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1

Hormonal Growth Promoting Agents in Food Producing Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In contrast to the use of hormonal doping agents in sports to enhance the performance of athletes, in the livestock industry\\u000a hormonal growth promoters (“anabolics”) are used to increase the production of muscle meat. This leads to international disputes\\u000a about the safety of meat originating from animals treated with such anabolics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a As a consequence of the total ban in the

Rainer W. Stephany

2

Topical agents for hair growth promotion: what is out there?  

PubMed

Hair loss is a widespread complaint that carries a significant psychosocial burden for affected individuals. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the predominant cause of hair loss seen in the dermatology clinic. Although a range of therapies are available, minoxidil remains the only approved topical treatment for AGA. Promising new topical agents are under current investigation. PMID:24310642

Shamsaldeen, Omar S; Al Mubki, Thamer; Shapiro, Jerry

2013-06-01

3

Non-streptomycete actinomycetes as biocontrol agents of soil-borne fungal plant pathogens and as plant growth promoters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among soil microorganisms, bacteria and fungi and to a lesser extent actinomycetes, have received considerable attention as biocontrol agents of soil-borne fungal plant pathogens and as plant growth promoters. Within actinomycetes, Streptomyces spp. have been investigated predominantly, mainly because of their dominance on, and the ease of isolation from, dilution plates and because of the commercial interest shown on the

Khaled A. El-Tarabily; Krishnapillai Sivasithamparam

2006-01-01

4

Siderophore as a potential plant growth-promoting agent produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25.  

PubMed

Siderophores scavenges Fe(+3) from the vicinity of the roots of plants, and thus limit the amount of iron required for the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium ultimum, and Fusarium udum, which cause wilt and root rot disease in crops. The ability of Pseudomonas to grow and to produce siderophore depends upon the iron content, pH, and temperature. Maximum yield of siderophore of 130 ?M was observed at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 and temperature of 30 °C at 30 h. The threshold level of iron was 50 ?M, which increases up to 150 ?M, favoring growth but drastically affecting the production of siderophore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25. The seeds of agricultural crops like Cicer arietinum (chick pea), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), and Arachis hypogaea (ground nut) were treated with P. aeruginosa JAS-25, which enhanced the seed germination, root length, shoot length, and dry weight of chick pea, pigeon pea, and ground nut plants under pot studies. The efficient growth of the plants was not only due to the biocontrol activity of the siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa JAS-25 but also may be by the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), which influences the growth of the plants as phytohormones. PMID:25062779

Sulochana, M B; Jayachandra, S Y; Kumar, S Anil; Parameshwar, A B; Reddy, K Mohan; Dayanand, A

2014-09-01

5

Promotions and Wage Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents evidence that internal mobility, defined as a promotion or other position change, is an important source of wage growth. It accounts for approximately 15 percent of wage growth over the life cycle for white and black men but less for women. The incidence of promotions and other position changes appears tied to the wage level: better paid

Kristin McCue

1996-01-01

6

Delftia sp. JD2: a potential Cr(VI)-reducing agent with plant growth-promoting activity.  

PubMed

A chromium (Cr)-resistant bacterium isolated from soil containing 6,000 mg/kg of Cr was identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Delftia, and designated as JD2. Growth of JD2 was accompanied with reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in liquid medium initially containing 100 mg/L Cr(VI), the maximum concentration allowing growth. JD2 showed NADH/NADPH-dependent reductase activity associated with the soluble fraction of cells. The results suggest that JD2 might be a good candidate for the treatment of highly Cr(VI)-contaminated water and/or industrial effluents. The isolate produced indole-3-acetic acid in the presence and absence of Cr(VI) and showed free-living nitrogen-fixing activity possibly attributable to a V-nitrogenase. JD2 did not counteract the harmful effect of Cr(VI) during leguminous plant growth and nodulation by rhizobial strains but functioned as a "helper" bacterium to enhance the performance of rhizobial inoculant strains during inoculation of alfalfa and clover (used as model plants to study plant growth-promoting activity) in the absence of Cr(VI). PMID:20857088

Morel, María A; Ubalde, Martha C; Braña, Victoria; Castro-Sowinski, Susana

2011-01-01

7

Proximal promoter region of the human vascular endothelial growth factor gene has a G-quadruplex structure which can be targeted by G-quadruplex-interactive agents  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on the functional analysis of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoter using the full-length VEGF promoter reporter revealed that the proximal 36-bp region (?85 to ?50 relative to transcription initiation site) is essential for basal or inducible VEGF promoter activity in several human cancer cells. This region consists of a polypurine (guanine) tract that contains four runs of at least three contiguous guanines separated by one or more bases, thus conforming to a general motif capable of forming an intramolecular G-quadruplex. Here, we demonstrated that the G-rich strand in this region is able to form an intramolecular propeller-type parallel-stranded G-quadruplex structure in vitro by using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), dimethyl sulfate (DMS) footprinting technique, DNA polymerase stop assay, CD spectroscopy, and computer-aided molecular modeling. Two well-known G-quadruplex interactive agents, TMPyP4 and Se2SAP, stabilize G-quadruplex structures formed by this sequence in the presence of potassium ion, although Se2SAP is at least 10 fold more effective in binding to the G-quadruplex than TMPyP4. Between these two agents, Se2SAP better suppresses VEGF transcription in different cancer cell lines, including HEC-A1 and MDA-MB-231. Collectively, our results provide evidence that specific G-quadruplex structures can be formed in the VEGF promoter region, and that the transcription of this gene can be controlled by ligand-mediated G-quadruplex stabilization. Our results also provide further support for the idea that G-quadruplex structures may play structural roles in vivo and therefore might provide insight into novel methodologies for rational drug design. PMID:18413801

Sun, Daekyu; Liu, Wei-Jun; Guo, Kexiao; Rusche, Jadrian J.; Ebbinghaus, Scot; Gokhale, Vijay; Hurley, Laurence H.

2008-01-01

8

Analytical strategies for residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents in food-producing animals--a review.  

PubMed

After a brief introduction into the field of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents, the most important EU regulations and directives for the inspection of food-producing animals and animal products regarding the residue control of these substances are presented and discussed. Main attention in the review is on the methods of analysis in use today for the most important classes of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents viz. anthelmintics, antibiotics, coccidiostats, hormones, beta-agonists and tranquillizers. Emphasis is given to the potential, and limitations, of state-of-the-art analytical procedures and their performance characteristics. The most obvious conclusion is that, today (reversed-phase) liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometric detection--either triple-quadrupole or ion-trap multi-stage--is the preferred technique in a large majority of all cases. In the field of sample treatment, the combined use of liquid extraction--i.e., liquid partitioning or liquid-liquid extraction--and liquid-solid extraction--primary on- or off-line solid-phase extraction--is most popular. Finally, while the analytical tools required to meet the demands typically formulated by governments and international organizations today, generally speaking are available, several problems still do exist. To quote three examples, problems are encountered in the area of simultaneously extracting and pre-treating groups of analytes with mutually widely different polarities, with regard to identification-point--based confirmation of analyte identity, and regarding quantification errors caused by ion-suppression effects. Improving the speed of analysis is another aspect that should, and will, receive dedicated interest in the near future. PMID:15844509

Stolker, A A M; Brinkman, U A Th

2005-03-01

9

Engineered collagen hydrogels for the sustained release of biomolecules and imaging agents: promoting the growth of human gingival cells  

PubMed Central

We present here the in vitro release profiles of either fluorescently labeled biomolecules or computed tomography contrast nanoagents from engineered collagen hydrogels under physiological conditions. The collagen constructs were designed as potential biocompatible inserts into wounded human gingiva. The collagen hydrogels were fabricated under a variety of conditions in order to optimize the release profile of biomolecules and nanoparticles for the desired duration and amount. The collagen constructs containing biomolecules/nanoconstructs were incubated under physiological conditions (ie, 37°C and 5% CO2) for 24 hours, and the release profile was tuned from 20% to 70% of initially loaded materials by varying the gelation conditions of the collagen constructs. The amounts of released biomolecules and nanoparticles were quantified respectively by measuring the intensity of fluorescence and X-ray scattering. The collagen hydrogel we fabricated may serve as an efficient platform for the controlled release of biomolecules and imaging agents in human gingiva to facilitate the regeneration of oral tissues.

Choi, Jonghoon; Park, Hoyoung; Kim, Taeho; Jeong, Yoon; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Gilad, Assaf A; Lee, Kwan Hyi

2014-01-01

10

Characterization of a novel plant growth-promoting bacteria strain Delftia tsuruhatensis HR4 both as a diazotroph and a potential biocontrol agent against various plant pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, plant growth-promoting bacterium Delftia tsuruhatensis, strain HR4, was isolated from the rhizoplane of rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Yueguang) in North China. In vitro antagonistic assay showed this strain could suppress the growth of various plant pathogens effectively, especially the three main rice pathogens (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani and Pyricularia oryzae Cavara). Treated with strain HR4

Jigang Han; Lei Sun; Xiuzhu Dong; Zhengqiu Cai; Xiaolu Sun; Hailian Yang; Yunshan Wang; Wei Song

2005-01-01

11

Growth Hormone Promotes Lymphangiogenesis  

PubMed Central

The lymphatic system plays an important role in inflammation and cancer progression, although the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As determined using comparative transcriptional profiling studies of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells versus blood vascular endothelial cells, growth hormone receptor was expressed at much higher levels in lymphatic endothelial cells than in blood vascular endothelial cells. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Growth hormone induced in vitro proliferation, sprouting, tube formation, and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells, and the mitogenic effect was independent of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 or -3 activation. Growth hormone also inhibited serum starvation-induced lymphatic endothelial cell apoptosis. No major alterations of lymphatic vessels were detected in the normal skin of bovine growth hormone-transgenic mice. However, transgenic delivery of growth hormone accelerated lymphatic vessel ingrowth into the granulation tissue of full-thickness skin wounds, and intradermal delivery of growth hormone resulted in enlargement and enhanced proliferation of cutaneous lymphatic vessels in wild-type mice. These results identify growth hormone as a novel lymphangiogenic factor. PMID:18583315

Banziger-Tobler, Nadja Erika; Halin, Cornelia; Kajiya, Kentaro; Detmar, Michael

2008-01-01

12

Effect of Abolishment of the Use of Antimicrobial Agents for Growth Promotion on Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Fecal Enterococci from Food Animals in Denmark  

PubMed Central

From 1995 to 2000, a total of 673 Enterococcus faecium and 1,088 Enterococcus faecalis isolates from pigs together with 856 E. faecium isolates from broilers were isolated and tested for susceptibility to four classes of antimicrobial agents used for growth promotion as part of the Danish program of monitoring for antimicrobial resistance. The four antimicrobials were avilamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, and virginiamycin. Major changes in the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion have occurred during the last 6 years in Denmark. The government banned the use of avoparcin in 1995 and of virginiamycin in 1998. Furthermore, the producers have voluntarily stopped all use beginning in 1999. The avoparcin ban in 1995 was followed by a decrease in the occurrence of glycopeptide-resistant E. faecium (GRE) in broilers, from 72.7% in 1995 to 5.8% in 2000. The occurrence of glycopeptide resistance among isolates from pigs remained constant at around 20% from 1995 to 1997. It was shown that, in GRE from pigs, the genes encoding macrolide and glycopeptide resistance were genetically linked and that, following the decrease in the use of tylosin during 1998 and 1999, the occurrence of GRE in pigs decreased to 6.0% in 2000. From 1995 to 1997 the occurrence of erythromycin resistance among E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from pigs was almost 90%. Use of tylosin decreased considerably during 1998 and 1999, and this decrease was followed by decreases in the occurrence of resistance to 46.7 and 28.1% among E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from pigs, respectively. Erythromycin resistance among E. faecium isolates from broilers reached a maximum of 76.3% in 1997 but decreased to 12.7% in 2000 concomitantly with more limited use of virginiamycin. Use of virginiamycin increased from 1995 to 1997 and was followed by an increased occurrence of virginiamycin resistance among E. faecium isolates in broilers, from 27.3% in 1995 to 66.2% in 1997. In January 1998 the use of virginiamycin was banned in Denmark, and the occurrence of virginiamycin resistance decreased to 33.9% in 2000. Use of avilamycin increased from 1995 to 1996 and was followed by an increase in avilamycin resistance among E. faecium isolates from broilers, from 63.6% in 1995 to 77.4% in 1996. Since 1996 avilamycin usage has decreased, followed by a decrease in resistance to 4.8% in 2000. Our observations show that it is possible to reduce the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in a national population of food animals when the selective pressure is removed. Cases in which resistance to vancomycin was linked to resistance to erythromycin were exceptions. In such cases resistance did not decrease until the use of both avoparcin and tylosin was limited. PMID:11408222

Aarestrup, Frank M?ller; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Karl; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Bager, Flemming

2001-01-01

13

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of free-living bacteria that colonize the rhizosphere and benefit\\u000a the root growth. Bacteria of diverse genera were identified as PGPR of which Bacillus and Pseudomonas spp. are predominant. PGPR exert a direct effect on plant growth by production of phytohormones, solubilization of inorganic\\u000a phosphates, increased iron nutrition through iron-chelating siderophores and volatile compounds

Appa Podile; G. Kishore

14

Photoperiod regulates elicitation of growth promotion but not induced resistance by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years, we have noticed that plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which consistently promote plant growth in greenhouse tests during spring, summer, and fall, fail to elicit plant growth promotion during the mid- winter under ambient light conditions. This report tests the hypothesis that photoperiod regulates elicitation of growth promotion and induced systemic resistance (ISR) by PGPR. A commercially available

J. W. Kloepper; A. Gutiérrez-Estrada; J. A. McInroy

2007-01-01

15

Diversity and characterization of culturable bacterial endophytes from Zea mays and their potential as plant growth-promoting agents in metal-degraded soils.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the phylogenetic diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of Zea mays plants growing in an agricultural soil contaminated with Zn and Cd. Endophytic bacterial counts were determined in roots and shoots, and isolates were grouped by random amplified polymorphic DNA and identified by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. Endophytes were further characterized for the production of plant growth-promoting (PGP) substances, such as NH3, siderophores, indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), hydrogen cyanide and extracellular enzymes, and for the capacity to solubilize phosphate. The endophytes producing higher amounts of IAA were screened for their tolerance to Zn and Cd and used as bioinoculants for maize seedlings grown in the Zn/Cd-contaminated soil. The counts of endophytes varied between plant tissues, being higher in roots (6.48 log10 g(-1) fresh weight) when compared to shoots (5.77 log10 g(-1) fresh weight). Phylogenetic analysis showed that endophytes belong to three major groups: ?-Proteobacteria (31 %), ?-Proteobacteria (26 %) and Actinobacteria (26 %). Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, Variovorax and Curtobacterium were among the most represented genera. Endophytes were well-adapted to high Zn/Cd concentrations (up to 300 mg Cd l(-1) and 1,000 mg Zn l(-1)) and showed ability to produce several PGP traits. Strains Ochrobactrum haematophilum ZR 3-5, Acidovorax oryzae ZS 1-7, Frigoribacterium faeni ZS 3-5 and Pantoea allii ZS 3-6 increased root elongation and biomass of maize seedlings grown in soil contaminated with Cd and Zn. The endophytes isolated in this study have potential to be used in bioremediation/phytoremediation strategies. PMID:25053283

Pereira, S I A; Castro, P M L

2014-12-01

16

Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. III. Alternatives to antibiotic growth promotants  

E-print Network

Review Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. III. Alternatives to antibiotic growth) Abstract - On the basis of improving effects of antibiotic growth promoters in pigs and poultry being as alternatives to growth promoters of antibiotic type. However, the efficacy of probiotic pre- parations seems

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Soil inoculation with the biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea and the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices results in mutual inhibition, plant growth promotion and alteration of soil microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between the biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea IK 726 and a tomato\\/Glomus intraradices BEG87 symbiosis were examined with and without wheat bran, which served as a food base for C. rosea. In soil without wheat bran amendment, inoculation with C. rosea increased plant growth and altered shoot nutrient content resulting in an increase and decrease in P and N content,

Sabine Ravnskov; Birgit Jensen; Inge M. B. Knudsen; Lars Bødker; Dan Funck Jensen; Leszek Karli?ski; John Larsen

2006-01-01

18

Enterobacter : Role in Plant Growth Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is believed that inoculation with rhizobacteria containing plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics consequently promote\\u000a root and shoot growth. Further evaluation of these bacteria exhibiting multiple PGP traits on soil–plant system is needed\\u000a to uncover their efficacy as effective PGP rhizobacteria (PGPR) or PGP bacteria (PGPB) depending upon their nature. The genera\\u000a within the family Enterobacteriaceae that feature members described

Chaitanya Kumar Jha; Abhinav Aeron; Baldev V. Patel; Dinesh K. Maheshwari; Meenu Saraf

19

Interventional strategies to promote appropriate growth.  

PubMed

Appropriate growth of premature infants can be defined as growth that is not associated with adverse consequences in the short and the long term. Growth failure is associated with neurocognitive impairment. The goal of nutritional management therefore is the achievement of appropriate growth by ensuring that nutrient intakes are maintained at all times at adequate levels. Many impediments stand in the way of this goal. Parenteral administration of nutrients must begin immediately at birth and needs to be continued until enteral nutrition is fully established. While nutritional support is provided by parenteral nutrition, gut priming, also beginning at birth, stimulates the immature gastrointestinal tract to undergo maturation. Human milk is the preferred agent for gut priming because it is more effective and safer than alternative agents. As a source of nutrients, however, human milk is incomplete for the premature infant and requires supplementation (fortification) with nutrients. At the authors' institution, commercial human milk fortifiers and additional sources of protein are being used in efforts to achieve appropriate growth. Data from the authors' institution indicate that nutrient intakes, especially intakes of protein, have improved in recent years and are approaching adequate levels. Accordingly, growth of infants has improved to the point where on average only a mild degree of postnatal growth failure is observed. PMID:23887118

Ziegler, Ekhard E; Carlson, Susan J; Nelson, Steven E

2013-01-01

20

How the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Azospirillum Promotes Plant Growth—A Critical Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 35 years of studies of Azospirillum–plant interaction, over 20 proposals were suggested for the mechanism of action by which Azospirillum spp., the most intensively studied plant growth-promoting bacteria, enhances plant growth. The proposals include a single phytohormone activity, multiple phytohormones, nitrogen fixation, assortments of small-sized molecules and enzymes, enhanced membrane activity, proliferation of the root system, enhanced

Yoav Bashan; Luz E. de-Bashan

2010-01-01

21

Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-pathogenic soilborne microorganisms can promote plant growth, as well as suppress diseases. Plant growth promotion is\\u000a taken to result from improved nutrient acquisition or hormonal stimulation. Disease suppression can occur through microbial\\u000a antagonism or induction of resistance in the plant. Several rhizobacterial strains have been shown to act as plant growth-promoting\\u000a bacteria through both stimulation of growth and induced systemic

L. C. van Loon

2007-01-01

22

Chromatographic analysis of banned antibacterial growth promoters in animal feed.  

PubMed

The issue of antimicrobial use in animals used as food is of global concern. Antimicrobials are used in animal agriculture to improve health and welfare of animals, meat quality, the economic efficiency of growth and production and public health by decreasing shedding of zoonotic pathogens. However, large quantities are often used without professional supervision. The growth-promotant (now reclassified as zootechnical feed additives) effect of low levels of antibiotics in animal feeds was first described in the late 1940s. Already in 1969 the Swann Committee recommended that use of antibiotics as a supplement in animal feedstuff should be restricted to those with little or no application as therapeutic agents for humans and animals, which would not impair the efficacy of therapeutic antibiotics through the development of resistant strains of organisms. Antimicrobials like avoparcin, ardacin, zinc bacitracin, virginiamycin, tylosin, spriramycin, carbadox and olaquindox were withdrawn within the period 1997-1999. Four others (monensin sodium, salinomycin sodium, avilamycin and flavophospholipol) were still permitted for use as growth promoters in animal feed to animals marketed in the European Union (EU). Since January 2006, they have been banned as well. This review focuses on the analytical methods developed to be an effective tool for monitoring compliance with the ban. PMID:18491356

Samanidou, Victoria F; Evaggelopoulou, Evaggelia N

2008-06-01

23

Ethylene Promotes Elongation Growth and Auxin Promotes Radial Growth in Ranunculus sceleratus Petioles 1  

PubMed Central

Submergence induces elongation in the petioles of Ranunculus sceleratus L., after a rise in endogenous ethylene levels in the tissue. Petioles of isolated leaves also elongate 100% in 24 hours when treated with ethylene gas, without a change in the radius. Application of silver thiosulfate, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), abscisic acid (ABA), or methyl jasmonate inhibits this elongation response. Gibberellic acid treatment promotes ethylene-induced elongation, without an effect on the radius. Indoelastic acid (IAA) induces radial growth in the petioles, irrespective of the presence or absence of added ethylene. High concentrations of IAA will also induce elongation growth, but this is largely due to auxin-induced ethylene synthesis; treatment with silver thiosulfate, AVG, ABA, or methyl jasmonate inhibit this auxin-promoted elongation growth. However, the radial growth induced by IAA is not affected by gibberellic acid, and not specifically inhibited by ABA, methyl jasmonate, silver thiosulfate, or AVG. These results support the idea that petiole cell elongation during “accommodation growth” can be separated from radial expansion. The radial expansion may well be regulated by IAA. However, effects of high levels of IAA are probably anomalous, since they do not mimic normal developmental patterns. PMID:16668257

Smulders, Marinus J. M.; Horton, Roger F.

1991-01-01

24

A Product-Line Approach to Promote Asset Reuse in Multi-Agent Systems  

E-print Network

specification pattern to capture the dynamically changing design configurations of agents and reuse them the role of an agent to change dynamically, it is unclear how to document agent requirements specificationsA Product-Line Approach to Promote Asset Reuse in Multi-Agent Systems Josh Dehlinger1 and Robyn R

Lutz, Robyn R.

25

Agent-Based Modeling of Growth Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growth processes abound in nature, and are frequently the target of modeling exercises in the sciences. In this article we illustrate an agent-based approach to modeling, in the case of a single example from the social sciences: bullying.

Abraham, Ralph

2014-01-01

26

Preferential Promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Growth by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Tomato.  

PubMed

A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant. PMID:25320438

Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Dutta, Swarnalee; Samudrala, Ram Babu; Rao, Vukanti R V N; Kalam, Sadaf; Podile, Appa Rao

2014-12-01

27

Multitrait plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea rhizosphere : Keratin degradation and growth promotion.  

PubMed

Plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, a beneficial microbe colonizing plant roots, enhanced crop productivity and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. The keratinous waste which comprises feathers, hairs, nails, skin and wool creates problem of solid waste management due to presence of highly recalcitrant keratin. The multi traits rhizobacteria effective to remove both keratine from the environment by producing keratinase enzyme and to eradicate the chemical fertilizer by providing different PGP activity is novel achievement. In the present study, the effective PM2 strain of PGPR was isolated from rhizospheric soil of mustard (Brassica juncea) field, Pantnagar and they were identified on the basis of different biochemical tests as belonging to Bacillus genera. Different plant growth promoting activity, feather degradation and keratinolytic activity was performed and found very effective toward all the parameters. Furthermore, the efficient strain PM2 was identified on the basis of 16s rRNA sequencing and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The strain PM2 might be used efficiently for keratinous waste management and PGP activity. Therefore, the present study suggests that Bacillus cereus have multi traits activity which extremely useful for different PGP activity and biotechnological process involving keratin hydrolysis, feather biodegradation or in the leather industry. PMID:24778758

Anwar, Mohmmad Shahbaz; Siddique, Mohammad Tahir; Verma, Amit; Rao, Yalaga Rama; Nailwal, Tapan; Ansari, Mohammad; Pande, Veena

2014-01-01

28

Antimicrobial Growth Promoter Ban and Resistance to Macrolides and Vancomycin in Enterococci from Pigs  

PubMed Central

Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents. A clear decrease in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was visible after the ban. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium belonged to the same clonal lineage as vancomycin-resistant isolates previously isolated from Danish pigs. PMID:11682559

Boerlin, P.; Wissing, A.; Aarestrup, F. M.; Frey, J.; Nicolet, J.

2001-01-01

29

Plant perceptions of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas.  

PubMed Central

Plant-associated Pseudomonas live as saprophytes and parasites on plant surfaces and inside plant tissues. Many plant-associated Pseudomonas promote plant growth by suppressing pathogenic micro-organisms, synthesizing growth-stimulating plant hormones and promoting increased plant disease resistance. Others inhibit plant growth and cause disease symptoms ranging from rot and necrosis through to developmental dystrophies such as galls. It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between pathogenic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas. They colonize the same ecological niches and possess similar mechanisms for plant colonization. Pathogenic, saprophytic and plant growth-promoting strains are often found within the same species, and the incidence and severity of Pseudomonas diseases are affected by environmental factors and host-specific interactions. Plants are faced with the challenge of how to recognize and exclude pathogens that pose a genuine threat, while tolerating more benign organisms. This review examines Pseudomonas from a plant perspective, focusing in particular on the question of how plants perceive and are affected by saprophytic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas (PGPP), in contrast to their interactions with plant pathogenic Pseudomonas. A better understanding of the molecular basis of plant-PGPP interactions and of the key differences between pathogens and PGPP will enable researchers to make more informed decisions in designing integrated disease-control strategies and in selecting, modifying and using PGPP for plant growth promotion, bioremediation and biocontrol. PMID:15306406

Preston, Gail M

2004-01-01

30

The Role of Institutional Agents in Promoting Transfer Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research points to the important role played by "institutional agents" in facilitating college access and success for students from non-dominant racial-ethnic and low socioeconomic status groups. Applying attachment theory, this study adds to that literature by demonstrating how institutional agents can provide a secure…

Dowd, Alicia C.; Pak, Jenny H.; Bensimon, Estela Mara

2013-01-01

31

Senescent Stromal-Derived Osteopontin Promotes Preneoplastic Cell Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in the tissue microenvironment collaborate with cell autonomous genetic changes to contribute to neoplastic progression. The importance of the microenvironment in neoplastic progression is underscored by studies showing that fibroblasts isolated from a tumor stimulate the growth of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells in xenograft models. Similarly, senescent fibroblasts promote preneoplastic cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Because senescent

Ermira Pazolli; Xianmin Luo; Sarah Brehm; Kelly Carbery; Jun-Jae Chung; Julie L. Prior; Jason Doherty; Shadmehr Demehri; Lorena Salavaggione; David Piwnica-Worms; Sheila A. Stewart

2009-01-01

32

Applications of free living plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-living plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can be used in a variety of ways when plant growth enhancements are required. The most intensively researched use of PGPR has been in agriculture and horticulture. Several PGPR formulations are currently available as commercial products for agricultural production. Recently developing areas of PGPR usage include forest regeneration and phytoremediation of contaminated soils. As the

M. Lucy; E. Reed; Bernard R. Glick

2004-01-01

33

Environmental uses of plant growth-promoting bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ,Pl ant growth-promoting,bacteria,(PGPB) are commonly used to improve crop yields. In addition to their agricultural usefulness, there are potential benefits in environmental applications. For example, species of Azospirillum can increase bioremediation of wastewater by ,microalgae by increasing algal proliferation and metabolism. Additionally, these genera and ,several other bacterial species may prevent soil erosion in arid ,zones by improving growth

Yoav Bashan; M. Esther Puente; Juan-Pablo Hernandez

34

Glutamate release promotes growth of malignant gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutamate neurotoxicity has been implicated in stroke, head trauma, multiple sclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Although recent data show that cultured glioma cells secrete glutamate, the growth potential of brain tumors has not yet been linked to an excitotoxic mechanism. Using bioluminescence detection of glutamate release from freshly prepared brain slices, we show that implanted glioma cells continue to secrete glutamate.

Takahiro Takano; Jane H.-C. Lin; Gregory Arcuino; Qun Gao; Jay Yang; Maiken Nedergaard

2001-01-01

35

Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake

Sumera Afzal Khan; Muhammad Hamayun; Hyeokjun Yoon; Ho-Youn Kim; Seok-Jong Suh; Seon-Kap Hwang; Jong-Myeong Kim; In-Jung Lee; Yeon-Sik Choo; Ung-Han Yoon; Won-Sik Kong; Byung-Moo Lee; Jong-Guk Kim

2008-01-01

36

Mechanisms Used by Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) facilitate plant growth in two ways, either by direct stimulation or by biocontrol\\u000a (i.e., suppressive activity against soil-borne diseases). The direct stimulation of plant growth may be a consequence of nitrogen\\u000a fixation, phosphate solubilization, iron sequestration, synthesis of phytohormones (such as auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins),\\u000a or modulation of plant ethylene levels. The biocontrol activity of PGPB

Elisa Gamalero; Bernard R. Glick

37

Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Materials for Promoting Progenitor Cell Growth Without Serum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of new active biomaterials for promoting progenitor cell growth and differentiation in serum-free medium is still proving more challenging for the clinical treatments of degenerative diseases. In this work, a conjugated polyelectrolyte, polythiophene derivative (PMNT), was discovered to significantly drive the cell cycle progression from G1 to S and G2 phases and thus efficiently promote the cell growth without the need of serum. Furthermore, the fluorescent characteristic of PMNT makes it simultaneously able to trace its cellular uptake and localization by cell imaging. cDNA microarray study shows that PMNT can greatly regulate genes related to cell growth or differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of cell growth or differentiation promotion by polyelectrolyte material without the need of serum, thereby providing an important demonstration of degenerative biomaterial discovery through polymer design.

Yang, Gaomai; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Shu

2013-04-01

38

Conjugated polyelectrolyte materials for promoting progenitor cell growth without serum.  

PubMed

The discovery of new active biomaterials for promoting progenitor cell growth and differentiation in serum-free medium is still proving more challenging for the clinical treatments of degenerative diseases. In this work, a conjugated polyelectrolyte, polythiophene derivative (PMNT), was discovered to significantly drive the cell cycle progression from G? to S and G? phases and thus efficiently promote the cell growth without the need of serum. Furthermore, the fluorescent characteristic of PMNT makes it simultaneously able to trace its cellular uptake and localization by cell imaging. cDNA microarray study shows that PMNT can greatly regulate genes related to cell growth or differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of cell growth or differentiation promotion by polyelectrolyte material without the need of serum, thereby providing an important demonstration of degenerative biomaterial discovery through polymer design. PMID:23609105

Yang, Gaomai; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Shu

2013-01-01

39

Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Materials for Promoting Progenitor Cell Growth Without Serum  

PubMed Central

The discovery of new active biomaterials for promoting progenitor cell growth and differentiation in serum-free medium is still proving more challenging for the clinical treatments of degenerative diseases. In this work, a conjugated polyelectrolyte, polythiophene derivative (PMNT), was discovered to significantly drive the cell cycle progression from G1 to S and G2 phases and thus efficiently promote the cell growth without the need of serum. Furthermore, the fluorescent characteristic of PMNT makes it simultaneously able to trace its cellular uptake and localization by cell imaging. cDNA microarray study shows that PMNT can greatly regulate genes related to cell growth or differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of cell growth or differentiation promotion by polyelectrolyte material without the need of serum, thereby providing an important demonstration of degenerative biomaterial discovery through polymer design. PMID:23609105

Yang, Gaomai; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Shu

2013-01-01

40

The Interrelationship between Promoter Strength, Gene Expression, and Growth Rate  

PubMed Central

In exponentially growing bacteria, expression of heterologous protein impedes cellular growth rates. Quantitative understanding of the relationship between expression and growth rate will advance our ability to forward engineer bacteria, important for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology applications. Recently, a work described a scaling model based on optimal allocation of ribosomes for protein translation. This model quantitatively predicts a linear relationship between microbial growth rate and heterologous protein expression with no free parameters. With the aim of validating this model, we have rigorously quantified the fitness cost of gene expression by using a library of synthetic constitutive promoters to drive expression of two separate proteins (eGFP and amiE) in E. coli in different strains and growth media. In all cases, we demonstrate that the fitness cost is consistent with the previous findings. We expand upon the previous theory by introducing a simple promoter activity model to quantitatively predict how basal promoter strength relates to growth rate and protein expression. We then estimate the amount of protein expression needed to support high flux through a heterologous metabolic pathway and predict the sizable fitness cost associated with enzyme production. This work has broad implications across applied biological sciences because it allows for prediction of the interplay between promoter strength, protein expression, and the resulting cost to microbial growth rates. PMID:25286161

Klesmith, Justin R.; Detwiler, Emily E.; Tomek, Kyle J.; Whitehead, Timothy A.

2014-01-01

41

The Interrelationship between Promoter Strength, Gene Expression, and Growth Rate.  

PubMed

In exponentially growing bacteria, expression of heterologous protein impedes cellular growth rates. Quantitative understanding of the relationship between expression and growth rate will advance our ability to forward engineer bacteria, important for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology applications. Recently, a work described a scaling model based on optimal allocation of ribosomes for protein translation. This model quantitatively predicts a linear relationship between microbial growth rate and heterologous protein expression with no free parameters. With the aim of validating this model, we have rigorously quantified the fitness cost of gene expression by using a library of synthetic constitutive promoters to drive expression of two separate proteins (eGFP and amiE) in E. coli in different strains and growth media. In all cases, we demonstrate that the fitness cost is consistent with the previous findings. We expand upon the previous theory by introducing a simple promoter activity model to quantitatively predict how basal promoter strength relates to growth rate and protein expression. We then estimate the amount of protein expression needed to support high flux through a heterologous metabolic pathway and predict the sizable fitness cost associated with enzyme production. This work has broad implications across applied biological sciences because it allows for prediction of the interplay between promoter strength, protein expression, and the resulting cost to microbial growth rates. PMID:25286161

Bienick, Matthew S; Young, Katherine W; Klesmith, Justin R; Detwiler, Emily E; Tomek, Kyle J; Whitehead, Timothy A

2014-01-01

42

[Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].  

PubMed

An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness < 0.005 mm) on winter wheat growth, soil moisture and nutrition conditions, and precipitation use. All the three measures promoted winter wheat growth, enhanced grain yield and precipitation use efficiency, and improved soil moisture and nutritional regimes. These positive effects were more obvious when the straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass. PMID:21548293

Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

2011-01-01

43

Marigold and Orange Skin as Egg Yolk Color Promoting Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research was conducted with natural ingredients and orange skin in the diet of laying pullets to determine the suitability as pigmenting agents of egg yolk for laying chicken The influence of tes t ingredients on production characteristics of laying pullets, internal and external quality characteristics of eggs were investigated simultaneously. The experiment covered the proximate analysis of marigold, orange

2006-01-01

44

Promoter analysis of a growth hormone transgene in Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

The ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus) op5a antifreeze protein gene promoter has been used to generate a line of growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon with greatly enhanced growth rates. A study of the genomically integrated GH transgene (EO-1 alpha) in this line of salmon revealed that the first 1579 bp of the 2115-bp promoter was deleted and relocated downstream of the GH coding region, raising questions regarding the ability of the truncated promoter to drive expression of the GH transgene and the potential influence of the relocated 5' promoter region. In this study, 11 promoter constructs were fused to a luciferase reporter gene, and their transcriptional ability was examined after transfection into salmon and human cell lines cultured at 21 and 37 degrees C, respectively. Construct expression was similar in all cell lines, apart from those of less than 266 bp, where expression in the salmon cells greatly exceeded that of the human cells. The results demonstrated the presence of positive and negative regulatory regions within the promoter that would allow the regulation of gene expression at multiple sites. Removal of the first 1579 bp from the promoter resulted in a 70% loss of the luciferase expression exhibited by the full-length promoter, whereas ligating the deleted 5' promoter sequence downstream of the luciferase reporter gene only restored approximately 10% of this loss. These results suggested that in vivo expression of the EO-1 alpha transgene is driven by elements within the weak truncated promoter in conjunction with the relocated 5' promoter region. PMID:19324402

Butler, T M; Fletcher, G L

2009-07-01

45

Nerve growth factor promotes human hemopoietic colony growth and differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotropic polypeptide necessary for the survival and growth of some central neurons, as well as sensory afferent and sympathetic neurons. Much is now known of the structural and functional characteristics of NGF, whose gene has recently been clones. Since it is synthesized in largest amounts by the male mouse submandibular gland, its role exclusively in nerve growth is questionable. These experiments indicate that NGF causes a significant stimulation of granulocyte colonies grown from human peripheral blood in standard hemopoietic methylcellulose assays. Further, NGF appears to act in a relatively selective fashion to induce the differentiation of eosinophils and basophils/mast cells. Depletion experiments show that the NGF effect may be T-cell dependent and that NGF augments the colony-stimulating effect of supernatants from the leukemic T-cell (Mo) line. The hemopoietic activity of NGF is blocked by {sup 125}I-polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to NGF. The authors conclude that NGF may indirectly act as a local growth factor in tissues other than those of the nervous system by causing T cells to synthesize or secrete molecules with colony-stimulating activity. In view of the synthesis of NGF in tissue injury, the involvement of basophils/mast cells and eosinophils in allergic and other inflammatory processes, and the association of mast cells with fibrosis and tissue repair, they postulate that NGF plays an important biological role in a variety of repair processes.

Matsuda, H.; Coughlin, M.D.; Bienenstock, J.; Denburg, J.A. (McMaster Univ. Health Sciences Center, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

1988-09-01

46

Growth Promoting Effect of Hyaluronan Synthesis Promoting Substances on Japanese Eel Leptocephali  

PubMed Central

Hyaluronans (HAs) are glycosaminoglycans produced in the bodies of Anguilliform and Elopiform leptocephali, and play a role in metabolic energy. In mammals, HA synthesis-promoting substances (HASPS) up-regulate the expression of HA synthase (HAS) and increase the amount of HA in the body. In this study, Japanese eel leptocephali were fed a HASPS containing diet. We analyzed HAS1s and HAS2 expression, HA content, and their influence on growth. HASPS extracted from Grifola frondosa promoted HAS1s and HAS2 mRNA and HA content. Other than mammals, these results are first reported in vertebrate. Moreover, HASPS extracted from G. frondosa promoted leptocephalus growth. The relationship between growth and HA in the leptocephali is not yet clear. However, based on our results we hypothesize that HA is involved in the storage of energy, which is metabolized to sugars when needed for metabolic energy. PMID:24896609

Kawakami, Yutaka; Nomura, Kazuharu; Tanaka, Hideki

2014-01-01

47

Nerve growth factor promotes human hemopoietic colony growth and differentiation.  

PubMed Central

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotropic polypeptide necessary for the survival and growth of some central neurons, as well as sensory afferent and sympathetic neurons. Much is now known of the structural and functional characteristics of NGF, whose gene has recently been cloned. Since it is synthesized in largest amounts by the male mouse submandibular gland, its role exclusively in nerve growth is questionable. NGF also causes histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro, and we have shown elsewhere that it causes significant, dose-dependent, generalized mast cell proliferation in the rat in vivo when administered neonatally. Our experiments now indicate that NGF causes a significant stimulation of granulocyte colonies grown from human peripheral blood in standard hemopoietic methylcellulose assays. Further, NGF appears to act in a relatively selective fashion to induce the differentiation of eosinophils and basophils/mast cells. Depletion experiments show that the NGF effect may be T-cell dependent and that NGF augments the colony-stimulating effect of supernatants from the leukemic T-cell (Mo) line. The hemopoietic activity of NGF is blocked by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to NGF. We conclude that NGF may indirectly act as a local growth factor in tissues other than those of the nervous system by causing T cells to synthesize or secrete molecules with colony-stimulating activity. In view of the synthesis of NGF in tissue injury, the involvement of basophils/mast cells and eosinophils in allergic and other inflammatory processes, and the association of mast cells with fibrosis and tissue repair, we postulate that NGF plays an important biological role in a variety of repair processes. PMID:3413109

Matsuda, H; Coughlin, M D; Bienenstock, J; Denburg, J A

1988-01-01

48

Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Agriculture: History and Mode of Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report will review the history of anti- biotic growth promoter (AGP) use in the animal industry, concerns about development of antimicrobial resistance, and response in the European Union and United States to these concerns. A brief description of the history of legislation regarding feed use of antimicrobials in Den- mark and the experience of animal producers following the 1998

J. J. Dibner; J. D. Richards

49

Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria for Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to

C. J. Grandlic; M. O. Mendez; J. Chorover; B. Machado; R. M. Maier

2009-01-01

50

Enhanced plant growth by siderophores produced by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific strains of the Pseudomonas fluorescens-putida group have recently been used as seed inoculants on crop plants to promote growth and increase yields. These pseudomonads, termed plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), rapidly colonize plant roots of potato, sugar beet and radish, and cause statistically significant yield increases up to 144% in field tests1-5. These results prompted us to investigate the mechanism

Joseph W. Kloepper; John Leong; Martin Teintze; Milton N. Schroth

1980-01-01

51

Improvement of plant growth and nickel uptake by nickel resistant-plant-growth promoting bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, among a collection of Ni-resistant bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of Alyssum serpyllifolium and Phleum phleoides grown on serpentine soil, five plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were selected based on their ability to utilize 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) as the sole N source and promote seedling growth. All of the strains tested positive for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and

Ying Ma; Mani Rajkumar; Helena Freitas

2009-01-01

52

Influence of plant growth promoting bacteria and Cr 6+ on the growth of Indian mustard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cr6+ resistant plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), Pseudomonas sp. PsA4 and Bacillus sp. Ba32 were isolated from heavy metal contaminated soils and their plant growth promoting activity on the Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were assessed with different concentrations of Cr6+ in soil. Production of siderophores and the solubilization of phosphate were observed in both strains, PsA4 and Ba32. Production

M. Rajkumar; R. Nagendran; Kui Jae Lee; Wang Hyu Lee; Sung Zoo Kim

2006-01-01

53

Growth Enhancement of Chickpea in Saline Soils Using Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial isolates with the ability to tolerate salinity and plant growth-promoting features were isolated from the saline\\u000a areas of Gujarat, India, that is, Bhavnagar and Khambat. A total of 176 strains of rhizobacteria were isolated out of which\\u000a 62 bacterial strains were able to tolerate 1 M NaCl. These were then further studied for their potential plant growth-promoting\\u000a rhizobacteria characteristics like

Dhara Patel; Chaitanya Kumar Jha; Neelam Tank; Meenu Saraf

54

Growth promoting effects of some lichen metabolites on probiotic bacteria.  

PubMed

In the present study, the extract of four natural lichen species Canoparmelia eruptens, Everniastrum cirrhatum, Parmotrema austrosinense and Rimelia cetrata were studied for the source of natural antioxidant and their purified secondary metabolites were evaluated for growth promoting effects on probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei. The methanolic fraction of lichen species showed moderate to high antioxidant activity in the order P. austrosinense > E. cirrhatum > C. eruptens > R. cetrata. The lichen metabolites showed antioxidant activity with an IC50 values (?g/ml); lecanoric acid 79-95, salazinic 88-108, atranorin 100-116 and consalazinic acid 119-125. As far as the growth promoting effects of lichen metabolites on L. casei is concerned, lecanoric acid at 100 ?g/ml conc. showed high growth stimulating activity in terms of increased dry matter of biomass (56.08 mg) of L. casei. Other lichen metabolites; salazinic acid, atranorin and consalazinic acid produced relatively less dry biomass 43.98 mg, 41.1 mg, 40.68 mg, respectively. However, standard antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and Trolox after 36 h produced 39.04-47.81 mg dry biomass. At lower pH the growth promoting activity of lichen metabolites was found stable. PMID:25328204

Gaikwad, Subhash; Verma, Neeraj; Sharma, B O; Behera, B C

2014-10-01

55

Siderophores from Neighboring Organisms Promote the Growth of Uncultured Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary The majority of bacterial species do not grow on synthetic media. Many non-growers require growth factors from other bacteria, but the nature of these compounds is largely unknown. We show here that previously uncultured isolates from marine sediment biofilm grow on a Petri dish in the presence of cultured organisms from the same environment. The growth factors produced by one cultured helper strain were identified as new acyl-desferrioxamine siderophores. A panel of previously uncultured isolates exhibited a range of siderophore promiscuity for growth promotion. This siderophore-based approach has enabled the culturing of organisms only distantly related to previously cultured microbes. The lack of growth in the lab for many strains from this habitat stems from an inability to autonomously produce siderophores, and the resulting chemical dependence on other microorganisms regulates community establishment in the environment. PMID:20338517

D’Onofrio, Anthony; Crawford, Jason M.; Stewart, Eric J.; Witt, Kathrin; Gavrish, Ekaterina; Epstein, Slava; Clardy, Jon; Lewis, Kim

2010-01-01

56

Efficiency of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the enhancement of rice growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize plant roots and enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. Here, we have isolated and characterized the PGPR from the rhizosphere soil of rice field for the enhancement

M. Ashrafuzzaman; Farid Akhtar Hossen; M. Razi Ismail; M. Zahurul Islam; S. M. Shahidullah; Sariah Meon

2009-01-01

57

Akt inhibition promotes autophagy and sensitizes PTEN-null tumors to lysosomotropic agents.  

PubMed

Although Akt is known as a survival kinase, inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway do not always induce substantial apoptosis. We show that silencing Akt1 alone, or any combination of Akt isoforms, can suppress the growth of tumors established from phosphatase and tensin homologue-null human cancer cells. Although these findings indicate that Akt is essential for tumor maintenance, most tumors eventually rebound. Akt knockdown or inactivation with small molecule inhibitors did not induce significant apoptosis but rather markedly increased autophagy. Further treatment with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine caused accumulation of abnormal autophagolysosomes and reactive oxygen species, leading to accelerated cell death in vitro and complete tumor remission in vivo. Cell death was also promoted when Akt inhibition was combined with the vacuolar H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 or with cathepsin inhibition. These results suggest that blocking lysosomal degradation can be detrimental to cancer cell survival when autophagy is activated, providing rationale for a new therapeutic approach to enhancing the anticancer efficacy of PI3K-Akt pathway inhibition. PMID:18838554

Degtyarev, Michael; De Mazière, Ann; Orr, Christine; Lin, Jie; Lee, Brian B; Tien, Janet Y; Prior, Wei W; van Dijk, Suzanne; Wu, Hong; Gray, Daniel C; Davis, David P; Stern, Howard M; Murray, Lesley J; Hoeflich, Klaus P; Klumperman, Judith; Friedman, Lori S; Lin, Kui

2008-10-01

58

Akt inhibition promotes autophagy and sensitizes PTEN-null tumors to lysosomotropic agents  

PubMed Central

Although Akt is known as a survival kinase, inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt pathway do not always induce substantial apoptosis. We show that silencing Akt1 alone, or any combination of Akt isoforms, can suppress the growth of tumors established from phosphatase and tensin homologue–null human cancer cells. Although these findings indicate that Akt is essential for tumor maintenance, most tumors eventually rebound. Akt knockdown or inactivation with small molecule inhibitors did not induce significant apoptosis but rather markedly increased autophagy. Further treatment with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine caused accumulation of abnormal autophagolysosomes and reactive oxygen species, leading to accelerated cell death in vitro and complete tumor remission in vivo. Cell death was also promoted when Akt inhibition was combined with the vacuolar H+–adenosine triphosphatase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 or with cathepsin inhibition. These results suggest that blocking lysosomal degradation can be detrimental to cancer cell survival when autophagy is activated, providing rationale for a new therapeutic approach to enhancing the anticancer efficacy of PI3K–Akt pathway inhibition. PMID:18838554

Degtyarev, Michael; De Maziere, Ann; Orr, Christine; Lin, Jie; Lee, Brian B.; Tien, Janet Y.; Prior, Wei W.; van Dijk, Suzanne; Wu, Hong; Gray, Daniel C.; Davis, David P.; Stern, Howard M.; Murray, Lesley J.; Hoeflich, Klaus P.; Klumperman, Judith; Friedman, Lori S.; Lin, Kui

2008-01-01

59

IMPACT OF METAL NANOPARTICLES ON THE PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizosphere is a site with complex interactions between the root and associated microorganisms and high microbial diversity. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living, root colonizing, soil-borne bacteria exert phytostimulatory actions, when applied to seeds or crops by a combination of physiological attributes. Soil microorganisms play a very important role in maintaining soil health, ecosystem functions and crop productivity. So far,

VIJENDRA KUMAR MISHRA; ASHOK KUMAR

60

Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria  

DOEpatents

A material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10.degree. to about 60.degree. C. until the dissolved oxygen is removed.

Adler, Howard I. (128 Indian La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1984-01-01

61

Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria  

DOEpatents

A material and method is disclosed for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10 to about 60 C until the dissolved oxygen is removed. No Drawings

Adler, H.I.

1984-10-09

62

Promotion of plant growth by polymers of lactic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymers of L-lactic acid are shown to promote plant growth. Dry weight of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and corn (Zea mays L) was more than doubled when plants were grown in media containing the dimer of L-lactic acid, L-lactoyllactic acid. Higher polymers were equally effective at increasing plant biomass. Monomeric lactic acid and polymers of D-lactic acid showed no biological

Alan M. Kinnersley; Taylor C. Scott; John H. Yopp; George H. Whitten

1990-01-01

63

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning.  

PubMed

The rhizosphere supports the development and activity of a huge and diversified microbial community, including microorganisms capable to promote plant growth. Among the latter, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize roots of monocots and dicots, and enhance plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Modification of root system architecture by PGPR implicates the production of phytohormones and other signals that lead, mostly, to enhanced lateral root branching and development of root hairs. PGPR also modify root functioning, improve plant nutrition and influence the physiology of the whole plant. Recent results provided first clues as to how PGPR signals could trigger these plant responses. Whether local and/or systemic, the plant molecular pathways involved remain often unknown. From an ecological point of view, it emerged that PGPR form coherent functional groups, whose rhizosphere ecology is influenced by a myriad of abiotic and biotic factors in natural and agricultural soils, and these factors can in turn modulate PGPR effects on roots. In this paper, we address novel knowledge and gaps on PGPR modes of action and signals, and highlight recent progress on the links between plant morphological and physiological effects induced by PGPR. We also show the importance of taking into account the size, diversity, and gene expression patterns of PGPR assemblages in the rhizosphere to better understand their impact on plant growth and functioning. Integrating mechanistic and ecological knowledge on PGPR populations in soil will be a prerequisite to develop novel management strategies for sustainable agriculture. PMID:24062756

Vacheron, Jordan; Desbrosses, Guilhem; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Touraine, Bruno; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Muller, Daniel; Legendre, Laurent; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

2013-01-01

64

The insulin superfamily of growth-promoting proteins  

E-print Network

Recently, structural analysis of the human transferrin and growth hormone (GH) amino acid sequences has unravelled that they harbor a motif identical to a pattern found in viral oncoproteins known to bind the primarily nuclear tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein (RB). Since related signatures had previously been identified also in insulin and the two insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), the aim of the current study has been to investigate whether further hints substantiating these reported homologies can be found in silico. Here, additional similarities are presented supporting the notion of an insulin superfamily of growth-promoting proteins with dual localization in the extracellular environment and the intracellular space, particularly in the nucleus, as well as characterized by a tropism for RB.

Razvan Tudor Radulescu

2007-07-29

65

Fates and impacts of the genetically modified plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25.  

E-print Network

??Plant growth-promoting bacteria may be used in agriculture to minimize the utilization of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. This thesis studies one plant growth-promoting bacterial strain,… (more)

Jäderlund, Lotta

2008-01-01

66

Fusarial wilt control and growth promotion of pigeon pea through bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

The bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRLJ 04 and a Bacillus cereus strain BS 03, which showed growth promotion and disease control in pigeon pea against Fusarium udum, were isolated and screened for their efficacy to control fusarial wilt of pigeon pea under gnotobiotic and nursery condition. Bioactive metabolites viz., BM 1 and BM 2 from RRLJ 04 and BM 3 from BS 03 also showed in vitro antibiosis against F. udum. Seeds treated with 50 ?l seed?¹ of BM 1, 30 ?l seed?¹ of BM 2 and 70 ?l seed?¹ of BM 3 and grown in pathogen infested soil showed suppression of wilt disease besides growth enhancement. Per cent disease control was 90 % with BM 2 application as compared to 87 and 83 %, respectively in BM 1 and BM 3 after 90 days of growth. BM 2 treated plants were more resistant to the pathogen as compared to the other fractions tested. Mycelial dry weight was found to be reduced on treatment with the bioactive metabolites. Formation of chlamydospore-like structures was observed in the pathogen mycelium treated with BM 3. The analytical studies confirmed that two of these metabolites are phenazine derivatives. PMID:24154979

Dutta, S; Morang, P; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S

2014-03-01

67

Optimization of plant growth-promoting bacteria-assisted phytostabilization of mine tailings  

E-print Network

Optimization of plant growth-promoting bacteria-assisted phytostabilization of mine tailings have indicated that plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can improve revegetation of arid mine establishment which increases reme- diation costs. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) have found wide use

Palmer, Michael W.

68

Treatment of potato tubers with a growth promoting Pseudomonas sp.: Plant growth responses and bacterium distribution in the rhizosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rifampicin-nalidixic acid resistant mutants of a plant growth promotingPseudomonas sp., strain PsJN, were evaluated for their ability to stimulate in vitro growth of potato. Two mutant strains, MFE (a consistent growth promoter), and IIM15 (an inconsistent growth promoter), were selected for root colonization study. Root colonization of potato plants was consistently greater with MFE than with IIM15. The population density

M. I. Frommel; J. Nowak; G. Lazarovits

1993-01-01

69

Microbial phytases in phosphorus acquisition and plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) is one of the major constituents in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of nucleic acids and cell membranes with an important role in regulation of a number of enzymes. Soil phosphorous is an important macronutrient for plant growth. Phosphorus deficiency in soil is a major problem for agricultural production. Total soil P occurs in either organic or in organic form. Phytic acid as phytate (salts of phytic acid) is the major form of organic phosphorus in soil and it is not readily available to plants as a source of phosphorus because it either forms a complex with cations or adsorbs to various soil components. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms are ubiquitous in soils and could play an important role in supplying P to plants. Microorganisms utilizing phytate are found in cultivated soils as well as in wetland, grassland and forest soils. Various fungi and bacteria (including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) hydrolyze this organic form of phosphorus secreting phosphatases such as phytases and acidic/alkaline phosphatases. A large number of transgenic plants have been developed which were able to utilize sodium phytate as sole source of phosphorus. However, the recombinant phytases were similar to their wild type counterparts in terms of their properties. Increased phytase/phosphatase activity in transgenic plants may be an effective approach to promote their phytate-phosphorus utilization. The extracellular phytase activity of transgenic plant roots is a significant factor in the utilization of phosphorus from phytate. Furthermore, this indicated that an opportunity exists for using gene technology to improve the ability of plants to utilize accumulated forms of soil organic phosphorus. This review is focused on the role of phytases and phytase producing microbes in promoting the growth of different plants. PMID:23572999

Singh, Bijender; Satyanarayana, T

2011-04-01

70

Modulations of the Chicken Cecal Microbiome and Metagenome in Response to Anticoccidial and Growth Promoter Treatment  

PubMed Central

With increasing pressures to reduce or eliminate the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion purposes in production animals, there is a growing need to better understand the effects elicited by these agents in order to identify alternative approaches that might be used to maintain animal health. Antibiotic usage at subtherapeutic levels is postulated to confer a number of modulations in the microbes within the gut that ultimately result in growth promotion and reduced occurrence of disease. This study examined the effects of the coccidiostat monensin and the growth promoters virginiamycin and tylosin on the broiler chicken cecal microbiome and metagenome. Using a longitudinal design, cecal contents of commercial chickens were extracted and examined using 16S rRNA and total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. A number of genus-level enrichments and depletions were observed in response to monensin alone, or monensin in combination with virginiamycin or tylosin. Of note, monensin effects included depletions of Roseburia, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus, and enrichments in Coprococcus and Anaerofilum. The most notable effect observed in the monensin/virginiamycin and monensin/tylosin treatments, but not in the monensin-alone treatments, was enrichments in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the metagenomic dataset identified enrichments in transport system genes, type I fimbrial genes, and type IV conjugative secretion system genes. No significant differences were observed with regard to antimicrobial resistance gene counts. Overall, this study provides a more comprehensive glimpse of the chicken cecum microbial community, the modulations of this community in response to growth promoters, and targets for future efforts to mimic these effects using alternative approaches. PMID:22114729

Danzeisen, Jessica L.; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Isaacson, Richard E.; Tu, Zheng Jin; Johnson, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

71

HDM2 promotes WIP1-mediated medulloblastoma growth  

PubMed Central

Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant childhood brain tumor. The protein phosphatase and oncogene WIP1 is over-expressed or amplified in a significant number of primary human medulloblastomas and cell lines. In the present study, we examine an important mechanism by which WIP1 promotes medulloblastoma growth using in vitro and in vivo models. Human cell lines and intracerebellar xenografted animal models were used to study the role of WIP1 and the major TP53 regulator, HDM2, in medulloblastoma growth. Stable expression of WIP1 enhances growth of TP53 wild-type medulloblastoma cells, compared with cells with stable expression of an empty-vector or mutant WIP1. In an animal model, WIP1 enhances proliferation and reduces the survival of immunodeficient mice bearing intracerebellar xenografted human medulloblastoma cells. Cells with increased WIP1 expression also exhibit increased expression of HDM2. HDM2 knockdown or treatment with the HDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a, the active enantomer of Nutlin-3, specifically inhibits the growth of medulloblastoma cells with increased WIP1 expression. Nutlin-3a does not affect growth of medulloblastoma cells with stable expression of an empty vector or of mutant WIP1. Knockdown of WIP1 or treatment with the WIP1 inhibitor CCT007093 results in increased phosphorylation of known WIP1 targets, reduced HDM2 expression, and reduced growth specifically in WIP1 wild-type and high-expressing medulloblastoma cells. Combined WIP1 and HDM2 inhibition is more effective than WIP1 inhibition alone in blocking growth of WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma cells. Our preclinical study supports a role for therapies that target WIP1 and HDM2 in the treatment of medulloblastoma. PMID:22379189

Buss, Meghan C.; Read, Tracy-Ann; Schniederjan, Matthew J.; Gandhi, Khanjan; Castellino, Robert C.

2012-01-01

72

Thiazolidinediones Promote Axonal Growth through the Activation of the JNK Pathway  

PubMed Central

The axon is a neuronal process involved in protein transport, synaptic plasticity, and neural regeneration. It has been suggested that their structure and function are profoundly impaired in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous evidence suggest that Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-? (PPAR? promote neuronal differentiation on various neuronal cell types. In addition, we demonstrated that activation of PPAR?by thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs that selectively activate PPAR? prevent neurite loss and axonal damage induced by amyloid-? (A?). However, the potential role of TZDs in axonal elongation and neuronal polarity has not been explored. We report here that the activation of PPAR? by TZDs promoted axon elongation in primary hippocampal neurons. Treatments with different TZDs significantly increased axonal growth and branching area, but no significant effects were observed in neurite elongation compared to untreated neurons. Treatment with PPAR? antagonist (GW 9662) prevented TZDs-induced axonal growth. Recently, it has been suggested that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays an important role regulating axonal growth and neuronal polarity. Interestingly, in our studies, treatment with TZDs induced activation of the JNK pathway, and the pharmacological blockage of this pathway prevented axon elongation induced by TZDs. Altogether, these results indicate that activation of JNK induced by PPAR?activators stimulates axonal growth and accelerates neuronal polarity. These novel findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of PPAR? on neuronal differentiation and validate the use of PPAR? activators as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23741474

Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.; Godoy, Juan A.; Alfaro, Ivan; Cabezas, Deny; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Bronfman, Miguel; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

2013-01-01

73

Isolation, cDNA Cloning, and Growth Promoting Activity of Rabbitfish ( Siganus guttatus) Growth Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus; Teleostei; Perciformes; Siganidae) growth hormone (GH). Rabbitfish GH was extracted from pituitary glands under alkaline conditions, fractionated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions containing GH were identified by immunoblotting with bonito GH antiserum. Under nonreducing conditions, the

Felix G. Ayson; Evelyn Grace T. de Jesus; Yutaka Amemiya; Shunsuke Moriyama; Tetsuya Hirano; Hiroshi Kawauchi

2000-01-01

74

Effect of Inoculation with Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria on Growth and Copper Uptake by Sunflowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria inoculation on Helianthus annuus growth and copper (Cu) uptake was investigated. For this, the strains CC22, CC24, CC30, and CC33 previously isolated from\\u000a heavy metal- and hydrocarbon-polluted soil were selected for study. These strains were characterized on the basis of their\\u000a 16S rDNA sequences and identified as Pseudomonas putida CC22, Enterobacter sakazakii CC24, Acinetobacter

Daniel Fernando Rojas-Tapias; Ruth Rebeca Bonilla; Jenny Dussán

75

An update on alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters for broilers.  

PubMed

Livestock performance and feed efficiency are closely interrelated with the qualitative and quantitative microbial load of the animal gut, the morphological structure of the intestinal wall and the activity of the immune system. Antimicrobial growth promoters have made a tremendous contribution to profitability in intensive husbandry, but as a consequence of the increasing concern about the potential for antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria, the European Commission decided to ban all commonly used feed antibiotics. There are a number of non-therapeutic alternatives, including enzymes, (in)organic acids, probiotics, prebiotics, etheric oils and immunostimulants. Their efficacy and mode of action are briefly described in this review. PMID:20382054

Huyghebaert, Gerard; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

2011-02-01

76

Specific interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria--as revealed by different combinations  

E-print Network

fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria—as revealed byinoculated with plant growth-promoting bacteria or with theplant growth promoting microorganisms it is therefore important to test for the most suitable combination of plant, bacteria

Jaderlund, Lotta

2008-01-01

77

Endocrine fibroblast growth factor FGF19 promotes prostate cancer progression.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is the most common visceral malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in US men. There is broad evidence that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors are important in prostate cancer initiation and progression, but the contribution of particular FGFs in this disease is not fully understood. The FGF family members FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23 comprise a distinct subfamily that circulate in serum and act in an endocrine manner. These endocrine FGFs require ?-Klotho (KL) and/or ?-Klotho (KLB), two related single-pass transmembrane proteins restricted in their tissue distribution, to act as coreceptors along with classic FGF receptors (FGFR) to mediate potent biologic activity. Here we show that FGF19 is expressed in primary and metastatic prostate cancer tissues, where it functions as an autocrine growth factor. Exogenous FGF19 promoted the growth, invasion, adhesion, and colony formation of prostate cancer cells at low ligand concentrations. FGF19 silencing in prostate cancer cells expressing autocrine FGF19 decreased invasion and proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Consistent with these observations, KL and/or KLB were expressed in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, raising the possibility that additional endocrine FGFs may also exert biologic effects in prostate cancer. Our findings support the concept that therapies targeting FGFR signaling may have efficacy in prostate cancer and highlight FGF19 as a relevant endocrine FGF in this setting. PMID:23440425

Feng, Shu; Dakhova, Olga; Creighton, Chad J; Ittmann, Michael

2013-04-15

78

Erythropoietin promotes the growth of pituitary adenomas by enhancing angiogenesis.  

PubMed

rhEPO is frequently used in clinical practice to treat anemia. However, recently rhEPO has been reported to accelerate tumor growth, progression and metastasis. Many pituitary adenoma patients, particularly those with macroprolactinomas, tend to have anemia and may need rhEPO therapy. To date, whether rhEPO has deleterious effects on pituitary adenomas has not been defined. Here we demonstrated for the first time that human pituitary adenomas are EPOR negative tumors and rhEPO accelerated the tumor growth of MMQ pituitary adenoma xenografts via enhancement of angiogenesis in vivo, whereas rhEPO displayed no direct effect on MMQ cells in vitro. Our mechanistic study showed that rhEPO administration increased phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3 and VEGF expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and in MMQ cell xenografts in vivo. Furthermore, VEGF inhibitor attenuated rhEPO induced angiogenesis and delayed tumor growth in MMQ pituitary adenoma xenografts in vivo. JAK2 inhibitor AG490 attenuated EPO induced HUVECs proliferation, phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3 and VEGF upregulation in vitro and inhibited EPO induced vessel formation in Chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis model in vivo. These results suggest that rhEPO administration may promote the growth of pituitary adenomas by enhancing angiogenesis through EPO-JAK2-STAT3-VEGF signaling pathway. rhEPO should be used with caution in anemia patients bearing pituitary adenoma due to its potential deleterious effects. PMID:22086127

Yang, Jinsheng; Xiao, Zheng; Li, Tao; Gu, Xuanmin; Fan, Bo

2012-04-01

79

Erythropoietin promotes the growth of pituitary adenomas by enhancing angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

rhEPO is frequently used in clinical practice to treat anemia. However, recently rhEPO has been reported to accelerate tumor growth, progression and metastasis. Many pituitary adenoma patients, particularly those with macroprolactinomas, tend to have anemia and may need rhEPO therapy. To date, whether rhEPO has deleterious effects on pituitary adenomas has not been defined. Here we demonstrated for the first time that human pituitary adenomas are EPOR negative tumors and rhEPO accelerated the tumor growth of MMQ pituitary adenoma xenografts via enhancement of angiogenesis in vivo, whereas rhEPO displayed no direct effect on MMQ cells in vitro. Our mechanistic study showed that rhEPO administration increased phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3 and VEGF expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and in MMQ cell xenografts in vivo. Furthermore, VEGF inhibitor attenuated rhEPO induced angiogenesis and delayed tumor growth in MMQ pituitary adenoma xenografts in vivo. JAK2 inhibitor AG490 attenuated EPO induced HUVECs proliferation, phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3 and VEGF upregulation in vitro and inhibited EPO induced vessel formation in Chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis model in vivo. These results suggest that rhEPO administration may promote the growth of pituitary adenomas by enhancing angiogenesis through EPO-JAK2-STAT3-VEGF signaling pathway. rhEPO should be used with caution in anemia patients bearing pituitary adenoma due to its potential deleterious effects. PMID:22086127

YANG, JINSHENG; XIAO, ZHENG; LI, TAO; GU, XUANMIN; FAN, BO

2012-01-01

80

Dual roles of PARP-1 promote cancer growth and progression  

PubMed Central

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an abundant nuclear enzyme that modifies substrates by poly(ADP-ribose)-ylation. PARP-1 has well-described functions in DNA damage repair, and also functions as a context-specific regulator of transcription factors. Using multiple models, data demonstrate that PARP-1 elicits pro-tumorigenic effects in androgen receptor (AR)-positive prostate cancer (PCa) cells, both in the presence and absence of genotoxic insult. Mechanistically, PARP-1 is recruited to sites of AR function, therein promoting AR occupancy and AR function. It was further confirmed in genetically-defined systems that PARP-1 supports AR transcriptional function, and that in models of advanced PCa, PARP-1 enzymatic activity is enhanced, further linking PARP-1 to AR activity and disease progression. In vivo analyses demonstrate that PARP-1 activity is required for AR function in xenograft tumors, as well as tumor cell growth in vivo and generation and maintenance of castration-resistance. Finally, in a novel explant system of primary human tumors, targeting PARP-1 potently suppresses tumor cell proliferation. Collectively, these studies identify novel functions of PARP-1 in promoting disease progression, and ultimately suggest that the dual functions of PARP-1 can be targeted in human PCa to suppress tumor growth and progression to castration-resistance. PMID:22993403

Schiewer, Matthew J.; Goodwin, Jonathan F.; Han, Sumin; Brenner, J. Chad; Augello, Michael A.; Dean, Jeffry L.; Liu, Fengzhi; Planck, Jamie L.; Ravindranathan, Preethi; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; McCue, Peter; Gomella, Leonard G.; Raj, Ganesh V.; Dicker, Adam P.; Brody, Jonathan R.; Pascal, John M.; Centenera, Margaret M.; Butler, Lisa M.; Tilley, Wayne D.; Feng, Felix Y.; Knudsen, Karen E.

2012-01-01

81

Bacteria can promote calcium oxalate crystal growth and aggregation.  

PubMed

Our previous report showed that uropathogenic bacteria, e.g., Escherichia coli, are commonly found inside the nidus of calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones and may play pivotal roles in stone genesis. The present study aimed to prove this new hypothesis by direct examining CaOx lithogenic activities of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. CaOx was crystallized in the absence (blank control) or presence of 10(5) CFU/ml E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus pneumoniae. Fragmented red blood cell membranes and intact red blood cells were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The crystal area and the number of aggregates were measured to initially screen for effects of bacteria on CaOx crystal growth and aggregation. The data revealed that all the bacteria tested dramatically increased the crystal area and number of crystal aggregates. Validation assays (spectrophotometric oxalate-depletion assay and an aggregation-sedimentation study) confirmed their promoting effects on both growth (20.17 ± 3.42, 17.55 ± 2.27, 16.37 ± 1.38, and 21.87 ± 0.85 % increase, respectively) and aggregation (57.45 ± 2.08, 51.06 ± 5.51, 55.32 ± 2.08, and 46.81 ± 3.61 % increase, respectively) of CaOx crystals. Also, these bacteria significantly enlarged CaOx aggregates, with the diameter greater than the luminal size of distal tubules, implying that tubular occlusion might occur. Moreover, these bacterial effects were dose-dependent and specific to intact viable bacteria, not intact dead or fragmented bacteria. In summary, intact viable E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, and S. pneumoniae had significant promoting effects on CaOx crystal growth and aggregation. This functional evidence supported the hypothesis that various types of bacteria can induce or aggravate metabolic stone disease, particularly the CaOx type. PMID:23334195

Chutipongtanate, Somchai; Sutthimethakorn, Suchitra; Chiangjong, Wararat; Thongboonkerd, Visith

2013-03-01

82

Promotion effect of constituents from the root of Polygonum multiflorum on hair growth.  

PubMed

Two new compounds, gallic acid ester of torachrysone-8-O-?-D-glucoside (1) and (E)-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-xyloside (4), along with eight known compounds (2, 3, 5-10) were isolated from a 70% ethanol extract of Polygonum multiflorum roots. The structures were determined by (1)H and (13)C NMR, HMQC, and HMBC spectrometry. Extracts of P. multiflorum have been reported to promote hair growth in vivo. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of isolated compounds from P. multiflorum on promoting hair growth using dermal papilla cells (DPCs), which play an important role in hair growth. When DPCs were treated with compounds (1-10) from P. multiflorum, compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 10 increased the proliferation of DPCs compared with the control. Specifically, compound 2 (10 and 20 ?M) induced a greater increase in the proliferation of DPCs than minoxidil (10 ?M). Additionally, treatment of vibrissa follicles with compound 2 for 21 days increased hair-fiber length significantly. On the basis of this result, further investigation and optimization of these derivatives might help in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of alopecia. PMID:23896496

Sun, Ya Nan; Cui, Long; Li, Wei; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kang, Jung Il; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Young Ho

2013-09-01

83

Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Promotes Kidney Growth and Repair via Alteration of Macrophage Responses  

PubMed Central

Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 controls the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of macrophages, which are recognized as scavengers and agents of the innate and the acquired immune systems. Because of their plasticity, macrophages are endowed with many other essential roles during development and tissue homeostasis. We present evidence that CSF-1 plays an important trophic role in postnatal organ growth and kidney repair. Notably, the injection of CSF-1 postnatally enhanced kidney weight and volume and was associated with increased numbers of tissue macrophages. Moreover, CSF-1 promotes postnatal renal repair in mice after ischemia-reperfusion injury by recruiting and influencing macrophages toward a reparative state. CSF-1 treatment rapidly accelerated renal repair with tubular epithelial cell replacement, attenuation of interstitial fibrosis, and functional recovery. Analysis of macrophages from CSF-1-treated kidneys showed increased expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and anti-inflammatory genes that are known CSF-1 targets. Taken together, these data suggest that CSF-1 is important in kidney growth and the promotion of endogenous repair and resolution of inflammatory injury. PMID:21762674

Alikhan, Maliha A.; Jones, Christina V.; Williams, Timothy M.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Fletcher, Anne L.; Kett, Michelle M.; Sakkal, Samy; Samuel, Chrishan S.; Ramsay, Robert G.; Deane, James A.; Wells, Christine A.; Little, Melissa H.; Hume, David A.; Ricardo, Sharon D.

2011-01-01

84

The biosurfactant viscosin produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 aids spreading motility and plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Food security depends on enhancing production and reducing loss to pests and pathogens. A promising alternative to agrochemicals is the use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which are commonly associated with many, if not all, plant species. However, exploiting the benefits of PGPRs requires knowledge of bacterial function and an in-depth understanding of plant-bacteria associations. Motility is important for colonization efficiency and microbial fitness in the plant environment, but the mechanisms employed by bacteria on and around plants are not well understood. We describe and investigate an atypical mode of motility in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 that was revealed only after flagellum production was eliminated by deletion of the master regulator fleQ. Our results suggest that this 'spidery spreading' is a type of surface motility. Transposon mutagenesis of SBW25?fleQ (SBW25Q) produced mutants, defective in viscosin production, and surface spreading was also abolished. Genetic analysis indicated growth-dependency, production of viscosin, and several potential regulatory and secretory systems involved in the spidery spreading phenotype. Moreover, viscosin both increases efficiency of surface spreading over the plant root and protects germinating seedlings in soil infected with the plant pathogen Pythium. Thus, viscosin could be a useful target for biotechnological development of plant growth promotion agents. PMID:24684210

Alsohim, Abdullah S; Taylor, Tiffany B; Barrett, Glyn A; Gallie, Jenna; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Altamirano-Junqueira, Astrid E; Johnson, Louise J; Rainey, Paul B; Jackson, Robert W

2014-07-01

85

Partner choice promotes cooperation: the two faces of testing with agent-based models.  

PubMed

Reciprocity is one of the most debated among the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the evolution of cooperation. While a distinction can be made between two general processes that can underlie reciprocation (within-pair temporal relations between cooperative events, and partner choice based on benefits received), theoretical modelling has concentrated on the former, while the latter has been often neglected. We developed a set of agent-based models in which agents adopted a strategy of obligate cooperation and partner choice based on benefits received. Our models tested the ability of partner choice both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Populations formed by agents adopting a strategy of obligate cooperation and partner choice based on benefits received showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received, two common phenomena in animal cooperation. When selection across multiple generations was added to the model, agents adopting a strategy of partner choice based on benefits received outperformed selfish agents that did not cooperate. Our results suggest partner choice is a significant aspect of cooperation and provides a possible mechanism for its evolution. PMID:24316108

Campennì, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

2014-03-01

86

Biophysical basis of growth promotion in primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. by hormones versus light: solute accumulation and the growth potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid cell enlargement in primary leaves of bean is induced by bright white light (WL), gibberellic acid (GA3) or the cytokinin N6-benzyladenine (BA). In previous studies it has been show that all three agents cause an increase in wall extensibility, although by different mechanisms. Here we examine the effects of the three growth promoters on the osmotic potential difference (delta Psi), the accumulation of solutes (delta TSC), the wall yield threshold (Y) and the growth potential (delta Psi -Y). With GA3 and BA, but not WL, there was a rapid decline in delta Psi as measured by the osmotic concentration of expressed sap. Unlike WL, neither GA3 nor BA promoted the accumulation of osmotic solutes. The decline in delta Psi, however, was apparently counteracted by a decline in Y since the growth potential, as measured by the external-osmoticum method, remained unchanged. It is concluded that WL, GA3 and BA all promote cell enlargement of bean leaves by increasing one cellular growth parameter, wall extensibility. Only WL, however, promotes osmotic adjustment during growth.

Brock, T. G.; Cleland, R. E.

1990-01-01

87

Mathematical Modeling of Interleukin-35 Promoting Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-35 (IL-35), a cytokine from the Interleukin-12 cytokine family, has been considered as an anti-inflammatory cytokine which promotes tumor progression and tumor immune evasion. It has also been demonstrated that IL-35 is secreted by regulatory T cells. Recent mouse experiments have shown that IL-35 produced by cancer cells promotes tumor growth via enhancing myeloid cell accumulation and angiogenesis, and reducing the infiltration of activated CD8 T cells into tumor microenvironment. In the present paper we develop a mathematical model based on these experimental results. We include in the model an anti-IL-35 drug as treatment. The extended model (with drug) is used to design protocols of anti-IL-35 injections for treatment of cancer. We find that with a fixed total amount of drug, continuous injection has better efficacy than intermittent injections in reducing the tumor load while the treatment is ongoing. We also find that the percentage of tumor reduction under anti-IL-35 treatment improves when the production of IL-35 by cancer is increased. PMID:25356878

Liao, Kang-Ling; Bai, Xue-Feng; Friedman, Avner

2014-01-01

88

Growth Promotion of Mycelia of the Matsutake Mushroom Tricholoma matsutake by D-Isoleucine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycelial growth of the Matsutake mushroom (Tri- cholama matsutake) was much slower than that of the other mushroom species. We found that the addition of D-isoleucine to the culture medium strikingly promoted mycelia growth. The other amino acids tested had no effect on this growth promotion. Matsutake (Tricholoma matsutake) is the most pop- ular and expensive mushroom in Japan. However,

Hirokazu KAWAGISHI; Keiko HAMAJIMA; Ryo TAKANAMI; Tomoyuki NAKAMURA; Yuko SATO; Yukihito AKIYAMA; Masanori SANO; Osamu TANAKA

2004-01-01

89

Use of antimicrobial growth promoters in food animals and Enterococcus faecium resistance to therapeutic antimicrobial drugs in Europe.  

PubMed

Supplementing animal feed with antimicrobial agents to enhance growth has been common practice for more than 30 years and is estimated to constitute more than half the total antimicrobial use worldwide. The potential public health consequences of this use have been debated; however, until recently, clear evidence of a health risk was not available. Accumulating evidence now indicates that the use of the glycopeptide avoparcin as a growth promoter has created in food animals a major reservoir of Enterococcus faecium, which contains the high level glycopeptide resistance determinant vanA, located on the Tn1546 transposon. Furthermore, glycopeptide-resistant strains, as well as resistance determinants, can be transmitted from animals to humans. Two antimicrobial classes expected to provide the future therapeutic options for treatment of infections with vancomycin-resistant enterococci have analogues among the growth promoters, and a huge animal reservoir of resistant E. faecium has already been created, posing a new public health problem. PMID:10341169

Wegener, H C; Aarestrup, F M; Jensen, L B; Hammerum, A M; Bager, F

1999-01-01

90

Lysine acetylation activates 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase to promote tumor growth.  

PubMed

Although the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway is important for tumor growth, how 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) in this pathway is upregulated in human cancers is unknown. We found that 6PGD is commonly activated in EGF-stimulated cells and human cancer cells by lysine acetylation. Acetylation at K76 and K294 of 6PGD promotes NADP(+) binding to 6PGD and formation of active 6PGD dimers, respectively. Moreover, we identified DLAT and ACAT2 as upstream acetyltransferases of K76 and K294, respectively, and HDAC4 as the deacetylase of both sites. Expressing acetyl-deficient mutants of 6PGD in cancer cells significantly attenuated cell proliferation and tumor growth. This is due in part to reduced levels of 6PGD products ribulose-5-phosphate and NADPH, which led to reduced RNA and lipid biosynthesis as well as elevated ROS. Furthermore, 6PGD activity is upregulated with increased lysine acetylation in primary leukemia cells from human patients, providing mechanistic insights into 6PGD upregulation in cancer cells. PMID:25042803

Shan, Changliang; Elf, Shannon; Ji, Quanjiang; Kang, Hee-Bum; Zhou, Lu; Hitosugi, Taro; Jin, Lingtao; Lin, Ruiting; Zhang, Liang; Seo, Jae Ho; Xie, Jianxin; Tucker, Meghan; Gu, Ting-Lei; Sudderth, Jessica; Jiang, Lei; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Wu, Shaoxiong; Li, Yuancheng; Mao, Hui; Chen, Peng R; Wang, Dongsheng; Chen, Georgia Zhuo; Lonial, Sagar; Arellano, Martha L; Khoury, Hanna J; Khuri, Fadlo R; Lee, Benjamin H; Brat, Daniel J; Ye, Keqiang; Boggon, Titus J; He, Chuan; Kang, Sumin; Fan, Jun; Chen, Jing

2014-08-21

91

HE4 (WFDC2) gene overexpression promotes ovarian tumor growth.  

PubMed

Selective overexpression of Human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4) points to a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis but little is known about the role the HE4 gene or the gene product plays. Here we show that elevated HE4 serum levels correlate with chemoresistance and decreased survival rates in EOC patients. HE4 overexpression promoted xenograft tumor growth and chemoresistance against cisplatin in an animal model resulting in reduced survival rates. HE4 displayed responses to tumor microenvironment constituents and presented increased expression as well as nuclear translocation upon EGF, VEGF and Insulin treatment and nucleolar localization with Insulin treatment. HE4 interacts with EGFR, IGF1R, and transcription factor HIF1?. Constructs of antisense phosphorothio-oligonucleotides targeting HE4 arrested tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively these findings implicate increased HE4 expression as a molecular factor in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. Selective targeting directed towards the HE4 protein demonstrates therapeutic benefits for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:24389815

Moore, Richard G; Hill, Emily K; Horan, Timothy; Yano, Naohiro; Kim, KyuKwang; MacLaughlan, Shannon; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Tseng, YiTang Don; Padbury, James F; Miller, M Craig; Lange, Thilo S; Singh, Rakesh K

2014-01-01

92

SNAI2/Slug promotes growth and invasion in human gliomas  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous factors that contribute to malignant glioma invasion have been identified, but the upstream genes coordinating this process are poorly known. Methods To identify genes controlling glioma invasion, we used genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of primary human glioblastomas to develop an expression-based rank ordering of 30 transcription factors that have previously been implicated in the regulation of invasion and metastasis in cancer. Results Using this approach, we identified the oncogenic transcriptional repressor, SNAI2/Slug, among the upper tenth percentile of invasion-related transcription factors overexpressed in glioblastomas. SNAI2 mRNA expression correlated with histologic grade and invasive phenotype in primary human glioma specimens, and was induced by EGF receptor activation in human glioblastoma cells. Overexpression of SNAI2/Slug increased glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and promoted angiogenesis and glioblastoma growth in vivo. Importantly, knockdown of endogenous SNAI2/Slug in glioblastoma cells decreased invasion and increased survival in a mouse intracranial human glioblastoma transplantation model. Conclusion This genome-scale approach has thus identified SNAI2/Slug as a regulator of growth and invasion in human gliomas. PMID:20565806

2010-01-01

93

Hypoxia Promotes Tumor Growth in Linking Angiogenesis to Immune Escape  

PubMed Central

Despite the impressive progress over the past decade, in the field of tumor immunology, such as the identification of tumor antigens and antigenic peptides, there are still many obstacles in eliciting an effective immune response to eradicate cancer. It has become increasingly clear that tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in the control of immune protection. Tumors have evolved to utilize hypoxic stress to their own advantage by activating key biochemical and cellular pathways that are important in progression, survival, and metastasis. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play a determinant role in promoting tumor cell growth and survival. Hypoxia contributes to immune suppression by activating HIF-1 and VEGF pathways. Accumulating evidence suggests a link between hypoxia and tumor tolerance to immune surveillance through the recruitment of regulatory cells (regulatory T cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells). In this regard, hypoxia (HIF-1? and VEGF) is emerging as an attractive target for cancer therapy. How the microenvironmental hypoxia poses both obstacles and opportunities for new therapeutic immune interventions will be discussed. PMID:22566905

Chouaib, Salem; Messai, Yosra; Couve, Sophie; Escudier, Bernard; Hasmim, Meriem; Noman, Muhammad Zaeem

2012-01-01

94

Transforming growth factor-? activates c-Myc to promote palatal growth.  

PubMed

During palatogenesis, the palatal mesenchyme undergoes increased cell proliferation resulting in palatal growth, elevation and fusion of the two palatal shelves. Interestingly, the palatal mesenchyme expresses all three transforming growth factor (TGF) ? isoforms (1, 2, and 3) throughout these steps of palatogenesis. However, the role of TGF? in promoting proliferation of palatal mesenchymal cells has never been explored. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of TGF? on human embryonic palatal mesenchymal (HEPM) cell proliferation. Our results showed that all isoforms of TGF?, especially TGF?3, increased HEPM cell proliferation by up-regulating the expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases as well as c-Myc oncogene. TGF? activated both Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways to induce c-Myc gene expression. Furthermore, TBE1 is the only functional Smad binding element (SBE) in the c-Myc promoter and Smad4, activated by TGF?, binds to the TBE1 to induce c-Myc gene activity. We conclude that HEPM proliferation is manifested by the induction of c-Myc in response to TGF? signaling, which is essential for complete palatal confluency. Our data highlights the potential role of TGF? as a therapeutic molecule to correct cleft palate by promoting growth. PMID:22573578

Zhu, Xiujuan; Ozturk, Ferhat; Liu, Changchih; Oakley, Gregory G; Nawshad, Ali

2012-10-01

95

The distinct health risk analyses required for genotoxic carcinogens and promoting agents.  

PubMed Central

Health risk analysis needs to apply newer developments in the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the carcinogenic process which has allowed for the classification of chemical carcinogens into those that damage genetic material directly (genotoxic carcinogens) and those that operate by indirect or epigenetic mechanisms. We propose a systematic decision point approach for detecting and evaluating substances for carcinogenic risk. This approach recognizes that genotoxic and epigenetic agents operate by different mechanisms and distinguishes between these two categories of carcinogens primarily on the basis of results in a battery of short-term tests that includes systems which reliably detect genotoxic carcinogens and others which may respond to epigenetic agents. Genotoxic carcinogens at very low dosages may have practical, effective threshold no-effect levels, but, nevertheless, because of their mechanism of action they are regarded as a qualitative hazard. The action of epigenetic agents of the promoter class is highly dose-dependent and reversible, and thus, a distinctively different health risk analysis is required for these agents to take account of their quantitatively lesser hazard. PMID:6873017

Weisburger, J H; Williams, G M

1983-01-01

96

Isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) growth hormone.  

PubMed

We report the isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus; Teleostei; Perciformes; Siganidae) growth hormone (GH). Rabbitfish GH was extracted from pituitary glands under alkaline conditions, fractionated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions containing GH were identified by immunoblotting with bonito GH antiserum. Under nonreducing conditions, the molecular weight of rabbitfish GH is about 19 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The purified hormone was potent in promoting growth in rabbitfish fry. Weekly intraperitoneal injections of the hormone significantly accelerated growth. This was evident 3 weeks after the start of the treatment, and its effect was still significant 2 weeks after the treatment was terminated. Rabbitfish GH cDNA was cloned to determine its nucleotide sequence. Excluding the poly (A) tail, rabbitfish GH cDNA is 860 base pairs (bp) long. It contained untranslated regions of 94 and 175 bp in the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. It has an open reading frame of 588 bp coding for a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature protein of 178 amino acid residues. Rabbitfish GH has 4 cysteine residues. On the amino acid level, rabbitfish GH shows high identity (71-74%) with GHs of other perciforms, such as tuna, sea bass, yellow tail, bonito, and tilapia, and less (47-49%) identity with salmonid and carp GHs. PMID:10642447

Ayson, F G; de Jesus, E G; Amemiya, Y; Moriyama, S; Hirano, T; Kawauchi, H

2000-02-01

97

Role of allelochemicals in plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for biocontrol of phytopathogens.  

PubMed

Soil borne fungal diseases pose serious constraints on agro-productivity. Biological control is non-hazardous strategy to control plant pathogens and improve crop productivity. PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) have long been used as plant disease control agents. PGPR produced a wide range of secondary compounds that may act as signals--that is, allelochemicals that include metabolites, siderophores, antibiotics, volatile metabolites, enzymes and others. Their mode of action and molecular mechanisms provide a great awareness for their application for crop disease management. The present review highlights the role of PGPR strains, specifically referring to allelochemicals produced and molecular mechanisms. Further research to fine tune combinations of allelochemicals, plant-microbe-pathogen interaction will ultimately lead to better disease control. PMID:24176815

Saraf, Meenu; Pandya, Urja; Thakkar, Aarti

2014-01-20

98

Dynamic, high precision targeting of growth modulating agents is able to trigger pollen tube growth reorientation.  

PubMed

The pollen tube is the most rapidly growing cell in the plant kingdom and has the function to deliver the sperm cells for fertilization. The growing tip region of the cell behaves in a chemotropic manner to respond to the guidance cues emitted by the pistil and the female gametophyte, but how it perceives and responds to these directional triggers is virtually unknown. Quantitative assessment of chemotropic behavior can greatly be enhanced by the administration of pharmacological or other biologically active agents at subcellular precision, which is a technical challenge when the target area moves as it grows. We developed a laminar flow based microfluidic device that allows for continuous administration of two different solutions with a movable interface that permits the dynamic targeting of the growing pollen tube apex over prolonged periods of time. Asymmetric administration of calcium revealed that rather than following the highest calcium concentration as would be expected with simple chemotropic behavior, the pollen tube of Camellia targets an optimal concentration suggesting the presence of two superimposed mechanisms. Subcellular application of pectin methyl esterase (PME), an enzyme that modifies the growth behavior by rigidifying the pollen tube cell wall, caused the tube to turn away from the agent - providing important evidence for a previously proposed conceptual model of the growth mechanism. PMID:25041411

Sanati Nezhad, Amir; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Geitmann, Anja

2014-10-01

99

Plant growth promoting bacteria from cow dung based biodynamic preparations.  

PubMed

Indigenous formulations based on cow dung fermentation are commonly used in organic farming. Three biodynamic preparations viz., Panchagavya (PG), BD500 and 'Cow pat pit' (CPP) showed high counts of lactobacilli (10(9) ml(-1)) and yeasts (10(4) ml(-1)). Actinomycetes were present only in CPP (10(4) ml(-1)) and absent in the other two. Seven bacterial isolates from these ferments were identified by a polyphasic approach: Bacillus safensis (PG1), Bacillus cereus (PG2, PG4 PG5), Bacillus subtilis (BD2) Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (BD3) and Bacillus licheniformis (CPP1). This is the first report of L. xylanilyticus and B. licheniformis in biodynamic preparations. Only three carbon sources-dextrose, sucrose and trehalose out of 21 tested were utilized by all the bacteria. None could utilize arabinose, dulcitol, galactose, inositol, inulin, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose and sorbitol. All the strains produced indole acetic acid (1.8-3.7 ?g ml(-1) culture filtrate) and ammonia. None could fix nitrogen; but all except B. safensis and B. licheniformis could solubilize phosphorous from insoluble tri-calcium phosphate. All the strains except L. xylaniliticus exhibited antagonism to the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia bataticola whereas none could inhibit Sclerotium rolfsi. In green house experiment in soil microcosms, bacterial inoculation significantly promoted growth of maize; plant dry weight increased by ~21 % due to inoculation with B. cereus (PG2). Results provide a basis for understanding the beneficial effects of biodynamic preparations and industrial deployment of the strains. PMID:25320439

Radha, T K; Rao, D L N

2014-12-01

100

The Promoting Effect of Ishige sinicola on Hair Growth  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the promoting effect of Ishige sinicola, an alga native to Jeju Island, Korea, on hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of I. sinicola extract for 21 days, I. sinicola extract increased hair-fiber length. After topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. The I. sinicola extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase. Treatment of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs) with I. sinicola extract resulted in increase of cell proliferation, which was accompanied by the increase of phospho-GSK3? level, ?-catenin, Cyclin E and CDK2, whereas p27kip1 was down-regulated. In particular, octaphlorethol A, an isolated component from the I. sinicola extract, inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase and increased the proliferation of DPCs. These results suggest that I. sinicola extract and octaphlorethol A, a principal of I. sinicola, have the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of DPCs followed by the activation of ?-catenin pathway, and the 5?-reductase inhibition. PMID:23708185

Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Eun-JI; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Jeon, You-Jin; Kang, Sung-Myung; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2013-01-01

101

Social complementation and growth advantages promote socially defective bacterial isolates.  

PubMed

Social interactions among diverse individuals that encounter one another in nature have often been studied among animals but rarely among microbes. For example, the evolutionary forces that determine natural frequencies of bacteria that express cooperative behaviours at low levels remain poorly understood. Natural isolates of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus sampled from the same fruiting body often vary in social phenotypes, such as group swarming and multicellular development. Here, we tested whether genotypes highly proficient at swarming or development might promote the persistence of less socially proficient genotypes from the same fruiting body. Fast-swarming strains complemented slower isolates, allowing the latter to keep pace with faster strains in mixed groups. During development, one low-sporulating strain was antagonized by high sporulators, whereas others with severe developmental defects had those defects partially complemented by high-sporulating strains. Despite declining in frequency overall during competition experiments spanning multiple cycles of development, developmentally defective strains exhibited advantages during the growth phases of competitions. These results suggest that microbes with low-sociality phenotypes often benefit from interacting with more socially proficient strains. Such complementation may combine with advantages at other traits to increase equilibrium frequencies of low-sociality genotypes in natural populations. PMID:24573856

Kraemer, Susanne A; Velicer, Gregory J

2014-04-22

102

Screening of reducing agents for anaerobic growth of Candida albicans SC5314.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different redox potentials (Eh) on cell growth, whole-cell protein profile and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of Candida albicans SC5314. The yeast was grown in YNB broth enriched with reducing (158mM sodium sulfite, 4mM sodium sulfite, 2.5mM sodium metabisulfite, 1.3mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 5.5mM thioglycolic acid, and 3.2mM l-cysteine hydrochloride) and oxidizing agents (15mM ammonium persulfate and 80mM potassium ferricyanide) and incubated in normoxic and anoxic atmospheres at 37°C, for 48h. Pre- and post-incubation Eh values were determined and cytoplasm proteins were extracted. Proteins were parted by SDS-PAGE and their profiles were compared. 3.2mM l-cysteine and 1.3mM 2-mercaptoethanol promoted and maintained negative Eh values during incubation. No differences were detected among SDS-PAGE profiles. CSH differences only were observed with 4mM sodium sulfite and 3.2mM l-cysteine. Results showed that 3.2mM l-cysteine is a reducing agent that allows maintenance of negative Eh in both anoxic and normoxic conditions and it seems not to interfere in the global expression of plasmatic proteins. PMID:21256882

Rymovicz, A U M; Souza, R D; Gursky, L C; Rosa, R T; Trevilatto, P C; Groppo, F C; Rosa, E A R

2011-03-01

103

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria affect the growth and nutrient uptake of Fraxinus americana container seedlings.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are important catalysts that regulate the functional properties of agricultural systems. However, there is little information on the effect of PGPR inoculation on the growth and nutrient accumulation of forest container seedlings. This study determined the effects of a growth medium inoculated with PGPR on the nutrient uptake, nutrient accumulation, and growth of Fraxinus americana container seedlings. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the dry matter accumulation of the F. americana aerial parts with delayed seedling emergence time. Under fertilized conditions, the accumulation time of phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) in the F. americana aerial parts was 13 days longer due to PGPR inoculation. PGPR increased the maximum daily P and K accumulations in fertilized seedlings by 9.31 and 10.44 %, respectively, but had little impact on unfertilized ones. Regardless of fertilizer application, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids, and organic acids significantly increased because of PGPR inoculation. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the root, shoot, and leaf yields by 19.65, 22.94, and 19.44 %, respectively, as well as the P and K contents by 8.33 and 10.60 %, respectively. Consequently, the N, P, and K uptakes increased by 19.85, 31.97, and 33.95 %, respectively. Hence, PGPR inoculation with fertilizer can be used as a bioenhancer for plant growth and nutrient uptake in forest container seedling nurseries. PMID:22777281

Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

2013-05-01

104

Leaf Anatomical Modifications in Catharanthus roseus as Affected by Plant Growth Promoters and Retardants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, different plant growth promoters and retardant were used to determine the anatomical characteristics of Catharanthus roseus. The plant growth promoters used were gibberellic acid (GA ) and Pseudomonas fluorescens elicitors (PF Elicitors) and retardant was paclobutrazol (PBZ). The 3 treatments were given by soil drenching on 38, 53, 68 and 83 days after planting (DAP) by

Cheruth Abdul Jaleel; R. Gopi; M. M. Azooz; Rajaram Panneerselvam

105

In vitro susceptibility of Enterococcus faecium isolated from food to growth-promoting and therapeutic antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 76 E. faecium strains, isolated at retail level from raw poultry meat, cheese, raw pork, and preparations of cheese and raw pork, were tested for their susceptibility and resistance to growth-promoting antibacterials used in animals and antibiotics used therapeutically in humans. All strains were uniformly susceptible to the growth promoters bambermycin and avilamycin. Resistance against bacitracin, virginiamycin

P Butaye; K Van Damme; L. A Devriese; L Van Damme; M Baele; S Lauwers; F Haesebrouck

2000-01-01

106

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium  

E-print Network

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Wai of Microbiology and Virology NAS of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukrained Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137 shows an extraordinary of Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. Genome Announc. 1(3):e00233-13. doi

107

Efficacy of growth factor in promoting early osseointegration.  

PubMed

A preclinical study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of 2 different topical formulations of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) to promote early osseointegration and enhanced bone-to-implant contact (BIC) for dental implants placed in an edentulous ridge. Six female beagle dogs were divided into 3 groups. The control group included 4 implants with no coating; test group A included 10 implants with commercially available rhPDGF-BB formulation coating; and second test group B included 10 implants with prototype viscous rhPDGF-BB coating. Three dogs were sacrificed at 3 weeks (12 implants) and the remaining 3 dogs at 6 weeks after implant placement (12 implants). The specimens were retrieved for histological evaluation, and revealed an uneventful healing of all implants without any sign of an inflammatory response at the different time intervals. Furthermore, the bone was in very close contact with the implants' surfaces with no evidence of intervening fibrous tissue layers. At 3 weeks, new bone formation between most implant threads on rhPDGF-BB coated implants was evident, whereas in the control group only a thin and sparse amount of new bone was noted. At 6 weeks, the commercially available rhPDGF-BB formulation coated implant group (Group A) showed more trabecular bone and higher BIC compared to the other 2 groups. Histologically, the results in this study showed that use of conventionally available rhPDGF-BB formulation as the implant surface treatment may accelerate the process of osseointegration and enhance BIC. PMID:24946082

Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Nevins, Myron; Kim, Soo-Woo; Fateh, Ardavan; Kim, David M

2014-10-01

108

Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producing soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria that contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase facilitate plant\\u000a growth and development by decreasing plant ethylene levels, especially following a variety of environmental stresses. In this\\u000a review, the physiological basis for this growth-promotion effect is examined in some detail. In addition, models are presented\\u000a that endeavour to explain (i) the seemingly paradoxical effects of ethylene on a

Bernard R. Glick; Zhenyu Cheng; Jennifer Czarny; Jin Duan

2007-01-01

109

Role of metal resistant plant growth promoting bacteria in ameliorating fly ash to the growth of Brassica juncea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we have shown that the plant growth promoting bacterial strain NBRI K24 and strain NBRI K3 from fly ash (FA) contaminated soil reduce the toxicity of Ni and Cr in Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and promote plant growth under pot culture experiments. Isolated strains NBRI K24 and NBRI K3 were characterized based on the 16S rDNA sequencing

Kalpna V. Kumar; Shubhi Srivastava; N. Singh; H. M. Behl

2009-01-01

110

Evaluation of insect associated and plant growth promoting fungi in the control of cabbage root flies.  

PubMed

Delia radicum L. or cabbage maggot is an important pest for Brassicaceous crops. There are currently no registered chemical control agents for its control in Slovenia. Fungal control agents for cabbage maggot were therefore sought among nine rhizosphere-compatible and plant growth-promoting, soil-adapted, and entomopathogenic species to cabbage maggots and were assayed in in vitro and soil laboratory bioassays. In the in vitro tests, the conidial suspensions were applied directly to cabbage maggot eggs. The soil tests mimicked pathways of natural exposure of various insect life stages to the fungal strains. Conidial concentrations used in soil tests were comparable to economic rates for in-furrow application. The following fungi were tested: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst. (2 isolates), Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans (1), Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin. (3), Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo) Petch (1), Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (2), Metarhizium robertsii J.F. Bisch., Rehner & Humber (1), Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin (4), Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel-Jones & Samson (2), and Clonostachys solani f. nigrovirens (J.F.H. Beyma) Schroers (2). Abbott's corrected mortality in the in vitro tests ranged from 0.0 +/- 18.9 to 47.6 +/- 9.0% and in the soil test from 2.4 +/- 13.0 to 68.2 +/- 21.5%. Seven isolates (B. bassiana [isolate 1174], C. solani [1828], M. anisopliae [1154 and 1868], T. atroviride [1872], T. koningiopsis [1874], and T. gamsii [1876]) caused significant cabbage maggot mortality in either in vitro or soil tests. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion during the screening of potential biological control agents is discussed. PMID:25195421

Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg

2014-08-01

111

STAT6 expression in glioblastoma promotes invasive growth  

PubMed Central

Background Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive malignant primary brain tumor, characterized by rapid growth, diffuse infiltration of cells into both adjacent and remote brain regions, and a generalized resistance to currently available treatment modalities. Recent reports in the literature suggest that Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) play important roles in the regulation of GBM pathophysiology. Methods STAT6 protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting in GBM cell lines and by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray (TMA) of glioma patient tissues. We utilized shRNA against STAT6 to investigate the effects of prolonged STAT6 depletion on the growth and invasion of two STAT6-positive GBM cell lines. Cell proliferation was assessed by measuring 3H-Thymidine uptake over time. Invasion was measured using an in vitro transwell assay in which cells invade through a type IV collagen matrix toward a chemoattractant (Fetal Bovine Serum). Cells were then stained and counted. Kaplan-Meyer survival curves were generated to show the correlation between STAT6 gene expression and patient survival in 343 glioma patients and in a subset of patients with only GBM. Gene expression microarray and clinical data were acquired from the Rembrandt [1] public data depository (https://caintegrator.nci.nih.gov/rembrandt/). Lastly, a genome-wide expression microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression in wild-type GBM cells to expression in stable STAT6 knockdown clones. Results STAT6 was expressed in 2 GBM cell lines, U-1242MG and U-87MG, and in normal astrocytes (NHA) but not in the U-251MG GBM cell line. In our TMA study, STAT6 immunostaining was visible in the majority of astrocytomas of all grades (I-IV) but not in normal brain tissue. In positive cells, STAT6 was localized exclusively in the nuclei over 95% of the time. STAT6-deficient GBM cells showed a reduction in 3H-Thymidine uptake compared to the wild-type. There was some variation among the different shRNA- silenced clones, but all had a reduction in 3H-Thymidine uptake ranging from 35%- 70% in U-1242MG and 40- 50% in U-87MG cells. Additionally, STAT6- depleted cells were less invasive than controls in our in vitro transmembrane invasion assay. Invasiveness was decreased by 25-40% and 30-75% in U-1242MG and U-87MG cells, respectively. The microarray analysis identified matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) and urokinase Plasminogen activator (uPA) as potential STA6 target genes involved in the promotion of GBM cell invasion. In a Kaplan-Meier survival curve based on Rembrandt [1] gene expression microarray and clinical data, there was a significant difference in survival (P < 0.05) between glioma patients with up- and down-regulated STAT6. Decreased STAT6 expression correlated with longer survival times. In two subsets of patients with either grade IV tumors (GBM) or Grade II/III astrocytomas, there was a similar trend that however did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Taken together, these findings suggest a role for STAT6 in enhancing cell proliferation and invasion in GBM, which may explain why up-regulation of STAT6 correlates with shorter survival times in glioma patients. This report thus identifies STAT6 as a new and potentially promising therapeutic target. PMID:21595984

2011-01-01

112

The effect of plant growth promoting bacteria on growth and nutrient uptake of maize in two different soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of ecological conditions effecting on bacterial inoculants is important when introducing microbes for increasing plant growth and productivity. In this study the influence of two different soil types on the stimulatory effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for maize was investigated. The investigations were carried out in pot experiments with calcareous calcisol soil taken from Sirdarya, Uzbekistan and

Dilfuza Egamberdiyeva

2007-01-01

113

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-04-24

114

Urban Growth in Latin American Cities Exploring urban dynamicsthrough agent-basedsimulation  

E-print Network

Urban Growth in Latin American Cities Exploring urban dynamicsthrough agent-basedsimulation Joana The high rates of urban growth in Latin America during the 1960sand 1970s produced rapid urbanisationand staticproblem rather than asa spatial form that emergesfrom the urban developmentprocessand that is part

Guillas, Serge

115

Plant-growth promoting effect of newly isolated rhizobacteria varies between two Arabidopsis ecotypes.  

PubMed

Various rhizobacteria are known for their beneficial effects on plants, i. e. promotion of growth and induction of systemic resistance against pathogens. These bacteria are categorized as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and are associated with plant roots. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of plant growth promotion in vivo is still very limited, but interference of bacteria with plant hormone metabolism is suggested to play a major role. To obtain new growth promoting bacteria, we started a quest for rhizobacteria that are naturally associated to Arabidopsis thaliana. A suite of native root-associated bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized roots of the Arabidopsis ecotype Gol-1 derived from a field site near Golm (Berlin area, Germany). We found several Pseudomonas and a Microbacterium species and tested these for growth promotion effects on the Arabidopsis ecotypes Gol-1 and Col-0, and for growth-promotion associated traits, such as auxin production, ACC deaminase activity and phosphate solubilization capacity. We showed that two of the bacteria strains promote plant growth with respect to rosette diameter, stalk length and accelerate development and that the effects were greater when bacteria were applied to Col-0 compared with Gol-1. Furthermore, the capability of promoting growth was not explained by the tested metabolic properties of the bacteria, suggesting that further bacterial traits are required. The natural variation of growth effects, combined with the extensive transgenic approaches available for the model plant Arabidopsis, will build a valuable tool to augment our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the natural Arabidopsis - PGPR association. PMID:22580689

Schwachtje, Jens; Karojet, Silke; Kunz, Sabine; Brouwer, Stephan; van Dongen, Joost T

2012-06-01

116

Plant-growth promoting effect of newly isolated rhizobacteria varies between two Arabidopsis ecotypes  

PubMed Central

Various rhizobacteria are known for their beneficial effects on plants, i. e. promotion of growth and induction of systemic resistance against pathogens. These bacteria are categorized as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and are associated with plant roots. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of plant growth promotion in vivo is still very limited, but interference of bacteria with plant hormone metabolism is suggested to play a major role. To obtain new growth promoting bacteria, we started a quest for rhizobacteria that are naturally associated to Arabidopsis thaliana. A suite of native root-associated bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized roots of the Arabidopsis ecotype Gol-1 derived from a field site near Golm (Berlin area, Germany). We found several Pseudomonas and a Microbacterium species and tested these for growth promotion effects on the Arabidopsis ecotypes Gol-1 and Col-0, and for growth-promotion associated traits, such as auxin production, ACC deaminase activity and phosphate solubilization capacity. We showed that two of the bacteria strains promote plant growth with respect to rosette diameter, stalk length and accelerate development and that the effects were greater when bacteria were applied to Col-0 compared with Gol-1. Furthermore, the capability of promoting growth was not explained by the tested metabolic properties of the bacteria, suggesting that further bacterial traits are required. The natural variation of growth effects, combined with the extensive transgenic approaches available for the model plant Arabidopsis, will build a valuable tool to augment our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the natural Arabidopsis - PGPR association. PMID:22580689

Schwachtje, Jens; Karojet, Silke; Kunz, Sabine; Brouwer, Stephan; van Dongen, Joost T.

2012-01-01

117

Staurosporine from the endophytic Streptomyces sp. strain CNS-42 acts as a potential biocontrol agent and growth elicitor in cucumber.  

PubMed

Chinese medicinal plants and their surrounding rhizospheric soil serve as promising sources of actinobacteria. A total of 180 actinobacteria strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soil, leaves, stems, and roots of nine selected plants and have been identified as potential biocontrol agents against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. An endophytic strain CNS-42 isolated from Alisma orientale showed the largest zone of inhibition demonstrating a potent effect against F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and a broad antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeasts, and other pathogenic fungi. The in vivo biocontrol assays showed that the disease severity index was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), and plant shoot fresh weight and height increased greatly (P < 0.05) in plantlets treated with strain CNS-42 compared to the negative control. This isolate was identified as Streptomyces sp. based on cultural, physiological, morphological characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Further bioassay-guided isolation and purification revealed that staurosporine was responsible for its antifungal and plant growth promoting activities and the latter property of staurosporine is reported for the first time. The in vivo assay was further performed and indicated that staurosporine showed good growth promoting effect on the plant shoot biomass of cucumber. This is the first critical evidence identifying CNS-42 as a biocontrol agent for the soil borne pathogen, F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. PMID:25035061

Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Pei; Wang, Qian; Xiao, Lie; Liu, Miaomiao; Bolla, Krishna; Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Linyong; Gan, Bingcheng; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Xiaoping

2014-09-01

118

Evaluation of Phytase Producing Bacteria for Their Plant Growth Promoting Activities  

PubMed Central

Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076–0.174?U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal activity. All isolates were positive for the above characteristics except for HCN production. The solubilization index for phosphorus on Pikovskaya agar plates was in the range of 2–4. Significant amount of IAA (7.19 to 35.03??g/mL) production and solubilized phosphate (189.53 to 746.84??g/mL) was noticed by these isolates at different time intervals. Besides that, a greenhouse study was also conducted with Indian mustard to evaluate the potential of these isolates to promote plant growth. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters and P uptake by plant were used as indicators. The plant growth promoting ability of bacterial isolates in pot experiments was correlated to IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and other in vitro tests. On the basis of present findings, isolate PB-06 was most promising in plant growth promotion with multiple growth promoting characteristics. PMID:24669222

Singh, Prashant; Agrawal, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

119

Do Natural Disasters Promote Long-Run Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we investigate the long-run relationships among disasters, capital accumulation, total factor productivity, and economic growth. The cross-country empirical analysis demonstrates that higher frequencies of climatic disasters are correlated with higher rates of human capital accumulation, increases in total factor productivity, and economic growth. Though disaster risk reduces the expected rate of return to physical capital, risk also

Mark Skidmore; Hideki Toya

2002-01-01

120

CLPTM1L promotes growth and enhances aneuploidy in pancreatic cancer cells.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of 10 different cancers have identified pleiotropic cancer predisposition loci across a region of chromosome 5p15.33 that includes the TERT and CLPTM1L genes. Of these, susceptibility alleles for pancreatic cancer have mapped to the CLPTM1L gene, thus prompting an investigation of the function of CLPTM1L in the pancreas. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that CLPTM1L localized to the endoplasmic reticulum where it is likely embedded in the membrane, in accord with multiple predicted transmembrane domains. Overexpression of CLPTM1L enhanced growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro (1.3-1.5-fold; PDAY7 < 0.003) and in vivo (3.46-fold; PDAY68 = 0.039), suggesting a role in tumor growth; this effect was abrogated by deletion of two hydrophilic domains. Affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry identified an interaction between CLPTM1L and non-muscle myosin II (NMM-II), a protein involved in maintaining cell shape, migration, and cytokinesis. The two proteins colocalized in the cytoplasm and, after treatment with a DNA-damaging agent, at the centrosomes. Overexpression of CLPTM1L and depletion of NMM-II induced aneuploidy, indicating that CLPTM1L may interfere with normal NMM-II function in regulating cytokinesis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed enhanced staining of CLPTM1L in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n = 378) as compared with normal pancreatic tissue samples (n = 17; P = 1.7 × 10(-4)). Our results suggest that CLPTM1L functions as a growth-promoting gene in the pancreas and that overexpression may lead to an abrogation of normal cytokinesis, indicating that it should be considered as a plausible candidate gene that could explain the effect of pancreatic cancer susceptibility alleles on chr5p15.33. PMID:24648346

Jia, Jinping; Bosley, Allen D; Thompson, Abbey; Hoskins, Jason W; Cheuk, Adam; Collins, Irene; Parikh, Hemang; Xiao, Zhen; Ylaya, Kris; Dzyadyk, Marta; Cozen, Wendy; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Lynch, Charles F; Loncarek, Jadranka; Altekruse, Sean F; Zhang, Lizhi; Westlake, Christopher J; Factor, Valentina M; Thorgeirsson, Snorri; Bamlet, William R; Hewitt, Stephen M; Petersen, Gloria M; Andresson, Thorkell; Amundadottir, Laufey T

2014-05-15

121

Syndecan promotes axon regeneration by stabilizing growth cone migration.  

PubMed

Growth cones facilitate the repair of nervous system damage by providing the driving force for axon regeneration. Using single-neuron laser axotomy and in vivo time-lapse imaging, we show that syndecan, a heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan, is required for growth cone function during axon regeneration in C. elegans. In the absence of syndecan, regenerating growth cones form but are unstable and collapse, decreasing the effective growth rate and impeding regrowth to target cells. We provide evidence that syndecan has two distinct functions during axon regeneration: (1) a canonical function in axon guidance that requires expression outside the nervous system and depends on HS chains and (2) an intrinsic function in growth cone stabilization that is mediated by the syndecan core protein, independently of HS. Thus, syndecan is a regulator of a critical choke point in nervous system repair. PMID:25001284

Edwards, Tyson J; Hammarlund, Marc

2014-07-10

122

Autoimmunity as a Double Agent in Tumor Killing and Cancer Promotion  

PubMed Central

Cancer immunotherapy through manipulation of the immune system holds great potential for the treatment of human cancers. However, recent trials targeting the negative immune regulators cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, programed death 1 (PD-1), and PD-1 receptor ligand (PD-L1) demonstrated that clinically significant antitumor responses were often associated with the induction of autoimmune toxicity. This finding suggests that the same immune mechanisms that elicit autoimmunity may also contribute to the destruction of tumors. Given the fact that the immunological identity of tumors might be largely an immunoprivileged self, autoimmunity may not represent a wholly undesirable outcome in the context of cancer immunotherapy. Rather, targeted killing of cancer cells and autoimmune damage to healthy tissues may be intricately linked through molecular mechanisms, in particular inflammatory cytokine signaling. On the other hand, since chronic inflammation is a well-recognized condition that promotes tumor development, it appears that autoimmunity can be a “double agent” in mediating either pro-tumor or antitumor effects. This review surveys the tumor-promoting and tumoricidal activities of several prominent cytokines: IFN-?, TNF-?, TGF-?, IL-17, IL-23, IL-4, and IL-13, produced by three major subsets of T helper cells that interact with innate immune cells. Many of these cytokines exert divergent and seemingly contradictory effects on cancer development in different human and animal models, suggesting a high degree of context dependence in their functions. We hypothesize that these inflammatory cytokines could mediate a feedback loop of autoimmunity, antitumor immunity, and tumorigenesis. Understanding the diverse and paradoxical roles of cytokines from autoimmune responses in the setting of cancer will advance the long-term goal of improving cancer immunotherapy, while minimizing the hazards of immune-mediated tissue damage and the possibility of de novo tumorigenesis, through proper monitoring and preventive measures. PMID:24672527

Toomer, Kevin H.; Chen, Zhibin

2014-01-01

123

Effects of inoculation of plant-growth promoting bacteria on Ni uptake by Indian mustard  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, among a collection of Ni resistant bacterial strains isolated from serpentine soil, two plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), Ps29C and Bm4C were selected based on their ability to utilize ACC as the sole N source and promote seedling growth in roll towel assay. The Ni resistant PGPB, Ps29C and Bm4C were characterized as Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus

Mani Rajkumar; Helena Freitas

2008-01-01

124

Bacillus megaterium strain XTBG34 promotes plant growth by producing 2-pentylfuran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several chemical changes in soil are associated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. An endosporeforming bacterium,\\u000a strain XTBG34, was isolated from a Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden soil sample and identified as Bacillus megaterium. The strain’s volatiles had remarkable plant growth promotion activity in Arabidopsis thaliana plants; after 15 days treatment, the fresh weight of plants inoculated with XTBG34 was almost 2-fold compared

Changsong Zou; Zhifang Li; Diqiu Yu

2010-01-01

125

Growth promotion of Taxus brevifolia cell suspension culture using conditioned medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth promotion of aTaxus brevifolia cell suspension culture was investigated using conditioning factors. The conditioning factors produced and secreted from\\u000a cultured cells usually stimulate cell division and the production of secondary metabolites. Therefore, the effective incubation\\u000a time for the optimal secretion of conditioning factors was firstly determined for the promotion of cell growth. Conditioned\\u000a media obtained by cultivating for

Myung-Hwan Kim; Su Hwan Chun; Dong-Il Kim

2000-01-01

126

Plant growth-promoting activities of fluorescent pseudomonads, isolated from the Iranian soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent pseudomonads are among the most influencing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in plants rhizosphere. In this\\u000a research work the plant growth-promoting activities of 40 different strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas\\u000a putida, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) and maintained in the microbial collection of Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran, Iran,

P. Abbas-Zadeh; N. Saleh-Rastin; H. Asadi-Rahmani; K. Khavazi; A. Soltani; A. R. Shoary-Nejati; Mohammad Miransari

2010-01-01

127

Plant growth-promoting bacteria that confer resistance to water stress in tomatoes and peppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work reported here evaluates whether bacteria populating arid and salty environments can confer resistance in tomato and pepper plants to water stress. Plant growth-promoting bacteria that have ACC deaminase activity were isolated from soil samples taken from the Arava region of southern Israel. One of these strains, Achromobacter piechaudii ARV8 [Mayak et al., Plant growth-promoting bacteria that confer resistance

Shimon Mayak; Tsipora Tirosh; Bernard R. Glick

2004-01-01

128

Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pantoea sp. Strain AS-PWVM4  

PubMed Central

Nonpathogenic Pantoea spp. have been shown to confer biofertilizer and biocontrol activities, indicating their potential for increasing crop yield. Herein, we provide the high-quality genome sequence of Pantoea sp. strain AS-PWVM4, a Gram-negative motile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium isolated from a pomegranate plant. The 4.9-Mb genome contains genes related to plant growth promotion and the synthesis of siderophores. PMID:24309733

Khatri, Indu; Kaur, Sukhvir; Devi, Usha; Kumar, Navinder; Sharma, Deepak

2013-01-01

129

Acetyl-CoA Induces Cell Growth and Proliferation by Promoting the Acetylation of Histones at Growth Genes  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The decision by a cell to enter a round of growth and division must be intimately coordinated with nutrient availability and its metabolic state. These metabolic and nutritional requirements, and the mechanisms by which they induce cell growth and proliferation, remain poorly understood. Herein, we report that acetyl-CoA is the downstream metabolite of carbon sources that represents a critical metabolic signal for growth and proliferation. Upon entry into growth, intracellular acetyl-CoA levels increase substantially and consequently induce the Gcn5p/SAGA-catalyzed acetylation of histones at genes important for growth, thereby enabling their rapid transcription and commitment to growth. Thus, acetyl-CoA functions as a carbon-source rheostat that signals the initiation of the cellular growth program by promoting the acetylation of histones specifically at growth genes. PMID:21596309

Cai, Ling; Sutter, Benjamin M.; Li, Bing; Tu, Benjamin P.

2011-01-01

130

Understanding Youth Development: Promoting Positive Pathways of Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conceptual model for understanding youth development is provided and the processes that enhance the adolescent experience and promote successful transition from childhood to adulthood are identified. Intended as a guide for professionals constructing and implementing policies and programs, the model is based on the proposition that development…

CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

131

Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

1999-01-01

132

A Putative Oligosaccharin Growth Promoter from Vitis vinifera L. Primary Cell Walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growth-promotory agent which is consistent with being a carbohydrate was prepared by acid hydrolysis of primary cell wall material derived from callus cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Bioactivities of crude and partially-purified hydrolysate preparations were determined using the Lemna minor L. bioassay. Growth stimulation caused by addition of the crude preparation to the assay was greatest

James A. Campbell; Anne M. Drake; Victor W. K. Lee; Stanley Strother

1995-01-01

133

Sensitization of epithelial growth factor receptors by nicotine exposure to promote breast cancer cell growth  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tobacco smoke is known to be the main cause of lung, head and neck tumors. Recently, evidence for an increasing breast cancer risk associated with tobacco smoke exposure has been emerging. We and other groups have shown that nicotine, as a non-conventional carcinogen, has the potential to facilitate cancer genesis and progression. However, the underlying mechanisms by which the smoke affects the breast, rather than the lung, remain unclear. Here, we examine possible downstream signaling pathways of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and their role in breast cancer promotion. Methods Using human benign MCF10A and malignant MDA-MB-231 breast cells and specific inhibitors of possible downstream kinases, we identified nAChR effectors that were activated by treatment with nicotine. We further tested the effects of these effector pathways on the regulation of E2F1 activation, cell cycle progression and on Bcl-2 expression and long-term cell survival. Results In this study, we demonstrated a novel signaling mechanism by which nicotine exposure activated Src to sensitize epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated pathways for breast cancer cell growth promotion. After the ligation of nAChR with nicotine, EGFR was shown to be activated and then internalized in both MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Subsequently, Src, Akt and ERK1/2 were phosphorylated at different time points following nicotine treatment. We further demonstrated that through Src, the ligation of nicotine with nAChR stimulated the EGFR/ERK1/2 pathway for the activation of E2F1 and further cell progression. Our data also showed that Akt functioned directly downstream of Src and was responsible for the increase of Bcl-2 expression and long-term cell survival. Conclusions Our study reveals the existence of a potential, regulatory network governed by the interaction of nicotine and nAChR that integrates the conventional, mitogenic Src and EGFR signals for breast cancer development. PMID:22085699

2011-01-01

134

Inhibitor of growth-4 promotes IkappaB promoter activation to suppress NF-kappaB signaling and innate immunity.  

PubMed

Ing4 is a member of the inhibitor of growth (ING) family of chromatin-modifying proteins. Biochemical experiments indicate that Ing4 is a subunit of the HB01-JADE-hEAF6 histone acetyltransferase complex responsible for most nucleosomal histone H4 acetylation in eukaryotes, and transfection studies suggest that Ing4 may regulate a wide variety of cellular processes, including DNA repair, apoptosis, cell-cycle regulation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor suppression. However, in vivo evidence for a physiological role for Ing4 in cell-growth regulation is lacking. We have generated Ing4-deficient mice to explore the role of Ing4 in development, tumorigenesis, and in NF-kappaB signaling. Ing4-null mice develop normally and are viable. Although mice deficient for Ing4 fail to form spontaneous tumors, they are hypersensitive to LPS treatment and display elevated cytokine responses. Macrophages isolated from Ing4-null mice have increased levels of nuclear p65/RelA protein, resulting in increased RelA binding to NF-kappaB target promoters and up-regulation of cytokine gene expression. However, increased promoter occupancy by RelA in LPS-stimulated, Ing4-null cells does not always correlate with increased NF-kappaB target-gene expression, as RelA activation of a subset of cytokine promoters also requires Ing4 for proper histone H4 acetylation. Furthermore, activation of the IkappaB alpha promoter by RelA is also Ing4-dependent, and LPS-stimulated, Ing4-null cells have reduced levels of IkappaB alpha promoter H4 acetylation and IkappaB gene expression. Thus, Ing4 negatively regulates the cytokine-mediated inflammatory response in mice by facilitating NF-kappaB activation of IkappaB promoters, thereby suppressing nuclear RelA levels and the activation of select NF-kappaB target cytokines. PMID:20534538

Coles, Andrew H; Gannon, Hugh; Cerny, Anna; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn; Jones, Stephen N

2010-06-22

135

Inhibitor of growth-4 promotes I?B promoter activation to suppress NF-?B signaling and innate immunity  

PubMed Central

Ing4 is a member of the inhibitor of growth (ING) family of chromatin-modifying proteins. Biochemical experiments indicate that Ing4 is a subunit of the HB01-JADE-hEAF6 histone acetyltransferase complex responsible for most nucleosomal histone H4 acetylation in eukaryotes, and transfection studies suggest that Ing4 may regulate a wide variety of cellular processes, including DNA repair, apoptosis, cell-cycle regulation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor suppression. However, in vivo evidence for a physiological role for Ing4 in cell-growth regulation is lacking. We have generated Ing4-deficient mice to explore the role of Ing4 in development, tumorigenesis, and in NF-?B signaling. Ing4-null mice develop normally and are viable. Although mice deficient for Ing4 fail to form spontaneous tumors, they are hypersensitive to LPS treatment and display elevated cytokine responses. Macrophages isolated from Ing4-null mice have increased levels of nuclear p65/RelA protein, resulting in increased RelA binding to NF-?B target promoters and up-regulation of cytokine gene expression. However, increased promoter occupancy by RelA in LPS-stimulated, Ing4-null cells does not always correlate with increased NF-?B target-gene expression, as RelA activation of a subset of cytokine promoters also requires Ing4 for proper histone H4 acetylation. Furthermore, activation of the I?B? promoter by RelA is also Ing4-dependent, and LPS-stimulated, Ing4-null cells have reduced levels of I?B? promoter H4 acetylation and I?B gene expression. Thus, Ing4 negatively regulates the cytokine-mediated inflammatory response in mice by facilitating NF-?B activation of I?B promoters, thereby suppressing nuclear RelA levels and the activation of select NF-?B target cytokines. PMID:20534538

Coles, Andrew H.; Gannon, Hugh; Cerny, Anna; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn; Jones, Stephen N.

2010-01-01

136

Cellular response to micropatterned growth promoting and inhibitory substrates  

PubMed Central

Background Normal development and the response to injury both require cell growth, migration and morphological remodeling, guided by a complex local landscape of permissive and inhibitory cues. A standard approach for studying by such cues is to culture cells on uniform substrates containing known concentrations of these molecules, however this method fails to represent the molecular complexity of the natural growth environment. Results To mimic the local complexity of environmental conditions in vitro, we used a contact micropatterning technique to examine cell growth and differentiation on patterned substrates printed with the commonly studied growth permissive and inhibitory substrates, poly-L-lysine (PLL) and myelin, respectively. We show that micropatterning of PLL can be used to direct adherence and axonal outgrowth of hippocampal and cortical neurons as well as other cells with diverse morphologies like Oli-neu oligodendrocyte progenitor cell lines and fibroblast-like COS7 cells in culture. Surprisingly, COS7 cells exhibited a preference for low concentration (1 pg/mL) PLL zones over adjacent zones printed with high concentrations (1 mg/mL). We demonstrate that micropatterning is also useful for studying factors that inhibit growth as it can direct cells to grow along straight lines that are easy to quantify. Furthermore, we provide the first demonstration of microcontact printing of myelin-associated proteins and show that they impair process outgrowth from Oli-neu oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Conclusion We conclude that microcontact printing is an efficient and reproducible method for patterning proteins and brain-derived myelin on glass surfaces in order to study the effects of the microenvironment on cell growth and morphogenesis. PMID:24119185

2013-01-01

137

Biodiversity promotes tree growth during succession in subtropical forest.  

PubMed

Losses of plant species diversity can affect ecosystem functioning, with decreased primary productivity being the most frequently reported effect in experimental plant assemblages, including tree plantations. Less is known about the role of biodiversity in natural ecosystems, including forests, despite their importance for global biogeochemical cycling and climate. In general, experimental manipulations of tree diversity will take decades to yield final results. To date, biodiversity effects in natural forests therefore have only been reported from sample surveys or meta-analyses with plots not initially selected for diversity. We studied biomass and growth of subtropical forests stands in southeastern China. Taking advantage of variation in species recruitment during secondary succession, we adopted a comparative study design selecting forest plots to span a gradient in species richness. We repeatedly censored the stem diameter of two tree size cohorts, comprising 93 species belonging to 57 genera and 33 families. Tree size and growth were analyzed in dependence of species richness, the functional diversity of growth-related traits, and phylogenetic diversity, using both general linear and structural equation modeling. Successional age covaried with diversity, but differently so in the two size cohorts. Plot-level stem basal area and growth were positively related with species richness, while growth was negatively related to successional age. The productivity increase in species-rich, functionally and phylogenetically diverse plots was driven by both larger mean sizes and larger numbers of trees. The biodiversity effects we report exceed those from experimental studies, sample surveys and meta-analyses, suggesting that subtropical tree diversity is an important driver of forest productivity and re-growth after disturbance that supports the provision of ecological services by these ecosystems. PMID:24303037

Barrufol, Martin; Schmid, Bernhard; Bruelheide, Helge; Chi, Xiulian; Hector, Andrew; Ma, Keping; Michalski, Stefan; Tang, Zhiyao; Niklaus, Pascal A

2013-01-01

138

The use of omic technologies for biomarker development to trace functions of anabolic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combat against misuse of growth promoting agents is a major topic in agricultural meat production and human sports. In routine screening, hormone residues of all known growth promoting agents are detected by immuno assays or chromatographical methods in combination with mass spectrometry. To overcome the detection by these routine screening methods new xenobiotic growth promoters and new ways of

Irmgard Riedmaier; Christiane Becker; Michael W. Pfaffl; Heinrich H. D. Meyer

2009-01-01

139

Enhancement of photosynthesis (CO2 uptake) and plant growth through the promotion of stomatal opening  

E-print Network

1 Enhancement of photosynthesis (CO2 uptake) and plant growth through the promotion of stomatal ­ By determining the key factor in regulating photosynthesis and plant growth, scientists, Prof. Toshinori-Molecules (WPI-ITbM), have succeeded in developing a method to increase photosynthesis (CO2 uptake) and plant

Takahashi, Ryo

140

Bacterial volatiles promote growth in Arabidopsis Choong-Min Ryu*, Mohamed A. Farag  

E-print Network

Bacterial volatiles promote growth in Arabidopsis Choong-Min Ryu*, Mohamed A. Farag , Chia-Hui Hu of agricultural species for the purposes of growth enhance- ment, including increased seed emergence, plant weight when seeds were coated with PGPR before planting (1), and plant weight of tuber-treated potatoes

Paré, Paul W.

141

PROMOTION OF PLANT GROWTH BY SOIL BACTERIA THAT REGULATE PLANT ETHYLENE LEVELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the central the mechanisms used by many soil bacteria to directly promote plant growth is the production of the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. This enzyme facilitates plant growth as a consequence of the fact that it sequesters and cleaves plant- produced ACC (the immediate precursor of ethylene in plants), thereby lowering the level of ethylene in the plant.

Bernard R. Glick

142

The potential contribution of plant growth-promoting bacteria to reduce environmental degradation – A comprehensive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are commonly used to improve crop yields. In addition to their proven usefulness in agriculture, they possess potential in solving environmental problems. Some examples are highlighted. PGPB may prevent soil erosion in arid zones by improving growth of desert plants in reforestation programs; in turn, this reduces dust pollution. PGPB supports restoration of mangrove ecosystems that

Luz E. de-Bashan; Juan-Pablo Hernandez; Yoav Bashan

143

Genetic manipulation of plant growth-promoting bacteria to enhance biocontrol of phytopathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) control the damage to plants from phytopathogens by a number of different mechanisms including: outcompeting the phytopathogen, physical displacement of the phytopathogen, secretion of siderophores to prevent pathogens in the immediate vicinity from proliferating, synthesis of antibiotics, synthesis of a variety of small molecules that can inhibit phytopathogen growth, production of enzymes that inhibit the phytopathogen

Bernard R. Glick; Yoav Bashan

1997-01-01

144

Optimization of plant growth-promoting bacteria-assisted phytostabilization of mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have indicated that plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can improve revegetation of arid mine tailings as measured by increased biomass production. The goals of the present study were first to evaluate how mode of application of known PGPB affects plant growth, and second to evaluate the effect of this inoculation on rhizosphere microbial community structure. PGPB application strategies investigated

Christopher J. Grandlic; Michael W. Palmer; Raina M. Maier

2009-01-01

145

Brain peptides and glial growth. II. Identification of cells that secrete glia-promoting factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glia-promoting factors (GPFs) are brain peptides which stimulate growth of specific macroglial populations in vitro. To identify the cellular sources of GPFs, we examined enriched brain cell cultures and cell lines derived from the nervous system for the production of growth factors. Ameboid microglia se- creted astroglia-stimulating peptides, while growing neurons were the best source of the oligodendroglia- stimulating factors.

Dana Giulian; Douglas G. Young

1986-01-01

146

Genetics of phosphate solubilization and its potential applications for improving plant growth-promoting bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are soil and rhizosphere bacteria that can benefit plant growth by different mechanisms. The ability of some microorganisms to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form, like orthophosphate, is an important trait in a PGPB for increasing plant yields. In this mini-review, the isolation and characterization of genes involved in mineralization of organic P sources

H. Rodríguez; R. Fraga; T. Gonzalez; Y. Bashan

2006-01-01

147

Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: role of visual presence and appearance  

PubMed Central

Anthropomorphic virtual agents can serve as powerful technological mediators to impact motivational outcomes such as self-efficacy and attitude change. Such anthropomorphic agents can be designed as simulated social models in the Bandurian sense, providing social influence as virtual ‘role models’. Of particular value is the capacity for designing such agents as optimized social models for a target audience and context. Importantly, the visual presence and appearance of such agents can have a major impact on motivation and affect regardless of the underlying technical sophistication. Empirical results of different instantiations of agent presence and appearance are reviewed for both autonomous virtual agents and avatars that represent a user. PMID:19884150

Baylor, Amy L.

2009-01-01

148

Polluted dust promotes new particle formation and growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding new particle formation and their subsequent growth in the troposphere has a critical impact on our ability to predict atmospheric composition and global climate change. High pre-existing particle loadings have been thought to suppress the formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles due to high condensation and coagulation sinks. Here, based on field measurements at a mountain site in South China, we report, for the first time, in situ observational evidence on new particle formation and growth in remote ambient atmosphere during heavy dust episodes mixed with anthropogenic pollution. Both the formation and growth rates of particles in the diameter range 15-50 nm were enhanced during the dust episodes, indicating the influence of photo-induced, dust surface-mediated reactions and resulting condensable vapor production. This study provides unique in situ observations of heterogeneous photochemical processes inducing new particle formation and growth in the real atmosphere, and suggests an unexpected impact of mineral dust on climate and atmospheric chemistry.

Nie, Wei; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; George, Christian; Xue, Likun; Wang, Wenxing; Zhang, Qingzhu; Petäjä, Tuukka; Qi, Ximeng; Gao, Xiaomei; Wang, Xinfeng; Yang, Xiuqun; Fu, Congbin; Kulmala, Markku

2014-10-01

149

Polluted dust promotes new particle formation and growth.  

PubMed

Understanding new particle formation and their subsequent growth in the troposphere has a critical impact on our ability to predict atmospheric composition and global climate change. High pre-existing particle loadings have been thought to suppress the formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles due to high condensation and coagulation sinks. Here, based on field measurements at a mountain site in South China, we report, for the first time, in situ observational evidence on new particle formation and growth in remote ambient atmosphere during heavy dust episodes mixed with anthropogenic pollution. Both the formation and growth rates of particles in the diameter range 15-50?nm were enhanced during the dust episodes, indicating the influence of photo-induced, dust surface-mediated reactions and resulting condensable vapor production. This study provides unique in situ observations of heterogeneous photochemical processes inducing new particle formation and growth in the real atmosphere, and suggests an unexpected impact of mineral dust on climate and atmospheric chemistry. PMID:25319109

Nie, Wei; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; George, Christian; Xue, Likun; Wang, Wenxing; Zhang, Qingzhu; Petäjä, Tuukka; Qi, Ximeng; Gao, Xiaomei; Wang, Xinfeng; Yang, Xiuqun; Fu, Congbin; Kulmala, Markku

2014-01-01

150

Polluted dust promotes new particle formation and growth  

PubMed Central

Understanding new particle formation and their subsequent growth in the troposphere has a critical impact on our ability to predict atmospheric composition and global climate change. High pre-existing particle loadings have been thought to suppress the formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles due to high condensation and coagulation sinks. Here, based on field measurements at a mountain site in South China, we report, for the first time, in situ observational evidence on new particle formation and growth in remote ambient atmosphere during heavy dust episodes mixed with anthropogenic pollution. Both the formation and growth rates of particles in the diameter range 15–50?nm were enhanced during the dust episodes, indicating the influence of photo-induced, dust surface-mediated reactions and resulting condensable vapor production. This study provides unique in situ observations of heterogeneous photochemical processes inducing new particle formation and growth in the real atmosphere, and suggests an unexpected impact of mineral dust on climate and atmospheric chemistry. PMID:25319109

Nie, Wei; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; George, Christian; Xue, Likun; Wang, Wenxing; Zhang, Qingzhu; Petaja, Tuukka; Qi, Ximeng; Gao, Xiaomei; Wang, Xinfeng; Yang, Xiuqun; Fu, Congbin; Kulmala, Markku

2014-01-01

151

An Education Strategy to Promote Opportunity, Prosperity, and Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses a framework for education policy, from early childhood through post-secondary education, along with major reform ideas consistent with that framework. We present evidence showing that education is critical to broad-based economic growth. Investments in education yield large returns to both society and the individual.…

Bendor, Joshua; Bordoff, Jason; Furman, Jason

2007-01-01

152

Clove Extract Inhibits Tumor Growth and Promotes Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) have been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for thousands of years. Cloves possess antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties, but their potential anticancer activity remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects and biological mechanisms of ethyl acetate extract of cloves (EAEC) and the potential bioactive components responsible for its antitumor activity. The effects of EAEC on cell growth, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis were investigated using human cancer cell lines. The molecular changes associated with the effects of EAEC were analyzed by Western blot and (qRT)-PCR analysis. The in vivo effect of EAEC and its bioactive component was investigated using the HT-29 tumor xenograft model. We identified oleanolic acid (OA) as one of the components of EAEC responsible for its antitumor activity. Both EAEC and OA display cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines. Interestingly, EAEC was superior to OA and the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil at suppressing growth of colon tumor xenografts. EAEC promoted G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with EAEC and OA selectively increased protein expression of p21WAF1/Cip1 and ?-H2AX and downregulated expression of cell cycle-regulated proteins. Moreover, many of these changes were at the mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional regulation by EAEC treatment. Our results demonstrate that clove extract may represent a novel therapeutic herb for the treatment of colorectal cancer, and OA appears to be one of the bioactive components. PMID:24854101

Liu, Haizhou; Schmitz, John C.; Wei, Jianteng; Cao, Shousong; Beumer, Jan H.; Strychor, Sandra; Cheng, Linyou; Liu, Ming; Wang, Cuicui; Wu, Ning; Zhao, Xiangzhong; Zhang, Yuyan; Liao, Joshua; Chu, Edward; Lin, Xiukun

2014-01-01

153

What Is Expected from the Genus Azospirillum as a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bacteria capable of stimulating plant growth are generally known as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). Among them are\\u000a Azospirillum species that influence plant growth through different mechanisms. Azospirillum is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the alphaproteobacteria phylum. On the basis of the newly discovered species\\u000a (at present 15), it is present not only in a wide diversity of plants, including

Veronica Massena Reis; Kátia Regina dos Santos Teixeira; Raúl Osvaldo Pedraza

154

Suppression and promotion of growth by ethylene in rice seedlings depends on ambient humidity.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of ethylene on the growth of rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) at various degrees of humidity. Ethylene significantly suppressed the growth of shoots when applied to seedlings grown under 30% relative humidity (RH), but promoted the growth of shoots when applied to seedlings grown under 100% RH. The application of gibberellic acid (GA(3)) promoted the elongation of shoots in seedlings grown under 30% and 100% RH. Ethylene inhibited the shoot elongation induced by GA(3) at 30% RH, but enhanced the elongation induced by GA(3) at 100% RH. These results indicate that ethylene can either promote or suppress the growth of rice shoots depending on ambient humidity, and that these actions of ethylene may be mediated through modulating the responsiveness of shoots to gibberellin. PMID:17728010

Azuma, Tetsushi; Honda, Takenori; Sadai, Ayako; Sasayama, Daisuke; Itoh, Kazuyuki

2007-12-01

155

Colonization and plant growth promoting characterization of endophytic Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain Zong1 isolated from Sophora alopecuroides root nodules  

PubMed Central

The endophytic strain Zong1 isolated from root nodules of the legume Sophora alopecuroides was characterized by conducting physiological and biochemical tests employing gfp-marking, observing their plant growth promoting characteristics (PGPC) and detecting plant growth parameters of inoculation assays under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that strain Zong1 had an effective growth at 28 ºC after placed at 4–60 ºC for 15 min, had a wide range pH tolerance of 6.0–11.0 and salt tolerance up to 5% of NaCl. Zong1 was resistant to the following antibiotics (?g/mL): Phosphonomycin (100), Penicillin (100) and Ampicillin (100). It could grow in the medium supplemented with 1.2 mmol/L Cu, 0.1% (w/v) methylene blue and 0.1–0.2% (w/v) methyl red, respectively. Zong1 is closely related to Pseudomonas chlororaphis based on analysis the sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Its expression of the gfp gene indicated that strain Zong1 may colonize in root or root nodules and verified by microscopic observation. Furthermore, co-inoculation with Zong1 and SQ1 (Mesorhizobium sp.) showed significant effects compared to single inoculation for the following PGPC parameters: siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, organic acid production, IAA production and antifungal activity in vitro. These results suggest strains P. chlororaphi Zong1 and Mesorhizobium sp. SQ1 have better synergistic or addictive effect. It was noteworthy that each growth index of co-inoculated Zong1+SQ1 in growth assays under greenhouse conditions is higher than those of single inoculation, and showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared to a negative control. Therefore, as an endophyte P. chlororaphis Zong1 may play important roles as a potential plant-growth promoting agent. PMID:24294262

Zhao, Long Fei; Xu, Ya Jun; Ma, Zhan Qiang; Deng, Zhen Shan; Shan, Chang Juan; Wei, Ge Hong

2013-01-01

156

CEACAM1 promotes melanoma cell growth through Sox-2.  

PubMed

The prognostic value of the carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in melanoma was demonstrated more than a decade ago as superior to Breslow score. We have previously shown that intercellular homophilic CEACAM1 interactions protect melanoma cells from lymphocyte-mediated elimination. Here, we study the direct effects of CEACAM1 on melanoma cell biology. By employing tissue microarrays and low-passage primary cultures of metastatic melanoma, we show that CEACAM1 expression gradually increases from nevi to metastatic specimens, with a strong dominance of the CEACAM1-Long tail splice variant. Using experimental systems of CEACAM1 knockdown and overexpression of selective variants or truncation mutants, we prove that only the full-length long tail variant enhances melanoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. This effect is not reversed with a CEACAM1-blocking antibody, suggesting that it is not mediated by intercellular homophilic interactions. Downstream, CEACAM1-Long increases the expression of Sox-2, which we show to be responsible for the CEACAM1-mediated enhanced proliferation. Furthermore, analysis of the CEACAM1 promoter reveals two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly enhance the promoter's activity compared with the consensus nucleotides. Importantly, case-control genetic SNP analysis of 134 patients with melanoma and matched healthy donors show that patients with melanoma do not exhibit the Hardy-Weinberg balance and that homozygous SNP genotype enhances the hazard ratio to develop melanoma by 35%. These observations shed new mechanistic light on the role of CEACAM1 in melanoma, forming the basis for development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic technologies. PMID:24931667

Ortenberg, Rona; Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Greenberg, Ilanit; Zamlin, Bella; Sapoznik, Sivan; Greenberg, Eyal; Barshack, Iris; Avivi, Camila; Feiler, Yulia; Zan-Bar, Israel; Besser, Michal J; Azizi, Ester; Eitan, Friedman; Schachter, Jacob; Markel, Gal

2014-05-01

157

CEACAM1 Promotes Melanoma Cell Growth through Sox-212  

PubMed Central

The prognostic value of the carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in melanoma was demonstrated more than a decade ago as superior to Breslow score. We have previously shown that intercellular homophilic CEACAM1 interactions protect melanoma cells from lymphocyte-mediated elimination. Here, we study the direct effects of CEACAM1 on melanoma cell biology. By employing tissue microarrays and low-passage primary cultures of metastatic melanoma, we show that CEACAM1 expression gradually increases from nevi to metastatic specimens, with a strong dominance of the CEACAM1-Long tail splice variant. Using experimental systems of CEACAM1 knockdown and overexpression of selective variants or truncation mutants, we prove that only the full-length long tail variant enhances melanoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. This effect is not reversed with a CEACAM1-blocking antibody, suggesting that it is not mediated by intercellular homophilic interactions. Downstream, CEACAM1-Long increases the expression of Sox-2, which we show to be responsible for the CEACAM1-mediated enhanced proliferation. Furthermore, analysis of the CEACAM1 promoter reveals two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly enhance the promoter's activity compared with the consensus nucleotides. Importantly, case-control genetic SNP analysis of 134 patients with melanoma and matched healthy donors show that patients with melanoma do not exhibit the Hardy-Weinberg balance and that homozygous SNP genotype enhances the hazard ratio to develop melanoma by 35%. These observations shed new mechanistic light on the role of CEACAM1 in melanoma, forming the basis for development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic technologies. PMID:24931667

Ortenberg, Rona; Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Greenberg, Ilanit; Zamlin, Bella; Sapoznik, Sivan; Greenberg, Eyal; Barshack, Iris; Avivi, Camila; Feiler, Yulia; Zan-Bar, Israel; Besser, Michal J.; Azizi, Ester; Eitan, Friedman; Schachter, Jacob; Markel, Gal

2014-01-01

158

Plant growth promotion by spermidine-producing Bacillus subtilis OKB105.  

PubMed

The interaction between plants and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is a complex, reciprocal process. On the one hand, plant compounds such as carbohydrates and amino acids serve as energy sources for PGPR. On the other hand, PGPR promote plant growth by synthesizing plant hormones and increasing mineral availability in the soil. Here, we evaluated the growth-promoting activity of Bacillus subtilis OKB105 and identified genes associated with this activity. The genes yecA (encoding a putative amino acid/polyamine permease) and speB (encoding agmatinase) are involved in the secretion or synthesis of polyamine in B. subtilis OKB105. Disruption of either gene abolished the growth-promoting activity of the bacterium, which was restored when polyamine synthesis was complemented. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of culture filtrates of OKB105 and its derivatives demonstrated that spermidine, a common polyamine, is the pivotal plant-growth-promoting compound. In addition, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that treatment with B. subtilis OKB105 induced expansin gene (Nt-EXPA1 and Nt-EXPA2) expression and inhibited the expression of the ethylene biosynthesis gene ACO1. Furthermore, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis showed that the ethylene content in plant root cells decreased in response to spermidine produced by OKB105. Therefore, during plant interactions, OKB105 may produce and secrete spermidine, which induces expansin production and lowers ethylene levels. PMID:24678831

Xie, Shan-Shan; Wu, Hui-Jun; Zang, Hao-Yu; Wu, Li-Ming; Zhu, Qing-Qing; Gao, Xue-Wen

2014-07-01

159

Partner switching promotes cooperation among myopic agents on a geographical plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the coupling dynamics between the evolution of cooperation and the evolution of partnership network on a geographical plane. While agents play networked prisoner’s dilemma games, they can dynamically adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputation. We incorporate geographical features into the process of the agent’s partner switching and investigate the corresponding effects. At each time step of the coevolution, a random agent can either update his strategy by imitation or adjust his partnership by switching from the lowest reputation partner to the highest reputation one among his neighbors. We differentiate two types of neighbors: geographical neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in terms of geographical distance) and connectivity neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in the partnership network in terms of geodesic distance). We find that switching to either geographical neighbors or connectivity neighbors enhances cooperation greatly in a wide parameter range. Cooperation can be favored in a much stricter condition when agents switch to connectivity neighbors more frequently. However, an increasing tendency of reconnecting to geographical neighbors shortens the geographical distance between a pair of partners on average. When agents consider the cost of geographical distance in adjusting the partnership, they are prone to reconnect to geographical neighbors.

Li, Yixiao; Min, Yong; Zhu, Xiaodong; Cao, Jie

2013-02-01

160

Gene Expression of Axon Growth Promoting Factors in the Deer Antler  

PubMed Central

The annual regeneration cycle of deer (Cervidae, Artiodactyla) antlers represents a unique model of epimorphic regeneration and rapid growth in adult mammals. Regenerating antlers are innervated by trigeminal sensory axons growing through the velvet, the modified form of skin that envelopes the antler, at elongation velocities that reach one centimetre per day in the common deer (Cervus elaphus). Several axon growth promoters like NT-3, NGF or IGF-1 have been described in the antler. To increase the knowledge on the axon growth environment, we have combined different gene-expression techniques to identify and characterize the expression of promoting molecules not previously described in the antler velvet. Cross-species microarray analyses of deer samples on human arrays allowed us to build up a list of 90 extracellular or membrane molecules involved in axon growth that were potentially being expressed in the antler. Fifteen of these genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing techniques to confirm their expression in the velvet and to compare it with the expression in other antler and skin samples. Expression of 8 axon growth promoters was confirmed in the velvet, 5 of them not previously described in the antler. In conclusion, our work shows that antler velvet provides growing axons with a variety of promoters of axon growth, sharing many of them with deer's normal and pedicle skin. PMID:21187928

Pita-Thomas, Wolfgang; Fernandez-Martos, Carmen; Yunta, Monica; Maza, Rodrigo M.; Navarro-Ruiz, Rosa; Lopez-Rodriguez, Marcos Javier; Reigada, David; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Nieto-Diaz, Manuel

2010-01-01

161

BMP4 Promotes Prostate Tumor Growth in Bone Through Osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

Induction of new bone formation is frequently seen in the bone lesions from prostate cancer (PCa). However, whether osteogenesis is necessary for prostate tumor growth in bone is unknown. Recently, two xenografts, MDA-PCa-118b and MDA-PCa-133, were generated from PCa bone metastases. When implanted subcutaneously in SCID mice, MDA-PCa-118b induced strong ectopic bone formation while MDA-PCa-133 did not. To identify the factors that are involved in bone formation, we compared the expression of secreted factors (“secretome”) from MDA-PCa-118b and MDA-PCa-133 by cytokine array. We found that the osteogenic MDA-PCa-118b xenograft expressed higher levels of BMP-4 and several cytokines including IL-8, Gro, and CCL2. We demonstrated that BMP-4 secreted from MDA-PCa-118b contributed to about a third of the osteogenic differentiation seen in MDA-PCa-118b tumors. The conditioned media from MDA-PCa-118b induced a higher level of osteoblast differentiation, which was significantly reduced by treating with BMP-4 neutralizing antibody or the small molecule BMP receptor 1 inhibitor LDN-193189. BMP-4 did not elicit an autocrine effect on MDA-PCa-118b, which expressed low to undetectable levels of BMP receptors. Treatment of SCID mice bearing MDA-PCa-118b tumors with LDN-193189 significantly reduced tumor growth. Thus, these studies support a role of BMP4-mediated osteogenesis in the progression of PCa in bone. PMID:21670081

Lee, Yu-Chen; Cheng, Chien-Jui; Bilen, Mehmet A.; Lu, Jing-Fang; Satcher, Robert L.; Yu-Lee, Li-Yuan; Gallick, Gary E.; Maity, Sankar N.; Lin, Sue-Hwa

2011-01-01

162

Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. PMID:24144612

Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

2014-01-01

163

Proton pump activation and growth promotion by cinchomeronic acid in radish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinchomeronic acid (CA, 3,4-dicarboxypyridine or 4-carboxynicotinic acid) promoted hypocotyl elongation of radish seedlings when added to the medium or applied to the hypocotyls. On microscopic observation of epidermal cells of the plant, the length of each cell was elongated several times when compared to those of the controls. The mechanism of the plant-growth promotion by CA was investigated with plasma

Hiroshi Nishitani; Kouji Nishitsuji; Katsuzumi Okumura; Hiroshi Taguchi

1996-01-01

164

Plant growth promoting potential of bacteria isolated on N free media from rhizosphere of Cassia occidentalis.  

PubMed

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are an attractive eco-friendly alternative to chemicals in agriculture. While the rhizospheres of crop plants have been well studied with the objective of screening PGPR, weeds, which play an important role in maintaining ecological balance, have largely been ignored. The rhizosphere of a luxuriantly growing, medicinal weed, Cassia occidentalis was analysed by enumerating PGPR on N free media from the most diverse stage of plant (determined by profiles obtained on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). Each isolate was tested for other plant growth promotion assays including production of cellulase, indole acetic acid (IAA), ammonia, HCN, siderophore and chitinase to select for ones possessing multi-trait plant growth promoting (PGP) properties. Selected isolates were used for bacterization of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo to evaluate their efficacy in promoting plant's growth in seedling germination and axenic pot conditions. Thirty five isolates were analysed further for the array of PGP properties they exhibit. A total of 6 isolates were shortlisted on the basis of maximum traits positive, amount of phosphate solubilized and IAA produced. V. radiata responded well to seed bacterization during seedling germination. A maximum increase of approximately 36 and 60 % was observed for shoot and root length, respectively in V. radiata in axenic pot culture over control plants. Extensive branching of roots was also observed with isolate NL, which produced the maximum amount of IAA. Present study investigated the plant growth promoting isolates obtained on N free media in the rhizosphere of C. occidentalis, which have the potential to be used as inoculants for other crops. This provides a new dimension to the significance of weeds in agricultural ecosystems. The study opens up possibilities for utilization of this property of weeds in plant growth promotion, and subsequent enhancement of yield for agricultural crops. PMID:22806725

Arun, B; Gopinath, B; Sharma, Shilpi

2012-09-01

165

The Drosophila phosphoinositide 3-kinase Dp110 promotes cell growth.  

PubMed Central

Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) have been identified in an evolutionarily diverse range of organisms, including mammals, Drosophila, yeast, plants and Dictyostelium. They are activated by a multitude of extracellular signals and implicated in mitogenesis, differentiation and cell survival, as well as in the control of the cytoskeleton and cell shape. Here we describe the molecular and functional analysis of Drosophila p110 (Dp110). A full-length Dp110 cDNA was isolated and found to encode a protein homologous throughout its length to the class I mammalian PI3Ks p110alpha and p110beta. Overexpression of Dp110 in wing or eye imaginal discs resulted in flies with enlarged wings or eyes respectively. In contrast, overexpression of Dp110 containing a mutation predicted to result in the loss of catalytic activity resulted in smaller wings and eyes. The alterations in wing size result from changes in both cell size and cell number, whereas in the eye only differences in cell size were detected. These data imply a role for Dp110 in growth control during Drosophila development and have implications for the function of class I PI3Ks in other organisms. Images PMID:8978685

Leevers, S J; Weinkove, D; MacDougall, L K; Hafen, E; Waterfield, M D

1996-01-01

166

Promoting Self-Regulated Learning Skills in Agent-based Learning Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed computer environments that support learning by teaching, concept mapping, scaffolding, and the use of self regulated learning (SRL) skills by social interactions with virtual agents. More specifically, students teach a computer agent, Betty, and can monitor her progress by asking her questions and getting her to take quizzes. The system provides SRL support via dialog-embedded prompts. Our

Gautam BISWAS; Rod ROSCOE; Hogyeong JEONG; Brian SULCER

167

Toxicological assessment of selective pesticides towards plant growth promoting activities of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The study was designed to assess the effect of selected pesticides (metribuzin, glyphosate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, hexaconazole, metalaxyl and kitazin) at the recommended and higher rates on plant growth promoting activities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PS1 isolated from mustard (Brassica compestris) rhizosphere. The strain PS1 was specifically chosen owing to its substantial tolerance against pesticides, phosphate solubilization and considerable production of indole acetic acid, siderophores, exo-polysaccharides, HCN and ammonia. Plant growth promoting traits of the strain PS1 decreased consistently as the concentrations of each pesticide was increased from the recommended dose to the higher ones. Generally, the maximum toxicity to plant growth promoting traits was displayed by pesticides at three times the recommended field rate. However, the effect on the plant growth promoting activities of the P. aeruginosa strain PS1 at the recommended dose of each pesticide was less hazardous. This study revealed an additional aspect of the toxicological mechanisms of the pesticides through which they suppress the plant growth. PMID:21983319

Ahemad, Munees; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

2011-09-01

168

Use of impact fees to incentivize low-impact development and promote compact growth.  

PubMed

Low-impact development (LID) is an innovative stormwater management strategy that restores the predevelopment hydrology to prevent increased stormwater runoff from land development. Integrating LID into residential subdivisions and increasing population density by building more compact living spaces (e.g., apartment homes) can result in a more sustainable city by reducing stormwater runoff, saving infrastructural cost, increasing the number of affordable homes, and supporting public transportation. We develop an agent-based model (ABM) that describes the interactions between several decision-makers (i.e., local government, a developer, and homebuyers) and fiscal drivers (e.g., property taxes, impact fees). The model simulates the development of nine square miles of greenfield land. A more sustainable development (MSD) scenario introduces an impact fee that developers must pay if they choose not to use LID to build houses or apartment homes. Model simulations show homeowners selecting apartment homes 60% or 35% of the time after 30 years of development in MSD or business as usual (BAU) scenarios, respectively. The increased adoption of apartment homes results from the lower cost of using LID and improved quality of life for apartment homes relative to single-family homes. The MSD scenario generates more tax revenue and water savings than does BAU. A time-dependent global sensitivity analysis quantifies the importance of socioeconomic variables on the adoption rate of apartment homes. The top influential factors are the annual pay rates (or capital recovery factor) for single-family houses and apartment homes. The ABM can be used by city managers and policymakers for scenario exploration in accordance with local conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of impact fees and other policies in promoting LID and compact growth. PMID:23815440

Lu, Zhongming; Noonan, Douglas; Crittenden, John; Jeong, Hyunju; Wang, Dali

2013-10-01

169

Chemokine receptor CXCR3 promotes growth of glioma  

PubMed Central

Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The poor prognosis and minimally successful treatments of GBM indicates a need to identify new therapeutic targets. In this study, we examined the role of CXCR3 in glioma progression using the GL261 murine model of malignant glioma. Intracranial GL261 tumors express CXCL9 and CXCL10 in vivo. Glioma-bearing CXCR3-deficient mice had significantly shorter median survival time and reduced numbers of tumor-infiltrated natural killer and natural killer T cells as compared with tumor-bearing wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, pharmacological antagonism of CXCR3 with NBI-74330 prolonged median survival times of both tumor-bearing WT and CXCR3-deficient mice when compared with vehicle-treated groups. NBI-74330 treatment did not impact tumor infiltration of lymphocytes and microglia. A small percentage of GL261 cells were identified as CXCR3+, which was similar to the expression of CXCR3 in several grade IV human glioma cell lines (A172, T98G, U87, U118 and U138). When cultured as gliomaspheres (GS), the human and murine lines increased CXCR3 expression; CXCR3 expression was also found in a primary human GBM-derived GS. Additionally, CXCR3 isoform A was expressed by all lines, whereas CXCR3-B was detected in T98G-, U118- and U138-GS cells. CXCL9 or CXCL10 induced in vitro glioma cell growth in GL261- and U87-GS as well as inhibited cell loss in U138-GS cells and this effect was antagonized by NBI-74330. The results suggest that CXCR3 antagonism exerts a direct anti-glioma effect and this receptor may be a potential therapeutic target for treating human GBM. PMID:21051441

Liu, Che; Luo, Defang; Reynolds, Brent A.; Meher, Geeta; Katritzky, Alan R.; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Craig J.; Bhadha, Cyrus P.; Harrison, Jeffrey K.

2011-01-01

170

Regulation of Ribosome Biogenesis by Nucleostemin 3 Promotes Local and Systemic Growth in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Nucleostemin 3 (NS3) is an evolutionarily conserved protein with profound roles in cell growth and viability. Here we analyze cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous growth control roles of NS3 in Drosophila and demonstrate its GTPase activity using genetic and biochemical assays. Two null alleles of ns3, and RNAi, demonstrate the necessity of NS3 for cell autonomous growth. A hypomorphic allele highlights the hypersensitivity of neurons to lowered NS3 function. We propose that NS3 is the functional ortholog of yeast and human Lsg1, which promotes release of the nuclear export adapter from the large ribosomal subunit. Release of the adapter and its recycling to the nucleus are essential for sustained production of ribosomes. The ribosome biogenesis role of NS3 is essential for proper rates of translation in all tissues and is necessary for functions of growth-promoting neurons. PMID:23436180

Hartl, Tom A.; Ni, Julie; Cao, Jian; Suyama, Kaye L.; Patchett, Stephanie; Bussiere, Cyril; Gui, Dan Yi; Tang, Sheng; Kaplan, Daniel D.; Fish, Matthew; Johnson, Arlen W.; Scott, Matthew P.

2013-01-01

171

Identification of a potential gene expression biomarker signature in bovine liver to detect the abuse of growth promoters.  

PubMed

The misuse of anabolic agents in animal husbandry is a ubiquitous problem. The ban of growth promoters in food producing animals in the European Union is well controlled, but there are still application regimes, such as new designed drugs or hormone cocktails, that are difficult to detect. Therefore, the idea of identifying molecular biomarkers that are based on the physiological effect of treatment has come into focus. In a previous study we identified mRNA biomarker candidates in liver samples that enable the separation of untreated animals from animals treated with a combination of androgens plus estrogens. In the present study those candidates were validated in calves treated with a combination of progesterone plus estradiol or clenbuterol, respectively. Therefore, the candidate genes were quantified in liver samples of those calves via RT-qPCR. Using dynamic principal component analysis (PCA), a signature of 11 genes could be selected. This set of genes enabled the separation of treated and control animals independent of the applied drug. Additional quantification of these genes in a set of control samples from another animal trial resulted in a PCA that also showed a separation of those samples from treated animals. This study showed that gene expression biomarkers have a high potential to enable the detection of physiological changes caused by the application of growth-promoting substances independent of the given drug, but further studies are necessary to broaden the spectrum of anabolic substance groups for which those biomarker candidates can be used. PMID:24559206

Riedmaier, Irmgard; Spornraft, Melanie; Pfaffl, Michael W

2014-04-01

172

The effect of complexing agents on the oriented growth of electrodeposited microcrystalline cuprous oxide film  

SciTech Connect

Highlight: ? Cu{sub 2}O microcrystalline film is electrodeposited on ITO with complexing agents. ? As the stability constant increasing, the overpotential is negatively shifted. ? The formation energy of different planes is affected by overpotential. ? The overpotential can significantly alter the growth priority of different planes. ? The morphology of Cu{sub 2}O film is significantly modified by complexing agents. -- Abstract: Three conventional complexing agents, including lactic acid, citric acid and EDTA, are applied in the electrodeposition of microcrystalline cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) film on indium tin oxide glass substrate. Both scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction have been performed to characterize the morphology and texture of microcrystalline Cu{sub 2}O film. It is found that the stability constant of copper-based complex compound can obviously influence the deposition overpotential of Cu{sub 2}O, and the overpotential can significantly alter the growth priority of different planes, which results in oriented growth of Cu{sub 2}O grains. The quantitative relationships between the stability constant and the deposition overpotential of different complexing agents, as well as the relationship between the overpotential and the formation energy of microcrystalline cuprous oxide's (1 1 0), (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) planes are calculated, respectively.

Zhang, Zhen; Hu, Wenbin; Deng, Yida; Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Haoren [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wu, Yating, E-mail: tosunbear@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2012-09-15

173

Plant growth promotion due to rhizobacterial volatiles – An effect of CO 2?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serratia odorifera, an antagonistic rhizobacterium, emits a diverse and complex bouquet of volatiles. Three different in vitro experimental culture systems indicated that these volatiles promote the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. CO2 trapping and significant rise of CO2 levels (390–3000ppm CO2 within 24h) due to bacterial growth in sealed Petri dishes verified the enhanced effects of rhizobacterial CO2 on A. thaliana’s

Marco Kai; Birgit Piechulla

2009-01-01

174

Elbow loading promotes longitudinal bone growth of the ulna and the humerus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical stimulation plays a critical role in bone development and growth. In view of recently recognized anabolic responses\\u000a promoted by a joint-loading modality, we examined the effects of elbow loading on longitudinal growth of the ulna and the\\u000a humerus. Using a custom-made piezoelectric loader, the left elbow of growing C57\\/BL\\/6 female mice was given daily 5-min bouts\\u000a of dynamic loading

Ping Zhang; Hiroki Yokota

175

Herbal plants and their derivatives as growth and health promoters in animal nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to summarize the effectiveness, modes of action and commercial application of herbal plants and their derivatives as growth promoters for animal. Feed supplements\\u000a are a group of feed ingredients that can cause a desired animal response in a non-nutrient role such as pH shift, growth,\\u000a or metabolic modifier (Hutjens, 1991). Common feed additives used

Seyed Reza Hashemi; Homa Davoodi

2011-01-01

176

Growth promotion and protection of lentil ( Lens esculenta ) against herbicide stress by Rhizobium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to recover lentil-specific rhizobial strains tolerant to herbicides (quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop)\\u000a and synthesizing plant growth regulators even in the presence of herbicide stress. Furthermore, the impact of rhizobial strain\\u000a was assessed on lentil plants grown in herbicide-treated soils. Quizalafop-p-ethyl- and clodinafop-tolerant Rhizobium sp. isolate MRL3 recovered from the nodules of lentil produced plant growth-promoting substances in

Munees Ahemad; Mohammad Saghir Khan

2010-01-01

177

Plant growth-promoting bacteria confer resistance in tomato plants to salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of the work is to evaluate whether rhizobacteria populating dry salty environments can increase resistance in tomato to salt stress. Seven strains of plant growth-promoting bacteria that have 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity were isolated from soil samples taken from the Arava region of southern Israel. Following growth of these seedlings in the presence of 43 mM NaCl for 7 weeks,

Shimon Mayak; Tsipora Tirosh; Bernard R Glick

2004-01-01

178

Genetics of phosphate solubilization and its potential applications for improving plant growth-promoting bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are soil and rhizosphere bacteria that can benefit plant growth by different mechanisms.\\u000a The ability of some microorganisms to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form, like orthophosphate, is an important\\u000a trait in a PGPB for increasing plant yields. In this mini-review, the isolation and characterization of genes involved in\\u000a mineralization of organic P sources

H. Rodríguez; R. Fraga; T. Gonzalez; Y. Bashan

179

Phototropins Promote Plant Growth in Response to Blue Light in Low Light Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are plant-specific blue light receptors for phototropism, chloroplast movement, leaf expansion, and stomatal opening. All these responses are thought to optimize photosynthesis by helping to capture light energy efficiently, reduce photodamage, and acquire CO2. However, experimental evidence for the promotion of plant growth through phototropins is lacking. Here, we report dramatic phototropin-dependent effects on plant growth.

Atsushi Takemiya; Shin-ichiro Inoue; Michio Doi; Toshinori Kinoshita; Ken-ichiro Shimazaki

2005-01-01

180

Efficacy of Burkholderia cepacia MCI 7 in disease suppression and growth promotion of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated greenhouse experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of a maize-rhizosphere isolate of Burkholderia cepacia, applied as a seed coating, to promote maize growth in both uninfested soil and soil infested with a maize pathogenic strain\\u000a of Fusarium moniliforme, and to displace or negatively affect the population of F. moniliforme throughout plant growth. Results demonstrated that the B. cepacia

A. Bevivino; C. Dalmastri; S. Tabacchioni; L. Chiarini

2000-01-01

181

YAC tripeptide of epidermal growth factor promotes the proliferation of HaCaT keratinocytes through activation of EGFR.  

PubMed

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is known to play key roles in skin regeneration and wound-healing. Here, we demonstrate that Pep2-YAC, a tripeptide covering residues 29-31 in the B loop of EGF, promotes the proliferation of HaCaT keratinocytes with activity comparable to EGF. The treatment of HaCaT cells with Pep2-YAC induced phosphorylation, internalization, and degradation of EGFR and organization of signaling complexes, which consist of Grb2, Gab1, SHP2, and PI3K. In addition, it stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 at Thr 202/Tyr 204 and of Akt1 at Ser 473 and the nuclear translocation of EGFR, STAT3, c-Jun, and c-Fos. These results suggest that Pep2-YAC may be useful as a therapeutic agent for skin regeneration and wound-healing as an EGFR agonist. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(10): 581-586]. PMID:25179402

Yoo, Yeon Ho; Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Min Seo; Lee, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Kyeong Han; Hahn, Jang-Hee

2014-10-01

182

Growth signaling promotes chronological aging in budding yeast by inducing superoxide anions that inhibit quiescence.  

PubMed

Inhibition of growth signaling pathways protects against aging and age-related diseases in parallel with reduced oxidative stress. The relationships between growth signaling, oxidative stress and aging remain unclear. Here we report that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alterations in growth signaling pathways impact levels of superoxide anions that promote chronological aging and inhibit growth arrest of stationary phase cells in G0/G1. Factors that decrease intracellular superoxide anions in parallel with enhanced longevity and more efficient G0/G1 arrest include genetic inactivation of growth signaling pathways that inhibit Rim15p, which activates oxidative stress responses, and downregulation of these pathways by caloric restriction. Caloric restriction also reduces superoxide anions independently of Rim15p by elevating levels of H?O?, which activates superoxide dismutases. In contrast, high glucose or mutations that activate growth signaling accelerate chronological aging in parallel with increased superoxide anions and reduced efficiency of stationary phase G0/G1 arrest. High glucose also activates DNA damage responses and preferentially kills stationary phase cells that fail to arrest growth in G0/G1. These findings suggest that growth signaling promotes chronological aging in budding yeast by elevating superoxide anions that inhibit quiescence and induce DNA replication stress. A similar mechanism likely contributes to aging and age-related diseases in complex eukaryotes. PMID:21076178

Weinberger, Martin; Mesquita, Ana; Caroll, Timothy; Marks, Laura; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Zhaojie; Ludovico, Paula; Burhans, William C

2010-10-01

183

Azospirillum plant growth-promoting strains are nonpathogenic on tomato, pepper, cotton, and wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six strains of Azospirillum belonging to five species of plant growth-promoting bacteria (A. brasilense, A. lipoferum, A. amazonense, A. irakense, and A. halopraeference) did not cause visible disease symptoms on the roots or leaves of tomato, pepper, cotton, and wheat, failed to inhibit seed germination, and did not reduce plant dry weight when seven standard techniques for the inoculation of

Yoav Bashan

1998-01-01

184

Alcohol promotes mammary tumor growth through activation of VEGF-dependent tumor angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Alcohol consumption has been recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer. Experimental studies demonstrate that alcohol exposure promotes the progression of existing mammary tumors. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. In the present study, the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in alcohol promotion of breast cancer development was investigated using a mouse xenograft model of mammary tumors and a three-dimensional (3D) tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system. For the mouse xenograft model, mouse E0771 breast cancer cells were implanted into the mammary fat pad of C57BL6 mice. These mice were exposed to alcohol in their drinking water. For the 3D co-culture system, E0771 cells and MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were co-cultured with SVEC4-10EE2 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. The results demonstrated that alcohol increased tumor angiogenesis and accelerated tumor growth. Furthermore, it appeared that alcohol induced VEGF expression in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Blocking VEGF signaling by SU5416 inhibited tumor angiogenesis in the 3D tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system. Furthermore, injection of SU5416 into mice inhibited alcohol-promoted mammary tumor growth in vivo. These results indicate that alcohol may promote mammary tumor growth by stimulating VEGF-dependent angiogenesis. PMID:25009649

LU, YANMIN; NI, FANG; XU, MEI; YANG, JINLIAN; CHEN, JI; CHEN, ZHUO; WANG, XINYI; LUO, JIA; WANG, SIYING

2014-01-01

185

Salaries, Salary Growth, and Promotions of Men and Women in a Large, Private Firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Salaries, promotions, and salary growth of men and women in a large, diversified firm were examined for the years 1980 through 1986. Consistent with other studies, men's average salary was higher than women's average salary. However, statistical adjustment for gender differences in-education, tenure, time at level, experience, and job level substantially reduced the salary advantage of men over women.

Barry A. Gerhart; George T. Milkovich

1987-01-01

186

Plant growth-promoting bacteria and nitrate availability: impacts on root development and nitrate uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and NO - 3 availability both affect NO - 3 uptake and root architec- ture. The presence of external NO - 3 induces the expression of NO - 3 transporter genes and elicits lat- eral root elongation in the part of the root system exposed to the NO - 3 supply. By contrast, an increase in

Sophie Mantelin; Bruno Touraine

2003-01-01

187

Plant growth promoting bacteria enhance water stress resistance in green gram plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth promoting bacterial (PGPB) strains Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf1 and endophytic Bacillus subtilis EPB5, EPB22, EPB 31 were tested for their capacity to induce water stress related proteins and enzymes in green gram (Vigna radiata) plants. Among the different bacteria used, P. fluorescens Pf1 increased the vigour index, fresh weight and dry weight of green gram seedlings in vitro. Quantitative

D. Saravanakumar; M. Kavino; T. Raguchander; P. Subbian; R. Samiyappan

2011-01-01

188

Inoculants of plant growth-promoting bacteria for use in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the current state of bacterial inoculants for contemporary agriculture in developed and developing countries is critically evaluated from the point of view of their actual status and future use. Special emphasis is given to two new concepts of inoculation, as yet unavailable commercially: (i) synthetic inoculants under development for plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) (Bashan and Holguin, 1998), and

Yoav Bashan

1998-01-01

189

Alginate microbeads as inoculant carriers for plant growth-promoting bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of inoculating wet and dry seeds with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) using alginate microbeads as a substrate and Azospirillum brasilense as the model PGPB was developed. The microbeads were produced by low pressure spraying of an alginate solution mixed with liquid bacterial culture suspended in a very rich medium through a small nozzle resulting in small-diameter droplets. These

Yoav Bashan; Juan-Pablo Hernandez; Luis A. Leyva; Macario Bacilio

2002-01-01

190

Burkholderia cenocepacia conditional growth mutant library created by random promoter replacement of essential genes  

PubMed Central

Identification of essential genes by construction of conditional knockouts with inducible promoters allows the identification of essential genes and creation of conditional growth (CG) mutants that are then available as genetic tools for further studies. We used large-scale transposon delivery of the rhamnose-inducible promoter, PrhaB followed by robotic screening of rhamnose-dependent growth to construct a genomic library of 106 Burkholderia cenocepacia CG mutants. Transposon insertions were found where PrhaB was in the same orientation of widely conserved, well-characterized essential genes as well as genes with no previous records of essentiality in other microorganisms. Using previously reported global gene-expression analyses, we demonstrate that PrhaB can achieve the wide dynamic range of expression levels required for essential genes when the promoter is delivered randomly and mutants with rhamnose-dependent growth are selected. We also show specific detection of the target of an antibiotic, novobiocin, by enhanced sensitivity of the corresponding CG mutant (PrhaB controlling gyrB expression) within the library. Modulation of gene expression to achieve 30–60% of wild-type growth created conditions for specific hypersensitivity demonstrating the value of the CG mutant library for chemogenomic experiments. In summary, CG mutants can be obtained on a large scale by random delivery of a tightly regulated inducible promoter into the bacterial chromosome followed by a simple screening for the CG phenotype, without previous information on gene essentiality. PMID:23389959

Bloodworth, Ruhi A M; Gislason, April S; Cardona, Silvia T

2013-01-01

191

Effect of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas spp. on compatible solutes, antioxidant status and plant growth of maize under drought stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting yield of dryland crops. Rhizobacterial populations of stressed soils\\u000a are adapted and tolerant to stress and can be screened for isolation of efficient stress adaptive\\/tolerant, plant growth promoting\\u000a rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains that can be used as inoculants for crops grown in stressed ecosystems. The effect of inoculation\\u000a of five drought tolerant

V. Sandhya; Sk. Z. Ali; Minakshi Grover; Gopal Reddy; B. Venkateswarlu

2010-01-01

192

Enhanced Hepatocyte Growth Factor Signaling by Type II Transforming Growth Factor-B Receptor Knockout Fibroblasts Promotes Mammary Tumorigenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-B (TGF-B) plays complex dual roles as an inhibitor and promoter of tumor progression. Although the influence of the stromal microenvironment on tumor progression is well recognized, little is known about the functions of TGF-B signaling in the stroma during tumor progression. Using cre-lox technology, expression of the type II TGF-B receptor was selectively knocked out in fibroblasts

Nikki Cheng; Anna Chytil; Yu Shyr; Alison Joly

2007-01-01

193

Porcine skin gelatin hydrolysate promotes longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats.  

PubMed

Collagen hydrolysates (CHs) are mixtures of peptides obtained by partial hydrolysis of gelatin that are receiving scientific attention as potential oral supplements for the restoration of osteoarticular tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CHs for promoting longitudinal bone growth in growing rats. An in vitro study was carried out in osteoblast-like MG63 cells and the most effective CH on bone formation was selected among 36 various CHs. An in vivo study confirmed the functional effects of a selected CH with molecular weight of <3?kDa on longitudinal bone growth. CHs dose-dependently promoted the longitudinal bone growth and height of the growth plate in adolescent male rats, whereas gelatin failed to affect longitudinal bone growth. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the CH treated group were highly expressed in the growth plate. These results suggest that CHs isolated in this study may provide beneficial effects on bone metabolism of growing animals and humans. PMID:23631489

Leem, Kang-Hyun; Lee, Sena; Jang, Aera; Kim, Hye Kyung

2013-05-01

194

ACC deaminase and IAA producing growth promoting bacteria from the rhizosphere soil of tropical rice plants.  

PubMed

Beneficial plant-associated bacteria play a key role in supporting and/or promoting plant growth and health. Plant growth promoting bacteria present in the rhizosphere of crop plants can directly affect plant metabolism or modulate phytohormone production or degradation. We isolated 355 bacteria from the rhizosphere of rice plants grown in the farmers' fields in the coastal rice field soil from five different locations of the Ganjam district of Odisha, India. Six bacteria producing both ACC deaminase (ranging from 603.94 to 1350.02?nmol ?-ketobutyrate mg(-1) ?h(-1) ) and indole acetic acid (IAA; ranging from 10.54 to 37.65??M?ml(-1) ) in pure cultures were further identified using polyphasic taxonomy including BIOLOG((R)) , FAME analysis and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates resulted into five major clusters to include members of the genera Bacillus, Microbacterium, Methylophaga, Agromyces, and Paenibacillus. Seed inoculation of rice (cv. Naveen) by the six individual PGPR isolates had a considerable impact on different growth parameters including root elongation that was positively correlated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. The cultures also had other plant growth attributes including ammonia production and at least two isolates produced siderophores. Study indicates that presence of diverse rhizobacteria with effective growth-promoting traits, in the rice rhizosphere, may be exploited for a sustainable crop management under field conditions. PMID:23681643

Bal, Himadri Bhusan; Das, Subhasis; Dangar, Tushar K; Adhya, Tapan K

2013-12-01

195

Reduction of Bacterial Speck ( Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato ) of Tomato by Combined Treatments of Plant Growth-promoting Bacterium, Azospirillum brasilense , Streptomycin Sulfate, and Chemo-thermal Seed Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculation of tomato seeds with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense, or spraying tomato foliage with A. brasilense, streptomycin sulfate, or commercial copper bactericides, separately, before or after inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the casual agent of bacterial speck of tomato, had no lasting effect on disease severity or on plant height and dry weight. Seed inoculation with A.

Yoav Bashan; Luz E. de-Bashan

2002-01-01

196

27-Hydroxycholesterol Promotes Cell-autonomous ER-positive Breast Cancer Growth  

PubMed Central

Summary To date estrogen is the only known endogenous estrogen receptor (ER) ligand that promotes ER+ breast tumor growth. We report that the cholesterol metabolite 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) stimulates MCF-7 cell xenograft growth in mice. More importantly, in ER+ breast cancer patients, 27HC content in normal breast tissue is increased compared to that in cancer-free controls, and tumor 27HC content is further elevated. Increased tumor 27HC is correlated with diminished expression of CYP7B1, the 27HC metabolizing enzyme, and reduced expression of CYP7B1 in tumors is associated with poorer patient survival. Moreover, 27HC is produced by MCF-7 cells and it stimulates cell-autonomous, ER-dependent and GDNF-RET-dependent cell proliferation. Thus, 27HC is a locally-modulated, non-aromatized ER ligand that promotes ER+ breast tumor growth. PMID:24210818

Wu, Qian; Ishikawa, Tomonori; Sirianni, Rosa; Tang, Hao; McDonald, Jeffrey G.; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Thompson, Bonne; Girard, Luc; Mineo, Chieko; Brekken, Rolf A.; Umetani, Michihisa; Euhus, David M.; Xie, Yang; Shaul, Philip W.

2013-01-01

197

Identification of a serine protease with nerve growth promoting activity from snake venom.  

PubMed

A new protein with nerve growth promoting activity was purified from the crude venom of the Agkistrodon halys Pallas, a Chinese snake. Its amino-terminal sequence unexpectedly showed high homology with serine proteases, suggesting that it is a new member of the serine protease family. It also cross-reacted with antibodies against thrombin-like enzyme and possessed weak arginine esterase activity, amounting to about 3% of the activity of trypsin. However, its nerve growth promoting activity was comparable to that of nerve growth factor (NGF). It was named NGF-like protease (NLP). Northern blot analysis further demonstrated different patterns of induction of c-myc, vgf and trkA mRNA transcription in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells treated with NGF and NLP, respectively. These data suggested that NLP represents a novel potent neurotrophic factor. PMID:9858363

Guo, L Y; Zhu, H; Zhu, J F; Jing, N H; Feng, L; Zhou, Y C

1998-11-16

198

Madm (Mlf1 adapter molecule) cooperates with Bunched A to promote growth in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background The TSC-22 domain family (TSC22DF) consists of putative transcription factors harboring a DNA-binding TSC-box and an adjacent leucine zipper at their carboxyl termini. Both short and long TSC22DF isoforms are conserved from flies to humans. Whereas the short isoforms include the tumor suppressor TSC-22 (Transforming growth factor-?1 stimulated clone-22), the long isoforms are largely uncharacterized. In Drosophila, the long isoform Bunched A (BunA) acts as a growth promoter, but how BunA controls growth has remained obscure. Results In order to test for functional conservation among TSC22DF members, we expressed the human TSC22DF proteins in the fly and found that all long isoforms can replace BunA function. Furthermore, we combined a proteomics-based approach with a genetic screen to identify proteins that interact with BunA. Madm (Mlf1 adapter molecule) physically associates with BunA via a conserved motif that is only contained in long TSC22DF proteins. Moreover, Drosophila Madm acts as a growth-promoting gene that displays growth phenotypes strikingly similar to bunA phenotypes. When overexpressed, Madm and BunA synergize to increase organ growth. Conclusions The growth-promoting potential of long TSC22DF proteins is evolutionarily conserved. Furthermore, we provide biochemical and genetic evidence for a growth-regulating complex involving the long TSC22DF protein BunA and the adapter molecule Madm. See minireview at http://jbiol.com/content/9/1/8. PMID:20149264

2010-01-01

199

In vitro assessments of diverse plant pathogenic fungi treated with a novel growth control agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of an agent with an iodine-based active ingredient (a.i.) was evaluated for controlling the growth of fungi pathogenic to many different food crops. Even though iodine is a necessary mineral for mammals and is an approved food additive, interest in using iodine-based agrochemicals for fungal control is recent. Fusarium verticillioides (synonym=F. moniliforme J. Sheld) sensitivity to the iodine-base

Ida E. Yates; Judy W. Arnold; Charles W. Bacon; Dorothy M. Hinton

2004-01-01

200

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C Promotes Tumor Lymphangiogenesis and Intralymphatic Tumor Growth1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many solid tumors produce vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), and its receptor, VEGFR-3, is expressed in tumor blood vessels. To study the role of VEGF-C in tumorigenesis, we implanted MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells overexpressing recombinant VEGF-C orthotopically into severe combined immunodeficient mice. VEGF-C increased tumor growth, but unlike VEGF, it had little effect on tumor angiogenesis. Instead, VEGF-C

Terhi Karpanen; Mikala Egeblad; Marika J. Karkkainen; Hajime Kubo; Kari Alitalo

2001-01-01

201

Stimulatory Effects of Arsenic-Tolerant Soil Fungi on Plant Growth Promotion and Soil Properties  

PubMed Central

Fifteen fungi were obtained from arsenic-contaminated agricultural fields in West Bengal, India and examined for their arsenic tolerance and removal ability in our previous study. Of these, the four best arsenic-remediating isolates were tested for plant growth promotion effects on rice and pea in the present study. A greenhouse-based pot experiment was conducted using soil inocula of individual fungi. The results indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant growth and improvement of soil properties in inoculated soils compared to the control. A significant increase in plant growth was recorded in treated soils and varied from 16–293%. Soil chemical and enzymatic properties varied from 20–222% and 34–760%, respectively, in inoculated soil. Plants inoculated with inocula of Westerdykella and Trichoderma showed better stimulatory effects on plant growth and soil nutrient availability than Rhizopus and Lasiodiplodia. These fungi improved soil nutrient content and enhanced plant growth. These fungi may be used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and improved soil properties in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:23047145

Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Gupta, Manjul; Vaish, Aradhana; Mannan, Shivee; Singh, Nandita; Tewari, Shri Krishna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

2012-01-01

202

Stimulatory effects of arsenic-tolerant soil fungi on plant growth promotion and soil properties.  

PubMed

Fifteen fungi were obtained from arsenic-contaminated agricultural fields in West Bengal, India and examined for their arsenic tolerance and removal ability in our previous study. Of these, the four best arsenic-remediating isolates were tested for plant growth promotion effects on rice and pea in the present study. A greenhouse-based pot experiment was conducted using soil inocula of individual fungi. The results indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant growth and improvement of soil properties in inoculated soils compared to the control. A significant increase in plant growth was recorded in treated soils and varied from 16-293%. Soil chemical and enzymatic properties varied from 20-222% and 34-760%, respectively, in inoculated soil. Plants inoculated with inocula of Westerdykella and Trichoderma showed better stimulatory effects on plant growth and soil nutrient availability than Rhizopus and Lasiodiplodia. These fungi improved soil nutrient content and enhanced plant growth. These fungi may be used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and improved soil properties in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:23047145

Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Gupta, Manjul; Vaish, Aradhana; Mannan, Shivee; Singh, Nandita; Tewari, Shri Krishna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

2012-01-01

203

A Lay Health Advisor Program to Promote Community Capacity and Change Among Change Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Charlotte REACH 2010 project focuses on cardiovascular disease and diabetes among African Americans in a geographically defined community. The goal of the project is to create changes in individual behaviors, community capacity, change agents, and systemic policies and actions that will result in the reduction of health disparities related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The project consists of three

Marcus Plescia; Martha Groblewski; LaTonya Chavis

2008-01-01

204

RAT TRACHEAL CELL CULTURE TRANSFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS AS CARCINOGENS AND PROMOTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A tracheal cell culture system which can be used for detection of hazardous environmental agents is described. The culture system makes use of primary tracheal cells that are isolated from rats by protease digestion of the tracheal epithelium. The epithelial cells are plated on a...

205

Efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sand dunes of Chennai coastal area.  

PubMed

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize the plant root and enhance the plant growth. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. In the present study, PGPR were isolated from 18 different rhizosphere soil samples of coastal sand dune plants, belonging to the genus Ipomoea sp. collected from the Chennai coastal area. For isolation of bacteria from soil samples, pour plate technique was followed. The rhizobacterial population was ranged from 4.4 x 10(6)-7.5 x 10(7) CFU g(-1). From that, 46 morphologically different bacterial strains were isolated. Among 46, 18 strains exhibited the production of Indole Acetic Acid. (IAA). When screened for phosphate solubilzing activity, six strains showed maximum activity. All these selected six strains were screened for seed germination among which these two strains (AMET1136 and AMET 1148) showed remarkable increase in the seed germination of black gram and green gram. For plant growth promotion, three types of treatments namely, seed bacterization, soil drenching and mixed (seed+soil) were carried out to check the potential of these two strains. Among that one strain which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. AMET1148 showed remarkable and significant increase in shoot length and root length of the tested plants. The study concluded that PGPR from coastal sand dund plants can be developed as plant growth promoters in agricultural crops. PMID:24175421

Muthezhilan, R; Sindhuja, B S; Hussain, A Jaffar; Jayaprakashvel, M

2012-08-15

206

Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting endophytic diazotrophic bacteria from Korean rice cultivars.  

PubMed

We have isolated 576 endophytic bacteria from the leaves, stems, and roots of 10 rice cultivars and identified 12 of them as diazotrophic bacteria using a specific primer set of nif gene. Through 16S rDNA sequence analysis, nifH genes were confirmed in the two species of Penibacillus, three species of Microbacterium, three Bacillus species, and four species of Klebsiella. Rice seeds treated with these plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) showed improved plant growth, increased height and dry weight and antagonistic effects against fungal pathogens. In addition, auxin and siderophore producing ability, and phosphate solubilizing activity were studied for the possible mechanisms of plant growth promotion. Among 12 isolates tested, 10 strains have shown higher auxin producing activity, 6 isolates were confirmed as strains with high siderophore producing activity while 4 isolates turned out to have high phosphate-solubilizing activity. These results strongly suggest that the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria characterized in this study could be successfully used to promote plant growth and inducing fungal resistance in plants. PMID:23871145

Ji, Sang Hye; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Chun, Se-Chul

2014-01-20

207

Understanding the molecular basis of plant growth promotional effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on rice through protein profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KH-1 was found to exhibit plant growth promotional activity in rice under both in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. But the mechanism underlying such promotional activity of P. fluorescens is not yet understood clearly. In this study, efforts were made to elucidate the molecular responses of rice plants to P. fluorescens treatment through

Saveetha Kandasamy; Karthiba Loganathan; Raveendran Muthuraj; Saravanakumar Duraisamy; Suresh Seetharaman; Raguchander Thiruvengadam; Balasubramanian Ponnusamy; Samiyappan Ramasamy

2009-01-01

208

p8 inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells and its expression is induced through pathways involved in growth inhibition and repressed by factors promoting cell growth  

PubMed Central

Background p8 is a stress-induced protein with multiple functions and biochemically related to the architectural factor HMG-I/Y. We analyzed the expression and function of p8 in pancreatic cancer-derived cells. Methods Expression of p8 was silenced in the human pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1 and BxPc-3 by infection with a retrovirus expressing p8 RNA in the antisense orientation. Cell growth was measured in control and p8-silenced cells. Influence on p8 expression of the induction of intracellular pathways promoting cellular growth or growth arrest was monitored. Results p8-silenced cells grew more rapidly than control cells transfected with the empty retrovirus. Activation of the Ras?Raf?MEK?ERK and JNK intracellular pathways down-regulated p8 expression. In addition, the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 up-regulates expression of p8. Conversely, p38 or TGF?-1 induced p8 expression whereas the specific p38 inhibitor SB203580 down-regulated p8 expression. Finally, TGF?-1 induction was in part mediated through p38. Conclusions p8 inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells. p8 expression is induced through pathways involved in growth inhibition and repressed by factors that promote cell growth. These results suggest that p8 belongs to a pathway regulating the growth of pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:14613582

Malicet, Cedric; Lesavre, Nathalie; Vasseur, Sophie; Iovanna, Juan L

2003-01-01

209

Plant Growth–Promoting Bacteria Facilitate the Growth of the Common Reed Phragmites australis in the Presence of Copper or Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test whether plant growth–promoting bacteria might be useful in facilitating the growth of Phragmites australis, the common reed, in the presence of metals and organic compounds, P. australis seeds were treated with plant growth–promoting bacteria. The bacterium Pseudomonas asplenii AC was genetically transformed to express a bacterial gene encoding the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase,\\u000a and both the native and transformed

M. L. E. Reed; Barry G. Warner; Bernard R. Glick

2005-01-01

210

Effect of antimicrobial growth promoter administration on the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) are antimicrobial agents administered to livestock in feed for prolonged periods to enhance feed efficiency. Beef cattle are primarily finished in confined feeding operations in Canada and the USA, and the administration of AGPs such as chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (Aureo S-700 G) is the standard. The impacts of AGPs on the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are currently uncertain; it is documented that AGPs administered to beef cattle pass through the rumen and enter the intestine. To ascertain the impacts of Aureo S-700 G on the small and large intestinal microbiota of beef cattle (mucosa-associated and within digesta), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for total bacteria were applied. Beef cattle were maintained in an experimental feedlot (five replicate pens per treatment), and AGP treatment cattle were administered Aureo S-700 G in feed, whereas control cattle were administered no antimicrobials. As the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle has not been extensively examined, clone library analysis was applied to ascertain the primary bacterial constituents of the intestinal microbiota. Results Comparative T-RFLP and qPCR analysis (n?=?122 samples) revealed that bacterial community fingerprints and bacterial load within digesta differed from those associated with mucosa. However, the administration of Aureo S-700 G did not affect bacterial community fingerprints or bacterial load within the small and large intestine relative to control cattle. Analysis of >1500 near full length 16S rDNA clones revealed considerably greater bacterial diversity in the large relative to the small intestine of beef cattle. Mucosa-associated bacterial communities in the jejunum were dominated by Proteobacteria, and differed conspicuously from those in the ileum and large intestine. Although the ileum contained bacterial clones that were common to the jejunum as well as the cecum, Firmicutes clones associated with mucosa dominated in the ileum, cecum, and descending colon. In the descending colon, clone library analysis did not reveal a difference in the richness or diversity of bacterial communities within digesta relative to those associated with mucosa. However, T-RFLP analysis indicated a significant difference in T-RF relative abundance (i.e. difference in relative taxon abundance) between mucosa-associated and digesta communities attributed in part to the differential abundance of Bacteriodes, Alistipes, Oscillibacter, and unclassified Clostridiales. Conclusions These data demonstrate that there was no significant difference in the composition of the predominant intestinal bacteria constituents within animals administered Aureo S-700 G and those not administered AGPs after a 28 day withdrawal period. PMID:23578222

2013-01-01

211

Growth-promoting effects of caseinomacropeptide from cow and goat milk on probiotics.  

PubMed

Caseinomacropeptide (CMP), a 7-kDa phosphoglycopolypeptide fragment released from ?-casein during milk renneting, is heterogeneous with respect to post-translational glycosylation. Several studies have reported that CMP has growth-promoting activity on lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycosylation and sequence variations between bovine and caprine CMP on the growth of two probiotics: Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595-M and Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67. The growth-promoting activities of CMP (mixture of glycosylated (gCMP) and non-glycosylated (aCMP) fractions), aCMP and gCMP were measured in a basal minimal culture medium using turbidimetric microplate assay at 37 °C. Supplementation of the culture media at 2 mg/ml significantly improved maximum growth by 1.5 to 1.8 times depending on the strain, the additive (CMP, aCMP, gCMP), and the bovine or caprine origin (P < 0.05). CMP preparations also decreased the time needed to reach the inflexion point of the growth curve and increase the cell density at that time (P < 0.05). The effects of CMP preparations were dose dependent and significantly superior to the effect of bovine ?-lactoglobulin added to the culture media. As gCMP and aCMP were as efficient as bovine and caprine CMP (P > 0.1), it was concluded that the presence of oligosaccharides linked to CMP was not essential for growth-promoting activity of CMP. PMID:23182022

Robitaille, Gilles

2013-02-01

212

The OXI1 Kinase Pathway Mediates Piriformospora indica-Induced Growth Promotion in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes roots of many plant species and promotes growth and resistance to certain plant pathogens. Despite its potential use in agriculture, little is known on the molecular basis of this beneficial plant-fungal interaction. In a genetic screen for plants, which do not show a P. indica- induced growth response, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant in the OXI1 (Oxidative Signal Inducible1) gene. OXI1 has been characterized as a protein kinase which plays a role in pathogen response and is regulated by H2O2 and PDK1 (3-PHOSPHOINOSITIDE-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE1). A genetic analysis showed that double mutants of the two closely related PDK1.1 and PDK1.2 genes are defective in the growth response to P. indica. While OXI1 and PDK1 gene expression is upregulated in P. indica-colonized roots, defense genes are downregulated, indicating that the fungus suppresses plant defense reactions. PDK1 is activated by phosphatidic acid (PA) and P. indica triggers PA synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Under beneficial co-cultivation conditions, H2O2 formation is even reduced by the fungus. Importantly, phospholipase D (PLD)?1 or PLD? mutants, which are impaired in PA synthesis do not show growth promotion in response to fungal infection. These data establish that the P. indica-stimulated growth response is mediated by a pathway consisting of the PLD-PDK1-OXI1 cascade. PMID:21625539

Camehl, Iris; Drzewiecki, Corinna; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Shahollari, Bationa; Sherameti, Irena; Forzani, Celine; Munnik, Teun; Hirt, Heribert; Oelmuller, Ralf

2011-01-01

213

Antiangiogenic Therapy Using Sunitinib Combined with Rapamycin Retards Tumor Growth But Promotes Metastasis1  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the synergistic effect of sunitinib and rapamycin on tumor growth and metastasis in murine breast cancer model. METHODS: The synergistic antitumor effect of sunitinib and rapamycin on tumor growth and metastasis was investigated. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in spleens and lungs were assessed. Tumor hypoxia, vessel density and micrometastasis were evaluated. Versican, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), arginase 1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) in the lungs and tumors were examined. IL-6 and TGF-? in the blood were evaluated. RESULTS: Synergism between sunitinib and rapamycin on tumor growth was observed. Sunitinib plus rapamycin reduced splenomegaly, MDSCs in spleens and lungs, and microvessel density in tumor microenvironment, while exacerbated hypoxia and promoted cancer lung metastasis. Sunitinib plus rapamycin markedly induced versican, IDO, arginase 1, IL-6, and TGF-? expression in the lungs, whereas it reduced IDO and IL-10 expression in the primary tumor tissues. IL-6 levels in the circulation were increased after rapamycin and combination therapies. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of sunitinib plus rapamycin reduced the tumor growth but promoted tumor metastasis. This study warrants that further mTOR inhibition treatment should be closely watched in clinical setting, especially combined with antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:24742865

Yin, Tao; He, Sisi; Ye, Tinghong; Shen, Guobo; Wan, Yang; Wang, Yongsheng

2014-01-01

214

Solid source growth of Si oxide nanowires promoted by carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a method to promote solid source growth of Si oxide nanowires (SiONWs) by using an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It starts with the fabrication of CNT array by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on Si wafers, followed by growth of SiONWs. Herein, CNTs serve as a scaffold, which helps the dispersion of catalysts for SiONWs and also provides space for hydrogen which boosts the diffusion of Si atoms and hence formation of SiONWs. As the result, a three dimensional (3D) hybrid network of densely packed SiONWs and CNTs can be produced rapidly.

Lu, Congxiang; Liu, Wen-wen; Wang, Xingli; Li, Xiaocheng; Tan, Chong Wei; Tay, Beng Kang; Coquet, Philippe

2014-09-01

215

Activation of the Wnt pathway through use of AR79, a glycogen synthase kinase 3? inhibitor, promotes prostate cancer growth in soft tissue and bone  

PubMed Central

Due to its bone anabolic activity, methods to increase Wnt activity, such as inhibitors of dickkopf-1 and sclerostin, are being clinically explored. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3?) inhibits Wnt signaling through inducing ?-catenin degradation. Therefore, AR79, an inhibitor of GSK3?, is being evaluated as a bone anabolic agent. However, Wnt activation has potential to promote tumor growth. The goal of this study was to determine if AR79 impacted progression of prostate cancer (PCa). PCa tumors were established in subcutaneous and bone sites of mice followed by AR79 administration. Tumor growth, ?-catenin activation, proliferation (Ki67 expression) and apoptosis (caspase 3 activity) were measured. Additionally, PCa and osteoblast cell lines were treated with AR79 and ?-catenin status, proliferation (with ?-catenin knocked down in some cases) and proportion of the ALDH+CD133+ stem-like cells was determined. AR79 promoted PCa growth, decreased phospho-?-catenin expression and increased total and nuclear ?-catenin expression in tumors and increased tumor-induced bone remodeling. Additionally, it decreased caspase 3 and increased Ki67 expression. In addition, AR79 increased bone formation in normal mouse tibiae. AR79 inhibited ?-catenin phosphorylation, increased nuclear ?-catenin accumulation in PCa and osteoblast cell lines and increased proliferation of PCa cells in vitro through ?-catenin. Furthermore, AR79 increased the ALDH+CD133+ cancer stem cell-like proportion of the PCa cell lines. We conclude that AR79, while being bone anabolic, promotes PCa cell growth through Wnt pathway activation. PMID:24088787

Jiang, Yuan; Dai, Jinlu; Zhang, Honglai; Sottnik, Joe L.; Keller, Jill M.; Escott, Katherine J.; Sanganee, Hitesh J.; Yao, Zhi; McCauley, Laurie K.; Keller, Evan T.

2013-01-01

216

Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9  

SciTech Connect

Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).

Neupane, Saraswoti [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Hogberg, Nils [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Alstrom, Sadhna [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fiebig, Anne [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Finlay, Roger D. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

2012-01-01

217

Screening of multiple metal and antibiotic resistant isolates and their plant growth promoting activity.  

PubMed

Heavy metal contamination has accelerated due to the rapid industrialization world wide. Accumulation of metals in excess can modify the structure of essential protein or can replace an essential element. Bradyrhizobium strains showed tolerance to cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc and copper. All the isolates showed maximum tolerance towards lead and zinc which was followed by nickel and chromium. These strains also showed tolerance towards most of the antibiotics. Bradyrhizobium strains were also tested for their Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) substances, all isolates produced good amount of indole acetic acid and were positive for ammonia but only three strains were positive for HCN and siderophore (RM1, RM2 and RM8), the rest isolates showed negative result. Based on the above intrinsic abilities of Bradyrhizobium species, these strains can be used for the growth promotion, as well for the detoxification of the heavy metals in metal polluted soils. PMID:24783803

Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

2014-01-15

218

Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9  

PubMed Central

Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens” awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010). PMID:22675598

Hogberg, Nils; Alstrom, Sadhna; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Lu, Megan; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Tapia, Roxanne; Fiebig, Anne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D.

2012-01-01

219

Proteomic analysis of the response of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4 to nickel stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plant growth-promoting bacteria can alleviate the inhibitory effects of various heavy metals on plant growth, via decreasing levels of stress-induced ethylene. However, little has been done to detect any mechanisms specific for heavy metal resistance of this kind of bacteria. Here, we investigate the response of the wild-type plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4 to nickel stress using proteomic

Zhenyu Cheng; Yi-Yun C Wei; Wilson WL Sung; Bernard R Glick; Brendan J McConkey

2009-01-01

220

Potential plant growth-promoting activity of Serratia nematodiphila NII0928 on black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential bacterial strain designated as NII-0928 isolated from Western ghat forest soil with multiple plant growth promoting attributes, and it has been identified and characterized. Plant growth promoting\\u000a traits were analyzed by determining the P-solubilization efficiency, Indole acetic acid production, HCN, siderophore production\\u000a and growth in nitrogen free medium. It was able to solubilize phosphate (76.6 ?g ml?1), and produce indole

Syed G. DastagerC; C. K. Deepa; Ashok Pandey

2011-01-01

221

Chromium Reducing and Plant Growth Promoting Potential of Mesorhizobium Species under Chromium Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium-reducing and plant growth–promoting potential, including production of siderophores by chromium(VI)-resistant Mesorhizobium species RC1 and RC4, isolated from chickpea nodules, was assessed both in the presence and absence of chromium(VI) under in vitro conditions. The Mesorhizobium strains displayed a high level of tolerance to chromium (400 ?g ml), and showed a varied sensitivity to antibacterial drugs, on yeast extract mannitol

Pervaze Ahmad Wani; Almas Zaidi

2009-01-01

222

Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on bacterial canker of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in managing bacterial canker disease of tomato was studied in the present work. Tomato seeds were treated with PGPR strains viz., Bacillus pumilus INR7, Bacillus pumilus SE34, Bacillus pumilus T4, Bacillus subtilis GBO3, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IN937a and Brevibacillus brevis IPC11 were subjected for seed germination and seedling vigor. Among the PGPR strains tested, only

N Girish; S Umesha

2005-01-01

223

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of

Safiyh Taghavi; Daniel van der Lelie; Adam Hoffman; Yian-Biao Zhang; Michael D. Walla; Jaco Vangronsveld; Lee Newman; Sébastien Monchy

2010-01-01

224

Sugarcane Growth Promotion by the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1  

PubMed Central

The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1::pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and aerial plant tissues. Microscopic analysis was performed at 5, 10, and 18 days after inoculation. Under greenhouse conditions, P. agglomerans 33.1-inoculated sugarcane plants presented more dry mass 30 days after inoculation. Cross-colonization was confirmed by reisolation of the GFP-tagged strain. These data demonstrate that 33.1::pNKGFP is a superior colonizer of sugarcane due to its ability to colonize a number of different plant parts. The growth promotion observed in colonized plants may be related to the ability of P. agglomerans 33.1 to synthesize indoleacetic acid and solubilize phosphate. Additionally, this strain may trigger chitinase and cellulase production by plant roots, suggesting the induction of a plant defense system. However, levels of indigenous bacterial colonization did not vary between inoculated and noninoculated sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions, suggesting that the presence of P. agglomerans 33.1 has no effect on these communities. In this study, different techniques were used to monitor 33.1::pNKGFP during sugarcane cross-colonization, and our results suggested that this plant growth promoter could be used with other crops. The interaction between sugarcane and P. agglomerans 33.1 has important benefits that promote the plant's growth and fitness. PMID:22865062

Rossetto, P. B.; Ferreira, A.; Tsui, S.; Lacava, P. T.; Mondin, M.; Azevedo, J. L.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A. A.

2012-01-01

225

Effects of inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on metal uptake by Brassica juncea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was carried out with Brassica juncea to critically evaluate effects of bacterial inoculation on the uptake of heavy metals from Pb–Zn mine tailings by plants. Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria and phosphate and potassium solubilizers, might play an important role in the further development of phytoremediation techniques. The presence of these beneficial bacteria stimulated

S. C. Wu; K. C. Cheung; Y. M. Luo; M. H. Wong

2006-01-01

226

Sugarcane growth promotion by the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1.  

PubMed

The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1::pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and aerial plant tissues. Microscopic analysis was performed at 5, 10, and 18 days after inoculation. Under greenhouse conditions, P. agglomerans 33.1-inoculated sugarcane plants presented more dry mass 30 days after inoculation. Cross-colonization was confirmed by reisolation of the GFP-tagged strain. These data demonstrate that 33.1::pNKGFP is a superior colonizer of sugarcane due to its ability to colonize a number of different plant parts. The growth promotion observed in colonized plants may be related to the ability of P. agglomerans 33.1 to synthesize indoleacetic acid and solubilize phosphate. Additionally, this strain may trigger chitinase and cellulase production by plant roots, suggesting the induction of a plant defense system. However, levels of indigenous bacterial colonization did not vary between inoculated and noninoculated sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions, suggesting that the presence of P. agglomerans 33.1 has no effect on these communities. In this study, different techniques were used to monitor 33.1::pNKGFP during sugarcane cross-colonization, and our results suggested that this plant growth promoter could be used with other crops. The interaction between sugarcane and P. agglomerans 33.1 has important benefits that promote the plant's growth and fitness. PMID:22865062

Quecine, M C; Araújo, W L; Rossetto, P B; Ferreira, A; Tsui, S; Lacava, P T; Mondin, M; Azevedo, J L; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A A

2012-11-01

227

Can choice promote Education for All? Evidence from growth in private primary schooling in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether the recent growth in ‘low?fee private’ (LFP) schools is able to promote Education for All by being accessible to the poor. Based primarily on a 13?village survey of 250 households and visits to 26 private and government schools in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, this paper explores who ‘chooses’ private schooling, in the light of the well?documented

Joanna Härmä

2009-01-01

228

Subcutaneous fatty acid composition of steers finished as weanlings or yearlings with and without growth promotants  

PubMed Central

Background The current study evaluated the subcutaneous fatty acid (FA) composition of calf- and yearling-fed steers with or without growth promoting implants. Crossbred steers (n?=?112; 267?±?5.0 kg) of the same contemporary group were allocated to one of four production system and implant strategy based treatments in a completely randomized design with a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Results There were no interactions (P?>?0.05) between production systems and growth promoting implants for the total and individual subcutaneous FA. Yearling as opposed to calf finishing reduced (P?growth promotants had higher (P?growth promotants led to only minor differences in subcutaneous FA composition of beef steers. PMID:24188642

2013-01-01

229

Novel polymorphism in the promoter region of the human nerve growth-factor gene.  

PubMed

We describe a novel T to C transition at position -198 from the transcription start of the human nerve growth-factor (NGF) gene. In British Caucasoid healthy control group that we have genotyped, T and C allele frequencies are 0.633 and 0.367, respectively. This polymorphism affects vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding to its motif in the NGF promoter. PMID:16313302

Alam, M; Pravica, V; Fryer, A A; Hawkins, C P; Hutchinson, I V

2005-12-01

230

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended

Safiyh Taghavi; Daniel van der Lelie; Adam Hoffman; Yian-Biao Zhang; Michael D. Walla; Jaco Vangronsveld; Lee Newman; Sébastien Monchy

2010-01-01

231

Sulindac sulfide and caffeic acid phenethyl ester suppress the motility of lung adenocarcinoma cells promoted by transforming growth factor-beta through Akt inhibition.  

PubMed

Cell migration is essential for invasive and metastatic phenotypes of cancer cells. Potential chemopreventive agents of cancer-sulindac sulfide, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), curcumin, and (+)-catechin-have been reported to interfere with several types of intracellular signaling. In this study, we examined the effects of these agents on transforming growth factor-beta(TGF-beta)-induced motility and Akt phosphorylation in A549 cells. Judged by gold particle phagokinesis assay, sulindac sulfide, CAPE, and curcumin suppressed the motility of A549 cells promoted by TGF-beta. LY294002, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/Akt signaling, also suppressed TGF-beta-induced motility and Akt phosphorylation. Sulindac sulfide and CAPE, but not curcumin, suppressed TGF-beta-induced Akt phosphorylation. We conclude that sulindac sulfide and CAPE suppress the motility promoted by TGF-beta in lung adenocarcinoma cells through the suppression of Akt. Our observations raise the possibility that these agents, except for (+)-catechin, can be applied not only as chemopreventive agents but also as anti-metastatic therapy. PMID:14691717

Shigeoka, Yasushi; Igishi, Tadashi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Nakanishi, Hirofumi; Kodani, Masahiro; Yasuda, Kazuhito; Hitsuda, Yutaka; Shimizu, Eiji

2004-03-01

232

Promoter trapping in microalgae using the antibiotic paromomycin as selective agent.  

PubMed

The lack of highly active endogenous promoters to drive the expression of transgenes is one of the main drawbacks to achieving efficient transformation of many microalgal species. Using the model chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the paromomycin resistance APHVIII gene from Streptomyces rimosus as a marker, we have demonstrated that random insertion of the promoterless marker gene and subsequent isolation of the most robust transformants allows for the identification of novel strong promoter sequences in microalgae. Digestion of the genomic DNA with an enzyme that has a unique restriction site inside the marker gene and a high number of target sites in the genome of the microalga, followed by inverse PCR, allows for easy determination of the genomic region, which precedes the APHVIII marker gene. In most of the transformants analyzed, the marker gene is inserted in intragenic regions and its expression relies on its adequate insertion in frame with native genes. As an example, one of the new promoters identified was used to direct the expression of the APHVIII marker gene in C. reinhardtii, showing high transformation efficiencies. PMID:23211713

Vila, Marta; Díaz-Santos, Encarnación; de la Vega, Marta; Rodríguez, Herminia; Vargas, Angeles; León, Rosa

2012-12-01

233

SIRT1 promotes endometrial tumor growth by targeting SREBP1 and lipogenesis.  

PubMed

Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is involved in a number of cellular regulatory mechanisms affecting cellular life span, stress resistance, apoptosis and cellular metabolism. Recent studies have revealed that SIRT1 plays a dual role as a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter in multiple stages of carcinogenesis. Increased lipogenesis has been found in cancer cells, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) are nuclear lipogenic transcription factors, which mainly regulate lipogenic processes by activating genes involved in fatty acid and triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present study, we detected expression of SIRT1 in endometrial cancer (EC) and illustrated the relationship between SIRT1 and SREBP1, which indicated that SIRT1 could stimulate endometrial tumor growth through the lipogenic pathway. Gene expression levels of SIRT1 were assayed using quantitative real-time PCR and protein expression levels were detected by western blotting. RNA interference was conducted in order to explore the subsequent effect on tumor cells and on the expression of SREBP1. Expression levels of SIRT1 in EC were found to be significantly higher than in normal endometrium. Knockdown of SIRT1 could downregulate expression of SREBP1 and suppress cell proliferation. These results demonstrated that SIRT1 may play a role as a tumor promoter in EC and can promote endometrial tumor growth by promoting lipogenesis. Our findings suggest that targeting SIRT1 may provide a theoretical basis for the management of EC. PMID:25270091

Lin, Li; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Qiu, Chunping; Dongol, Samina; Lv, Qingtao; Jiang, Jie; Kong, Beihua; Wang, Chenguang

2014-12-01

234

Effect of inoculation with a thermotolerant plant growth promoting Pseudomonas putida strain AKMP7 on growth of wheat (Triticum spp.) under heat stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of plant growth promoting thermotolerant Pseudomonas putida strain AKMP7 on the growth of wheat plants to heat stress. The results indicated the superior performance by P. putida strain AKMP7 in improving survival and growth of wheat plants under heat stress. The bacterium significantly increased the root and shoot length, dry

Shaik. Zulfikar Ali; Vardharajula Sandhya; Minakshi Grover; Venkateswar Rao Linga; Venkateswarlu Bandi

2011-01-01

235

The complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4.  

PubMed

The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated "housekeeping" genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup. PMID:23516524

Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J; Glick, Bernard R

2013-01-01

236

The Complete Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4  

PubMed Central

The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated “housekeeping” genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup. PMID:23516524

Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J.; Glick, Bernard R.

2013-01-01

237

Screening of Brazilian cacti rhizobacteria for plant growth promotion under drought.  

PubMed

Drought is one of the major problems worldwide. The search for new and efficient microorganisms, from unexplored environments, to be used in association with plants to alleviate the negative effects imposed by water stress, is an interesting alternative. Thus, cacti-associated bacteria from the Brazilian semi-arid region were isolated based on their ability to grow in medium with reduced water availability. Strains were tested for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS), as well as in vitro plant growth promotion traits. A great proportion of the isolates belong to the genus Bacillus. From a total of forty-eight bacteria, 65% were able to grow in medium with reduced water availability (0.919Aw), exopolysaccharide production was observed for 65% of the strains. The production of indole acetic acid (IAA) exceeding 51?gmL(-1) was observed for 4% and the high solubilization of Ca-P was verified for 6% of the isolates. No strain was able to produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN), 71% produced ammonia and 79% showed a halo of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) degradation. Zea mays L. growth promotion under water stress (30% of field capacity) was achieved by two strains of Bacillus spp. This is the first report to describe cacti-associated bacteria from Brazilian semi-arid with plant growth-promoting abilities. PMID:23279812

Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; Santos, Suikinai Nobre; Silva, João Luiz da; Parma, Márcia Maria; Avila, Luciana Aparecida; Visconti, Alexandre; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Melo, Itamar Soares de

2013-05-01

238

Perspective of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing ACC deaminase in stress agriculture.  

PubMed

Ethylene is a gaseous plant growth hormone produced endogenously by almost all plants. It is also produced in soil through a variety of biotic and abiotic mechanisms, and plays a key role in inducing multifarious physiological changes in plants at molecular level. Apart from being a plant growth regulator, ethylene has also been established as a stress hormone. Under stress conditions like those generated by salinity, drought, waterlogging, heavy metals and pathogenicity, the endogenous production of ethylene is accelerated substantially which adversely affects the root growth and consequently the growth of the plant as a whole. Certain plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) contain a vital enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, which regulates ethylene production by metabolizing ACC (an immediate precursor of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants) into alpha-ketobutyrate and ammonia. Inoculation with PGPR containing ACC deaminase activity could be helpful in sustaining plant growth and development under stress conditions by reducing stress-induced ethylene production. Lately, efforts have been made to introduce ACC deaminase genes into plants to regulate ethylene level in the plants for optimum growth, particularly under stressed conditions. In this review, the primary focus is on giving account of all aspects of PGPR containing ACC deaminase regarding alleviation of impact of both biotic and abiotic stresses onto plants and of recent trends in terms of introduction of ACC deaminase genes into plant and microbial species. PMID:17665234

Saleem, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Hussain, Sarfraz; Bhatti, Ahmad Saeed

2007-10-01

239

Bunched, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian tumor suppressor TSC-22, promotes cellular growth  

PubMed Central

Background Transforming Growth Factor-?1 stimulated clone-22 (TSC-22) is assumed to act as a negative growth regulator and tumor suppressor. TSC-22 belongs to a family of putative transcription factors encoded by four distinct loci in mammals. Possible redundancy among the members of the TSC-22/Dip/Bun protein family complicates a genetic analysis. In Drosophila, all proteins homologous to the TSC-22/Dip/Bun family members are derived from a single locus called bunched (bun). Results We have identified bun in an unbiased genetic screen for growth regulators in Drosophila. Rather unexpectedly, bun mutations result in a growth deficit. Under standard conditions, only the long protein isoform BunA – but not the short isoforms BunB and BunC – is essential and affects growth. Whereas reducing bunA function diminishes cell number and cell size, overexpression of the short isoforms BunB and BunC antagonizes bunA function. Conclusion Our findings establish a growth-promoting function of Drosophila BunA. Since the published studies on mammalian systems have largely neglected the long TSC-22 protein version, we hypothesize that the long TSC-22 protein is a functional homolog of BunA in growth regulation, and that it is antagonized by the short TSC-22 protein. PMID:18226226

Gluderer, Silvia; Oldham, Sean; Rintelen, Felix; Sulzer, Andrea; Schutt, Corina; Wu, Xiaodong; Raftery, Laurel A; Hafen, Ernst; Stocker, Hugo

2008-01-01

240

Potential of botanicals and biocontrol agents on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus infecting rice grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of certain plant extracts and biocontrol agents for the reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in stored rice was investigated. Among the plant extracts tested, Syzigiumaromaticum (5g\\/kg) showed complete inhibition of Aspergillusflavus growth and AFB1 production. Curcumalonga, Alliumsativum and Ocimumsanctum also effectively inhibited the A.flavus growth (65–78%) and AFB1 production (72.2–85.7%) at 5g\\/kg concentration. Among the biocontrol agents, culture

K. R. N. Reddy; C. S. Reddy; K. Muralidharan

2009-01-01

241

Involvement of hexokinase1 in plant growth promotion as mediated by Burkholderia phytofirmans.  

PubMed

Potato plantlets inoculated with strain PsJN of the bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans exhibit consistent and significant increases in plant growth under in vitro conditions, when compared with uninoculated plants. The greatest influence on the degree and type of growth enhancement that develops has been shown to be mediated by the sugar concentration in the agar media. Bacterial growth promotion has been suggested in other studies to be regulated by the sugar sensor enzyme hexokinase1, the role of which is activation of glucose phosphorylation. In this present study, we examined the co-relationship between root and stem development in potato plants treated with PsJN and the activity of hexokinase1. Plants grown in the presence of 1.5% and 3% sucrose showed increased levels of hexokinase1 activity only in the roots of inoculated plants, suggesting that the increased enzyme levels may be associated with root growth. Analysis for mRNA using reverse transcriptase did not reveal any significant differences in transcription levels of the gene between inoculated and uninoculated plants. When PsJN-inoculated plants were grown in 1.5% and 3% concentrations of glucose and fructose, stem height and mass, leaf number, root mass, and overall biomass increased. No growth promotion occurred when PsJN-inoculated plants were grown in 3% maltose. Subsequently, a hexokinase1 activity assay showed that PsJN-induced growth of potato plants was found to only occur when plants were grown in the presence of sugars that are recognized by the plant hexokinase1. The results suggest that PsJN may enhance sugar uptake in plants by direct or indirect stimulation of hexokinase1 activity in roots and this results in enhanced overall plant growth. PMID:24849083

Park, Jae Min; Lazarovits, George

2014-06-01

242

Molecular characterization and identification of plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.).  

PubMed

Root nodule accommodates various non-nodulating bacteria at varying densities. Present study was planned to identify and characterize the non-nodulating bacteria from the pea plant. Ten fast growing bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of cultivated pea plants. These bacterial isolates were unable to nodulate pea plants in nodulation assay, which indicate the non-rhizobial nature of these bacteria. Bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for plant growth promoting properties including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, root colonization and biofilm formation. Six isolates were able to produce IAA at varying level from 0.86 to 16.16 ?g ml(-1), with the isolate MSP9 being most efficient. Only two isolates, MSP2 and MSP10, were able to fix nitrogen. All isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphorus ranging from 5.57 to 11.73 ?g ml(-1), except MSP4. Bacterial isolates showed considerably better potential for colonization on pea roots. Isolates MSP9 and MSP10 were most efficient in biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride, which indicated their potential to withstand various biotic and abiotic stresses, whereas the remaining isolates showed a very poor biofilm formation ability. The most efficient plant growth promoting agents, MSP9 and MSP10, were phylogenetically identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Ochrobactrum and Enterobacter, respectively, with 99% similarity. It is suggested the potential endophytic bacterial strains, Ochrobactrum sp. MSP9 and Enterobacter sp. MSP10, can be used as biofertilizers for various legume and non-legume crops after studying their interaction with the host crop and field evaluation. PMID:24072498

Tariq, Mohsin; Hameed, Sohail; Yasmeen, Tahira; Zahid, Mehwish; Zafar, Marriam

2014-02-01

243

Prostaglandin E2 transactivates EGF receptor: A novel mechanism for promoting colon cancer growth and gastrointestinal hypertrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandins (PGs), bioactive lipid molecules produced by cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2), have diverse biological activities, including growth-promoting actions on gastrointestinal mucosa. They are also implicated in the growth of colonic polyps and cancers. However, the precise mechanisms of these trophic actions of PGs remain unclear. As activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) triggers mitogenic signaling in gastrointestinal

Rama Pai; Brian Soreghan; Imre L. Szabo; Meredith Pavelka; Dolgor Baatar; Andrzej S. Tarnawski

2002-01-01

244

Evaluating Government's Policies on Promoting Smart Metering in Retail Electricity Markets via Agent Based Simulation  

E-print Network

[9]. Each year, about 2.2 million meters are installed (out of which 1.2 million are new and 1 million are replacement) [10]. Metering services have two core components: one is the provision of an accurate meter of an appropriate type, the other... scenarios all have a common pattern of “S-curve”, which complies with our empirical observation from the Telegestore Project of promoting smart meters carried out by Enel in Italy (see Figure 7). Figure 6 can also help us evaluate the effectiveness...

Zhang, Tao; Nuttall, William J

245

Promoting Directional Axon Growth from Neural Progenitors Grafted into the Injured Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition characterized by disruption of axonal connections, failure of axonal regeneration, and loss of motor and sensory function. The therapeutic promise of neural stem cells has been focused on cell replacement but many obstacles remain in getting neuronal integration following transplantation into the injured CNS. In this study we investigated the neurotransmitter identity and axonal growth potential of neural progenitors following grafting into adult rats with a dorsal column lesion. We found that using a combination of neuronal and glial restricted progenitors (NRP and GRP) produced graft-derived glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons within the injury site with minimal axonal extension. Administration of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with the graft promoted modest axonal growth from grafted cells. In contrast, injecting a lentiviral vector expressing BDNF rostral to the injury generated a neurotrophin gradient and promoted directional growth of axons for up to 9 mm. Analysis of animals injected with BDNF lentivirus (at 2.5 and 5.0 mm) showed significantly more axons and significantly longer axons than in control animals injected with GFP lentivirus. However, only the 5.0 mm BDNF group showed preference for extension in the rostral direction. We concluded that NRP/GRP grafts can be used to produce excitatory and inhibitory neurons while neurotrophin gradients can guide axonal growth from graft-derived neurons toward putative targets. Together, they can serve as a building block for neuronal cell replacement of local circuits and formation of neuronal relays. PMID:19908250

Bonner, Joseph F.; Blesch, Armin; Neuhuber, Birgit; Fischer, Itzhak

2010-01-01

246

Critical effective methods to detect genotoxic carcinogens and neoplasm-promoting agents  

SciTech Connect

Neoplasia in fish can result from contamination of waters with carcinogens and promoters. Cancer in fish, therefore, is a possible indicator of cancer risk to man and serves as a guide to the need for preventative approaches involving improved means of waste disposal and environmental hygiene. Moreover, cancer in fish indicates that this important food source may be contaminated. Detection of genotoxic carcinogens to which fish are exposed can be achieved quickly and efficiently by carefully selected batteries of complementary in vitro and in vivo bioassays. One such battery consists of the Ames test, a reverse mutation assay in prokaryotic Salmonella typhimurium, and the Williams test, involving DNA repair in freshly explanted metabolically highly competent liver cells from diverse species, including humans. Determination of DNA-carcinogen adducts by varied techniques, including {sup 32}P-postlabeling, as well as DNA breakage, mammalian cell mutagenicity, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, or cell transformation represent additional approaches, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. More research is needed on systems to apprehend neoplasm promoters, but tests to determine interruption of intercellular communications through gap junctions appear promising. Other approaches rely on measurement of enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase and protein kinase C. Approaches to the definition of risk to fish or humans require characterization of the genotoxic or nongenotoxic properties of a chemical, relative potency data obtained in select, limited rodent bioassays, and knowledge of prevailing environmental concentrations of specific carcinogens.

Weisburger, J.H.; Williams, G.M. (American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY (United States))

1991-01-01

247

Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of plant-growth promoting Serratia proteamaculans S4  

PubMed Central

Serratia proteamaculans S4 (previously Serratia sp. S4), isolated from the rhizosphere of wild Equisetum sp., has the ability to stimulate plant growth and to suppress the growth of several soil-borne fungal pathogens of economically important crops. Here we present the non-contiguous, finished genome sequence of S. proteamaculans S4, which consists of a 5,324,944 bp circular chromosome and a 129,797 bp circular plasmid. The chromosome contains 5,008 predicted genes while the plasmid comprises 134 predicted genes. In total, 4,993 genes are assigned as protein-coding genes. The genome consists of 22 rRNA genes, 82 tRNA genes and 58 pseudogenes. This genome is a part of the project “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth-promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens” awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI’s Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24501629

Goodwin, Lynne A.; Hogberg, Nils; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Alstrom, Sadhna; Bruce, David; Quintana, Beverly; Munk, Christine; Daligault, Hajnalka; Teshima, Hazuki; Davenport, Karen; Reitenga, Krista; Green, Lance; Chain, Patrick; Erkkila, Tracy; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Xu, Yan; Kunde, Yulia; Chertkov, Olga; Han, James; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Szeto, Ernest; Mavromatis, Kostas; Huntemann, Marcel; Nolan, Matt; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Markowitz, Victor; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D.

2013-01-01

248

Water soluble carbon nano-onions from wood wool as growth promoters for gram plants.  

PubMed

Water-soluble carbon nano-onions (wsCNOs) isolated from wood wool-a wood-based pyrolysis waste product of wood, can enhance the overall growth rate of gram (Cicer arietinum) plants. Treatment of plants with upto 30 ?g mL(-1) of wsCNOs for an initial 10 day period in laboratory conditions led to an increase in the overall growth of the plant biomass. In order to examine the growth stimulating effects of wsCNOs under natural conditions, 10 day-old plants treated with and without wsCNOs were transplanted into soil of standard carbon and nitrogen composition. We observed an enhanced growth rate of the wsCNOs pre-treated plants in soil, which finally led to an increased productivity of plants in terms of a larger number of grams. On analyzing the carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) content for the shoot and fruit sections of the plants treated with and without wsCNOs, only a minor difference in the composition was noticed. However, a slight increase in the percentage of carbon and hydrogen in shoots reflects the synthesis of more organic biomass in the case of treated plants. This work shows that wsCNOs are non-toxic to plant cells and can act as efficient growth stimulants which can be used as benign growth promoters. PMID:23099536

Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Roy, Manas; Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

2012-12-21

249

Water soluble carbon nano-onions from wood wool as growth promoters for gram plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-soluble carbon nano-onions (wsCNOs) isolated from wood wool--a wood-based pyrolysis waste product of wood, can enhance the overall growth rate of gram (Cicer arietinum) plants. Treatment of plants with upto 30 ?g mL-1 of wsCNOs for an initial 10 day period in laboratory conditions led to an increase in the overall growth of the plant biomass. In order to examine the growth stimulating effects of wsCNOs under natural conditions, 10 day-old plants treated with and without wsCNOs were transplanted into soil of standard carbon and nitrogen composition. We observed an enhanced growth rate of the wsCNOs pre-treated plants in soil, which finally led to an increased productivity of plants in terms of a larger number of grams. On analyzing the carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) content for the shoot and fruit sections of the plants treated with and without wsCNOs, only a minor difference in the composition was noticed. However, a slight increase in the percentage of carbon and hydrogen in shoots reflects the synthesis of more organic biomass in the case of treated plants. This work shows that wsCNOs are non-toxic to plant cells and can act as efficient growth stimulants which can be used as benign growth promoters.

Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Roy, Manas; Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

2012-11-01

250

Does health promote economic growth? Portuguese case study: from dictatorship to full democracy.  

PubMed

This paper revisits the debate on health and economic growth (Deaton in J Econ Lit 51:113-158, 2003) focusing on the Portuguese case by testing the relationship between growth and health. We test Portuguese insights, using time series data from 1960 to 2005, taking into account different variables (life expectancy, labour, capital, infant mortality) and considering the years that included major events on the political scene, such as the dictatorship and a closed economy (1960-1974), a revolution (1974) and full democracy and an open economy (1975-2005), factors that influence major economic, cultural, social and politic indicators. Therefore the analysis is carried out adopting Lucas' (J Monet Econ 22(1):3-42, 1988) endogenous growth model that considers human capital as one factor of production, it adopts a VAR (vector autoregressive) model to test the causality between growth and health. Estimates based on the VAR seem to confirm that economic growth influences the health process, but health does not promote growth, during the period under study. PMID:23807534

Morgado, Sónia Maria Aniceto

2014-07-01

251

Nerve Growth Factor Promoter Activity Revealed in Mice Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein  

PubMed Central

Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its precursor proNGF are perhaps the best described growth factors of the mammalian nervous system. There remains, however, a paucity of information regarding the precise cellular sites of proNGF/NGF synthesis. Here we report the generation of transgenic mice in which the NGF promoter controls the ectopic synthesis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). These transgenic mice provide an unprecedented resolution of both neural cells (e.g., neocortical and hippocampal neurons) and non-neural cells (e.g., renal interstitial cells and thymic reticular cells) that display NGF promoter activity from postnatal development to adulthood. Moreover, the transgene is inducible by injury. At 2 days after sciatic nerve ligation, a robust population of EGFP-positive cells is seen in the proximal nerve stump. These transgenic mice offer novel insights into the cellular sites of NGF promoter activity and can be used as models for investigating the regulation of proNGF/NGF expression after injury. PMID:21456011

Kawaja, Michael D.; Smithson, Laura J.; Elliott, Janet; Trinh, Gina; Crotty, Anne-Marie; Michalski, Bernadeta; Fahnestock, Margaret

2012-01-01

252

Nerve growth factor promoter activity revealed in mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein.  

PubMed

Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its precursor proNGF are perhaps the best described growth factors of the mammalian nervous system. There remains, however, a paucity of information regarding the precise cellular sites of proNGF/NGF synthesis. Here we report the generation of transgenic mice in which the NGF promoter controls the ectopic synthesis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). These transgenic mice provide an unprecedented resolution of both neural cells (e.g., neocortical and hippocampal neurons) and non-neural cells (e.g., renal interstitial cells and thymic reticular cells) that display NGF promoter activity from postnatal development to adulthood. Moreover, the transgene is inducible by injury. At 2 days after sciatic nerve ligation, a robust population of EGFP-positive cells is seen in the proximal nerve stump. These transgenic mice offer novel insights into the cellular sites of NGF promoter activity and can be used as models for investigating the regulation of proNGF/NGF expression after injury. PMID:21456011

Kawaja, Michael D; Smithson, Laura J; Elliott, Janet; Trinh, Gina; Crotty, Anne-Marie; Michalski, Bernadeta; Fahnestock, Margaret

2011-09-01

253

Early growth response protein 1 acts as an activator of SOX18 promoter  

PubMed Central

Sex-determining region Y box 18 (Sox18/SOX18) gene is an important regulator of vascular development playing a role in endothelial cell specification or differentiation, angiogenesis and atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to perform comprehensive functional characterization of the human SOX18 promoter, including determination of transcription start point (tsp) and identification of control elements involved in the regulation of SOX18 gene expression, with an emphasis on angiogenesis-related transcription factors. Analyses were performed in HeLa cells, representing a tumor cell line, and in EA.hy926 cells used as an endothelial model system. We have determined unique tsp of SOX18 gene, located 172 nucleotides upstream from ATG codon. Further, we have shown that SOX18 promoter region, -726 to -89 bp relative to tsp, contains positive cis-regulatory element(s) that stimulates SOX18 promoter activity, while region -89 to + 166 represents the minimal promoter. Within this region we have recognized the presence of essential element(s), positioned from -89 to +29, which harbors cluster of three putative early growth response 1 (EGR1) binding sites. By in vitro binding assays and functional analyses we have shown that these three putative binding sites are functionally relevant and sufficient for EGR1-induced SOX18 transcription. Mutations of these binding sites significantly impaired activity of the SOX18 promoter, particularly in EA.hy926 cells, indicating the importance of these regulatory elements for SOX18 promoter activity in endothelial setting. By data presented in this study, we have established SOX18 as a novel target gene regulated by EGR1 transcription factor, thus providing the first functional link between two transcription factors previously shown to be involved in the control of angiogenesis. PMID:20054233

Petrovic, Isidora; Kovacevic-Grujicic, Natasa

2010-01-01

254

Candida parapsilosis as a Potent Biocontrol Agent against Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus Species  

PubMed Central

Background: Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed stuff is a serious health problem and significant economic concerns. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of Candida parapsilosis IP1698 on mycelial growth and aflatoxin production in aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus species was investigated. Methods: Mycelial growth inhibitions of nine strains of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species in the presence of C. parapsilosis investigated by pour plate technique at different pH, temperature and time of incubation. Reduction of aflatoxin was evaluated in co-cultured fungi in yeast extract sucrose broth after seven days of incubation using HPLC method. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Results: The presence of the C. parapsilosis at different pH did not affect significantly the growth rate of Aspergillus isolates. On the other hand, temperature and time of incubation showed to be significantly effective when compared to controls without C. parapsilosis (P?0.05). In aflatoxigenic strains, minimum percentage of reductions in total aflatoxin and B1, B2, G1, G2 fractions were 92.98, 92.54, 77.48, 54.54 and 72.22 and maximum percentage of reductions were 99.59, not detectable, 94.42, and not detectable in both G1 and G2, respectively. Conclusion: C. parapsilosis might employ as a good biocontrol agent against growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species PMID:23308351

Niknejad, F; Zaini, F; Faramarzi, MA; Amini, M; Kordbacheh, P; Mahmoudi, M; Safara, M

2012-01-01

255

[Effects of growth-stimulating agents and furazolidone in broiler chicks].  

PubMed

The effect of growth-stimulating agents (15 ppm of virginiamycin, 10 ppm of avoparcin and 12 ppm of nitrovin) and that of seven days' treatment with 300 ppm of furazolidone on the performance of broilers was studied in an experimental study of 9,600 animals. Furazolidone was fed in either the fourth or the fifth week of life and combined with virginiamycin or nitrovin. Non-significant improvements in growth were observed when virginiamycin (1.5 per cent), avoparcin (0.7 per cent) and nitrovin (0.7 per cent) were administered. Treatment with furazolidone for seven days resulted in substantial retardation of growth. When broilers were treated during the fourth week of life, the retardation of growth was largely compensated for during the other two weeks. Treatment in the fifth week of life resulted in lower weights prior to slaughter. Therefore, care should be taken in recommending treatment with furazolidone at the end of the fattening period of broilers. PMID:3920782

Vahl, H A; Stappers, H P

1985-03-01

256

Influence of metal resistant-plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth of Ricinus communis in soil contaminated with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metal resistant-plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) strains PsM6 and PjM15 isolated from a serpentine soil were characterized as Pseudomonas sp. and Pseudomonas jessenii, respectively, on the basis of their morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences. Assessment of plant growth-promoting parameters revealed the intrinsic ability of the strains for the utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid as the sole N source,

Mani Rajkumar; Helena Freitas

2008-01-01

257

Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on growth and nutrient uptake of cotton and pea in a semi-arid region of Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from soil of the root zone of different agricultural crops were analysed for plant growth-promoting effects and improvement of nutrient uptake on cotton and pea in a semi-arid region of Uzbekistan. The investigations were carried out in pot experiments with Calcisol soil. After inoculation with effective bacterial strains Pseudomonas alcaligenes PsA15, P. denitrificans PsD6, Bacillus polymyxa

Dilfuza Egamberdiyeva; Gisela Höflich

2004-01-01

258

AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity  

SciTech Connect

Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

Mitchell, Darrion L. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)] [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States); DiMario, Joseph X., E-mail: joseph.dimario@rosalindfranklin.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)

2010-01-15

259

ATG5 is induced by DNA-damaging agents and promotes mitotic catastrophe independent of autophagy  

PubMed Central

Anticancer drug therapy activates both molecular cell death and autophagy pathways. Here we show that even sublethal concentrations of DNA-damaging drugs, such as etoposide and cisplatin, induce the expression of autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5), which is both necessary and sufficient for the subsequent induction of mitotic catastrophe. We demonstrate that ATG5 translocates to the nucleus, where it physically interacts with survivin in response to DNA-damaging agents both in vitro and in carcinoma tissues obtained from patients who had undergone radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. As a consequence, elements of the chromosomal passenger complex are displaced during mitosis, resulting in chromosome misalignment and segregation defects. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy does not prevent ATG5-dependent mitotic catastrophe, but shifts the balance to an early caspase-dependent cell death. Our data suggest a dual role for ATG5 in response to drug-induced DNA damage, where it acts in two signalling pathways in two distinct cellular compartments, the cytosol and the nucleus. PMID:23945651

Maskey, Dipak; Yousefi, Shida; Schmid, Ines; Zlobec, Inti; Perren, Aurel; Friis, Robert; Simon, Hans-Uwe

2013-01-01

260

The solid state, solution and tubulin-bound conformations of agents that promote microtubule stabilization.  

PubMed

Taxol (paclitaxel), a complex diterpene obtained from Taxus brevifolia and its semisynthetic analogue Taxotere are two of the most important new drugs for cancer chemotherapy. Their mechanism of cytotoxic action involves stabilization of microtubules leading to mitotic arrest. A similar mechanism has been proposed for an expanding set of other natural products, for instance, the epothilones, eleutherobin, the sarcodictyins, discodermolide, laulimalide, Rhazinilam, WS9885B, certain steroids and a group of polyisoprenyl benzophenones. In this review, we focus on the conformations of small molecule microtubule (MT) stabilizing compounds which have been isolated or synthesized and subjected to structural analysis. NMR and fluorescense spectroscopies, X-ray crystallography, high resolution microscopy (electron crystallography) and theoretical calculations comprise the most common methods used in this context. In particular, we describe how the structures were determined and with what accuracy. We also discuss the conformational diversity apparent from the three dimensional structures and compare the various proposals for bioactive conformations at the target MT binding sites. Of critical importance are the recently disclosed models for Taxol and its biomimetics binding to beta-tubulin. Several different conformational schemes derived from both pharmacophore construction and modeled protein ligand complexes are compared and critically evaluated. Although full consensus has yet to be reached, emphasis is placed on pharmacophore models for the various anti-MT agents that are internally consistent and encompass more than one structural class. PMID:12678753

Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Amat-Guerri, Francisco; Snyder, James P

2002-01-01

261

Trichoderma gamsii (NFCCI 2177): a newly isolated endophytic, psychrotolerant, plant growth promoting, and antagonistic fungal strain.  

PubMed

An endophytic fungus has been isolated from the lateral roots of lentil (Lens esculenta Moench), growing under mountain ecosystem of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). While the fungus was observed as fast growing with white scanty mycelium turning to turmeric brown in 5 days of incubation at 25?°C, it also produced a unique odor. The fungus exhibited growth between 4 and 30?°C (optimum 25?°C) and tolerated pH between 2.0 and 13.5 (optimum 4-6). Based on phenotypic (colony morphology and microscopy) and genotypic (18S rRNA analysis) characters, the fungus was identified as Trichoderma gamsii (99% similarity). The fungus was evaluated for its plant growth promotion and biocontrol properties. The fungus was found to be positive for phosphate solubilization, chitinase activity, and production of ammonia and salicylic acid, while the results for production of IAA, HCN, and siderophores were negative. Out of the seven phytopathogenic fungi tested, it showed antagonism against six. Bioassays conducted under green house using four test crops (two cereals and two legumes) showed its potential in plant growth promotion. The fungus has potential to be developed as a bioformulation for application under mountain ecosystem. PMID:23564225

Rinu, K; Sati, Priyanka; Pandey, Anita

2014-05-01

262

Host metabolism promotes growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae in a low oxygen environment.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae infections of the respiratory tract are common and are associated with acute and chronic diseases such as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent studies have shown that reduced environmental oxygen availability promotes chlamydial growth in infected host cells. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We performed a targeted siRNA screen coupled with an automated high-throughput microscopic analysis to identify key host cell genes that play a role in promoting the hypoxic growth of C. pneumoniae. A total of 294 siRNAs - targeting 98 selected genes including central mediators of metabolic, trafficking and signaling pathways - were tested on chlamydial inclusion formation in C. pneumoniae infected A549 cells under normoxic (20% O2) and hypoxic (2% O2) conditions 48 h post infection. Evaluation of the different functional clusters of genes revealed that under hypoxic conditions, enhanced growth of C. pneumoniae was centrally mediated by the host cell glycolytic pathway. Inhibition of the phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD2) and the forkheadbox O3 (FOXO3) gene-expression by siRNAs abrogated chlamydial progeny. The pivotal role of host cell glycolysis in chlamydial development under hypoxia was further confirmed by pharmacological inhibition of the pathway by 2-fluoro-deoxy-glucose. The results indicate that the microenvironment of the host cell determines the fate of C. pneumoniae by controlling pathogen-induced metabolic pathways. PMID:23665044

Szaszák, Márta; Shima, Kensuke; Käding, Nadja; Hannus, Michael; Solbach, Werner; Rupp, Jan

2013-07-01

263

Promotion of vascular smooth muscle cell growth by homocysteine: a link to atherosclerosis.  

PubMed Central

Plasma homocysteine levels are elevated in 20-30% of all patients with premature atherosclerosis. Although elevated homocysteine levels have been recognized as an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke, the mechanism by which these elevated levels cause atherosclerosis is unknown. To understand the role of homocysteine in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, we examined the effect of homocysteine on the growth of both vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells at concentrations similar to those observed in clinical studies. As little as 0.1 mM homocysteine caused a 25% increase in DNA synthesis, and homocysteine at 1 mM increased DNA synthesis by 4.5-fold in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC). In contrast, homocysteine caused a dose-dependent decrease in DNA synthesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Homocysteine increased mRNA levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin A in RASMC by 3- and 15-fold, respectively, indicating that homocysteine induced the mRNA of cyclins important for the reentry of quiescent RASMC into the cell cycle. Furthermore, homocysteine promoted proliferation of quiescent RASMC, an effect markedly amplified by 2% serum. The growth-promoting effect of homocysteine on vascular smooth muscle cells, together with its inhibitory effect on endothelial cell growth, represents an important mechanism to explain homocysteine-induced atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8022789

Tsai, J C; Perrella, M A; Yoshizumi, M; Hsieh, C M; Haber, E; Schlegel, R; Lee, M E

1994-01-01

264

Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils  

PubMed Central

Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands. PMID:23781499

Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

2013-01-01

265

Vascular CD39/ENTPD1 directly promotes tumor cell growth by scavenging extracellular adenosine triphosphate.  

PubMed

Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to boost immune responses in the tumor microenvironment but might also contribute directly to cancer cell death. CD39/ENTPD1 is the dominant ectonucleotidase expressed by endothelial cells and regulatory T cells and catalyzes the sequential hydrolysis of ATP to AMP that is further degraded to adenosine by CD73/ecto-5'-nucleotidase. We have previously shown that deletion of Cd39 results in decreased growth of transplanted tumors in mice, as a result of both defective angiogenesis and heightened innate immune responses (secondary to loss of adenosinergic immune suppression). Whether alterations in local extracellular ATP and adenosine levels as a result of CD39 bioactivity directly affect tumor growth and cytotoxicity has not been investigated to date. We show here that extracellular ATP exerts antitumor activity by directly inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cancer cell death. ATP-induced antiproliferative effects and cell death are, in large part, mediated through P2X(7) receptor signaling. Tumors in Cd39 null mice exhibit increased necrosis in association with P2X(7) expression. We further demonstrate that exogenous soluble NTPDase, or CD39 expression by cocultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, stimulates tumor cell proliferation and limits cell death triggered by extracellular ATP. Collectively, our findings indicate that local expression of CD39 directly promotes tumor cell growth by scavenging extracellular ATP. Pharmacological or targeted inhibition of CD39 enzymatic activity may find utility as an adjunct therapy in cancer management. PMID:21390184

Feng, Lili; Sun, Xiaofeng; Csizmadia, Eva; Han, Lihui; Bian, Shu; Murakami, Takashi; Wang, Xin; Robson, Simon C; Wu, Yan

2011-03-01

266

MTA1 promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background The prognostic value of metastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA1) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been suggested. However, there is still no direct evidence that MTA1 promotes NPC growth in vivo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the function of MTA1 in the regulation of NPC cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. Methods Stable MTA1 knockdown or overexpression NPC cell lines were employed. The effects of MTA1 depletion or overexpression on cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle progression were examined by MTT, colony formation and flow cytometry assay. The effects of MTA1 depletion on tumor growth in vivo were examined in mouse xenograft model. Results MTA1 knockdown or overexpression drastically changed the proliferation, colony formation and cell cycle of NPC cells in vitro. MTA1 depletion significantly suppressed NPC tumorigenesis in vivo. Conclusion MTA1 promotes NPC cell proliferation via enhancing G1 to S phase transition, leading to increased tumor growth. Targeting MTA1 is a promising approach to reduce tumor burden of NPC. PMID:23941622

2013-01-01

267

Diversity, biocontrol, and plant growth promoting abilities of xylem residing bacteria from solanaceous crops.  

PubMed

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the solanaceous crops of economic and cultural importance and is widely cultivated in the state of Goa, India. Eggplant cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that colonizes the xylem tissue. In this study, 167 bacteria were isolated from the xylem of healthy eggplant, chilli, and Solanum torvum Sw. by vacuum infiltration and maceration. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) grouped these xylem residing bacteria (XRB) into 38 haplotypes. Twenty-eight strains inhibited growth of R. solanacearum and produced volatile and diffusible antagonistic compounds and plant growth promoting substances in vitro. Antagonistic strains XB86, XB169, XB177, and XB200 recorded a biocontrol efficacy greater than 85% against BW and exhibited 12%-22 % increase in shoot length in eggplant in the greenhouse screening. 16S rRNA based identification revealed the presence of 23 different bacterial genera. XRB with high biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities were identified as strains of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptomyces sp., Enterobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp. This study is the first report on identity of bacteria from the xylem of solanaceous crops having traits useful in cultivation of eggplant. PMID:24963298

Achari, Gauri A; Ramesh, Raman

2014-01-01

268

Promoting sustainable economic growth and industrialisation: solution to mass unemployment and poverty.  

PubMed

This paper analysed the twin-problems of unemployment and poverty. The methodology adopted in the analyses was a combination of the historical and logico-mathematical research perspectives. The results showed that the technologically advanced nations (TANs) experienced mass unemployment, low productivity, high inflation and prevalent poverty problems for many centuries before they achieved industrial revolution (IR). When they achieved the modern IR, not only did the mass unemployment problem disappear, but also, there were not enough adults persons to fill the employment openings created by the industrialisation. Consequently, industrialists resorted to employing children who worked in factories for many hours everyday, and prevented them from receiving education. Unemployment and poverty, therefore are symptoms of stagnation and lack of industrialisation (the disease). The long-term solution to mass unemployment and poverty therefore is industrialisation, for there is no industrialised nation that is poor. The short-term solution is promoting sustainable economic growth and competence-building. However, because achieving sustainable economic growth, competence-building and industrialisation are learning processes, Nigeria and other developing nations need to develop good educational systems. They should also establish suitable frameworks for training university graduates, scientists and engineers in particular in a curriculum-based scheme to acquire complementary practical skills in the economy outside campuses. This is how the poor nations can achieve sustainable growth, build-up individual and national competence, promote industrialisation and eliminate unemployment and poverty problems, speedily. PMID:20161924

Ogbimi, F E

2007-01-01

269

Diversity, Biocontrol, and Plant Growth Promoting Abilities of Xylem Residing Bacteria from Solanaceous Crops  

PubMed Central

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the solanaceous crops of economic and cultural importance and is widely cultivated in the state of Goa, India. Eggplant cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that colonizes the xylem tissue. In this study, 167 bacteria were isolated from the xylem of healthy eggplant, chilli, and Solanum torvum Sw. by vacuum infiltration and maceration. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) grouped these xylem residing bacteria (XRB) into 38 haplotypes. Twenty-eight strains inhibited growth of R. solanacearum and produced volatile and diffusible antagonistic compounds and plant growth promoting substances in vitro. Antagonistic strains XB86, XB169, XB177, and XB200 recorded a biocontrol efficacy greater than 85% against BW and exhibited 12%–22 % increase in shoot length in eggplant in the greenhouse screening. 16S rRNA based identification revealed the presence of 23 different bacterial genera. XRB with high biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities were identified as strains of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptomyces sp., Enterobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp. This study is the first report on identity of bacteria from the xylem of solanaceous crops having traits useful in cultivation of eggplant. PMID:24963298

Achari, Gauri A.

2014-01-01

270

Thalamus-derived molecules promote survival and dendritic growth of developing cortical neurons.  

PubMed

The mammalian neocortex is composed of various types of neurons that reflect its laminar and area structures. It has been suggested that not only intrinsic but also afferent-derived extrinsic factors are involved in neuronal differentiation during development. However, the role and molecular mechanism of such extrinsic factors are almost unknown. Here, we attempted to identify molecules that are expressed in the thalamus and affect cortical cell development. First, thalamus-specific molecules were sought by comparing gene expression profiles of the developing rat thalamus and cortex using microarrays, and by constructing a thalamus-enriched subtraction cDNA library. A systematic screening by in situ hybridization showed that several genes encoding extracellular molecules were strongly expressed in sensory thalamic nuclei. Exogenous and endogenous protein localization further demonstrated that two extracellular molecules, Neuritin-1 (NRN1) and VGF, were transported to thalamic axon terminals. Application of NRN1 and VGF to dissociated cell culture promoted the dendritic growth. An organotypic slice culture experiment further showed that the number of primary dendrites in multipolar stellate neurons increased in response to NRN1 and VGF, whereas dendritic growth of pyramidal neurons was not promoted. These molecules also increased neuronal survival of multipolar neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that the thalamus-specific molecules NRN1 and VGF play an important role in the dendritic growth and survival of cortical neurons in a cell type-specific manner. PMID:23115177

Sato, Haruka; Fukutani, Yuma; Yamamoto, Yuji; Tatara, Eiichi; Takemoto, Makoto; Shimamura, Kenji; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko

2012-10-31

271

Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase ? (LPAAT?) Promotes the Tumor Growth of Human Osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Background Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone with poorly characterized molecular pathways important in its pathogenesis. Increasing evidence indicates that elevated lipid biosynthesis is a characteristic feature of cancer. We sought to investigate the role of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase ? (LPAAT?, aka, AGPAT2) in regulating the proliferation and growth of human osteosarcoma cells. LPAAT? can generate phosphatidic acid, which plays a key role in lipid biosynthesis as well as in cell proliferation and survival. Although elevated expression of LPAAT? has been reported in several types of human tumors, the role of LPAAT? in osteosarcoma progression has yet to be elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings Endogenous expression of LPAAT? in osteosarcoma cell lines is analyzed by using semi-quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of LPAAT? and silencing LPAAT? expression is employed to determine the effect of LPAAT? on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration in vitro and osteosarcoma tumor growth in vivo. We have found that expression of LPAAT? is readily detected in 8 of the 10 analyzed human osteosarcoma lines. Exogenous expression of LPAAT? promotes osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration, while silencing LPAAT? expression inhibits these cellular characteristics. We further demonstrate that exogenous expression of LPAAT? effectively promotes tumor growth, while knockdown of LPAAT? expression inhibits tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft model of human osteosarcoma. Conclusions/Significance Our results strongly suggest that LPAAT? expression may be associated with the aggressive phenotypes of human osteosarcoma and that LPAAT? may play an important role in regulating osteosarcoma cell proliferation and tumor growth. Thus, targeting LPAAT? may be exploited as a novel therapeutic strategy for the clinical management of osteosarcoma. This is especially attractive given the availability of selective pharmacological inhibitors. PMID:21152068

Rastegar, Farbod; Gao, Jian-Li; Shenaq, Deana; Luo, Qing; Shi, Qiong; Kim, Stephanie H.; Jiang, Wei; Wagner, Eric R.; Huang, Enyi; Gao, Yanhong; Shen, Jikun; Yang, Ke; He, Bai-Cheng; Chen, Liang; Zuo, Guo-Wei; Luo, Jinyong; Luo, Xiaoji; Bi, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Mi; Hu, Ning; Wang, Linyuan; Luther, Gaurav; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; He, Tong-Chuan

2010-01-01

272

NIH study finds low-dose nicotine does not promote tumor growth in mouse models of lung cancer:  

Cancer.gov

Experiments in mice show that low levels of exposure to nicotine, equivalent to those in humans who use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to help them quit smoking, did not promote lung tumor growth.

273

Iron-regulated metabolites of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374 : Their role in induced systemic resistance.  

E-print Network

??The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r effectively suppresses fusarium wilt in radish by induced systemic resistance (ISR). In radish, WCS374r-mediated ISR depends partly on… (more)

Djavaheri, M.

2007-01-01

274

The impacts on broiler performance and yield by removing antibiotic growth promoters and an evaluation of potential alternatives  

E-print Network

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the impacts of removing antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) on broiler performance and yield and to evaluate alternative products as potential replacements. In experiment one, approximately 552,000 broilers...

Bray, Joey Lynn

2009-05-15

275

Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1 associated with Dendrobium officinale through phytohormone production and nitrogen fixation.  

PubMed

Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1, associated with Dendrobium officinale, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, was characterized. At 90 days post-inoculation, strain ZJSH1 significantly promoted the growth of D.?officinale seedlings, with increases of stems by 8.6% and fresh weight by 7.5%. Interestingly, the polysaccharide content extracted from the inoculated seedlings was 0.6% higher than that of the control. Similar growth promotion was observed with the transplants inoculated with strain ZJSH1. The mechanism of growth promotion was attributed to a combination of phytohormones and nitrogen fixation. Strain ZJSH1 was found using the Kjeldahl method to have a nitrogen fixation activity of 1.15?mg?l(-1) , which was confirmed by sequencing of the nifH gene. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, strain ZJSH1 was found to produce various phytohormones, including salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Zeatin and abscisic acid (ABA). The growth curve showed that strain ZJSH1 grew well in the seedlings, especially in the roots. Accordingly, much higher contents of SA, ABA, IAA and c-ZR were detected in the inoculated seedlings, which may play roles as both phytohormones and 'Systemic Acquired Resistance' drivers. Nitrogen fixation and secretion of plant growth regulators (SA, IAA, Zeatin and ABA) endow S.?paucimobilis?ZJSH1 with growth-promoting properties, which provides a potential for application in the commercial growth of D.?officinale. PMID:25142808

Yang, Suijuan; Zhang, Xinghai; Cao, Zhaoyun; Zhao, Kaipeng; Wang, Sai; Chen, Mingxue; Hu, Xiufang

2014-11-01

276

Myeloid-specific expression of Ron receptor kinase promotes prostate tumor growth.  

PubMed

Ron receptor kinase (MST1R) is important in promoting epithelial tumorigenesis, but the potential contributions of its specific expression in stromal cells have not been examined. Herein, we show that the Ron receptor is expressed in mouse and human stromal cells of the prostate tumor microenvironment. To test the significance of stromal Ron expression, prostate cancer cells were orthotopically implanted into the prostates of either wild-type or Ron tyrosine kinase deficient (TK(-/-); Mst1r(-/-)) hosts. In TK(-/-) hosts, prostate cancer cell growth was significantly reduced as compared with tumor growth in TK(+/+) hosts. Prostate tumors in TK(-/-) hosts exhibited an increase in tumor cell apoptosis, macrophage infiltration and altered cytokine expression. Reciprocal bone marrow transplantation studies and myeloid cell-specific ablation of Ron showed that loss of Ron in myeloid cells is sufficient to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. Interestingly, depletion of CD8(+) T cells, but not CD4(+) T cells, was able to restore prostate tumor growth in hosts devoid of myeloid-specific Ron expression. These studies show a critical role for the Ron receptor in the tumor microenvironment, whereby Ron loss in tumor-associated macrophages inhibits prostate cancer cell growth, at least in part, by derepressing the activity of CD8(+) T cells. PMID:23328584

Gurusamy, Devikala; Gray, Jerilyn K; Pathrose, Peterson; Kulkarni, Rishikesh M; Finkleman, Fred D; Waltz, Susan E

2013-03-15

277

Effects of cytotoxic agents on TdR incorporation and growth delay in human colonic tumour xenografts.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between the utilization of 3H-thymidine in situ ([3H]-TdR fractional incorporation or TFI) and tumour growth delay after treatment with various cytotoxic agents has been examined. It is shown that (a) it is not possible to predict tumour growth delay, or to select the most effective agent, from changes in TFI 1 day after treatment; (b) there is a good correlation between tumour growth delay and the time for recovery of TFI to the pretreatment level; (c) there is a relationship within a tumour line between the depression of TFI 4 days after treatment and growth dealy induced by the same treatment. This relationship appears to be independent of the mechanism by which the agent exerts its cytotoxic effect. PMID:911658

Houghton, P. J.; Houghton, J. A.; Taylor, D. M.

1977-01-01

278

Growth promotion of red pepper plug seedlings and the production of gibberellins by Bacillus cereus , Bacillus macroides and Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of red pepper plug seedlings was promoted by Bacillus cereus MJ-1, B. macroides CJ-29, and B. pumilus CJ-69 isolated from the rhizosphere. Gibberellins (GAs), a well-known plant growth-promoting hormone, were detected in the culture broth of their rhizobacteria. Among the GAs, the contents of GA1, GA3, GA4, and GA7, physiologically active GAs, were comparatively higher than those of

Gil-Jae Joo; Young-Mog Kim; In-Jung Lee; Kyung-Sik Song; In-Koo Rhee

2004-01-01

279

Impact of zinc-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on lentil grown in zinc-amended soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though zinc is a plant nutrient at low levels, Zn ions can be highly phytotoxic at higher concentrations found in contaminated\\u000a soils. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to decrease this toxicity. Indeed, in addition to their role in plant-growth\\u000a promotion, rhizobacteria also reduce the toxicity of heavy metals. In turn, they can be effective for crops grown in metal-contaminated

Parvaze Ahmad Wani; Almas Zaidi

2008-01-01

280

Effects of insecticides on plant-growth-promoting activities of phosphate solubilizing rhizobacterium Klebsiella sp. strain PS19  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, four technical grade insecticides, fipronil, pyriproxyfen, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were applied at the recommended and the higher doses to investigate their effects on plant growth-promoting activities of phosphate-solubilizing Klebsiella sp. strain PS19, isolated from mustard rhizosphere. All tested insecticides displayed a concentration-dependent inhibition in plant growth promoting traits, like, inorganic phosphate solubilization, biosynthesis of phytohormones and siderophores,

Munees Ahemad; Mohammad Saghir Khan

2011-01-01

281

Inoculation of tomato plants ( Solanum lycopersicum ) with growth-promoting Bacillus subtilis retards whitefly Bemisia tabaci development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root inoculation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with a Bacillus subtilis strain BEB-DN (BsDN) isolated from the rhizosphere of cultivated potato plants was able to promote growth and to generate an induced systemic\\u000a resistance (ISR) response against virus-free Bemisia tabaci. Growth promotion was evident 3 weeks after inoculation. No changes in oviposition density, preference and nymphal number\\u000a in the early stages

José Humberto Valenzuela-Soto; María Gloria Estrada-Hernández; Enrique Ibarra-Laclette; John Paul Délano-Frier

2010-01-01

282

Plant growth promotion traits and Cr (VI) reduction potentials of Cr (VI) resistant Streptomyces strains.  

PubMed

The most toxic form of chromium [Cr (VI)] can be converted to less toxic Cr (III) by reduction with the help of microbes. A total of 6 Streptomyces strains (S. matansis BG5, Streptomyces sp. RSF17, S. vinaceus CRF2, Streptomyces sp. CRF14, S. pulcher CRF17, S. griseoincarnatus SCF18) which were previously isolated from saline farmlands of Punjab, Pakistan, were used in this work. These strains showed varying levels of resistance to Cr (VI) from 800??g?ml(-1) to 1000?mg l(-1) . Their plant growth promoting and Cr (VI) reduction potentials were assessed. Two strains showed positive phosphate solubilization activity. All the strains had ability to produce indole acetic acid (IAA) except one strain (CRF17). The maximum production of IAA was observed by strain BG5 that was 16?mg l(-1) in the presence of 50?mg l(-1) of Cr (VI). All the strains were able to produce ammonia both in the absence and presence of Cr (VI). The highest Cr (VI) reduction in majority of the strains was observed at 28?°C and pH 9. The complete reduction of 150?mg l(-1) of Cr (VI) occurred after 168?hrs. The chromium (VI) concentration of 200?mg l(-1) could be reduced above 90% by most of these strains. The presence of other metals also enhanced Cr (VI) reduction by most of the strains. The results indicate the potential capacity of Streptomyces strains as tool for plant growth promotion and Cr (VI) bioremediation and also is the first report about plant growth promoting traits of Cr (VI) resistant Streptomyces strains. PMID:22736528

Javaid, Mahwish; Sultan, Sikander

2013-05-01

283

The Mitochondrial Chaperone TRAP1 Promotes Neoplastic Growth by Inhibiting Succinate Dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Summary We report that the mitochondrial chaperone TRAP1, which is induced in most tumor types, is required for neoplastic growth and confers transforming potential to noncancerous cells. TRAP1 binds to and inhibits succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), the complex II of the respiratory chain. The respiratory downregulation elicited by TRAP1 interaction with SDH promotes tumorigenesis by priming the succinate-dependent stabilization of the proneoplastic transcription factor HIF1? independently of hypoxic conditions. These findings provide a mechanistic clue to explain the switch to aerobic glycolysis of tumors and identify TRAP1 as a promising antineoplastic target. PMID:23747254

Sciacovelli, Marco; Guzzo, Giulia; Morello, Virginia; Frezza, Christian; Zheng, Liang; Nannini, Nazarena; Calabrese, Fiorella; Laudiero, Gabriella; Esposito, Franca; Landriscina, Matteo; Defilippi, Paola; Bernardi, Paolo; Rasola, Andrea

2013-01-01

284

Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spinach respectively over the non-bacterized control. Considering all the parameters tested, there were similarities but no significant difference at P < 0.05 between the overall performances of the two organisms. PMID:24031240

Adesemoye, A.O.; Obini, M.; Ugoji, E.O.

2008-01-01

285

Synthesis of brassinosteroids analogues from laxogenin and their plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Four steroid saponins (2-5) and three derivatives (6-8) were synthesised from laxogenin. Four of them were new compounds: (25R)-3?-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-?-d-galactopyranosyloxy)-5?-spirostan-6-one (3), (25R)-3?-(?-d-galactopyranosyloxy)-5?-spirostan-6-one (5), 3?,16-diacetyl-26-hydroxy-5?-cholestan-6,22-dione (6) and 16-acetyl-3?,26-dihydroxy-5?-cholestan-6,22-dione (7). All the compounds showed plant growth-promoting activity in the radish hypocotyl elongation and cotyledon expansion bioassay. Above all, 2 and 6 were found to be more active. PMID:25311045

Wang, Qi; Xu, Jing; Liu, XiaoLi; Gong, WenXiu; Zhang, CunLi

2015-01-01

286

Vector for chromosomal integration of the phoC gene in plant growth-promoting bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the subcloning of the gene encoding the PhoC acid phosphatase from Morganella morganii (phoC gene) in a vector that permits stable chromosomal integration of this gene in plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). A plasmid\\u000a was constructed using the suicide delivery vector pJMT6 (a pUT\\/mini Tn5 derivative vector) and the plasmid pLR1, the latter\\u000a harboring the phoC gene. The

R. Fraga-Vidal; H. Rodríguez Mesa; T. González-Díaz de Villegas

287

Tools for genetic manipulation of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum amazonense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Azospirillum amazonense has potential to be used as agricultural inoculant since it promotes plant growth without causing pollution, unlike industrial\\u000a fertilizers. Owing to this fact, the study of this species has gained interest. However, a detailed understanding of its genetics\\u000a and physiology is limited by the absence of appropriate genetic tools for the study of this species.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Conjugation and

Fernando H Sant’Anna; Dieime S Andrade; Débora B Trentini; Shana S Weber; Irene S Schrank

2011-01-01

288

An agent-based modelling approach to estimate error in gyrodactylid population growth.  

PubMed

Comparative studies of gyrodactylid monogeneans on different host species or strains rely upon the observation of growth on individual fish maintained within a common environment, summarised using maximum likelihood statistical approaches. Here we describe an agent-based model of gyrodactylid population growth, which we use to evaluate errors due to stochastic reproductive variation in such experimental studies. Parameters for the model use available fecundity and mortality data derived from previously published life tables of Gyrodactylus salaris, and use a new data set of fecundity and mortality statistics for this species on the Neva stock of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Mortality data were analysed using a mark-recapture analysis software package, allowing maximum-likelihood estimation of daily survivorship and mortality. We consistently found that a constant age-specific mortality schedule was most appropriate for G. salaris in experimental datasets, with a daily survivorship of 0.84 at 13°C. This, however, gave unrealistically low population growth rates when used as parameters in the model, and a schedule of constantly increasing mortality was chosen as the best compromise for the model. The model also predicted a realistic age structure for the simulated populations, with 0.32 of the population not yet having given birth for the first time (pre-first birth). The model demonstrated that the population growth rate can be a useful parameter for comparing gyrodactylid populations when these are larger than 20-30 individuals, but that stochastic error rendered the parameter unusable in smaller populations. It also showed that the declining parasite population growth rate typically observed during the course of G. salaris infections cannot be explained through stochastic error and must therefore have a biological basis. Finally, the study showed that most gyrodactylid-host studies of this type are too small to detect subtle differences in local adaptation of gyrodactylid monogeneans between fish stocks. PMID:22771983

Ramírez, Raúl; Harris, Philip D; Bakke, Tor A

2012-08-01

289

B-RAF kinase drives developmental axon growth and promotes axon regeneration in the injured mature CNS  

PubMed Central

Activation of intrinsic growth programs that promote developmental axon growth may also facilitate axon regeneration in injured adult neurons. Here, we demonstrate that conditional activation of B-RAF kinase alone in mouse embryonic neurons is sufficient to drive the growth of long-range peripheral sensory axon projections in vivo in the absence of upstream neurotrophin signaling. We further show that activated B-RAF signaling enables robust regenerative growth of sensory axons into the spinal cord after a dorsal root crush as well as substantial axon regrowth in the crush-lesioned optic nerve. Finally, the combination of B-RAF gain-of-function and PTEN loss-of-function promotes optic nerve axon extension beyond what would be predicted for a simple additive effect. We conclude that cell-intrinsic RAF signaling is a crucial pathway promoting developmental and regenerative axon growth in the peripheral and central nervous systems. PMID:24733831

O’Donovan, Kevin J.; Ma, Kaijie; Guo, Hengchang; Wang, Chen; Sun, Fang; Han, Seung Baek; Kim, Hyukmin; Wong, Jamie K.; Charron, Jean; Zou, Hongyan; Son, Young-Jin; He, Zhigang

2014-01-01

290

Fibroblast growth factor 8 increases breast cancer cell growth by promoting cell cycle progression and by protecting against cell death  

SciTech Connect

Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF-8) is expressed in a large proportion of breast cancers, whereas its level in normal mammary gland epithelium is low. Previous studies have shown that FGF-8b stimulates breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. To explore the mechanisms by which FGF-8b promotes growth, we studied its effects on cell cycle regulatory proteins and signalling pathways in mouse S115 and human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We also studied the effect of FGF-8b on cell survival. FGF-8b induced cell cycle progression and up-regulated particularly cyclin D1 mRNA and protein in S115 cells. Silencing cyclin D1 with siRNA inhibited most but not all FGF-8b-induced proliferation. Inhibition of the FGF-8b-activated ERK/MAPK pathway decreased FGF-8b-stimulated proliferation. Blocking the constitutively active PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways also lowered FGF-8b-induced cyclin D1 expression and proliferation. Corresponding results were obtained in MCF-7 cells. In S115 and MCF-7 mouse tumours, FGF-8b increased cyclin D1 and Ki67 levels. Moreover, FGF-8b opposed staurosporine-induced S115 cell death which effect was blocked by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway but not the ERK/MAPK pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest that FGF-8b increases breast cancer cell growth both by stimulating cell cycle progression and by protecting against cell death.

Nilsson, Emeli M., E-mail: Emeli.Nilsson@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tumour Biology, Lund University, CRC, Building 91, Plan 10, Entrance 72, UMAS, 205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Brokken, Leon J.S., E-mail: Leon.Brokken@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tumour Biology, Lund University, CRC, Building 91, Plan 10, Entrance 72, UMAS, 205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Haerkoenen, Pirkko L., E-mail: Pirkko.Harkonen@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tumour Biology, Lund University, CRC, Building 91, Plan 10, Entrance 72, UMAS, 205 02 Malmoe (Sweden)

2010-03-10

291

Strain-promoted growth of Mn silicide nanowires on Si(001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have discovered a method to promote the growth of Mn silicide nanowires on the Si(001) at 450^oC. Deposition of sub-monolayer quantities of Mn onto a Si(001) surface with a high density of Bi nanolines results in the formation of nanowires, 5-10 nm wide, and up to 600 nm long. These nanowires are never formed if the same growth procedure is followed in the absence of the Bi nanolines. The Haiku core of the Bi nanoline is known to induce short-range stress in the surrounding silicon surface, straining neighbouring dimers, and repelling step edges [1]. We discuss the possible mechanisms for this effect, including the effect of the Bi nanolines on the surface stress tensor and alteration of the available diffusion channels on the surface. [4pt] [1] J. H. G. Owen, K. Miki, and D. R. Bowler J. Mat. Sci. 41 4568-4603 (2006)

Miki, Kazushi; Liu, Hongjun; Owen, James H. G.; Renner, Christoph

2011-03-01

292

Increased Growth of the Microalga Chlorella vulgaris when Coimmobilized and Cocultured in Alginate Beads with the Plant-Growth-Promoting Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coimmobilization of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the plant-growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense in small alginate beads resulted in a significantly increased growth of the microalga. Dry and fresh weight, total number of cells, size of the microalgal clusters (colonies) within the bead, number of microalgal cells per cluster, and the levels of microalgal pigments significantly increased. Light microscopy revealed

LUZ E. GONZALEZ; YOAV BASHAN

2000-01-01

293

A Naturally Associated Rhizobacterium of Arabidopsis thaliana Induces a Starvation-Like Transcriptional Response while Promoting Growth  

PubMed Central

Plant growth promotion by rhizobacteria is a known phenomenon but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We searched for plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that are naturally associated with Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate the molecular mechanisms that are involved in plant growth-promotion. We isolated a Pseudomonas bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. G62) from roots of field-grown Arabidopsis plants that has not been described previously and analyzed its effect on plant growth, gene expression and the level of sugars and amino acids in the host plant. Inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. G62 promoted plant growth under various growth conditions. Microarray analysis revealed rapid changes in transcript levels of genes annotated to energy-, sugar- and cell wall metabolism in plants 6 h after root inoculation with P. sp. G62. The expression of several of these genes remained stable over weeks, but appeared differentially regulated in roots and shoots. The global gene expression profile observed after inoculation with P. sp. G62 showed a striking resemblance with previously described carbohydrate starvation experiments, although plants were not depleted from soluble sugars, and even showed a slight increase of the sucrose level in roots 5 weeks after inoculation. We suggest that the starvation-like transcriptional phenotype - while steady state sucrose levels are not reduced - is induced by a yet unknown signal from the bacterium that simulates sugar starvation. We discuss the potential effects of the sugar starvation signal on plant growth promotion. PMID:22216267

Thormahlen, Ina; Bernholz, Carolin; Kunz, Sabine; Brouwer, Stephan; Schwochow, Melanie; Kohl, Karin; van Dongen, Joost T.

2011-01-01

294

S100B Promotes Glioma Growth through Chemoattraction of Myeloid-Derived Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Purpose S100B is member of a multigenic family of Ca2+-binding proteins that is overexpressed by gliomas. Recently, we demonstrated that low concentrations of S100B attenuated microglia activation through the induction of Stat3. We hypothesized that overexpression of S100B in gliomas could promote tumor growth by modulating the activity of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Experimental Design We stably transfected GL261 glioma cell lines with constructs that overexpressed (S100Bhigh) or underexpressed (S100Blow) S100B and compared their growth characteristics to intracranial wild-type (S100Bwt) tumors. Results Downregulation of S100B in gliomas had no impact on cell division in vitro but abrogated tumor growth in vivo. Interestingly, compared to S100Blow tumors, S100Bwt and S100Bhigh intracranial gliomas exhibited higher infiltration of TAMs, stronger inflammatory cytokine expression, and increased vascularity. To identify the potential mechanisms involved, the expression of the S100B receptor, RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products), was evaluated in gliomas. Although S100B expression induced RAGE in vivo, RAGE ablation in mice did not significantly inhibit TAM infiltration into gliomas, suggesting that other pathways were involved in this process. To evaluate other mechanisms responsible for TAM chemoattraction, we then examined chemokine pathways and found that CCL2 was upregulated in S100Bhigh tumors. Furthermore, analysis of TCGA’s glioma data bank demonstrated a positive correlation between S100B and CCL2 expression in human proneural and neural glioma subtypes, supporting our finding. Conclusions These observations suggest that S100B promotes glioma growth by TAM chemoattraction through upregulation of CCL2 and introduces the potential utility of S100B inhibitors for glioma therapy. PMID:23719262

Wang, Huaqing; Zhang, Leying; Zhang, Ian Y.; Chen, Xuebo; Da Fonseca, Anna; Wu, Shihua; Ren, Hui; Badie, Sam; Sadeghi, Sam; Ouyang, Mao; Warden, Charles D.; Badie, Behnam

2013-01-01

295

PCB-95 Promotes Dendritic Growth via Ryanodine Receptor-Dependent Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background: Aroclor 1254 (A1254) interferes with normal dendritic growth and plasticity in the developing rodent brain, but the mechanism(s) mediating this effect have yet to be established. Non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) enhance the activity of ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium ion (Ca2+) channels, which play a central role in regulating the spatiotemporal dynamics of intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Ca2+ signaling is a predominant factor in shaping dendritic arbors, but whether PCB potentiation of RyR activity influences dendritic growth is not known. Objective: We determined whether RyR activity is required for PCB effects on dendritic growth. Methods and Results: Golgi analysis of hippocampi from weanling rats confirmed that developmental exposure via the maternal diet to NDL PCB-95 (2,2´,3,5´6-pentachlorobiphenyl), a potent RyR potentiator, phenocopies the dendrite-promoting effects of A1254. Dendritic growth in dissociated cultures of primary hippocampal neurons and in hippocampal slice cultures is similarly enhanced by PCB-95 but not by PCB-66 (2,3,4´,4-tetrachlorobiphenyl), a congener with negligible effects on RyR activity. The dendrite-promoting effects of PCB-95 are evident at concentrations as low as 2 pM and are inhibited by either pharmacologic blockade or siRNA knockdown of RyRs. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that environmentally relevant levels of NDL PCBs modulate neuronal connectivity via RyR-dependent effects on dendritic arborization. In addition, these findings identify RyR channel dysregulation as a novel mechanism contributing to dysmorphic dendritogenesis associated with heritable and environmentally triggered neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:22534141

Wayman, Gary A.; Yang, Dongren; Bose, Diptiman D.; Lesiak, Adam; Ledoux, Veronica; Bruun, Donald; Pessah, Isaac N.

2012-01-01

296

Human Serum Promotes Candida albicans Biofilm Growth and Virulence Gene Expression on Silicone Biomaterial  

PubMed Central

Objectives Systemic candidal infections are a common problem in hospitalized patients due to central venous catheters fabricated using silicone biomaterial (SB). We therefore evaluated the effect of human serum on C. albicans biofilm morphology, growth, and the expression of virulence-related genes on SB in vitro. Methods We cultivated C. albicans SC5314 (wild-type strain, WT) and its derivative HLC54 (hyphal mutant, HM) for 48 h in various conditions, including the presence or absence of SB discs, and human serum. The growth of planktonic and biofilm cells of both strains was monitored at three time points by a tetrazolium salt reduction assay and by scanning electron microscopy. We also analyzed by RT-PCR its expression of the virulence-related genes ALS3, HWP1, EAP1, ECE1, SAP1 - SAP10, PLB1, PLB2, PLC and PLD. Results At each time point, planktonic cells of WT strain cultured in yeast nitrogen base displayed a much higher expression of EAP1 and HWP1, and a moderately higher ALS3 expression, than HM cells. In planktonic cells, expression of the ten SAP genes was higher in the WT strain initially, but were highly expressed in the HM strain by 48 h. Biofilm growth of both strains on SB was promoted in the presence of human serum than in its absence. Significant upregulation of ALS3, HWP1, EAP1, ECE1, SAP1, SAP4, SAP6 - SAP10, PLB1, PLB2 and PLC was observed for WT biofilms grown on serum-treated SB discs for at least one time point, compared with biofilms on serum-free SB discs. Conclusions Human serum stimulates C. albicans biofilm growth on SB discs and upregulates the expression of virulence genes, particularly adhesion genes ALS3 and HWP1, and hydrolase-encoding genes SAP, PLB1 and PLB2. This response is likely to promote the colonization of this versatile pathogen within the human host. PMID:23704884

Samaranayake, Yuthika Hemamala; Cheung, Becky P. K.; Yau, Joyce Y. Y.; Yeung, Shadow K. W.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

2013-01-01

297

Katanin p60 promotes neurite growth and collateral formation in the hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Katanin p60 on the neurite growth and collateral formation in the hippocampus. Methods: Gene cloning was performed to construct the Katanin p60 eukaryotic vector. The microtubule cutting effect and protein expression of Katanin p60 were investigated in 293T cells. Then, these vectors were transfected into hippocampal neurons of rats, and the effects of Katanin p60 on the neurite growth and collateral formation were observed. Results: In the present study, we successfully constructed Katanin p60-GFP recombinant plasmids. After transfecting into 293T cells, the Katanin p60 was over-expressed in these cells, the mesh-like structure of microtubules was disrupted, the residual microtubules circled the nucleus, the expression microtubule proteins reduced, and the tapered protrusions disappeared. In hippocampal neurons with Katanin p60 over-expression, the neural neurite growth was obvious, and a lot of dendrites arose from cell bodies. In cells without Katanin p60 expression, the neurites were small, and the number and length of dendrites reduced significantly when compared with Katanin p60 over-expressing cells (P < 0.05). In addition, in Katanin p60 over-expressing cells, the number of collaterals from the neurites and dendrites increased markedly when compared with cells without Katanin p60 expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Katanin p60 can promote the neurite growth and collateral formation of hippocampal neurons. PMID:25356098

Chen, Keen; Ye, Yongheng; Ji, Zhisheng; Tan, Minghui; Li, Sumei; Zhang, Jifeng; Guo, Guoqing; Lin, Hongsheng

2014-01-01

298

Bacterial endophyte Sphingomonas sp. LK11 produces gibberellins and IAA and promotes tomato plant growth.  

PubMed

Plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria have been identified as potential growth regulators of crops. Endophytic bacterium, Sphingomonas sp. LK11, was isolated from the leaves of Tephrosia apollinea. The pure culture of Sphingomonas sp. LK11 was subjected to advance chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to extract and isolate gibberellins (GAs). Deuterated standards of [17, 17-(2)H2]-GA4, [17, 17-(2)H2]-GA9 and [17, 17-(2)H2]-GA20 were used to quantify the bacterial GAs. The analysis of the culture broth of Sphingomonas sp. LK11 revealed the existence of physiologically active gibberellins (GA4: 2.97 ± 0.11 ng/ml) and inactive GA9 (0.98 ± 0.15 ng/ml) and GA20 (2.41 ± 0.23). The endophyte also produced indole acetic acid (11.23 ± 0.93 ?M/ml). Tomato plants inoculated with endophytic Sphingomonas sp. LK11 showed significantly increased growth attributes (shoot length, chlorophyll contents, shoot, and root dry weights) compared to the control. This indicated that such phyto-hormones-producing strains could help in increasing crop growth. PMID:24994010

Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, Javid; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Ullah, Ihsan; Ali, Liaqat; Jung, Hee-Young; Lee, In-Jung

2014-08-01

299

Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Vascular Growth In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Stem cell therapies are promising strategies to regenerate human injured tissues, including ischemic myocardium. Here, we examined the acquisition of properties associated with vascular growth by human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs), and whether they promoted vascular growth in vivo. UCBMSCs were induced in endothelial cell-specific growth medium (EGM-2) acquiring new cell markers, increased Ac-LDL uptake, and migratory capacity as assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, indirect immunofluorescence, and invasion assays. Angiogenic and vasculogenic potentials could be anticipated by in vitro experiments showing self organization into Matrigel-mediated cell networks, and activation of circulating angiogenic-supportive myeloid cells. In mice, following subcutaneous co-injection with Matrigel, UCBMSCs modified to co-express bioluminescent (luciferases) and fluorescent proteins were demonstrated to participate in the formation of new microvasculature connected with the host circulatory system. Response of UCBMSCs to ischemia was explored in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). UCBMSCs transplanted using a fibrin patch survived 4 weeks post-implantation and organized into CD31+network structures above the infarcted myocardium. MI-treated animals showed a reduced infarct scar and a larger vessel-occupied area in comparison with MI-control animals. Taken together, the presented results show that UCBMSCs can be induced in vitro to acquire angiogenic and vasculogenic properties and contribute to vascular growth in vivo. PMID:23166670

Soler-Botija, Carolina; Pujal, Josep M.; Galvez-Monton, Carolina; Prat-Vidal, Cristina; Llucia-Valldeperas, Aida; Blanco, Jeronimo; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

2012-01-01

300

Adaptive growth factor delivery from a polyelectrolyte coating promotes synergistic bone tissue repair and reconstruction.  

PubMed

Traumatic wounds and congenital defects that require large-scale bone tissue repair have few successful clinical therapies, particularly for craniomaxillofacial defects. Although bioactive materials have demonstrated alternative approaches to tissue repair, an optimized materials system for reproducible, safe, and targeted repair remains elusive. We hypothesized that controlled, rapid bone formation in large, critical-size defects could be induced by simultaneously delivering multiple biological growth factors to the site of the wound. Here, we report an approach for bone repair using a polyelectrolye multilayer coating carrying as little as 200 ng of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB that were eluted over readily adapted time scales to induce rapid bone repair. Based on electrostatic interactions between the polymer multilayers and growth factors alone, we sustained mitogenic and osteogenic signals with these growth factors in an easily tunable and controlled manner to direct endogenous cell function. To prove the role of this adaptive release system, we applied the polyelectrolyte coating on a well-studied biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) support membrane. The released growth factors directed cellular processes to induce bone repair in a critical-size rat calvaria model. The released growth factors promoted local bone formation that bridged a critical-size defect in the calvaria as early as 2 wk after implantation. Mature, mechanically competent bone regenerated the native calvaria form. Such an approach could be clinically useful and has significant benefits as a synthetic, off-the-shelf, cell-free option for bone tissue repair and restoration. PMID:25136093

Shah, Nisarg J; Hyder, Md Nasim; Quadir, Mohiuddin A; Dorval Courchesne, Noémie-Manuelle; Seeherman, Howard J; Nevins, Myron; Spector, Myron; Hammond, Paula T

2014-09-01

301

Promotion of growth by Coenzyme Q10 is linked to gene expression in C. elegans.  

PubMed

Coenzyme Q (CoQ, ubiquinone) is an essential component of the respiratory chain, a cofactor of pyrimidine biosynthesis and acts as an antioxidant in extra mitochondrial membranes. More recently CoQ has been identified as a modulator of apoptosis, inflammation and gene expression. CoQ deficient Caenorhabditis elegans clk-1 mutants show several phenotypes including a delayed postembryonic growth. Using wild type and two clk-1 mutants, here we established an experimental set-up to study the consequences of endogenous CoQ deficiency or exogenous CoQ supply on gene expression and growth. We found that a deficiency of endogenous CoQ synthesis down-regulates a cluster of genes that are important for growth (i.e., RNA polymerase II, eukaryotic initiation factor) and up-regulates oxidation reactions (i.e., cytochrome P450, superoxide dismutase) and protein interactions (i.e., F-Box proteins). Exogenous CoQ supply partially restores the expression of these genes as well as the growth retardation of CoQ deficient clk-1 mutants. On the other hand exogenous CoQ supply does not alter the expression of a further sub-set of genes. These genes are involved in metabolism (i.e., succinate dehydrogenase complex), cell signalling or synthesis of lectins. Thus, our work provides a comprehensive overview of genes which can be modulated in their expression by endogenous or exogenous CoQ. As growth retardation in CoQ deficiency is linked to the gene expression profile we suggest that CoQ promotes growth via gene expression. PMID:25234594

Fischer, Alexandra; Niklowitz, Petra; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

2014-10-01

302

A plant growth-promoting bacterium that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings  

SciTech Connect

A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and CrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel.

Burd, G.I.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1998-10-01

303

Rhamnolipids production by multi-metal-resistant and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

The biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa A11, with plant-growth-promoting (PGP) and multi-metal-resistant (MMR) features was isolated from the rhizosphere of a wild plant Parthenium hysterophorus. The strain A11 was able to utilize glycerol as a carbon source and produce 4,436.9 mg/L of biosurfactant after 120 h of incubation. The biosurfactants was characterized as rhamnolipids (RLs) by thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Eight different RLs congeners were detected with RhaRhaC??C?? being most abundant. The purified rhamnolipid, dirhamnolipid, and monorhamnolipid reduced the surface tension of water to 29, 36, and 42 mN/m with critical micelle concentration of 83, 125, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The strain A11 demonstrated resistance against all the metals detected in rhizosphere except Hg and Ni. The strain A11 also possessed plant-growth-promoting features like siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, catalase, ammonia production, and phosphate solubilization. The dirhamnolipids formed crystals upon incubation at 4 °C, thus making separation of dirhamnolipids easy. Biosurfactant-producing ability along with MMR and PGP traits of the strain A11 makes it a potential candidate for application in the bacterial assisted enhancement of phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated sites. PMID:23640260

Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

2013-07-01

304

Gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vitro gluconic acid formation and phosphate solubilization from sparingly soluble phosphorus sources by two strains of the plant growth-promoting bacteria A. brasilense (Cd and 8-I) and one strain of A. lipoferum JA4 were studied. Strains of A. brasilense were capable of producing gluconic acid when grown in sparingly soluble calcium phosphate medium when their usual fructose carbon source is amended with glucose. At the same time, there is a reduction in pH of the medium and release of soluble phosphate. To a greater extent, gluconic acid production and pH reduction were observed for A. lipoferum JA4. For the three strains, clearing halos were detected on solid medium plates with calcium phosphate. This is the first report of in vitro gluconic acid production and direct phosphate solubilization by A. brasilense and the first report of P solubilization by A. lipoferum. This adds to the very broad spectrum of plant growth-promoting abilities of this genus.

Rodriguez, Hilda; Gonzalez, Tania; Goire, Isabel; Bashan, Yoav

2004-11-01

305

Promotion of the Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 growth and acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by flavonoids.  

PubMed

An unexpected promotion effect of Ginkgo leaf on the growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was investigated. Component analysis of Ginkgo leaf was carried out and flavonoids were determined as the potential key metabolites. Then the flavonoids feeding experiments were carried out. Results showed that addition of only 10 mg/L flavonoids to the fermentation broth can promote butanol and ABE titre up to 14.5 and 17.8 g/L after 5 days of fermentation, that is, 74 and 68% higher than the control. A 2.2-fold biomass also has been achieved. Furthermore, by employing such novel founding, we easily exploited flavonoids from soybean and some agriculture wastes as the wide-distributed and economic feasible ABE fermentation promoter. The mechanism of the above effects was investigated from the perspective of oxidation-reduction potential. This work opens a new way in the efforts to increase the titer of butanol. PMID:24510404

Wang, Lan; Xia, Menglei; Zhang, Lianhua; Chen, Hongzhang

2014-07-01

306

Bioinformatics based structural characterization of glucose dehydrogenase (gdh) gene and growth promoting activity of Leclercia sp. QAU-66  

PubMed Central

Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.1. 5.2) is the member of quinoproteins group that use the redox cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinoine, calcium ions and glucose as substrate for its activity. In present study, Leclercia sp. QAU-66, isolated from rhizosphere of Vigna mungo, was characterized for phosphate solubilization and the role of GDH in plant growth promotion of Phaseolus vulgaris. The strain QAU-66 had ability to solubilize phosphorus and significantly (p ? 0.05) promoted the shoot and root lengths of Phaseolus vulgaris. The structural determination of GDH protein was carried out using bioinformatics tools like Pfam, InterProScan, I-TASSER and COFACTOR. These tools predicted the structural based functional homology of pyrroloquinoline quinone domains in GDH. GDH of Leclercia sp. QAU-66 is one of the main factor that involved in plant growth promotion and provides a solid background for further research in plant growth promoting activities. PMID:25242947

Naveed, Muhammad; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad

2014-01-01

307

Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. PMID:22841774

Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Guifang; Cai, Xiaojun; Falck, John R.; Yang, Jing

2012-01-01

308

Modeling hairy root tissue growth in in vitro environments using an agent-based, structured growth model.  

PubMed

An agent-based model for simulating the in vitro growth of Beta vulgaris hairy root cultures is described. The model fitting is based on experimental results and can be used as a virtual experimentator for root networks. It is implemented in the JAVA language and is designed to be easily modified to describe the growth of diverse biological root networks. The basic principles of the model are outlined, with descriptions of all of the relevant algorithms using the ODD protocol, and a case study is presented in which it is used to simulate the development of hairy root cultures of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) in a Petri dish. The model can predict various properties of the developing network, including the total root length, branching point distribution, segment distribution and secondary metabolite accumulation. It thus provides valuable information that can be used when optimizing cultivation parameters (e.g., medium composition) and the cultivation environment (e.g., the cultivation temperature) as well as how constructional parameters change the morphology of the root network. An image recognition solution was used to acquire experimental data that were used when fitting the model and to evaluate the agreement between the simulated results and practical experiments. Overall, the case study simulation closely reproduced experimental results for the cultures grown under equivalent conditions to those assumed in the simulation. A 3D-visualization solution was created to display the simulated results relating to the state of the root network and its environment (e.g., oxygen and nutrient levels). PMID:24218303

Lenk, Felix; Sürmann, Almuth; Oberthür, Patrick; Schneider, Mandy; Steingroewer, Juliane; Bley, Thomas

2014-06-01

309

Influence of inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on tomato plant growth and nematode reproduction under greenhouse conditions.  

PubMed

Numerous species of soil bacteria which flourish in the rhizosphere of plants or around plant tissues stimulate plant growth and reduce nematode population by antagonistic behavior. These bacteria are collectively known as PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria). The effects of six isolates of PGPR Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, were studied on tomato plant growth and root knot nematode reproduction after 45 days from nematode infection. The highest number of shoot dry weight/g (43.00 g) was detected in the plant treated with S. marcescens; then P. putida (34.33 g), B. amyloliquefaciens (31.66 g), P. fluorescens (30.0 g), B. subtilis (29.0 g), B. cereus (27.0 g) and nematode alone (untreated) 20 g/plant. While the highest number of plant height was observed when plant was treated with S. marcescens, P. fluorescens, P. putida, B. amyloliquefaciens and P. putida 52.66, 50.66, 48 and 48 cm respectively. No significant differences were seen between previous treatments but only had significant differences compared with untreated plant. The highest number of fruit/plant was observed when plants were treated with S. marcescens (10.66), then B. amyloliquefaciens (8.66), P. putida (8), P. fluorescens (8) and B. cereus (7.66). No significant differences between the last 4 treatments, but all had significant differences compared with untreated plants. The highest weight of plant yield (g) was observed with S. marcescens (319.6 g/plant) and the lowest weight of plant yield was observed in plants treated with nematode alone (untreated). On the other hand, the lowest numbers of J2/10 g of soil (78), galls/root, (24.33) galls/root, egg masses/root (12.66) and egg/egg masses were observed in the plants treated with S. marcescens. PMID:23961220

Almaghrabi, Omar A; Massoud, Samia I; Abdelmoneim, Tamer S

2013-01-01

310

Growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits as affected by different growth promoters.  

PubMed

The aim of the article was to study the effect of different growth promoters on growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits. A total number of 105 male growing NZW rabbits during 35-91 days of age were randomly distributed among 7 groups fed the same basal diet and submitted to different dietary treatments: the first group was unsupplemented and used as control; the other groups were supplemented respectively with bee pollen and/or propolis at 200 mg/kg BW of each and inulin and/or mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) at 35 mg/kg BW of each. Body weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), biochemical and haematological blood parameters, carcass characteristics, histological studies of ileum and spleen and economical efficiency were measured. Bee pollen administered alone or with propolis significantly (p < 0.01) the body weight gain and improved FCR in respect of the control group. Inulin with MOS significantly improved just FCR than the control group. Bee pollen with propolis and MOS supplemented-groups resulted in significantly higher (7.96 and 8.41% respectively) white blood cells compared to the control group. Plasma total cholesterol was significantly higher for the MOS group in respect of the control, bee pollen, inulin and inulin with MOS supplemented-groups. Propolis resulted in significantly higher dressed carcass percentage than the control group and higher carcass index than only bee pollen with propolis supplemented-group. Bee pollen, in particular if in combination with propolis, could be used as a supplement in the growing rabbits during days 35-91 of age with positive effects on growth rate and feed conversion ratio. PMID:23419029

Attia, Y A; El-Hanoun, A M; Bovera, F; Monastra, G; El-Tahawy, W S; Habiba, H I

2014-02-01

311

Using Scalable Game Design to Promote 3D Fluency: Assessing the AgentCubes Incremental 3D End-User Development Framework  

E-print Network

science. 3D game development can be an enticing way to achieve that, but building 3D games is far from to create compelling 3D content. The combination of innovative end-user development tools and standardsUsing Scalable Game Design to Promote 3D Fluency: Assessing the AgentCubes Incremental 3D End

Repenning, Alexander

312

Dynamin 2 Mediates PDGFR?-SHP-2-Promoted Glioblastoma Growth and Invasion  

PubMed Central

Dynamin 2 (Dyn2), a large GTPase, is involved in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-promoted cell migration. However, molecular mechanisms by which Dyn2 regulates RTK-induced cell migration have not been established. Recently we reported that SHP-2 and PI3K mediate PDGFR?-promoted glioma tumor growth and invasion. Here, we show that Dyn2 is an effector downstream of the PDGFR?-PI3K/SHP-2 signaling in glioma cells. Depletion of endogenous Dyn2 by shRNAs inhibited PDGFR?-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, Erk1/2, Rac1 and Cdc42 activities, glioma cell migration and survival in vitro, tumor growth and invasion in the brains of mice. Dyn2 binds to SHP-2, PI3K and co-localizes with PDGFR? at the invasive fronts in PDGF-A-stimulated glioma cells. Inhibition of SHP-2 by siRNA knockdown abrogated Dyn2 association with activated PDGFR? and PDGFR? activation of Rac1 and Cdc42, glioma cell migration, thereby establishing a link between SHP-2 interaction with Dyn2 and the PDGFR? signaling. Furthermore, a dominant negative SHP-2 C459S mutant inhibited PDGF-A-stimulated glioma cell migration, phosphorylation of Dyn2 and concomitantly blocked PDGFR?-induced Src activation. Inhibition of Src by Src inhibitors attenuated PDGF-A-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and Dyn2 and glioma cell migration. Additionally, mutations of binding sites to PI3K, SHP-2 or Src of PDGFR? impaired PDGFR?-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and Dyn2, and Dyn2 association with activated PDGFR?. Taken together, this study identifies Dyn2 as an effector that mediates PDGFR?-SHP-2-induced glioma tumor growth and invasion, suggesting that targeting the PDGFR?-SHP-2-Dyn2 pathway may be beneficial to patients with malignant glioblastomas. PMID:21996738

Feng, H; Liu, KW; Guo, P; Zhang, P; Cheng, T; McNiven, MA; Johnson, GR; Hu, B; Cheng, SY

2011-01-01

313

Brassinosteroids promote photosynthesis and growth by enhancing activation of Rubisco and expression of photosynthetic genes in Cucumis sativus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a new group of plant growth substances that promote plant growth and productivity. We showed in\\u000a this study that improved growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants after treatment with 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), an active BR, was associated with increased CO2 assimilation and quantum yield of PSII (?PSII). Treatment of brassinazole (Brz), a specific inhibitor for BR biosynthesis, reduced

Xiao-Jian Xia; Li-Feng Huang; Yan-Hong Zhou; Wei-Hua Mao; Kai Shi; Jian-Xiang Wu; Tadao Asami; Zhixiang Chen; Jing-Quan Yu

2009-01-01

314

Effect of Compost on Rhizosphere Microflora of the Tomato and on the Incidence of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four commercial composts were added to soil to study their effect on plant growth, total rhizosphere microflora, and incidence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere of tomato plants. Three of the compost treatments significantly improved plant growth, while one compost treatment significantly depressed it. Compost amendments caused only small variations in the total numbers of bacteria, actinomycetes,andfungiintherhizosphereoftomatoplants.Atotalof709bacteriawereisolatedfromthefour compost

MARCOS A. DEBRITO ALVAREZ; SERGE GAGNE; ANDHANI ANTOUN

1995-01-01

315

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria alter rooting patterns and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization of field-grown spring wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculants on the growth, yield and interactions of spring wheat with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in field studies. The pseudomonad inoculants P. cepacia R55, R85, P. aeruginosa R80, P. fluorescens R92 and P. putida R104, which enhance growth and yield of winter wheat, were applied at a rate of ca. 107–108

J. J. Germida; F. L. Walley

1996-01-01

316

An approach to the determination of the relative potencies of chemical agents during the stages of initiation and promotion in multistage hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat.  

PubMed Central

The potency of carcinogenic agents in eliciting neoplastic lesions has long been a concern of investigators in the field of oncology. This paper describes a method, based on quantitative stereologic calculations, to estimate the relative potency of chemicals as initiating and/or promoting agents. The parameters defined in this paper are: (a) Initiation index = no. foci induced X liver-1 X [mmole/kg body weight]-1; and (b) Promotion index = Vf/Vc X mmol-1 X wk-1. These parameters have been calculated for a number of chemical agents, based both on data from this laboratory and others published in the literature. Neither parameter varied significantly with the dose of two different initiating agents used in this study. The range of promotion indices extended over more than eight orders of magnitude, whereas that of the initiation indices was much less variable. Such parameters may be useful as quantitative estimates of the potency of hepatocarcinogenic agents not only in rodents, but potentially in quantitative risk estimations in the human. PMID:2896122

Pitot, H C; Campbell, H A

1987-01-01

317

The RNA-binding protein HuR promotes glioma growth and treatment resistance.  

PubMed

Posttranscriptional regulation is a critical control point for the expression of genes that promote or retard tumor growth. We previously found that the mRNA-binding protein, ELAV 1 (HuR), is upregulated in primary brain tumors and stabilizes growth factor mRNAs such as VEGF and IL-8. To better understand the role of HuR in brain tumor growth, we altered levels of HuR in glioma cells by short hairpin RNA or ectopic expression and measured tumor cell phenotype using in vitro and in vivo models. In HuR-silenced cells, we found a significant decrease in anchorage-independent growth and cell proliferation with a concomitant induction of apoptosis. Using an intracranial tumor model with primary glioblastoma cells, HuR silencing produced a significant decrease in tumor volume. In contrast, overexpression of HuR produced in vitro chemoresistance to standard glioma therapies. Because bcl-2 is abundantly expressed in glioma and associated with tumor growth and survival, we determined the impact of HuR on its regulation as a molecular validation to the cellular and animal studies. Using UV cross-linking and RNA immunoprecipitation, we show that HuR bound to the 3'-untranslated region of all bcl-2 family members. Silencing of HuR led to transcript destabilization and reduced protein expression. Polysome profiling indicated loss of HuR from the translational apparatus. In summary, these findings reveal a HuR-dependent mechanism for cancer cell survival and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs suggesting that HuR should be considered as a new therapeutic target. PMID:21498545

Filippova, Natalia; Yang, Xiuhua; Wang, Yimin; Gillespie, G Yancey; Langford, Cathy; King, Peter H; Wheeler, Crystal; Nabors, L Burt

2011-05-01

318

Depending on Its Nano-Spacing, ALCAM Promotes Cell Attachment and Axon Growth  

PubMed Central

ALCAM is a member of the cell adhesion molecule (CAM) family which plays an important role during nervous system formation. We here show that the two neuron populations of developing dorsal root ganglia (DRG) display ALCAM transiently on centrally and peripherally projecting axons during the two phases of axon outgrowth. To analyze the impact of ALCAM on cell adhesion and axon growth, DRG single cells were cultured on ALCAM-coated coverslips or on nanopatterns where ALCAM is presented in physiological amino-carboxyl terminal orientation at highly defined distances (29, 54, 70, 86, and 137 nm) and where the interspaces are passivated to prevent unspecific protein deposition. Some axonal features (branching, lateral deviation) showed density dependence whereas others (number of axons per neuron, various axon growth parameters) turned out to be an all-or-nothing reaction. Time-lapse analyses revealed that ALCAM density has an impact on axon velocity and advance efficiency. The behavior of the sensory axon tip, the growth cone, partially depended on ALCAM density in a dose-response fashion (shape, dynamics, detachment) while other features did not (size, complexity). Whereas axon growth was equally promoted whether ALCAM was presented at high (29 nm) or low densities (86 nm), the attachment of non-neuronal cells depended on high ALCAM densities. The attachment of non-neuronal cells to the rather unspecific standard proteins presented by conventional implants designed to enhance axonal regeneration is a severe problem. Our findings point to ALCAM, presented as 86 nm pattern, for a promising candidate for the improvement of such implants since this pattern drives axon growth to its full extent while at the same time non-neuronal cell attachment is clearly reduced. PMID:23251325

Thelen, Karsten; Jaehrling, Steffen; Spatz, Joachim P.; Pollerberg, G. Elisabeth

2012-01-01

319

Mushroom and herb polysachariides as alternative for antimicrobial growth promotors in poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords : mushroom and herb polysaccharides, antimicrobial growth promoters, chickensAntibiotics are widely used as therapeutics agents and also as growth promoters in poultry production. The possibility of developing resistant populations of bacteria and the side effects of using antibiotics as growth promoters in the farm animals has led to the recent EU-ban on the use of several antibiotics as growth

F. Guo

2003-01-01

320

In vivo hair growth-promoting effect of rice bran extract prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid.  

PubMed

The potential hair growth-promoting activity of rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) and major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid, policosanol, ?-oryzanol, and ?-tocotrienol, were evaluated with the histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in C57BL/6 mice. RB-SCE showed hair growth-promoting potential to a similar extent as 3% minoxidil, showing that the hair follicles were induced to be in the anagen stage. The numbers of the hair follicles were significantly increased. In addition, mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) were also significantly increased and that of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) decreased in RB-SCE-treated groups. Among the major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid and ?-oryzanol induced the formation of hair follicles according to examination of histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that RB-SCE, particularly linoleic acid and ?-oryzanol, promotes hair growth and suggests RB-SCE can be applied as hair loss treatment. PMID:24389480

Choi, Jae-Suk; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Woi-Sook; Moon, Jin-Nam; Cheon, Eun Jin; Kim, Joo-Wan; Jung, Sung Kyu; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

2014-01-01

321

Zinc functions as a cytotoxic agent for prostate cancer cells independent of culture and growth conditions.  

PubMed

The effects of zinc on the viability of PC3, LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines in vitro were examined. The data indicate that, despite their distinctly different gene expression profiles, morphology and tissue origin, all cell lines responded to zinc in a similar time and dose dependent manner. Experiments using pyrithione indicated that cell death is mediated by internalized zinc. Zinc effects on cells plated as monolayers were compared to its effects on cells plated in a collagen matrix. Although the rate of cell growth in the matrix was delayed compared to cells in 2-dimensional cultures, the cytotoxic effects of zinc were unaltered. Using both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cultures, we observed that zinc cytotoxicity was independent of both the culture conditions and the rate of cell growth, results that contrast the activity of the current chemotherapeutics used to treat prostate cancer. The attractive properties of zinc cytotoxicity demonstrated in this paper suggest that is can be developed as a novel and effective chemotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:21222361

Kriedt, Christopher L; Baldassare, Joseph; Shah, Maulik; Klein, Claudette

2010-01-01

322

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and endophytes accelerate phytoremediation of metalliferous soils.  

PubMed

Technogenic activities (industrial-plastic, textiles, microelectronics, wood preservatives; mining-mine refuse, tailings, smelting; agrochemicals-chemical fertilizers, farm yard manure, pesticides; aerosols-pyrometallurgical and automobile exhausts; biosolids-sewage sludge, domestic waste; fly ash-coal combustion products) are the primary sources of heavy metal contamination and pollution in the environment in addition to geogenic sources. During the last two decades, bioremediation has emerged as a potential tool to clean up the metal-contaminated/polluted environment. Exclusively derived processes by plants alone (phytoremediation) are time-consuming. Further, high levels of pollutants pose toxicity to the remediating plants. This situation could be ameliorated and accelerated by exploring the partnership of plant-microbe, which would improve the plant growth by facilitating the sequestration of toxic heavy metals. Plants can bioconcentrate (phytoextraction) as well as bioimmobilize or inactivate (phytostabilization) toxic heavy metals through in situ rhizospheric processes. The mobility and bioavailability of heavy metal in the soil, particularly at the rhizosphere where root uptake or exclusion takes place, are critical factors that affect phytoextraction and phytostabilization. Developing new methods for either enhancing (phytoextraction) or reducing the bioavailability of metal contaminants in the rhizosphere (phytostabilization) as well as improving plant establishment, growth, and health could significantly speed up the process of bioremediation techniques. In this review, we have highlighted the role of plant growth promoting rhizo- and/or endophytic bacteria in accelerating phytoremediation derived benefits in extensive tables and elaborate schematic sketches. PMID:21147211

Ma, Y; Prasad, M N V; Rajkumar, M; Freitas, H

2011-01-01

323

Tyrosine Phosphorylation Inhibits PKM2 to Promote the Warburg Effect and Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

The Warburg effect describes a pro-oncogenic metabolism switch such that cancer cells take up more glucose than normal tissue and favor incomplete oxidation of glucose even in the presence of oxygen. To better understand how tyrosine kinase signaling, which is commonly increased in tumors, regulates the Warburg effect, we performed phosphoproteomic studies. We found that oncogenic forms of fibroblast growth factor receptor type 1 inhibit the pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform by direct phosphorylation of PKM2 tyrosine residue 105 (Y105). This inhibits the formation of active, tetrameric PKM2 by disrupting binding of the PKM2 cofactor fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Furthermore, we found that phosphorylation of PKM2 Y105 is common in human cancers. The presence of a PKM2 mutant in which phenylalanine is substituted for Y105 (Y105F) in cancer cells leads to decreased cell proliferation under hypoxic conditions, increased oxidative phosphorylation with reduced lactate production, and reduced tumor growth in xenografts in nude mice. Our findings suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation regulates PKM2 to provide a metabolic advantage to tumor cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. PMID:19920251

Hitosugi, Taro; Kang, Sumin; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Chung, Tae-Wook; Elf, Shannon; Lythgoe, Katherine; Dong, Shaozhong; Lonial, Sagar; Wang, Xu; Chen, Georgia Z.; Xie, Jianxin; Gu, Ting-Lei; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Roesel, Johannes L.; Boggon, Titus J.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Gilliland, D. Gary; Cantley, Lewis C.; Kaufman, Jonathan; Chen, Jing

2010-01-01

324

Effects of anticoccidial and antibiotic growth promoter programs on broiler performance and immune status.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of various coccidiosis control programs in combination with antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on growth performance and host immune responses in broiler chickens. The coccidiosis programs that were investigated included in ovo coccidiosis vaccination (CVAC) with Inovocox or in-feed medication with diclazuril as Clinacox (CLIN) or salinomycin (SAL). The AGPs were virginiamycin or bacitracin methylene disalicylate plus roxarsone. As a negative control, chickens were non-vaccinated and fed with non-supplemented diets (NONE). All animals were exposed to used litter from a commercial broiler farm with confirmed contamination by Eimeria parasites to simulate in-field exposure to avian coccidiosis. Broiler body weights in the CVAC group were greater at 14 and 32 days of age, but not at day 42, compared with the NONE, CLIN, and SAL groups. At day 14, the SAL group showed decreased body weight and reduced ConA-stimulated spleen cell proliferation compared with the CLIN and SAL groups. In contrast, at days 34 and 43, splenocyte proliferation was greater in the CVAC and CLIN groups compared with the NONE and SAL groups. Lymphocyte subpopulations and cytokine mRNA expression levels in the intestine and spleen were also altered by the denoted treatments. Collectively, these results suggest that in ovo coccidiosis vaccination or coccidiostat drug medication programs in combination with AGPs influences chicken growth and immune status in an Eimeria-contaminated environment. PMID:22301016

Lee, Kyung-Woo; Ho Hong, Yeong; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Jang, Seung I; Park, Myeong-Seon; Bautista, Daniel A; Ritter, G Donald; Jeong, Wooseog; Jeoung, Hye-Young; An, Dong-Jun; Lillehoj, Erik P; Lillehoj, Hyun S

2012-10-01

325

N2-fixation and seedling growth promotion of lodgepole pine by endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa.  

PubMed

We inoculated lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia (Dougl.) Engelm.) with Paenibacillus polymyxa P2b-2R, a diazotrophic bacterium previously isolated from internal stem tissue of a naturally regenerating pine seedling to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation and seedling growth promotion by this microorganism. Seedlings generated from pine seed inoculated with strain P2b-2R were grown for up to 13 months in a N-limited soil mix containing 0.7 mM available N labeled as Ca((15)NO3)2 to facilitate detection of N2-fixation. Strain P2b-2R developed a persistent endophytic population comprising 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1) plant tissue inside pine roots, stems, and needles during the experiment. At the end of the growth period, P2b-2R had reduced seedling mortality by 14 % and (15)N foliar N abundance 79 % and doubled foliar N concentration and seedling biomass compared to controls. Our results suggest that N2-fixation by P. polymyxa enhanced growth of pine seedlings and support the hypothesis that plant-associated diazotrophs capable of endophytic colonization can satisfy a significant proportion of the N required by tree seedlings growing under N-limited conditions. PMID:23420205

Anand, Richa; Grayston, Susan; Chanway, Christopher

2013-08-01

326

Tumor fibroblast-derived epiregulin promotes growth of colitis-associated neoplasms through ERK.  

PubMed

Molecular mechanisms specific to colitis-associated cancers have been poorly characterized. Using comparative whole-genome expression profiling, we observed differential expression of epiregulin (EREG) in mouse models of colitis-associated, but not sporadic, colorectal cancer. Similarly, EREG expression was significantly upregulated in cohorts of patients with colitis-associated cancer. Furthermore, tumor-associated fibroblasts were identified as a major source of EREG in colitis-associated neoplasms. Functional studies showed that Ereg-deficient mice, although more prone to colitis, were strongly protected from colitis-associated tumors. Serial endoscopic studies revealed that EREG promoted tumor growth rather than initiation. Additionally, we demonstrated that fibroblast-derived EREG requires ERK activation to induce proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and tumor development in vivo. To demonstrate the functional relevance of EREG-producing tumor-associated fibroblasts, we developed a novel system for adoptive transfer of these cells via mini-endoscopic local injection. It was found that transfer of EREG-producing, but not Ereg-deficient, fibroblasts from tumors significantly augmented growth of colitis-associated neoplasms in vivo. In conclusion, our data indicate that EREG and tumor-associated fibroblasts play a crucial role in controlling tumor growth in colitis-associated neoplasms. PMID:23549083

Neufert, Clemens; Becker, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Waldner, Maximilian J; Backert, Ingo; Floh, Katharina; Atreya, Imke; Leppkes, Moritz; Jefremow, Andre; Vieth, Michael; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Klinger, Patricia; Greten, Florian R; Threadgill, David W; Sahin, Ugur; Neurath, Markus F

2013-04-01

327

Tumor fibroblast-derived epiregulin promotes growth of colitis-associated neoplasms through ERK  

PubMed Central

Molecular mechanisms specific to colitis-associated cancers have been poorly characterized. Using comparative whole-genome expression profiling, we observed differential expression of epiregulin (EREG) in mouse models of colitis-associated, but not sporadic, colorectal cancer. Similarly, EREG expression was significantly upregulated in cohorts of patients with colitis-associated cancer. Furthermore, tumor-associated fibroblasts were identified as a major source of EREG in colitis-associated neoplasms. Functional studies showed that Ereg-deficient mice, although more prone to colitis, were strongly protected from colitis-associated tumors. Serial endoscopic studies revealed that EREG promoted tumor growth rather than initiation. Additionally, we demonstrated that fibroblast-derived EREG requires ERK activation to induce proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and tumor development in vivo. To demonstrate the functional relevance of EREG-producing tumor-associated fibroblasts, we developed a novel system for adoptive transfer of these cells via mini-endoscopic local injection. It was found that transfer of EREG-producing, but not Ereg-deficient, fibroblasts from tumors significantly augmented growth of colitis-associated neoplasms in vivo. In conclusion, our data indicate that EREG and tumor-associated fibroblasts play a crucial role in controlling tumor growth in colitis-associated neoplasms. PMID:23549083

Neufert, Clemens; Becker, Christoph; Tureci, Ozlem; Waldner, Maximilian J.; Backert, Ingo; Floh, Katharina; Atreya, Imke; Leppkes, Moritz; Jefremow, Andre; Vieth, Michael; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Klinger, Patricia; Greten, Florian R.; Threadgill, David W.; Sahin, Ugur; Neurath, Markus F.

2013-01-01

328

Exposure to low concentrations of dissolved ammonia promotes growth rate in walleye Sander vitreus.  

PubMed

The objective of the current study was to examine whether sublethal (moderate) levels of dissolved ammonia may be beneficial to growth in juvenile walleye Sander vitreus (recent evidence in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss has shown significant increases in protein synthesis in the presence of moderately elevated concentrations of dissolved ammonia). Moderately elevated dissolved ammonia concentrations between 100 and 300 micromol l(-1) suppressed routine aerobic metabolic activity by 20% during acute trials (2 h), while promoting specific growth rate (>50%) and elevating whole body soluble protein content by 20% in the early stages (14-42 days) in chronic ammonia exposure experiments. Juvenile S. vitreus held at ammonia concentrations between 107.6 +/- 5.5 and 225.5 +/- 4.7 micromol l(-1) (mean +/-s.e.) grew significantly faster than control fish and significantly reduced plasma cortisol levels (<3 microg dl(-1)). Results from this study suggest that chronic exposure to moderate amounts of dissolved ammonia significantly increase growth rates in juvenile S. vitreus by increasing nitrogen accessible for supplementary protein deposition leading to somatic development. PMID:20735605

Madison, B N; Dhillon, R S; Tufts, B L; Wang, Y S

2009-03-01

329

Suppression of maize root diseases caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium graminearum by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

A plant growth-promoting isolate of a fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85 and two bacilli isolates MR-11(2) and MRF, isolated from maize rhizosphere, were found strongly antagonistic to Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium graminearum and Macrophomina phaseolina, causal agents of foot rots and wilting, collar rots/stalk rots and root rots and wilting, and charcoal rots of maize, respectively. Pseudomonas sp. EM85 produced antifungal antibiotics (Afa+), siderophore (Sid+), HCN (HCN+) and fluorescent pigments (Flu+) besides exhibiting plant growth promoting traits like nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, and production of organic acids and IAA. While MR-11(2) produced siderophore (Sid+), antibiotics (Afa+) and antifungal volatiles (Afv+), MRF exhibited the production of antifungal antibiotics (Afa+) and siderophores (Sid+). Bacillus spp. MRF was also found to produce organic acids and IAA, solubilized tri-calcium phosphate and fixed nitrogen from the atmosphere. All three isolates suppressed the diseases caused by Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium graminearum and Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro. A Tn5:: lacZ induced isogenic mutant of the fluorescent Pseudomonas EM85, M23, along with the two bacilli were evaluated for in situ disease suppression of maize. Results indicated that combined application of the two bacilli significantly (P = 0.05) reduced the Macrophomina-induced charcoal rots of maize by 56.04%. Treatments with the MRF isolate of Bacillus spp. and Tn5:: lacZ mutant (M23) of fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85 significantly reduced collar rots, root and foot rots, and wilting of maize caused by Fusarium moniliforme and F. graminearum (P = 0.05) compared to all other treatments. All these isolates were found very efficient in colonizing the rhizotic zones of maize after inoculation. Evaluation of the population dynamics of the fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85 using the Tn5:: lacZ marker and of the Bacillus spp. MRF and MR-11(2) using an antibiotic resistance marker revealed that all the three isolates could proliferate successfully in the rhizosphere, rhizoplane and endorhizosphere of maize, both at 30 and 60 days after seeding. Four antifungal compounds from fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85, one from Bacillus sp. MR-11(2) and three from Bacillus sp. MRF were isolated, purified and tested in vitro and in thin layer chromatography bioassays. All these compounds inhibited R. solani, M. phaseolina, F. moniliforme, F. graminearum and F. solani strongly. Results indicated that antifungal antibiotics and/or fluorescent pigment of fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85, and antifungal antibiotics of the bacilli along with the successful colonization of all the isolates might be involved in the biological suppression of the maize root diseases. PMID:11716210

Pal, K K; Tilak, K V; Saxena, A K; Dey, R; Singh, C S

2001-01-01

330

Psychostimulant-like discriminative stimulus and locomotor sensitization properties of the wake-promoting agent modafinil in rodents  

PubMed Central

The present studies assessed the potential abuse liability and likely mechanism(s) of action of the wake-promoting agent modafinil. Methods Experiments assessed the locomotor sensitization (LS) and discriminative stimulus (DS) properties of modafinil in mouse and rat, respectively. Comparative data were generated with a range of psychostimulants and monoamine reuptake inhibitors. Results Repeated administration of d-amphetamine and cocaine, psychostimulants with high abuse liability, resulted in the induction and expression of LS in mice. Bupropion and caffeine, two psychostimulants not abused in humans, were not associated with LS. GBR12909 induced LS during repeated exposure, but there was no evidence of expression of LS after acute challenge following withdrawal. In contrast, repeated administration of modafinil resulted in the expression, but not induction, of LS. d-amphetamine, but not the ?-opioid agonist morphine or the nAChR agonist nicotine, fully substituted for the cocaine DS in rats. The selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor GBR12909 fully substituted, the preferential norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor desipramine partially substituted, and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram failed to substitute for cocaine. Modafinil fully substituted for cocaine, similar to the mixed DAT/NET inhibitor bupropion. Conclusions Two preclinical assays indicated potential abuse liability of modafinil; drug discrimination studies suggest DAT blockade by modafinil is a likely mechanism of action in vivo. PMID:20346966

Paterson, Neil E.; Fedolak, Allison; Olivier, Berend; Hanania, Taleen; Ghavami, Afshin; Caldarone, Barbara

2010-01-01

331

The Candida albicans Lanosterol 14-?-Demethylase (ERG11) Gene Promoter Is Maximally Induced after Prolonged Growth with Antifungal Drugs  

PubMed Central

The azole antifungal drugs that target lanosterol 14-?-demethylase, encoded by the ERG11 gene, are used to treat a variety of infections caused by Candida albicans. Azoles are known to induce expression of ERG11 mRNA. The ERG11 promoter was cloned 5? of the luciferase-coding region, and the induction of ERG11 expression by azoles was monitored by luciferase assays. Maximal induction of the ERG11 promoter by azoles occurs not during logarithmic growth but after the diauxic shift and requires azoles to be present throughout logarithmic growth. The effects of pH, carbon source, and aerobic or anaerobic growth on induction of the ERG11 promoter by azoles were analyzed. Treatment with terbinafine and fenpropimorph, which target other enzymes in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway, also resulted in a delayed induction of ERG11 promoter activity. Nascent sterol synthesis was shown to parallel ERG11 promoter activity, and total sterols were reduced coincident with the timing of ERG11 promoter activation. These results as a whole suggest that expression of the ERG11 promoter is regulated in response to sterol depletion. PMID:15047513

Song, Jia L.; Beth Harry, Jo; Eastman, Richard T.; Oliver, Brian G.; White, Theodore C.

2004-01-01

332

GHRH antagonist when combined with cytotoxic agents induces S-phase arrest and additive growth inhibition of human colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of colon cancer with an antagonist of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), JMR-132, results in a cell cycle arrest in S-phase of the tumor cells. Thus, we investigated the effect of JMR-132 in combination with S-phase-specific cytotoxic agents, 5-FU, irinotecan and cisplatin on the in vitro and in vivo growth of HT-29, HCT-116 and HCT-15 human colon cancer cell lines.

F. G. Rick; S. Seitz; A. V. Schally; L. Szalontay; A. Krishan; C. Datz; A. Stadlmayr; S. Buchholz; N. L. Block; F. Hohla

2012-01-01

333

DeltaNp63alpha-Mediated Induction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth and Chemoresistance  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly resistant to current chemotherapy regimens, in part due to alterations in the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. p53 homolog p63 is a transcription factor essential for the development and differentiation of epithelial surfaces. However its function in cancer is controversial and its role in PDAC is not known. We discovered that ?Np63? was the predominantly expressed p63 variant in pancreatic cancer cell lines. ?Np63? protein and mRNA levels were high in T3M4, BxPC3 and COLO-357 pancreatic cancer cells and low in ASPC-1 and PANC-1 cells. Overexpression of ?Np63? in PANC-1 cells and shRNA-mediated knockdown in T3M4 cells indicated that ?Np63? promoted anchorage-dependent and -independent growth, motility and invasion, and enhanced resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathways contribute to the biological aggressiveness of PDAC, and we found that the motogenic effects of ?Np63? were augmented in presence of EGF. Ectopic expression of ?Np63? resulted in upregulation of EGFR and ?1-integrin in PANC-1 cells. Conversely, ?Np63? knockdown had an opposite effect in T3M4 cells. ?Np63? potentiated EGF-mediated activation of ERK, Akt and JNK signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and functional reporter assays demonstrated that ?Np63? activated EGFR transcription. 14-3-3? transcription was also positively regulated by ?Np63? and we have previously shown that 14-3-3? contributes to chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Conversely, shRNA-mediated knockdown of 14-3-3? led to abrogation of the ?Np63? effects on cell proliferation and invasion. Thus, p53 homolog ?Np63? enhances the oncogenic potential of pancreatic cancer cells through trans-activation of EGFR and 14-3-3?. PMID:22053213

Danilov, Alexey V.; Neupane, Divas; Nagaraja, Archana Sidalaghatta; Feofanova, Elena V.; Humphries, Leigh Ann; DiRenzo, James; Korc, Murray

2011-01-01

334

Expression of SATB1 Promotes the Growth and Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (SATB1) has been identified as a genome organizer that reprograms chromatin organization and transcription profiles. SATB1 promotes tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis in several cancer types. The association between SATB1 and colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been studied intensively. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of SATB1 on CRC growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo and its correlation with overall survival and clinicopathological factors in CRC patients. Stable SATB1 knockdown and SATB1-overexpressing cell lines were established. SATB1 knockdown decreased cell growth, colony formation, migration, and invasion and increased apoptosis in CRC cells in vitro (p<0.05), whereas SATB1 overexpression had the opposite effect. SATB1 overexpression increased tumor growth and metastasis to lung and liver in vivo by using xenograft animal models (p<0.05). Thus, SATB1 promoted an aggressive CRC phenotype in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemical analysis of 560 CRC specimens showed that SATB1 expression was significantly higher in CRC tissues than in matched non-tumor mucosa (p<0.001). In addition, SATB1 expression was significantly higher in patients with poorly differentiated tumors, higher invasion depth, distant metastasis, and advanced TNM stage. SATB1-positive patients had a poorer prognosis than SATB1-negative patients, and SATB1 was identified as an independent prognostic factor for CRC (p?=?0.009). Strikingly, we also evaluated SATB2 expression in CRC and found that SATB2 was more abundantly expressed in non-cancerous mucosa compared to colorectal cancer tissues (p<0.001). However, SATB2 expression had no influence on prognosis of CRC patients (p?=?0.836). SATB1 expression was significantly associated with shorter survival time either in SATB2-positive patients or in SATB2-negative patients (p<0.001). In conclusion, our findings indicated an important role for SATB1 in CRC tumorigenesis and metastasis. Therefore, SATB1 may represent an important prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:24971456

Ji, Hong; Guan, Xiaoya; Xu, Wei; Dong, Bin; Zhao, Min; Wei, Meng; Ye, Chunxiang; Sun, Yuan; Yuan, Xiaosun; Yang, Chen; Hao, Chunyi

2014-01-01

335

The HMGB1/RAGE inflammatory pathway promotes pancreatic tumor growth by regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics  

PubMed Central

Tumor cells require increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to support anabolism and proliferation. The precise mechanisms regulating this process in tumor cells are unknown. Here, we show that the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and one of its primary ligands, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), are required for optimal mitochondrial function within tumors. We found that RAGE is present in the mitochondria of cultured tumor cells as well as primary tumors. RAGE and HMGB1 coordinately enhanced tumor cell mitochondrial complex I activity, ATP production, tumor cell proliferation and migration. Lack of RAGE or inhibition of HMGB1 release diminished ATP production and slowed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. These findings link, for the first time, the HMGB1–RAGE pathway with changes in bioenergetics. Moreover, our observations provide a novel mechanism within the tumor microenvironment by which necrosis and inflammation promote tumor progression. PMID:23318458

Kang, R; Tang, D; Schapiro, NE; Loux, T; Livesey, KM; Billiar, TR; Wang, H; Van Houten, B; Lotze, MT; Zeh, HJ

2013-01-01

336

NMR analysis of fractionated irradiated ?-carrageenan oligomers as plant growth promoter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimum plant growth promoting effect in irradiated ?-carrageenan is known to be of Mw<10,000. This is obtained by irradiating ?-carrageenan at a dose of 100 kGy in solid and at 2 kGy in 1% aqueous solution. Kappa carrageenan irradiated at these doses was fractionated at different Mw ranges. The isolated fraction with a Mw of 3-10 kDa was analyzed by NMR. The chemical shifts of 13C and 1H spectra indicated that the basic functional structure of ?-carrageenan (alternating D-galactose-4-sulfate and 3,6-anhydro- D-galactose dimer) remains intact at a Mw of 3-10 kDa. No radiolytic products were detected at this range.

Abad, L. V.; Saiki, S.; Nagasawa, N.; Kudo, H.; Katsumura, Y.; De La Rosa, A. M.

2011-09-01

337

The HMGB1/RAGE inflammatory pathway promotes pancreatic tumor growth by regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics.  

PubMed

Tumor cells require increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to support anabolism and proliferation. The precise mechanisms regulating this process in tumor cells are unknown. Here, we show that the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and one of its primary ligands, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), are required for optimal mitochondrial function within tumors. We found that RAGE is present in the mitochondria of cultured tumor cells as well as primary tumors. RAGE and HMGB1 coordinately enhanced tumor cell mitochondrial complex I activity, ATP production, tumor cell proliferation and migration. Lack of RAGE or inhibition of HMGB1 release diminished ATP production and slowed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. These findings link, for the first time, the HMGB1-RAGE pathway with changes in bioenergetics. Moreover, our observations provide a novel mechanism within the tumor microenvironment by which necrosis and inflammation promote tumor progression. PMID:23318458

Kang, R; Tang, D; Schapiro, N E; Loux, T; Livesey, K M; Billiar, T R; Wang, H; Van Houten, B; Lotze, M T; Zeh, H J

2014-01-30

338

IQGAP3 Promotes EGFR-ERK Signaling and the Growth and Metastasis of Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Proteins of the IQGAP family display complicated and often contradictory activities in tumorigenesis. IQGAP1 has well documented oncogenic potential and IQGAP2 has putative tumor-suppressive function. IQGAP3 is the latest addition to this family and its role in cancer development remains to be defined. Here we demonstrate IQGAP3 expression is markedly increased in lung cancer tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression of IQGAP3 promoted tumor cell growth, and migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of IQGAP3 exhibited opposite effects. Moreover, suppression of IQGAP3 in a lung cancer cell line caused a reduction in the tumorigenicity of these cells in lung tissue after intravenous injection. Furthermore, we showed that IQGAP3 is able to interact with ERK1 and enhance its phosphorylation following treatment with EGF. These data suggest that IQGAP3 may contribute to the pathogenesis of lung cancer by modulating EGFR-ERK signaling. PMID:24849319

Xu, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Song; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jun

2014-01-01

339

Subcutaneous Adipocytes Promote Melanoma Cell Growth by Activating the Akt Signaling Pathway: ROLE OF PALMITIC ACID.  

PubMed

Tumorigenesis involves constant communication between tumor cells and neighboring normal cells such as adipocytes. The canonical function of adipocytes is to store triglyceride and release fatty acids for other tissues. This study was aimed to find out if adipocytes promoted melanoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Here we isolated adipocytes from inguinal adipose tissue in mice and co-cultured with melanoma cells. We found that the co-cultured melanoma had higher lipid accumulation compared with mono-cultured melanoma. In addition, fluorescently labeled fatty acid BODIPY® FLC16 signal was detected in melanoma co-cultured with the adipocytes that had been loaded with the fluorescent dye, suggesting that the adipocytes provide fatty acids to melanoma cells. Compared with mono-cultured melanoma, co-cultured melanoma cells had a higher proliferation and phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) expression. Overexpression of Akt mutants in melanoma cells reduced the co-culture-enhanced proliferation. A lipidomic study showed that the co-cultured melanoma had an elevated palmitic acid level. Interestingly, we found that palmitic acid stimulated melanoma cell proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution, and increased phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) and PI3K but not phospho-PTEN (phosphophosphatase and tensin homolog) expressions. More importantly, the palmitic acid-stimulated proliferation was further enhanced in the Akt-overexpressed melanoma cells and was reduced by LY294002 or knockdown of endogenous Akt or overexpression of Akt mutants. We also found that palmitic acid-pretreated B16F10 cells were grown to a significantly larger tumor in mice compared with control cells. Taken together, we suggest that adipocytes may serve as an exogenous source of palmitic acid that promotes melanoma cell growth by activating Akt. PMID:25228694

Kwan, Hiu Yee; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Bin; Chao, Xiaojuan; Chan, Chi Leung; Cao, Huihui; Su, Tao; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

2014-10-31

340

Fibulin-3 promotes glioma growth and resistance through a novel paracrine regulation of Notch signaling  

PubMed Central

Malignant gliomas are highly invasive and chemoresistant brain tumors with extremely poor prognosis. Targeting of the soluble factors that trigger invasion and resistance therefore could have a significant impact against the infiltrative glioma cells that are a major source of recurrence. Fibulin-3 is a matrix protein that is absent in normal brain but upregulated in gliomas and promotes tumor invasion by unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that fibulin-3 is a novel soluble activator of Notch signaling that antagonizes DLL3, an autocrine inhibitor or Notch, and promotes tumor cell survival and invasion in a Notch-dependent manner. Using a strategy for inducible knockdown, we found that controlled downregulation of fibulin-3 reduced Notch signaling and led to increased apoptosis, reduced self-renewal of glioblastoma initiating cells, and impaired growth and dispersion of intracranial tumors. In addition, fibulin-3 expression correlated with expression levels of Notch-dependent genes and was a marker of Notch activation in patient-derived glioma samples. These findings underscore a major role for the tumor extracellular matrix in regulating glioma invasion and resistance to apoptosis via activation of the key Notch pathway. More importantly, this work describes a non-canonical, soluble activator of Notch in a cancer model and demonstrates how Notch signaling can be reduced by targeting tumor-specific accessible molecules in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:22665268

Hu, Bin; Nandhu, Mohan S.; Sim, Hosung; Agudelo-Garcia, Paula A.; Saldivar, Joshua C.; Dolan, Claire E.; Mora, Maria E.; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Cole, Susan E.; Viapiano, Mariano S.

2013-01-01

341

Fibulin-3 promotes glioma growth and resistance through a novel paracrine regulation of Notch signaling.  

PubMed

Malignant gliomas are highly invasive and chemoresistant brain tumors with extremely poor prognosis. Targeting of the soluble factors that trigger invasion and resistance, therefore, could have a significant impact against the infiltrative glioma cells that are a major source of recurrence. Fibulin-3 is a matrix protein that is absent in normal brain but upregulated in gliomas and promotes tumor invasion by unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that fibulin-3 is a novel soluble activator of Notch signaling that antagonizes DLL3, an autocrine inhibitor or Notch, and promotes tumor cell survival and invasion in a Notch-dependent manner. Using a strategy for inducible knockdown, we found that controlled downregulation of fibulin-3 reduced Notch signaling and led to increased apoptosis, reduced self-renewal of glioblastoma-initiating cells, and impaired growth and dispersion of intracranial tumors. In addition, fibulin-3 expression correlated with expression levels of Notch-dependent genes and was a marker of Notch activation in patient-derived glioma samples. These findings underscore a major role for the tumor extracellular matrix in regulating glioma invasion and resistance to apoptosis via activation of the key Notch pathway. More importantly, this work describes a noncanonical, soluble activator of Notch in a cancer model and shows how Notch signaling can be reduced by targeting tumor-specific accessible molecules in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:22665268

Hu, Bin; Nandhu, Mohan S; Sim, Hosung; Agudelo-Garcia, Paula A; Saldivar, Joshua C; Dolan, Claire E; Mora, Maria E; Nuovo, Gerard J; Cole, Susan E; Viapiano, Mariano S

2012-08-01

342

Intertissue Flow of Glutathione (GSH) as a Tumor Growth-promoting Mechanism  

PubMed Central

B16 melanoma F10 (B16-F10) cells with high glutathione (GSH) content show high metastatic activity in vivo. An intertissue flow of GSH, where the liver is the main reservoir, can increase GSH content in metastatic cells and promote their growth. We have studied here possible tumor-derived molecular signals that could activate GSH release from hepatocytes. GSH efflux increases in hepatocytes isolated from mice bearing liver or lung metastases, thus suggesting a systemic mechanism. Fractionation of serum-free conditioned medium from cultured B16-F10 cells and monoclonal antibody-induced neutralization techniques facilitated identification of interleukin (IL)-6 as a tumor-derived molecule promoting GSH efflux in hepatocytes. IL-6 activates GSH release through a methionine-sensitive/organic anion transporter polypeptide 1- and multidrug resistance protein 1-independent channel located on the sinusoidal site of hepatocytes. Specific siRNAs were used to knock down key factors in the main signaling pathways activated by IL-6, which revealed a STAT3-dependent mechanism. Our results show that IL-6 (mainly of tumor origin in B16-F10-bearing mice) may facilitate GSH release from hepatocytes and its interorgan transport to metastatic growing foci. PMID:21393247

Obrador, Elena; Benlloch, Maria; Pellicer, Jose A.; Asensi, Miguel; Estrela, Jose M.

2011-01-01

343

Growth mechanisms of MgO nanocrystals via a sol-gel synthesis using different complexing agents.  

PubMed

In the preparation of nanostructured materials, it is important to optimize synthesis parameters in order to obtain the desired material. This work investigates the role of complexing agents, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, in the production of MgO nanocrystals. Results from simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (STA) show that the two different synthesis routes yield precursors with different thermal profiles. It is found that the thermal profiles of the precursors can reveal the effects of crystal growth during thermal annealing. X-ray diffraction confirms that the final products are pure, single phase and of cubic shape. It is also found that complexing agents can affect the rate of crystal growth. The structures of the oxalic acid and tartaric acid as well as the complexation sites play very important roles in the formation of the nanocrystals. The complexing agents influence the rate of growth which affects the final crystallite size of the materials. Surprisingly, it is also found that oxalic acid and tartaric acid act as surfactants inhibiting crystal growth even at a high temperature of 950°C and a long annealing time of 36 h. The crystallite formation routes are proposed to be via linear and branched polymer networks due to the different structures of the complexing agents. PMID:24650322

Mastuli, Mohd Sufri; Kamarulzaman, Norlida; Nawawi, Mohd Azizi; Mahat, Annie Maria; Rusdi, Roshidah; Kamarudin, Norashikin

2014-01-01

344

An agent-based computational study of wealth distribution in function of resource growth interval using NetLogo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an agent-based computational model that simulates the distribution of wealth in three classes: upper, middle and lower. The experimental data show us that: (1) the wealth of economy based on renewable resources is increasing if the resource growth interval is decreasing with the condition that the other factors remained unchanged; (2) the wealth of an economy based on

Romulus-catalin Damaceanu

2008-01-01

345

Chromium-reducing and plant growth-promoting Mesorhizobium improves chickpea growth in chromium-amended soil.  

PubMed

Mesorhizobium strain RC3, isolated from chickpea nodules, tolerated chromium up to 500 mug/ml and reduced it by 90% at pH 7 after 120 h. It produced plant growth-promoting substances, both in the presence and absence of chromium. Strain RC3 produced 35 mug indole acetic acid/ml in Luria Bertani broth with 100 mg tryptophan/ml, which decreased with an increase in chromium concentration. Chromium application to soil at 136 mg/kg was toxic to chickpea plants but when RC3 at 136 mg/kg was also added, it increased the dry matter accumulation, number of nodules, seed yield and grain protein by 71, 86, 36 and 16%, respectively, compared to non-inoculated plants. Nitrogen in roots and shoots were increased by 46 and 40%, respectively, at 136 mg Cr/kg. The bio-inoculant decreased the uptake of chromium by 14, 34 and 29% in roots, shoots and grains, respectively. PMID:17849087

Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Md Saghir; Zaidi, Almas

2008-01-01

346

Chromate reducing and plant growth promoting activities of psychrotrophic Rhodococcus erythropolis MtCC 7,905.  

PubMed

A psychrotrophic bacterial strain resistant to 300 mg l(-1) of Cr(6+) was isolated from metal contaminated soil samples from a site situated in the Indian Himalayan Region. Based on 16 S rRNA analysis the isolate showed maximum similarity to Rhodococcus erythropolis. Rhodococcus erythropolis MTCC 7,905 reduced substantial amounts of Cr(6+) to Cr(3+) at 10 degrees C and showed plant growth promotion. The isolate offer promise as inoculant to promote plant growth of pea (Pisum sativum) in the presence of toxic Cr(6+) concentration. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on a psychrotrophic strain belonging to species R. erythropolis and its functional characterization to reduce Cr(6+ )and promote plant growth at low temperature. PMID:18072252

Trivedi, Pankaj; Pandey, Anita; Sa, Tongmin

2007-12-01

347

Effect of pesticides on plant growth promoting traits of greengram-symbiont, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain MRM6.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of herbicides (metribuzin and glyphosate), insecticides (imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) and fungicides (hexaconazole, metalaxyl and kitazin) at the recommended and the higher dose rates on plant growth promoting activities of Bradyrhizobium sp. under in vitro conditions. The Bradyrhizobium sp. strain MRM6 was isolated from nodules of greengram plants. Pesticide-concentration dependent progressive-decline was observed in plant growth promoting traits of the strain MRM6 apart from exo-polysaccharides which increased consistently on increasing pesticide concentrations. Generally, the highest toxicity to plant growth promoting characteristics of the Bradyrhizobium sp. strain MRM6 was observed when the strain MRM6 was grown with three times the recommended field rates of glyphosate, imidacloprid and hexaconazole. PMID:21359648

Ahemad, Munees; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

2011-04-01

348

Prostaglandin E 2 promotes colorectal adenoma growth via transactivation of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclooxygenase-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the predominant prostanoid found in most colorectal cancers (CRC) and is known to promote colon carcinoma growth and invasion. However, the key downstream signaling pathways necessary for PGE2-induced intestinal carcinogenesis are unclear. Here we report that PGE2 indirectly transactivates PPAR? through PI3K\\/Akt signaling, which promotes cell survival and intestinal adenoma formation. We also found that

Dingzhi Wang; Haibin Wang; Qiong Shi; Sharada Katkuri; Walter Walhi; Beatrice Desvergne; Sanjoy K. Das; Sudhansu K. Dey; Raymond N. DuBois

2004-01-01

349

Development of an Assessment Agent to Promote the Learning Effectiveness in a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel methodology for modeling collaborative learning as multi-issue agent negotiation using fuzzy constraints. Agent negotiation is an iterative process through which the proposed methodology can aggregate students' marking to reduce personal bias. In the framework, students define individual fuzzy membership functions based on their evaluation concepts and agents stand for students to negotiate with each other

K. Robert Lai; Chung Hsien Lan

2005-01-01

350

Growth promoting effect of recombinant interleukin I and tumor necrosis factor for human astrocytoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Human IL I has been demonstrated to stimulate the growth of rat astrocytes in vitro. To determine if IL I has a similar growth promoting effect upon human brain cells, two astrocytoma cell lines were tested for their ability to incorporate /sup 3/H-thymidine in response to various types of IL I and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The U373 astrocytoma was found to respond mitogenically to human native IL I, human recombinant IL I, rat IL I and murine recombinant IL I. The cell line failed to respond to recombinant IL 2 and recombinant ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. interferon. The sensitivity of the U373 cells paralleled the murine thymocyte assay for IL I. Interestingly, the U373 responded mitogenically to recombinant TNF prepared by two different companies, thus indicating that TNF stimulates proliferation of this cell line and does not lead to cell death. In the murine thymocyte assay for IL I, TNF was not active. The results indicate that 1) both IL I and TNF are mitogenic for a human astrocytoma cell line and 2) the U373 cells may be used to assay both IL I and TNF in a highly sensitive mitogenic assay.

Giulian, D.; Dinarello, C.A.; Brown, D.C.; Lachman, L.B.

1986-03-01

351

Fasudil hydrochloride could promote axonal growth through inhibiting the activity of ROCK  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil hydrochloride in ischemia/reperfusion injury N2a neuron. Methods: In vitro, N2a cells induced by ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion were treated with fasudil hydrochloride, cell damage was analyzed by MTT. On the other hand, the cytoskeleton of N2a cells was scanned through immunofluorescence techniques by Confocal Laser Microscopy which stained with FITC-phalloidin for F-actin visualization. Results: The activation of ROCK-II increased significantly in the damaged local during the following phase of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Ischemia induced a striking reorganization of actin cytoskeleton with a weakening of fluorescent intensity of the peripheral filament actin bands and formation of the long and thick stress fibers, but pretreatment of Fasudil hydrochloride could reversed the changes of ultra-structure on the cellular surface. MTT assay showed that Fasudil hydrochloride could prolong the survival time of the N2a cells after mimic ischemia-reperfusion for 24 h. Conclusions: The activation of ROCK-II has an exceptional hoist after ischemia/reperfusion injury, it is likely to induce the collapse of the growth cone through MLC-P. Fasudil hydrochloride could promote axonal growth on inhibitory of ROCK activity. PMID:25337198

Xiao, Wei-Dong; Yu, Ai-Xi; Liu, Dan-Li

2014-01-01

352

TP508 accelerates fracture repair by promoting cell growth over cell death  

SciTech Connect

TP508 is a synthetic 23-amino acid peptide representing a receptor-binding domain of human thrombin. We have previously shown that a single injection of TP508 accelerates fracture healing in a rat femoral fracture model. To understand how TP508 acts at the protein level during fracture healing, we compared the translational profiles between saline-control and fractured femur at six time points after TP508 treatment using the second generation of BD Clontech{sup TM} Antibody Microarray. Here, we demonstrate that TP508 accelerates fracture healing by modulating expression levels of proteins primarily involved in the functional categories of cell cycle, cellular growth and proliferation, and cell death. The majority of those proteins are physically interrelated and functionally overlapped. The action of those proteins is highlighted by a central theme of promoting cell growth via balance of cell survival over cell death signals. This appears to occur through the stimulation of several bone healing pathways including cell cycle-G1/S checkpoint regulation, apoptosis, JAK/STAT, NF-{kappa}B, PDGF, PI3K/AKT, PTEN, and ERK/MAPK.

Li Xinmin [College of Animal Science and Technology, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Functional Genomics Facility, Division of Biological Science, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Wang Hali [Zimmer Inc., 12024 Vista Parke Drive, Austin, TX 78726 (United States); Touma, Edward [Functional Genomics Facility, Division of Biological Science, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Qi Yuchen [College of Life Sciences, Beijing University, Beijing 10091 (China); Rousseau, Emma [Research and Development, OrthoLogic Corp., Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States); Quigg, Richard J. [Functional Genomics Facility, Division of Biological Science, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Department of Medicine, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ryaby, James T. [Research and Development, OrthoLogic Corp., Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States)], E-mail: jamesryaby@msn.com

2007-12-07

353

Effect of Dieckol, a Component of Ecklonia cava, on the Promotion of Hair Growth  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Ecklonia cava, a marine alga native to Jeju Island in Korea, on the promotion of hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of E. cava enzymatic extract (which contains more than 35% of dieckol) for 21 days, E. cava enzymatic extract increased hair-fiber length. In addition, after topical application of the 0.5% E. cava enzymatic extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair-shaft was induced. The treatment with E. cava enzymatic extract resulted in the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPC). Especially, dieckol, among the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, showed activity that increased the proliferation of DPC. When NIH3T3 fibroblasts were treated with the E. cava enzymatic extract and the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, the E. cava enzymatic extract increased the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, but the isolated compounds such as eckol, dieckol, phloroglucinol and triphlorethol-A did not affect the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts. On the other hand, the E. cava enzymatic extract and dieckol significantly inhibited 5?-reductase activity. These results suggest that dieckol from E. cava can stimulate hair growth by the proliferation of DPC and/or the inhibition of 5?-reductase activity. PMID:22754373

Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Boo, Hye-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Sung-Myung; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2012-01-01

354

DC-HIL-Expressing Myelomonocytic Cells Are Critical Promoters of Melanoma Growth.  

PubMed

A major barrier to successful cancer immunotherapy is the tumor's ability to induce T-cell tolerance by exploiting host regulatory mechanisms. Having discovered the DC-HIL receptor, which inhibits T-cell responses by binding to syndecan-4 on effector T cells, we posited the DC-HIL/syndecan-4 pathway to have an important role in cancer promotion. Among DC-HIL(+) myelomonocytic cells, during growth of implanted mouse melanoma, CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells were the most expanded population and the most potent at suppressing T-cell activation. Deletion of the DC-HIL gene or infusion of anti-DC-HIL mAb abrogated these cells' suppressor function and expansion, and markedly diminished melanoma growth and metastasis. IL-1? and IFN-? were elevated in mice bearing melanoma, and concurrent exposure to both cytokines optimally induced DC-HIL expression by tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells. Ligation of DC-HIL transduced phosphorylation of its intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif, which in turn induced intracellular expression of IFN-? and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), known to mediate T-cell suppression by CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells. Thus, DC-HIL is the critical mediator of these cells' suppressor function in melanoma-bearing mice and a potential target for improving melanoma immunotherapy. PMID:24936834

Chung, Jin-Sung; Tamura, Kyoichi; Cruz, Ponciano D; Ariizumi, Kiyoshi

2014-11-01

355

Epigenetic silencing of EYA2 in pancreatic adenocarcinomas promotes tumor growth  

PubMed Central

To identify potentially important genes dysregulated in pancreatic cancer, we analyzed genome-wide transcriptional analysis of pancreatic cancers and normal pancreatic duct samples and identified the transcriptional coactivator, EYA2 (Drosophila Eyes Absent Homologue-2) as silenced in the majority of pancreatic cancers. We investigated the role of epigenetic mechanisms of EYA2 gene silencing in pancreatic cancers, performed in vitro and in vivo proliferation and migration assays to assess the effect of EYA2 silencing on tumor cell growth and metastasis formation, and expression analysis to identify genes transcriptionally regulated by EYA2. We found loss of tumoral Eya2 expression in 63% of pancreatic cancers (120/189 cases). Silencing of EYA2 expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines correlated with promoter methylation and histone deacetylation and was reversible with DNA methyltransferase and HDAC inhibitors. EYA2 knockdown in pancreatic cancer cell lines increased cell proliferation. Compared to parental pancreatic cancer cells, pancreatic cancers stably-expressing EYA2 grew more slowly and had fewer metastases in orthotopic models. The transcriptional changes after stable expression of EYA2 in pancreatic cancer cells included induction of genes in the TGFbeta pathway. Epigenetic silencing of EYA2 is a common event in pancreatic cancers and stable expression EYA2 limits the growth and metastases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:24810906

Vincent, Audrey; Hong, Seung-Mo; Hu, Chaoxin; Omura, Noriyuki; Young, Angela; Kim, Haeryoung; Yu, Jun; Knight, Spencer; Ayars, Michael; Griffith, Margaret; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Maitra, Anirban; Goggins, Michael

2014-01-01

356

A novel Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor family member promotes neuronal outgrowth and synaptic plasticity in Aplysia.  

PubMed

Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptors (FGFRs) regulate essential biological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cellular growth and memory-related long-term synaptic plasticity. Whereas canonical FGFRs depend exclusively on extracellular Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains for ligand binding, other receptor types, including members of the tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk) family, use either Ig-like or Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) motifs, or both. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events leading to the differential incorporation of LRR domains into Ig-containing tyrosine kinase receptors. Moreover, although FGFRs have been identified in many vertebrate species, few reports describe their existence in invertebrates. Information about the biological relevance of invertebrate FGFRs and evolutionary divergences between them and their vertebrate counterparts is therefore limited. Here, we characterized ApLRRTK, a neuronal cell-surface protein recently identified in Aplysia. We unveiled ApLRRTK as the first member of the FGFRs family deprived of Ig-like domains that instead contains extracellular LRR domains. We describe that ApLRRTK exhibits properties typical of canonical vertebrate FGFRs, including promotion of FGF activity, enhancement of neuritic outgrowth and signaling via MAPK and the transcription factor CREB. ApLRRTK also enhanced the synaptic efficiency of neurons known to mediate in vivo memory-related defensive behaviors. These data reveal a novel molecular regulator of neuronal function in invertebrates, provide the first evolutionary linkage between LRR proteins and FGFRs and unveil an unprecedented mechanism of FGFR gene diversification in primeval central nervous systems. PMID:25059541

Pollak, Daniela D; Minh, Bui Quang; Cicvaric, Ana; Monje, Francisco J

2014-11-01

357

Induced phytoremediation of metals from fly ash mediated by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

A study was carried out to observe the impact of a consortium of bacteria isolated from the fly ash on the metal accumulation by T. latifolia. When a consortium of bacteria Bacillus endophyticus NBRFT4 (MTCC 9021), Paenibacillus macerans NBRFTS (MTCC 8912) and Bacillus pumilus NBRFT9 (MTCC 8913) was bioaugmented into the rhizosphere of T. latifolia, it enhanced the metal concentration in root, stem and leaves of the plants through increased bioavailability of metals Fe, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn in the fly ash. Besides, these bacteria also promoted the plant growth perhaps due to utilization of ACC, synthesis of phytoharmones and solubilisation of essential metals found in fly ash. As compared to fly ash alone, the accumulation of Fe was maximally enhanced by 164%, 196%, and 251%, followed by Ni by 92%, 44% and 56%, Zn by 82%, 57% and 91%, Cu by 71%, 53% and 60%, Cr by 96%, 80% and 105%, Pb by 119%, 87% and 140%, Cd by 80%, 109% and 115% in root, stem and leaves, respectively in fly ash with bacteria. Thus, an increased solubilisation of metals coupled with enhanced plant growth stimulated the phytoextraction of metals by T. latifolia from fly ash. PMID:24640248

Tiwari, Sadhna; Singh, S N; Garg, S K

2013-07-01

358

Acetylation Stabilizes ATP-Citrate Lyase to Promote Lipid Biosynthesis and Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Increased fatty acid synthesis is required to meet the demand for membrane expansion of rapidly growing cells. ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) is upregulated or activated in several types of cancer, and inhibition of ACLY arrests proliferation of cancer cells. Here we show that ACLY is acetylated at lysine residues 540, 546, and 554 (3K). Acetylation at these three lysine residues is stimulated by P300/calcium-binding protein (CBP)-associated factor (PCAF) acetyltransferase under high glucose and increases ACLY stability by blocking its ubiquitylation and degradation. Conversely, the protein deacetylase sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) deacetylates and destabilizes ACLY. Substitution of 3K abolishes ACLY ubiquitylation and promotes de novo lipid synthesis, cell proliferation, and tumor growth. Importantly, 3K acetylation of ACLY is increased in human lung cancers. Our study reveals a crosstalk between acetylation and ubiquitylation by competing for the same lysine residues in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis and cell growth in response to glucose. PMID:23932781

Gao, Xue; Li, Tingting; Zhou, Xin; Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue; Lei, Qun-Ying

2014-01-01

359

The role of mycorrhizae and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in improving crop productivity under stressful environments.  

PubMed

Both biotic and abiotic stresses are major constrains to agricultural production. Under stress conditions, plant growth is affected by a number of factors such as hormonal and nutritional imbalance, ion toxicity, physiological disorders, susceptibility to diseases, etc. Plant growth under stress conditions may be enhanced by the application of microbial inoculation including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and mycorrhizal fungi. These microbes can promote plant growth by regulating nutritional and hormonal balance, producing plant growth regulators, solubilizing nutrients and inducing resistance against plant pathogens. In addition to their interactions with plants, these microbes also show synergistic as well as antagonistic interactions with other microbes in the soil environment. These interactions may be vital for sustainable agriculture because they mainly depend on biological processes rather than on agrochemicals to maintain plant growth and development as well as proper soil health under stress conditions. A number of research articles can be deciphered from the literature, which shows the role of rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae alone and/or in combination in enhancing plant growth under stress conditions. However, in contrast, a few review papers are available which discuss the synergistic interactions between rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae for enhancing plant growth under normal (non-stress) or stressful environments. Biological interactions between PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi are believed to cause a cumulative effect on all rhizosphere components, and these interactions are also affected by environmental factors such as soil type, nutrition, moisture and temperature. The present review comprehensively discusses recent developments on the effectiveness of PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi for enhancing plant growth under stressful environments. The key mechanisms involved in plant stress tolerance and the effectiveness of microbial inoculation for enhancing plant growth under stress conditions have been discussed at length in this review. Growth promotion by single and dual inoculation of PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi under stress conditions have also been discussed and reviewed comprehensively. PMID:24380797

Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Javaid, Arshad; Ashraf, Muhammad

2014-01-01

360

Draft Genome Sequence of a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium, Serratia fonticola Strain AU-P3(3).  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), found in the rhizospheric region of plants, not only suppress plant disease, but also directly improve plant health by improving the availability of nutrients and by providing phytostimulants. Herein, we report the high-quality genome sequence of Serratia fonticola strain AU-P3(3), a PGPR of the pea plant, which confers phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid production, ammonia production, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production, and siderophore production and also confers activity against Rhizoctonia species. The 5.02-Mb genome sequence contains genes related to plant growth promotion and biocontrol activities. PMID:24233592

Devi, Usha; Khatri, Indu; Kumar, Navinder; Kumar, Lalit; Sharma, Deepak; Subramanian, Srikrishna; Saini, Adesh K

2013-01-01

361

Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria and soil compaction on barley seedling growth, nutrient uptake, soil properties and rhizosphere microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculants are of great importance in sustainable and\\/or organic agriculture. In the present study, plant growth of barley\\u000a (Hordeum vulgare) has been studied in sterile soil inoculated with four plant growth-promoting bacteria and mineral fertilizers at three different\\u000a soil bulk densities and in three harvests of plants. Three bacterial species were isolated from the rhizosphere of barley\\u000a and wheat. These

Mustafa Y. Canbolat; Serdar Bilen; Ramazan Çakmakç?; Fikrettin ?ahin; Adil Ayd?n

2006-01-01

362

Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting bacteria from non-rhizospheric soil and their effect on cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seedling growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of four potential phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter isolated from non-rhizospheric soil in Western ghat forest in India. Plant growth promoting ability of these isolates was evaluated in cowpea. All are gram negative, rod shaped,\\u000a 0.8–1.6 mm in size, and psychrotrophic in nature, grow from 5 to 40°C (optimum temp. 28 ± 2°C). All isolates exhibits growth\\u000a at a wide range of pH

C. K. Deepa; Syed G. Dastager; Ashok Pandey

2010-01-01

363

EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING BACTERIA ON YIELD, GROWTH, LEAF WATER CONTENT, MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, AND IONIC COMPOSITION OF STRAWBERRY UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth promoting effects of Bacillus subtilis EY2, Bacillus atrophaeus EY6, Bacillus spharicus GC subgroup B EY30, Staphylococcus kloosii EY37 and Kocuria erythromyxa EY43 were tested on strawberry cv. ‘Fern’ in terms of fruit yield, growth, chlorophyll reading value, leaf relative water content (LRWC), membrane permeability and ionic composition of leaves and roots under saline conditions. Compared with 0 mM

Huseyin Karlidag; Ahmet Esitken; Ertan Yildirim; M. Figen Donmez; Metin Turan

2010-01-01

364

Genetic and phenotypic diversity of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sugarcane plants growing in pakistan.  

PubMed

Bacteria were isolated from roots of sugarcane varieties grown in the fields of Punjab. They were identified by using API20E/NE bacterial identification kits and from sequences of 16S rRNA and amplicons of the cpn60 gene. The majority of bacteria were found to belong to the genera of Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella, but members of genera Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Rahnella, Delftia, Caulobacter, Pannonibacter, Xanthomonas, and Stenotrophomonas were also found. The community, however, was dominated by members of the Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, as representatives of these genera were found in samples from every variety and location examined. All isolates were tested for the presence of five enzymes and seven factors known to be associated with plant growth promotion. Ten isolates showed lipase activity and eight were positive for protease activity. Cellulase, chitinase, and pectinase were not detected in any strain. Nine strains showed nitrogen fixing ability (acetylene reduction assay) and 26 were capable of solubilizing phosphate. In the presence of 100 mg/l tryptophan, all strains except one produced indole acetic acid in the growth medium. All isolates were positive for ACC deaminase activity. Six strains produced homoserine lactones and three produced HCN and hexamate type siderophores. One isolate was capable of inhibiting the growth of 24 pathogenic fungal strains of Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Pythium, and Rhizoctonia spp. In tests of their abilities to grow under a range of temperature, pH, and NaCl concentrations, all isolates grew well on plates with 3% NaCl and most of them grew well at 4 to 41degrees C and at pH 11. PMID:21193815

Mehnaz, Samina; Baig, Deeba Noreen; Lazarovits, George

2010-12-01

365

SPARC promotes leukemic cell growth and predicts acute myeloid leukemia outcome  

PubMed Central

Aberrant expression of the secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin) (SPARC) gene, which encodes a matricellular protein that participates in normal tissue remodeling, is associated with a variety of diseases including cancer, but the contribution of SPARC to malignant growth remains controversial. We previously reported that SPARC was among the most upregulated genes in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) patients with gene-expression profiles predictive of unfavorable outcome, such as mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2-R172) and overexpression of the oncogenes brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic (BAALC) and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG). In contrast, SPARC was downregulated in CN-AML patients harboring mutations in nucleophosmin (NPM1) that are associated with favorable prognosis. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that SPARC expression is clinically relevant in AML. Here, we found that SPARC overexpression is associated with adverse outcome in CN-AML patients and promotes aggressive leukemia growth in murine models of AML. In leukemia cells, SPARC expression was mediated by the SP1/NF-?B transactivation complex. Furthermore, secreted SPARC activated the integrin-linked kinase/AKT (ILK/AKT) pathway, likely via integrin interaction, and subsequent ?-catenin signaling, which is involved in leukemia cell self-renewal. Pharmacologic inhibition of the SP1/NF-?B complex resulted in SPARC downregulation and leukemia growth inhibition. Together, our data indicate that evaluation of SPARC expression has prognosticative value and SPARC is a potential therapeutic target for AML. PMID:24590286

Alachkar, Houda; Santhanam, Ramasamy; Maharry, Kati; Metzeler, Klaus H.; Huang, Xiaomeng; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Mendler, Jason H.; Benito, Juliana M.; Hickey, Christopher; Neviani, Paolo; Dorrance, Adrienne M.; Anghelina, Mirela; Khalife, Jihane; Tarighat, Somayeh S.; Volinia, Stefano; Whitman, Susan P.; Paschka, Peter; Hoellerbauer, Pia; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Han, Lina; Bolon, Brad N.; Blum, William; Mrozek, Krzysztof; Carroll, Andrew J.; Perrotti, Danilo; Andreeff, Michael; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Konopleva, Marina; Garzon, Ramiro; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Marcucci, Guido

2014-01-01

366

Optimization of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria-Assisted Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have indicated that plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can improve revegetation of arid mine tailings as measured by increased biomass production. The goals of the present study were first to evaluate how mode of application of known PGPB affects plant growth, and second to evaluate the effect of this inoculation on rhizosphere microbial community structure. PGPB application strategies investigated include preliminary surface sterilization of seeds (a common practice in phytoremediation trials) followed by a comparison of two application methods; immersion and alginate encapsulation. Results with two native desert plant species, Atriplex lentiformis and Buchloe dactyloides, suggest that seed surface sterilization prior to inoculation is not necessary to achieve beneficial effects of introduced PGPB. Both PGPB application techniques generally enhanced plant growth although results were both plant and PGPB specific. These results demonstrate that alginate encapsulation, which allows for long-term storage and easier application to seeds, is an effective way to inoculate PGPB. In addition, the influence of PGPB application on B. dactyloides rhizosphere community structure was evaluated using PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis of bacterial DNA extracted from rhizosphere samples collected 75 d following planting. A comparative analysis of DGGE profiles was performed using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). DGGE-CCA showed that rhizosphere community profiles from PGPB-inoculated treatments are significantly different from both uninoculated tailings rhizosphere profiles and profiles from the compost used to amend the tailings. Further, community profiles from B. dactyloides inoculated with the best performing PGPB (Arthro mix) were significantly different from two other PGPB tested. These results suggest that introduced PGPB have the potential to influence the development of the rhizosphere community structure found in plants grown in mine tailings. PMID:20161141

Grandlic, Christopher J.; Palmer, Michael W.; Maier, Raina M.

2009-01-01

367

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a potential targeting agent for delivery of boron to malignant gliomas  

SciTech Connect

The majority of high grade gliomas express an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and this often is associated with an increase in cell surface receptor expression. The rapid internalization and degradation of EGF-EGFR complexes, as well as their high affinity make EGF a potential targeting agent for delivery of {sup 10}B to tumor cells with an amplified number of EGFR. Human glioma cells can expresses as many as 10{sup 5} {minus}10{sup 6} EGF receptors per cell, and if these could be saturated with boronated EGF, then > 10{sup 8} boron atoms would be delivered per cell. Since EGF has a comparatively low molecular weight ({approximately} 6 kD), this has allowed us to construct relatively small bioconjugates containing {approximately} 900 boron atoms per EGF molecule{sup 3}, which also had high affinity for EGFR on tumor cells. In the present study, the feasibility of using EGF receptors as a potential target for therapy of gliomas was investigated by in vivo scintigraphic studies using {sup 131}I{minus} or {sup 99m}{Tc}-labeled EGF in a rat brain tumor model. Our results indicate that intratumorally delivered boron- EGF conjugates might be useful for targeting EGFR on glioma cells if the boron containing moiety of the conjugates persisted intracellularly. Further studies are required, however, to determine if this approach can be used for BNCT of the rat glioma.

Capala, J.; Barth, R.F.; Adams, D.M.; Bailey, M.Q.; Soloway, A.H. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Carlsson, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences

1994-12-31

368

Cancer and Pregnancy: Parallels in Growth, Invasion, and Immune Modulation and Implications for Cancer Therapeutic Agents  

PubMed Central

Many proliferative, invasive, and immune tolerance mechanisms that support normal human pregnancy are also exploited by malignancies to establish a nutrient supply and evade or edit the host immune response. In addition to the shared capacity for invading through normal tissues, both cancer cells and cells of the developing placenta create a microenvironment supportive of both immunologic privilege and angiogenesis. Systemic alterations in immunity are also detectable, particularly with respect to a helper T cell type 2 polarization evident in advanced cancers and midtrimester pregnancy. This review summarizes the similarities between growth and immune privilege in cancer and pregnancy and identifies areas for further investigation. Our PubMed search strategy included combinations of terms such as immune tolerance, pregnancy, cancer, cytokines, angiogenesis, and invasion. We did not place any restrictions on publication dates. The knowledge gained from analyzing similarities and differences between the physiologic state of pregnancy and the pathologic state of cancer could lead to identification of new potential targets for cancer therapeutic agents. PMID:19880689

Holtan, Shernan G.; Creedon, Douglas J.; Haluska, Paul; Markovic, Svetomir N.

2009-01-01

369

Promoter-trap identification of wheat seed extract-induced genes in the plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245.  

PubMed

Azospirillum strains have been used as plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) of cereal crops, but their adaptation to the root remains poorly understood. Here, we used a global approach based on differential fluorescence induction (DFI) promoter trapping to identify genes of the wheat isolate Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 that are induced in the presence of spring wheat seed extracts. Fluorescence-based flow cytometry sorting of Sp245 cells was validated using PlacZ, PsbpA and PnifH promoters and egfp. A random promoter library was constructed by cloning 1-3 kb Sp245 fragments upstream of a promoterless version of egfp in the promoter-trap plasmid pOT1e (genome coverage estimated at threefold). Exposure to spring wheat seed extracts obtained using a methanol solution led to the detection of 300 induced DFI clones, and upregulation by seed extracts was confirmed in vitro for 46 clones. Sequencing of 21 clones enabled identification of seven promoter regions. Five of them displayed upregulation once inoculated onto spring wheat seedlings. Their downstream sequence was similar to (i) a predicted transcriptional regulator, (ii) a serine/threonine protein kinase, (iii) two conserved hypothetical proteins, or (iv) the copper-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase NirK. Two of them were also upregulated when inoculated on winter wheat and pea but not on maize, whereas the three others (including PnirK) were upregulated on the three hosts. The amounts of nitrate and/or nitrite present in spring wheat seed extracts were sufficient for PnirK upregulation. Overall, DFI promoter trapping was useful to reveal Azospirillum genes involved in the interaction with the plant. PMID:17906157

Pothier, Joël F; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Weiss-Gayet, Michèle; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

2007-10-01

370

Biocontrol of fusarium crown and root rot and promotion of growth of tomato by paenibacillus strains isolated from soil.  

PubMed

In this study, bacterial strains were isolated from soils from 30 locations of Samcheok, Gangwon province. Of the isolated strains, seven showed potential plant growth promoting and antagonistic activities. Based on cultural and morphological characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these strains were identified as Paenibacillus species. All seven strains produced ammonia, cellulase, hydrocyanic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, protease, phosphatase, and siderophores. They also inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in vitro. The seven Paenibacillus strains enhanced a range of growth parameters in tomato plants under greenhouse conditions, in comparison with non-inoculated control plants. Notably, treatment of tomato plants with one identified strain, P. polymyxa SC09-21, resulted in 80.0% suppression of fusarium crown and root rot under greenhouse conditions. The plant growth promoting and antifungal activity of P. polymyxa SC09-21 identified in this study highlight its potential suitability as a bioinoculant. PMID:25071385

Xu, Sheng Jun; Kim, Byung Sup

2014-06-01

371

Antimycobacterial agents differ with respect to their bacteriostatic versus bactericidal activities in relation to time of exposure, mycobacterial growth phase, and their use in combination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of antimycobacterial agents were evaluated with respect to their bacteriostatic activity (growth inhibition) versus the bactericidal activity against a clinical isolate of Mycobacterium avium (Mycobacterium avium complex [MAC] strain 101) in relation to the time of exposure and the growth phase of the mycobacteria. In terms of growth inhibition the MAC in the active phase of growth was

Irma A. J. M. Bakker-Woudenberg; Wim van Vianen; Dick van Soolingen; Henri A. Verbrugh; Agtmael van M. A

2005-01-01

372

Regulation of human prostate-specific G-protein coupled receptor, PSGR, by two distinct promoters and growth factors.  

PubMed

PSGR is a newly identified human prostate tissue-specific gene belonging to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Overexpression of PSGR is associated with human prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate tumors, suggesting PSGR may play an important role in early prostate cancer development and progression. To understand the regulation of tissue-specific expression of human PSGR and its upregulation mechanism in prostate cancers, we characterized the promoter region of PSGR and analyzed the control mechanism for PSGR expression in human prostate tissues/cells. In this report, we demonstrate that two distinct promoters control the transcriptional regulation of PSGR in human prostate cells. The first promoter region includes exon 1 and a TATA box at -31 site. The minimal DNA sequence with promoter activity is about 123 bp upstream of exon 1. Exon 1 contains tissue specific regulatory activity for the first promoter of PSGR gene. The second promoter is located in the upstream region of exon 2, which is a TATA-less and non-GC-rich promoter. Primer extension and RNA protection assays (RPA) revealed that the transcription driven by the second promoter is initiated at the junction of intron and exon 2 within a cluster of nucleotides located about 250 bp upstream from the junction. Both promoters show prostate cell-specific characteristics in our luciferase assays in transfected cells. Furthermore, we investigated the regulation of the promoter activities of the PSGR gene by different growth factors and cytokines, and demonstrated that interleukin-6 (IL-6) activates the promoter activities of PSGR in human prostate cancer cells. These data suggest that two functional promoters regulate the transcriptional expression of PSGR in human prostate tissues and PSGR is a new target for IL-6 transcriptional regulation. PMID:16149059

Weng, Jinsheng; Ma, Wenbin; Mitchell, Dianne; Zhang, Jianshe; Liu, Mingyao

2005-12-01

373

Determinants of Plant Growth-promoting Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 Involved in Induction of Systemic Resistance against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in Tobacco Leaves  

PubMed Central

The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 elicited induced systemic resistance (ISR) in tobacco against soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. We investigated of its factors involved in ISR elicitation. To characterize the ISR determinants, KUDC1013 cell suspension, heat-treated cells, supernatant from a culture medium, crude bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagella were tested for their ISR activities. Both LPS and flagella from KUDC1013 were effective in ISR elicitation. Crude cell free supernatant elicited ISR and factors with the highest ISR activity were retained in the n-butanol fraction. Analysis of the ISR-active fraction revealed the metabolites, phenylacetic acid (PAA), 1-hexadecene and linoleic acid (LA), as elicitors of ISR. Treatment of tobacco with these compounds significantly decreased the soft rot disease symptoms. This is the first report on the ISR determinants by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) KUDC1013 and identifying PAA, 1-hexadecene and LA as ISR-related compounds. This study shows that KUDC1013 has a great potential as biological control agent because of its multiple factors involved in induction of systemic resistance against phytopathogens. PMID:25288944

Sumayo, Marilyn; Hahm, Mi-Seon; Ghim, Sa-Youl

2013-01-01

374

Individual Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resuscitation-Promoting Factor Homologues Are Dispensable for Growth In Vitro and In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses five genes with significant homology to the resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) of Micrococcus luteus. The M. luteus Rpf is a secreted 16-kDa protein which restores active growth to cultures of M. luteus rendered dormant by prolonged incubation in stationary phase. More recently, the Rpf-like proteins of M. tuberculosis have been shown to stimulate the growth of extended-stationary-phase cultures

JoAnn M. Tufariello; William R. Jacobs; John Chan

2004-01-01

375

Role of cAMP in the promotion of colorectal cancer cell growth by Prostaglandin E2  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a product of the cyclooxygenase (COX) reaction, stimulates the growth of colonic epithelial cells. It is inferred that the abrogation of prostaglandins' growth-promoting effects as a result of COX inhibition underlies the advantageous effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Despite this appreciation, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure since cell culture studies have

Ivonne Löffler; Michael Grün; Frank D Böhmer; Ignacio Rubio

2008-01-01

376

Characterization of plant-growth promoting diazotrophic bacteria isolated from field grown Chinese cabbage under different fertilization conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Chinese cabbage were assessed for other plant growth promoting characteristics\\u000a viz., production of IAA, ethylene, ACC deaminase, phosphate solubilization, and gnotobiotic root elongation. Their effect on inoculation\\u000a to Chinese cabbage was also observed under growth chamber conditions. A total of 19 strains that showed higher nitrogenase\\u000a activity identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence

Woo-Jong Yim; Selvaraj Poonguzhali; Munusamy Madhaiyan; Pitchai Palaniappan; M. A. Siddikee; Tongmin Sa

2009-01-01

377

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria with multiple plant growth-promoting activities enhance growth of tomato and red pepper.  

PubMed

As a suitable alternative to chemical fertilizers, the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria has been increasing in recent years due to their potential to be used as biofertilizers. In the present work, 13 nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains belonging to 11 different genera were tested for their PGP attributes. All of the strains were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid, and ammonia production while negative for cellulase, pectinase, and hydrocyanic acid production. The strains Pseudomonas sp. RFNB3 and Serratia sp. RFNB14 were the most effective in solubilizing both tri-calcium phosphate and zinc oxide. In addition, all strains except Pseudomonas sp. RFNB3 were able to oxidize sulfur, and six strains were positive for siderophore synthesis. Each strain tested in this study possesses at least four PGP properties in addition to nitrogen fixation. Nine strains were selected based on their multiple PGP potential, particularly ACCD and IAA production, and evaluated for their effects on early growth of tomato and red pepper under gnotobiotic conditions. Bacterial inoculation considerably influenced root and shoot length, seedling vigor, and dry biomass of the two crop plants. Three strains that demonstrated substantial effects on plant performance were further selected for greenhouse trials with red pepper, and among them Pseudomonas sp. RFNB3 resulted in significantly higher plant height (26%) and dry biomass (28%) compared to control. The highest rate of nitrogen fixation, as determined by acetylene reduction assay, occurred in Novosphingobium sp. RFNB21 inoculated red pepper root (49.6?nM of ethylene/h/g of dry root) and rhizosphere soil (41.3?nM of ethylene/h/g of dry soil). Inoculation with nitrogen-fixing bacteria significantly increased chlorophyll content, and the uptake of different macro- and micro-nutrient contents enhancing also in red pepper shoots, in comparison with uninoculated controls. The population estimation studies showed that nitrogen-fixing as well as total heterotrophic bacteria were also noticeably increased in soil and plant samples. The findings of this study suggest that certain nitrogen-fixing strains possessing multiple PGP traits could be applied in the development of biofertilizers. PMID:23553337

Islam, Md Rashedul; Sultana, Tahera; Joe, M Melvin; Yim, Woojong; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Sa, Tongmin

2013-12-01

378

Cortactin involvement in the keratinocyte growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 10 promotion of migration and cortical actin assembly in human keratinocytes  

SciTech Connect

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF/FGF7) and fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10/KGF2) regulate keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation by binding to the tyrosine kinase KGF receptor (KGFR). KGF induces keratinocyte motility and cytoskeletal rearrangement, whereas a direct role of FGF10 on keratinocyte migration is not clearly established. Here we analyzed the motogenic activity of FGF10 and KGF on human keratinocytes. Migration assays and immunofluorescence of actin cytoskeleton revealed that FGF10 is less efficient than KGF in promoting migration and exerts a delayed effect in inducing lamellipodia and ruffles formation. Both growth factors promoted phosphorylation and subsequent membrane translocation of cortactin, an F-actin binding protein involved in cell migration; however, FGF10-induced cortactin phosphorylation was reduced, more transient and delayed with respect to that promoted by KGF. Cortactin phosphorylation induced by both growth factors was Src-dependent, while its membrane translocation and cell migration were blocked by either Src and PI3K inhibitors, suggesting that both pathways are involved in KGF- and FGF10-dependent motility. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated downregulation of cortactin inhibited KGF- and FGF10-induced migration. These results indicate that cortactin is involved in keratinocyte migration promoted by both KGF and FGF10.

Ceccarelli, Simona [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161, Rome (Italy); Cardinali, Giorgia [Istituto Dermatologico San Gallicano, IRCCS, Rome (Italy); Aspite, Nicaela [Istituto Dermatologico San Gallicano, IRCCS, Rome (Italy); Picardo, Mauro [Istituto Dermatologico San Gallicano, IRCCS, Rome (Italy); Marchese, Cinzia [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161, Rome (Italy); Torrisi, Maria Rosaria [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161, Rome (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliera Sant'Andrea, Rome (Italy); Mancini, Patrizia [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: patrizia.mancini@uniroma1.it

2007-05-15

379

Fresh-weight measurements of roots provide inaccurate estimates of the effects of plant growth-promoting bacteria on root growth: a critical examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four strains of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), including three strains of Azospirillum and Pseudomonas fluorescens 313 were used to inoculate seeds of wheat, tomato, pepper, and cotton. Inoculated seedlings were grown to the two or three-leaf stage. After harvest, seven different environmental and technical conditions were evaluated to determine the effect of these conditions on the reproducibility of fresh and

Yoav Bashan; Luz E. de-Bashan

2005-01-01

380

Nardilysin and ADAM proteases promote gastric cancer cell growth by activating intrinsic cytokine signalling via enhanced ectodomain shedding of TNF-?  

PubMed Central

Nardilysin (NRDc), a metalloendopeptidase of the M16 family, promotes ectodomain shedding of the precursor forms of various growth factors and cytokines by enhancing the protease activities of ADAM proteins. Here, we show the growth-promoting role of NRDc in gastric cancer cells. Analyses of clinical samples demonstrated that NRDc protein expression was frequently elevated both in the serum and cancer epithelium of gastric cancer patients. After NRDc knockdown, tumour cell growth was suppressed both in vitro and in xenograft experiments. In gastric cancer cells, NRDc promotes shedding of pro-tumour necrosis factor-alpha (pro-TNF-?), which stimulates expression of NF-?B-regulated multiple cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6. In turn, IL-6 activates STAT3, leading to transcriptional upregulation of downstream growth-related genes. Gene silencing of ADAM17 or ADAM10, representative ADAM proteases, phenocopied the changes in cytokine expression and cell growth induced by NRDc knockdown. Our results demonstrate that gastric cancer cell growth is maintained by autonomous TNF-?–NF-?B and IL-6–STAT3 signalling, and that NRDc and ADAM proteases turn on these signalling cascades by stimulating ectodomain shedding of TNF-?. PMID:22351606

Kanda, Keitaro; Komekado, Hideyuki; Sawabu, Tateo; Ishizu, Shoko; Nakanishi, Yuki; Nakatsuji, Masato; Akitake-Kawano, Reiko; Ohno, Mikiko; Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Kawada, Mayumi; Kawada, Kenji; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Matsumoto, Kyoichi; Kunichika, Makoto; Kimura, Takeshi; Seno, Hiroshi; Nishi, Eiichiro; Chiba, Tsutomu

2012-01-01

381

Nardilysin and ADAM proteases promote gastric cancer cell growth by activating intrinsic cytokine signalling via enhanced ectodomain shedding of TNF-?.  

PubMed

Nardilysin (NRDc), a metalloendopeptidase of the M16 family, promotes ectodomain shedding of the precursor forms of various growth factors and cytokines by enhancing the protease activities of ADAM proteins. Here, we show the growth-promoting role of NRDc in gastric cancer cells. Analyses of clinical samples demonstrated that NRDc protein expression was frequently elevated both in the serum and cancer epithelium of gastric cancer patients. After NRDc knockdown, tumour cell growth was suppressed both in vitro and in xenograft experiments. In gastric cancer cells, NRDc promotes shedding of pro-tumour necrosis factor-alpha (pro-TNF-?), which stimulates expression of NF-?B-regulated multiple cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6. In turn, IL-6 activates STAT3, leading to transcriptional upregulation of downstream growth-related genes. Gene silencing of ADAM17 or ADAM10, representative ADAM proteases, phenocopied the changes in cytokine expression and cell growth induced by NRDc knockdown. Our results demonstrate that gastric cancer cell growth is maintained by autonomous TNF-?-NF-?B and IL-6-STAT3 signalling, and that NRDc and ADAM proteases turn on these signalling cascades by stimulating ectodomain shedding of TNF-?. PMID:22351606

Kanda, Keitaro; Komekado, Hideyuki; Sawabu, Tateo; Ishizu, Shoko; Nakanishi, Yuki; Nakatsuji, Masato; Akitake-Kawano, Reiko; Ohno, Mikiko; Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Kawada, Mayumi; Kawada, Kenji; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Matsumoto, Kyoichi; Kunichika, Makoto; Kimura, Takeshi; Seno, Hiroshi; Nishi, Eiichiro; Chiba, Tsutomu

2012-05-01

382

Toxicological effects of selective herbicides on plant growth promoting activities of phosphate solubilizing Klebsiella sp. strain PS19.  

PubMed

This study examines the effect of four herbicides, quizalafop-p-ethyl, clodinafop, metribuzin and glyphosate, on plant growth promoting activities like phosphate solubilization, siderophores, indole acetic acid, exo-polysaccharides, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia production by herbicide tolerant Klebsiella sp. strain PS19. The strain was isolated from mustard rhizosphere. The selected herbicides were applied two to three times at the recommended rates. Klebsiella sp. strain PS19 tolerated a concentration of 1600 ?g/ml each of quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop, and 3200 and 2800 ?g/ml of metribuzin and glyphosate, respectively. The activities of Klebsiella sp. strain PS19 observed under in vitro environment were persistent in the presence of all herbicides at lower rates. The plant growth promoting activities even-though decreased regularly, but was not lost completely, as the concentration of each herbicide was increased from the recommended to three times of higher doses. Among all herbicides, quizalafop-p-ethyl, generally, showed maximum toxicity to plant growth promoting activities of Klebsiella sp. strain PS19. As an example, 40, 80 and 120 ?g/l of quizalafop-p-ethyl added to liquid culture Pikovskaya medium, decreased phosphate solubilizing activity of strain PS19 by 93, 95 and 97%, respectively over untreated control. The study revealed that the higher rates of herbicides though decreased the plant growth promoting activity but it did not completely inhibit the metabolic activities of strain PS19. The herbicide tolerance together with growth promoting activities observed under herbicide stress suggests that Klebsiella sp. strain PS19 could be used as bacterial preparation for facilitating the growth and yields of crops even in soils polluted with herbicides. PMID:20721665

Ahemad, Munees; Saghir Khan, Md

2011-02-01

383

Nitrophenols isolated from diesel exhaust particles promote the growth of MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) cause many adverse health problems, and reports indicate increased risk of breast cancer in men and women through exposure to gasoline and vehicle exhaust. However, DEPs include vast numbers of compounds, and the specific compound(s) responsible for these actions are not clear. We recently isolated two nitrophenols from DEPs-3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (4-nitro-m-cresol; PNMC) and 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol (PNMPP)-and showed that they had estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities. Here, we tried to clarify the involvement of these two nitrophenols in promoting the growth of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. First, comet assay was used to detect the genotoxicity of PNMC and PNMPP in a CHO cell line. At all doses tested, PNMC and PNMPP showed negative genotoxicity, indicating that they had no tumor initiating activity. Next, the estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was used to assess cell proliferation. Proliferation of MCF-7 cells was stimulated by PNMC, PNMPP, and estradiol-17{beta} and the anti-estrogens 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 182,780 inhibited the proliferation. To further investigate transcriptional activity through the estrogen receptor, MCF-7 cells were transfected with a receptor gene that allowed expression of luciferase enzyme under the control of the estrogen regulatory element. PNMC and PNMPP induced luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner at submicromolar concentrations. ICI 182,780 inhibited the luciferase activity induced by PNMC and PNMPP. These results clearly indicate that PNMC and PNMPP do not show genotoxicity but act as tumor promoters in an estrogen receptor {alpha}-predominant breast cancer cell line.

Furuta, Chie [Department of Basic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Suzuki, Akira K. [Environmental Nanotoxicology Section, Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Gen [Department of Basic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Li, ChunMei; Taneda, Shinji [Environmental Nanotoxicology Section, Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, 305-8506 (Japan); Taya, Kazuyoshi [Department of Basic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)], E-mail: taya@cc.tuat.ac.jp

2008-08-01

384

A Scabies Mite Serpin Interferes with Complement-Mediated Neutrophil Functions and Promotes Staphylococcal Growth  

PubMed Central

Background Scabies is a contagious skin disease caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The disease is highly prevalent worldwide and known to predispose to secondary bacterial infections, in particular by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Reports of scabies patients co-infected with methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pose a major concern for serious down-stream complications. We previously reported that a range of complement inhibitors secreted by the mites promoted the growth of S. pyogenes. Here, we show that a recently characterized mite serine protease inhibitor (SMSB4) inhibits the complement-mediated blood killing of S. aureus. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood killing of S. aureus was measured in whole blood bactericidal assays, counting viable bacteria recovered after treatment in fresh blood containing active complement and phagocytes, treated with recombinant SMSB4. SMSB4 inhibited the blood killing of various strains of S. aureus including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive isolates. Staphylococcal growth was promoted in a dose-dependent manner. We investigated the effect of SMSB4 on the complement-mediated neutrophil functions, namely phagocytosis, opsonization and anaphylatoxin release, by flow cytometry and in enzyme linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISA). SMSB4 reduced phagocytosis of S. aureus by neutrophils. It inhibited the deposition of C3b, C4b and properdin on the bacteria surface, but did not affect the depositions of C1q and MBL. SMSB4 also inhibited C5 cleavage as indicated by a reduced C5b-9 deposition. Conclusions/Significance We postulate that SMSB4 interferes with the activation of all three complement pathways by reducing the amount of C3 convertase formed. We conclude that SMSB4 interferes with the complement-dependent killing function of neutrophils, thereby reducing opsonization, phagocytosis and further recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. As a consequence secreted scabies mites complement inhibitors, such as SMSB4, provide favorable conditions for the onset of S. aureus co-infection in the scabies-infected microenvironment by suppressing the immediate host immune response. PMID:24945501

Swe, Pearl M.; Fischer, Katja

2014-01-01

385

Facilitation of a structural transition in the polypurine/polypyrimidine tract within the proximal promoter region of the human VEGF gene by the presence of potassium and G-quadruplex-interactive agents  

PubMed Central

The proximal promoter region of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene contains a polypurine/polypyrimidine tract that serves as a multiple binding site for Sp1 and Egr-1 transcription factors. This tract contains a guanine-rich sequence consisting of four runs of three or more contiguous guanines separated by one or more bases, corresponding to a general motif for the formation of an intramolecular G-quadruplex. In this study, we observed the progressive unwinding of the oligomer duplex DNA containing this region into single-stranded forms in the presence of KCl and the G-quadruplex-interactive agents TMPyP4 and telomestatin, suggesting the dynamic nature of this tract under conditions which favor the formation of the G-quadruplex structures. Subsequent footprinting studies with DNase I and S1 nucleases using a supercoiled plasmid DNA containing the human VEGF promoter region also revealed a long protected region, including the guanine-rich sequences, in the presence of KCl and telomestatin. Significantly, a striking hypersensitivity to both nucleases was observed at the 3?-side residue of the predicted G-quadruplex-forming region in the presence of KCl and telomestatin, indicating altered conformation of the human VEGF proximal promoter region surrounding the guanine-rich sequence. In contrast, when specific point mutations were introduced into specific guanine residues within the G-quadruplex-forming region (Sp1 binding sites) to abolish G-quadruplex-forming ability, the reactivity of both nucleases toward the mutated human VEGF proximal promoter region was almost identical, even in the presence of telomestatin with KCl. This comparison of wild-type and mutant sequences strongly suggests that the formation of highly organized secondary structures such as G-quadruplexes within the G-rich region of the human VEGF promoter region is responsible for observed changes in the reactivity of both nucleases within the polypurine/polypyrimidine tract of the human VEGF gene. The formation of the G-quadruplex structures from this G-rich sequence in the human VEGF promoter is further confirmed by the CD experiments. Collectively, our results provide strong evidence that specific G-quadruplex structures can naturally be formed by the G-rich sequence within the polypurine/polypyrimidine tract of the human VEGF promoter region, raising the possibility that the transcriptional control of the VEGF gene can be modulated by G-quadruplex-interactive agents. PMID:16239639

Sun, Daekyu; Guo, Kexiao; Rusche, Jadrian J.; Hurley, Laurence H.

2005-01-01

386

Interference Fracturing: Non-Uniform Distributions of Perforation Clusters that Promote Simultaneous Growth of Multiple Hydraulic Fractures  

E-print Network

Interference Fracturing: Non-Uniform Distributions of Perforation Clusters that Promote Simultaneous Growth of Multiple Hydraulic Fractures A.P. Peirce, University of British Columbia and A.P. Bunger in horizontal well stimulation is the generation of hydraulic fractures (HFs) from all perforation clusters

Peirce, Anthony

387

Introduction of the human growth hormone gene into the guinea pig mammary gland by in vivo transfection promotes sustained expression  

E-print Network

transfection promotes sustained expression of human growth hormone in the milk throughout lactation Julie R Abstract We tested the feasibility of transfecting mammary tissue in vivo with an expression plasmid mammary glands were transfected with plasmid DNA infused through the nipple canal and expression

Mather, Ian

388

Draft genome sequence of plant growth-promoting rhizobium Mesorhizobium amorphae, isolated from zinc-lead mine tailings.  

PubMed

Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Mesorhizobium amorphae strain CCNWGS0123, isolated from nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia growing on zinc-lead mine tailings. A large number of metal(loid) resistance genes, as well as genes reported to promote plant growth, were identified, presenting a great future potential for aiding phytoremediation in metal(loid)-contaminated soil. PMID:22247533

Hao, Xiuli; Lin, Yanbing; Johnstone, Laurel; Baltrus, David A; Miller, Susan J; Wei, Gehong; Rensing, Christopher

2012-02-01

389

Fruit Bio-thinning by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) in Apple cvs. Golden Delicious and Braeburn  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2006 and 2007, fruit thinning effects of three plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPB) strains (Bacillus OSU-142, Microbacterium R2 and Bacillus T7) and NAA (10 and 20 ppm) were tested in apple cvs. Golden Delicious and Braeburn in terms of fruit setting, yield, fruit weight, fruit firmness, total soluble solid (TSS), titratable acidity and shoot length in the province of

Ahmet Esitken; Lutfi Pirlak; Muzaffer Ipek; M. Figen Donmez; Ramazan Cakmakci; Fikrettin Sahin

2009-01-01

390

Specific interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria--as revealed by different combinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions between two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and Paenibacillus brasilensis PB177, two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices) and one pathogenic fungus (Microdochium nivale) were investigated on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Tarso) in a greenhouse trial. PB177, but not SBW25, had strong inhibitory effects on M. nivale in dual culture plate

Lotta Jaderlund; Veronica Arthurson; Ulf Granhall; Janet K. Jansson

2008-01-01

391

Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobium Mesorhizobium amorphae, Isolated from Zinc-Lead Mine Tailings  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Mesorhizobium amorphae strain CCNWGS0123, isolated from nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia growing on zinc-lead mine tailings. A large number of metal(loid) resistance genes, as well as genes reported to promote plant growth, were identified, presenting a great future potential for aiding phytoremediation in metal(loid)-contaminated soil. PMID:22247533

Hao, Xiuli; Lin, Yanbing; Johnstone, Laurel; Baltrus, David A.; Miller, Susan J.

2012-01-01

392

The Effects of GM-CSF and G-CSF in Promoting Growth of Clonogenic Cells in Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small subset of leukemic cells from most patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) have properties of stem cells and can be assayed by colony formation in agar or methylcellulose. Colony formation generally requires the addition of exogenous growth factors, but the exact fac- tors required are incompletely defined. The AMI colony- promoting activities of two recombinant human colony- stimulating

Edo Vellenga; Diane C. Young; Katherine Wagner; Donald Wiper; Diana Ostapovicz; James D. Griffin

1987-01-01

393

Dimethyl disulfide produced by the naturally associated bacterium bacillus sp B55 promotes Nicotiana attenuata growth by enhancing sulfur nutrition.  

PubMed

Bacillus sp B55, a bacterium naturally associated with Nicotiana attenuata roots, promotes growth and survival of wild-type and, particularly, ethylene (ET)-insensitive (35)S-ethylene response1 (etr1) N. attenuata plants, which heterologously express the mutant Arabidopsis thaliana receptor ETR1-1. We found that the volatile organic compound (VOC) blend emitted by B55 promotes seedling growth, which is dominated by the S-containing compound dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). DMDS was depleted from the headspace during cocultivation with seedlings in bipartite Petri dishes, and (35)S was assimilated from the bacterial VOC bouquet and incorporated into plant proteins. In wild-type and (35)S-etr1 seedlings grown under different sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) supply conditions, exposure to synthetic DMDS led to genotype-dependent plant growth promotion effects. For the wild type, only S-starved seedlings benefited from DMDS exposure. By contrast, growth of (35)S-etr1 seedlings, which we demonstrate to have an unregulated S metabolism, increased at all SO(4)(-2) supply rates. Exposure to B55 VOCs and DMDS rescued many of the growth phenotypes exhibited by ET-insensitive plants, including the lack of root hairs, poor lateral root growth, and low chlorophyll content. DMDS supplementation significantly reduced the expression of S assimilation genes, as well as Met biosynthesis and recycling. We conclude that DMDS by B55 production is a plant growth promotion mechanism that likely enhances the availability of reduced S, which is particularly beneficial for wild-type plants growing in S-deficient soils and for (35)S-etr1 plants due to their impaired S uptake/assimilation/metabolism. PMID:23903320

Meldau, Dorothea G; Meldau, Stefan; Hoang, Long H; Underberg, Stefanie; Wünsche, Hendrik; Baldwin, Ian T

2013-07-01

394

Phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.  

PubMed

The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum. PMID:25023078

Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M

2014-07-01

395

Growth-promoting technologies decrease the carbon footprint, ammonia emissions, and costs of California beef production systems.  

PubMed

Increased animal performance is suggested as one of the most effective mitigation strategies to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions from livestock production per unit of product produced. Little information exists, however, on the effects of increased animal productivity on the net decrease in emission from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California that use various management technologies to enhance animal performance. The IFSM is a farm process model that simulates crop growth, feed production, animal performance, and manure production and handling through time to predict the performance, economics, and environmental impacts of production systems. The simulated beef production systems compared were 1) Angus-natural, with no use of growth-enhancing technologies, 2) Angus-implant, with ionophore and growth-promoting implant (e.g., estrogen/trenbolone acetate-based) application, 3) Angus-ß2-adrenergic agonists (BAA; e.g., zilpaterol), with ionophore, growth-promoting implant, and BAA application, 4) Holstein-implant, with growth implant and ionophore application, and 5) Holstein-BAA, with ionophore, growth implant, and BAA use. During the feedlot phase, use of BAA decreased NH(3) emission by 4 to 9 g/kg HCW, resulting in a 7% decrease in NH(3) loss from the full production system. Combined use of ionophore, growth implant, and BAA treatments decreased NH(3) emission from the full production system by 14 g/kg HCW, or 13%. The C footprint of beef was decreased by 2.2 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e)/kg HCW using all the growth-promoting technologies, and the Holstein beef footprint was decreased by 0.5 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW using BAA. Over the full production systems, these decreases were relatively small at 9% and 5% for Angus and Holstein beef, respectively. The growth-promoting technologies we evaluated are a cost-effective way to mitigate GHG and NH(3) emissions, but naturally managed cattle can bring a similar net return to Angus cattle treated with growth-promoting technologies when sold at an 8% greater premium price. PMID:22952364

Stackhouse, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

2012-12-01

396

Xyloglucan Oligosaccharides Promote Growth and Activate Cellulase: Evidence for a Role of Cellulase in Cell Expansion 1  

PubMed Central

Oligosaccharides produced by the action of fungal cellulase on xyloglucans promoted the elongation of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) stem segments in a straight-growth bioassay designed for the determination of auxins. The oligosaccharides were most active at about 1 micromolar. We tested the relative growth-promoting activities of four HPLC-purified oligosaccharides which shared a common glucose4· xylose3 (XG7) core. The substituted oligosaccharides XG8 (glucose4· xylose3· galactose) and XG9n (glucose4· xylose3· galactose2) were more effective than XG7 itself and XG9 (glucose4· xylose3· galactose· fucose). The same oligosaccharides also promoted the degradation, assayed viscometrically, of xyloglucan by an acidic cellulase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. The oligosaccharides were highly active at 10?4 molar, causing up to a fourfold increase in activity, but the effect was still detectable at 1 micromolar. Those oligosaccharides (XG8 and XG9n) which best promoted growth, stimulated cellulase activity to the greatest extent. The oligosaccharides did not stimulate the action of the cellulase in an assay based on the conversion of [3H]xyloglucan to ethanol-soluble fragments. This suggest that the oligosaccharides enhanced the midchain hydrolysis of xyloglucan molecules (which would rapidly reduce the viscosity of the solution), at the expense of cleavage near the termini (which would yield ethanol-soluble products). We suggest that the promotion of midchain xyloglucan cleavage, by loosening the primary cell wall matrix, explains the promotion of growth by the oligosaccharides. PMID:16667555

McDougall, Gordon J.; Fry, Stephen C.

1990-01-01

397

Plant growth-promoting trait of rhizobacteria isolated from soil contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals.  

PubMed

Three hundred and seventy-four rhizobacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere soil (RS) or rhizoplane (RP) of Echinochloa crus-galli, Carex leiorhyncha, Commelina communis, Persicaria lapathifolia, Carex kobomugi, and Equisetum arvense, grown in contaminated soil with petroleum and heavy metals. The isolates were screened for plant growth-promoting potential (PGPP), including indole acetic acid (IAA) productivity, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, and siderophore(s) synthesis ability. IAA production was detected in 86 isolates (23.0%), ACC deaminase activity in 168 isolates (44.9%), and siderophore(s) synthesis in 213 isolates (57.0%). Among the rhizobateria showing PGPP, 162 rhizobacteria had multiple traits showing more than two types of PGPP. The PGPP-having rhizobateria were more abundant in the RP (82%) samples than the RS (75%). There was a negative correlation (-0.656, p < 0.05) between the IAA-producers and the ACC deaminase producers. Clustering analysis by principal component analysis showed that RP was the most important factor influencing ecological distribution and physiological characterization of PGPP-possesing rhizobateria. PMID:20372032

Koo, So-Yeon; Hong, Sun Hwa; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-suk

2010-03-01