized based on the acid dissociation constant (pKa) of the drug, which is one of the determinants of lysosomal sequestration capacity. We synthesized seven weakly basic structural analogs of the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDA) with pKa values ranging from 5 to 12. The selectivity of each analog was expressed by taking ratios of anti-proliferative IC50 values of the inhibitors in normal fibroblasts to the IC50 values in human leukemic HL-60 cells. Similar selectivity assessments were performed in a pair of cancer cell lines that differed in lysosomal pH as a result of siRNA-mediated alteration of vacuolar proton ATPase subunit expression. Optimal selectivity was observed for analogs with pKa values near 8. Similar trends were observed with commercial anticancer agents with varying weakly basic pKa values. These evaluations advance our understanding of how weakly basic properties can be optimized to achieve maximum anticancer drug selectivity towards cancer cells with defective lysosomal acidification in vitro. Additional in vivo studies are needed to examine the utility of this approach for enhancing selectivity.

Ndolo, Rosemary A.; Luan, Yepeng; Duan, Shaofeng; Forrest, M. Laird; Krise, Jeffrey P.

2012-01-01

378

Lysosomotropic properties of weakly basic anticancer agents promote cancer cell selectivity in vitro.  

PubMed

Drug distribution in cells is a fundamentally important, yet often overlooked, variable in drug efficacy. Many weakly basic anticancer agents accumulate extensively in the acidic lysosomes of normal cells through ion trapping. Lysosomal trapping reduces the activity of anticancer drugs, since anticancer drug targets are often localized in the cell cytosol or nucleus. Some cancer cells have defective acidification of lysosomes, which causes a redistribution of trapped drugs from the lysosomes to the cytosol. We have previously established that such differences in drug localization between normal and cancer cells can contribute to the apparent selectivity of weakly basic drugs to cancer cells in vitro. In this work, we tested whether this intracellular distribution-based drug selectivity could be optimized based on the acid dissociation constant (pKa) of the drug, which is one of the determinants of lysosomal sequestration capacity. We synthesized seven weakly basic structural analogs of the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDA) with pKa values ranging from 5 to 12. The selectivity of each analog was expressed by taking ratios of anti-proliferative IC(50) values of the inhibitors in normal fibroblasts to the IC(50) values in human leukemic HL-60 cells. Similar selectivity assessments were performed in a pair of cancer cell lines that differed in lysosomal pH as a result of siRNA-mediated alteration of vacuolar proton ATPase subunit expression. Optimal selectivity was observed for analogs with pKa values near 8. Similar trends were observed with commercial anticancer agents with varying weakly basic pKa values. These evaluations advance our understanding of how weakly basic properties can be optimized to achieve maximum anticancer drug selectivity towards cancer cells with defective lysosomal acidification in vitro. Additional in vivo studies are needed to examine the utility of this approach for enhancing selectivity. PMID:23145164

Ndolo, Rosemary A; Luan, Yepeng; Duan, Shaofeng; Forrest, M Laird; Krise, Jeffrey P

2012-11-07

379

Characterization of anticancer agents by their growth inhibitory activity and relationships to mechanism of action and structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An analysis of the growth inhibitory potency of 122 anticancer agents available from the National Cancer Institute anticancer drug screen is presented. Methods of singular value decomposi- tion (SVD) were applied to determine the matrix of distances between all compounds. These SVD-derived dissimilarity dis- tances were used to cluster compounds that exhibit similar tumor growth inhibitory activity patterns against

Ozlem Keskin; Ivet Bahar; Robert L. Jernigan; John A. Beutler; Robert H. Shoemaker; Edward A. Sausville; David G. Covell

2000-01-01

380

Roasted soybeans and an estrogenic growth promoter affect growth hormone status and performance of beef steers.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of a roasted soybean (RSB)-supplemented diet and an estrogen implant (SYN; Synovex-S ear implant, 20 mg estradiol benzoate plus 200 mg progesterone) in young crossbred beef steers on their performance and plasma growth hormone (GH) response to challenge injections of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) + GH-releasing hormone (GHRH). Twenty individually fed steers (body weight 255 +/- 5 kg) were assigned to the following treatments: 1) no SYN and fed a soybean meal-supplemented diet, 2) no SYN and fed the RSB-supplemented diet, 3) plus SYN and soybean meal, and 4) plus SYN and RSB. Steers were fed 1.13 MJ metabolizable energy/kg metabolic body weight daily of an 18% protein diet. After a 5-wk growth period, all steers were challenged (intravenous injection) over a 3-wk period with three levels of a combination of TRH + GHRH (0.1 + 0.01, 1.0 + 0.1, 2.5 + 0.25 microg/kg body weight, respectively). After an additional 3 wk, steers were reimplanted and a second 5-wk growth period was followed by a single challenge of the 1.0 + 0.1 TRH + GHRH dose level. Plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was greater when steers were fed the RSB compared with soybean meal (265 vs. 205 micromol/L; P < 0.01; SEM = 9.5). Body weight gains for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 1.35, 1.21, 1.47 and 1.38 kg/d, respectively (RSB, P < 0.10; SYN, P < 0.07; SEM = 0.06). Gain/dry matter intake (g/kg) means were 184, 167, 197 and 184 (RSB, P< 0.04; SYN, P < 0.07; SEM = 7.5). Feeding roasted soybeans results in depressed area under the GH response curve [907, 555, 827 and 989 microg/(L*min) (SYN x RSB, P < 0.03; SEM = 117)] and depressed peak response (37.2, 26.6, 33.5 and 41.1 microg/L [SYN x RSB, P < 0.05; SEM = 4.5]), an effect alleviated by estrogen for young growing steers (Period 1) but not for heavier steers (Period 2). PMID:8914961

Rumsey, T S; Elsasser, T H; Kahl, S

1996-11-01

381

Promotion of couples' voluntary HIV counselling and testing in Lusaka, Zambia by influence network leaders and agents  

PubMed Central

Objectives Hypothesising that couples’ voluntary counselling and testing (CVCT) promotions can increase CVCT uptake, this study identified predictors of successful CVCT promotion in Lusaka, Zambia. Design Cohort study. Setting Lusaka, Zambia. Participants 68 influential network leaders (INLs) identified 320 agents (INAs) who delivered 29?119 CVCT invitations to heterosexual couples. Intervention The CVCT promotional model used INLs who identified INAs, who in turn conducted community-based promotion and distribution of CVCT invitations in two neighbourhoods over 18?months, with a mobile unit in one neighbourhood crossing over to the other mid-way through. Primary outcome The primary outcome of interest was couple testing (yes/no) after receipt of a CVCT invitation. INA, couple and invitation characteristics predictive of couples’ testing were evaluated accounting for two-level clustering. Results INAs delivered invitations resulting in 1727 couples testing (6% success rate). In multivariate analyses, INA characteristics significantly predictive of CVCT uptake included promoting in community-based (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.3; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.8) or health (aOR=1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0) networks versus private networks; being employed in the sales/service industry (aOR=1.5; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.1) versus unskilled manual labour; owning a home (aOR=0.7; 95% CI 0.6 to 0.9) versus not; and having tested for HIV with a partner (aOR=1.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) or alone (aOR=1.3; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) versus never having tested. Cohabiting couples were more likely to test (aOR=1.4; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.6) than non-cohabiting couples. Context characteristics predictive of CVCT uptake included inviting couples (aOR=1.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4) versus individuals; the woman (aOR=1.6; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.2) or couple (aOR=1.4; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.8) initiating contact versus the INA; the couple being socially acquainted with the INA (aOR=1.6; 95% CI 1.4 to 1.9) versus having just met; home invitation delivery (aOR=1.3; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) versus elsewhere; and easy invitation delivery (aOR=1.8; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.2) versus difficult as reported by the INA. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of influential people to promote CVCT and identified agent, couple and context-level factors associated with CVCT uptake in Lusaka, Zambia. We encourage the development of CVCT promotions in other sub-Saharan African countries to support sustained CVCT dissemination.

Wall, Kristin M; Kilembe, William; Nizam, Azhar; Vwalika, Cheswa; Kautzman, Michelle; Chomba, Elwyn; Tichacek, Amanda; Sardar, Gurkiran; Casanova, Deborah; Henderson, Faith; Mulenga, Joseph; Kleinbaum, David; Allen, Susan

2012-01-01

382

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: which cytotoxic agent best complements trastuzumab's efficacy in vitro?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite trastuzumab having enhanced selectivity for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) overexpressing breast cancer cells, treatment is hampered by interindividual variation and tumors with high mitogenic potential. The lack of significant clinical benefit in certain patient cohorts suggests that HER-2 expression is ineffective as a sole prognostic indicator of response to therapy. Therefore, optimizing the clinical role of trastuzumab in drug combinations remains critical for clinical success. Aim To investigate the effects of trastuzumab in combination with either doxorubicin or geldanamycin on in vitro cell viability, cell cycling, apoptosis and relative HER-2 expression in HER-2-positive (SK-BR-3) and estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) breast adenocarcinoma models. Results HER-2-rich SK-BR-3 cells demonstrated a greater sensitivity to the effects of doxorubicin than MCF-7 cells. Concurrent trastuzumab exposure resulted in a further reduction in cell viability. This decreased cell viability induced by doxorubicin was associated with activation of executioner caspases as well as with alterations in cell-cycle kinetics, primarily promoting S-phase accumulation. Doxorubicin had no effect on surface HER-2 density expression. Geldanamycin reduced cell viability significantly greater in SK-BR-3 than MCF-7 cells, and was associated with G2 cell-cycle accumulation. The addition of trastuzumab did not augment these effects. Geldanamycin promoted substantial reductions in relative surface HER-2 density in SK-BR-3 cells. Conclusion The in vitro data supported the rationale for using doxorubicin in trastuzumab-based therapies. Therefore, despite the incidence of cardiotoxicity, doxorubicin could retain a fundamental role in treating HER-2-positive breast cancer. While geldanamycin is a potent cytotoxic agent, its concurrent use with trastuzumab requires further research into the transient or permanent nature of alterations in HER-2 status in cell progeny.

Hurrell, Tracey; Outhoff, Kim

2013-01-01

383

Effects of inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) and Sinorhizobium fredii on biological nitrogen fixation, nodulation and growth of Glycine max cv. Osumi  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of three plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), on Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF), nodulation\\u000a and growth promotion by soybean (Glycine max) var. Osumi plants. The strains, Aur 6, Aur 9 and Cell 4, belong toPsedomonas fluorescens, Chryseobacterium balustinum andSerratia fonticola, respectively. Inoculation modes for the PGPRs andSinorhizobium fredii (carried out through irrigation), were examined. In the first

J. A. Lucas García; A. Probanza; B. Ramos; J. Barriuso; F. J. Gutierrez Mañero

2004-01-01

384

Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on growth and nutrient uptake of cotton and pea in a semi-arid region of Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from soil of the root zone of different agricultural crops were analysed for plant growth-promoting effects and improvement of nutrient uptake on cotton and pea in a semi-arid region of Uzbekistan. The investigations were carried out in pot experiments with Calcisol soil. After inoculation with effective bacterial strains Pseudomonas alcaligenes PsA15, P. denitrificans PsD6, Bacillus polymyxa

Dilfuza Egamberdiyeva; Gisela Höflich

2004-01-01

385

Tools for genetic manipulation of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum amazonense  

PubMed Central

Background Azospirillum amazonense has potential to be used as agricultural inoculant since it promotes plant growth without causing pollution, unlike industrial fertilizers. Owing to this fact, the study of this species has gained interest. However, a detailed understanding of its genetics and physiology is limited by the absence of appropriate genetic tools for the study of this species. Results Conjugation and electrotransformation methods were established utilizing vectors with broad host-replication origins (pVS1 and pBBR1). Two genes of interest - glnK and glnB, encoding PII regulatory proteins - were isolated. Furthermore, glnK-specific A. amazonense mutants were generated utilizing the pK19MOBSACB vector system. Finally, a promoter analysis protocol based on fluorescent protein expression was optimized to aid genetic regulation studies on this bacterium. Conclusion In this work, genetic tools that can support the study of A. amazonense were described. These methods could provide a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of this species that underlie its plant growth promotion.

2011-01-01

386

Nerve Growth Factor Promoter Activity Revealed in Mice Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein  

PubMed Central

Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its precursor proNGF are perhaps the best described growth factors of the mammalian nervous system. There remains, however, a paucity of information regarding the precise cellular sites of proNGF/NGF synthesis. Here we report the generation of transgenic mice in which the NGF promoter controls the ectopic synthesis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). These transgenic mice provide an unprecedented resolution of both neural cells (e.g., neocortical and hippocampal neurons) and non-neural cells (e.g., renal interstitial cells and thymic reticular cells) that display NGF promoter activity from postnatal development to adulthood. Moreover, the transgene is inducible by injury. At 2 days after sciatic nerve ligation, a robust population of EGFP-positive cells is seen in the proximal nerve stump. These transgenic mice offer novel insights into the cellular sites of NGF promoter activity and can be used as models for investigating the regulation of proNGF/NGF expression after injury.

Kawaja, Michael D.; Smithson, Laura J.; Elliott, Janet; Trinh, Gina; Crotty, Anne-Marie; Michalski, Bernadeta; Fahnestock, Margaret

2012-01-01

387

Protein Kinase C Activation Promotes Microtubule Advance in Neuronal Growth Cones by Increasing Average Microtubule Growth Lifetimes  

PubMed Central

We describe a novel mechanism for protein kinase C regulation of axonal microtubule invasion of growth cones. Activation of PKC by phorbol esters resulted in a rapid, robust advance of distal microtubules (MTs) into the F-actin rich peripheral domain of growth cones, where they are normally excluded. In contrast, inhibition of PKC activity by bisindolylmaleimide and related compounds had no perceptible effect on growth cone motility, but completely blocked phorbol ester effects. Significantly, MT advance occurred despite continued retrograde F-actin flow—a process that normally inhibits MT advance. Polymer assembly was necessary for PKC-mediated MT advance since it was highly sensitive to a range of antagonists at concentrations that specifically interfere with microtubule dynamics. Biochemical evidence is presented that PKC activation promotes formation of a highly dynamic MT pool. Direct assessment of microtubule dynamics and translocation using the fluorescent speckle microscopy microtubule marking technique indicates PKC activation results in a nearly twofold increase in the typical lifetime of a MT growth episode, accompanied by a 1.7-fold increase and twofold decrease in rescue and catastrophe frequencies, respectively. No significant effects on instantaneous microtubule growth, shortening, or sliding rates (in either anterograde or retrograde directions) were observed. MTs also spent a greater percentage of time undergoing retrograde transport after PKC activation, despite overall MT advance. These results suggest that regulation of MT assembly by PKC may be an important factor in determining neurite outgrowth and regrowth rates and may play a role in other cellular processes dependent on directed MT advance.

Kabir, Nurul; Schaefer, Andrew W.; Nakhost, Arash; Sossin, Wayne S.; Forscher, Paul

2001-01-01

388

Protein kinase C activation promotes microtubule advance in neuronal growth cones by increasing average microtubule growth lifetimes.  

PubMed

We describe a novel mechanism for protein kinase C regulation of axonal microtubule invasion of growth cones. Activation of PKC by phorbol esters resulted in a rapid, robust advance of distal microtubules (MTs) into the F-actin rich peripheral domain of growth cones, where they are normally excluded. In contrast, inhibition of PKC activity by bisindolylmaleimide and related compounds had no perceptible effect on growth cone motility, but completely blocked phorbol ester effects. Significantly, MT advance occurred despite continued retrograde F-actin flow-a process that normally inhibits MT advance. Polymer assembly was necessary for PKC-mediated MT advance since it was highly sensitive to a range of antagonists at concentrations that specifically interfere with microtubule dynamics. Biochemical evidence is presented that PKC activation promotes formation of a highly dynamic MT pool. Direct assessment of microtubule dynamics and translocation using the fluorescent speckle microscopy microtubule marking technique indicates PKC activation results in a nearly twofold increase in the typical lifetime of a MT growth episode, accompanied by a 1.7-fold increase and twofold decrease in rescue and catastrophe frequencies, respectively. No significant effects on instantaneous microtubule growth, shortening, or sliding rates (in either anterograde or retrograde directions) were observed. MTs also spent a greater percentage of time undergoing retrograde transport after PKC activation, despite overall MT advance. These results suggest that regulation of MT assembly by PKC may be an important factor in determining neurite outgrowth and regrowth rates and may play a role in other cellular processes dependent on directed MT advance. PMID:11238458

Kabir, N; Schaefer, A W; Nakhost, A; Sossin, W S; Forscher, P

2001-03-01

389

NIH study finds low-dose nicotine does not promote tumor growth in mouse models of lung cancer:  

Cancer.gov

Experiments in mice show that low levels of exposure to nicotine, equivalent to those in humans who use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to help them quit smoking, did not promote lung tumor growth.

390

Thalamus-derived molecules promote survival and dendritic growth of developing cortical neurons.  

PubMed

The mammalian neocortex is composed of various types of neurons that reflect its laminar and area structures. It has been suggested that not only intrinsic but also afferent-derived extrinsic factors are involved in neuronal differentiation during development. However, the role and molecular mechanism of such extrinsic factors are almost unknown. Here, we attempted to identify molecules that are expressed in the thalamus and affect cortical cell development. First, thalamus-specific molecules were sought by comparing gene expression profiles of the developing rat thalamus and cortex using microarrays, and by constructing a thalamus-enriched subtraction cDNA library. A systematic screening by in situ hybridization showed that several genes encoding extracellular molecules were strongly expressed in sensory thalamic nuclei. Exogenous and endogenous protein localization further demonstrated that two extracellular molecules, Neuritin-1 (NRN1) and VGF, were transported to thalamic axon terminals. Application of NRN1 and VGF to dissociated cell culture promoted the dendritic growth. An organotypic slice culture experiment further showed that the number of primary dendrites in multipolar stellate neurons increased in response to NRN1 and VGF, whereas dendritic growth of pyramidal neurons was not promoted. These molecules also increased neuronal survival of multipolar neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that the thalamus-specific molecules NRN1 and VGF play an important role in the dendritic growth and survival of cortical neurons in a cell type-specific manner. PMID:23115177

Sato, Haruka; Fukutani, Yuma; Yamamoto, Yuji; Tatara, Eiichi; Takemoto, Makoto; Shimamura, Kenji; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko

2012-10-31

391

Potential for plant growth promotion of rhizobacteria associated with Salicornia growing in Tunisian hypersaline soils.  

PubMed

Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands. PMID:23781499

Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

2013-05-28

392

Coexisting Curtobacterium bacterium promotes growth of white-rot fungus Stereum sp.  

PubMed

White-rot basidiomycetes are the main decomposers of woody biomass in forest ecosystems. Little is known, however, about the interactions between white-rot fungi and other microorganisms in decayed wood. A wood-rotting fungus, Stereum sp. strain TN4F, was isolated from a fruit body, and its coexisting cultivable bacteria were isolated from its substrate; natural white-rot decayed wood. The effects of bacteria on fungal growth were examined by confrontational assay in vitro. A growth-promoting bacterium for this Stereum strain was identified as Curtobacterium sp. TN4W-19, using 16SrRNA sequencing. A confrontational assay revealed that Curtobacterium sp. TN4W-19 significantly promoted the mycelial growth of Stereum sp. TN4F in the direction of the bacterial colony, without direct contact between the mycelium and bacterial cells. This is the first report of a positive interaction between a white-rot fungus and a coexisting bacterial strain in vitro. PMID:22101455

Kamei, Ichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Enami, Daisuke; Meguro, Sadatoshi

2011-11-19

393

Bioformulation of Burkholderia sp. MSSP with a multispecies consortium for growth promotion of Cajanus cajan.  

PubMed

The present work was undertaken to formulate an effective bioformulation using Burkholderia sp. strain MSSP, a known plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium. MSSP was tagged with the reporter gene of green fluorescent protein (gfp) to monitor its population in cost-effective solid carriers, including sugarcane-bagasse, sawdust, cocoa peat, rice husk, wheat bran, charcoal, and rock phosphate, and paneer-whey as liquid carrier. Physical and chemical properties of different low-cost carrier materials were studied. The viability of the green fluorescent tagged variant of MSSP was estimated in different sterile carrier materials. Whey and wheat bran proved to be efficient carrier materials for the bioformulation. Sawdust, rock phosphate, rice husk, and cocoa peat were average, while charcoal and sugarcane-bagasse proved to be inferior carriers. The viability of strain MSSP was also assessed in wheat bran and whey-based consortium, having three other bacterial strains, namely Sinorhizobium meliloti PP3, Rhizobium leguminosarum Pcc, and Bacillus sp. strain B1. Presence of other plant-growth-promoting bacteria did not have any detrimental effect on the viability of MSSP. Efficiency of the wheat-bran-based multispecies consortium was studied on the growth of pigeonpea in field conditions. A considerable increase in plant biomass, nodule number and weight, and number of pods was recorded as compared with individual trials and with the control. PMID:17496969

Pandey, Piyush; Maheshwari, D K

2007-02-01

394

Trichoderma gamsii (NFCCI 2177): A newly isolated endophytic, psychrotolerant, plant growth promoting, and antagonistic fungal strain.  

PubMed

An endophytic fungus has been isolated from the lateral roots of lentil (Lens esculenta Moench), growing under mountain ecosystem of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). While the fungus was observed as fast growing with white scanty mycelium turning to turmeric brown in 5 days of incubation at 25?°C, it also produced a unique odor. The fungus exhibited growth between 4 and 30?°C (optimum 25?°C) and tolerated pH between 2.0 and 13.5 (optimum 4-6). Based on phenotypic (colony morphology and microscopy) and genotypic (18S rRNA analysis) characters, the fungus was identified as Trichoderma gamsii (99% similarity). The fungus was evaluated for its plant growth promotion and biocontrol properties. The fungus was found to be positive for phosphate solubilization, chitinase activity, and production of ammonia and salicylic acid, while the results for production of IAA, HCN, and siderophores were negative. Out of the seven phytopathogenic fungi tested, it showed antagonism against six. Bioassays conducted under green house using four test crops (two cereals and two legumes) showed its potential in plant growth promotion. The fungus has potential to be developed as a bioformulation for application under mountain ecosystem. PMID:23564225

Rinu, K; Sati, Priyanka; Pandey, Anita

2013-04-01

395

Host metabolism promotes growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae in a low oxygen environment.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae infections of the respiratory tract are common and are associated with acute and chronic diseases such as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent studies have shown that reduced environmental oxygen availability promotes chlamydial growth in infected host cells. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We performed a targeted siRNA screen coupled with an automated high-throughput microscopic analysis to identify key host cell genes that play a role in promoting the hypoxic growth of C. pneumoniae. A total of 294 siRNAs - targeting 98 selected genes including central mediators of metabolic, trafficking and signaling pathways - were tested on chlamydial inclusion formation in C. pneumoniae infected A549 cells under normoxic (20% O2) and hypoxic (2% O2) conditions 48 h post infection. Evaluation of the different functional clusters of genes revealed that under hypoxic conditions, enhanced growth of C. pneumoniae was centrally mediated by the host cell glycolytic pathway. Inhibition of the phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD2) and the forkheadbox O3 (FOXO3) gene-expression by siRNAs abrogated chlamydial progeny. The pivotal role of host cell glycolysis in chlamydial development under hypoxia was further confirmed by pharmacological inhibition of the pathway by 2-fluoro-deoxy-glucose. The results indicate that the microenvironment of the host cell determines the fate of C. pneumoniae by controlling pathogen-induced metabolic pathways. PMID:23665044

Szaszák, Márta; Shima, Kensuke; Käding, Nadja; Hannus, Michael; Solbach, Werner; Rupp, Jan

2013-04-06

396

Vascular CD39/ENTPD1 Directly Promotes Tumor Cell Growth by Scavenging Extracellular Adenosine Triphosphate12  

PubMed Central

Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to boost immune responses in the tumor microenvironment but might also contribute directly to cancer cell death. CD39/ENTPD1 is the dominant ectonucleotidase expressed by endothelial cells and regulatory T cells and catalyzes the sequential hydrolysis of ATP to AMP that is further degraded to adenosine by CD73/ecto-5?-nucleotidase. We have previously shown that deletion of Cd39 results in decreased growth of transplanted tumors in mice, as a result of both defective angiogenesis and heightened innate immune responses (secondary to loss of adenosinergic immune suppression). Whether alterations in local extracellular ATP and adenosine levels as a result of CD39 bioactivity directly affect tumor growth and cytotoxicity has not been investigated to date. We show here that extracellular ATP exerts antitumor activity by directly inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cancer cell death. ATP-induced antiproliferative effects and cell death are, in large part, mediated through P2X7 receptor signaling. Tumors in Cd39 null mice exhibit increased necrosis in association with P2X7 expression. We further demonstrate that exogenous soluble NTPDase, or CD39 expression by cocultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, stimulates tumor cell proliferation and limits cell death triggered by extracellular ATP. Collectively, our findings indicate that local expression of CD39 directly promotes tumor cell growth by scavenging extracellular ATP. Pharmacological or targeted inhibition of CD39 enzymatic activity may find utility as an adjunct therapy in cancer management.

Feng, Lili; Sun, Xiaofeng; Csizmadia, Eva; Han, Lihui; Bian, Shu; Murakami, Takashi; Wang, Xin; Robson, Simon C; Wu, Yan

2011-01-01

397

Bio-mimetic composite matrix that promotes endothelial cell growth for modification of biomaterial surface.  

PubMed

The incidence of thrombogenesis and occlusion of cardiovascular implants is likely to be reduced by endothelial cell (EC) growth promotion on biomaterials used for device fabrication. However, proper signaling between the matrix proteins deposited on the device surface and the cells grown on it is a prime requirement for growth and function. It was demonstrated earlier that a composition of matrix proteins that include fibrin, fibronectin, gelatin, and growth factors maintain a steady proliferation potential and prolong the survival of endothelial cells in vitro. In this study, assessment of the same matrix to prevent EC from dedifferentiation during in vitro culture and to promote endothelialization of biomaterials used for fabrication of cardiovascular implants is carried out. Up/down regulation of m-RNA expression for a prothrombotic molecule-plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), and two antithrombotic molecules- nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) are chosen as the indicators of cell dedifferentiation during cell culture and passaging. Immunostaining for vinculin and actin demonstrated that composite coating on biomaterials improves focal adhesion and cytoskeletal organization that increases the quality of EC grown on it. EC proliferation, measured by (3)H-thymidine uptake, on all bare materials was poor and high incidence of cell apoptosis was noticed within 72 h in culture, whereas once coated with composite all materials showed good proliferation and survival. The results suggest that the designed composition of biomimetic adhesive proteins and growth factors is suitable for EC growth, survival, and functional integrity, thus making it suitable for cardiovascular tissue engineering that requires in vitro EC culture. PMID:17051537

Prasad, C Krishna; Muraleedharan, C V; Krishnan, Lissy K

2007-03-01

398

Promoting Healthy Growth: What Are the Priorities for Research and Action?12  

PubMed Central

Healthy growth from conception through the first 2 y of life is the foundation for adequate organ formation and function, a strong immune system, physical health, and neurological and cognitive development. Recent studies identified several low-cost interventions to address undernutrition during this age period and noted the lower returns on investment of intervening after this critical period. Although these interventions should be implemented widely, it is recognized that existing nutrition solutions, even if universally applied, would only avert a minority fraction of the estimated death and disability due to undernutrition. This paper reviews some of the knowledge and learning needed to close this “impact gap.” Five areas are prioritized for future research: 1) study healthy growth from a lifecycle perspective, because maternal, fetal, and newborn outcomes are connected; 2) understand why growth faltering begins so early in breast-fed infants in the developing world; 3) apply new tools and technologies to study long-recognized problems such as the interaction between nutrition and infection; 4) explore new hypotheses for understanding nutrient assimilation and use to discover and develop intervention leads; and 5) understand the role of the environment in healthy growth and the potential synergistic benefits of multi-sectoral interventions. Policymakers are urged to invest in nutrition-specific and -sensitive interventions to promote healthy growth from conception through the first 2 y of life because of their immediate and long-term health and development benefits.

Piwoz, Ellen; Sundberg, Shelly; Rooke, Jenny

2012-01-01

399

Promoting healthy growth: what are the priorities for research and action?  

PubMed

Healthy growth from conception through the first 2 y of life is the foundation for adequate organ formation and function, a strong immune system, physical health, and neurological and cognitive development. Recent studies identified several low-cost interventions to address undernutrition during this age period and noted the lower returns on investment of intervening after this critical period. Although these interventions should be implemented widely, it is recognized that existing nutrition solutions, even if universally applied, would only avert a minority fraction of the estimated death and disability due to undernutrition. This paper reviews some of the knowledge and learning needed to close this "impact gap." Five areas are prioritized for future research: 1) study healthy growth from a lifecycle perspective, because maternal, fetal, and newborn outcomes are connected; 2) understand why growth faltering begins so early in breast-fed infants in the developing world; 3) apply new tools and technologies to study long-recognized problems such as the interaction between nutrition and infection; 4) explore new hypotheses for understanding nutrient assimilation and use to discover and develop intervention leads; and 5) understand the role of the environment in healthy growth and the potential synergistic benefits of multi-sectoral interventions. Policymakers are urged to invest in nutrition-specific and -sensitive interventions to promote healthy growth from conception through the first 2 y of life because of their immediate and long-term health and development benefits. PMID:22516734

Piwoz, Ellen; Sundberg, Shelly; Rooke, Jenny

2012-03-01

400

Bacteria able to control foot and root rot and to promote growth of cucumber in salinated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to test known bacterial plant growth-promoting strains for their ability to promote cucumber\\u000a plant growth in salinated soil and to improve cucumber fruit yield by protecting these plants against soil-borne pathogens.\\u000a Fifty-two plant-beneficial bacterial strains were evaluated for their ability to protect plants against cucumber foot and\\u000a root rot after bacterization of the

Dilfuza Egamberdieva; Zulfiya Kucharova; Kakhramon Davranov; Gabriele Berg; Natasha Makarova; Tatyana Azarova; Vladimir Chebotar; Igor Tikhonovich; Faina Kamilova; Shamil Z. Validov; Ben Lugtenberg

2011-01-01

401

Effects of insecticides on plant-growth-promoting activities of phosphate solubilizing rhizobacterium Klebsiella sp. strain PS19  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, four technical grade insecticides, fipronil, pyriproxyfen, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were applied at the recommended and the higher doses to investigate their effects on plant growth-promoting activities of phosphate-solubilizing Klebsiella sp. strain PS19, isolated from mustard rhizosphere. All tested insecticides displayed a concentration-dependent inhibition in plant growth promoting traits, like, inorganic phosphate solubilization, biosynthesis of phytohormones and siderophores,

Munees Ahemad; Mohammad Saghir Khan

2011-01-01

402

Impact of zinc-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on lentil grown in zinc-amended soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though zinc is a plant nutrient at low levels, Zn ions can be highly phytotoxic at higher concentrations found in contaminated\\u000a soils. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to decrease this toxicity. Indeed, in addition to their role in plant-growth\\u000a promotion, rhizobacteria also reduce the toxicity of heavy metals. In turn, they can be effective for crops grown in metal-contaminated

Parvaze Ahmad Wani; Almas Zaidi

2008-01-01

403

Production of indole-3-acetic acid, aromatic amino acid aminotransferase activities and plant growth promotion by Pantoea agglomerans rhizosphere isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of auxins, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), by rhizobacteria has been associated with plant growth promotion,\\u000a especially root initiation and elongation. Six indole-producing bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of legumes grown in\\u000a Saskatchewan soils and identified as Pantoea agglomerans spp. were examined for their ability to promote the growth of canola, lentil and pea under gnotobiotic conditions and

Elena Sergeeva; Danielle L. M. Hirkala; Louise M. Nelson

2007-01-01

404

Amelioration of Salt Stress on Annual Ryegrass by ACC Deaminase-Containing Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were isolated from the rhizosphere of salty plants, based on the ability to utilize the compound 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) as a sole nitrogen source. These four bacterial isolates, especially Pseudomonas sp. S1, alleviated greatly salt stress and promoted significantly the seedling growth of annual ryegrass under either 5 or 10 g\\/kg NaCl stress

Yun-xiu Ji; Xiao-dong Huang

2008-01-01

405

Inoculation of plant growth promoting bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain Ax10 for the improvement of copper phytoextraction by Brassica juncea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a copper-resistant plant growth promoting bacterial (PGPB) strain Ax10 was isolated from a Cu mine soil to assess its plant growth promotion and copper uptake in Brassica juncea. The strain Ax10 tolerated concentrations up to 600mg CuL?1 on a Luria–Bertani (LB) agar medium and utilized 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) as a sole N source in DF salts minimal

Ying Ma; Mani Rajkumar; Helena Freitas

2009-01-01

406

Induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by inflammatory agents and tumor promoters.  

PubMed Central

The granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating activity (GM-CSA) was assayed in acetic acid extracts of skin from mice which were topically treated with inflammatory and tumor-promoting diterpene esters. Extremely large increases in GM-CSA were found in skin treated with the strongly tumor-promoting 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and the weakly promoting mezerein, while only a very slight increase was found with the non-promoting 4-O-methyl-TPA (4-OMe-TPA). Untreated areas of skin had very little GM-CSA. In the treated skins, the elevated GM-CSA was noted within a few hours and lasted for greater than 24 h after treatment. Although the levels of GM-CSA induced in the skin correspond to the degree of inflammation elicited by the respective treatments, the leukocytes in the acute inflammatory infiltrate did not appear to be responsible for the increased GM-CSA. Both epidermis and dermis had increased GM-CSA following TPA treatment of skin. Treatment of fibroblast and epithelial continuous cell lines with diterpene esters resulted in a similar pattern of GM-CSA induction in their supernatant media as that noted in the skin extracts. A large majority of the colonies stimulated by the diterpene-ester induced GM-CSA were composed of only macrophages. The results demonstrate that the topical administration of an inflammatory diterpene ester results in a rapid, marked yet local GM-CSA induction in the skin of treated mice. This indirect action in which diterpene esters induce in certain cells a growth regulatory factor for other types of cells may be an important element in carcinogenesis. Images Fig. 2.

Koury, M J; Balmain, A; Pragnell, I B

1983-01-01

407

Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spinach respectively over the non-bacterized control. Considering all the parameters tested, there were similarities but no significant difference at P < 0.05 between the overall performances of the two organisms.

Adesemoye, A.O.; Obini, M.; Ugoji, E.O.

2008-01-01

408

Tools for genetic manipulation of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum amazonense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Azospirillum amazonense has potential to be used as agricultural inoculant since it promotes plant growth without causing pollution, unlike industrial\\u000a fertilizers. Owing to this fact, the study of this species has gained interest. However, a detailed understanding of its genetics\\u000a and physiology is limited by the absence of appropriate genetic tools for the study of this species.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Conjugation and

Fernando H Sant’Anna; Dieime S Andrade; Débora B Trentini; Shana S Weber; Irene S Schrank

2011-01-01

409

Pyochelin: novel structure of an iron-chelating growth promoter for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

Pyochelin, an endogenous growth promoter that solubilizes ferric iron, has been isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including clinical strains. The structure of pyochelin has been assigned as 2-(2-o-hydroxyphenyl-2-thiazolin-4-yl)-3-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and is of a different type from those previously assigned to siderophores (siderochromes) from bacteria. The assignment rests on 1H and 13C NMR data, high-resolution (including field desorption) mass spectrometry, and spectroscopic properties of synthetic model compounds. Pyochelin is presumed to be biosynthesized from salicylic acid and two moles of cysteine.

Cox, C D; Rinehart, K L; Moore, M L; Cook, J C

1981-01-01

410

Growth-promoting effect of thermophilic fungi on the mycelium of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.  

PubMed Central

The growth-promoting effect of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in mushroom compost on the mycelium of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus was investigated. Results obtained by others were confirmed by showing that S. thermophilum leads to an increased hyphal extension rate of the mushroom mycelium. However, it was demonstrated that hyphal extension rates were not clearly related to mushroom biomass increase rates. A number of experiments pointed strongly towards CO2 as the determinant of hyphal extension rates. In compost, CO2 is produced mainly by thermophilic fungi. Several experiments did not reveal any other specific compound produced by S. thermophilum that increases the hyphal extension rate of the mushroom mycelium.

Wiegant, W M; Wery, J; Buitenhuis, E T; de Bont, J A

1992-01-01

411

Suppression of pancreatic tumor growth in the liver by systemic administration of the TRAIL gene driven by the hTERT promoter.  

PubMed

Local and locoregional administration of adenovectors expressing the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) gene has been demonstrated to be useful in treating established tumors in animals. Moreover, expression of the TRAIL gene from the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter can be used to prevent possible liver toxicity of the TRAIL gene. However, it remains unknown whether systemic administration of the TRAIL-expressing adenovector can be used for cancer therapy. Here, we showed that a combination of TRAIL gene therapy and gemcitabine, the first-line chemotheraphy agent for pancreatic cancer, had a synergistic effect on the induction of apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro. Systemic administration of an adenovector that contains an insertion of integrin-binding motif argine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) in the HI loop of the adenoviral fiber protein and expresses the human TRAIL gene from the hTERT promoter (designated Ad/TRAIL-F/RGD) suppressed the growth of human pancreatic tumor cells inoculated in the liver of nu/nu nude mice. Furthermore, Ad/TRAIL-F/RGD in combination with gemcitabine suppressed the tumor growth of pancreatic cancer in the liver more than did treatments consisting of each agent alone. No obvious liver toxicity was detected in any of the treatment groups. Our results suggest that TRAIL gene therapy in combination with gemcitabine might be a useful therapeutic approach for treating metastatic pancreatic cancers. PMID:15486557

Jacob, Dietmar; Davis, John J; Zhang, Lidong; Zhu, Hongbo; Teraishi, Fuminori; Fang, Bingliang

2005-02-01

412

Ameliorative effects of inoculation with the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas sp. DW1 on growth of eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.) seedlings under salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of inoculation with the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas sp. DW1 on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) growth, mineral uptake and activities of the antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) of plant leaves under salinity stress. The study was conducted in pot experiments using eggplant (S. melongena

Qinglin Fu; Chen Liu; Nengfei Ding; Yicheng Lin; Bin Guo

2010-01-01

413

Activation of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor promotes growth and differentiation in thyroid cells.  

PubMed Central

We have introduced the beta 2-adrenergic receptor into the unnatural environment of a thyroid cell to demonstrate that the activation of this receptor initiates diverse cellular programs in different cell types. The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor and the beta 2-adrenergic receptor stimulate a common signaling pathway in distinct populations of cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the activation of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor, transfected into a thyroid epithelial cell, elicits a program of growth and differentiation normally observed with TSH. In thyroid cells expressing beta 2 receptors, the beta 2 agonist isoproterenol activates adenylate cyclase, induces the expression of a thyroid-specific iodide carrier system, and can substitute for TSH to promote growth. Thus, in thyroid cells expressing beta 2-adrenergic receptors, isoproterenol elicits the entire array of thyroid-specific functions normally activated by TSH. Images

Hen, R; Axel, R; Obici, S

1989-01-01

414

Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth  

SciTech Connect

Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Nishiofuku, Mariko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

2008-03-07

415

A Naturally Associated Rhizobacterium of Arabidopsis thaliana Induces a Starvation-Like Transcriptional Response while Promoting Growth  

PubMed Central

Plant growth promotion by rhizobacteria is a known phenomenon but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We searched for plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that are naturally associated with Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate the molecular mechanisms that are involved in plant growth-promotion. We isolated a Pseudomonas bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. G62) from roots of field-grown Arabidopsis plants that has not been described previously and analyzed its effect on plant growth, gene expression and the level of sugars and amino acids in the host plant. Inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. G62 promoted plant growth under various growth conditions. Microarray analysis revealed rapid changes in transcript levels of genes annotated to energy-, sugar- and cell wall metabolism in plants 6 h after root inoculation with P. sp. G62. The expression of several of these genes remained stable over weeks, but appeared differentially regulated in roots and shoots. The global gene expression profile observed after inoculation with P. sp. G62 showed a striking resemblance with previously described carbohydrate starvation experiments, although plants were not depleted from soluble sugars, and even showed a slight increase of the sucrose level in roots 5 weeks after inoculation. We suggest that the starvation-like transcriptional phenotype - while steady state sucrose levels are not reduced - is induced by a yet unknown signal from the bacterium that simulates sugar starvation. We discuss the potential effects of the sugar starvation signal on plant growth promotion.

Thormahlen, Ina; Bernholz, Carolin; Kunz, Sabine; Brouwer, Stephan; Schwochow, Melanie; Kohl, Karin; van Dongen, Joost T.

2011-01-01

416

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote growth and angiogenesis of breast and prostate tumors  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to migrate to tumor tissues. This behavior of MSCs has been exploited as a tumor-targeting strategy for cell-based cancer therapy. However, the effects of MSCs on tumor growth are controversial. This study was designed to determine the effect of MSCs on the growth of breast and prostate tumors. Methods Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) were isolated and characterized. Effects of BM-MSCs on tumor cell proliferation were analyzed in a co-culture system with mouse breast cancer cell 4T1 or human prostate cancer cell DU145. Tumor cells were injected into nude mice subcutaneously either alone or coupled with BM-MSCs. The expression of cell proliferation and angiogenesis-related proteins in tumor tissues were immunofluorescence analyzed. The angiogenic effect of BM-MSCs was detected using a tube formation assay. The effects of the crosstalk between tumor cells and BM-MSCs on expression of angiogenesis related markers were examined by immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Results Both co-culturing with mice BM-MSCs (mBM-MSCs) and treatment with mBM-MSC-conditioned medium enhanced the growth of 4T1 cells. Co-injection of 4T1 cells and mBM-MSCs into nude mice led to increased tumor size compared with injection of 4T1 cells alone. Similar experiments using DU145 cells and human BM-MSCs (hBM-MSCs) instead of 4T1 cells and mBM-MSCs obtained consistent results. Compared with tumors induced by injection of tumor cells alone, the blood vessel area was greater in tumors from co-injection of tumor cells with BM-MSCs, which correlated with decreased central tumor necrosis and increased tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, both conditioned medium from hBM-MSCs alone and co-cultures of hBM-MSCs with DU145 cells were able to promote tube formation ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. When hBM-MSCs are exposed to the DU145 cell environment, the expression of markers associated with neovascularization (macrophage inflammatory protein-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and IL-6) was increased. Conclusion These results indicate that BM-MSCs promote tumor growth and suggest that the crosstalk between tumor cells and BM-MSCs increased the expression of pro-angiogenic factors, which may have induced tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis thereby increasing solid tumor growth.

2013-01-01

417

The RGD Domain of Human Osteopontin Promotes Tumor Growth and Metastasis through Activation of Survival Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Human osteopontin (OPN), a known tumor associated protein, exists in different isoforms, whose function is unclear. It also possesses a RGD domain, which has been implicated in diverse function. Here, we use genetic approaches to systematically investigate the function of the RGD domain in different OPN isoforms on tumor progression and metastasis for 2 different solid tumor models. Methodology/Principal Findings Using isoform-specific qRT-PCR, we found that OPN-A and B were the main isoforms overexpressed in evaluated human tumors, which included 4 soft tissue sarcomas, 24 lung and 30 head and neck carcinomas. Overexpression of either OPN-A or B in two different cell types promoted local tumor growth and lung metastasis in SCID mouse xenografts. However, expression of either isoform with the RGD domain either mutated or deleted decreased tumor growth and metastasis, and resulted in increased apoptosis by TUNEL staining. In vitro, whereas mutation of the RGD domain did not affect cell-cell adhesion, soft agar growth or cell migration, it increased apoptosis under hypoxia and serum starvation. This effect could be mitigated when the RGD mutant cells were treated with condition media containing WT OPN. Mechanistically, the RGD region of OPN inhibited apoptosis by inducing NF-?B activation and FAK phosphorylation. Inhibition of NF-?B (by siRNA to the p65 subunit) or FAK activation (by a inhibitor) significantly increased apoptosis under hypoxia in WT OPN cells, but not in RGD mutant cells. Conclusion/Significance Unlike prior reports, our data suggest that the RGD domain of both OPN-A and B promote tumor growth and metastasis mainly by protecting cells against apoptosis under stressed conditions and not via migration or invasion. Future inhibitors directed against OPN should target multiple isoforms and should inhibit cell survival mechanisms that involve the RGD domain, FAK phosphorylation and NF-?B activation.

Kwok, Shirley; Kong, Christina; Banh, Alice; Kuo, Peiwen; Bouley, Donna M.; Vice, Carmen; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Denko, Nicholas C.; Koong, Albert C.; Giaccia, Amato; Le, Quynh-Thu

2010-01-01

418

Isolation, characterization and beneficial effects of rice associated plant growth promoting bacteria from Zanzibar soils.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to isolate and characterize plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) occurring in four soils of Zanzibar, Tanzania as well as to evaluate their potential use as biofertilizers for rice. A total of 12 PGPB strains were isolated from rice and studied for growth characteristics, carbon/nitrogen source utilization patterns using QTS-24 kits, phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, antibiotic resistance patterns and growth at different pH, temperature and salt concentrations. All the isolates were motile and gram negative except Z3-4. Acetylene reduction activity was detected in all isolates ranging from 5.9-76.4 nmole C2H2 reduced/h x mg protein while 9 isolates produced IAA ranged from 20-90.8 mg/l. Most of the isolates showed resistance against different environmental stresses like 10-40 degrees C temperature, 0.2-1 M salt concentration and 4-8.5 pH range. Only one isolate Z2-7 formed clear zones on Pikovskaia's medium showing its ability to solubilize phosphates. Z3-2 was used to develop fluorescent antibodies to check the cross reactivity of the isolates. Inoculation of these bacterial isolates resulted in higher plant biomass, root area, and total N and P contents on Tanzanian rice variety BKN PRAT3036B under controlled conditions. Bacillus sp. Z3-4 and Azospirillum sp. Z3-1 are effective strains and, after further testing under field conditions, can be used for inoculum production of rice in Tanzania. The plant growth promoting effects of these PGPRs suggest that these can be exploited to improve crop productivity of rice in Tanzania. PMID:15162398

Yasmin, Sumera; Rahman Bakar, M Abdul; Malik, Kausar A; Hafeez, Fauzia Y

2004-01-01

419

Inhibition of tumor growth and neovascularization by an anti-gastric ulcer agent, irsogladine.  

PubMed

Irsogladine used clinically as an anti-gastric ulcer agent, at 10(-6)-10(-4)M, inhibited cell proliferation and tubular morphogenesis of vascular endothelial cells, but the proliferation of human epidermoid cancer or glioma cells was not inhibited by this drug, even at 10(-4)M. In vivo studies demonstrated that p.o. administration of irsogladine significantly inhibited tumor growth of human glioma cells in mice, and histological analysis showed a dramatic decrease of the neovascularization in the tumors. In mice transplanted with chambers containing human glioma cells or hepatic cancer cells, irsogladine also inhibited angiogenesis. These in vivo and in vitro assays demonstrate that irsogladine may be a unique and potent inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis. PMID:8603395

Ono, M; Kawahara, N; Goto, D; Wakabayashi, Y; Ushiro, S; Yoshida, S; Izumi, H; Kuwano, M; Sato, Y

1996-04-01

420

Ocular hypertension following intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe vision loss in adults over the age of 65 years. The advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) intravitreal injections has revolutionized the management of exudative AMD. However, multiple case series of sustained elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) after intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents have been reported. Sustained elevated IOP has been reported with all anti-VEGF agents being used in ophthalmology and even in patients without any prior history of glaucoma. No clear correlations to injection frequency or patient characteristics have emerged from the multiple reports so far, but it appears that patients with pre-existing glaucoma or ocular hypertension and those receiving a greater number of injections with shorter injection intervals may be at a higher risk for developing ocular hypertension related to anti-VEGF agents. Until future studies elucidate the pathophysiology of sustained IOP following anti-VEGF injections, it is prudent to recognize the possibility of elevations in IOP in association with anti-VEGF therapy. Treating physicians should look for subtle optic nerve head changes and IOP measurements suspicious for glaucoma and have a low threshold for treating elevated IOP if the patient is likely to require multiple intravitreal anti-VEGF injections. Ocular hypertension following anti-VEGF injections appears to be amenable to anti-glaucoma treatment and every effort should be made to preserve the peripheral vision in these patients where central vision is already threatened by exudative AMD. PMID:23179897

Singh, Ravi S J; Kim, Judy E

2012-12-01

421

Mesotrypsin promotes malignant growth of breast cancer cells through shedding of CD109.  

PubMed

Serine proteases have been implicated in many stages of cancer development, facilitating tumor cell growth, invasion, and metastasis, and naturally occurring serine protease inhibitors have shown promise as potential anticancer therapeutics. Optimal design of inhibitors as potential therapeutics requires the identification of the specific serine proteases involved in disease progression and the functional targets responsible for the tumor-promoting properties. Here, we use the HMT-3522 breast cancer progression series grown in 3D organotypic culture conditions to find that serine protease inhibitors cause morphological reversion of the malignant T4-2 cells, assessed by inhibition of proliferation and formation of acinar structures with polarization of basal markers, implicating serine protease activity in their malignant growth behavior. We identify PRSS3/mesotrypsin upregulation in T4-2 cells as compared to their nonmalignant progenitors, and show that knockdown of PRSS3 attenuates, and treatment with recombinant purified mesotrypsin enhances, the malignant growth phenotype. Using proteomic methods, we identify CD109 as the functional proteolytic target of mesotrypsin. Our study identifies a new mediator and effector of breast cancer growth and progression. PMID:20035377

Hockla, Alexandra; Radisky, Derek C; Radisky, Evette S

2009-12-25

422

High levels of Hdmx promote cell growth in a subset of uveal melanomas  

PubMed Central

The p53 tumor suppressor pathway is inactivated in cancer either via direct mutation or via deregulation of upstream regulators or downstream effectors. P53 mutations are rare in uveal melanoma. Here we investigated the role of the p53 inhibitor Hdmx in uveal melanoma. We found Hdmx over-expression in a subset of uveal melanoma cell lines and fresh-frozen tumor samples. Hdmx depletion resulted in cell-line dependent growth inhibition, apparently correlating with differential Hdm2 levels. Surprisingly, p53 knockdown hardly rescued cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction upon Hdmx knockdown, whereas it effectively prevented growth suppression induced by the potent p53 activator Nutlin-3. In addition, two compounds inhibiting Hdmx function or expression, SAH-p53-8 and XI-011, also elicited a growth inhibitory effect in a partly p53-independent manner. These findings suggest a novel, growth-promoting function of Hdmx that does not rely on its ability to inhibit p53. We provide evidence for a contribution of p27 protein induction to the observed p53-independent G1 arrest in response to Hdmx knockdown. In conclusion, our study establishes the importance of Hdmx as an oncogene in a subset of uveal melanomas and widens the spectrum of its function beyond p53 inhibition.

de Lange, Job; Teunisse, Amina FAS; Vries, Matty Verlaan-de; Lodder, Kirsten; Lam, Suzanne; Luyten, Gregorius PM; Bernal, Federico; Jager, Martine J; Jochemsen, Aart G

2012-01-01

423

Biocontrol of late blight and plant growth promotion in tomato using rhizobacterial isolates.  

PubMed

Seven bacterial isolates (viz., AB05, AB10, AB11, AB12, AB14, AB15, and AB17) were derived from the rhizosphere and evaluated in terms of plant growth-promoting activities and the inhibition of Phytophthora infestans affecting tomatoes in Korea. According to 16S rDNA sequencing, a majority of the isolates are members of Bacillus, and a single isolate belongs to Paenibacillus. All seven isolates inhibited P. infestans by more than 60% in vitro. However, AB15 was the most effective, inhibiting mycelial growth of the pathogen by more than 80% in vitro and suppressing disease by 74% compared with control plants under greenhouse conditions. In a PGPR assay, all of the bacterial isolates were capable of enhancing different growth parameters (shoot/root length, fresh biomass, dry matter, and chlorophyll content) in comparison with non-inoculated control plants. AB17-treated plants in particular showed the highest enhancement in fresh biomass with 18% and 26% increments in the root and shoot biomass, respectively. However, isolate AB10 showed the highest shoot and root growth with 18% and 26% increments, respectively. Moreover, the total chlorophyll content was 14%~19% higher in treated plants. PMID:23711523

Lamsal, Kabir; Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Yun Seok; Lee, Youn Su

2013-07-28

424

Ribosomal RACK1 promotes chemoresistance and growth in human hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Coordinated translation initiation is coupled with cell cycle progression and cell growth, whereas excessive ribosome biogenesis and translation initiation often lead to tumor transformation and survival. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most common and aggressive cancers worldwide and generally displays inherently high resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. We found that RACK1, the receptor for activated C-kinase 1, was highly expressed in normal liver and frequently upregulated in HCC. Aberrant expression of RACK1 contributed to in vitro chemoresistance as well as in vivo tumor growth of HCC. These effects depended on ribosome localization of RACK1. Ribosomal RACK1 coupled with PKC?II to promote the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), which led to preferential translation of the potent factors involved in growth and survival. Inhibition of PKC?II or depletion of eIF4E abolished RACK1-mediated chemotherapy resistance of HCC in vitro. Our results imply that RACK1 may function as an internal factor involved in the growth and survival of HCC and suggest that targeting RACK1 may be an efficacious strategy for HCC treatment. PMID:22653060

Ruan, Yuanyuan; Sun, Linlin; Hao, Yuqing; Wang, Lijing; Xu, Jiejie; Zhang, Wen; Xie, Jianhui; Guo, Liang; Zhou, Lei; Yun, Xiaojing; Zhu, Hongguang; Shen, Aiguo; Gu, Jianxin

2012-06-01

425

Mesotrypsin promotes malignant growth of breast cancer cells through shedding of CD109  

PubMed Central

Serine proteases have been implicated in many stages of cancer development, facilitating tumor cell growth, invasion, and metastasis, and naturally occurring serine protease inhibitors have shown promise as potential anticancer therapeutics. Optimal design of inhibitors as potential therapeutics requires the identification of the specific serine proteases involved in disease progression and the functional targets responsible for the tumor-promoting properties. Here, we use the HMT-3522 breast cancer progression series grown in 3D organotypic culture conditions to find that serine protease inhibitors cause morphological reversion of the malignant T4-2 cells, assessed by inhibition of proliferation and formation of acinar structures with polarization of basal markers, implicating serine protease activity in their malignant growth behavior. We identify PRSS3/mesotrypsin upregulation in T4-2 cells as compared to their nonmalignant progenitors, and show that knockdown of PRSS3 attenuates, and treatment with recombinant purified mesotrypsin enhances, the malignant growth phenotype. Using proteomic methods, we identify CD109 as the functional proteolytic target of mesotrypsin. Our study identifies a new mediator and effector of breast cancer growth and progression.

Hockla, Alexandra; Radisky, Derek C.

2010-01-01

426

Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Vascular Growth In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Stem cell therapies are promising strategies to regenerate human injured tissues, including ischemic myocardium. Here, we examined the acquisition of properties associated with vascular growth by human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs), and whether they promoted vascular growth in vivo. UCBMSCs were induced in endothelial cell-specific growth medium (EGM-2) acquiring new cell markers, increased Ac-LDL uptake, and migratory capacity as assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, indirect immunofluorescence, and invasion assays. Angiogenic and vasculogenic potentials could be anticipated by in vitro experiments showing self organization into Matrigel-mediated cell networks, and activation of circulating angiogenic-supportive myeloid cells. In mice, following subcutaneous co-injection with Matrigel, UCBMSCs modified to co-express bioluminescent (luciferases) and fluorescent proteins were demonstrated to participate in the formation of new microvasculature connected with the host circulatory system. Response of UCBMSCs to ischemia was explored in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). UCBMSCs transplanted using a fibrin patch survived 4 weeks post-implantation and organized into CD31+network structures above the infarcted myocardium. MI-treated animals showed a reduced infarct scar and a larger vessel-occupied area in comparison with MI-control animals. Taken together, the presented results show that UCBMSCs can be induced in vitro to acquire angiogenic and vasculogenic properties and contribute to vascular growth in vivo.

Soler-Botija, Carolina; Pujal, Josep M.; Galvez-Monton, Carolina; Prat-Vidal, Cristina; Llucia-Valldeperas, Aida; Blanco, Jeronimo; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

2012-01-01

427

Adiponectin Deficiency Promotes Tumor Growth in Mice by Reducing Macrophage Infiltration  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived plasma protein that has been implicated in regulating angiogenesis, but the role of adiponectin in regulating this process is still controversial. In this study, in order to determine whether adiponectin affects tumor growth and tumor induced vascularization, we implanted B16F10 melanoma and Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells subcutaneously into adiponectin knockout and wild-type control mice, and found that adiponectin deficiency markedly promoted the growth of both tumors. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that adiponectin deficiency reduced macrophage recruitment to the tumor, but did not affect cancer cell mitosis, apoptosis, or tumor-associated angiogenesis. In addition, treatment with recombinant adiponectin did not affect the proliferation of cultured B16F10 tumor cells. Importantly, the restoration of microphage infiltration at an early stage of tumorigenesis by means of co-injection of B16F10 cells and macrophages reversed the increased tumor growth in adiponectin knockout mice. Thus, we conclude that the enhanced tumor growth observed in adiponectin deficient mice is likely due to the reduction of macrophage infiltration rather than enhanced angiogenesis.

Sun, Yutong; Lodish, Harvey F.