Science.gov

Sample records for growth promoting agents

  1. Hormonal growth promoting agents in food producing animals.

    PubMed

    Stephany, Rainer W

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the use of hormonal doping agents in sports to enhance the performance of athletes, in the livestock industry hormonal growth promoters ("anabolics") are used to increase the production of muscle meat. This leads to international disputes about the safety of meat originating from animals treated with such anabolics.As a consequence of the total ban in the EU of all hormonal active growth promoters ("hormones") in livestock production, in contrast to their legal use [e.g. of five such hormones (17beta-estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, trenbolone and zeranol) as small solid ear implants and two hormones as feed additives for feedlot heifers (melengestrol acetate) and for swine (ractopamine) in the USA], the regulatory controls also differ sharply between the EU and the USA.In the EU the treatment of slaughter animals is the regulatory offence that has to be controlled in inspection programs. In the USA testing for compliance of a regulatory maximum residue level in the edible product (muscle, fat, liver or kidney) is the purpose of the inspection program (if any).The EU inspection programs focus on sample materials that are more suitable for testing for banned substances, especially if the animals are still on the farm, such as urine and feces or hair. In the case of slaughtered animals, the more favored sample materials are bile, blood, eyes and sometimes liver. Only in rare occasions is muscle meat sampled. This happens only in the case of import controls or in monitoring programs of meat sampled in butcher shops or supermarkets.As a result, data on hormone concentrations in muscle meat samples from the EU market are very rare and are obtained in most cases from small programs on an ad hoc basis. EU data for natural hormones in meat are even rarer because of the absence of "legal natural levels" for these hormones in compliance testing. With the exception of samples from the application sites - in the EU the site of injection of liquid hormone preparations or the site of application of "pour on" preparations - the hormone concentrations observed in meat samples of illegally treated animals are typically in the range of a few micrograms per kilogram (ppb) down to a few tenths of a microgram per kilogram. In the EU dozens of illegal hormones are used and the number of active compounds is still expanding. Besides estrogenic, androgenic and progestagenic compounds also thyreostatic, corticosteroidal and beta-adrenergic compounds are used alone or in "smart" combinations.An overview is given of the compounds identified on the EU black market. An estimate is also given of the probability of consumption in the EU of "highly" contaminated meat from the application sites in cattle. Finally some data are presented on the concentration of estradiol in bovine meat from animals treated and not treated with hormone implants. These data are compared with the recent findings for estradiol concentrations in hen's eggs. From this comparison, the preliminary conclusion is that hen's eggs are the major source of 17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol in the consumer's daily "normal" diet. PMID:20020373

  2. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): Their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents

    PubMed Central

    Beneduzi, Anelise; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action, leading to a more efficient use for biocontrol strategies to improve cropping systems. PMID:23411488

  3. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): Their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents.

    PubMed

    Beneduzi, Anelise; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2012-12-01

    Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action, leading to a more efficient use for biocontrol strategies to improve cropping systems. PMID:23411488

  4. Characterization of the bioactive metabolites from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and their exploitation as antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting agents.

    PubMed

    George, Emrin; Kumar, S Nishanth; Jacob, Jubi; Bommasani, Bhaskara; Lankalapalli, Ravi S; Morang, P; Kumar, B S Dileep

    2015-05-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterial strain, PM 105, isolated from a tea plantation soil from the North Eastern region of India was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa through classical and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. Further studies with this strain confirmed broad spectrum antifungal activity against ten human and plant pathogenic fungal pathogens viz. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Candida albicans, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Pencillium expansum, Rhizoctonia solani, Trichophyton rubrum besides growth-promoting property in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). However, no antibacterial property was exhibited by this strain against the four test bacterial pathogens tested in agar overlay method. The crude bioactive metabolites produced by this strain were isolated with three different solvents that exhibited significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Chloroform extract recorded significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Three major compounds viz. 1-hydroxyphenazine, pyocyanin, and phenazine-1-carboxamide were purified and characterized from crude extracts of this strain by various spectral data. The purified compounds recorded prominent antimicrobial activity but failed to establish the plant growth promotion activity in test crop plants under gnotobiotic conditions. Pyocyanin recorded significant antimicrobial activity, and best activity was recorded against T. rubrum (29 mm), followed by P. expansum (28 mm). These results suggest the use of PM 105 as plant growth-promoting agent in crop plants after successful field trials. PMID:25832181

  5. Clinically Relevant Growth Conditions Alter Acinetobacter baumannii Antibiotic Susceptibility and Promote Identification of Novel Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Colquhoun, Jennifer M.; Wozniak, Rachel A. F.; Dunman, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Biological processes that govern bacterial proliferation and survival in the host-environment(s) are likely to be vastly different from those that are required for viability in nutrient-rich laboratory media. Consequently, growth-based antimicrobial screens performed in conditions modeling aspects of bacterial disease states have the potential to identify new classes of antimicrobials that would be missed by screens performed in conventional laboratory media. Accordingly, we performed screens of the Selleck library of 853 FDA approved drugs for agents that exhibit antimicrobial activity toward the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii during growth in human serum, lung surfactant, and/or the organism in the biofilm state and compared those results to that of conventional laboratory medium. Results revealed that a total of 90 compounds representing 73 antibiotics and 17 agents that were developed for alternative therapeutic indications displayed antimicrobial properties toward the test strain in at least one screening condition. Of the active library antibiotics only four agents, rifampin, rifaximin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, exhibited antimicrobial activity toward the organism during all screening conditions, whereas the remainder were inactive in ≥ 1 condition; 56 antibiotics were inactive during serum growth, 25 and 38 were inactive toward lung surfactant grown and biofilm-associated cells, respectively, suggesting that subsets of antibiotics may outperform others in differing infection settings. Moreover, 9 antibiotics that are predominantly used for the treatment Gram-positive pathogens and 10 non-antibiotics lacked detectable antimicrobial activity toward A. baumannii grown in conventional medium but were active during ≥ 1 alternative growth condition(s). Such agents may represent promising anti-Acinetobacter agents that would have likely been overlooked by antimicrobial whole cell screening assays performed in traditional laboratory screening media. PMID:26558753

  6. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production trait, a useful screening to select endophytic and rhizosphere competent bacteria for rice growth promoting agents

    PubMed Central

    Etesami, Hassan; Alikhani, Hossein Ali; Hosseini, Hossein Mirseyed

    2015-01-01

    Plants select plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that are competitively fit to occupy compatible niches without causing pathological stress on them. However, when screening bacteria for plant growth promoting (PGP) agents, it is better to select bacteria for achieving the most promising isolates having suitable colonization and PGP traits. In most researches, it has been seen that following incubation, bacterial flora are taken at random from petri dishes for further study. However, this type of selection may remove some superior bacteria in terms of PGP traits and high colonization ability. Therefore, it is essential to study all the isolated bacteria in an economic way and select the best bacteria in terms of PGP traits and high colonization rate. A simple screening method to detect endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria, isolated from the plants in rotation with rice, for rice PGP agents based on a root colonization bioassay and a PGP trait is characterized. Selected bacterial isolates based on their IAA producing trait have the potential for more PGP and colonization of rice plant. IAA may be the first PGP trait for screening bacteria isolated from plant rotated with rice for rice PGP agents. The screening procedure appears to be very effective and less time consuming. PMID:26150974

  7. Engineered collagen hydrogels for the sustained release of biomolecules and imaging agents: promoting the growth of human gingival cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jonghoon; Park, Hoyoung; Kim, Taeho; Jeong, Yoon; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Gilad, Assaf A; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2014-01-01

    We present here the in vitro release profiles of either fluorescently labeled biomolecules or computed tomography contrast nanoagents from engineered collagen hydrogels under physiological conditions. The collagen constructs were designed as potential biocompatible inserts into wounded human gingiva. The collagen hydrogels were fabricated under a variety of conditions in order to optimize the release profile of biomolecules and nanoparticles for the desired duration and amount. The collagen constructs containing biomolecules/nanoconstructs were incubated under physiological conditions (ie, 37C and 5% CO2) for 24 hours, and the release profile was tuned from 20% to 70% of initially loaded materials by varying the gelation conditions of the collagen constructs. The amounts of released biomolecules and nanoparticles were quantified respectively by measuring the intensity of fluorescence and X-ray scattering. The collagen hydrogel we fabricated may serve as an efficient platform for the controlled release of biomolecules and imaging agents in human gingiva to facilitate the regeneration of oral tissues. PMID:25429215

  8. Growth Hormone Promotes Lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Banziger-Tobler, Nadja Erika; Halin, Cornelia; Kajiya, Kentaro; Detmar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in inflammation and cancer progression, although the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As determined using comparative transcriptional profiling studies of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells versus blood vascular endothelial cells, growth hormone receptor was expressed at much higher levels in lymphatic endothelial cells than in blood vascular endothelial cells. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Growth hormone induced in vitro proliferation, sprouting, tube formation, and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells, and the mitogenic effect was independent of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 or -3 activation. Growth hormone also inhibited serum starvation-induced lymphatic endothelial cell apoptosis. No major alterations of lymphatic vessels were detected in the normal skin of bovine growth hormone-transgenic mice. However, transgenic delivery of growth hormone accelerated lymphatic vessel ingrowth into the granulation tissue of full-thickness skin wounds, and intradermal delivery of growth hormone resulted in enlargement and enhanced proliferation of cutaneous lymphatic vessels in wild-type mice. These results identify growth hormone as a novel lymphangiogenic factor. PMID:18583315

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains SF39a and SF4c, Potential Plant Growth Promotion and Biocontrol Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Lindsey K.; Underwood, Grace E.; McCully, Lucy M.; Bitzer, Adam S.; Godino, Agustina; Bucci, Vanni; Brigham, Christopher J.; Prncipe, Anala; Fischer, Sonia E.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens SF4c and SF39a, strains isolated from wheat rhizosphere, have potential applications in plant growth promotion and biocontrol of fungal diseases of crop plants. We report the draft genome sequences of SF4c and SF39a with estimated sizes of 6.5Mb and 5.9Mb, respectively. PMID:25814613

  10. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    DOEpatents

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  11. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Lugtenberg, Ben; Kamilova, Faina

    2009-01-01

    Several microbes promote plant growth, and many microbial products that stimulate plant growth have been marketed. In this review we restrict ourselves to bacteria that are derived from and exert this effect on the root. Such bacteria are generally designated as PGPR (plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria). The beneficial effects of these rhizobacteria on plant growth can be direct or indirect. This review begins with describing the conditions under which bacteria live in the rhizosphere. To exert their beneficial effects, bacteria usually must colonize the root surface efficiently. Therefore, bacterial traits required for root colonization are subsequently described. Finally, several mechanisms by which microbes can act beneficially on plant growth are described. Examples of direct plant growth promotion that are discussed include (a) biofertilization, (b) stimulation of root growth, (c) rhizoremediation, and (d) plant stress control. Mechanisms of biological control by which rhizobacteria can promote plant growth indirectly, i.e., by reducing the level of disease, include antibiosis, induction of systemic resistance, and competition for nutrients and niches. PMID:19575558

  12. Diversity and characterization of culturable bacterial endophytes from Zea mays and their potential as plant growth-promoting agents in metal-degraded soils.

    PubMed

    Pereira, S I A; Castro, P M L

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the phylogenetic diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of Zea mays plants growing in an agricultural soil contaminated with Zn and Cd. Endophytic bacterial counts were determined in roots and shoots, and isolates were grouped by random amplified polymorphic DNA and identified by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. Endophytes were further characterized for the production of plant growth-promoting (PGP) substances, such as NH3, siderophores, indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), hydrogen cyanide and extracellular enzymes, and for the capacity to solubilize phosphate. The endophytes producing higher amounts of IAA were screened for their tolerance to Zn and Cd and used as bioinoculants for maize seedlings grown in the Zn/Cd-contaminated soil. The counts of endophytes varied between plant tissues, being higher in roots (6.48 log10 g(-1) fresh weight) when compared to shoots (5.77 log10 g(-1) fresh weight). Phylogenetic analysis showed that endophytes belong to three major groups: ?-Proteobacteria (31 %), ?-Proteobacteria (26 %) and Actinobacteria (26 %). Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, Variovorax and Curtobacterium were among the most represented genera. Endophytes were well-adapted to high Zn/Cd concentrations (up to 300 mg Cd l(-1) and 1,000 mg Zn l(-1)) and showed ability to produce several PGP traits. Strains Ochrobactrum haematophilum ZR 3-5, Acidovorax oryzae ZS 1-7, Frigoribacterium faeni ZS 3-5 and Pantoea allii ZS 3-6 increased root elongation and biomass of maize seedlings grown in soil contaminated with Cd and Zn. The endophytes isolated in this study have potential to be used in bioremediation/phytoremediation strategies. PMID:25053283

  13. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Del Carmen Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma; Glick, Bernard R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes. PMID:26805622

  14. Hair growth-promoting effect of Carthamus tinctorius floret extract.

    PubMed

    Junlatat, Jintana; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2014-07-01

    The florets of Carthamus tinctorius L. have traditionally been used for hair growth promotion. This study aimed to examine the potential of hydroxysafflor yellow A-rich C.?tinctorius extract (CTE) on hair growth both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of CTE on cell proliferation and hair growth-associated gene expression in dermal papilla cells and keratinocytes (HaCaT) was determined. In addition, hair follicles from mouse neonates were isolated and cultured in media supplemented with CTE. Moreover, CTE was applied topically on the hair-shaved skin of female C57BL/6 mice, and the histological profile of the skin was investigated. C.?tinctorius floret ethanolic extract promoted the proliferation of both dermal papilla cells and HaCaT and significantly stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor and keratinocyte growth factor. In contrast, CTE suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-?1 that is the hair loss-related gene. Furthermore, CTE treatment resulted in a significant increase in the length of cultured hair follicles and stimulated the growth of hair with local effects in mice. The results provided the preclinical data to support the potential use of CTE as a hair growth-promoting agent. PMID:24338940

  15. Promotion of a new radioprotective antioxidative agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, J.; Ikeda, A.; Kinoshita, T.

    1989-05-01

    Radioprotective effects of pre- and post-irradiation treatments giving zinc manganese, or one of biological response modifiers (BRMs), or subjecting mice to stressful conditions on the whole bodily irradiated mice were investigated with respect to MT induction. The normal level of MT in murine liver is as low a 1-2 nano mole/g tissue, but the level can be elevated to several or even twenty times after the administration of a heavy metal or a certain BRM or both. A stress, e.g. dermal excision also induced hepatic MT synthesis. These pretreatments to induce hepatic MT gave a strong tolerance against lethal damage to mice. The effect of combined use of BRM with manganese or zinc was more prominent. Since manganese has less adverse effects and easily eliminated from organs, the spot administration of even after the irradiation was considerably effective. Mice administered manganese manifested a quicker regaining in the number of leucocytes and erythrocyted than control mice. These investigations suggested us a possibility that man can promote their body defense mechanism through the induction of MT in the organs by a certain stimulative measure e.g. the administration of a certain less harmful metal or chemicals, physical exercises or controlling various factors in our environment. Since the induction of MT by taking advantage of body's own biological protection mechanism is versatile with almost no adverse effects, it may opens new vistas of radiation protection in the future.

  16. Hair Growth: Focus on Herbal Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, Vinod K

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview on plants identified to possess hair growth activity in various ethno-botanical studies and surveys of tradition medicinal plants. It also highlights the developments in hair rejuvenation strategies from 1926 till-date and reviews the potential of herbal drugs as safer and effective alternatives. There are various causes for hair loss and the phenomenon is still not fully understood. The treatments offered include both natural or synthetic products to treat the condition of hair loss (alopecia), nonetheless natural products are continuously gaining popularity mainly due to their fewer side effects and better formulation strategies for natural product extracts. Plants have been widely used for hair growth promotion since ancient times as reported in Ayurveda, Chinese and Unani systems of medicine. This review covers information about different herbs and herbal formulation that are believed to be able to reduce the rate of hair loss and at the same time stimulate new hair growth. A focus is placed on their mechanism of action and the review also covers various isolated phytoconstituents possessing hair growth promoting effect. PMID:26058803

  17. Using Community Health Workers in Community-Based Growth Promotion: What Stakeholders Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afulani, Patience A.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Opoku, Ernest C.; Asunka, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Nutrition and Malaria Control for Child Survival Project is a community-based growth promotion project that utilizes Community Health Workers (CHWs), referred to as Community Child Growth Promoters (CCGPs), as the principal change agents. The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of key stakeholders about the project and the role

  18. Using Community Health Workers in Community-Based Growth Promotion: What Stakeholders Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afulani, Patience A.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Opoku, Ernest C.; Asunka, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Nutrition and Malaria Control for Child Survival Project is a community-based growth promotion project that utilizes Community Health Workers (CHWs), referred to as Community Child Growth Promoters (CCGPs), as the principal change agents. The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of key stakeholders about the project and the role…

  19. 22-Oxocholestanes as plant growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Zeferino-Diaz, Reyna; Hilario-Martinez, J Ciciolil; Rodriguez-Acosta, Maricela; Sandoval-Ramirez, Jesus; Fernandez-Herrera, Maria A

    2015-06-01

    The spirostanic steroidal side-chain of diosgenin and hecogenin was modified to produce 22-oxocholestane derivatives. This type of side-chain was obtained in good yields through a straightforward four-step pathway. These compounds show potent brassinosteroid-like growth promoting activity evaluated via the rice lamina joint inclination bioassay. This is the first report of steroidal skeletons bearing the 22-oxocholestane side-chain and preserving the basic structure (A-D rings) from their corresponding parent compounds acting as plant growth promoters. PMID:25795152

  20. Complementarity among plant growth promoting traits in rhizospheric bacterial communities promotes plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mangal; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Soni, Sumit K.; Singh, Rakshapal; Verma, Rajesh K.; Kalra, Alok

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of roles of rhizospheric microbial diversity in plant growth is helpful in understanding plant-microbe interactions. Using random combinations of rhizospheric bacterial species at different richness levels, we analysed the contribution of species richness, compositions, interactions and identity on soil microbial respiration and plant biomass. We showed that bacterial inoculation in plant rhizosphere enhanced microbial respiration and plant biomass with complementary relationships among bacterial species. Plant growth was found to increase linearly with inoculation of rhizospheric bacterial communities with increasing levels of species or plant growth promoting trait diversity. However, inoculation of diverse bacterial communities having single plant growth promoting trait, i.e., nitrogen fixation could not enhance plant growth over inoculation of single bacteria. Our results indicate that bacterial diversity in rhizosphere affect ecosystem functioning through complementary relationship among plant growth promoting traits and may play significant roles in delivering microbial services to plants. PMID:26503744

  1. Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor Promotes Vascular Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjornsson, Thorir D.; Dryjski, Maciej; Tluczek, John; Mennie, Robert; Ronan, John; Mellin, Theodore N.; Thomas, Kenneth A.

    1991-10-01

    Intravascular injury to arteries can result in thickening of the intimal smooth muscle layer adjacent to the lumen by migration and proliferation of cells from the underlying medial smooth muscle layer accompanied by deposition of extracellular matrix. This pathological response, which decreases lumen diameter, might, in part, be the result of the access of smooth muscle cells to plasma and platelet-derived growth factors as a consequence of denudation of the overlying confluent monolayer of vascular endothelial cells. Injured rat carotid arteries were treated by i.v. administration of acidic fibroblast growth factor, a heparin-binding protein that is chemotactic and mitogenic for vascular endothelial cells. The growth factor treatment resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of intimal thickening with parallel promotion of endothelial regeneration over the injured area. Therefore, acidic fibroblast growth factor might be efficacious in the prevention of restenosis caused by intimal thickening following angioplasty in humans.

  2. Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sumera Afzal; Hamayun, Muhammad; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kim, Ho-Youn; Suh, Seok-Jong; Hwang, Seon-Kap; Kim, Jong-Myeong; Lee, In-Jung; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kong, Won-Sik; Lee, Byung-Moo; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2008-01-01

    Background Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake and producing growth-promoting metabolites such as gibberellins and auxins. We screened roots of Ixeris repenes (L.) A. Gray, a common dune plant, for the isolation of gibberellin secreting endophytic fungi. Results We isolated 15 endophytic fungi from the roots of Ixeris repenes and screened them for growth promoting secondary metabolites. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 gave maximum plant growth when applied to waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii seedlings. Analysis of the culture filtrate of IR-3-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 (1.95 ng/ml, 3.83 ng/ml, 6.03 ng/ml and 2.35 ng/ml, respectively) along with other physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA12, GA15, GA19, GA20 and, GA24. The plant growth promotion and gibberellin producing capacity of IR-3-3 was much higher than the wild type Gibberella fujikuroi, which was taken as control during present study. GA5, a precursor of bioactive GA3 was reported for the first time in fungi. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 was identified as a new strain of Penicillium citrinum (named as P. citrinum KACC43900) through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Conclusion Isolation of new strain of Penicillium citrinum from the sand dune flora is interesting as information on the presence of Pencillium species in coastal sand dunes is limited. The plant growth promoting ability of this fungal strain may help in conservation and revegetation of the rapidly eroding sand dune flora. Penicillium citrinum is already known for producing mycotoxin citrinin and cellulose digesting enzymes like cellulase and endoglucanase, as well as xylulase. Gibberellins producing ability of this fungus and the discovery about the presence of GA5 will open new aspects of research and investigations. PMID:19099608

  3. Agent-Based Modeling of Growth Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Growth processes abound in nature, and are frequently the target of modeling exercises in the sciences. In this article we illustrate an agent-based approach to modeling, in the case of a single example from the social sciences: bullying.

  4. Agent-Based Modeling ofGrowth Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Growth processes abound in nature, and are frequently the target of modeling exercises in the sciences. In this article we illustrate an agent-based approach to modeling, in the case of a single example from the social sciences: bullying.

  5. New agents promote neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease models.

    PubMed

    Santos, Claudia Maria Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Although researchers are pursuing "disease modifying" medications to slow or stop Parkinson's disease (PD) progression, a myriad of agents with protective properties in cell cultures and animal models have yielded few treatments in clinical practice. Developing safe and effective treatments with disease-modifying/neuroprotective mechanisms of action and identifying patients in the pre-motor phase will be a challenge. The implication of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, in the pathogenesis of PD at different levels makes it a promising candidate for developing efficient treatment based on correcting or bypassing the enzyme deficiency. TH is also the key enzyme for immunorreactivity in PD models and is used to assess the efficacy of novel disease-modifying medications. PD animal models are genetic: alpha-synuclein models, parkin (PINK 1 and DJ1) and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 or pharmacological and neurotoxic: reserpine, 6-hydroxydopamine, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine, rotenone, paraquat/maneb, and trichloroethylene. This review is focused on the state of art of PD models, the relationship with TH, and potential neuroprotective agents to treat PD. The latter include gene therapy, transplantation, erythropoietin, natural phenolic compounds, doxycycline, ethyl pyruvate, 9-methyl-beta-carboline, vascular endothelial growth factor, simvastatin, zonisamide, modafinil, melatonin, cannabinoids, rottlerin, fluoxetine, paroxetine, coenzyme Q10, N-acetylcysteine and vaccines like Bacille Calmette-Guerin, with different proposed mechanisms of action. Also of note is the link between hypovitaminosis D and neurodegeneration opening new perspectives in research with TH genes and PD models treated with vitamin D. Translational scientists can contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of PD and lead to more effective treatments. PMID:22483311

  6. Induction of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by inflammatory agents and tumor promoters

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.; Dessypris, E.N.; Koury, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    The production of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity (MEG-CSA) was assayed in acetic acid extracts of skin from mice topically treated with inflammatory and tumor-promoting agents. A rapid induction of MEG-CSA was found in skin treated both with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a strong tumor promoter, and with mezerein, a weak tumor promoter, but no induction was found in untreated skin. The time course of induction of MEG-CSA following treatment of skin with PMA or mezerein was very similar to that previously demonstrated for the induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by these agents. The induced MEG-CSA was found in both the epidermis and the dermis. Pretreatment of the skin with US -methasone abrogated the MEG-CSA induction. The cell number response curve suggests that the MEG-CSA acts directly on the progenitor cells of the megakaryocyte colonies. That topical administration of diterpene esters results in the rapid, local induction of MEG-CSA which can be blocked by US -methasone pretreatment suggests a mechanism for the thrombocytosis associated with some inflammatory states. The indirect action in which diterpene esters induce in certain cells the production or release of growth regulatory factors for other cell types may also aid in understanding their carcinogenic properties.

  7. A natural plant growth promoter calliterpenone from a plant Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl improves the plant growth promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs).

    PubMed

    Maji, Deepamala; Barnawal, Deepti; Gupta, Aakansha; King, Shikha; Singh, A K; Kalra, A

    2013-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calliterpenone, a natural plant growth promoter from a shrub Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl., in enhancing the growth and yield promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), in menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L).This study is based on our previous results indicating the microbial growth promotion by calliterpenone and assumption that application of calliterpenone along with PGPRs will improve the population of PGPRs resulting in higher impacts on plant growth and yield. Of the 15 PGPRs (identified as potent ones in our laboratory), 25 ?l of 0.01 mM calliterpenone (8.0 ?g/100 ml) was found to be useful in improving the population of nine PGPRs in culture media. The five selected strains of PGPRs exhibiting synergy with calliterpenone in enhancing growth of maize compared to PGPR or calliterpenone alone were selected and tested on two cultivars (cvs. Kosi and Kushal) of M. arvensis. Of the five strains, Bacillus subtilis P-20 (16S rDNA sequence homologous to Accession No NR027552) and B. subtilis Daz-26 (16SrDNA sequence homologuos to Accession No GU998816) were found to be highly effective in improving the herb and essential oil yield in the cultivars Kushal and Kosi respectively when co-treated with calliterpenone. The results open up the possibilities of using a natural growth promoter along with PGPRs as a bio-agri input for sustainable and organic agriculture. PMID:23271460

  8. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfei; Han, Mingnuan; Lin, Pei; He, Yanran; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Ronghua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR) has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP). Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), ?-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 0.00%) than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%). However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression. PMID:26294926

  9. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunfei; Han, Mingnuan; Lin, Pei; He, Yanran; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Ronghua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR) has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP). Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), β-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00%) than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%). However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression. PMID:26294926

  10. Preferential Promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Growth by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Tomato.

    PubMed

    Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Dutta, Swarnalee; Samudrala, Ram Babu; Rao, Vukanti R V N; Kalam, Sadaf; Podile, Appa Rao

    2014-12-01

    A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant. PMID:25320438

  11. Plant perceptions of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas.

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Gail M

    2004-01-01

    Plant-associated Pseudomonas live as saprophytes and parasites on plant surfaces and inside plant tissues. Many plant-associated Pseudomonas promote plant growth by suppressing pathogenic micro-organisms, synthesizing growth-stimulating plant hormones and promoting increased plant disease resistance. Others inhibit plant growth and cause disease symptoms ranging from rot and necrosis through to developmental dystrophies such as galls. It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between pathogenic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas. They colonize the same ecological niches and possess similar mechanisms for plant colonization. Pathogenic, saprophytic and plant growth-promoting strains are often found within the same species, and the incidence and severity of Pseudomonas diseases are affected by environmental factors and host-specific interactions. Plants are faced with the challenge of how to recognize and exclude pathogens that pose a genuine threat, while tolerating more benign organisms. This review examines Pseudomonas from a plant perspective, focusing in particular on the question of how plants perceive and are affected by saprophytic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas (PGPP), in contrast to their interactions with plant pathogenic Pseudomonas. A better understanding of the molecular basis of plant-PGPP interactions and of the key differences between pathogens and PGPP will enable researchers to make more informed decisions in designing integrated disease-control strategies and in selecting, modifying and using PGPP for plant growth promotion, bioremediation and biocontrol. PMID:15306406

  12. Occupational exposure to zeranol, an animal growth promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Aw, T C; Smith, A B; Stephenson, R L; Glueck, C J

    1989-01-01

    Zeranol (3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12-Decahydro-7,14,16-trihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2 - benzoxacyclotetradecin-1-one) is a synthetic oestrogenic agent used as an animal growth promoter. The effects of occupational exposure to zeranol in 11 exposed workers from a pelletising plant and 14 nonexposed subjects were assessed. A questionnaire showed that more breast symptoms were reported by male and female plant workers compared with non-exposed subjects, although the difference was not statistically significant. Clinical assessment showed no cases of gynaecomastia in all the male participants. Blood samples analysed by high performance liquid chromatography for zeranol, its precursor zearalenone, and its main metabolites did not show any of these compounds above the laboratory limit of detection. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin, and oestradiol showed no striking differences between the exposed and the non-exposed subjects. Total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) levels did not significantly differ between the two groups but mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) levels were higher in the exposed group; this could be due to relatively high HDL cholesterol in two women exposed to zeranol or relatively low HDL cholesterol in three non-exposed men. PMID:2751933

  13. Talk That Teaches: How to Promote Professional Dialogue and Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Lynsey; Knapp, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    What types of talk promote teachers' professional growth? In the following vignettes, 4th-grade teachers and instructional leaders examine student work and observe classroom instruction. These learning designs encourage teachers to talk in ways that develop a shared understanding of teaching, which is instrumental to their professional growth

  14. Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Materials for Promoting Progenitor Cell Growth Without Serum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gaomai; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Shu

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of new active biomaterials for promoting progenitor cell growth and differentiation in serum-free medium is still proving more challenging for the clinical treatments of degenerative diseases. In this work, a conjugated polyelectrolyte, polythiophene derivative (PMNT), was discovered to significantly drive the cell cycle progression from G1 to S and G2 phases and thus efficiently promote the cell growth without the need of serum. Furthermore, the fluorescent characteristic of PMNT makes it simultaneously able to trace its cellular uptake and localization by cell imaging. cDNA microarray study shows that PMNT can greatly regulate genes related to cell growth or differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of cell growth or differentiation promotion by polyelectrolyte material without the need of serum, thereby providing an important demonstration of degenerative biomaterial discovery through polymer design. PMID:23609105

  15. Method of Promoting Single Crystal Growth During Melt Growth of Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The method of the invention promotes single crystal growth during fabrication of melt growth semiconductors. A growth ampoule and its tip have a semiconductor source material placed therein. The growth ampoule is placed in a first thermal environment that raises the temperature of the semiconductor source material to its liquidus temperature. The growth ampoule is then transitioned to a second thermal environment that causes the semiconductor source material in the growth ampoule's tip to attain a temperature that is below the semiconductor source material's solidus temperature. The growth ampoule so-transitioned is then mechanically perturbed to induce single crystal growth at the growth ampoule's tip.

  16. RGS5 promotes arterial growth during arteriogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Caroline; Feldner, Anja; Pfisterer, Larissa; Hdebeck, Maren; Troidl, Kerstin; Genov, Guillem; Wieland, Thomas; Hecker, Markus; Korff, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Arteriogenesisthe growth of collateral arteriolespartially compensates for the progressive occlusion of large conductance arteries as it may occur as a consequence of coronary, cerebral or peripheral artery disease. Despite being clinically highly relevant, mechanisms driving this process remain elusive. In this context, our study revealed that abundance of regulator of G-protein signalling 5 (RGS5) is increased in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of remodelling collateral arterioles. RGS5 terminates G-protein-coupled signalling cascades which control contractile responses of SMCs. Consequently, overexpression of RGS5 blunted G?q/11-mediated mobilization of intracellular calcium, thereby facilitating G?12/13-mediated RhoA signalling which is crucial for arteriogenesis. Knockdown of RGS5 evoked opposite effects and thus strongly impaired collateral growth as evidenced by a blockade of RhoA activation, SMC proliferation and the inability of these cells to acquire an activated phenotype in RGS5-deficient mice after the onset of arteriogenesis. Collectively, these findings establish RGS5 as a novel determinant of arteriogenesis which shifts G-protein signalling from G?q/11-mediated calcium-dependent contraction towards G?12/13-mediated Rho kinase-dependent SMC activation. Subject Categories Vascular Biology & Angiogenesis PMID:24972930

  17. ERK signaling mediates CaSR-promoted axon growth

    PubMed Central

    Vizard, Thomas N.; Newton, Michael; Howard, Laura; Wyatt, Sean; Davies, Alun M.

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G-protein coupled receptor that monitors the systemic extracellular free ionized calcium level ([Ca2+]o) in organs involved in systemic [Ca2+]o homeostasis. CaSR is widely expressed in the nervous system and its activation promotes axon and dendrite growth during development, but the mechanism by which it does this is not known. Here we show that enhanced axon growth and branching from cultured embryonic sympathetic neurons by activation of the endogenous CaSR depends on the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF). Our observation that activation of overexpressed CaSR promotes axon growth in NGF-free medium has enabled us to investigate CaSR downstream signaling contributing to axon growth in the absence of NGF signaling. We show that activation of overexpressed CaSR leads to activation of ERK1 and ERK2, and pharmacological inhibition of CaSR-dependent ERK1/ERK2 activation prevents CaSR-dependent axon growth. Analysis of axon growth from cultured neurons expressing deletion mutants of the CaSR cytoplasmic tail revealed that the region between alanine 877 and glycine 907 is required for promoting axon growth that is distinct from the high-affinity filamin-A binding site that has previously been implicated in ERK1/ERK2 activation. PMID:26200251

  18. The Interrelationship between Promoter Strength, Gene Expression, and Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Klesmith, Justin R.; Detwiler, Emily E.; Tomek, Kyle J.; Whitehead, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    In exponentially growing bacteria, expression of heterologous protein impedes cellular growth rates. Quantitative understanding of the relationship between expression and growth rate will advance our ability to forward engineer bacteria, important for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology applications. Recently, a work described a scaling model based on optimal allocation of ribosomes for protein translation. This model quantitatively predicts a linear relationship between microbial growth rate and heterologous protein expression with no free parameters. With the aim of validating this model, we have rigorously quantified the fitness cost of gene expression by using a library of synthetic constitutive promoters to drive expression of two separate proteins (eGFP and amiE) in E. coli in different strains and growth media. In all cases, we demonstrate that the fitness cost is consistent with the previous findings. We expand upon the previous theory by introducing a simple promoter activity model to quantitatively predict how basal promoter strength relates to growth rate and protein expression. We then estimate the amount of protein expression needed to support high flux through a heterologous metabolic pathway and predict the sizable fitness cost associated with enzyme production. This work has broad implications across applied biological sciences because it allows for prediction of the interplay between promoter strength, protein expression, and the resulting cost to microbial growth rates. PMID:25286161

  19. Promoter analysis of a growth hormone transgene in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Butler, T M; Fletcher, G L

    2009-07-01

    The ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus) op5a antifreeze protein gene promoter has been used to generate a line of growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon with greatly enhanced growth rates. A study of the genomically integrated GH transgene (EO-1 alpha) in this line of salmon revealed that the first 1579 bp of the 2115-bp promoter was deleted and relocated downstream of the GH coding region, raising questions regarding the ability of the truncated promoter to drive expression of the GH transgene and the potential influence of the relocated 5' promoter region. In this study, 11 promoter constructs were fused to a luciferase reporter gene, and their transcriptional ability was examined after transfection into salmon and human cell lines cultured at 21 and 37 degrees C, respectively. Construct expression was similar in all cell lines, apart from those of less than 266 bp, where expression in the salmon cells greatly exceeded that of the human cells. The results demonstrated the presence of positive and negative regulatory regions within the promoter that would allow the regulation of gene expression at multiple sites. Removal of the first 1579 bp from the promoter resulted in a 70% loss of the luciferase expression exhibited by the full-length promoter, whereas ligating the deleted 5' promoter sequence downstream of the luciferase reporter gene only restored approximately 10% of this loss. These results suggested that in vivo expression of the EO-1 alpha transgene is driven by elements within the weak truncated promoter in conjunction with the relocated 5' promoter region. PMID:19324402

  20. [Characterization of growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Eucalyptus nitens seedlings].

    PubMed

    Angulo, Violeta C; Sanfuentes, Eugenio A; Rodrguez, Francisco; Sossa, Katherine E

    2014-01-01

    Rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rizosphere and root tissue of Eucalyptus nitens. The objective of this work was to evaluate their capacity to promote growth in seedlings of the same species under greenhouse conditions. The isolates that improved seedling growth were identified and characterized by their capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphates and increase 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. One hundred and five morphologically different strains were isolated, 15 of which promoted E. nitens seedling growth, significantly increasing the height (50%), root length (45%) as well as the aerial and root dry weight (142% and 135% respectively) of the plants. Bacteria belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, Lysinibacillus, Rahnella and Bacillus. Isolates A. phenanthrenivorans 21 and B. cereus 113 improved 3.15 times the emergence of E. nitens after 12 days, compared to control samples. Among isolated R. aquatilis, 78 showed the highest production of IAA (97.52.87 ?g/ml) in the presence of tryptophan and the highest solubilizer index (2.4) for phosphorus, while B. amyloliquefaciens 60 isolate was positive for ACC deaminase activity. Our results reveal the potential of the studied rhizobacteria as promoters of emergence and seedling growth of E. nitens, and their possible use as PGPR inoculants, since they have more than one mechanism associated with plant growth promotion. PMID:25576419

  1. Role of Arachidonic Acid in Promoting Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Munkhbayar, Semchin; Jang, Sunhyae; Cho, A-Ri; Choi, Soon-Jin; Shin, Chang Yup; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, Kyu Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid (AA) is an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in all mammalian cell membranes, and involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including cell survival, angiogenesis, and mitogenesis. The dermal papilla, composed of specialized fibroblasts located in the bulb of the hair follicle, contributes to the control of hair growth and the hair cycle. Objective This study investigated the effect of AA on hair growth by using in vivo and in vitro models. Methods The effect of AA on human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) and hair shaft elongation was evaluated by MTT assay and hair follicle organ culture, respectively. The expression of various growth and survival factors in hDPCs were investigated by western blot or immunohistochemistry. The ability of AA to induce and prolong anagen phase in C57BL/6 mice was analyzed. Results AA was found to enhance the viability of hDPCs and promote the expression of several factors responsible for hair growth, including fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) and FGF-10. Western blotting identified the role of AA in the phosphorylation of various transcription factors (ERK, CREB, and AKT) and increased expression of Bcl-2 in hDPCs. In addition, AA significantly promoted hair shaft elongation, with increased proliferation of matrix keratinocytes, during ex vivo hair follicle culture. It was also found to promote hair growth by induction and prolongation of anagen phase in telogen-stage C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion This study concludes that AA plays a role in promoting hair growth by increasing the expression of growth factors in hDPCs and enhancing follicle proliferation and survival. PMID:26848219

  2. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as "Hair Waste".

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Crespo, Juan M; Garca, Sabrina S; Zapiola, Jos M; Luna, Mara F; Cavalitto, Sebastin F

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876. PMID:26697226

  3. Biochar Treatment Resulted in a Combined Effect on Soybean Growth Promotion and a Shift in Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Wirth, Stephan; Behrendt, Undine; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    The application of biochar to soil is considered to have the potential for long-term soil carbon sequestration, as well as for improving plant growth and suppressing soil pathogens. In our study we evaluated the effect of biochar on the plant growth of soybeans, as well as on the community composition of root-associated bacteria with plant growth promoting traits. Two types of biochar, namely, maize biochar (MBC), wood biochar (WBC), and hydrochar (HTC) were used for pot experiments to monitor plant growth. Soybean plants grown in soil amended with HTC char (2%) showed the best performance and were collected for isolation and further characterization of root-associated bacteria for multiple plant growth promoting traits. Only HTC char amendment resulted in a statistically significant increase in the root and shoot dry weight of soybeans. Interestingly, rhizosphere isolates from HTC char amended soil showed higher diversity than the rhizosphere isolates from the control soil. In addition, a higher proportion of isolates from HTC char amended soil compared with control soil was found to express plant growth promoting properties and showed antagonistic activity against one or more phytopathogenic fungi. Our study provided evidence that improved plant growth by biochar incorporation into soil results from the combination of a direct effect that is dependent on the type of char and a microbiome shift in root-associated beneficial bacteria. PMID:26941730

  4. Peppermint Oil Promotes Hair Growth without Toxic Signs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Ah; Kim, Young Chul

    2014-01-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is a plant native to Europe and has been widely used as a carminative and gastric stimulant worldwide. This plant also has been used in cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component and skin conditioning agent. This study investigated the effect of peppermint oil on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were randomized into 4 groups based on different topical applications: saline (SA), jojoba oil (JO), 3% minoxidil (MXD), and 3% peppermint oil (PEO). The hair growth effects of the 4-week topical applications were evaluated in terms of hair growth, histological analysis, enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gene expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), known bio-markers for the enhanced hair growth. Of the 4 experimental groups, PEO group showed the most prominent hair growth effects; a significant increase in dermal thickness, follicle number, and follicle depth. ALP activity and IGF-1 expression also significantly increased in PEO group. Body weight gain and food efficiency were not significantly different between groups. These results suggest that PEO induces a rapid anagen stage and could be used for a practical agent for hair growth without change of body weight gain and food efficiency. PMID:25584150

  5. Peppermint Oil Promotes Hair Growth without Toxic Signs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Young; Park, Min Ah; Kim, Young Chul

    2014-12-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is a plant native to Europe and has been widely used as a carminative and gastric stimulant worldwide. This plant also has been used in cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component and skin conditioning agent. This study investigated the effect of peppermint oil on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were randomized into 4 groups based on different topical applications: saline (SA), jojoba oil (JO), 3% minoxidil (MXD), and 3% peppermint oil (PEO). The hair growth effects of the 4-week topical applications were evaluated in terms of hair growth, histological analysis, enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gene expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), known bio-markers for the enhanced hair growth. Of the 4 experimental groups, PEO group showed the most prominent hair growth effects; a significant increase in dermal thickness, follicle number, and follicle depth. ALP activity and IGF-1 expression also significantly increased in PEO group. Body weight gain and food efficiency were not significantly different between groups. These results suggest that PEO induces a rapid anagen stage and could be used for a practical agent for hair growth without change of body weight gain and food efficiency. PMID:25584150

  6. Growth Promoting Effect of Hyaluronan Synthesis Promoting Substances on Japanese Eel Leptocephali

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Yutaka; Nomura, Kazuharu; Tanaka, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronans (HAs) are glycosaminoglycans produced in the bodies of Anguilliform and Elopiform leptocephali, and play a role in metabolic energy. In mammals, HA synthesis-promoting substances (HASPS) up-regulate the expression of HA synthase (HAS) and increase the amount of HA in the body. In this study, Japanese eel leptocephali were fed a HASPS containing diet. We analyzed HAS1s and HAS2 expression, HA content, and their influence on growth. HASPS extracted from Grifola frondosa promoted HAS1s and HAS2 mRNA and HA content. Other than mammals, these results are first reported in vertebrate. Moreover, HASPS extracted from G. frondosa promoted leptocephalus growth. The relationship between growth and HA in the leptocephali is not yet clear. However, based on our results we hypothesize that HA is involved in the storage of energy, which is metabolized to sugars when needed for metabolic energy. PMID:24896609

  7. Growth-Promoting Relationships with Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Rene; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    At the heart of afterschool programs are the relationships that form between the children and youth who participate in these programs and the adults who lead them. To be effective, adults working in afterschool settings must be able to engage youth in growth-promoting relationships. This article identifies and describes four foundational ways of

  8. Promoting Moral Growth through Pluralism and Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Dafina Lazarus

    2012-01-01

    Issues of morality, including deciding among competing values and negotiating obligations to self and community, are pervasive and saturate many aspects of life. This article explores the role of educating for pluralism and social justice in promoting moral growth among college students. James Rest's four-component model of moral maturity frames…

  9. Promoting Moral Growth through Pluralism and Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Dafina Lazarus

    2012-01-01

    Issues of morality, including deciding among competing values and negotiating obligations to self and community, are pervasive and saturate many aspects of life. This article explores the role of educating for pluralism and social justice in promoting moral growth among college students. James Rest's four-component model of moral maturity frames

  10. Red clover: An alternative to antibiotic growth promoters?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted at the Forage-Animal Production Research Unit to discover a growth-promoting natural product from red clover (Trifolium pratense). Previously published work included a bioassay for antimicrobial activity of phytochemicals. The bioassay was used to discover th...

  11. Talk That Teaches: How to Promote Professional Dialogue and Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Lynsey; Knapp, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    What types of talk promote teachers' professional growth? In the following vignettes, 4th-grade teachers and instructional leaders examine student work and observe classroom instruction. These learning designs encourage teachers to talk in ways that develop a shared understanding of teaching, which is instrumental to their professional growth…

  12. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Mechanisms and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Bernard R.

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide increases in both environmental damage and human population pressure have the unfortunate consequence that global food production may soon become insufficient to feed all of the world's people. It is therefore essential that agricultural productivity be significantly increased within the next few decades. To this end, agricultural practice is moving toward a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach. This includes both the increasing use of transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as a part of mainstream agricultural practice. Here, a number of the mechanisms utilized by plant growth-promoting bacteria are discussed and considered. It is envisioned that in the not too distant future, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) will begin to replace the use of chemicals in agriculture, horticulture, silviculture, and environmental cleanup strategies. While there may not be one simple strategy that can effectively promote the growth of all plants under all conditions, some of the strategies that are discussed already show great promise. PMID:24278762

  13. Hair growth-promoting activity of hot water extract of Thuja orientalis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thuja orientalis has been traditionally used to treat patients who suffer from baldness and hair loss in East Asia. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth-promoting activity of T. orientalis hot water extract and the underlying mechanism of action. Methods After T. orientalis extract was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6?N mice, the histomorphometric analysis was employed to study induction of the hair follicle cycle. To determine the effect of T. orientalis extract on the telogen to anagen transition, the protein expression levels of ?-catenin and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in hair follicles were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results We observed that T. orientalis extract promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6?N mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric analysis data indicates that topical application of T. orientalis extract induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, in contrast to either the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. We also observed increases in both the number and size of hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis reveals earlier induction of ?-catenin and Shh proteins in hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group, compared to the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. Conclusion These results suggest that T. orientalis extract promotes hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles and might therefore be a potential hair growth-promoting agent. PMID:23305186

  14. Shoot-derived abscisic acid promotes root growth.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Ross, John J

    2016-03-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a major role in regulating root growth. Most work to date has investigated the influence of root-sourced ABA on root growth during water stress. Here, we tested whether foliage-derived ABA could be transported to the roots, and whether this foliage-derived ABA had an influence on root growth under well-watered conditions. Using both application studies of deuterium-labelled ABA and reciprocal grafting between wild-type and ABA-biosynthetic mutant plants, we show that both ABA levels in the roots and root growth in representative angiosperms are controlled by ABA synthesized in the leaves rather than sourced from the roots. Foliage-derived ABA was found to promote root growth relative to shoot growth but to inhibit the development of lateral roots. Increased root auxin (IAA) levels in plants with ABA-deficient scions suggest that foliage-derived ABA inhibits root growth through the root growth-inhibitor IAA. These results highlight the physiological and morphological importance, beyond the control of stomata, of foliage-derived ABA. The use of foliar ABA as a signal for root growth has important implications for regulating root to shoot growth under normal conditions and suggests that leaf rather than root hydration is the main signal for regulating plant responses to moisture. PMID:26514625

  15. Catecholamines Promote Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Growth by Regulating Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Chen, Zhaohui; Bei, Weicheng; Su, Zhipeng; Huang, Qi; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Huanchun; Zhou, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Catecholamines are host stress hormones that can induce the growth of many bacteria by facilitating iron utilization and/or regulate the expression of virulence genes through specific hormone receptors. Whether these two responsive pathways are interconnected is unknown. In our previous study, it was found that catecholamines can regulate the expression of a great number of genes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important swine respiratory pathogen. However, bacterial growth was not affected by catecholamines in rich medium. In this study, it was discovered that catecholamines affected A. pleuropneumoniae growth in chemically defined medium (CDM). We found that serum inhibited A. pleuropneumoniae growth in CDM, while epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine promoted A. pleuropneumoniae growth in the CDM containing serum. The known bacterial hormone receptor QseC didn’t play roles in this process. Ion-supplementation and transcriptome analysis indicated that serum addition resulted in iron-restricted conditions which were alleviated by the addition of catecholamines. Transferrin, one of the components in serum, inhibited the growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in CDM, an effect reversed by addition of catecholamines in a TonB2-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate that catecholamines promote A. pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron-acquisition and metabolism, which is independent of the adrenergic receptor QseC. PMID:25849041

  16. Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rocheli de; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-12-01

    Plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health, productivity and soil fertility. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are bacteria that can enhance plant growth and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms; those that establish close associations with plants, such as the endophytes, could be more successful in plant growth promotion. Several important bacterial characteristics, such as biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, and production of siderophores and phytohormones, can be assessed as plant growth promotion (PGP) traits. Bacterial inoculants can contribute to increase agronomic efficiency by reducing production costs and environmental pollution, once the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or eliminated if the inoculants are efficient. For bacterial inoculants to obtain success in improving plant growth and productivity, several processes involved can influence the efficiency of inoculation, as for example the exudation by plant roots, the bacterial colonization in the roots, and soil health. This review presents an overview of the importance of soil-plant-microbe interactions to the development of efficient inoculants, once PGPB are extensively studied microorganisms, representing a very diverse group of easily accessible beneficial bacteria. PMID:26537605

  17. Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Rocheli; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health, productivity and soil fertility. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are bacteria that can enhance plant growth and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms; those that establish close associations with plants, such as the endophytes, could be more successful in plant growth promotion. Several important bacterial characteristics, such as biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, and production of siderophores and phytohormones, can be assessed as plant growth promotion (PGP) traits. Bacterial inoculants can contribute to increase agronomic efficiency by reducing production costs and environmental pollution, once the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or eliminated if the inoculants are efficient. For bacterial inoculants to obtain success in improving plant growth and productivity, several processes involved can influence the efficiency of inoculation, as for example the exudation by plant roots, the bacterial colonization in the roots, and soil health. This review presents an overview of the importance of soil-plant-microbe interactions to the development of efficient inoculants, once PGPB are extensively studied microorganisms, representing a very diverse group of easily accessible beneficial bacteria. PMID:26537605

  18. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Mycorrhizal Fungi in Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) encourage plant growth by producing growth regulators, facilitating nutrient uptake, accelerating mineralization, reducing plant stress, stimulating nodulation, providing nitrogen fixation, promoting mycorrhizal fungi, suppressing plant diseases, and funct...

  19. A p53 growth arrest protects fibroblasts from anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    McCormack, E S; Bruskin, A M; Borzillo, G V

    1997-01-01

    Reversible inhibitors of the cell cycle such as the TGF-betas have been exploited to protect dividing cells from exposure to anticancer drugs and radiation. Here, rat embryo fibroblast (REF) lines expressing different p53 mutations were used to test whether the p53 growth arrest could also chemoprotect cells from high doses of anticancer drugs. Whereas the doubling times of the different REF lines at 37 degrees C were similar, cells bearing temperature-sensitive mutations (mouse 135V or human 143A) were growth arrested at 31 degrees C. Temperature-dependent p53 activity was associated with increased levels of MDM2 and p21/WAF1, and the induction of an integrated p53-responsive luciferase gene. The REF lines exhibited similar sensitivities to common anticancer drugs when grown at 37 degrees C. However, when exposed to the same agents following transient incubation at 31 degrees C, the p53-arrested cells exhibited a marked survival advantage as shown by colony-forming assays. Chemoprotection was not universal, in that colony formation was not enhanced significantly after treatment with cisplatin or 5-fluorouracil, two drugs which can cause cellular damage throughout the cell cycle. Like other negative growth regulators, an activated p53 checkpoint may mediate the survival of cells exposed to drugs that target DNA synthesis or mitosis. PMID:9351895

  20. Iron transport-mediated antagonism between plant growth-promoting and plant-deleterious Pseudomonas strains.

    PubMed

    Buyer, J S; Leong, J

    1986-01-15

    Both plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas B10 and its yellow-green, fluorescent iron transport agent (siderophore) pseudobactin enhance potato growth and biologically control certain soil-borne fungal diseases in part by depriving specific root-colonizing endemic microorganisms including phytopathogens of iron(III), thus inhibiting their growth. The present study examines this mode of iron deprivation. The growth inhibition of certain bean-deleterious fluorescent pseudomonads by specific bean-beneficial fluorescent pseudomonads is due in part to the inability of susceptible strains to utilize siderophores from beneficial strains to transport iron(III). Conversely, deleterious strains which were able to utilize siderophores from beneficial strains were not inhibited. The ability of a given pseudomonad to utilize another pseudomonad's siderophore may depend upon its possessing a specific outer membrane receptor protein for that pseudomonad's ferric siderophore. Siderophore-mediated competition for iron in microbial systems appears to be a widespread phenomenon. PMID:2934391

  1. Human Milk Oligosaccharides Promote the Growth of Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, K. M.; Preuss, J.; Nissan, C.; Davlin, C. A.; Williams, J. E.; Shafii, B.; Richardson, A. D.; McGuire, M. K.; Bode, L.

    2012-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), which constitute a major component of human milk, promote the growth of particular bacterial species in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that HMO also interact with the bacterial communities present in human milk. To test this hypothesis, two experiments were conducted. First, milk samples were collected from healthy women (n = 16); culture-independent analysis of the bacterial communities was performed, HMO content was analyzed, and the relation between these factors was investigated. A positive correlation was observed between the relative abundance of Staphylococcus and total HMO content (r = 0.66). In a follow-up study, we conducted a series of in vitro growth curve experiments utilizing Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and HMO isolated from human milk. HMO exhibited stimulatory effects on bacterial growth under various nutritional conditions. Analysis of culture supernatants from these experiments revealed that HMO did not measurably disappear from the culture medium, indicating that the growth-enhancing effects were not a result of bacterial metabolism of the HMO. Instead, stimulation of growth caused greater utilization of amino acids in minimal medium. Collectively, the data provide evidence that HMO may promote the growth of Staphylococcus species in the lactating mammary gland. PMID:22562995

  2. Plant growth promotion induced by phosphate solubilizing endophytic Pseudomonas isolates.

    PubMed

    Oteino, Nicholas; Lally, Richard D; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Lloyd, Andrew; Ryan, David; Germaine, Kieran J; Dowling, David N

    2015-01-01

    The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilizers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilization is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which solubilize the phosphate complexes converting them into ortho-phosphate which is available for plant up-take and utilization. The study presented here describes the ability of endophytic bacteria to produce gluconic acid (GA), solubilize insoluble phosphate, and stimulate the growth of Pisum sativum L. plants. This study also describes the genetic systems within three of these endophyte strains thought to be responsible for their effective phosphate solubilizing abilities. The results showed that many of the endophytic strains produced GA (14-169 mM) and have moderate to high phosphate solubilization capacities (~400-1300 mg L(-1)). When inoculated into P. sativum L. plants grown in soil under soluble phosphate limiting conditions, the endophytes that produced medium-high levels of GA displayed beneficial plant growth promotion effects. PMID:26257721

  3. Growth promoting effects of some lichen metabolites on probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Subhash; Verma, Neeraj; Sharma, B O; Behera, B C

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the extract of four natural lichen species Canoparmelia eruptens, Everniastrum cirrhatum, Parmotrema austrosinense and Rimelia cetrata were studied for the source of natural antioxidant and their purified secondary metabolites were evaluated for growth promoting effects on probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei. The methanolic fraction of lichen species showed moderate to high antioxidant activity in the order P. austrosinense > E. cirrhatum > C. eruptens > R. cetrata. The lichen metabolites showed antioxidant activity with an IC50 values (?g/ml); lecanoric acid 79-95, salazinic 88-108, atranorin 100-116 and consalazinic acid 119-125. As far as the growth promoting effects of lichen metabolites on L. casei is concerned, lecanoric acid at 100?g/ml conc. showed high growth stimulating activity in terms of increased dry matter of biomass (56.08mg) of L. casei. Other lichen metabolites; salazinic acid, atranorin and consalazinic acid produced relatively less dry biomass 43.98mg, 41.1mg, 40.68mg, respectively. However, standard antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and Trolox after 36h produced 39.04-47.81mg dry biomass. At lower pH the growth promoting activity of lichen metabolites was found stable. PMID:25328204

  4. Plant growth promotion induced by phosphate solubilizing endophytic Pseudomonas isolates

    PubMed Central

    Oteino, Nicholas; Lally, Richard D.; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Lloyd, Andrew; Ryan, David; Germaine, Kieran J.; Dowling, David N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilizers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilization is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which solubilize the phosphate complexes converting them into ortho-phosphate which is available for plant up-take and utilization. The study presented here describes the ability of endophytic bacteria to produce gluconic acid (GA), solubilize insoluble phosphate, and stimulate the growth of Pisum sativum L. plants. This study also describes the genetic systems within three of these endophyte strains thought to be responsible for their effective phosphate solubilizing abilities. The results showed that many of the endophytic strains produced GA (14–169 mM) and have moderate to high phosphate solubilization capacities (~400–1300 mg L−1). When inoculated into P. sativum L. plants grown in soil under soluble phosphate limiting conditions, the endophytes that produced medium-high levels of GA displayed beneficial plant growth promotion effects. PMID:26257721

  5. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  6. Molecular basis of plant growth promotion and biocontrol by rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bloemberg, G V; Lugtenberg, B J

    2001-08-01

    Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) are used as inoculants for biofertilization, phytostimulation and biocontrol. The interactions of PGPRs with their biotic environment, for example with plants and microorganisms, are often complex. Substantial advances in elucidating the genetic basis of the beneficial effects of PGPRs on plants have been made, some from whole-genome sequencing projects. This progress will lead to a more efficient use of these strains and possibly to their improvement by genetic modification. PMID:11418345

  7. Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Howard I. (128 Indian La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

    1984-01-01

    A material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10.degree. to about 60.degree. C. until the dissolved oxygen is removed.

  8. Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Adler, H.I.

    1984-10-09

    A material and method is disclosed for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10 to about 60 C until the dissolved oxygen is removed. No Drawings

  9. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Acts Primarily via Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor ? to Promote Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pennock, Steven; Haddock, Luis J.; Mukai, Shizuo; Kazlauskas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a nonneovascular blinding disease and the leading cause for failure in surgical repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Once formed, PVR is difficult to treat. Hence, there is an acute interest in developing approaches to prevent PVR. Of the many growth factors and cytokines that accumulate in vitreous as PVR develops, neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A has recently been found to prevent PVR in at least one animal model. The goal of this study was to test if Food and Drug Administrationapproved agents could protect the eye from PVR in multiple animal models and to further investigate the underlying mechanisms. Neutralizing VEGF with aflibercept (VEGF Trap-Eye) safely and effectively protected rabbits from PVR in multiple models of disease. Furthermore, aflibercept reduced the bioactivity of both experimental and clinical PVR vitreous. Finally, although VEGF could promote some PVR-associated cellular responses via VEGF receptors expressed on the retinal pigment epithelial cells that drive this disease, VEGF's major contribution to vitreal bioactivity occurred via platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?. Thus, VEGF promotes PVR by a noncanonical ability to engage platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?. These findings indicate that VEGF contributes to nonangiogenic diseases and that antiVEGF-based therapies may be effective on a wider spectrum of diseases than previously appreciated. PMID:25261788

  10. Activity of mycobacterial promoters during intracellular and extracellular growth.

    PubMed

    Dellagostin, O A; Esposito, G; Eales, L J; Dale, J W; McFadden, J

    1995-08-01

    pUS933, a bifunctional Mycobacterium-Escherichia coli translational fusion vector containing an amino-terminally truncated E. coli lacZ reporter gene, was constructed. Derivatives of pUS933, containing the promoter, RBS and start codon of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG hsp60 gene, the Mycobacterium leprae 28 kDa gene and the M. leprae 18 kDa gene were constructed and introduced into E. coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. bovis BCG. beta-Galactosidase activity was measured for mycobacteria grown in liquid culture. Primer-extension analysis was used to determine the transcriptional start point for the 18 kDa promoter in M. smegmatis. Murine macrophages were infected with recombinant BCG containing the pUS933 derivatives and expression levels were examined, by fluorescence microscopy and fluorometry, during intracellular growth of BCG. Both the BCG hsp60 gene promoter and the M. leprae 28 kDa gene promoter gave high levels of beta-galactosidase expression in all situations examined. In contrast, the M. leprae 18 kDa promoter fragment gave very low levels of expression in M. smegmatis and BCG grown in liquid culture, but in BCG growing within macrophages it was induced to levels almost as high as the other promoters. This indicated that the 18 kDa gene is specifically activated during intracellular growth and may therefore be involved in survival of M. leprae within macrophages. This pattern of regulation may be useful for controlling expression of foreign genes in recombinant BCG strains. PMID:7551043

  11. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Hoffman, Adam; Zhang, Yian-Biao; Walla, Michael D.; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Newman, Lee; Monchy, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT–PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar as an energy feedstock on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria as growth promoting agents. PMID:20485560

  12. Macrophages promote epithelial repair through hepatocyte growth factor secretion

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, F; Bernasconi, E; Schfer, M; Moyat, M; Michetti, P; Maillard, M H; Velin, D

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages play a critical role in intestinal wound repair. However, the mechanisms of macrophage-assisted wound repair remain poorly understood. We aimed to characterize more clearly the repair activities of murine and human macrophages. Murine macrophages were differentiated from bone marrow cells and human macrophages from monocytes isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors (HD) or Crohn's disease (CD) patients or isolated from the intestinal mucosa of HD. In-vitro models were used to study the repair activities of macrophages. We found that murine and human macrophages were both able to promote epithelial repair in vitro. This function was mainly cell contact-independent and relied upon the production of soluble factors such as the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Indeed, HGF-silenced macrophages were less capable of promoting epithelial repair than control macrophages. Remarkably, macrophages from CD patients produced less HGF than their HD counterparts (HGF level: 84 27 pg/mg of protein and 45 34 pg/mg of protein, respectively, for HD and CD macrophages, P < 0009) and were deficient in promoting epithelial repair (repairing activity: 901 46 and 758 83, respectively, for HD and CD macrophages, P < 00005). In conclusion, we provide evidence that macrophages act on wounded epithelial cells to promote epithelial repair through the secretion of HGF. The deficiency of CD macrophages to secrete HGF and to promote epithelial repair might contribute to the impaired intestinal mucosal healing in CD patients. PMID:23773083

  13. Dynamic mast cell-stromal cell interactions promote growth of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Hwang, Rosa F; Logsdon, Craig D; Ullrich, Stephen E

    2013-07-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exists in a complex desmoplastic microenvironment, which includes cancer-associated fibroblasts [also known as pancreatic stellate cells (PSC)] and immune cells that provide a fibrotic niche that impedes successful cancer therapy. We have found that mast cells are essential for PDAC tumorigenesis. Whether mast cells contribute to the growth of PDAC and/or PSCs is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mast cells contribute to the growth of PSCs and tumor cells, thus contributing to PDAC development. Tumor cells promoted mast cell migration. Both tumor cells and PSCs stimulated mast cell activation. Conversely, mast cell-derived interleukin (IL)-13 and tryptase stimulated PSC proliferation. Treating tumor-bearing mice with agents that block mast cell migration and function depressed PDAC growth. Our findings suggest that mast cells exacerbate the cellular and extracellular dynamics of the tumor microenvironment found in PDAC. Therefore, targeting mast cells may inhibit stromal formation and improve therapy. PMID:23633481

  14. Evaluation of hair growth promoting activity of Phyllanthus niruri

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; S. Chauhan, Nagendra; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the potential Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri ) extracts in promotion of hair growth. Materials and Methods: Here, we studied the hair growth promoting activity of petroleum ether extract of P. niruri following its topical administration. Alopecia was induced in albino rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone for 21 days. Evaluation of hair loss inhibition was done by concurrent administration of extract and monitoring parameters like follicular density, anagen/telogen (A/T) ratio and histological observation of animal skin sections. Finasteride solution was applied topically as standard. In vitro experiments were also performed to study the effect of extract on the activity of 5α-reductase enzyme Results: Groups treated with petroleum ether extract of plant showed hair re-growth as reflected by follicular density, A/T ratio and skin sections. Histopathology and morphologic observations of hair re-growth at shaved sites showed active follicular proliferation. In vitro experiments results showed inhibitory activity of petroleum ether extract on type-2 5α-reductase enzyme and an increase in the amount of testosterone with increasing concentrations. Conclusion: It could be concluded that petroleum ether extracts of P. niruri might be useful in the treatment of testosterone-induced alopecia in the experimental animal by inhibiting 5α-reductase enzyme. PMID:26693408

  15. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning

    PubMed Central

    Vacheron, Jordan; Desbrosses, Guilhem; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Touraine, Bruno; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Muller, Daniel; Legendre, Laurent; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The rhizosphere supports the development and activity of a huge and diversified microbial community, including microorganisms capable to promote plant growth. Among the latter, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize roots of monocots and dicots, and enhance plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Modification of root system architecture by PGPR implicates the production of phytohormones and other signals that lead, mostly, to enhanced lateral root branching and development of root hairs. PGPR also modify root functioning, improve plant nutrition and influence the physiology of the whole plant. Recent results provided first clues as to how PGPR signals could trigger these plant responses. Whether local and/or systemic, the plant molecular pathways involved remain often unknown. From an ecological point of view, it emerged that PGPR form coherent functional groups, whose rhizosphere ecology is influenced by a myriad of abiotic and biotic factors in natural and agricultural soils, and these factors can in turn modulate PGPR effects on roots. In this paper, we address novel knowledge and gaps on PGPR modes of action and signals, and highlight recent progress on the links between plant morphological and physiological effects induced by PGPR. We also show the importance of taking into account the size, diversity, and gene expression patterns of PGPR assemblages in the rhizosphere to better understand their impact on plant growth and functioning. Integrating mechanistic and ecological knowledge on PGPR populations in soil will be a prerequisite to develop novel management strategies for sustainable agriculture. PMID:24062756

  16. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638

    SciTech Connect

    Taghavi, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Hoffman, A.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Walla, M. D.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.; Monchy, S.

    2010-05-13

    Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar as an energy feedstock on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria as growth promoting agents. Poplar is considered as the model tree species for the production of lignocellulosic biomass destined for biofuel production. The plant growth promoting endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638 can improve the growth of poplar on marginal soils by as much as 40%. This prompted us to sequence the genome of this strain and, via comparative genomics, identify functions essential for the successful colonization and endophytic association with its poplar host. Analysis of the genome sequence, combined with metabolite analysis and quantitative PCR, pointed to a remarkable interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host with the endophyte responsible for the production of a phytohormone, and a precursor for another that poplar is unable to synthesize, and where the production of the plant growth promoting compounds depended on the presence of plant synthesized compounds, such as sucrose, in the growth medium. Our results provide the basis to better understanding the synergistic interactions between poplar and Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria such as Enterobacter sp. 638 as growth promoting agents.

  17. Y-P30 promotes axonal growth by stabilizing growth cones.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Janine R; Dash-Wagh, Suvarna; Jngling, Kay; Tsai, Teresa; Meschkat, Martin; Rk, Andrea; Schnfelder, Sabine; Riedel, Christian; Hamad, Mohammad I K; Wiese, Stefan; Pape, Hans-Christian; Gottmann, Kurt; Kreutz, Michael R; Wahle, Petra

    2015-07-01

    The 30-amino acid peptide Y-P30, generated from the N-terminus of the human dermcidin precursor protein, has been found to promote neuronal survival, cell migration and neurite outgrowth by enhancing the interaction of pleiotrophin and syndecan-3. We now show that Y-P30 activates Src kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Y-P30 promotes axonal growth of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neurons, embryonic mouse spinal cord motoneurons, perinatal rat retinal neurons, and rat cortical neurons. Y-P30-mediated axon growth was dependent on heparan sulfate chains. Y-P30 decreased the proportion of collapsing/degenerating growth cones of cortical axons in an Src and ERK-dependent manner. Y-P30 increased for 90 min in axonal growth cones the level of Tyr418-phosphorylated Src kinase and the amount of F-actin, and transiently the level of Tyr-phosphorylated ERK. Levels of total Src kinase, actin, GAP-43, cortactin and the glutamate receptor subunit GluN2B were not altered. When exposed to semaphorin-3a, Y-P30 protected a significant fraction of growth cones of cortical neurons from collapse. These results suggest that Y-P30 promotes axonal growth via Src- and ERK-dependent mechanisms which stabilize growth cones and confer resistance to collapsing factors. PMID:24728870

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Strain WP8, an Efficient Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yijun; Shen, Min; Wang, Huanli; Zhao, Qingxin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus strain WP8 is an efficient plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. Here, we present the complete genome of WP8 and its genes involved in plant growth promotion and biocontrol. PMID:25614565

  19. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria for Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Grandlic, C.J.; Mendez, M.O.; Chorover, J.; Machado, B.; Maier, R.M.

    2009-05-19

    Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance the revegetation of mine tailings and minimize the need for compost amendment. Twenty promising PGPB isolates were used as seed inoculants in a series of greenhouse studies to examine revegetation of an extremely acidic, high metal content tailings sample previously shown to require 15% compost amendment for normal plant growth. Several isolates significantly enhanced growth of two native species, quailbush and buffalo grass, in tailings. In this study, PGPB/compost outcomes were plant specific; for quailbush, PGPB were most effective in combination with 10% compost addition while for buffalo grass, PGPB enhanced growth in the complete absence of compost. Results indicate that selected PGPB can improve plant establishment and reduce the need for compost amendment. Further, PGPB activities necessary for aiding plant growth in mine tailings likely include tolerance to acidic pH and metals.

  20. HDM2 promotes WIP1-mediated medulloblastoma growth.

    PubMed

    Buss, Meghan C; Read, Tracy-Ann; Schniederjan, Matthew J; Gandhi, Khanjan; Castellino, Robert C

    2012-04-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant childhood brain tumor. The protein phosphatase and oncogene WIP1 is over-expressed or amplified in a significant number of primary human medulloblastomas and cell lines. In the present study, we examine an important mechanism by which WIP1 promotes medulloblastoma growth using in vitro and in vivo models. Human cell lines and intracerebellar xenografted animal models were used to study the role of WIP1 and the major TP53 regulator, HDM2, in medulloblastoma growth. Stable expression of WIP1 enhances growth of TP53 wild-type medulloblastoma cells, compared with cells with stable expression of an empty-vector or mutant WIP1. In an animal model, WIP1 enhances proliferation and reduces the survival of immunodeficient mice bearing intracerebellar xenografted human medulloblastoma cells. Cells with increased WIP1 expression also exhibit increased expression of HDM2. HDM2 knockdown or treatment with the HDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a, the active enantomer of Nutlin-3, specifically inhibits the growth of medulloblastoma cells with increased WIP1 expression. Nutlin-3a does not affect growth of medulloblastoma cells with stable expression of an empty vector or of mutant WIP1. Knockdown of WIP1 or treatment with the WIP1 inhibitor CCT007093 results in increased phosphorylation of known WIP1 targets, reduced HDM2 expression, and reduced growth specifically in WIP1 wild-type and high-expressing medulloblastoma cells. Combined WIP1 and HDM2 inhibition is more effective than WIP1 inhibition alone in blocking growth of WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma cells. Our preclinical study supports a role for therapies that target WIP1 and HDM2 in the treatment of medulloblastoma. PMID:22379189

  1. Microbial phytases in phosphorus acquisition and plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bijender; Satyanarayana, T

    2011-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the major constituents in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of nucleic acids and cell membranes with an important role in regulation of a number of enzymes. Soil phosphorous is an important macronutrient for plant growth. Phosphorus deficiency in soil is a major problem for agricultural production. Total soil P occurs in either organic or in organic form. Phytic acid as phytate (salts of phytic acid) is the major form of organic phosphorus in soil and it is not readily available to plants as a source of phosphorus because it either forms a complex with cations or adsorbs to various soil components. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms are ubiquitous in soils and could play an important role in supplying P to plants. Microorganisms utilizing phytate are found in cultivated soils as well as in wetland, grassland and forest soils. Various fungi and bacteria (including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) hydrolyze this organic form of phosphorus secreting phosphatases such as phytases and acidic/alkaline phosphatases. A large number of transgenic plants have been developed which were able to utilize sodium phytate as sole source of phosphorus. However, the recombinant phytases were similar to their wild type counterparts in terms of their properties. Increased phytase/phosphatase activity in transgenic plants may be an effective approach to promote their phytate-phosphorus utilization. The extracellular phytase activity of transgenic plant roots is a significant factor in the utilization of phosphorus from phytate. Furthermore, this indicated that an opportunity exists for using gene technology to improve the ability of plants to utilize accumulated forms of soil organic phosphorus. This review is focused on the role of phytases and phytase producing microbes in promoting the growth of different plants. PMID:23572999

  2. An update on alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters for broilers.

    PubMed

    Huyghebaert, Gerard; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2011-02-01

    Livestock performance and feed efficiency are closely interrelated with the qualitative and quantitative microbial load of the animal gut, the morphological structure of the intestinal wall and the activity of the immune system. Antimicrobial growth promoters have made a tremendous contribution to profitability in intensive husbandry, but as a consequence of the increasing concern about the potential for antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria, the European Commission decided to ban all commonly used feed antibiotics. There are a number of non-therapeutic alternatives, including enzymes, (in)organic acids, probiotics, prebiotics, etheric oils and immunostimulants. Their efficacy and mode of action are briefly described in this review. PMID:20382054

  3. Regulation of the multiple promoters of the human aldolase A gene: response of its two ubiquitous promoters to agents promoting cell proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Gautron, S; Maire, P; Hakim, V; Kahn, A

    1991-01-01

    The human aldolase A gene is transcribed from three distinct promoters, the two ubiquitous promoters PN and PH and the muscle specific promoter PM. In the present study, we investigate further aldolase A mRNA structure and expression. We demonstrate that the upstream N-type exon is, in fact, extremely heterogeneous. RNAse H mapping experiments permit quantification of relative abundance of N, M, and H type mRNAs and show that the level of transcripts containing the downstream H-type exon is at least 30 times higher than that of those containing N exon, in all tissues tested. Aldolase A level is up-regulated in proliferating cells. Here we show that both N and H type mRNAs, although barely detectable in normal liver, are highly expressed in human hepatomas biopsies. Furthermore, in human lymphocytes, N-type mRNA level is enhanced by serum treatment, while in cultured Hep G2 cells, both N-type and H-type mRNA levels are increased by serum and by the tumor promoting agent PMA. Using CAT constructs in transfection experiments, we demonstrate that the H exon plus its upstream region can function autonomously: the 420 base pairs upstream of the H exon are sufficient to confer to promoter PH an efficiency comparable that of the complete SV40 early promoter and enhancer in two cell lines. Images PMID:1850123

  4. Identification of longevity, fertility and growth-promoting properties of pomegranate in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    K?l?gn, Hasan; Arda, Nazl?; Uar, Evren nay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is commonly consumed as fresh fruit and fruit juice. It is also used in the production of jam, wine, food coloring agent, and flavor enhancer. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the possible longevity, fertility and growth promoting properties of different ethanolic extract concentrations of pomegranate in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is increasingly popular and has proven to be a very useful experimental model organism for aging studies as well as for testing antioxidants and other compounds for effects on longevity. Materials and Methods: In this study, five experimental groups (20, 10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 mg pomegranate extract/mL and one control group) were used to determine the most effective dose of pomegranate in terms of longevity, fertility and growth parameters. Results: It was seen that, pomegranate extracts up to the concentration of 5 mg/mL, had the potential to promote for the longevity, formation of new generations, fertility of new generations and growth properties of C. elegans although higher concentrations significantly reduced these parameters. Conclusion: these findings indicated that pomegranate could be used as a supplement to enhance longevity, fertility and growth rate for the other living organisms and human beings, but the dose should be carefully adjusted to avoid adverse effects. PMID:25829775

  5. Thiazolidinediones Promote Axonal Growth through the Activation of the JNK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.; Godoy, Juan A.; Alfaro, Ivan; Cabezas, Deny; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Bronfman, Miguel; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2013-01-01

    The axon is a neuronal process involved in protein transport, synaptic plasticity, and neural regeneration. It has been suggested that their structure and function are profoundly impaired in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous evidence suggest that Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-? (PPAR? promote neuronal differentiation on various neuronal cell types. In addition, we demonstrated that activation of PPAR?by thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs that selectively activate PPAR? prevent neurite loss and axonal damage induced by amyloid-? (A?). However, the potential role of TZDs in axonal elongation and neuronal polarity has not been explored. We report here that the activation of PPAR? by TZDs promoted axon elongation in primary hippocampal neurons. Treatments with different TZDs significantly increased axonal growth and branching area, but no significant effects were observed in neurite elongation compared to untreated neurons. Treatment with PPAR? antagonist (GW 9662) prevented TZDs-induced axonal growth. Recently, it has been suggested that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays an important role regulating axonal growth and neuronal polarity. Interestingly, in our studies, treatment with TZDs induced activation of the JNK pathway, and the pharmacological blockage of this pathway prevented axon elongation induced by TZDs. Altogether, these results indicate that activation of JNK induced by PPAR?activators stimulates axonal growth and accelerates neuronal polarity. These novel findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of PPAR? on neuronal differentiation and validate the use of PPAR? activators as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23741474

  6. Modulations of the Chicken Cecal Microbiome and Metagenome in Response to Anticoccidial and Growth Promoter Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Danzeisen, Jessica L.; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Isaacson, Richard E.; Tu, Zheng Jin; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing pressures to reduce or eliminate the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion purposes in production animals, there is a growing need to better understand the effects elicited by these agents in order to identify alternative approaches that might be used to maintain animal health. Antibiotic usage at subtherapeutic levels is postulated to confer a number of modulations in the microbes within the gut that ultimately result in growth promotion and reduced occurrence of disease. This study examined the effects of the coccidiostat monensin and the growth promoters virginiamycin and tylosin on the broiler chicken cecal microbiome and metagenome. Using a longitudinal design, cecal contents of commercial chickens were extracted and examined using 16S rRNA and total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. A number of genus-level enrichments and depletions were observed in response to monensin alone, or monensin in combination with virginiamycin or tylosin. Of note, monensin effects included depletions of Roseburia, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus, and enrichments in Coprococcus and Anaerofilum. The most notable effect observed in the monensin/virginiamycin and monensin/tylosin treatments, but not in the monensin-alone treatments, was enrichments in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the metagenomic dataset identified enrichments in transport system genes, type I fimbrial genes, and type IV conjugative secretion system genes. No significant differences were observed with regard to antimicrobial resistance gene counts. Overall, this study provides a more comprehensive glimpse of the chicken cecum microbial community, the modulations of this community in response to growth promoters, and targets for future efforts to mimic these effects using alternative approaches. PMID:22114729

  7. Inoculation with nitrogen turnover bacterial agent appropriately increasing nitrogen and promoting maturity in pig manure composting.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jishao; Liu, Xueling; Huang, Yimei; Huang, Hua

    2015-05-01

    The nitrogen turnover bacterial (NTB) agent, which is closely related to nitrogen turnover, was comprised of a bacterial consortium of ammonifiers, nitrobacteria and Azotobacter in this study. The three constituents of the bacterial consortium were added to pig manure and wheat straw mixtures in different doses and at different times, and subsequently composted to investigate their effects on nitrogen transformation and maturity. Throughout the period, the total N loss was 35-56%, 10.7-22.7% of which consisted of NH3, and 18-35% of the initial organic carbon was degraded. Adding the NTB agent prolonged the thermophilic stage by one to six days compared to the control. The lowest N loss (35%), the highest degradation rate of organic carbon (35%) and the greatest increase in total nitrogen content (36.1%) occurred in the inoculation with 1% NTB agent at the beginning of composting. However, adding 1% NTB agent after the thermophilic stage and 3% NTB agent at the beginning of composting had no positive effect with respect to retaining nitrogen or accelerating the maturation process. Therefore, the inoculation with 1% NTB agent at the beginning of composting was effective for reducing N loss and promoting maturity. PMID:25769536

  8. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Soon; Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W.; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation. PMID:26361480

  9. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-09-01

    Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation. PMID:26361480

  10. Dual roles of PARP-1 promote cancer growth and progression

    PubMed Central

    Schiewer, Matthew J.; Goodwin, Jonathan F.; Han, Sumin; Brenner, J. Chad; Augello, Michael A.; Dean, Jeffry L.; Liu, Fengzhi; Planck, Jamie L.; Ravindranathan, Preethi; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; McCue, Peter; Gomella, Leonard G.; Raj, Ganesh V.; Dicker, Adam P.; Brody, Jonathan R.; Pascal, John M.; Centenera, Margaret M.; Butler, Lisa M.; Tilley, Wayne D.; Feng, Felix Y.; Knudsen, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an abundant nuclear enzyme that modifies substrates by poly(ADP-ribose)-ylation. PARP-1 has well-described functions in DNA damage repair, and also functions as a context-specific regulator of transcription factors. Using multiple models, data demonstrate that PARP-1 elicits pro-tumorigenic effects in androgen receptor (AR)-positive prostate cancer (PCa) cells, both in the presence and absence of genotoxic insult. Mechanistically, PARP-1 is recruited to sites of AR function, therein promoting AR occupancy and AR function. It was further confirmed in genetically-defined systems that PARP-1 supports AR transcriptional function, and that in models of advanced PCa, PARP-1 enzymatic activity is enhanced, further linking PARP-1 to AR activity and disease progression. In vivo analyses demonstrate that PARP-1 activity is required for AR function in xenograft tumors, as well as tumor cell growth in vivo and generation and maintenance of castration-resistance. Finally, in a novel explant system of primary human tumors, targeting PARP-1 potently suppresses tumor cell proliferation. Collectively, these studies identify novel functions of PARP-1 in promoting disease progression, and ultimately suggest that the dual functions of PARP-1 can be targeted in human PCa to suppress tumor growth and progression to castration-resistance. PMID:22993403

  11. A biosensor for organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Sun, Samio; Li, Chen-Zhong; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    The toxic metalloid arsenic is widely distributed in food, water, and soil. While inorganic arsenic enters the environment primarily from geochemical sources, methylarsenicals either result from microbial biotransformation of inorganic arsenic or are introduced anthropogenically. Methylarsenicals such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA) have been extensively utilized as herbicides, and aromatic arsenicals such as roxarsone (Rox) are used as growth promoters for poultry and swine. Organoarsenicals are degraded to inorganic arsenic. The toxicological effects of arsenicals depend on their oxidation state, chemical composition, and bioavailability. Here we report that the active forms are the trivalent arsenic-containing species. We constructed a whole-cell biosensor utilizing a modified ArsR repressor that is highly selective toward trivalent methyl and aromatic arsenicals, with essentially no response to inorganic arsenic. The biosensor was adapted for in vitro detection of organoarsenicals using fluorescence anisotropy of ArsR-DNA interactions. It detects bacterial biomethylation of inorganic arsenite both in vivo and in vitro with detection limits of 10?7 M and linearity to 10?6 M for phenylarsenite and 510?6 M for methylarsenite. The biosensor detects reduced forms of MSMA and roxarsone and offers a practical, low cost method for detecting activate forms and breakdown products of organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters. PMID:24359149

  12. Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Afshan; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the native plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and root-endosphere in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. Nine bacterial isolates were purified, screened in vitro for PGP characteristics and evaluated for their beneficial effects on the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Among nine bacterial isolates, seven were able to produce indole-3- acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium; seven were nitrogen fixer, and four were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate in vitro. Four different morphotypes were genotypically identified based on IGS-RFLP fingerprinting and representative of each morphotype was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis except Gram-positive putative Bacillus sp. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, bacterial isolates AJK-3 and AJK-9 showing multiple PGP-traits were identified as Stenotrophomonas spp. while AJK-7 showed equal homologies to Acetobacter pasteurianus and Stenotrophomonas specie. Plant inoculation studies indicated that these Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains provided a significant increase in shoot and root length, and shoot and root biomass. A significant increase in shoot N contents (up to 76%) and root N contents (up to 32%) was observed over the un-inoculated control. The study indicates the potential of these PGPR for inoculums production or biofertilizers for enhancing growth and nutrient content of wheat and other crops under field conditions. The study is the first report of wheat associated bacterial diversity in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, AJK. PMID:25852661

  13. Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Afshan; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the native plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and root-endosphere in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. Nine bacterial isolates were purified, screened in vitro for PGP characteristics and evaluated for their beneficial effects on the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Among nine bacterial isolates, seven were able to produce indole-3- acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium; seven were nitrogen fixer, and four were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate in vitro. Four different morphotypes were genotypically identified based on IGS-RFLP fingerprinting and representative of each morphotype was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis except Gram-positive putative Bacillus sp. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, bacterial isolates AJK-3 and AJK-9 showing multiple PGP-traits were identified as Stenotrophomonas spp. while AJK-7 showed equal homologies to Acetobacter pasteurianus and Stenotrophomonas specie. Plant inoculation studies indicated that these Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains provided a significant increase in shoot and root length, and shoot and root biomass. A significant increase in shoot N contents (up to 76%) and root N contents (up to 32%) was observed over the un-inoculated control. The study indicates the potential of these PGPR for inoculums production or biofertilizers for enhancing growth and nutrient content of wheat and other crops under field conditions. The study is the first report of wheat associated bacterial diversity in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, AJK. PMID:25852661

  14. Nickel detoxification and plant growth promotion by multi metal resistant plant growth promoting Rhizobium species RL9.

    PubMed

    Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2013-07-01

    Pollution of the biosphere by heavy metals is a global threat that has accelerated dramatically since the beginning of industrial revolution. The aim of the study is to check the resistance of RL9 towards the metals and to observe the effect of Rhizobium species on growth, pigment content, protein and nickel uptake by lentil in the presence and absence of nickel. The multi metal tolerant and plant growth promoting Rhizobium strain RL9 was isolated from the nodules of lentil. The strain not only tolerated nickel but was also tolerant o cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc and copper. The strain tolerated nickel 500?g/mL, cadmium 300?g/mL, chromium 400?g/mL, lead 1,400?g/mL, zinc 1,000?g/mL and copper 300?g/mL, produced good amount of indole acetic acid and was also positive for siderophore, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. The strain RL9 was further assessed with increasing concentrations of nickel when lentil was used as a test crop. The strain RL9 significantly increased growth, nodulation, chlorophyll, leghaemoglobin, nitrogen content, seed protein and seed yield compared to plants grown in the absence of bioinoculant but amended with nickel The strain RL9 decreased uptake of nickel in lentil compared to plants grown in the absence of bio-inoculant. Due to these intrinsic abilities strain RL9 could be utilized for growth promotion as well as for the remediation of nickel in nickel contaminated soil. PMID:23609454

  15. Extracellular vimentin interacts with insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor to promote axonal growth

    PubMed Central

    Shigyo, Michiko; Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Sawai, Yusuke; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Tohda, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein, is generally recognised as an intracellular protein. Previously, we reported that vimentin was secreted from astrocytes and promoted axonal growth. The effect of extracellular vimentin in neurons was a new finding, but its signalling pathway was unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the signalling mechanism of extracellular vimentin that facilitates axonal growth. We first identified insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) as a receptor that is highly phosphorylated by vimentin stimulation. IGF1R blockades diminished vimentin- or IGF1-induced axonal growth in cultured cortical neurons. IGF1, IGF2 and insulin were not detected in the neuron culture medium after vimentin treatment. The combined drug affinity responsive target stability method and western blotting analysis showed that vimentin and IGF1 interacted with IGF1R directly. In addition, immunoprecipitation and western blotting analyses confirmed that recombinant IGF1R bound to vimentin. The results of a molecular dynamics simulation revealed that C-terminal residues (residue number 330-407) in vimentin are the most appropriate binding sites with IGF1R. Thus, extracellular vimentin may be a novel ligand of IGF1R that promotes axonal growth in a similar manner to IGF1. Our results provide novel findings regarding the role of extracellular vimentin and IGF1R in axonal growth. PMID:26170015

  16. Approach to the development of a short-term whole-animal bioassay to distinguish initiating agents (incomplete carcinogens), promoting agents, complete carcinogens, and noncarcinogens in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsworthy, T.L.; Pitot, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    Utilizing data obtained from the published literature as well as further observations, the experimental findings reported in this paper serve to indicate an approach to the development of a short-term whole-animal bioassay capable of distinguishing agents that act at one or the other or both of the stages of initiation and promotion in rat liver. Because of the tissue specificity for both complete carcinogens and promoting agents, this bioassay system is not likely to identify the initiating and promoting capabilities of all carcinogenic agents and, thus, at present is not designed to replace the standard chronic bioassay systems. However, in view of the diverse metabolic capabilities of hepatic tissue, the system proposed may represent a model capable of distinguishing the stages of carcinogenesis at which many, if not most, specific carcinogenic chemicals exert their primary action. Test agents included diethylnitrosamine, dimethylbenzanthracene, proflavin, phenobarbital, butylated hydroxyanisole, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and red beet betalain pigments.

  17. Partner choice promotes cooperation: the two faces of testing with agent-based models.

    PubMed

    Campenn, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

    2014-03-01

    Reciprocity is one of the most debated among the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the evolution of cooperation. While a distinction can be made between two general processes that can underlie reciprocation (within-pair temporal relations between cooperative events, and partner choice based on benefits received), theoretical modelling has concentrated on the former, while the latter has been often neglected. We developed a set of agent-based models in which agents adopted a strategy of obligate cooperation and partner choice based on benefits received. Our models tested the ability of partner choice both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Populations formed by agents adopting a strategy of obligate cooperation and partner choice based on benefits received showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received, two common phenomena in animal cooperation. When selection across multiple generations was added to the model, agents adopting a strategy of partner choice based on benefits received outperformed selfish agents that did not cooperate. Our results suggest partner choice is a significant aspect of cooperation and provides a possible mechanism for its evolution. PMID:24316108

  18. Pharmacologic Agents That Promote Airway Clearance in Hospitalized Subjects: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Nila A; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; Andrews, Jeff; Ficzere, Cathy; McPheeters, Melissa L

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacologic agents to promote mucus clearance may reduce the sequelae of obstructive secretions. We systematically reviewed comparative studies of pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in hospitalized or postoperative subjects without cystic fibrosis and over 12 months of age. We searched MEDLINE and other databases from January 1970 to July 2014 to identify relevant literature. Two reviewers independently assessed each study against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two reviewers also independently extracted data regarding subject and intervention characteristics and outcomes and assigned overall quality ratings. The 9 studies meeting review criteria included 5 randomized controlled trials, 3 crossover randomized controlled trials, and one retrospective cohort study. Studies were small and together included a total of 379 subjects (mean of 42 subjects per study). N-acetylcysteine, heparin plus N-acetylcysteine, albuterol, ipratropium bromide, and saline were assessed. Studies reported no benefit of studied agents on expectoration, pulmonary function, and atelectasis and little effect on changes in sputum volume, weight, or viscosity. Adverse effects of agents were not consistently reported. Nausea was reported in 2 studies of N-acetylcysteine (one paper reported 2 experiments and did not clearly identify in which experiment adverse effects occurred), 3 studies reported that there were no adverse events, and 3 studies did not address adverse effects at all. Further research with clearly characterized populations and interventions is needed to understand the potential benefits and adverse effects of mucoactive agents. PMID:25944943

  19. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth.

    PubMed

    Harel, Sivan; Higgins, Claire A; Cerise, Jane E; Dai, Zhenpeng; Chen, James C; Clynes, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M

    2015-10-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway results in rapid onset of anagen and subsequent hair growth. We show that JAK inhibition regulates the activation of key hair follicle populations such as the hair germ and improves the inductivity of cultured human dermal papilla cells by controlling a molecular signature enriched in intact, fully inductive dermal papillae. Our findings open new avenues for exploration of JAK-STAT inhibition for promotion of hair growth and highlight the role of this pathway in regulating the activation of hair follicle stem cells. PMID:26601320

  20. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Sivan; Higgins, Claire A.; Cerise, Jane E.; Dai, Zhenpeng; Chen, James C.; Clynes, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway results in rapid onset of anagen and subsequent hair growth. We show that JAK inhibition regulates the activation of key hair follicle populations such as the hair germ and improves the inductivity of cultured human dermal papilla cells by controlling a molecular signature enriched in intact, fully inductive dermal papillae. Our findings open new avenues for exploration of JAK-STAT inhibition for promotion of hair growth and highlight the role of this pathway in regulating the activation of hair follicle stem cells. PMID:26601320

  1. Lysozyme as an alternative to growth promoting antibiotics in swine production.

    PubMed

    Oliver, W T; Wells, J E

    2015-01-01

    Lysozyme is a naturally occurring enzyme found in bodily secretions such as tears, saliva, and milk. It functions as an antimicrobial agent by cleaving the peptidoglycan component of bacterial cell walls, which leads to cell death. Antibiotics are also antimicrobials and have been fed at subtherapeutic levels to swine as growth promoters. These compounds benefit swine producers by minimizing production losses by increasing feed efficiency and decreasing susceptibility to bacterial infection and disease. This manuscript reviews the knowledge of the effects of lysozyme, as compared to traditional subtherapeutic antibiotics in swine feed, on pig performance and health. It is clear from decades of studies that antibiotic use in feeds increases pig performance, particularly in the nursery. Similarly, lysozyme, as a feed additive, increases growth and feed efficiency. While the mechanism by which antibiotics and lysozyme improve performance is not clearly understood, both of these feed additives improve gastrointestinal health, improve the metabolic profile, and alter the gastrointestinal bacteria ecology of swine. Therefore, lysozyme is a suitable alternative to growth-promoting subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine feed. PMID:26273432

  2. Protein modifications induced in mouse epidermis by potent and weak tumor-promoting hyperplasiogenic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K.G.; Stephenson, K.B.; Slaga, T.J.

    1982-10-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to compare the changes in mouse epidermal proteins induced by the potent tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), by the moderate promoter mechanical abrasion, and by the weakly promoting hyperplasiogenic agents mezerein and ethylphenylpropiolate. Evidence is presented which indicates that TPA caused many changes in the epidermal protein profiles especially related to the keratins which are the major differentiation product of the epidermis. The criteria used for the identification of the keratins were extractability, isoelectric points, molecular weights, filament formation in vitro, immunological cross-reactivity, amino acid composition, and peptide mapping. Several other protein changes were evident in the more soluble epidermal proteins which were also prominent in the newborn epidermis. Mezerein and abrasion produced protein changes similar to those induced by TPA. Ethylphenylpropiolate-induced protein modifications not only occurred at later times compared with either mezerein or TPA but also were less in magnitude. However, although many of the protein modifications induced by TPA appear to be associated with the hyperplasiogenic properties of TPA, the major difference between a potent promoter like TPA and a weak promoter like ethylphenylpropiolate appeared to be related to the magnitude of the response and the time of appearance of the protein changes.

  3. Comparative genomic analysis of four representative plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Some Pseudomonas strains function as predominant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Within this group, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens are non-pathogenic biocontrol agents, and some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains are PGPR. P. chlororaphis GP72 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with a fully sequenced genome. We conducted a genomic analysis comparing GP72 with three other pseudomonad PGPR: P. fluorescens Pf-5, P. aeruginosa M18, and the nitrogen-fixing strain P. stutzeri A1501. Our aim was to identify the similarities and differences among these strains using a comparative genomic approach to clarify the mechanisms of plant growth-promoting activity. Results The genome sizes of GP72, Pf-5, M18, and A1501 ranged from 4.6 to 7.1 M, and the number of protein-coding genes varied among the four species. Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) analysis assigned functions to predicted proteins. The COGs distributions were similar among the four species. However, the percentage of genes encoding transposases and their inactivated derivatives (COG L) was 1.33% of the total genes with COGs classifications in A1501, 0.21% in GP72, 0.02% in Pf-5, and 0.11% in M18. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that GP72 and Pf-5 were the most closely related strains, consistent with the genome alignment results. Comparisons of predicted coding sequences (CDSs) between GP72 and Pf-5 revealed 3544 conserved genes. There were fewer conserved genes when GP72 CDSs were compared with those of A1501 and M18. Comparisons among the four Pseudomonas species revealed 603 conserved genes in GP72, illustrating common plant growth-promoting traits shared among these PGPR. Conserved genes were related to catabolism, transport of plant-derived compounds, stress resistance, and rhizosphere colonization. Some strain-specific CDSs were related to different kinds of biocontrol activities or plant growth promotion. The GP72 genome contained the cus operon (related to heavy metal resistance) and a gene cluster involved in type IV pilus biosynthesis, which confers adhesion ability. Conclusions Comparative genomic analysis of four representative PGPR revealed some conserved regions, indicating common characteristics (metabolism of plant-derived compounds, heavy metal resistance, and rhizosphere colonization) among these pseudomonad PGPR. Genomic regions specific to each strain provide clues to its lifestyle, ecological adaptation, and physiological role in the rhizosphere. PMID:23607266

  4. Proepithelin Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Biology by Promoting Cell Growth, Migration, and Anchorage-Independent Growth

    PubMed Central

    Monami, Giada; Emiliozzi, Velia; Bitto, Alessandro; Lovat, Francesca; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Goldoni, Silvia; Fassan, Matteo; Serrero, Ginette; Gomella, Leonard G.; Baffa, Raffaele; Iozzo, Renato V.; Morrione, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The growth factor proepithelin has recently emerged as an important regulator of transformation in several physiological and pathological systems. In this study, we determined the biological roles of proepithelin in prostate cancer cells using purified human recombinant proepithelin as well as proepithelin-depletion strategies. Proepithelin promoted the migration of androgen-dependent and -independent human prostate cancer cells; androgen-independent DU145 cells were the more responsive. In these cells, proepithelin additionally stimulated wound closure, invasion, and promotion of cell growth in vitro. These effects required the activation of both the Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. We have analyzed proepithelin expression levels in different available prostate cancer microarray studies using the Oncomine database and found a statistically significant increase in proepithelin mRNA expression levels in prostate cancers compared with nonneoplastic controls. Notably, depletion of endogenous proepithelin by siRNA and antisense strategies impaired the ability of DU145 cells to grow and migrate after serum withdrawal and inhibited anchorage-independent growth. Our results provide the first evidence for a role of proepithelin in stimulating the migration, invasion, proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. This study supports the hypothesis that proepithelin may play a critical role as an autocrine growth factor in the establishment and initial progression of prostate cancer. Furthermore, proepithelin may prove to be a useful clinical marker for the diagnosis of prostate tumors. PMID:19179604

  5. Bacillus subtilis rRNA promoters are growth rate regulated in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Deneer, H G; Spiegelman, G B

    1987-01-01

    rRNA promoters from the rrnB locus of Bacillus subtilis and from the rrnB locus of Escherichia coli were fused to the gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). The level of expression of CAT in E. coli showed growth rate dependence when the CAT gene was linked to either E. coli or B. subtilis tandem promoters. The downstream promoter of the tandem Bacillus pair showed growth rate regulation, while the upstream promoter did not, whereas for the E. coli tandem promoters, only the upstream promoter was growth rate regulated. Images PMID:3029043

  6. Biophysical basis of growth promotion in primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. by hormones versus light: solute accumulation and the growth potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Rapid cell enlargement in primary leaves of bean is induced by bright white light (WL), gibberellic acid (GA3) or the cytokinin N6-benzyladenine (BA). In previous studies it has been show that all three agents cause an increase in wall extensibility, although by different mechanisms. Here we examine the effects of the three growth promoters on the osmotic potential difference (delta Psi), the accumulation of solutes (delta TSC), the wall yield threshold (Y) and the growth potential (delta Psi -Y). With GA3 and BA, but not WL, there was a rapid decline in delta Psi as measured by the osmotic concentration of expressed sap. Unlike WL, neither GA3 nor BA promoted the accumulation of osmotic solutes. The decline in delta Psi, however, was apparently counteracted by a decline in Y since the growth potential, as measured by the external-osmoticum method, remained unchanged. It is concluded that WL, GA3 and BA all promote cell enlargement of bean leaves by increasing one cellular growth parameter, wall extensibility. Only WL, however, promotes osmotic adjustment during growth.

  7. Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate-co-?-Caprolactone) Promotes Axonal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Daniela Nogueira; Brites, Pedro; Fonseca, Carlos; Pgo, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) neurons do not regenerate after injury due to the inhibitory environment formed by the glial scar, largely constituted by myelin debris. The use of biomaterials to bridge the lesion area and the creation of an environment favoring axonal regeneration is an appealing approach, currently under investigation. This work aimed at assessing the suitability of three candidate polymers poly(?-caprolactone), poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-?-caprolactone) (P(TMC-CL)) (11?89 mol%) and poly(trimethylene carbonate) - with the final goal of using these materials in the development of conduits to promote spinal cord regeneration. Poly(L-lysine) (PLL) coated polymeric films were tested for neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth. At similar PLL film area coverage conditions, neuronal polarization and axonal elongation was significantly higher on P(TMC-CL) films. Furthermore, cortical neurons cultured on P(TMC-CL) were able to extend neurites even when seeded onto myelin. This effect was found to be mediated by the glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) signaling pathway with impact on the collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4), suggesting that besides surface topography, nanomechanical properties were implicated in this process. The obtained results indicate P(TMC-CL) as a promising material for CNS regenerative applications as it promotes axonal growth, overcoming myelin inhibition. PMID:24586346

  8. Senescence from glioma stem cell differentiation promotes tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Rie; Okabe, Sachiko; Migita, Toshiro; Nakano, Ichiro; Seimiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain tumor composed of heterogeneous cellular populations including glioma stem cells (GSCs) and differentiated non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs). While GSCs are involved in tumor initiation and propagation, NSGCs' role remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NSGCs undergo senescence and secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, boosting the GSC-derived tumor formation invivo. We used a GSC model that maintains stemness in neurospheres, but loses the stemness and differentiates into NSGCs upon serum stimulation. These NSGCs downregulated telomerase, shortened telomeres, and eventually became senescent. The senescent NSGCs released pro-angiogenic proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factors and senescence-associated interleukins, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Conditioned medium from senescent NSGCs promoted proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells, and mixed implantation of GSCs and senescent NSGCs into mice enhanced the tumorigenic potential of GSCs. The senescent NSGCs seem to be clinically relevant, because both clinical samples and xenografts of GBM contained tumor cells that expressed the senescence markers. Our data suggest that senescent NSGCs promote malignant progression of GBM in part via paracrine effects of the secreted proteins. PMID:26775840

  9. Proteomic identification of plasma proteins as markers of growth promoter abuse in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kinkead, Ruth A; Elliott, Christopher T; Cannizzo, Francesca T; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Mooney, Mark H

    2015-06-01

    Growth-promoting agents are continually misused for increasing animal growth and fraudulent gain in the meat industry, yet detection rates from conventional targeted testing for drug residues do not reflect this. This is because testing currently relies on direct detection of drugs or related metabolites and administrators of such compounds can take adaptive measures to avoid detection through the use of endogenous or unknown drugs, and low dose or combined mixtures. New detection methods are needed which focus on the screening of biological responses of an animal to such growth-promoting agents as it has been demonstrated that genomic, proteomic and metabolomics profiles are altered by xenobiotic intake. Therefore, an untargeted proteomics approach using comparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) was carried out to identify putative proteins altered in plasma after treatment with oestradiol, dexamethasone or prednisolone. Twenty-four male cattle were randomly assigned to four groups (n?=?6) for experimental treatment over 40 days, namely a control group of non-treated cattle, and three groups administered 17?-oestradiol-3-benzoate (0.01 mg/kg, intramuscular), dexamethasone sodium phosphate (0.7 mg/day, per os) or prednisolone acetate (15 mg/day, per os), respectively. Plasma collected from each animal at day 25 post study initiation was subjected to proteomic analysis by 2DE for comparison of protein expression between treated and untreated animals. Analysis of acquired gel images revealed 22 plasma proteins which differed in expression by more than 50% (p?

  10. Lack of Collagen VI Promotes Wound-Induced Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiwen; Cescon, Matilde; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Collagen VI is an extracellular matrix molecule that is abundantly expressed in the skin. However, the role of collagen VI in hair follicle growth is unknown. Here, we show that collagen VI is strongly deposited in hair follicles, and is markedly upregulated by skin wounding. Lack of collagen VI in Col6a1(-/-) mice delays hair cycling and growth under physiological conditions, but promotes wound-induced hair regrowth without affecting skin regeneration. Conversely, addition of purified collagen VI rescues the abnormal wound-induced hair regrowth in Col6a1(-/-) mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that the increased wound-induced hair regrowth of Col6a1(-/-) mice is triggered by activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and is abolished by inhibition of this pathway. These findings highlight the essential relationships between extracellular matrix (ECM) and hair follicle regeneration, and suggest that collagen VI could be a potential therapeutic target for hair loss and other skin-related diseases. PMID:25989472

  11. Hypoxia promotes tumor growth in linking angiogenesis to immune escape.

    PubMed

    Chouaib, Salem; Messai, Yosra; Couve, Sophie; Escudier, Bernard; Hasmim, Meriem; Noman, Muhammad Zaeem

    2012-01-01

    Despite the impressive progress over the past decade, in the field of tumor immunology, such as the identification of tumor antigens and antigenic peptides, there are still many obstacles in eliciting an effective immune response to eradicate cancer. It has become increasingly clear that tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in the control of immune protection. Tumors have evolved to utilize hypoxic stress to their own advantage by activating key biochemical and cellular pathways that are important in progression, survival, and metastasis. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play a determinant role in promoting tumor cell growth and survival. Hypoxia contributes to immune suppression by activating HIF-1 and VEGF pathways. Accumulating evidence suggests a link between hypoxia and tumor tolerance to immune surveillance through the recruitment of regulatory cells (regulatory T cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells). In this regard, hypoxia (HIF-1α and VEGF) is emerging as an attractive target for cancer therapy. How the microenvironmental hypoxia poses both obstacles and opportunities for new therapeutic immune interventions will be discussed. PMID:22566905

  12. Hypoxia Promotes Tumor Growth in Linking Angiogenesis to Immune Escape

    PubMed Central

    Chouaib, Salem; Messai, Yosra; Couve, Sophie; Escudier, Bernard; Hasmim, Meriem; Noman, Muhammad Zaeem

    2012-01-01

    Despite the impressive progress over the past decade, in the field of tumor immunology, such as the identification of tumor antigens and antigenic peptides, there are still many obstacles in eliciting an effective immune response to eradicate cancer. It has become increasingly clear that tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in the control of immune protection. Tumors have evolved to utilize hypoxic stress to their own advantage by activating key biochemical and cellular pathways that are important in progression, survival, and metastasis. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play a determinant role in promoting tumor cell growth and survival. Hypoxia contributes to immune suppression by activating HIF-1 and VEGF pathways. Accumulating evidence suggests a link between hypoxia and tumor tolerance to immune surveillance through the recruitment of regulatory cells (regulatory T cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells). In this regard, hypoxia (HIF-1α and VEGF) is emerging as an attractive target for cancer therapy. How the microenvironmental hypoxia poses both obstacles and opportunities for new therapeutic immune interventions will be discussed. PMID:22566905

  13. Bioprospecting glacial ice for plant growth promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Balcazar, Wilvis; Rondn, Johnma; Rengifo, Marcos; Ball, Mara M; Melfo, Alejandra; Gmez, Wileidy; Yarzbal, Luis Andrs

    2015-08-01

    Glaciers harbor a wide diversity of microorganisms, metabolically versatile, highly tolerant to multiple environmental stresses and potentially useful for biotechnological purposes. Among these, we hypothesized the presence of bacteria able to exhibit well-known plant growth promoting traits (PGP). These kinds of bacteria have been employed for the development of commercial biofertilizers; unfortunately, these biotechnological products have proven ineffective in colder climates, like the ones prevailing in mountainous ecosystems. In the present work, we prospected glacial ice collected from two small tropical glaciers, located above 4.900 m in the Venezuelan Andes, for cold-active PGP bacteria. The initial screening strategy allowed us to detect the best inorganic-P solubilizers at low temperatures, from a sub-sample of 50 bacterial isolates. Solubilization of tricalcium phosphate, aluminum- and iron-phosphate, occurred in liquid cultures at low temperatures and was dependent on medium acidification by gluconic acid production, when bacteria were supplied with an appropriate source of carbon. Besides, the isolates were psychrophilic and in some cases exhibited a broad range of growth-temperatures, from 4 C to 30 C. Additional PGP abilities, including phytohormone- and HCN production, siderophore excretion and inhibition of phytopathogens, were confirmed in vitro. Nucleotidic sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes allowed us to place the isolates within the Pseudomonas genus. Our results support the possible use of these strains to develop cold-active biofertilizers to be used in mountainous agriculture. PMID:26211959

  14. HE4 (WFDC2) gene overexpression promotes ovarian tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Moore, Richard G; Hill, Emily K; Horan, Timothy; Yano, Naohiro; Kim, KyuKwang; MacLaughlan, Shannon; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Tseng, YiTang Don; Padbury, James F; Miller, M Craig; Lange, Thilo S; Singh, Rakesh K

    2014-01-01

    Selective overexpression of Human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4) points to a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis but little is known about the role the HE4 gene or the gene product plays. Here we show that elevated HE4 serum levels correlate with chemoresistance and decreased survival rates in EOC patients. HE4 overexpression promoted xenograft tumor growth and chemoresistance against cisplatin in an animal model resulting in reduced survival rates. HE4 displayed responses to tumor microenvironment constituents and presented increased expression as well as nuclear translocation upon EGF, VEGF and Insulin treatment and nucleolar localization with Insulin treatment. HE4 interacts with EGFR, IGF1R, and transcription factor HIF1?. Constructs of antisense phosphorothio-oligonucleotides targeting HE4 arrested tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively these findings implicate increased HE4 expression as a molecular factor in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. Selective targeting directed towards the HE4 protein demonstrates therapeutic benefits for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:24389815

  15. The distinct health risk analyses required for genotoxic carcinogens and promoting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Weisburger, J H; Williams, G M

    1983-01-01

    Health risk analysis needs to apply newer developments in the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the carcinogenic process which has allowed for the classification of chemical carcinogens into those that damage genetic material directly (genotoxic carcinogens) and those that operate by indirect or epigenetic mechanisms. We propose a systematic decision point approach for detecting and evaluating substances for carcinogenic risk. This approach recognizes that genotoxic and epigenetic agents operate by different mechanisms and distinguishes between these two categories of carcinogens primarily on the basis of results in a battery of short-term tests that includes systems which reliably detect genotoxic carcinogens and others which may respond to epigenetic agents. Genotoxic carcinogens at very low dosages may have practical, effective threshold no-effect levels, but, nevertheless, because of their mechanism of action they are regarded as a qualitative hazard. The action of epigenetic agents of the promoter class is highly dose-dependent and reversible, and thus, a distinctively different health risk analysis is required for these agents to take account of their quantitatively lesser hazard. PMID:6873017

  16. Paradox of plant growth promotion potential of rhizobacteria and their actual promotion effect on growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Ratering, Stefan; Suarez, Christian; Zapata Montoya, Ana Maria; Geissler-Plaum, Rita; Schnell, Sylvia

    2015-12-01

    From the rhizosphere of two salt tolerant plant species, Hordeum secalinum and Plantago winteri growing in a naturally salt meadow, 100 strains were isolation on enrichment media for various plant growth-promoting (PGP) functions (ACC deaminase activity, auxin synthesis, calcium phosphate mobilization and nitrogen fixation). Based on the taxonomic affiliation of the isolated bacteria and their enrichment medium 22 isolates were selected to test their growth promotion effect on the crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) under salt stress in pot experiment. In parallel the isolates were characterized in pure culture for their plant growth-promoting activities. Surprisingly the best promotors did not display a promising set of PGP activities. Isolates with multiple PGP-activities in pure culture like Microbacterium natoriense strain E38 and Pseudomonas brassicacearum strain E8 did not promote plant growth. The most effective isolate was strain E108 identified as Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, which increased barley growth up to 300%. In pure culture strain E108 showed only two out of six plant growth promoting activities and would have been neglected. Our results highlight that screening based on pure culture assays may not be suitable for recognition of best plant growth promotion candidates and could preclude the detection of both new PGPR and new plant promotion mechanisms. PMID:26640049

  17. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. Strain JS

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ju Yeon; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Ji-Seoung; Kim, Seon-Young; Jeong, Haeyoung; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Lee, Choong Hoon; Yu, Dong Su; Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Sun-Hyung

    2012-01-01

    Volatile and nonvolatile compounds emitted from the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. strain JS enhance the growth of tobacco and lettuce. Here, we report the high-quality genome sequence of this bacterium. Its 4.1-Mb genome reveals a number of genes whose products are possibly involved in promotion of plant growth or antibiosis. PMID:22740679

  18. Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Plant Growth-Promoting Fungus Phoma sp. GS8-3 for Growth Promotion Effects on Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Naznin, Hushna Ara; Kimura, Minako; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2013-01-01

    We extracted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by a plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF) Phoma sp. GS8-3 by gas chromatography and identified them by mass spectrometry. All of the identified compounds belonged to C4-C8 hydrocarbons. Volatiles varied in number and quantity by the culture period of the fungus (in days). 2-Methyl-propanol and 3-methyl-butanol formed the main components of the volatile blends for all the culture periods of fungus. Growth-promoting effects of the identified synthetic compounds were analyzed individually and in blends using tobacco plants. We found that the mixture of volatiles extracted from 3-day-old culture showed significant growth promotion in tobacco in vitro. The volatile blend showed better growth promotion at lower than higher concentrations. Our results confirm the potential role of volatile organic compounds in the mechanism of growth enhancement by GS8-3. PMID:23080408

  19. Isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Ayson, F G; de Jesus, E G; Amemiya, Y; Moriyama, S; Hirano, T; Kawauchi, H

    2000-02-01

    We report the isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus; Teleostei; Perciformes; Siganidae) growth hormone (GH). Rabbitfish GH was extracted from pituitary glands under alkaline conditions, fractionated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions containing GH were identified by immunoblotting with bonito GH antiserum. Under nonreducing conditions, the molecular weight of rabbitfish GH is about 19 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The purified hormone was potent in promoting growth in rabbitfish fry. Weekly intraperitoneal injections of the hormone significantly accelerated growth. This was evident 3 weeks after the start of the treatment, and its effect was still significant 2 weeks after the treatment was terminated. Rabbitfish GH cDNA was cloned to determine its nucleotide sequence. Excluding the poly (A) tail, rabbitfish GH cDNA is 860 base pairs (bp) long. It contained untranslated regions of 94 and 175 bp in the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. It has an open reading frame of 588 bp coding for a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature protein of 178 amino acid residues. Rabbitfish GH has 4 cysteine residues. On the amino acid level, rabbitfish GH shows high identity (71-74%) with GHs of other perciforms, such as tuna, sea bass, yellow tail, bonito, and tilapia, and less (47-49%) identity with salmonid and carp GHs. PMID:10642447

  20. Plant growth-promoting traits of yeasts isolated from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of Drosera spatulata Lab.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shih-Feng; Sun, Pei-Feng; Lu, Hsueh-Yu; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Xiao, Hong-Su; Fang, Wei-Ta; Cheng, Bai-You; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Microorganisms can promote plant growth through direct and indirect mechanisms. Compared with the use of bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, the use of yeasts as plant growth-promoting (PGP) agents has not been extensively investigated. In this study, yeast isolates from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of the medicinally important plant Drosera spatulata Lab. were assessed for their PGP traits. All isolates were tested for indole-3-acetic acid-, ammonia-, and polyamine-producing abilities, calcium phosphate and zinc oxide solubilizing ability, and catalase activity. Furthermore, the activities of siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes were assessed. The antagonistic action of yeasts against pathogenic Glomerella cingulata was evaluated. The cocultivation of Nicotiana benthamiana with yeast isolates enhanced plant growth, indicating a potential yeast-plant interaction. Our study results highlight the potential use of yeasts as plant biofertilizers under controlled and field conditions. PMID:26895872

  1. Isolation and screening of phlD (+) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria antagonistic to Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Ramadasappa, Srinivasamurthy; Rai, Ashwani K; Jaat, Ranjeet Singh; Singh, Aqbal; Rai, Rhitu

    2012-04-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is important widely grown vegetable in India and its productivity is affected by bacterial wilt disease infection caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. To prevent this disease infection a study was conducted to isolate and screen effective plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) antagonistic to R. solanacearum. A total 297 antagonistic bacteria were isolated through dual culture inoculation technique, out of which forty-two antagonistic bacteria were found positive for phlD gene by PCR amplification using two primer sets Phl2a:Phl2b and B2BF:BPR4. The genetic diversity of phlD (+) bacteria was studied by amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis and demonstrated eleven groups at 65% similarity level. Out of these 42 phlD (+) antagonistic isolates, twenty exhibited significantly fair plant growth promoting activities like phosphate solubilization (0.92-5.33%), 25 produced indole acetic acid (1.63-7.78 ?g ml(-1)) and few strains show production of antifungal metabolites (HCN and siderophore). The screening of PGPR (phlD (+)) for suppression of bacterial wilt disease in glass house conditions was showed ten isolated phlD (+) bacteria were able to suppress infection of bacterial wilt disease in tomato plant (var. Arka vikas) in the presence R. solanacearum. The PGPR (phlD (+)) isolates s188, s215 and s288 was observed to be effective plant growth promoter as it shows highest dry weight per plant (3.86, 3.85 and 3.69 g plant(-1) respectively). The complete absence of wilt disease symptoms in tomato crop plants was observed by these treatments compared to negative control. Therefore inoculation of tomato plant with phlD (+) isolate s188 and other similar biocontrol agents may prove to be a positive strategy for checking wilt disease and thus improving plant vigor. PMID:22805950

  2. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Darin C; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K K; McElwee, Kevin J; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFN? production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51faster), ostrich oil (1.46faster), and rhea oil (1.64faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFN? production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  3. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor promotes lymphangiogenesis in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Daniela; Angehrn, Yvonne; Klein, Sarah; Riccardi, Sabrina; Baenziger-Tobler, Nadja; Otto, Vivianne I.; Pittelkow, Mark; Detmar, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background The lymphatic vascular system regulates tissue fluid homeostasis and plays important roles in immune surveillance, inflammation and cancer metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lymphangiogenesis remain incompletely characterized. Objective: We aimed to identify new pathways involved in the promotion of skin lymphangiogenesis. Methods We used a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid body vascular differentiation assay to investigate the effects of a selection of pharmacological agents with the potential to inhibit blood and/or lymphatic vessel formation. We also used a subcutaneous Matrigel assay to study candidate lymphangiogenesis factors as well as skin-specific transgenic mice. Results We found that compounds inhibiting the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) led to an impaired formation of lymphatic vessel-like structures. In vitro studies with human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), that were found to express EGFR, revealed that EGF promotes lymphatic vessel formation. This effect was inhibited by an EGFR-blocking antibody and by low molecular weight inhibitors of either the EGFR or its associated tyrosine kinase. Incorporation of EGF into a mouse matrigel plug assay showed that EGF promotes enlargement of lymphatic vessels in the skin in vivo. Moreover, transgenic mice with skin-specific overexpression of amphiregulin, another agonistic ligand of the EGFR, displayed an enhanced size and density of lymphatic vessels in the skin. Conclusion These findings reveal that EGFR activation is involved in lymphatic remodeling and suggest that specific EGFR antagonists might be used to inhibit pathological lymphangiogenesis. PMID:23706492

  4. Role of allelochemicals in plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for biocontrol of phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Meenu; Pandya, Urja; Thakkar, Aarti

    2014-01-20

    Soil borne fungal diseases pose serious constraints on agro-productivity. Biological control is non-hazardous strategy to control plant pathogens and improve crop productivity. PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) have long been used as plant disease control agents. PGPR produced a wide range of secondary compounds that may act as signals--that is, allelochemicals that include metabolites, siderophores, antibiotics, volatile metabolites, enzymes and others. Their mode of action and molecular mechanisms provide a great awareness for their application for crop disease management. The present review highlights the role of PGPR strains, specifically referring to allelochemicals produced and molecular mechanisms. Further research to fine tune combinations of allelochemicals, plant-microbe-pathogen interaction will ultimately lead to better disease control. PMID:24176815

  5. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as “Hair Waste”

    PubMed Central

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Crespo, Juan M.; García, Sabrina S.; Zapiola, José M.; Luna, María F.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876. PMID:26697226

  6. Response of intestinal microbiota to antibiotic growth promoters in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Hunkapiller, Andree A; Layton, Alice C; Chang, Yun-Juan; Robbins, Kelly R

    2013-04-01

    Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been used as feed additives to improve average daily weight gain and feed efficiency in food animals for more than five decades. However, use of AGPs is associated with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant human pathogens of animal origin, posing a significant threat to food safety and public health. Thus, development of novel alternatives to AGPs is important to mitigate antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens. To achieve this goal, the mode of action of AGPs should be elucidated. In this study, the response of the chicken gut microbiota to AGPs was examined using two culture-independent approaches: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing. PLFA analysis showed that AGP tylosin treatment changed composition of the microbiota in various intestinal sites; however, total viable bacterial biomass in intestine was not affected by tylosin treatment. PLFA analysis also revealed an abundant viable fungal population in chicken microbiota. Eight 16S rDNA libraries (96 clones per library) were constructed using ileal samples from chickens that received either antibiotic-free or medicated feed. The 16S rDNA clone analysis of the growth-relevant samples showed the AGP treatment influenced the diversity of ileum microbiota in the chickens primarily in the Firmicutes division. In particular, Lactobacillus spp. populations in the ileum of AGP-treated chickens were significantly lower than those from chickens receiving antibiotic-free feed. Together, this study revealed novel features of the intestinal microbiota in response to AGP treatment and suggested approach to develop potential alternatives to AGPs for mitigation of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens. PMID:23461609

  7. Effects of anticoccidial and antibiotic growth promoter programs on broiler performance and immune status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effects of various coccidiosis control programs in combination with antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on growth performance and host immune responses in broiler chickens. The coccidiosis programs that were investigated include in ovo coccidiosis vaccination (CVAC) with ...

  8. ACSL4 promotes prostate cancer growth, invasion and hormonal resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinyu; Deng, Fangming; Li, Yirong; Daniels, Garrett; Du, Xinxin; Ren, Qinghu; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Ling Hang; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Valerio; Zhang, David; Ye, Fei; Melamed, Jonathan; Monaco, Marie E.; Lee, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Increases in fatty acid metabolism have been demonstrated to promote the growth and survival of a variety of cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we examine the expression and function of the fatty acid activating enzyme, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4), in PCa. Ectopic expression of ACSL4 in ACSL4-negative PCa cells increases proliferation, migration and invasion, while ablation of ACSL4 in PCa cells expressing endogenous ACSL4 reduces cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The cell proliferative effects were observed both in vitro, as well as in vivo. Immunohistochemical analysis of human PCa tissue samples indicated ACSL4 expression is increased in malignant cells compared with adjacent benign epithelial cells, and particularly increased in castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) when compared with hormone naive PCa. In cell lines co-expressing both ACSL4 and AR, proliferation was independent of exogenous androgens, suggesting that ACSL4 expression may lead to CRPC. In support for this hypothesis, ectopic ACSL4 expression induced resistance to treatment with Casodex, via decrease in apoptosis. Our studies further indicate that ACSL4 upregulates distinct pathway proteins including p-AKT, LSD1 and β-catenin. These results suggest ACSL4 could serve as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target for CRPC. PMID:26636648

  9. Oncogenic Ras stimulates Eiger/TNF exocytosis to promote growth

    PubMed Central

    Chabu, Chiswili; Xu, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in Ras deregulate cell death and proliferation to cause cancer in a significant number of patients. Although normal Ras signaling during development has been well elucidated in multiple organisms, it is less clear how oncogenic Ras exerts its effects. Furthermore, cancers with oncogenic Ras mutations are aggressive and generally resistant to targeted therapies or chemotherapy. We identified the exocytosis component Sec15 as a synthetic suppressor of oncogenic Ras in an in vivo Drosophila mosaic screen. We found that oncogenic Ras elevates exocytosis and promotes the export of the pro-apoptotic ligand Eiger (Drosophila TNF). This blocks tumor cell death and stimulates overgrowth by activating the JNK-JAK-STAT non-autonomous proliferation signal from the neighboring wild-type cells. Inhibition of Eiger/TNF exocytosis or interfering with the JNK-JAK-STAT non-autonomous proliferation signaling at various steps suppresses oncogenic Ras-mediated overgrowth. Our findings highlight important cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic roles of exocytosis during oncogenic growth and provide a new class of synthetic suppressors for targeted therapy approaches. PMID:25411211

  10. Plant growth promoting bacteria from cow dung based biodynamic preparations.

    PubMed

    Radha, T K; Rao, D L N

    2014-12-01

    Indigenous formulations based on cow dung fermentation are commonly used in organic farming. Three biodynamic preparations viz., Panchagavya (PG), BD500 and 'Cow pat pit' (CPP) showed high counts of lactobacilli (10(9)ml(-1)) and yeasts (10(4)ml(-1)). Actinomycetes were present only in CPP (10(4)ml(-1)) and absent in the other two. Seven bacterial isolates from these ferments were identified by a polyphasic approach: Bacillus safensis (PG1), Bacillus cereus (PG2, PG4 PG5), Bacillus subtilis (BD2) Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (BD3) and Bacillus licheniformis (CPP1). This is the first report of L. xylanilyticus and B. licheniformis in biodynamic preparations. Only three carbon sources-dextrose, sucrose and trehalose out of 21 tested were utilized by all the bacteria. None could utilize arabinose, dulcitol, galactose, inositol, inulin, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose and sorbitol. All the strains produced indole acetic acid (1.8-3.7?gml(-1) culture filtrate) and ammonia. None could fix nitrogen; but all except B. safensis and B. licheniformis could solubilize phosphorous from insoluble tri-calcium phosphate. All the strains except L. xylaniliticus exhibited antagonism to the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia bataticola whereas none could inhibit Sclerotium rolfsi. In green house experiment in soil microcosms, bacterial inoculation significantly promoted growth of maize; plant dry weight increased by~21% due to inoculation with B. cereus (PG2). Results provide a basis for understanding the beneficial effects of biodynamic preparations and industrial deployment of the strains. PMID:25320439

  11. PNMA1 promotes cell growth in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Heng; He, Ping; Ma, Ming-Ze; Wang, Yang; Li, Rong-Kun; Fang, Fang; Fu, Ying; Tian, Guang-Ang; Qin, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Paraneoplastic Ma1 (PNMA1) is a member of an expanding family of 'brain/testis' proteins involved in an autoimmune disorder defined as paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS). Although it is widely studied in PNS, little is known about the underlying clinical significance and biological function of PNMA1 in tumors. Here, we find that elevated PNMA1 expression is more commonly observed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell lines, compared with normal pancreatic cell and tissues from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patient. Besides, higher PNMA1 expression is closely correlated with large tumor size. Suppression of endogenous PNMA1 expression decreases cell viability and promotes cell apoptosis. Subsequent studies reveal that the PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK pathway and members of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family may be involved in the pro-survival and anti-apoptotic effect of PNMA1 on PDAC. Taken together, this study provides evidence that PNMA1 is involved in tumor growth of pancreatic carcinoma and PNMA1-related pathways might represent a new treatment strategy. PMID:25120759

  12. Isolation of N2 -fixing rhizobacteria from Lolium perenne and evaluating their plant growth promoting traits.

    PubMed

    Castellano-Hinojosa, Antonio; Correa-Galeote, David; Palau, Josep; Bedmar, Eulogio J

    2016-01-01

    Twenty one dinitrogen (N2 )-fixing bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of Lolium perenne grown for more than 10 years without N-fertilization. The nearly complete sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of each strain and pairwise alignments among globally aligned sequences of the 16S rRNA genes clustered them into nine different groups. Out of the 21 strains, 11 were members of genus Bacillus, 3 belonged to each one of genera Paenibacillus and Pseudoxanthomonas, and the remaining 2 strains to each one of genera Burkholderia and Staphylococcus, respectively. A representative strain from each group contained the nifH gene and fixed atmospheric N2 as determined by the acetylene-dependent ethylene production assay (acetylene reduction activity, ARA). The nine selected strains were also examined to behave as plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPRs) including their ability to act as a biocontrol agent. The nine representative strains produced indol acetic acid (IAA) and solubilized calcium triphosphate, five of them, strains C2, C3, C12, C15, and C16, had ACC deaminase activity, and strains C2, C3, C4, C12, C16, and C17 produced siderophores. Strains C13, C16, and C17 had the capability to control growth of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum mycelial growth in vitro. PCA analysis of determined PGPR properties showed that ARA, ACC deaminase activity, and siderophore production were the most valuable as they had the maximal contribution to the total variance. PMID:26781208

  13. Evaluation of a Topical Herbal Agent for the Promotion of Bone Healing

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Wing-Sum; Ko, Chun-Hay; Lam, Ka-Wing; Shum, Wai-Ting; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Ko, Kam-Ming; Hung, Leung-Kim; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2015-01-01

    A topically used Chinese herbal paste, namely, CDNR, was designed to facilitate fracture healing which is usually not addressed in general hospital care. From our in vitro studies, CDNR significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide from RAW264.7 cells by 51 to 77%. This indicated its anti-inflammatory effect. CDNR also promoted the growth of bone cells by stimulating the proliferation of UMR106 cells up to 18%. It also increased the biomechanical strength of the healing bone in a drill-hole defect rat model by 16.5% significantly. This result revealed its in vivo efficacy on facilitation of bone healing. Furthermore, the detection of the chemical markers of CDNR in the skin and muscle of the treatment area demonstrated its transdermal properties. However, CDNR did not affect the bone turnover markers in serum of the rats. With its anti-inflammatory and bone formation properties, CDNR is found effective in promoting bone healing. PMID:25810746

  14. Characterization of novel plant growth promoting endophytic bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans from wheat plant.

    PubMed

    Jha, Prabhat; Kumar, Ashok

    2009-07-01

    Nine diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized roots and culms of wheat variety Malviya-234, which is grown with very low or no inputs of nitrogen fertilizer. Out of the nine bacteria, four showed indole acetic acid (IAA) production, and five were positive for P solubilization. One isolate, WM234C-3, showed appreciable level of nitrogenase activity, IAA production, and P solubilization ability, and was further characterized with a view to exploiting its plant growth promoting activity. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this isolate was identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Diazotrophic nature of this particular isolate was confirmed by Western blot analysis of dinitrogenase reductase and amplification of nifH. Analysis of the nifH sequence showed close homology with typical diazotrophic bacteria. Endophytic nature and cross-infection ability of WM234C-3 were tested by molecular tagging with gusA fused to a constitutive promoter followed by inoculation onto rice seedlings in axenic conditions. At 21 days after inoculation, the roots showed blue staining, the most intense color being at the emergence of lateral roots and root tips. Microscopic observation confirmed colonization of gus-tagged WM234C-3 in the intercellular spaces of cortical as well as vascular zones of roots. Inoculation of gus-tagged WM234C-3 to rice plants resulted in significant increase in root/shoot length, fresh weight, and chlorophyll a content. Plant growth promoting features coupled with cross-infection ability suggest that this endophytic bacterium may be exploited as agricultural agent for various crops after a thorough and critical pathogenicity test. PMID:19224271

  15. [Growth hormone and IGF-1 as doping agents in competitive sport].

    PubMed

    J?kw, Pawe?; Medra?, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are often used by athletes as doping agents. It is estimated that up to 25% of sportsmen using anabolic-androgenic steroids also take GH. Available data do not confirm the influence of GH or IGF-1 preparations on physical performance improvement. However, there is some evidences for many adverse effects in athletes using this form of doping. Blood tests to detect growth hormone abuse are available since several years. Surprisingly, no one has been proven to use illegal doping agents influencing GH/IGF-1 axis. PMID:19885810

  16. Oncolytic reovirus synergizes with chemotherapeutic agents to promote cell death in canine mammary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Igase, Masaya; Hwang, Chung Chew; Kambayashi, Satoshi; Kubo, Masato; Coffey, Matt; Miyama, Takako Shimokawa; Baba, Kenji; Okuda, Masaru; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Mizuno, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    The oncolytic effects of reovirus in various cancers have been proven in many clinical trials in human medicine. Oncolytic virotherapy using reovirus for canine cancers is being developed in our laboratory. The objective of this study was to examine the synergistic anti-cancer effects of a combination of reovirus and low doses of various chemotherapeutic agents on mammary gland tumors (MGTs) in dogs. The first part of this study demonstrated the efficacy of reovirus in canine MGTs in vitro and in vivo. Reovirus alone exerted significant cell death by means of caspase-dependent apoptosis in canine MGT cell lines. A single injection of reovirus impeded growth of canine MGT tumors in xenografted mice, but was insufficient to induce complete tumor regression. The second part of this study highlighted the anti-tumor effects of reovirus in combination with low doses of paclitaxel, carboplatin, gemcitabine, or toceranib. Enhanced synergistic activity was observed in the MGT cell line treated concomitantly with reovirus and in all the chemotherapeutic agents except toceranib. In addition, combining reovirus with paclitaxel or gemcitabine at half dosage of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) enhanced cytotoxicity by activating caspase 3. Our data suggest that the combination of reovirus and low dose chemotherapeutic agents provides an attractive option in canine cancer therapy. PMID:26733729

  17. Fibroblast Growth Factors and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Promote Cardiac Reprogramming under Defined Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Hiroyuki; Muraoka, Naoto; Miyamoto, Kazutaka; Sadahiro, Taketaro; Isomi, Mari; Haginiwa, Sho; Kojima, Hidenori; Umei, Tomohiko; Akiyama, Mizuha; Kuishi, Yuki; Kurokawa, Junko; Furukawa, Tetsushi; Fukuda, Keiichi; Ieda, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Summary Fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed into cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) by overexpression of cardiac transcription factors, including Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5; however, this process is inefficient under serum-based culture conditions, in which conversion of partially reprogrammed cells into fully reprogrammed functional iCMs has been a major hurdle. Here, we report that a combination of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2, FGF10, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), termed FFV, promoted cardiac reprogramming under defined serum-free conditions, increasing spontaneously beating iCMs by 100-fold compared with those under conventional serum-based conditions. Mechanistically, FFV activated multiple cardiac transcriptional regulators and converted partially reprogrammed cells into functional iCMs through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathways. Moreover, FFV enabled cardiac reprogramming with only Mef2c and Tbx5 through the induction of cardiac reprogramming factors, including Gata4. Thus, defined culture conditions promoted the quality of cardiac reprogramming, and this finding provides new insight into the mechanism of cardiac reprogramming. PMID:26626177

  18. Genome Sequence of Bacillus mycoides B38V, a Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Sunflower

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Adriana; SantAnna, Fernando Hayashi; de Souza, Rocheli; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Alvarenga, Samuel M.; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus mycoides B38V is a bacterium isolated from the sunflower rhizosphere that is able to promote plant growth and N uptake. The genome of the isolate has approximately 5.80 Mb and presents sequence codifiers for plant growth-promoting characteristics, such as nitrate reduction and ammonification and iron-siderophore uptake. PMID:25838494

  19. Bacillus spp. from rainforest soil promote plant growth under limited nitrogen conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria) isolated from rainforest on different plants under limited nitrogen conditions. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates from a Peruvian rainforest soil were screened for plant growth promoting effects...

  20. Staurosporine from the endophytic Streptomyces sp. strain CNS-42 acts as a potential biocontrol agent and growth elicitor in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Pei; Wang, Qian; Xiao, Lie; Liu, Miaomiao; Bolla, Krishna; Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Linyong; Gan, Bingcheng; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2014-09-01

    Chinese medicinal plants and their surrounding rhizospheric soil serve as promising sources of actinobacteria. A total of 180 actinobacteria strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soil, leaves, stems, and roots of nine selected plants and have been identified as potential biocontrol agents against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. An endophytic strain CNS-42 isolated from Alisma orientale showed the largest zone of inhibition demonstrating a potent effect against F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and a broad antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeasts, and other pathogenic fungi. The in vivo biocontrol assays showed that the disease severity index was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), and plant shoot fresh weight and height increased greatly (P < 0.05) in plantlets treated with strain CNS-42 compared to the negative control. This isolate was identified as Streptomyces sp. based on cultural, physiological, morphological characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Further bioassay-guided isolation and purification revealed that staurosporine was responsible for its antifungal and plant growth promoting activities and the latter property of staurosporine is reported for the first time. The in vivo assay was further performed and indicated that staurosporine showed good growth promoting effect on the plant shoot biomass of cucumber. This is the first critical evidence identifying CNS-42 as a biocontrol agent for the soil borne pathogen, F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. PMID:25035061

  1. Biomimetic hybrid porous scaffolds immobilized with platelet derived growth factor-BB promote cellularization and vascularization in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Murali, Ragothaman; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Cheirmadurai, Kalirajan; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy

    2016-02-01

    Development of hybrid scaffolds with synergistic combination of growth factor is a promising approach to promote early in vivo wound repair and tissue regeneration. Here, we show the rapid wound healing in Wistar albino rats using biomimetic collagen-poly(dialdehyde) guar gum based hybrid porous scaffolds covalently immobilized with platelet derived growth factor-BB. The immobilized platelet derived growth factor in the hybrid scaffolds not only enhance the total protein, collagen, hexosamine, and uronic acid contents in the granulation tissue but also provide stronger tissues. The wound closure analysis reveal that the complete epithelialization period is 15.4??0.9 days for collagen-poly(dialdehyde) guar gum-platelet derived growth factor hybrid scaffolds, whereas it is significantly higher for control, collagen, collagen- poly(dialdehyde) guar gum and povidine-iodine treated groups. Further, the histological evaluation shows that the immobilized platelet derived growth factor in the hybrid scaffolds induced a more robust cellular and vascular response in the implanted site. Hence, we demonstrate that the collagen-poly(dialdehyde) guar gum hybrid scaffolds loaded with platelet derived growth factor stimulates chemotactic effects in the implanted site to promote rapid tissue regeneration and wound repair without the assistance of antibacterial agents. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 388-396, 2016. PMID:26414915

  2. Amelogenin as a promoter of nucleation and crystal growth of apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uskokovi?, Vuk; Li, Wu; Habelitz, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Human dental enamel forms over a period of 2-4 years by substituting the enamel matrix, a protein gel mostly composed of a single protein, amelogenin with fibrous apatite nanocrystals. Self-assembly of amelogenin and the products of its selective proteolytic digestion are presumed to direct the growth of apatite fibers and their organization into bundles that eventually comprise the mature enamel, the hardest tissue in the mammalian body. This work aimed to establish the physicochemical and biochemical conditions for the growth of apatite crystals under the control of a recombinant amelogenin matrix (rH174) in combination with a programmable titration system. The growth of apatite substrates was initiated in the presence of self-assembling amelogenin particles. A series of constant titration rate experiments was performed that allowed for a gradual increase of the calcium and/or phosphate concentrations in the protein suspensions. We observed a significant amount of apatite crystals formed on the substrates following the titration of rH174 sols that comprised the initial supersaturation ratio equal to zero. The protein layers adsorbed onto the substrate apatite crystals were shown to act as promoters of nucleation and growth of calcium phosphates subsequently formed on the substrate surface. Nucleation lag time experiments have showed that rH174 tends to accelerate precipitation from metastable calcium phosphate solutions in proportion to its concentration. Despite their mainly hydrophobic nature, amelogenin nanospheres, the size and surface charge properties of which were analyzed using dynamic light scattering, acted as a nucleating agent for the crystallization of apatite. The biomimetic experimental setting applied in this study proves as convenient for gaining insight into the fundamental nature of the process of amelogenesis.

  3. Hpa1 harpin needs nitroxyl terminus to promote vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojie; Han, Liping; Zhao, Yanying; You, Zhenzhen; Dong, Hansong; Zhang, Chunling

    2014-03-01

    Hpa1 is a harpin protein produced by Xanthomonas oryzae, an important bacterial pathogen of rice, and has the growth-promoting activity in plants. To understand the molecular basis for the function of Hpa1, we generated an inactive variant protein, Hpa1 delta NT, by deleting the nitroxyl-terminal region of the Hpa1 sequence and compared Hpa1 delta NT with the full-length protein in terms of the effects on vegetative growth and related physiological responses in Arabidopsis. When Hpa1 was applied to plants, it acted to enhance the vegetative growth but did not affect the floral development. Enhanced plant growth was accompanied by induced expression of growth-promoting genes in plant leaves. The growth-promoting activity of Hpa1 was further correlated with a physiological consequence shown as promoted leaf photosynthesis as a result of facilitated CO2 conduction through leaf stomata and mesophyll cells. On the contrary, plant growth, growth-promoting gene expression, and the physiological consequence changed little in response to the Hpa1 delta NT treatment. These analyses suggest that Hpa1 requires the nitroxyl-terminus to facilitate CO2 transport inside leaf cells and promote leaf photosynthesis and vegetative growth of the plant. PMID:24499797

  4. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase promotes gut bacterial growth by reducing the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates.

    PubMed

    Malo, Madhu S; Moaven, Omeed; Muhammad, Nur; Biswas, Brishti; Alam, Sayeda N; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Gul, Sarah Shireen; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Malo, Nondita S; Teshager, Abeba; Mohamed, Mussa M Rafat; Tao, Qingsong; Narisawa, Sonoko; Milln, Jos Luis; Hohmann, Elizabeth L; Warren, H Shaw; Robson, Simon C; Hodin, Richard A

    2014-05-15

    The intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in maintaining human health and well-being. Previously, we have shown that mice deficient in the brush-border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) suffer from dysbiosis and that oral IAP supplementation normalizes the gut flora. Here we aimed to decipher the molecular mechanism by which IAP promotes bacterial growth. We used an isolated mouse intestinal loop model to directly examine the effect of exogenous IAP on the growth of specific intestinal bacterial species. We studied the effects of various IAP targets on the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as on a few specific gut organisms. We determined the effects of ATP and other nucleotides on bacterial growth. Furthermore, we examined the effects of IAP on reversing the inhibitory effects of nucleotides on bacterial growth. We have confirmed that local IAP bioactivity creates a luminal environment that promotes the growth of a wide range of commensal organisms. IAP promotes the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and appears to exert its growth promoting effects by inactivating (dephosphorylating) luminal ATP and other luminal nucleotide triphosphates. We observed that compared with wild-type mice, IAP-knockout mice have more ATP in their luminal contents, and exogenous IAP can reverse the ATP-mediated inhibition of bacterial growth in the isolated intestinal loop. In conclusion, IAP appears to promote the growth of intestinal commensal bacteria by inhibiting the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates. PMID:24722905

  5. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase promotes gut bacterial growth by reducing the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Madhu S.; Moaven, Omeed; Muhammad, Nur; Biswas, Brishti; Alam, Sayeda N.; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P.; Gul, Sarah Shireen; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R.; Malo, Nondita S.; Teshager, Abeba; Mohamed, Mussa M. Rafat; Tao, Qingsong; Narisawa, Sonoko; Milln, Jos Luis; Hohmann, Elizabeth L.; Warren, H. Shaw; Robson, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in maintaining human health and well-being. Previously, we have shown that mice deficient in the brush-border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) suffer from dysbiosis and that oral IAP supplementation normalizes the gut flora. Here we aimed to decipher the molecular mechanism by which IAP promotes bacterial growth. We used an isolated mouse intestinal loop model to directly examine the effect of exogenous IAP on the growth of specific intestinal bacterial species. We studied the effects of various IAP targets on the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as on a few specific gut organisms. We determined the effects of ATP and other nucleotides on bacterial growth. Furthermore, we examined the effects of IAP on reversing the inhibitory effects of nucleotides on bacterial growth. We have confirmed that local IAP bioactivity creates a luminal environment that promotes the growth of a wide range of commensal organisms. IAP promotes the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and appears to exert its growth promoting effects by inactivating (dephosphorylating) luminal ATP and other luminal nucleotide triphosphates. We observed that compared with wild-type mice, IAP-knockout mice have more ATP in their luminal contents, and exogenous IAP can reverse the ATP-mediated inhibition of bacterial growth in the isolated intestinal loop. In conclusion, IAP appears to promote the growth of intestinal commensal bacteria by inhibiting the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates. PMID:24722905

  6. [Mathematical model of microorganism biomass growth in the absence of a limiting substrate and inhibiting agents].

    PubMed

    Shelykh, I A; Shelegedin, V N

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model for the growth of microbial cells upon submerged cultivation was constructed. The model describes the growth phases of the biomass of microorganisms in the absence of inhibiting agents and limitation by substrate in the medium. At the basis of model is the requirement that cells should not be in physical contact during some time in order that they can divide. The model involves the known concepts of statistical physics. The consequences of the model are discussed. PMID:11094717

  7. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-04-24

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

  8. An analysis of astrocytic cell lines with different abilities to promote axon growth.

    PubMed

    Fok-Seang, J; Smith-Thomas, L C; Meiners, S; Muir, E; Du, J S; Housden, E; Johnson, A R; Faissner, A; Geller, H M; Keynes, R J

    1995-08-21

    The adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) lacks the capacity to support axonal regeneration. There is increasing evidence to suggest that astrocytes, the major glial population in the CNS, may possess both axon-growth promoting and axon-growth inhibitory properties and the latter may contribute to the poor regenerative capacity of the CNS. In order to examine the molecular differences between axon-growth permissive and axon-growth inhibitory astrocytes, a panel of astrocyte cell lines exhibiting a range of axon-growth promoting properties was generated and analysed. No clear correlation was found between the axon-growth promoting properties of these astrocyte cell lines with: (i) the expression of known neurite-outgrowth promoting molecules such as laminin, fibronectin and N-cadherin; (ii) the expression of known inhibitory molecules such tenascin and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan; (iii) plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor activity; and (iv) growth cone collapsing activity. EM studies on aggregates formed from astrocyte cell lines, however, revealed the presence of an abundance of extracellular matrix material associated with the more inhibitory astrocyte cell lines. When matrix deposited by astrocyte cell lines was assessed for axon-growth promoting activity, matrix from permissive lines was found to be a good substrate, whereas matrix from the inhibitory astrocyte lines was a poor substrate for neuritic growth. Our findings, taken together, suggest that the functional differences between the permissive and the inhibitory astrocyte cell lines reside largely with the ECM. PMID:7583324

  9. Syndecan promotes axon regeneration by stabilizing growth cone migration

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Tyson J.; Hammarlund, Marc

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Growth cones facilitate the repair of nervous system damage by providing the driving force for axon regeneration. Using single-neuron laser axotomy and in vivo time-lapse imaging, we show that syndecan, a heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan, is required for growth cone function during axon regeneration in C. elegans. In the absence of syndecan, regenerating growth cones form but are unstable and collapse, decreasing the effective growth rate and impeding regrowth to target cells. We provide evidence that syndecan has two distinct functions during axon regeneration: 1) a canonical function in axon guidance that requires expression outside the nervous system and depends on HS chains, and 2) a novel intrinsic function in growth cone stabilization that is mediated by the syndecan core protein, independently of HS. Thus, syndecan is a novel regulator of a critical choke point in nervous system repair. PMID:25001284

  10. Coccidia-induced mucogenesis promotes the onset of necrotic enteritis by supporting Clostridium perfringens growth.

    PubMed

    Collier, C T; Hofacre, C L; Payne, A M; Anderson, D B; Kaiser, P; Mackie, R I; Gaskins, H R

    2008-03-15

    This study tested the hypothesis that a host mucogenic response to an intestinal coccidial infection promotes the onset of necrotic enteritis (NE). A chick NE model was used in which birds were inoculated with Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima and subsequently with Clostridium perfringens (EAM/CP). A second group of EAM/CP-infected birds was treated with the ionophore narasin (NAR/EAM/CP). These groups were compared to birds that were either non-infected (NIF), or infected only with E. acervulina and E. maxima (EAM), or C. perfringens (CP). The impact of intestinal coccidial infection and anti-coccidial treatment on host immune responses and microbial community structure were evaluated with histochemical-, cultivation- and molecular-based techniques. Barrier function was compromised in EAM/CP-infected birds as indicated by elevated CFUs for anaerobic bacteria and C. perfringens in the spleen when compared to NIF controls at day 20, with a subsequent increase in intestinal NE lesions and mortality at day 22. These results correlate positively with a host inflammatory response as evidenced by increased ileal interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma RNA expression. Concurrent increases in chicken intestinal mucin RNA expression, and goblet cell number and theca size indicate that EAM/CP induced an intestinal mucogenic response. Correspondingly, the growth of mucolytic bacteria and C. perfringens as well as alpha toxin production was greatest in EAM/CP-infected birds. The ionophore narasin, which directly eliminates coccidia, reduced goblet cell theca size, IL-10 and IFN-gamma expression, the growth of mucolytic bacteria including C. perfringens, coccidial and NE lesions and mortality in birds that were co-infected with coccidia and C. perfringens. Collectively the data support the hypothesis that coccidial infection induces a host mucogenic response providing a growth advantage to C. perfringens, the causative agent of NE. PMID:18068809

  11. Maize rhizosphere in Sichuan, China, hosts plant growth promoting Burkholderia cepacia with phosphate solubilizing and antifungal abilities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke; Penttinen, Petri; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ao, Xiaoling; Liu, Maoke; Yu, Xiumei; Chen, Qiang

    2014-01-20

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria promote plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. We isolated twelve bacterial strains showing different degrees of phosphate solubilizing activity from maize rhizosphere. Four isolates solubilized over 300 ?g mL? phosphate from insoluble Ca?(PO?)?, with isolate SCAUK0330 solubilizing over 450 ?g mL?. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis SCAUK0330 was identified as Burkholderia cepacia. SCAUK0330 grew at 10-40 C and pH 4.0-10.0, tolerated up to 5% NaCl, and showed antagonism against nine pathogenic fungi. SCAUK0330 promoted the growth of both healthy and Helminthosporium maydis infected maize plants, indicating that the isolate was a good candidate to be applied as a biofertilizer and a biocontrol agent under a wide range of environmental conditions.The expression of a single SCAUK0330 gene gave E. coli a pH decrease linked ability to solubilize phosphate. The nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences of this phosphate solubilization linked gene showed high degree of sequence identity with B. cepacia E37gabY. The production of gluconic acid is considered as the principle mechanism for phosphate solubilization. In agreement with the proposed periplasmic location of the gluconic acid production, the predicted signal peptide and transmembrane regions implied that GabY is membrane bound. PMID:23932330

  12. Evaluation of Phytase Producing Bacteria for Their Plant Growth Promoting Activities

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prashant; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076–0.174 U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal activity. All isolates were positive for the above characteristics except for HCN production. The solubilization index for phosphorus on Pikovskaya agar plates was in the range of 2–4. Significant amount of IAA (7.19 to 35.03 μg/mL) production and solubilized phosphate (189.53 to 746.84 μg/mL) was noticed by these isolates at different time intervals. Besides that, a greenhouse study was also conducted with Indian mustard to evaluate the potential of these isolates to promote plant growth. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters and P uptake by plant were used as indicators. The plant growth promoting ability of bacterial isolates in pot experiments was correlated to IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and other in vitro tests. On the basis of present findings, isolate PB-06 was most promising in plant growth promotion with multiple growth promoting characteristics. PMID:24669222

  13. Evaluation of phytase producing bacteria for their plant growth promoting activities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant; Kumar, Vinod; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076-0.174 U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal activity. All isolates were positive for the above characteristics except for HCN production. The solubilization index for phosphorus on Pikovskaya agar plates was in the range of 2-4. Significant amount of IAA (7.19 to 35.03  μ g/mL) production and solubilized phosphate (189.53 to 746.84  μ g/mL) was noticed by these isolates at different time intervals. Besides that, a greenhouse study was also conducted with Indian mustard to evaluate the potential of these isolates to promote plant growth. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters and P uptake by plant were used as indicators. The plant growth promoting ability of bacterial isolates in pot experiments was correlated to IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and other in vitro tests. On the basis of present findings, isolate PB-06 was most promising in plant growth promotion with multiple growth promoting characteristics. PMID:24669222

  14. Thymidine Phosphorylase is Angiogenic and Promotes Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, Amir; Zhang, Hua-Tang; Fan, Tai-Ping D.; Hu, De-En; Lees, Vivien C.; Turley, Helen; Fox, Stephen B.; Gatter, Kevin C.; Harris, Adrian L.; Bicknell, Roy

    1995-02-01

    Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor was previously identified as the sole angiogenic activity present in platelets; it is now known to be thymidine phosphorylase (TP). The effect of TP on [methyl-^3H]thymidine uptake does not arise from de novo DNA synthesis and the molecule is not a growth factor. Despite this, TP is strongly angiogenic in a rat sponge and freeze-injured skin graft model. Neutralizing antibodies and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the enzyme activity of TP is a condition for its angiogenic activity. The level of TP was found to be elevated in human breast tumors compared to normal breast tissue (P < 0.001). Overexpression of TP in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells had no effect on growth in vitro but markedly enhanced tumor growth in vivo. These data and the correlation of expression in tumors with malignancy identify TP as a target for antitumor strategies.

  15. Talk That Book: Booktalks To Promote Reading. Professional Growth Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Carol

    Offering over 300 successful "booktalks" for librarians, teachers, and parents, this book shows how to "hook" reluctant readers onto books. The field-tested booktalks (brief "commercials" for books that give just enough information to promote reading the book) are divided into three reading levels: elementary, middle school, and high school/adult,

  16. Plant Hormones Promote Growth in Lichen-Forming Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin Yu; Wei, Xin Li; Luo, Heng; Kim, Jung A; Jeon, Hae Sook; Koh, Young Jin

    2010-01-01

    The effect of plant hormones on the growth of lichen-forming fungi (LFF) was evaluated. The use of 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and indole-3-butyric acid resulted in a 99% and 57% increase in dry weight of the lichen-forming fungus Nephromopsis ornata. The results suggest that some plant hormones can be used as inducers or stimulators of LFF growth for large-scale culture. PMID:23956650

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pantoea sp. Strain AS-PWVM4

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Indu; Kaur, Sukhvir; Devi, Usha; Kumar, Navinder; Sharma, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Nonpathogenic Pantoea spp. have been shown to confer biofertilizer and biocontrol activities, indicating their potential for increasing crop yield. Herein, we provide the high-quality genome sequence of Pantoea sp. strain AS-PWVM4, a Gram-negative motile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium isolated from a pomegranate plant. The 4.9-Mb genome contains genes related to plant growth promotion and the synthesis of siderophores. PMID:24309733

  18. Complete genome of Planococcus rifietoensis M8(T), a halotolerant and potentially plant growth promoting bacterium.

    PubMed

    See-Too, Wah-Seng; Convey, Peter; Pearce, David A; Lim, Yan Lue; Ee, Robson; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-03-10

    Planococcus rifietoensis M8(T) (=DSM 15069(T)=ATCC BAA-790(T)) is a halotolerant bacterium with potential plant growth promoting properties isolated from an algal mat collected from a sulfurous spring in Campania (Italy). This paper presents the first complete genome of P. rifietoensis M8(T). Genes coding for various potentially plant growth promoting properties were identified within its genome. PMID:26808870

  19. Making Just Tenure and Promotion Decisions Using the Objective Knowledge Growth Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitpin, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to utilize the Objective Knowledge Growth Framework (OKGF) to promote a better understanding of the evaluating tenure and promotion processes. Design/Methodology/Approach: A scenario is created to illustrate the concept of using OKGF. Findings: The framework aims to support decision makers in identifying the…

  20. Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

  1. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor Treatment Promotes VEGF-A-Driven Blood Vessel Growth and Vascular Leakage but Disrupts Neovascular Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Kalén, Mattias; Nitzsche, Anja; Weber, Holger; Esser, Norbert; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Hellström, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is essential for normal development due to its role in control of cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. It is also critically involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. A key enzyme in the activation of Notch signaling is the gamma-secretase protein complex and therefore, gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs)—originally developed for Alzheimer's disease—are now being evaluated in clinical trials for human malignancies. It is also clear that Notch plays an important role in angiogenesis driven by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A)—a process instrumental for tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of GSIs on tumor vasculature has not been conclusively determined. Here we report that Compound X (CX), a GSI previously reported to potently inhibit Notch signaling in vitro and in vivo, promotes angiogenic sprouting in vitro and during developmental angiogenesis in mice. Furthermore, CX treatment suppresses tumor growth in a mouse model of renal carcinoma, leads to the formation of abnormal vessels and an increased tumor vascular density. Using a rabbit model of VEGF-A-driven angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, we demonstrate that CX treatment promotes abnormal blood vessel growth characterized by vessel occlusion, disrupted blood flow, and increased vascular leakage. Based on these findings, we propose a model for how GSIs and other Notch inhibitors disrupt tumor blood vessel perfusion, which might be useful for understanding this new class of anti-cancer agents. PMID:21533193

  2. The Methylation of the TSC2 Promoter Underlies the Abnormal Growth of TSC2 Angiomyolipoma-Derived Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lesma, Elena; Sirchia, Silvia Maria; Ancona, Silvia; Carelli, Stephana; Bosari, Silvano; Ghelma, Filippo; Montanari, Emanuele; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal-dominant disease that is caused by mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. Smooth muscle-like cells (ASMs) were isolated from an angiomyolipoma of a patient with TSC. These cells lacked tuberin, were labeled by both HMB45 and CD44v6 antibodies, and had constitutive S6 phosphorylation. The cells bear a germline TSC2 intron 8-exon 9 junction mutation, but DNA analysis and polymerase chain reaction amplification failed to demonstrate loss of heterozygosity. Testing for an epigenetic alteration, we detected methylation of the TSC2 promoter. Its biological relevance was confirmed by tuberin expression and a reduction in HMB45 labeling and S6 constitutive phosphorylation after exposure to the chromatin-remodeling agents, trichostatin A and 5-azacytidine. These cells were named TSC2?/meth ASMs. Their proliferation required epidermal growth factor in the medium as previously described for TSC2?/? ASMs. Blockade of epidermal growth factor with monoclonal antibodies caused the death of TSC2?/meth ASMs. In addition, rapamycin effectively blocked the proliferation of these cells. Our data show for the first time that methylation of the TSC2 promoter might cause a complete loss of tuberin in TSC2 cells, and that the pathogenesis of angiomyolipomas might also originate from epigenetic defects in smooth muscle cells. Additionally, the effect of chromatin-remodeling agents in these cells suggests a further avenue for the treatment of TSC as well as lymphangioleiomyomatosis. PMID:19443708

  3. Biodiversity promotes tree growth during succession in subtropical forest.

    PubMed

    Barrufol, Martin; Schmid, Bernhard; Bruelheide, Helge; Chi, Xiulian; Hector, Andrew; Ma, Keping; Michalski, Stefan; Tang, Zhiyao; Niklaus, Pascal A

    2013-01-01

    Losses of plant species diversity can affect ecosystem functioning, with decreased primary productivity being the most frequently reported effect in experimental plant assemblages, including tree plantations. Less is known about the role of biodiversity in natural ecosystems, including forests, despite their importance for global biogeochemical cycling and climate. In general, experimental manipulations of tree diversity will take decades to yield final results. To date, biodiversity effects in natural forests therefore have only been reported from sample surveys or meta-analyses with plots not initially selected for diversity. We studied biomass and growth of subtropical forests stands in southeastern China. Taking advantage of variation in species recruitment during secondary succession, we adopted a comparative study design selecting forest plots to span a gradient in species richness. We repeatedly censored the stem diameter of two tree size cohorts, comprising 93 species belonging to 57 genera and 33 families. Tree size and growth were analyzed in dependence of species richness, the functional diversity of growth-related traits, and phylogenetic diversity, using both general linear and structural equation modeling. Successional age covaried with diversity, but differently so in the two size cohorts. Plot-level stem basal area and growth were positively related with species richness, while growth was negatively related to successional age. The productivity increase in species-rich, functionally and phylogenetically diverse plots was driven by both larger mean sizes and larger numbers of trees. The biodiversity effects we report exceed those from experimental studies, sample surveys and meta-analyses, suggesting that subtropical tree diversity is an important driver of forest productivity and re-growth after disturbance that supports the provision of ecological services by these ecosystems. PMID:24303037

  4. P-selectin-mediated platelet adhesion promotes tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cuiling; Wei, Bo; Zhou, Weijie; Yang, Yang; Li, Bin; Guo, Simei; Li, Jialin; Ye, Jie; Li, Jiangchao; Zhang, Qianqian; Lan, Tian; He, Xiaodong; Cao, Liu; Zhou, Jia; Geng, Jianguo; Wang, Lijing

    2015-03-30

    Blood platelets foster carcinogenesis. We found that platelets are accumulated in human tumors. P-selectin deficiency and soluble P-selectin abolish platelet deposition within tumors, decreasing secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis, thereby suppressing tumor growth. Binding of the P-selectin cytoplasmic tail to talin1 triggers the talin1 N-terminal head to interact with the ?3 cytoplasmic tail. This activates ?IIb?3 and recruits platelets into tumors. Platelet infiltration into solid tumors occurs through a P-selectin-dependent mechanism. PMID:25762641

  5. Involvement of Quinolinate Phosphoribosyl Transferase in Promotion of Potato Growth by a Burkholderia Strain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Keri; Conn, Kenneth; Lazarovits, George

    2006-01-01

    Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN stimulates root growth of potato explants compared to uninoculated controls under gnotobiotic conditions. In order to determine the mechanism by which this growth stimulation occurs, we used Tn5 mutagenesis to produce a mutant, H41, which exhibited no growth-promoting activity but was able to colonize potato plants as well as the wild-type strain. The gene associated with the loss of growth promotion in H41 was shown to exhibit 65% identity at the amino acid level to the nadC gene encoding quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QAPRTase) in Ralstonia solanacearum. Complementation of H41 with QAPRTase restored growth promotion of potato explants by this mutant. Expression of the gene identified in Escherichia coli yielded a protein with QAPRTase activities that catalyzed the de novo formation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN). Two other genes involved in the same enzymatic pathway, nadA and nadB, were physically linked to nadC. The nadA gene was cotranscribed with nadC as an operon in wild-type strain PsJN, while the nadB gene was located downstream of the nadA-nadC operon. Growth promotion by H41 was fully restored by addition of NaMN to the tissue culture medium. These data suggested that QAPRTase may play a role in the signal pathway for promotion of plant growth by PsJN. PMID:16391116

  6. Involvement of quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase in promotion of potato growth by a Burkholderia strain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Keri; Conn, Kenneth; Lazarovits, George

    2006-01-01

    Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN stimulates root growth of potato explants compared to uninoculated controls under gnotobiotic conditions. In order to determine the mechanism by which this growth stimulation occurs, we used Tn5 mutagenesis to produce a mutant, H41, which exhibited no growth-promoting activity but was able to colonize potato plants as well as the wild-type strain. The gene associated with the loss of growth promotion in H41 was shown to exhibit 65% identity at the amino acid level to the nadC gene encoding quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QAPRTase) in Ralstonia solanacearum. Complementation of H41 with QAPRTase restored growth promotion of potato explants by this mutant. Expression of the gene identified in Escherichia coli yielded a protein with QAPRTase activities that catalyzed the de novo formation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN). Two other genes involved in the same enzymatic pathway, nadA and nadB, were physically linked to nadC. The nadA gene was cotranscribed with nadC as an operon in wild-type strain PsJN, while the nadB gene was located downstream of the nadA-nadC operon. Growth promotion by H41 was fully restored by addition of NaMN to the tissue culture medium. These data suggested that QAPRTase may play a role in the signal pathway for promotion of plant growth by PsJN. PMID:16391116

  7. Carcinogenic Parasite Secretes Growth Factor That Accelerates Wound Healing and Potentially Promotes Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Smout, Michael J.; Sotillo, Javier; Laha, Thewarach; Papatpremsiri, Atiroch; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Pimenta, Rafael N.; Chan, Lai Yue; Johnson, Michael S.; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Giacomin, Paul R.; Moran, Corey S.; Golledge, Jonathan; Daly, Norelle; Sripa, Banchob; Mulvenna, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infection with the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini induces cancer of the bile ducts, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Injury from feeding activities of this parasite within the human biliary tree causes extensive lesions, wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing, and re-injury over years of chronic infection. We show that O. viverrini secreted proteins accelerated wound resolution in human cholangiocytes, an outcome that was compromised following silencing of expression of the fluke-derived gene encoding the granulin-like growth factor, Ov-GRN-1. Recombinant Ov-GRN-1 induced angiogenesis and accelerated mouse wound healing. Ov-GRN-1 was internalized by human cholangiocytes and induced gene and protein expression changes associated with wound healing and cancer pathways. Given the notable but seemingly paradoxical properties of liver fluke granulin in promoting not only wound healing but also a carcinogenic microenvironment, Ov-GRN-1 likely holds marked potential as a therapeutic wound-healing agent and as a vaccine against an infection-induced cancer of major public health significance in the developing world. PMID:26485648

  8. Carcinogenic Parasite Secretes Growth Factor That Accelerates Wound Healing and Potentially Promotes Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Smout, Michael J; Sotillo, Javier; Laha, Thewarach; Papatpremsiri, Atiroch; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Pimenta, Rafael N; Chan, Lai Yue; Johnson, Michael S; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Giacomin, Paul R; Moran, Corey S; Golledge, Jonathan; Daly, Norelle; Sripa, Banchob; Mulvenna, Jason P; Brindley, Paul J; Loukas, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Infection with the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini induces cancer of the bile ducts, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Injury from feeding activities of this parasite within the human biliary tree causes extensive lesions, wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing, and re-injury over years of chronic infection. We show that O. viverrini secreted proteins accelerated wound resolution in human cholangiocytes, an outcome that was compromised following silencing of expression of the fluke-derived gene encoding the granulin-like growth factor, Ov-GRN-1. Recombinant Ov-GRN-1 induced angiogenesis and accelerated mouse wound healing. Ov-GRN-1 was internalized by human cholangiocytes and induced gene and protein expression changes associated with wound healing and cancer pathways. Given the notable but seemingly paradoxical properties of liver fluke granulin in promoting not only wound healing but also a carcinogenic microenvironment, Ov-GRN-1 likely holds marked potential as a therapeutic wound-healing agent and as a vaccine against an infection-induced cancer of major public health significance in the developing world. PMID:26485648

  9. Antifungal, insecticidal, and plant growth promoting potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Talwinder; Manhas, Rajesh Kumari

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, an actinobacterium strain, possessing antagonistic activity against different fungal phytopathogens viz. Colletotrichum acutatum, Cladosporium herbarum, Alternaria brassicicola, Exserohilum sp., Alternaria mali, Colletotrichum gleospoiroides, Alternaria alternata, Cercospora sp., Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and Fusarium moniliformae, was isolated from soil and identified as Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16. Application of culture supernatant (5%)/cells (10(7) ?cfu?ml(-1) ), 2?h post inoculation with A. brassicicola (10(5) ?spores?ml(-1) ), resulted in 85.95 and 93.75% suppression of black leaf spot of Raphanus sativus, respectively on detached leaves. Whereas cells/culture supernatant (above 5%) completely suppressed the disease incidence when co inoculated with fungal pathogen. The crude extract containing antifungal components was completely stable at 70?C for 1?h retaining 90 and 67.67% activity after boiling (for 1?h) and autoclaving (121?C for 30?min), respectively. No loss in activity was observed when treated with proteinase K and on exposure to sun and UV light and found to be active over a wide range of pH (2 to 14). Bioautography of the solvent extract against test phytopathogens revealed the presence of three active components. Ethyl acetate extract of DH16 also demonstrated insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura, causing 40% larval mortality and extension of larval period. In addition, it produced 30?g?ml(-1) of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) in a medium containing tryptophan which promoted lateral root formation in Vigna radiata (green gram). These results indicate that Streptomyces hydrogenans holds the potential to be used as antifungal, insecticidal, and plant growth promoting agent. PMID:23765423

  10. The effect of complexing agents on the oriented growth of electrodeposited microcrystalline cuprous oxide film

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhen; Hu, Wenbin; Deng, Yida; Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Haoren; Wu, Yating; Liu, Lei

    2012-09-15

    Highlight: ? Cu{sub 2}O microcrystalline film is electrodeposited on ITO with complexing agents. ? As the stability constant increasing, the overpotential is negatively shifted. ? The formation energy of different planes is affected by overpotential. ? The overpotential can significantly alter the growth priority of different planes. ? The morphology of Cu{sub 2}O film is significantly modified by complexing agents. -- Abstract: Three conventional complexing agents, including lactic acid, citric acid and EDTA, are applied in the electrodeposition of microcrystalline cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) film on indium tin oxide glass substrate. Both scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction have been performed to characterize the morphology and texture of microcrystalline Cu{sub 2}O film. It is found that the stability constant of copper-based complex compound can obviously influence the deposition overpotential of Cu{sub 2}O, and the overpotential can significantly alter the growth priority of different planes, which results in oriented growth of Cu{sub 2}O grains. The quantitative relationships between the stability constant and the deposition overpotential of different complexing agents, as well as the relationship between the overpotential and the formation energy of microcrystalline cuprous oxide's (1 1 0), (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) planes are calculated, respectively.

  11. Evaluation of Promalin to promote growth of young mangosteen seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major impediment to the development of a mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) industry is the long pre-bearing stage that seedlings take to produce fruits. A field study was conducted to determine the effect of Promalin on the growth of mangosteen seedlings. Promalin was applied as a foliar spray...

  12. Polluted dust promotes new particle formation and growth

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Wei; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; George, Christian; Xue, Likun; Wang, Wenxing; Zhang, Qingzhu; Petj, Tuukka; Qi, Ximeng; Gao, Xiaomei; Wang, Xinfeng; Yang, Xiuqun; Fu, Congbin; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Understanding new particle formation and their subsequent growth in the troposphere has a critical impact on our ability to predict atmospheric composition and global climate change. High pre-existing particle loadings have been thought to suppress the formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles due to high condensation and coagulation sinks. Here, based on field measurements at a mountain site in South China, we report, for the first time, in situ observational evidence on new particle formation and growth in remote ambient atmosphere during heavy dust episodes mixed with anthropogenic pollution. Both the formation and growth rates of particles in the diameter range 1550?nm were enhanced during the dust episodes, indicating the influence of photo-induced, dust surface-mediated reactions and resulting condensable vapor production. This study provides unique in situ observations of heterogeneous photochemical processes inducing new particle formation and growth in the real atmosphere, and suggests an unexpected impact of mineral dust on climate and atmospheric chemistry. PMID:25319109

  13. Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in Mexico (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

    2013-11-01

    Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, with rapid growth occurring in the industrial and services sectors. A forward-thinking country on climate change, the nation recognizes that the threat of higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent weather-related disasters could pose a substantial risk to its expanding economy.

  14. Obesity promotes melanoma tumor growth: Role of leptin

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Elizabeth L.; Gu, Jian-Wei; Cantwell, Lauren; He, Zhi; Wallace, Gray; Hall, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that obesity increases the risk of developing several cancers, including melanoma. Obesity increases the expression of angiogenic factors, such as leptin, that may contribute to tumor growth. However, a direct cause and effect relationship between obesity and tumor growth has not been clearly established and the role of leptin in accelerating tumor growth is unclear. Our objective in the present study was to examine the rate of melanoma tumor growth in lean and obese mice with leptin deficiency or high levels of plasma leptin. We injected 1 106 B16F10 melanoma cells subcutaneously into lean wild type (WT), obese melanocortin receptor 4 knockout (MC4R?/?), which have high leptin levels, obese leptin-deficient(ob ?/?), pair fed lean ob?/?, and lean ob+/? mice. Mean body weights were 29.7 0.3 g (WT), 46.3 1.9 g (MC4R?/?), 63.7 0.9 g (ob?/?), 30.5 1.0 g (pair fed ob?/?) and 31.6 1.7 g (ob+/?). Tumors were much larger in the obese leptin deficientob?/? (5.1 0.9 g) and obese MC4R?/? (5.1 0.7 g) than in lean WT (1.9 0.3 g) and ob+/? (2.8 0.7 g) mice. prevention of obesity by pair feeding ob?/? mice dramatically reduced tumor weight (0.95 0.2 g) to a level that was significantly lower than in WT mice of the same weight. Tumor VEGF levels were the highest in the obese mouse tumors (p < 0.05), regardless of the host leptin levels. Except for the lean ob+/?, MC4R?/? and ob?/? melanomas had the highest VEGF receptor 1 and VEGF receptor 2 protein expression (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05), respectively. These results indicate that obesity markedly increases melanoma tumor growth rate by mechanisms that may involve upregulation of VEGF pathways. although tumor growth does not require host leptin, melanoma tumor growth may be accelerated by leptin. PMID:19713740

  15. c-Raf promotes angiogenesis during normal growth plate maturation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Eva S; Raimann, Adalbert; Chae, Byongsoo Timothy; Martins, Janaina S; Baccarini, Manuela; Demay, Marie B

    2016-01-15

    Extracellular phosphate plays a key role in growth plate maturation by inducing Erk1/2 (Mapk3/1) phosphorylation, leading to hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis. The Raf kinases induce Mek1/2 (Map2k1/2) and Erk1/2 phosphorylation; however, a role for Raf kinases in endochondral bone formation has not been identified. Ablation of both A-Raf (Araf) and B-Raf (Braf) in chondrocytes does not alter growth plate maturation. Because c-Raf (Raf1) phosphorylation is increased by extracellular phosphate and c-Raf is the predominant isoform expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes, chondrocyte-specific c-Raf knockout mice (c-Raf(f/f);ColII-Cre(+)) were generated to define a role for c-Raf in growth plate maturation. In vivo studies demonstrated that loss of c-Raf in chondrocytes leads to expansion of the hypertrophic layer of the growth plate, with decreased phospho-Erk1/2 immunoreactivity and impaired hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis. However, cultured hypertrophic chondrocytes from these mice did not exhibit impairment of phosphate-induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Studies performed to reconcile the discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo hypertrophic chondrocyte phenotypes revealed normal chondrocyte differentiation in c-Raf(f/f);ColII-Cre(+) mice and lack of compensatory increase in the expression of A-Raf and B-Raf. However, VEGF (Vegfa) immunoreactivity in the hypertrophic chondrocytes of c-Raf(f/f);ColII-Cre(+) mice was significantly reduced, associated with increased ubiquitylation of VEGF protein. Thus, c-Raf plays an important role in growth plate maturation by regulating vascular invasion, which is crucial for replacement of terminally differentiated hypertrophic chondrocytes by bone. PMID:26657770

  16. Effects of spill-treating agents on growth kinetics of marine microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Murado, Miguel A; Menduiña, Araceli; Fuciños, Pablo; González, Pilar; Mirón, Jesús; Vázquez, José A

    2013-12-15

    The effects of four spill-treating agents (STAs) (CytoSol, Finasol(®) OSR 51, Agma OSD 569 and OD4000) on the growth kinetics of three marine microalgae (Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) were studied. Chlorophyll a concentration and optical density at 700 nm were assessed to describe the logistic growth of algae in batch cultures. The optical density data were initially analyzed as described for standard algal growth inhibition tests and subsequently modelled by a bivariate model, as a function of time and dose, to assess the toxic effects on growth parameters. Increasing trends in EC50 and EC10 values with time were found with the standard approach. In 8 of the 11 tests, the lag phase (λ) or the time required to achieve half the maximum biomass (τ) was significantly dependent on the STA concentration. A global parameter (EC50,τ) was calculated to summarize the effects of STAs on growth parameters in the bivariate model. The ranking of sensitivity as EC50,τ values was I. galbana>C. gracilis>P. tricornutum. For all species tested, the least toxic agent was Agma OSD 569, followed by CytoSol. The mathematical model allowed successful ecotoxicological evaluation of chemicals on microalgal growth. PMID:23911058

  17. Complete Genome of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1▿

    PubMed Central

    Matilla, Miguel A.; Pizarro-Tobias, Paloma; Roca, Amalia; Fernández, Matilde; Duque, Estrella; Molina, Lázaro; Wu, Xiao; van der Lelie, Daniel; Gómez, Manuel J.; Segura, Ana; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2011-01-01

    We report the complete sequence of the 5.7-Mbp genome of Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1, a metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that is highly tolerant to desiccation and capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and iron and of synthesizing phytohormones that stimulate seed germination and plant growth. PMID:21183676

  18. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BS006.

    PubMed

    Gamez, Roco M; Rodrguez, Fernando; Bernal, Johan F; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mario-Ramrez, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences encode genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized antibacterial peptides, in addition to genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds. PMID:26607897

  19. Complete Genome of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1

    SciTech Connect

    Matilla, M.A.; van der Lelie, D.; Pizarro-Tobias, P.; Roca, A.; Fernandez, M.; Duque, E.; Molina, L.; Wu, X.; Gomez, M. J.; Segura, A.; Ramos, J.-L.

    2011-03-01

    We report the complete sequence of the 5.7-Mbp genome of Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1, a metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that is highly tolerant to desiccation and capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and iron and of synthesizing phytohormones that stimulate seed germination and plant growth.

  20. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BS006

    PubMed Central

    Gamez, Rocío M.; Rodríguez, Fernando; Bernal, Johan F.; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences encode genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized antibacterial peptides, in addition to genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds. PMID:26607897

  1. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Passari, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Saikia, Ratul; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using DNA based fingerprinting, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and BOX repetitive elements. Genetic relatedness based on both ERIC and BOX-PCR generates specific patterns corresponding to particular genotypes. Exponentially grown antagonistic isolates were used to evaluate phosphate solubilization, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, chitinase, indole-3-acetic acid production, as well as antifungal activities. Out of 22 isolates, the amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) ranging between 10–32 μg/ml was produced by 20 isolates and all isolates were positive for ammonia production ranging between 5.2 to 54 mg/ml. Among 22 isolates tested, the amount of hydroxamate-type siderophores were produced by 16 isolates ranging between 5.2 to 36.4 μg/ml, while catechols-type siderophores produced by 5 isolates ranging from 3.2 to 5.4 μg/ml. Fourteen isolates showed the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous ranging from 3.2 to 32.6 mg/100ml. Chitinase and HCN production was shown by 19 and 15 different isolates, respectively. In addition, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM) and chitinase (chiC) were successively amplified from 20 and 19 isolates respectively. The two potential strains Streptomyces sp. (BPSAC34) and Leifsonia xyli (BPSAC24) were tested in vivo and improved a range of growth parameters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) under greenhouse conditions. This study is the first published report that actinomycetes can be isolated as endophytes from within these plants and were shown to have antagonistic and plant growth promoting abilities. These results clearly suggest the possibility of using endophytic actinomycetes as bioinoculant for plant growth promotion, nutrient mobilization or as biocontrol agent against fungal phytopathogens for sustainable agriculture. PMID:26422789

  2. A constitutive promoter directs expression of the nerve growth factor receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, A; Patil, N; Chao, M

    1988-01-01

    Expression of nerve growth factor receptor is normally restricted to cells derived from the neural crest in a developmentally regulated manner. We analyzed promoter sequences for the human nerve growth factor receptor gene and found that the receptor promoter resembles others which are associated with constitutively expressed genes that have housekeeping and growth-related functions. Unlike these other genes, the initiation of transcription occurred at one major site rather than at multiple sites. The constitutive nature of the nerve growth factor receptor promoter may account for the ability of this gene to be transcribed in a diverse number of heterologous cells after gene transfer. The intron-exon structure of the receptor gene indicated that structural features are precisely divided into discrete domains. Images PMID:2850481

  3. Mechanisms behind bacteria induced plant growth promotion and Zn accumulation in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Adediran, Gbotemi A; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Heal, Kate V; Harvie, Barbra A

    2015-01-01

    The growth and metal-extraction efficiency of plants exposed to toxic metals has been reported to be enhanced by inoculating plants with certain bacteria but the mechanisms behind this process remain unclear. We report results from glasshouse experiments on Brassica juncea plants exposed to 400mgZnkg(-1) that investigated the abilities of Pseudomonas brassicacearum and Rhizobium leguminosarum to promote growth, coupled with synchrotron based ?XANES analysis to probe Zn speciation in the plant roots. P. brassicacearum exhibited the poorest plant growth promoting ability, while R. leguminosarum alone and in combination with P. brassicacearum enhanced plant growth and Zn phytoextraction. Reduced growth in un-inoculated plants was attributed to accumulation of Zn oxalate and Zn sulfate in roots. In plants inoculated with P. brassicacearum the high concentration of Zn polygalacturonic acid in the root may be responsible for the stunted growth and reduced Zn phytoextraction. The improved growth and increased metal accumulation observed in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum and in combination with P. brassicacearum was attributed to the storage of Zn in the form of Zn phytate and Zn cysteine in the root. When combined with the observation that both bacteria do not statistically improve B. juncea growth in the absence of Zn, this work suggests that bacteria-induced metal chelation is the key mechanism of plant growth promoting bacteria in toxicity attenuation and microbial-assisted phytoremediation. PMID:25464287

  4. CEACAM1 promotes melanoma cell growth through Sox-2.

    PubMed

    Ortenberg, Rona; Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Greenberg, Ilanit; Zamlin, Bella; Sapoznik, Sivan; Greenberg, Eyal; Barshack, Iris; Avivi, Camila; Feiler, Yulia; Zan-Bar, Israel; Besser, Michal J; Azizi, Ester; Eitan, Friedman; Schachter, Jacob; Markel, Gal

    2014-05-01

    The prognostic value of the carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in melanoma was demonstrated more than a decade ago as superior to Breslow score. We have previously shown that intercellular homophilic CEACAM1 interactions protect melanoma cells from lymphocyte-mediated elimination. Here, we study the direct effects of CEACAM1 on melanoma cell biology. By employing tissue microarrays and low-passage primary cultures of metastatic melanoma, we show that CEACAM1 expression gradually increases from nevi to metastatic specimens, with a strong dominance of the CEACAM1-Long tail splice variant. Using experimental systems of CEACAM1 knockdown and overexpression of selective variants or truncation mutants, we prove that only the full-length long tail variant enhances melanoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. This effect is not reversed with a CEACAM1-blocking antibody, suggesting that it is not mediated by intercellular homophilic interactions. Downstream, CEACAM1-Long increases the expression of Sox-2, which we show to be responsible for the CEACAM1-mediated enhanced proliferation. Furthermore, analysis of the CEACAM1 promoter reveals two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly enhance the promoter's activity compared with the consensus nucleotides. Importantly, case-control genetic SNP analysis of 134 patients with melanoma and matched healthy donors show that patients with melanoma do not exhibit the Hardy-Weinberg balance and that homozygous SNP genotype enhances the hazard ratio to develop melanoma by 35%. These observations shed new mechanistic light on the role of CEACAM1 in melanoma, forming the basis for development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic technologies. PMID:24931667

  5. Colonization and plant growth promoting characterization of endophytic Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain Zong1 isolated from Sophora alopecuroides root nodules

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Long Fei; Xu, Ya Jun; Ma, Zhan Qiang; Deng, Zhen Shan; Shan, Chang Juan; Wei, Ge Hong

    2013-01-01

    The endophytic strain Zong1 isolated from root nodules of the legume Sophora alopecuroides was characterized by conducting physiological and biochemical tests employing gfp-marking, observing their plant growth promoting characteristics (PGPC) and detecting plant growth parameters of inoculation assays under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that strain Zong1 had an effective growth at 28 C after placed at 460 C for 15 min, had a wide range pH tolerance of 6.011.0 and salt tolerance up to 5% of NaCl. Zong1 was resistant to the following antibiotics (?g/mL): Phosphonomycin (100), Penicillin (100) and Ampicillin (100). It could grow in the medium supplemented with 1.2 mmol/L Cu, 0.1% (w/v) methylene blue and 0.10.2% (w/v) methyl red, respectively. Zong1 is closely related to Pseudomonas chlororaphis based on analysis the sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Its expression of the gfp gene indicated that strain Zong1 may colonize in root or root nodules and verified by microscopic observation. Furthermore, co-inoculation with Zong1 and SQ1 (Mesorhizobium sp.) showed significant effects compared to single inoculation for the following PGPC parameters: siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, organic acid production, IAA production and antifungal activity in vitro. These results suggest strains P. chlororaphi Zong1 and Mesorhizobium sp. SQ1 have better synergistic or addictive effect. It was noteworthy that each growth index of co-inoculated Zong1+SQ1 in growth assays under greenhouse conditions is higher than those of single inoculation, and showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared to a negative control. Therefore, as an endophyte P. chlororaphis Zong1 may play important roles as a potential plant-growth promoting agent. PMID:24294262

  6. Partner switching promotes cooperation among myopic agents on a geographical plane.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixiao; Min, Yong; Zhu, Xiaodong; Cao, Jie

    2013-02-01

    We study the coupling dynamics between the evolution of cooperation and the evolution of partnership network on a geographical plane. While agents play networked prisoner's dilemma games, they can dynamically adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputation. We incorporate geographical features into the process of the agent's partner switching and investigate the corresponding effects. At each time step of the coevolution, a random agent can either update his strategy by imitation or adjust his partnership by switching from the lowest reputation partner to the highest reputation one among his neighbors. We differentiate two types of neighbors: geographical neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in terms of geographical distance) and connectivity neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in the partnership network in terms of geodesic distance). We find that switching to either geographical neighbors or connectivity neighbors enhances cooperation greatly in a wide parameter range. Cooperation can be favored in a much stricter condition when agents switch to connectivity neighbors more frequently. However, an increasing tendency of reconnecting to geographical neighbors shortens the geographical distance between a pair of partners on average. When agents consider the cost of geographical distance in adjusting the partnership, they are prone to reconnect to geographical neighbors. PMID:23496584

  7. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha- vs. growth factor deprivation-promoted cell death: different receptor requirements for mediating nerve growth factor-promoted rescue.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Todd C; Decorti, Francesco; Macdonald, Nancy J; Neet, Kenneth E; Taglialatela, Giulio

    2003-04-01

    Physiological and pathological aging of the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by functional neuronal impairments which may lead to perturbed cell homeostasis and eventually to neuronal death. Many toxic events may underlie age-related neurodegeneration. These include the effects of beta amyloid, Tau and mutated presenilin proteins, free radicals and oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lack of growth factor support, which can be individually or collectively involved. Taken individually, these toxicants can induce very diverse cell responses, thus requiring individually targeted corrective interventions upstream of common cell death (apoptotic) pathways. Recent preliminary evidence suggests that the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and growth factor withdrawal can both activate a common apoptotic pathway in nerve growth factor (NGF)-responsive PC12 cells involving caspase 3, albeit through very distinct upstream pathways: the former through active signalling and the latter through passive or lack of survival signalling. Here, we show that NGF can rescue PC12 cells from both growth factor withdrawal- and TNFalpha-promoted cell death. However, NGF rescue from growth factor withdrawal requires NGF signalling through the high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor (TrkA), while NGF rescue from TNFalpha-promoted cell death requires NGF signalling through the low-affinity p75NTR receptor. These results strengthen the idea that prevention of age- or pathology-associated neurodegeneration may require varied molecular approaches reflecting the diversity of the toxicants involved, possibly acting simultaneously. PMID:12882321

  8. Agents.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2002-01-01

    Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists. PMID:12132261

  9. Isolation of Pantoea ananatis from sugarcane and characterization of its potential for plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J F; Barbosa, R R; de Souza, A N; da Motta, O V; Teixeira, G N; Carvalho, V S; de Souza, A L S R; de Souza Filho, G A

    2015-01-01

    Each year, approximately 170 million metric tons of chemical fertilizer are consumed by global agriculture. Furthermore, some chemical fertilizers contain toxic by-products and their long-term use may contaminate groundwater, lakes, and rivers. The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria may be a cost-effective strategy for partially replacing conventional chemical fertilizers, and may become an integrated plant nutrient solution for sustainable crop production. The main direct bacteria-activated mechanisms of plant growth promotion are based on improvement of nutrient acquisition, siderophore biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and hormonal stimulation. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify bacteria with growth-promoting activities from sugarcane. We extracted the bacterial isolate SCB4789F-1 from sugarcane leaves and characterized it with regard to its profile of growth-promoting activities, including its ability to colonize Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this isolate was identified as Pantoea ananatis. The bacteria were efficient at phosphate and zinc solubilization, and production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid in vitro. The isolate was characterized by Gram staining, resistance to antibiotics, and use of carbon sources. This is the first report on zinc solubilization in vitro by this bacterium, and on plant growth promotion following its inoculation into A. thaliana. The beneficial effects to plants of this bacterium justify future analysis of inoculation of economically relevant crops. PMID:26634494

  10. Ubiquitin E3 ligase MARCH7 promotes ovarian tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianguo; Meng, Ying; Yu, Tinghe; Hu, Lina; Mao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin E3 ligase MARCH7 is involved in T cell proliferation and neuronal development. We found that expression of MARCH7 was higher in ovarian cancer tissues than normal ovarian tissues. Silencing MARCH7 decreased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Ectopic expression of MARCH7 increased cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Silencing MARCH7 prevented ovarian cancer growth in mice. Silencing MARCH7 inhibited NFkB and Wnt/?-catenin pathway. In agreement, ectopically expressed MARCH7 activated NFkB and Wnt/?-catenin pathways. Finally, MARCH7 was regulated by miR-101. Thus, MARCH7 is oncogenic and a potential target (oncotarget) for ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:25895127

  11. Overexpression of SCLIP promotes growth and motility in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanmin; Ni, Shilei; Huang, Bin; Wang, Liyan; Zhang, Xianghong; Li, Xian; Wang, Han; Liu, Shuai; Hao, Aijun; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    SCLIP, a microtubule-destabilizing phosphoprotein, is known to be involved in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). It has been well established that there are notable parallels between normal development and tumorigenesis, especially in glioma. However, no studies have examined the significance of SCLIP in gliomagenesis. To address this, we investigated the expression of SCLIP and its roles in the development of gliomas. Notably, we found that SCLIP was highly expressed in various grades of glioma samples, as compared with normal brain tissues. Overexpression of SCLIP dramatically stimulated tumor cell migration and invasion as well as proliferation and downregulation of SCLIP showed opposite effects, establishing an important oncogenic role for this gene. Furthermore, we revealed that STAT3 was required to maintain SCLIP stability, suggesting that overexpression of STAT3 may be a critical step to facilitate microtubule dynamics and subsequently promotes migration and invasion of glioma cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that SCLIP plays an important role in glioma pathology, and may represent a novel therapeutic strategy against human glioma. PMID:25511414

  12. Growth promotion by H 2O in organic solvent—selective isolation of a target polymorph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Loose, Christopher; Baxter, Jennifer; Cai, Dongwei; Wang, Yaling; Tom, Jean; Lepore, John

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports the marked promotion of crystal growth by small amounts of H 2O in organic solvents for isolating the desired polymorph of a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist. In dry organic solvents, regardless of solubility, the growth rate of the target polymorph was too slow for a robust and efficient crystallization process. It was found that the overall growth rate constant of the target polymorph increases linearly with H 2O concentration in organic solvent along with a distinct crystal morphology transition from needles to platelets. An in situ real-time FTIR analyzer and an in situ real-time particle analyzer were employed in the growth kinetics measurements. The finding of this study enabled the rational design of a robust and efficient crystallization process with 100% polymorphic purity at >98% yield. The mechanistic role of H 2O in the observed growth promotion is discussed.

  13. Sustained VEGF delivery via PLGA nanoparticles promotes vascular growth

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Justin S.; Kim, Young-tae; Duvall, Craig L.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.; Gupta, Divya; Lin, Angela S.; Weiss, Daiana; Robert Taylor, W.

    2010-01-01

    Technologies to increase tissue vascularity are critically important to the fields of tissue engineering and cardiovascular medicine. Currently, limited technologies exist to encourage angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in a controlled manner. In the present study, we describe an injectable controlled release system consisting of VEGF encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). The majority of VEGF was released gradually over 2–4 days from the NPs as determined by an ELISA release kinetics experiment. An in vitro aortic ring bioassay was used to verify the bioactivity of VEGF-NPs compared with empty NPs and no treatment. A mouse femoral artery ischemia model was then used to measure revascularization in VEGF-NP-treated limbs compared with limbs treated with naked VEGF and saline. 129/Sv mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and a region of the common femoral artery and vein was ligated and excised. Mice were then injected with VEGF-NPs, naked VEGF, or saline. After 4 days, three-dimensional microcomputed tomography angiography was used to quantify vessel growth and morphology. Mice that received VEGF-NP treatment showed a significant increase in total vessel volume and vessel connectivity compared with 5 μg VEGF, 2.5 μg VEGF, and saline treatment (all P < 0.001). When the yield of the fabrication process was taken into account, VEGF-NPs were over an order of magnitude more potent than naked VEGF in increasing blood vessel volume. Differences between the VEGF-NP group and all other groups were even greater when only small-sized vessels under 300 μm diameter were analyzed. In conclusion, sustained VEGF delivery via PLGA NPs shows promise for encouraging blood vessel growth in tissue engineering and cardiovascular medicine applications. PMID:20228260

  14. Evaluation of calcium titanate as apatite growth promoter.

    PubMed

    Coreo, J; Coreo, O

    2005-11-01

    Calcium titanate (CaTiO(3), perovskite) has been used to determine its apatite nucleation ability and propose a possible nucleation initial step. Measurements of calcium leaching from the calcium titanate surface and phosphate adsorption experiments were carried out separately by using commercial calcium titanate suspensions at room temperature. Adsorption behaviour determined by zeta potential measurements shows that phosphate is strongly adsorbed on the calcium titanate surface. It was found that the higher the pH, the higher the Ca present on the calcium titanate surface, but phosphate adsorption followed this trend only up to pH 7.4. Results suggest that phosphate ions are not adsorbed only on Ca sites but also on TiO(2) groups sites of the surface, formed after calcium leaching from the surface. When both ions are simultaneously added in a modified simulated body fluid containing calcium titanate, at 37 degrees C, apatite growth occurs on its surface after 1 week of immersion. PMID:16088899

  15. Long noncoding RNA ceruloplasmin promotes cancer growth by altering glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Lee, Jaehyuk; Haemmerle, Monika; Ling, Hui; Previs, Rebecca A.; Pradeep, Sunila; Wu, Sherry Y.; Ivan, Cristina; Ferracin, Manuela; Dennison, Jennifer B.; Zacharias Millward, Niki M.; Nagaraja, Archana S.; Gharpure, Kshipra M.; McGuire, Michael; Sam, Nidhin; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Sadaoui, Nouara C.; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Calin, George A.; Drapkin, Ronny I.; Kovacs, Jeffery; Mills, Gordon B.; Zhang, Wei; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Bhattacharya, Pratip K.; Sood, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) significantly influence the development and regulation of genome expression in cells. Here, we demonstrate the role of lncRNA ceruloplasmin (NRCP) in cancer metabolism and elucidate functional effects leading to increased tumor progression. NRCP was highly upregulated in ovarian tumors and knockdown of NRCP resulted in significantly increased apoptosis, decreased cell proliferation, and decreased glycolysis compared with control cancer cells. In an orthotopic mouse model of ovarian cancer, siNRCP delivered via a liposomal carrier significantly reduced tumor growth compared with control treatment. We identified NRCP as an intermediate binding partner between STAT1 and RNA polymerase II, leading to increased expression of downstream target genes such as glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. Collectively, we report a unrecognized role of the lncRNA NRCP in modulating cancer metabolism. As demonstrated, DOPC nanoparticle-incorporated siRNA-mediated silencing of this lncRNA in vivo provides therapeutic avenue towards modulating lncRNAs in cancer. PMID:26686630

  16. Heparanase Enhances Tumor Growth and Chemoresistance by Promoting Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Shteingauz, Anna; Boyango, Ilanit; Naroditsky, Inna; Hammond, Edward; Gruber, Maayan; Doweck, Ilana; Ilan, Neta; Vlodavsky, Israel

    2015-09-15

    Heparanase is the only enzyme in mammals capable of cleaving heparan sulfate, an activity implicated in tumor inflammation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Heparanase is secreted as a latent enzyme that is internalized and subjected to proteolytic processing and activation in lysosomes. Its role under normal conditions has yet to be understood. Here, we provide evidence that heparanase resides within autophagosomes, where studies in heparanase-deficient or transgenic mice established its contributions to autophagy. The protumorigenic properties of heparanase were found to be mediated, in part, by its proautophagic function, as demonstrated in tumor xenograft models of human cancer and through use of inhibitors of the lysosome (chloroquine) and heparanase (PG545), both alone and in combination. Notably, heparanase-overexpressing cells were more resistant to stress and chemotherapy in a manner associated with increased autophagy, effects that were reversed by chloroquine treatment. Collectively, our results establish a role for heparanase in modulating autophagy in normal and malignant cells, thereby conferring growth advantages under stress as well as resistance to chemotherapy. Cancer Res; 75(18); 3946-57. 2015 AACR. PMID:26249176

  17. Long Noncoding RNA Ceruloplasmin Promotes Cancer Growth by Altering Glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Lee, Jaehyuk; Haemmerle, Monika; Ling, Hui; Previs, Rebecca A; Pradeep, Sunila; Wu, Sherry Y; Ivan, Cristina; Ferracin, Manuela; Dennison, Jennifer B; Millward, Niki M Zacharias; Nagaraja, Archana S; Gharpure, Kshipra M; McGuire, Michael; Sam, Nidhin; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Sadaoui, Nouara C; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Calin, George A; Drapkin, Ronny I; Kovacs, Jeffery; Mills, Gordon B; Zhang, Wei; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Bhattacharya, Pratip K; Sood, Anil K

    2015-12-22

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) significantly influence the development and regulation of genome expression in cells. Here, we demonstrate the role of lncRNA ceruloplasmin (NRCP) in cancer metabolism and elucidate functional effects leading to increased tumor progression. NRCP was highly upregulated in ovarian tumors, and knockdown of NRCP resulted in significantly increased apoptosis, decreased cell proliferation, and decreased glycolysis compared with control cancer cells. In an orthotopic mouse model of ovarian cancer, siNRCP delivered via a liposomal carrier significantly reduced tumor growth compared with control treatment. We identified NRCP as an intermediate binding partner between STAT1 and RNA polymerase II, leading to increased expression of downstream target genes such as glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. Collectively, we report a previously unrecognized role of the lncRNA NRCP in modulating cancer metabolism. As demonstrated, DOPC nanoparticle-incorporated siRNA-mediated silencing of this lncRNA invivo provides therapeutic avenue toward modulating lncRNAs in cancer. PMID:26686630

  18. Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. PMID:24144612

  19. Resuscitation Promoting Factor (Rpf) from Tomitella biformata AHU 1821T Promotes Growth and Resuscitates Non-Dividing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Puspita, Indun Dewi; Uehara, Moe; Katayama, Taiki; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Kitagawa, Wataru; Kamagata, Yoichi; Asano, Kozo; Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Tanaka, Michiko

    2013-01-01

    Functional variation of Rpf, a growth factor found exclusively in Actinobacteria, is differentiated by its source and amino acid sequences. Only purified Rpf proteins from three species have been studied so far. To seek new Rpfs for use in future studies to understand their role in Actinobacteria, the objective of this study was to identify rpf gene homologs in Tomitella biformata AHU 1821T, a novel Actinobacteria isolated from permafrost ice wedge. Amplification using degenerate primers targeting the essential Rpf domain led to the discovery of a new rpf gene in T. biformata. Gene structure and the deduced Rpf domain amino acid sequence indicated that this rpf gene was not identical to previously studied Rpf. Phylogenetic analysis placed T. biformata Rpf in a monophyletic branch in the RpfB subfamily. The deduced amino acid sequence was 44.9% identical to RpfB in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the closest functionally tested Rpf. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli; the recombinant Rpf protein (rRpf) promoted the growth of dividing cells and resuscitated non-dividing cells of T. biformata. Compared to other studies, this Rpf was required at higher concentrations to promote its growth and to resuscitate itself from a non-dividing state. The resuscitation function was likely due to the highly conserved Rpf domain. This study provides evidence that a genetically unique but functional Rpf can be found in novel members of Actinobacteria and can lead to a better understanding of bacterial cytokines in this phylum. PMID:23100022

  20. Resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) from Tomitella biformata AHU 1821(T) promotes growth and resuscitates non-dividing cells.

    PubMed

    Dewi Puspita, Indun; Uehara, Moe; Katayama, Taiki; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Kitagawa, Wataru; Kamagata, Yoichi; Asano, Kozo; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Tanaka, Michiko

    2013-01-01

    Functional variation of Rpf, a growth factor found exclusively in Actinobacteria, is differentiated by its source and amino acid sequences. Only purified Rpf proteins from three species have been studied so far. To seek new Rpfs for use in future studies to understand their role in Actinobacteria, the objective of this study was to identify rpf gene homologs in Tomitella biformata AHU 1821(T), a novel Actinobacteria isolated from permafrost ice wedge. Amplification using degenerate primers targeting the essential Rpf domain led to the discovery of a new rpf gene in T. biformata. Gene structure and the deduced Rpf domain amino acid sequence indicated that this rpf gene was not identical to previously studied Rpf. Phylogenetic analysis placed T. biformata Rpf in a monophyletic branch in the RpfB subfamily. The deduced amino acid sequence was 44.9% identical to RpfB in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the closest functionally tested Rpf. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli; the recombinant Rpf protein (rRpf) promoted the growth of dividing cells and resuscitated non-dividing cells of T. biformata. Compared to other studies, this Rpf was required at higher concentrations to promote its growth and to resuscitate itself from a non-dividing state. The resuscitation function was likely due to the highly conserved Rpf domain. This study provides evidence that a genetically unique but functional Rpf can be found in novel members of Actinobacteria and can lead to a better understanding of bacterial cytokines in this phylum. PMID:23100022

  1. Health-Promoting Changes with Children as Agents: Findings from a Multiple Case Study Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simovska, Venka; Carlsson, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the aim of contributing to the evidence base on school-based health promotion, the authors discuss the outcomes and processes of a European intervention project aiming to prevent obesity among children (4-16 years) and promote their health and well-being, titled "Shape Up: a school-community approach to influencing determinants of

  2. Chemokine receptor CXCR3 promotes growth of glioma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Che; Luo, Defang; Reynolds, Brent A; Meher, Geeta; Katritzky, Alan R; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Craig J; Bhadha, Cyrus P; Harrison, Jeffrey K

    2011-02-01

    Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The poor prognosis and minimally successful treatments of GBM indicates a need to identify new therapeutic targets. In this study, we examined the role of CXCR3 in glioma progression using the GL261 murine model of malignant glioma. Intracranial GL261 tumors express CXCL9 and CXCL10 in vivo. Glioma-bearing CXCR3-deficient mice had significantly shorter median survival time and reduced numbers of tumor-infiltrated natural killer and natural killer T cells as compared with tumor-bearing wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, pharmacological antagonism of CXCR3 with NBI-74330 prolonged median survival times of both tumor-bearing WT and CXCR3-deficient mice when compared with vehicle-treated groups. NBI-74330 treatment did not impact tumor infiltration of lymphocytes and microglia. A small percentage of GL261 cells were identified as CXCR3(+), which was similar to the expression of CXCR3 in several grade IV human glioma cell lines (A172, T98G, U87, U118 and U138). When cultured as gliomaspheres (GS), the human and murine lines increased CXCR3 expression; CXCR3 expression was also found in a primary human GBM-derived GS. Additionally, CXCR3 isoform A was expressed by all lines, whereas CXCR3-B was detected in T98G-, U118- and U138-GS cells. CXCL9 or CXCL10 induced in vitro glioma cell growth in GL261- and U87-GS as well as inhibited cell loss in U138-GS cells and this effect was antagonized by NBI-74330. The results suggest that CXCR3 antagonism exerts a direct anti-glioma effect and this receptor may be a potential therapeutic target for treating human GBM. PMID:21051441

  3. VCC-1, a novel chemokine, promotes tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Edward J.; Head, Richard; Griggs, David W.; Sun Duo; Evans, Robert J.; Swearingen, Michelle L.; Westlin, Marisa M.; Mazzarella, Richard . E-mail: richard.a.mazzarella@pfizer.com

    2006-11-10

    We have identified a novel human gene by transcriptional microarray analysis, which is co-regulated in tumors and angiogenesis model systems with VEGF expression. Isolation of cDNA clones containing the full-length VCC-1 transcript from both human and mouse shows a 119 amino acid protein with a 22 amino acid cleavable signal sequence in both species. Comparison of the protein product of this gene with hidden Markov models of all known proteins shows weak but significant homology with two known chemokines, SCYA17 and SCYA16. Northern analysis of human tissues detects a 1 kb band in lung and skeletal muscle. Murine VCC-1 expression can also be detected in lung as well as thyroid, submaxillary gland, epididymis, and uterus tissues by slot blot analysis. By quantitative real time RT-PCR 71% of breast tumors showed 3- to 24-fold up-regulation of VCC-1. In situ hybridization of breast carcinomas showed strong expression of the gene in both normal and transformed mammary gland ductal epithelial cells. In vitro, human microvascular endothelial cells grown on fibronectin increase VCC-1 expression by almost 100-fold. In addition, in the mouse angioma endothelial cell line PY4.1 the gene was over-expressed by 28-fold 6 h after induction of tube formation while quiescent and proliferating cells showed no change. VCC-1 expression is also increased by VEGF and FGF treatment, about 6- and 5-fold, respectively. Finally, 100% of mice injected with NIH3T3 cells over-expressing VCC-1 develop rapidly progressing tumors within 21 days while no growth is seen in any control mice injected with NIH3T3 cells containing the vector alone. These results strongly suggest that VCC-1 plays a role in angiogenesis and possibly in the development of tumors in some tissue types.

  4. Role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in chronic stress-promoted tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Antonio; Palma, Giuseppe; Rosati, Alessandra; Giudice, Aldo; Falco, Antonia; Petrillo, Antonella; Petrillo, Mario; Bimonte, Sabrina; Di Benedetto, Maria; Esposito, Giuseppe; Stiuso, Paola; Abbruzzese, Alberto; Caraglia, Michele; Arra, Claudio

    2012-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic stress can be a cofactor for the initiation and progression of cancer. Here we evaluated the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in stress-promoted tumour growth of murine B16F10 melanoma cell line in C57BL/6 mice. Animals subjected to restraint stress showed increased levels adrenocorticotropic hormone, enlarged adrenal glands, reduced thymus weight and a 3.61-fold increase in tumour growth in respect to no-stressed animals. Tumour growth was significantly reduced in mice treated with the ?-antagonist propranolol. Tumour samples obtained from stressed mice displayed high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein in immunohistochemistry. Because VEGF can induce eNOS increase, and nitric oxide is a relevant factor in angiogenesis, we assessed the levels of eNOS protein by Western blot analysis. We found a significant increase in eNOS levels in tumour samples from stressed mice, indicating an involvement of this enzyme in stress-induced tumour growth. Accordingly, chronic stress did not promote tumour growth in eNOS(-/-) mice. These results disclose for the first time a pivotal role for eNOS in chronic stress-induced initiation and promotion of tumour growth. PMID:21722303

  5. Ku80 cooperates with CBP to promote COX-2 expression and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Xuan, Yang; Jia, Yunlu; Hu, Wenxian; Yu, Wendan; Dai, Meng; Li, Zhenglin; Yi, Canhui; Zhao, Shilei; Li, Mei; Du, Sha; Cheng, Wei; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Chen, Yiming; Wu, Taihua; Meng, Songshu; Yuan, Yuhui; Liu, Quentin; Huang, Wenlin; Guo, Wei; Wang, Shusen; Deng, Wuguo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in lung cancer development and progression. Using streptavidin-agarose pulldown and proteomics assay, we identified and validated Ku80, a dimer of Ku participating in the repair of broken DNA double strands, as a new binding protein of the COX-2 gene promoter. Overexpression of Ku80 up-regulated COX-2 promoter activation and COX-2 expression in lung cancer cells. Silencing of Ku80 by siRNA down-regulated COX-2 expression and inhibited tumor cell growth in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. Ku80 knockdown suppressed phosphorylation of ERK, resulting in an inactivation of the MAPK pathway. Moreover, CBP, a transcription co-activator, interacted with and acetylated Ku80 to co-regulate the activation of COX-2 promoter. Overexpression of CBP increased Ku80 acetylation, thereby promoting COX-2 expression and cell growth. Suppression of CBP by a CBP-specific inhibitor or siRNA inhibited COX-2 expression as well as tumor cell growth. Tissue microarray immunohistochemical analysis of lung adenocarcinomas revealed a strong positive correlation between levels of Ku80 and COX-2 and clinicopathologic variables. Overexpression of Ku80 was associated with poor prognosis in patients with lung cancers. We conclude that Ku80 promotes COX-2 expression and tumor growth and is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer. PMID:25797267

  6. Novel components of leaf bacterial communities of field-grown tomato plants and their potential for plant growth promotion and biocontrol of tomato diseases.

    PubMed

    Romero, Fernando M; Marina, María; Pieckenstain, Fernando L

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to characterize potentially endophytic culturable bacteria from leaves of cultivated tomato and analyze their potential for growth promotion and biocontrol of diseases caused by Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae. Bacteria were obtained from inner tissues of surface-disinfected tomato leaves of field-grown plants. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences identified bacterial isolates related to Exiguobacterium aurantiacum (isolates BT3 and MT8), Exiguobacterium spp. (isolate GT4), Staphylococcus xylosus (isolate BT5), Pantoea eucalypti (isolate NT6), Bacillus methylotrophicus (isolate MT3), Pseudomonas veronii (isolates BT4 and NT2), Pseudomonas rhodesiae (isolate BT2) and Pseudomonas cichorii (isolate NT3). After seed inoculation, BT2, BT4, MT3, MT8, NT2 and NT6 were re-isolated from leaf extracts. NT2, BT2, MT3 and NT6 inhibited growth of Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in vitro, produced antimicrobial compounds and reduced leaf damage caused by B. cinerea. Some of these isolates also promoted growth of tomato plants, produced siderophores, the auxin indole-3-acetic and solubilized inorganic phosphate. Thus, bacterial communities of leaves from field-grown tomato plants were found to harbor potentially endophytic culturable beneficial bacteria capable of antagonizing pathogenic microorganisms and promoting plant growth, which could be used as biological control agents and biofertilizers/biostimulators for promotion of tomato plant growth. PMID:26654914

  7. [Plant growth promoting microorganisms as alternative to chemical protection from pathogens (review)].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, I V; Abizgil'dina, R R; Pusenkova, L I

    2011-01-01

    The review analyses data on physiological and biochemical influence of rhizospheric and endophytic microorganisms promoting plant growth (PGPR-plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) on induced resistance of plants and the possibility of its use in plant cultivation to protect crops from pathogens and phytophages. Resistance of plants provided by PGPR due to their endosymbiotic interrelationships is directly achieved because they produce peptide antibiotics and hydrolases ofchitin and glucan and also because plants form their own system of induced resistance, followed by changes in the balance of defensive proteins, phytohormones, and pro-/antioxidant status. PMID:21950110

  8. Use of impact fees to incentivize low-impact development and promote compact growth.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhongming; Noonan, Douglas; Crittenden, John; Jeong, Hyunju; Wang, Dali

    2013-10-01

    Low-impact development (LID) is an innovative stormwater management strategy that restores the predevelopment hydrology to prevent increased stormwater runoff from land development. Integrating LID into residential subdivisions and increasing population density by building more compact living spaces (e.g., apartment homes) can result in a more sustainable city by reducing stormwater runoff, saving infrastructural cost, increasing the number of affordable homes, and supporting public transportation. We develop an agent-based model (ABM) that describes the interactions between several decision-makers (i.e., local government, a developer, and homebuyers) and fiscal drivers (e.g., property taxes, impact fees). The model simulates the development of nine square miles of greenfield land. A more sustainable development (MSD) scenario introduces an impact fee that developers must pay if they choose not to use LID to build houses or apartment homes. Model simulations show homeowners selecting apartment homes 60% or 35% of the time after 30 years of development in MSD or business as usual (BAU) scenarios, respectively. The increased adoption of apartment homes results from the lower cost of using LID and improved quality of life for apartment homes relative to single-family homes. The MSD scenario generates more tax revenue and water savings than does BAU. A time-dependent global sensitivity analysis quantifies the importance of socioeconomic variables on the adoption rate of apartment homes. The top influential factors are the annual pay rates (or capital recovery factor) for single-family houses and apartment homes. The ABM can be used by city managers and policymakers for scenario exploration in accordance with local conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of impact fees and other policies in promoting LID and compact growth. PMID:23815440

  9. Synergistic effect of beneficial rhizosphere microflora in biocontrol and plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Vijayaragahavan; Sureendar, Raman

    2009-04-01

    Biological systems are getting more relevance than chemical control of plant pathogens as they are not only eco-friendly and economic in approach but are also involved in improving the soil consistency and maintenance of natural soil flora. Plant growth promoting rhizosphere microorganisms were isolated from three different tree rhizospheres using selective culture media. Five microorganisms were selected from each rhizosphere soil based on their efficiency and screened for their ability to promote plant growth as a consortium. Each of the developed consortium has a phosphate solubilizer, nitrogen fixer, growth hormone producer, heterotrophic member and an antagonist. The plant growth promoting ability of the microbial members present in the consortium was observed by estimating the IAA production level and also by the nitrogenase activity of the nitrogen fixers. The biocontrol potentiality of the consortium and the antagonist present in the consortium were checked by both dual plate assay and cross-streaking technique. Consortial treatments effected very good growth promotion in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill and the treated plants also developed resistance against wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici though the effect was well pronounced with consortium developed from Santalum album. PMID:18792056

  10. Toxicological assessment of selective pesticides towards plant growth promoting activities of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ahemad, Munees; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2011-09-01

    The study was designed to assess the effect of selected pesticides (metribuzin, glyphosate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, hexaconazole, metalaxyl and kitazin) at the recommended and higher rates on plant growth promoting activities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PS1 isolated from mustard (Brassica compestris) rhizosphere. The strain PS1 was specifically chosen owing to its substantial tolerance against pesticides, phosphate solubilization and considerable production of indole acetic acid, siderophores, exo-polysaccharides, HCN and ammonia. Plant growth promoting traits of the strain PS1 decreased consistently as the concentrations of each pesticide was increased from the recommended dose to the higher ones. Generally, the maximum toxicity to plant growth promoting traits was displayed by pesticides at three times the recommended field rate. However, the effect on the plant growth promoting activities of the P. aeruginosa strain PS1 at the recommended dose of each pesticide was less hazardous. This study revealed an additional aspect of the toxicological mechanisms of the pesticides through which they suppress the plant growth. PMID:21983319

  11. Evidence that far-infrared radiation promotes growth of xenopus laevis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiurba, Robert; Hirabayashi, Tatsuo; Kiyokawa, Shin; Fukui, Akimasa; Miyanaga, Yuko; Kojima, Issey; Asashima, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    In most ectotherms, environmental temperature has differential effects on growth and differentiation. For example, amphibian size at maturity decreases with increasing temperature. To address how radiant heat in the form of far-infrared radiation (FIR) may affect development of the aquatic ectotherm Xenopus laevis, we continuously irradiated swimming larvae as they developed into young adults. Here we report evidence that FIR promotes growth of these organisms in an aqueous environment.

  12. Identification of a potential gene expression biomarker signature in bovine liver to detect the abuse of growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Riedmaier, Irmgard; Spornraft, Melanie; Pfaffl, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    The misuse of anabolic agents in animal husbandry is a ubiquitous problem. The ban of growth promoters in food producing animals in the European Union is well controlled, but there are still application regimes, such as new designed drugs or hormone cocktails, that are difficult to detect. Therefore, the idea of identifying molecular biomarkers that are based on the physiological effect of treatment has come into focus. In a previous study we identified mRNA biomarker candidates in liver samples that enable the separation of untreated animals from animals treated with a combination of androgens plus estrogens. In the present study those candidates were validated in calves treated with a combination of progesterone plus estradiol or clenbuterol, respectively. Therefore, the candidate genes were quantified in liver samples of those calves via RT-qPCR. Using dynamic principal component analysis (PCA), a signature of 11 genes could be selected. This set of genes enabled the separation of treated and control animals independent of the applied drug. Additional quantification of these genes in a set of control samples from another animal trial resulted in a PCA that also showed a separation of those samples from treated animals. This study showed that gene expression biomarkers have a high potential to enable the detection of physiological changes caused by the application of growth-promoting substances independent of the given drug, but further studies are necessary to broaden the spectrum of anabolic substance groups for which those biomarker candidates can be used. PMID:24559206

  13. ATM regulates 3-Methylpurine-DNA glycosylase and promotes therapeutic resistance to alkylating agents

    PubMed Central

    Agnihotri, Sameer; Burrell, Kelly; Buczkowicz, Pawel; Remke, Marc; Golbourn, Brian; Chornenkyy, Yevgen; Gajadhar, Aaron; Fernandez, Nestor A.; Clarke, Ian D.; Barszczyk, Mark S.; Pajovic, Sanja; Ternamian, Christian; Head, Renee; Sabha, Nesrin; Sobol, Robert W.; Taylor, Michael D; Rutka, James T.; Jones, Chris; Dirks, Peter B.; Zadeh, Gelareh; Hawkins, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Alkylating agents are a frontline therapy for the treatment of several aggressive cancers including pediatric glioblastoma, a lethal tumor in children. Unfortunately, many tumors are resistant to this therapy. We sought to identify ways of sensitizing tumor cells to alkylating agents while leaving normal cells unharmed; increasing therapeutic response while minimizing toxicity. Using a siRNA screen targeting over 240 DNA damage response genes, we identified novel sensitizers to alkylating agents. In particular the base excision repair (BER) pathway, including 3-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG), as well as ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) were identified in our screen. Interestingly, we identified MPG as a direct novel substrate of ATM. ATM-mediated phosphorylation of MPG was required for enhanced MPG function. Importantly, combined inhibition or loss of MPG and ATM resulted in increased alkylating agent-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and prolonged survival in vivo. The discovery of the ATM-MPG axis will lead to improved treatment of alkylating agent-resistant tumors. PMID:25100205

  14. Arsenite-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth of HaCaT cells through placental growth factor.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Naito, Hisao; Shekhar, Hossain U; Omata, Yasuhiro; Kato, Masashi

    2015-04-01

    Various cancers including skin cancer are increasing in 45 million people exposed to arsenic above the World Health Organization's guideline value of 10??g?l(-1). However, there is limited information on key molecules regulating arsenic-mediated carcinogenesis. Our fieldwork in Bangladesh demonstrated that levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) in urine samples from residents of cancer-prone areas with arsenic-polluted drinking water were higher than those in urine samples from residents of an area that was not polluted with arsenic. Our experimental study in human nontumorigenic HaCaT skin keratinocytes showed that arsenite promoted anchorage-independent growth with increased expression and secretion of PlGF, a ligand of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor1 (VEGFR1), and increased VEGFR1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activities. The arsenite-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth was strongly inhibited by PlGF depletion with decreased activities of the PlGF/VEGFR1/MEK/ERK pathway. Moreover, arsenite proteasome-dependently degrades metal-regulatory transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) protein, resulting in a decreased amount of MTF-1 protein binding to the PlGF promoter. MTF-1 negatively controlled PlGF transcription in HaCaT cells, resulting in increased PlGF transcription. These results suggest that arsenite-mediated MTF-1 degradation enhances the activity of PlGF/VEGFR1/MEK/ERK signaling, resulting in promotion of the malignant transformation of keratinocytes. Thus, this study proposed a molecular mechanism for arsenite-mediated development of skin cancer. PMID:25493652

  15. Promoting collective motion of self-propelled agents by discarding short-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Rong, Zhihai

    2015-08-01

    We study the collective motion of self-propelled agents with the restricted view. The field of view of each agent is an annulus bounded by the outer radius r and inner radius αr, where α ​is a tunable parameter. We find that there exists an optimal value of α leading to the highest degree of direction consensus. This phenomenon indicates that there exists superfluous communication in the collective motion of self-propelled agents and short-range interactions hinder the direction consensus of the system. The value of optimal α decreases as the absolute velocity increases, while it increases as the outer radius r and the system size increase. For a fixed value of α, direction consensus is enhanced when the absolute velocity is small, the outer radius or the system size is large.

  16. A chemical genetic approach identifies piperazine antipsychotics as promoters of CNS neurite growth on inhibitory substrates

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, AL; Reierson, GW; Smith, RP; Goldberg, JL; Lemmon, VP; Bixby, JL

    2012-01-01

    Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) can result in lifelong loss of function due in part to the regenerative failure of CNS neurons. Inhibitory proteins derived from myelin and the astroglial scar are major barriers for the successful regeneration of injured CNS neurons. Previously, we described the identification of a novel compound, F05, which promotes neurite growth from neurons challenged with inhibitory substrates in vitro, and promotes axonal regeneration in vivo (Usher et al., 2010). To identify additional regeneration-promoting compounds, we used F05-induced gene expression profiles to query the Broad Institute Connectivity Map, a gene expression database of cells treated with >1,300 compounds. Despite no shared chemical similarity, F05-induced changes in gene expression were remarkably similar to those seen with a group of piperazine phenothiazine antipsychotics (PhAPs). In contrast to antipsychotics of other structural classes, PhAPs promoted neurite growth of CNS neurons challenged with two different glial derived inhibitory substrates. Our pharmacological studies suggest a mechanism whereby PhAPs promote growth through antagonism of calmodulin signaling, independent of dopamine receptor antagonism. These findings shed light on mechanisms underlying neurite-inhibitory signaling, and suggest that clinically approved antipsychotic compounds may be repurposed for use in CNS injured patients. PMID:22561309

  17. A chemical genetic approach identifies piperazine antipsychotics as promoters of CNS neurite growth on inhibitory substrates.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Andrea L; Reierson, Gillian W; Smith, Robin P; Goldberg, Jeffrey L; Lemmon, Vance P; Bixby, John L

    2012-06-01

    Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) can result in lifelong loss of function due in part to the regenerative failure of CNS neurons. Inhibitory proteins derived from myelin and the astroglial scar are major barriers for the successful regeneration of injured CNS neurons. Previously, we described the identification of a novel compound, F05, which promotes neurite growth from neurons challenged with inhibitory substrates in vitro, and promotes axonal regeneration in vivo (Usher et al., 2010). To identify additional regeneration-promoting compounds, we used F05-induced gene expression profiles to query the Broad Institute Connectivity Map, a gene expression database of cells treated with >1300 compounds. Despite no shared chemical similarity, F05-induced changes in gene expression were remarkably similar to those seen with a group of piperazine phenothiazine antipsychotics (PhAPs). In contrast to antipsychotics of other structural classes, PhAPs promoted neurite growth of CNS neurons challenged with two different glial derived inhibitory substrates. Our pharmacological studies suggest a mechanism whereby PhAPs promote growth through antagonism of calmodulin signaling, independent of dopamine receptor antagonism. These findings shed light on mechanisms underlying neurite-inhibitory signaling, and suggest that clinically approved antipsychotic compounds may be repurposed for use in CNS injured patients. PMID:22561309

  18. Mex3c regulates insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) expression and promotes postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yan; Bishop, Colin E.; Lu, Baisong

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) mediates the growth-promoting activities of growth hormone. How Igf1 expression is regulated posttranscriptionally is unclear. Caenorhabditis elegans muscle excess 3 (MEX-3) is involved in cell fate specification during early embryonic development through regulating mRNAs involved in specifying cell fate. The function of its mammalian homologue, MEX3C, is unknown. Here we show that MEX3C deficiency in Mex3c homozygous mutant mice causes postnatal growth retardation and background-dependent perinatal lethality. Hypertrophy of chondrocytes in growth plates is significantly impaired. Circulating and bone local production of IGF1 are both decreased in mutant mice. Mex3c mRNA is strongly expressed in the testis and the brain, and highly expressed in resting and proliferating chondrocytes of the growth plates. MEX3C is able to enrich multiple mRNA species from tissue lysates, including Igf1. Igf1 expression in bone is decreased at the protein level but not at the mRNA level, indicating translational/posttranslational regulation. We propose that MEX3C protein plays an important role in enhancing the translation of Igf1 mRNA, which explains the perinatal lethality and growth retardation observed in MEX3C-deficient mice. PMID:22357625

  19. Protopanaxatirol type ginsenoside Re promotes cyclic growth of hair follicles via inhibiting transforming growth factor β signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Lee, Jungsul; Choi, Kyungsun; Kim, Sunchang; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-02-19

    Ginsenosides, the major bio-active ingredients included in Panax ginseng, have been known for the hair growth activity and used to treat patients who suffer from hair loss; however, the detailed mechanisms of this action are still largely unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for hair growth promoting effect of ginsenoside Re (GRe) in vitro and in vivo. Different doses of minoxidil and GRe were administered topically to the back regions of nude mice for up to 45 days, and hair shaft length and hair cycles were determined for hair promoting activities. Topical treatment of GRe significantly increased the hair shaft length and hair existent time, which was comparable to the action of minoxidil. We also demonstrated that GRe stimulated hair shaft elongation in the ex vivo cultures of vibrissa hair follicles isolated from C57BL/6 mouse. Systemic transcriptome analysis by next generation sequencing demonstrated that TGF-β-pathway related genes were selectively down-regulated by treatment of GRe in vivo, and the same treatment suppressed TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of ERK in HeLa cells. The results clearly indicated that GRe is the effective constituent in the ginseng on hair promotion via selective inhibition of the hair growth phase transition related signaling pathways, TGF-β signaling cascades. PMID:26820528

  20. Increased Plant Uptake of Nitrogen from 15N Depleted Fertilizer Using Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The techniques of 15N isotope have been very useful for determining the behavior and fate of N in soil, including the use efficiency of applied N fertilizers by plants. Our objective in this study was to use 15N isotope techniques to demonstrate that a model plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGP...

  1. Alcohol promotes mammary tumor growth through activation of VEGF-dependent tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    LU, YANMIN; NI, FANG; XU, MEI; YANG, JINLIAN; CHEN, JI; CHEN, ZHUO; WANG, XINYI; LUO, JIA; WANG, SIYING

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer. Experimental studies demonstrate that alcohol exposure promotes the progression of existing mammary tumors. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. In the present study, the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in alcohol promotion of breast cancer development was investigated using a mouse xenograft model of mammary tumors and a three-dimensional (3D) tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system. For the mouse xenograft model, mouse E0771 breast cancer cells were implanted into the mammary fat pad of C57BL6 mice. These mice were exposed to alcohol in their drinking water. For the 3D co-culture system, E0771 cells and MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were co-cultured with SVEC4-10EE2 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. The results demonstrated that alcohol increased tumor angiogenesis and accelerated tumor growth. Furthermore, it appeared that alcohol induced VEGF expression in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Blocking VEGF signaling by SU5416 inhibited tumor angiogenesis in the 3D tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system. Furthermore, injection of SU5416 into mice inhibited alcohol-promoted mammary tumor growth in vivo. These results indicate that alcohol may promote mammary tumor growth by stimulating VEGF-dependent angiogenesis. PMID:25009649

  2. Burkholderia cenocepacia conditional growth mutant library created by random promoter replacement of essential genes

    PubMed Central

    Bloodworth, Ruhi A M; Gislason, April S; Cardona, Silvia T

    2013-01-01

    Identification of essential genes by construction of conditional knockouts with inducible promoters allows the identification of essential genes and creation of conditional growth (CG) mutants that are then available as genetic tools for further studies. We used large-scale transposon delivery of the rhamnose-inducible promoter, PrhaB followed by robotic screening of rhamnose-dependent growth to construct a genomic library of 106 Burkholderia cenocepacia CG mutants. Transposon insertions were found where PrhaB was in the same orientation of widely conserved, well-characterized essential genes as well as genes with no previous records of essentiality in other microorganisms. Using previously reported global gene-expression analyses, we demonstrate that PrhaB can achieve the wide dynamic range of expression levels required for essential genes when the promoter is delivered randomly and mutants with rhamnose-dependent growth are selected. We also show specific detection of the target of an antibiotic, novobiocin, by enhanced sensitivity of the corresponding CG mutant (PrhaB controlling gyrB expression) within the library. Modulation of gene expression to achieve 30–60% of wild-type growth created conditions for specific hypersensitivity demonstrating the value of the CG mutant library for chemogenomic experiments. In summary, CG mutants can be obtained on a large scale by random delivery of a tightly regulated inducible promoter into the bacterial chromosome followed by a simple screening for the CG phenotype, without previous information on gene essentiality. PMID:23389959

  3. Foliar application of plant growth-promoting bacteria and humic acid increase maize yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth promoter bacteria (PGPB) can be used to reduce fertilizer inputs to crops. Seed inoculation is the main method of PGPB application, but competition with rhizosphere microorganisms reduces their effectiveness. Here we propose a new biotechnological tool for plant stimulation using endoph...

  4. Antimicrobial Growth Promoters and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. in Poultry and Swine, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Wegener, Henrik C.

    2003-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial growth promoters in Danish food animal production was discontinued in 1998. Contrary to concerns that pathogen load would increase; we found a significant decrease in Salmonella in broilers before and after slaughter of swine and pork and no change in the prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers. PMID:12702233

  5. Promoting Local Economic Growth: The Role of Entrepreneurship and Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Michael; Plummer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A question that currently confronts economic policy practitioners is how to promote local economic growth in regions, cities and places, in a neo-liberal political climate under conditions of intensifying global competition. This paper argues that we need to understand the workings of our local economies--the processes that shape, mould and drive

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus methylotrophicus Strain B25, a Potential Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Brutel, Aline; Lemainque, Arnaud; Mairey, Barbara; Médigue, Claudine; Vallenet, David; Lefort, Francois; Grizard, Damien

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome of Bacillus methylotrophicus strain B25, isolated in Switzerland, was sequenced. Its size is 3.85 Mb, and several genes that may contribute to plant growth-promoting activities were identified in silico. PMID:26966215

  7. It's in the Milk: Feeding the Microbiome to Promote Infant Growth.

    PubMed

    Bashiardes, Stavros; Thaiss, Christoph A; Elinav, Eran

    2016-03-01

    Malnutrition is a global health burden affecting the development of millions of children worldwide, but the effects of current treatment strategies are modest. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Charbonneau et al. (2016) identify sialylated oligosaccharides in breast milk as microbiota-dependent growth-promoting metabolites, paving the way for a new rational treatment of severe infant stunting. PMID:26959178

  8. Novel Quorum-Quenching Agents Promote Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Wound Healing and Sensitize MRSA to ?-Lactam Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, David; Yu, Guanping; Hoch, Wyatt; Gabay, Dean; Long, Lisa; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Nagy, Nancy; Harding, Clifford V.; Viswanathan, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    The dwindling repertoire of antibiotics to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) calls for novel treatment options. Quorum-quenching agents offer an alternative or an adjuvant to antibiotic therapy. Three biaryl hydroxyketone compounds discovered previously (F1, F12, and F19; G. Yu, D. Kuo, M. Shoham, and R. Viswanathan, ACS Comb Sci 16:8591, 2014) were tested for efficacy in MRSA-infected animal models. Topical therapy of compounds F1 and F12 in a MRSA murine wound infection model promotes wound healing compared to the untreated control. Compounds F1, F12, and F19 afford significant survival benefits in a MRSA insect larva model. Combination therapy of these quorum-quenching agents with cephalothin or nafcillin, antibiotics to which MRSA is resistant in monotherapy, revealed additional survival benefits. The quorum-quenching agents sensitize MRSA to the antibiotic by a synergistic mode of action that also is observed in vitro. An adjuvant of 1 ?g/ml F1, F12, or F19 reduces the MIC of nafcillin and cephalothin about 50-fold to values comparable to those for vancomycin, the antibiotic often prescribed for MRSA infections. These findings suggest that it is possible to resurrect obsolete antibiotic therapies in combination with these novel quorum-quenching agents. PMID:25534736

  9. Antibiotic growth promoters enhance animal production by targeting intestinal bile salt hydrolase and its producers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The growth-promoting effect of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) was correlated with the decreased activity of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization. Consistent with this finding, independent chicken studies have demonstrated that AGP usage significantly reduced population of Lactobacillus species, the major BSH-producers in the intestine. Recent finding also demonstrated that some AGPs, such as tetracycline and roxarsone, display direct inhibitory effect on BSH activity. Therefore, BSH is a promising microbiome target for developing novel alternatives to AGPs. Specifically, dietary supplementation of BSH inhibitor may promote host lipid metabolism and energy harvest, consequently enhancing feed efficiency and body weight gain in food animals. PMID:24575079

  10. Antibiotic growth promoters enhance animal production by targeting intestinal bile salt hydrolase and its producers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The growth-promoting effect of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) was correlated with the decreased activity of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization. Consistent with this finding, independent chicken studies have demonstrated that AGP usage significantly reduced population of Lactobacillus species, the major BSH-producers in the intestine. Recent finding also demonstrated that some AGPs, such as tetracycline and roxarsone, display direct inhibitory effect on BSH activity. Therefore, BSH is a promising microbiome target for developing novel alternatives to AGPs. Specifically, dietary supplementation of BSH inhibitor may promote host lipid metabolism and energy harvest, consequently enhancing feed efficiency and body weight gain in food animals. PMID:24575079

  11. Development of Tyrosinase Promoter-Based Fluorescent Assay for Screening of Anti-melanogenic Agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, JaeHo; Lee, SeungJun; Lee, ByungMan; Roh, KyungBaeg; Park, DeokHoon; Jung, EunSun

    2015-01-01

    For screening of skin-whitening ingredients that modulate inhibition of melanogenesis, tyrosinase promoter-based assay using a three-dimensional (3D) spheroid culture technique is a beneficial tool to improve the accuracy of raw material screening in cosmetics through mimicking of the in vivo microenvironment. Although the advantages of high-throughput screening (HTS) are widely known, there has been little focus on specific cell-based promoter assays for HTS in identifying skin-whitening ingredients that inhibit accumulation of melanin. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a large-scale compatible assay through pTyr-EGFP, an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-based tyrosinase-specific promoter, to seek potential melanogenesis inhibitors for cosmetic use. Herein, a stably transfected human melanoma cell line expressing EGFP under the control of a 2.2-kb fragment derived from the tyrosinase gene was generated. Spontaneous induction of the tyrosinase promoter by 3D spheroid culture resulted in increased expression of EGFP, providing a significant correlation with the tyrosinase mRNA level, and subsequent inhibition of tyrosinase activity. Importantly, the pTyr-EGFP system provided successful tracking of the changes in the live image and real-time monitoring. Thus tyrosinase promoter-based fluorescent assay using a 3D spheroid culture can be useful as a screening system for exploring the efficiency of anti-melanogenesis ingredients. PMID:26179334

  12. Growth promotion by insulin-like growth factor I in hypophysectomized and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zapf, J

    1998-05-25

    Two animal models, the hypophysectomized (hypox) and the streptozotocin-diabetic rat, both of which are GH-deficient, were used to study the effects of infused IGF I and its molecular size distribution in serum, and to investigate whether GH and IGF I act identically on growth plate chondrocyte maturation. In hypox rats. IGF I (300 microg/rat per day) stimulated body weight gain, total growth plate height and longitudinal growth rate, although less than GH (200 mU/rat per day), and mimicked the effect of GH at all stages of chondrocyte differentiation. including stem cells. Infused IGF I was nearly exclusively found in a < 100 kDa IGF binding protein (IGFBP) complex, whereas free IGF I was barely detectable. These findings argue against the 'dual effector theory' in vivo which postulates priming of the stem cells by GH before IGF I stimulates proliferation. They also suggest that IGF I bound to the < 100 kDa IGFBP complex is bioavailable for growth. In diabetic rats infused with 2.5 mg/rat per day of IGF I, body weight, tibial epiphyseal width and accumulated bone growth increased dramatically despite persisting hyperglycemia. Insulin infusion (2.5 U/rat per day), which nearly normalized elevated blood sugar values, raised endogenous IGF I serum levels and stimulated growth parameters to a similar extent as IGF I, in line with a similar distribution of the infused exogenous and the insulin-induced endogenous IGF I between the free and the < 100 kDa-bound form. Since GH secretion is inhibited in diabetic rats and the animals are resistant to GH action, these results, like those in hypox rats, demonstrate that IGF I can act on growth independently of GH. Because insulin restores GH secretion and the responsiveness of the liver to GH in diabetic rats, one may conclude that insulin acts on growth of diabetic rats mainly via restoration of the GH/IGF I axis. PMID:9722182

  13. RAT TRACHEAL CELL CULTURE TRANSFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS AS CARCINOGENS AND PROMOTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A tracheal cell culture system which can be used for detection of hazardous environmental agents is described. The culture system makes use of primary tracheal cells that are isolated from rats by protease digestion of the tracheal epithelium. The epithelial cells are plated on a...

  14. Porcine skin gelatin hydrolysate promotes longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Leem, Kang-Hyun; Lee, Sena; Jang, Aera; Kim, Hye Kyung

    2013-05-01

    Collagen hydrolysates (CHs) are mixtures of peptides obtained by partial hydrolysis of gelatin that are receiving scientific attention as potential oral supplements for the restoration of osteoarticular tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CHs for promoting longitudinal bone growth in growing rats. An in vitro study was carried out in osteoblast-like MG63 cells and the most effective CH on bone formation was selected among 36 various CHs. An in vivo study confirmed the functional effects of a selected CH with molecular weight of <3?kDa on longitudinal bone growth. CHs dose-dependently promoted the longitudinal bone growth and height of the growth plate in adolescent male rats, whereas gelatin failed to affect longitudinal bone growth. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the CH treated group were highly expressed in the growth plate. These results suggest that CHs isolated in this study may provide beneficial effects on bone metabolism of growing animals and humans. PMID:23631489

  15. Colonization of Morus alba L. by the plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum dematium, is a serious threat to the production and quality of mulberry leaves in susceptible varieties. Control of the disease has been a major problem in mulberry cultivation. Some strains of Burkholderia cepacia were reported to be useful antagonists of plant pests and could increase the yields of several crop plants. Although B. cepacia Lu10-1 is an endophytic bacterium obtained from mulberry leaves, it has not been deployed to control C. dematium infection in mulberry nor its colonization patterns in mulberry have been studied using GFP reporter or other reporters. The present study sought to evaluate the antifungal and plant-growth-promoting properties of strain Lu10-1, to clarify its specific localization within a mulberry plant, and to better understand its potential as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. Results Lu10-1 inhibited conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. dematium in vitro; when applied on leaves or to the soil, Lu10-1 also inhibited the development of anthracnose in a greenhouse, but the effectiveness varied with the length of the interval between the strain treatment and inoculation with the pathogen. Strain Lu10-1 could survive in both sterile and non-sterile soils for more than 60 days. The strain produced auxins, contributed to P solubilization and nitrogenase activity, and significantly promoted the growth of mulberry seedlings. The bacteria infected mulberry seedlings through cracks formed at junctions of lateral roots with the main root and in the zone of differentiation and elongation, and the cells were able to multiply and spread, mainly to the intercellular spaces of different tissues. The growth in all the tissues was around 1-5 105 CFU per gram of fresh plant tissue. Conclusions Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1 is an endophyte that can multiply and spread in mulberry seedlings rapidly and efficiently. The strain is antagonistic to C. dematium and acts as an efficient plant-growth-promoting agent on mulberry seedlings and is therefore a promising candidate as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. PMID:20854669

  16. Biofilm growth of Lactobacillus species is promoted by Actinomyces species and Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Filoche, S K; Anderson, S A; Sissons, C H

    2004-10-01

    The ability of oral bacteria to integrate within a biofilm is pivotal to their survival. A dependence on the amount of biofilm growth by noncoaggregating Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus plantarum on coculture with Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces gerencseriae, Streptococcus mutans and Veillonella parvula was investigated using an artificial-mouth culture system. Biofilm formation by the lactobacilli in mono-culture was poor. In coculture with Actinomyces species the amount of L. rhamnosus increased 7-20 times and L. plantarum 4-7 times compared to its mono-culture biofilm. S. mutans also promoted substantial biofilm growth of lactobacilli but V. parvula had no effect. We conclude that these Actinomyces species promoted growth of key Lactobacillus species in a biofilm, as did S. mutans to a smaller extent, and that the ability of individual bacteria to form mono-culture biofilms is not necessarily an indicator of their survival and pathogenic potential in a complex multispecies biofilm community. PMID:15327645

  17. Promotion of microalgal growth by co-culturing with Cellvibrio pealriver using xylan as feedstock.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhangzhang; Lin, Weitie; Luo, Jianfei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a Cellvibrio pealriver-microalga co-cultivation mode was used to promote the growths of four microalgae by using xylan as feedstock. After 12days of cultivation, the biomass concentrations of Chlorella sacchrarophila, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in co-cultivation were equal to those in mixotrophic growth on glucose, and the Dunaliella was about 1.6-fold higher than that on glucose. The comparative transcriptomes analysis demonstrated that the xylose and xylan hydrolysates were catalyzed to some active substrates by C. pealriver via some functional enzymes; these active substrates are possibly responsible for the promotion of microalgal growth. This C. pealriver-microalga co-cultivation mode is a potential method to produce low-cost microalgal biodiesel by using hemicellulose as feedstock. PMID:26508433

  18. Full-length Mst1 exhibits growth promoting function in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yuen-Keng; Lau, Wing-Sze; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan; Cheng, Alfred Sze-Lok; Ng, Patrick Kwok-Shing; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing; Cheung, Yue Sun; Lai, Paul Bo San

    2013-03-01

    The putative tumor suppressor Mst1, when cleaved to its 36kDa cleaved form, amplifies apoptotic signals. We found that Mst1 was predominantly expressed in its full-length form in 76% (17/25 cases) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors. Mst1 cleavage was basically absent in HCC cells. Ectopic full-length Mst1 expression increased the growth of HCC cells by 55-80% within 3days after transfection. Expression of exogenous NORE1B, a tumor suppressor commonly lost in HCC tumors (~56% of our cohort), was sufficient to suppress the growth promotion of full-length Mst1. Hence, Mst1 exhibits a growth promoting activity in HCC cells upon NORE1B downregulation. PMID:23347832

  19. Saprotrophic competitiveness and biocontrol fitness of a genetically modified strain of the plant-growth-promoting fungus Trichoderma hamatum GD12.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Lauren S; Harris, Beverley D; Soanes, Darren M; Kershaw, Michael J; Talbot, Nicholas J; Thornton, Christopher R

    2012-01-01

    Trichoderma species are ubiquitous soil fungi that hold enormous potential for the development of credible alternatives to agrochemicals and synthetic fertilizers in sustainable crop production. In this paper, we show that substantial improvements in plant productivity can be met by genetic modification of a plant-growth-promoting and biocontrol strain of Trichoderma hamatum, but that these improvements are obtained in the absence of disease pressure only. Using a quantitative monoclonal antibody-based ELISA, we show that an N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase-deficient mutant of T. hamatum, generated by insertional mutagenesis of the corresponding gene, has impaired saprotrophic competitiveness during antagonistic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani in soil. Furthermore, its fitness as a biocontrol agent of the pre-emergence damping-off pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is significantly reduced, and its ability to promote plant growth is constrained by the presence of both pathogens. This work shows that while gains in T. hamatum-mediated plant-growth-promotion can be met through genetic manipulation of a single beneficial trait, such a modification has negative impacts on other aspects of its biology and ecology that contribute to its success as a saprotrophic competitor and antagonist of soil-borne pathogens. The work has important implications for fungal morphogenesis, demonstrating a clear link between hyphal architecture and secretory potential. Furthermore, it highlights the need for a holistic approach to the development of genetically modified Trichoderma strains for use as crop stimulants and biocontrol agents in plant agriculture. PMID:21835878

  20. Madm (Mlf1 adapter molecule) cooperates with Bunched A to promote growth in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The TSC-22 domain family (TSC22DF) consists of putative transcription factors harboring a DNA-binding TSC-box and an adjacent leucine zipper at their carboxyl termini. Both short and long TSC22DF isoforms are conserved from flies to humans. Whereas the short isoforms include the tumor suppressor TSC-22 (Transforming growth factor-?1 stimulated clone-22), the long isoforms are largely uncharacterized. In Drosophila, the long isoform Bunched A (BunA) acts as a growth promoter, but how BunA controls growth has remained obscure. Results In order to test for functional conservation among TSC22DF members, we expressed the human TSC22DF proteins in the fly and found that all long isoforms can replace BunA function. Furthermore, we combined a proteomics-based approach with a genetic screen to identify proteins that interact with BunA. Madm (Mlf1 adapter molecule) physically associates with BunA via a conserved motif that is only contained in long TSC22DF proteins. Moreover, Drosophila Madm acts as a growth-promoting gene that displays growth phenotypes strikingly similar to bunA phenotypes. When overexpressed, Madm and BunA synergize to increase organ growth. Conclusions The growth-promoting potential of long TSC22DF proteins is evolutionarily conserved. Furthermore, we provide biochemical and genetic evidence for a growth-regulating complex involving the long TSC22DF protein BunA and the adapter molecule Madm. See minireview at http://jbiol.com/content/9/1/8. PMID:20149264

  1. Isolation and Identification of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria from Cucumber Rhizosphere and Their Effect on Plant Growth Promotion and Disease Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Shaikhul; Akanda, Abdul M.; Prova, Ananya; Islam, Md. T.; Hossain, Md. M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are the rhizosphere bacteria that may be utilized to augment plant growth and suppress plant diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize PGPR indigenous to cucumber rhizosphere in Bangladesh, and to evaluate their ability to suppress Phytophthora crown rot in cucumber. A total of 66 isolates were isolated, out of which 10 (PPB1, PPB2, PPB3, PPB4, PPB5, PPB8, PPB9, PPB10, PPB11, and PPB12) were selected based on their in vitro plant growth promoting attributes and antagonism of phytopathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences identified these isolates as new strains of Pseudomonas stutzeri, Bacillus subtilis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The selected isolates produced high levels (26.78–51.28 μg mL-1) of indole-3-acetic acid, while significant acetylene reduction activities (1.79–4.9 μmole C2H4 mg-1 protein h-1) were observed in eight isolates. Cucumber plants grown from seeds that were treated with these PGPR strains displayed significantly higher levels of germination, seedling vigour, growth, and N content in root and shoot tissue compared to non-treated control plants. All selected isolates were able to successfully colonize the cucumber roots. Moreover, treating cucumber seeds with these isolates significantly suppressed Phytophthora crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and characteristic morphological alterations in P. capsici hyphae that grew toward PGPR colonies were observed. Since these PGPR inoculants exhibited multiple traits beneficial to the host plants, they may be applied in the development of new, safe, and effective seed treatments as an alternative to chemical fungicides. PMID:26869996

  2. Isolation and Identification of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria from Cucumber Rhizosphere and Their Effect on Plant Growth Promotion and Disease Suppression.

    PubMed

    Islam, Shaikhul; Akanda, Abdul M; Prova, Ananya; Islam, Md T; Hossain, Md M

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are the rhizosphere bacteria that may be utilized to augment plant growth and suppress plant diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize PGPR indigenous to cucumber rhizosphere in Bangladesh, and to evaluate their ability to suppress Phytophthora crown rot in cucumber. A total of 66 isolates were isolated, out of which 10 (PPB1, PPB2, PPB3, PPB4, PPB5, PPB8, PPB9, PPB10, PPB11, and PPB12) were selected based on their in vitro plant growth promoting attributes and antagonism of phytopathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences identified these isolates as new strains of Pseudomonas stutzeri, Bacillus subtilis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The selected isolates produced high levels (26.78-51.28 ?g mL(-1)) of indole-3-acetic acid, while significant acetylene reduction activities (1.79-4.9 ?mole C2H4 mg(-1) protein h(-1)) were observed in eight isolates. Cucumber plants grown from seeds that were treated with these PGPR strains displayed significantly higher levels of germination, seedling vigour, growth, and N content in root and shoot tissue compared to non-treated control plants. All selected isolates were able to successfully colonize the cucumber roots. Moreover, treating cucumber seeds with these isolates significantly suppressed Phytophthora crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and characteristic morphological alterations in P. capsici hyphae that grew toward PGPR colonies were observed. Since these PGPR inoculants exhibited multiple traits beneficial to the host plants, they may be applied in the development of new, safe, and effective seed treatments as an alternative to chemical fungicides. PMID:26869996

  3. Metabolic Preconditioning of Mammalian Cells: Mimetic Agents for Hypoxia Lack Fidelity in Promoting Phosphorylation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Borcar, Apurva; Menze, Michael A; Toner, Mehmet; Hand, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Induction of HIF-1? by oxygen limitation promotes increased phosphorylation and catalytic depression of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and an enhanced glycolytic poise in cells. Cobalt chloride and desferrioxamine are widely used as mimics for hypoxia because they increase the levels of HIF-1?. We evaluated the ability of these agents to elicit selected physiological responses to hypoxia as a means to metabolically precondition mammalian cells, but without the detrimental effects of hypoxia. We show that while CoCl2 does increase HIF-1? in a dose-dependent manner, it unexpectedly and strikingly decreases PDH phosphorylation at E1? sites 1, 2, and 3 (Ser293, Ser300, and Ser232 respectively) in HepG2 cells. This same effect is also observed for site 1 in mouse NIH/3T3 fibroblasts and J774 macrophages. CoCl2 unexpectedly decreases the mRNA expression for PDH kinase-2 in HepG2 cells, which likely explains the dephosphorylation of PDH observed. Desferrioxamine does not promote the expected increase in PDH phosphorylation either. Dimethyloxaloylglycine (a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor) performs better in this regard, but failed to promote the stronger effects seen with hypoxia. Consequently, CoCl2 and desferrioxamine are unreliable mimics of hypoxia for physiological events downstream of HIF-1? stabilization. Our study demonstrates that mimetic chemicals must be chosen with caution and evaluated thoroughly if bona fide cellular outcomes are to be promoted with fidelity. PMID:23138570

  4. Lymphadenectomy promotes tumor growth and cancer cell dissemination in the spontaneous RET mouse model of human uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Pin, Yeo Kim; Khoo, Karen; Tham, Muly; Karwai, Tan; Hwee, Thiam Chung; Puaux, Anne-Laure; Cindy Phua, Meow Ling; Kato, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Resection of infiltrated tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) is a standard practice for the treatment of several cancers including breast cancer and melanoma. However, many randomized prospective trials have failed to show convincing clinical benefits associated with LN removal and the role of TDLNs in cancer dissemination is poorly understood. Here, we found in a well-characterized spontaneous mouse model of uveal melanoma that the growth of the primary tumor was accompanied by increased lymphangiogenesis and cancer cell colonization in the LNs draining the eyes. But, unexpectedly, early resection of the TDLNs increased the growth of the primary tumor and associated blood vessels as well as promoted cancer cell survival and dissemination. These effects were accompanied by increased tumor cell proliferation and expression of phosphorylated AKT. Topical application of a broad anti-inflammatory agent, Tobradex, or an oral treatment with cyclooxygenase-2 specific inhibitor, Celecoxib, reversed tumor progression observed after complete lymphadenectomy. Our study confirms the importance of tumor homeostasis in cancer progression by showing the enhancing effects of TDLN removal on tumor growth and cancer cell dissemination, and suggests that TDLN resection may only be beneficial if used in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs such as Tobradex and Celecoxib. PMID:26575174

  5. Beneficial effects of fluorescent pseudomonads on seed germination, growth promotion, and suppression of charcoal rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.).

    PubMed

    Shweta, Bhatia; Maheshwari, Dinesh Kumar; Dubey, Ramesh Chand; Arora, Daljit Singh; Bajpai, Vivek K; Kang, Sun Chul

    2008-09-01

    Rhizobacteria are used as inoculants to enhance crop yield and for biological control of fungal pathogens. Fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from the rhizosphere of groundnut showed suppression of the phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina that causes charcoal rot of groundnut, an economically important agroproduct. Two strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, designated as PS1 and PS2, were selected as a result of in vitro antifungal activity. After 5 days of incubation at 28+/-1 degrees , both PS1 and PS2 caused clear inhibition zones in dual cultures, restricting the growth of M. phaseolina by 71% and 74%, respectively. Both the strains were capable of producing siderophores, indole acetic acid, and hydrocyanic acid, and causing phosphate solubilization under normal growth conditions. These strains, when used as inoculants in groundnut, enhanced germination up to 15% and 30% with subsequent increase in grain yield by 66% and 77%, respectively. Conversely, when the pathogen alone was testeds 57% decrease in yield was recorded. Thus the studies revealed the potential of the two pseudomonads not only as biocontrol agents against M. phaseolina, but also as a good growth promoter for groundnut. PMID:18852515

  6. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

  7. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

  8. Candida parapsilosis as a Potent Biocontrol Agent against Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Niknejad, F; Zaini, F; Faramarzi, MA; Amini, M; Kordbacheh, P; Mahmoudi, M; Safara, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed stuff is a serious health problem and significant economic concerns. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of Candida parapsilosis IP1698 on mycelial growth and aflatoxin production in aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus species was investigated. Methods: Mycelial growth inhibitions of nine strains of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species in the presence of C. parapsilosis investigated by pour plate technique at different pH, temperature and time of incubation. Reduction of aflatoxin was evaluated in co-cultured fungi in yeast extract sucrose broth after seven days of incubation using HPLC method. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Results: The presence of the C. parapsilosis at different pH did not affect significantly the growth rate of Aspergillus isolates. On the other hand, temperature and time of incubation showed to be significantly effective when compared to controls without C. parapsilosis (P?0.05). In aflatoxigenic strains, minimum percentage of reductions in total aflatoxin and B1, B2, G1, G2 fractions were 92.98, 92.54, 77.48, 54.54 and 72.22 and maximum percentage of reductions were 99.59, not detectable, 94.42, and not detectable in both G1 and G2, respectively. Conclusion: C. parapsilosis might employ as a good biocontrol agent against growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species PMID:23308351

  9. Simulation of avascular tumor growth by agent-based game model involving phenotype-phenotype interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Wang, Hengtong; Zhang, Jiangang; Chen, Ke; Li, Yumin

    2015-01-01

    All tumors, both benign and metastatic, undergo an avascular growth stage with nutrients supplied by the surrounding tissue. This avascular growth process is much easier to carry out in more qualitative and quantitative experiments starting from tumor spheroids in vitro with reliable reproducibility. Essentially, this tumor progression would be described as a sequence of phenotypes. Using agent-based simulation in a two-dimensional spatial lattice, we constructed a composite growth model in which the phenotypic behavior of tumor cells depends on not only the local nutrient concentration and cell count but also the game among cells. Our simulation results demonstrated that in silico tumors are qualitatively similar to those observed in tumor spheroid experiments. We also found that the payoffs in the game between two living cell phenotypes can influence the growth velocity and surface roughness of tumors at the same time. Finally, this current model is flexible and can be easily extended to discuss other situations, such as environmental heterogeneity and mutation. PMID:26648395

  10. The effect of wetting agents on the growth of tubercle bacilli.

    PubMed

    DUBOS, R J; MIDDLEBROOK, G

    1948-07-01

    Tween 80 and Triton A20 are two water-dispersible, non-ionic, surface-active agents which favor dispersed growth of tubercle bacilli in aqueous media probably by wetting the bacterial surface. Tween 80 is a polyoxyethylene ester of sorbitan monooleate and is liable to enzymatic hydrolysis by lipases. Triton A20 in an arylalkyl polyether of phenol which appears resistant to the known enzymes of animal tissues. Tween 80 loses its ability to disperse cultures of tubercle bacilli in media containing serum; Triton A20 does not. Tween 80 increases the yield of growth, probably by supplying oleic acid to the bacilli; Triton A20 does not. In concentrations sufficient to cause dispersed browth, Tween 80 (purified by removal of unesterified fatty acid) and Triton A20 are completely innocuous for virulent tubercle bacilli. However, Triton A20 exhibits a marked toxic effect on the avirulent variants of mammalian strains; Tween 80 does not. The two wetting agents also differ in their effects on the morphological aspects of the bacterial cultures. Whereas Triton A20 prevents the formation of large amorphous bacillary clumps, it is less effective in preventing the orientation of the virulent bacilli resulting in the formation of long bacillary strands. Tween 80 on the contrary prevents also the formation of these cords of bacilli and exerts therefore a more effective dispersing effect on cultures of virulent tubercle bacilli. PMID:18871880

  11. Preparation of gold nanoparticles by surfactant-promoted reductive reaction without extra reducing agent.

    PubMed

    Tang, Junqi; Huang, Jiamin; Man, Shi-Qing

    2013-02-15

    Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) has been extensively applied in the solution-phase synthesis of many types of colloidal nanoparticles. However, the uses of CTAB were mainly considered as template or capping agents to form controllable shape and protect the product from agglomeration. Here it was discovered that CATB could serve as a very mild reductant to reduce gold salt precursors preparing gold nanoparticles (GNPs) at base environment. CTAB acted as the reducing agent suffering a partial degradation and forming CTA macro radicals. FTIR proved the formation of CCl and/or CBr bond after CTAB degraded. The characterization of synthesized GNPs was examined by UV-Vis spectra, TEM and XRD. Several factors affecting the process of reaction, such as the amount of NaOH, the molar ratio of CTAB and HAuCl(4), the reaction temperature, the effect of light and oxygen, and stirring were discussed. PMID:23261633

  12. Ecdysone promotes growth of imaginal discs through the regulation of Thor in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Herboso, Leire; Oliveira, Marisa M; Talamillo, Ana; Pérez, Coralia; González, Monika; Martín, David; Sutherland, James D; Shingleton, Alexander W; Mirth, Christen K; Barrio, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Animals have a determined species-specific body size that results from the combined action of hormones and signaling pathways regulating growth rate and duration. In Drosophila, the steroid hormone ecdysone controls developmental transitions, thereby regulating the duration of the growth period. Here we show that ecdysone promotes the growth of imaginal discs in mid-third instar larvae, since imaginal discs from larvae with reduced or no ecdysone synthesis are smaller than wild type due to smaller and fewer cells. We show that insulin-like peptides are produced and secreted normally in larvae with reduced ecdysone synthesis, and upstream components of insulin/insulin-like signaling are activated in their discs. Instead, ecdysone appears to regulate the growth of imaginal discs via Thor/4E-BP, a negative growth regulator downstream of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor/Tor pathways. Discs from larvae with reduced ecdysone synthesis have elevated levels of Thor, while mutations in Thor partially rescue their growth. The regulation of organ growth by ecdysone is evolutionarily conserved in hemimetabolous insects, as shown by our results obtained using Blattella germanica. In summary, our data provide new insights into the relationship between components of the insulin/insulin-like/Tor and ecdysone pathways in the control of organ growth. PMID:26198204

  13. Ecdysone promotes growth of imaginal discs through the regulation of Thor in D. melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Herboso, Leire; Oliveira, Marisa M.; Talamillo, Ana; Prez, Coralia; Gonzlez, Monika; Martn, David; Sutherland, James D.; Shingleton, Alexander W.; Mirth, Christen K.; Barrio, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Animals have a determined species-specific body size that results from the combined action of hormones and signaling pathways regulating growth rate and duration. In Drosophila, the steroid hormone ecdysone controls developmental transitions, thereby regulating the duration of the growth period. Here we show that ecdysone promotes the growth of imaginal discs in mid-third instar larvae, since imaginal discs from larvae with reduced or no ecdysone synthesis are smaller than wild type due to smaller and fewer cells. We show that insulin-like peptides are produced and secreted normally in larvae with reduced ecdysone synthesis, and upstream components of insulin/insulin-like signaling are activated in their discs. Instead, ecdysone appears to regulate the growth of imaginal discs via Thor/4E-BP, a negative growth regulator downstream of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor/Tor pathways. Discs from larvae with reduced ecdysone synthesis have elevated levels of Thor, while mutations in Thor partially rescue their growth. The regulation of organ growth by ecdysone is evolutionarily conserved in hemimetabolous insects, as shown by our results obtained using Blattella germanica. In summary, our data provide new insights into the relationship between components of the insulin/insulin-like/Tor and ecdysone pathways in the control of organ growth. PMID:26198204

  14. Disulfiram Is a DNA Demethylating Agent and Inhibits Prostate Cancer Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianqing; Haffner, Michael C.; Zhang, Yonggang; Lee, Byron H.; Brennen, W. Nathaniel; Britton, Justin; Kachhap, Sushant K.; Shim, Joong Sup; Liu, Jun O.; Nelson, William G.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Carducci, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The clinical success of the nucleoside analogs 5-aza-cytidine (5-azaC) and 5-aza-2?deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) as DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors has spurred interest in the development of non-nucleoside inhibitors with improved pharmacologic and safety profiles. Because DNMT catalysis features attack of cytosine bases by an enzyme thiol group, we tested whether disulfiram (DSF), a thiol-reactive compound with known clinical safety, demonstrated DNMT inhibitory activity. METHODS Inhibition of DNMT1 activity by DSF was assessed using methyltransferase activity assays with recombinant DNMT1. Next, prostate cancer cell lines were exposed to DSF and assessed for: i) reduction of global 5-methyl cytosine (5meC) content using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); ii) gene-specific promoter demethylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP); and iii) gene-reactivation by real-time RT-PCR. DSF was also tested for growth inhibition using prostate cancer cell lines propagated in vitro in cell culture and in vivo as xenografts in nude mice. RESULTS Disulfiram showed a dose-dependent inhibition of DNMT1 activity on a hemimethylated DNA substrate. In prostate cancer cells in culture, DSF exposure led to reduction of global genomic 5meC content, increase in unmethylated APC and RARB gene promoters, and associated re-expression of these genes, but did not significantly alter prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression. DSF significantly inhibited growth and clonogenic survival of prostate cancer cell lines in culture and showed a trend for reduced growth of prostate cancer xenografts. CONCLUSIONS Disulfiram is a non-nucleoside DNMT1 inhibitor that can reduce global 5meC content, reactivate epigenetically silenced genes, and significantly inhibit growth in prostate cancer cell lines. PMID:20809552

  15. Activating enhancer-binding protein-2? induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression and promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lijun; Xie, Fangyun; Sun, Rui; Wang, Jingshu; Li, Wenbin; Liu, Tianze; Xiao, Yao; Yu, Wendan; Guo, Wei; Xiong, Yuqing; Qiu, Huijuan; Kang, Tiebang; Huang, Wenlin; Zhao, Chong; Deng, Wuguo

    2015-01-01

    Activating enhancer-binding protein-2? (AP-2?) regulates the expression of many cancer-related genes. Here, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which AP-2? up-regulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression to promote the growth of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs). High expression of AP-2? in NPC cell lines and tumor tissues from NPC patients was detected and significantly correlated with COX-2 expression. Overexpression of AP-2? and COX-2 in tumor tissues was associated with advanced tumor stage, clinical progression, and short survival of patients with NPCs. Knockdown of AP-2? by siRNA markedly inhibited COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in NPC cells. Exogenous expression of AP-2? up-regulated the COX-2 and PGE2. Knockdown of AP-2? also significantly suppressed cell proliferation in NPC cells in vitro and tumor growth in a NPC xenograft mouse model. Moreover, we found that p300 played an important role in the AP-2?/COX-2 pathway. AP-2? could co-localize and interact with p300 in NPC cells. Overexpression of the p300, but not its histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain deletion mutant, promoted the acetylation of AP-2? and its binding on the COX-2 promoter, thereby up-regulated COX-2 expression. Our results indicate that AP-2? activates COX-2 expression to promote NPC growth and suggest that the AP-2?/COX-2 signaling is a potential therapeutic target for NPC treatment. PMID:25669978

  16. Tailoring of growth and properties: a benign approach to synthesise ZnO nanostructures without growth-directing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, M. Ibrahim; Sampath, S.; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    Achieving rational control over the growth of nanostructures without employing growth-directing agents has received considerable attention. Such approaches are a key to obtaining nanomaterials pure enough for desired applications. We report on the novel synthesis of nearly monodisperse zinc oxide nanocrystals, randomly oriented nanocrystals in spherical aggregates, and flower-like aggregates of oriented nanocrystals through a benign, ultrasonic assisted approach. It is shown that crystals of defined dimensions and morphology can be obtained by controlling the temperature of the sonicated solution of a well-chosen precursor. The powder samples resulting from sonochemical synthesis are thoroughly characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and by Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies. The results are explained by invoking the phenomena of randomly oriented aggregation, oriented attachment, and ripening, as amply supported by electron microscopy. Photoluminescence spectra of these various ZnO nanostructures reveal a strong dependence on the dimensions and morphology of the nanostructures, indicating that such luminescence can be tailored suitably.

  17. Stimulatory Effects of Arsenic-Tolerant Soil Fungi on Plant Growth Promotion and Soil Properties

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Gupta, Manjul; Vaish, Aradhana; Mannan, Shivee; Singh, Nandita; Tewari, Shri Krishna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen fungi were obtained from arsenic-contaminated agricultural fields in West Bengal, India and examined for their arsenic tolerance and removal ability in our previous study. Of these, the four best arsenic-remediating isolates were tested for plant growth promotion effects on rice and pea in the present study. A greenhouse-based pot experiment was conducted using soil inocula of individual fungi. The results indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant growth and improvement of soil properties in inoculated soils compared to the control. A significant increase in plant growth was recorded in treated soils and varied from 16293%. Soil chemical and enzymatic properties varied from 20222% and 34760%, respectively, in inoculated soil. Plants inoculated with inocula of Westerdykella and Trichoderma showed better stimulatory effects on plant growth and soil nutrient availability than Rhizopus and Lasiodiplodia. These fungi improved soil nutrient content and enhanced plant growth. These fungi may be used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and improved soil properties in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:23047145

  18. The Arabidopsis PLAT domain protein1 promotes abiotic stress tolerance and growth in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Albacete, Alfonso; van der Graaff, Eric; Eom, Seung Hee; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Böhm, Hannah; Janschek, Ursula; Rim, Yeonggil; Ali, Walid Wahid; Kim, Soo Young; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Plant growth and consequently crop yield can be severely compromised by abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Transgenic approaches that resulted in increased tolerance against abiotic stresses often were typically accompanied by adverse effects on plant growth and fitness under optimal growing conditions. Proteins that belong to the PLAT-plant-stress protein family harbour a single PLAT (Polycystin, Lipoxygenase, Alpha-toxin and Triacylglycerol lipase) domain and are ubiquitously present in monocot and dicot plant species. Until now, only limited data is available for PLAT-plant-stress family members, which suggested that these proteins in general could promote tolerance towards stress responses. We studied the function of the Arabidopsis PLAT-plant-stress protein AtPLAT1 employing heterologous gain-of-function analysis in tobacco. AtPLAT1 conferred increased abiotic stress tolerance in tobacco, evident by improved tolerance towards cold, drought and salt stresses, and promoted growth, reflected by a faster development under non-stressed conditions. However, the overexpression of AtPLAT1 in tobacco reduced the tolerance towards biotic stress conditions and, therefore, could be involved in regulating the crosstalk between abiotic and biotic stress responses. Thus, we showed that heterologously expressed AtPLAT1 functions as positive regulator of abiotic stress tolerance and plant growth, which could be an important new asset for strategies to develop plants with improved abiotic stress tolerance, without growth and subsequent yield penalties under optimal growth conditions. PMID:25757741

  19. Targeting tumor micro-environment for design and development of novel anti-angiogenic agents arresting tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Gacche, Rajesh N; Meshram, Rohan J

    2013-11-01

    Angiogenesis: a process of generation of new blood vessels has been proved to be necessary for sustained tumor growth and cancer progression. Inhibiting angiogenesis pathway has long been remained a significant hope for the development of novel, effective and target orientated antitumor agents arresting the tumor proliferation and metastasis. The process of neoangiogenesis as a biological process is regulated by several pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, especially vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, hypoxia inducible factor 1 and transforming growth factor. Every endothelial cell destined for vessel formation is equipped with receptors for these angiogenic peptides. Moreover, numerous other angiogenic cytokines such as platelet derived growth factor (PGDF), placenta growth factor (PGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), stem-cell factor (SCF), and interleukins-2, 4, 6 etc. These molecular players performs critical role in regulating the angiogenic switch. Couple of decade's research in molecular aspects of tumor biology has unraveled numerous structural and functional mysteries of these angiogenic peptides. In present article, a detailed update on the functional and structural peculiarities of the various angiogenic peptides is described focusing on structural opportunities made available that has potential to be used to modulate function of these angiogenic peptides in developing therapeutic agents targeting neoplastic angiogenesis. The data may be useful in the mainstream of developing novel anticancer agents targeting tumor angiogenesis. We also discuss major therapeutic agents that are currently used in angiogenesis associated therapies as well as those are subject of active research or are in clinical trials. PMID:24139944

  20. Effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase for growth promotion of peas (Pisum sativum) under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Z A; Munir, A; Asghar, H N; Shaharoona, B; Arshad, M

    2008-05-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to assess the effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase for growth promotion of peas under drought conditions. Ten rhizobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of different crops (peas, wheat, and maize) were screened for their growth promoting ability in peas under axenic condition. Three rhizobacterial isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (ACC-5), P. fluorescens (ACC-14), and P. putida biotype A (Q-7), were selected for pot trial on the basis of their source, ACC deaminase activity, root colonization, and growth promoting activity under axenic conditions. Inoculated and uninoculated (control) seeds of pea cultivar 2000 were sown in pots (4 seeds/pot) at different soil moisture levels (25, 50, 75, and 100% of field capacity). Results revealed that decreasing the soil moisture levels from 100 to 25% of field capacity significantly decreased the growth of peas. However, inoculation of peas with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase significantly decreased the "drought stress imposed effects" on growth of peas, although with variable efficacy at different moisture levels. At the lowest soil moisture level (25% field capacity), rhizobacterial isolate Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (ACC-5) was found to be more promising compared with the other isolates, as it caused maximum increases in fresh weight, dry weight, root length, shoot length, number of leaves per plant, and water use efficiency on fresh and dry weight basis (45, 150, 92, 45, 140, 46, and 147%, respectively) compared with respective uninoculated controls. It is highly likely that rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase might have decreased the drought-stress induced ethylene in inoculated plants, which resulted in better growth of plants even at low moisture levels. Therefore, inoculation with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase could be helpful in eliminating the inhibitory effects of drought stress on the growth of peas. PMID:18633298

  1. Ethanol Promotes Mammary Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis: the Involvement of Chemoattractant Factor MCP-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Siying; Xu, Mei; Li, Feifei; Wang, Xin; Bower, Kimberly A.; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Lu, Yanmin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Ke, Zunji; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for breast cancer in humans. Experimental studies indicate that alcohol exposure promotes malignant progression of mammary tumors. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Alcohol induces a pro-inflammatory response by modulating the expression of cytokines and chemokines. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), also known as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), is a pro-inflammatory chemokine implicated in breast cancer development/malignancy. We investigated the role of MCP-1 in alcohol-promoted mammary tumor progression. Using a xenograft model, we demonstrated that alcohol increased tumor angiogenesis and promoted growth/metastasis of breast cancer cells in C57BL/6 mice. Alcohol up-regulated the expression of MCP-1 and its receptor CCR2 in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Using a three-dimensional (3-D) tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system, we demonstrated MCP-1 regulated tumor/endothelial cell interaction and promoted tumor angiogenesis. More importantly, MCP-1 mediated alcohol-promoted angiogenesis; an antagonist of the MCP-1 receptor CCR2 significantly inhibited alcohol-stimulated tumor angiogenesis. The CCR2 antagonist abolished ethanol-stimulated growth of mammary tumors in mice. We further demonstrated that MCP-1 enhanced the migration, but not the proliferation of endothelial cells as well as breast cancer cells. These results suggest that MCP-1 plays an important role in ethanol-stimulated tumor angiogenesis and tumor progression. PMID:22160640

  2. Induction of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Promotes Growth Arrest in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Das, Trinath P; Suman, Suman; Damodaran, Chendil

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one causative factor of the pathogenesis and aggressiveness of most of the cancer types, including prostate cancer (CaP). A moderate increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) induces cell proliferation whereas excessive amounts of ROS promote apoptosis. In this study, we explored the pro-oxidant property of 3, 9-dihydroxy-2-prenylcoumestan [psoralidin (pso)], a dietary agent, on CaP (PC-3 and C4-2B) cells. Pso greatly induced ROS expression (more than 20-fold) that resulted in the growth inhibition of CaP cells. Overexpression of anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD2, and catalase, or pretreatment with the pharmacological inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated both pso-mediated ROS generation and pso-mediated growth inhibition in CaP cells. Furthermore, pso administration significantly inhibited the migratory and invasive property of CaP cells by decreasing the transcription of ?-catenin, snail, and slug, which promote epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), and by concurrently inducing E-cadherin expression in CaP cells. Pso-induced ROS generation in CaP cells resulted in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome-c release, and activation of caspase-3 and -9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which led to apoptosis. On the other hand, overexpression of anti-oxidants rescued pso-mediated effects on CaP cells. These findings suggest that increasing the threshold of intracellular ROS could prevent or treat CaP growth and metastasis. PMID:23475579

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Strain P23, a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Duckweed.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Masayuki; Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium, which was isolated from the surface of duckweed. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain P23. The genome data will serve as a valuable reference for understanding the molecular mechanism of plant growth promotion in aquatic plants. PMID:25720680

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Strain P23, a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Duckweed

    PubMed Central

    Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium, which was isolated from the surface of duckweed. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain P23. The genome data will serve as a valuable reference for understanding the molecular mechanism of plant growth promotion in aquatic plants. PMID:25720680

  5. Learning To Listen to Mothers: A Trainers' Manual To Strengthen Communication Skills for Nutrition and Growth Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Jane; Uccellani, Valerie

    Counseling mothers of small children in effective growth monitoring and promotion is both an art and a science. Virtually all primary health care programs contain a Growth Monitoring and Promotion component (GMP). It is vital that supervisors and community health workers of GMP programs have a clear understanding of why communication skills are

  6. Plant growth-promoting potential of endophytic fungi isolated from Solanum nigrum leaves.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdur Rahim; Ullah, Ihsan; Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hong, Sung-Jun; Park, Gun-Seok; Jung, Byung Kwon; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Fungal endophytes have been characterized as producers of phytohormones and potent promoters of plant growth. In this study, two fungal endophytes, Fusarium tricinctum RSF-4L and Alternaria alternata RSF-6L, were isolated from the leaves of Solanum nigrum. Culture filtrates (CFs) from each isolate were initially screened for indole compounds, and assayed for their ability to promote the growth of Dongjin rice plants. Nearly all plant growth attributes examined (i.e., chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and biomass production) were significantly enhanced upon treatment with fungal CFs. Subsequently, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses were utilized to confirm the presence of phytohormones in the CF of each fungal endophytic isolate. These analyses revealed that RSF-4L and RSF-6L produced 54 and 30 g/mL indole acetic acid, respectively, within their respective cultures. These findings suggest that the endophytes isolated in this study synthesize bioactive compounds that could play important roles in promoting plant growth. PMID:26081602

  7. Efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sand dunes of Chennai coastal area.

    PubMed

    Muthezhilan, R; Sindhuja, B S; Hussain, A Jaffar; Jayaprakashvel, M

    2012-08-15

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize the plant root and enhance the plant growth. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. In the present study, PGPR were isolated from 18 different rhizosphere soil samples of coastal sand dune plants, belonging to the genus Ipomoea sp. collected from the Chennai coastal area. For isolation of bacteria from soil samples, pour plate technique was followed. The rhizobacterial population was ranged from 4.4 x 10(6)-7.5 x 10(7) CFU g(-1). From that, 46 morphologically different bacterial strains were isolated. Among 46, 18 strains exhibited the production of Indole Acetic Acid. (IAA). When screened for phosphate solubilzing activity, six strains showed maximum activity. All these selected six strains were screened for seed germination among which these two strains (AMET1136 and AMET 1148) showed remarkable increase in the seed germination of black gram and green gram. For plant growth promotion, three types of treatments namely, seed bacterization, soil drenching and mixed (seed+soil) were carried out to check the potential of these two strains. Among that one strain which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. AMET1148 showed remarkable and significant increase in shoot length and root length of the tested plants. The study concluded that PGPR from coastal sand dund plants can be developed as plant growth promoters in agricultural crops. PMID:24175421

  8. Over-expression of platelet-derived growth factor-D promotes tumor growth and invasion in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Qiu, Haifeng; Hu, Weixu; Li, Shaoru; Yu, Jinjin

    2014-01-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) was demonstrated to be able to promote tumor growth and invasion in human malignancies. However, little is known about its roles in endometrial cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression and functions of PDGF-D in human endometrial cancer. Alterations of PDGF-D mRNA and protein were determined by real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Up-regulation of PDGF-D was achieved by stably transfecting the pcDNA3-PDGF-D plasmids into ECC-1 cells; and knockdown of PDGF-D was achieved by transient transfection with siRNA-PDGF-D into Ishikawa cells. The MTT assay, colony formation assay and Transwell assay were used to detect the effects of PDGF-D on cellular proliferation and invasion. The xenograft assay was used to investigate the functions of PDGF-D in vivo. Compared to normal endometrium, more than 50% cancer samples showed over-expression of PDGF-D (p < 0.001), and high level of PDGF-D was correlated with late stage (p = 0.003), deep myometrium invasion (p < 0.001) and lympha vascular space invasion (p = 0.006). In vitro, over-expressing PDGF-D in ECC-1 cells significantly accelerated tumor growth and promoted cellular invasion by increasing the level of MMP2 and MMP9; while silencing PDGF-D in Ishikawa cells impaired cell proliferation and inhibited the invasion, through suppressing the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Moreover, we also demonstrated that over-expressed PDGF-D could induce EMT and knockdown of PDGF-D blocked the EMT transition. Consistently, in xenografts assay, PDGF-D over-expression significantly promoted tumor growth and tumor weights. We demonstrated that PDGF-D was commonly over-expressed in endometrial cancer, which was associated with late stage deep myometrium invasion and lympha vascular space invasion. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed PDGF-D could promote tumor growth and invasion through up-regulating MMP2/9 and inducing EMT. Thus, we propose targeting PDGF-D to be a potent strategy for endometrial cancer treatment. PMID:24646915

  9. Growth-promoting effects of pepsin- and trypsin-treated caseinomacropeptide from bovine milk on probiotics.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Gilles; Champagne, Claude P

    2014-08-01

    Probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are generally fastidious bacteria and require rich media for propagation. In milk-based media, they grow poorly, and nitrogen supplementation is required to produce high bacterial biomass levels. It has been reported that caseinomacropeptide (CMP), a 7-kDa peptide released from ?-casein during renneting or gastric digestion, exhibits some growth-promoting activity for lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. During the digestive process, peptides derived from CMP are detected in the intestinal lumen The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of peptic and tryptic digests of CMP on probiotic lactic acid bacteria growth in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth (MRS) and in milk during fermentation at 37 C under anaerobic conditions. The study showed that pepsin-treated CMP used as supplements at 0.5 g/l can promote the growth of probiotics even in peptone-rich environments such as MRS. The effect was strain-dependent and evident for the strains that grow poorly in MRS, with an improvement of >1.5 times (P<0.05) by addition of pepsin-treated CMP. Trypsin-treated CMP was much less efficient as growth promoter. Moreover, pepsin-treated CMP was effective in promoting the growth in milk of all probiotic lactic acid bacteria tested, with biomass levels being improved significantly, by 1.7 to 2.6 times (P<0.05), depending on the strain. Thus, supplementation of MRS and of milk with pepsin-treated CMP would be advantageous for the production of high biomass levels for Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. PMID:24960102

  10. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Sreevidya, M; Gopalakrishnan, S; Kudapa, H; Varshney, R K

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20C to 40C, pH range of 7-11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40) but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40), hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40), indole acetic acid and ?-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and ?-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea. PMID:26887230

  11. Promoter Trapping in Microalgae Using the Antibiotic Paromomycin as Selective Agent

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Marta; Díaz-Santos, Encarnación; de la, Marta; Rodríguez, Herminia; Vargas, Ángeles; León, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    The lack of highly active endogenous promoters to drive the expression of transgenes is one of the main drawbacks to achieving efficient transformation of many microalgal species. Using the model chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the paromomycin resistance APHVIII gene from Streptomyces rimosus as a marker, we have demonstrated that random insertion of the promoterless marker gene and subsequent isolation of the most robust transformants allows for the identification of novel strong promoter sequences in microalgae. Digestion of the genomic DNA with an enzyme that has a unique restriction site inside the marker gene and a high number of target sites in the genome of the microalga, followed by inverse PCR, allows for easy determination of the genomic region, which precedes the APHVIII marker gene. In most of the transformants analyzed, the marker gene is inserted in intragenic regions and its expression relies on its adequate insertion in frame with native genes. As an example, one of the new promoters identified was used to direct the expression of the APHVIII marker gene in C. reinhardtii, showing high transformation efficiencies. PMID:23211713

  12. Endogenous abscisic acid promotes hypocotyl growth and affects endoreduplication during dark-induced growth in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Humplk, Jan F; Bergougnoux, Vronique; Jandov, Michaela; imura, Jan; P?n?k, Ale; Tomanec, Ond?ej; Rol?k, Jakub; Novk, Ond?ej; Fellner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Dark-induced growth (skotomorphogenesis) is primarily characterized by rapid elongation of the hypocotyl. We have studied the role of abscisic acid (ABA) during the development of young tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings. We observed that ABA deficiency caused a reduction in hypocotyl growth at the level of cell elongation and that the growth in ABA-deficient plants could be improved by treatment with exogenous ABA, through which the plants show a concentration dependent response. In addition, ABA accumulated in dark-grown tomato seedlings that grew rapidly, whereas seedlings grown under blue light exhibited low growth rates and accumulated less ABA. We demonstrated that ABA promotes DNA endoreduplication by enhancing the expression of the genes encoding inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases SlKRP1 and SlKRP3 and by reducing cytokinin levels. These data were supported by the expression analysis of the genes which encode enzymes involved in ABA and CK metabolism. Our results show that ABA is essential for the process of hypocotyl elongation and that appropriate control of the endogenous level of ABA is required in order to drive the growth of etiolated seedlings. PMID:25695830

  13. Effect of antimicrobial growth promoter administration on the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) are antimicrobial agents administered to livestock in feed for prolonged periods to enhance feed efficiency. Beef cattle are primarily finished in confined feeding operations in Canada and the USA, and the administration of AGPs such as chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (Aureo S-700G) is the standard. The impacts of AGPs on the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are currently uncertain; it is documented that AGPs administered to beef cattle pass through the rumen and enter the intestine. To ascertain the impacts of Aureo S-700G on the small and large intestinal microbiota of beef cattle (mucosa-associated and within digesta), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for total bacteria were applied. Beef cattle were maintained in an experimental feedlot (five replicate pens per treatment), and AGP treatment cattle were administered Aureo S-700G in feed, whereas control cattle were administered no antimicrobials. As the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle has not been extensively examined, clone library analysis was applied to ascertain the primary bacterial constituents of the intestinal microbiota. Results Comparative T-RFLP and qPCR analysis (n?=?122 samples) revealed that bacterial community fingerprints and bacterial load within digesta differed from those associated with mucosa. However, the administration of Aureo S-700G did not affect bacterial community fingerprints or bacterial load within the small and large intestine relative to control cattle. Analysis of >1500 near full length 16S rDNA clones revealed considerably greater bacterial diversity in the large relative to the small intestine of beef cattle. Mucosa-associated bacterial communities in the jejunum were dominated by Proteobacteria, and differed conspicuously from those in the ileum and large intestine. Although the ileum contained bacterial clones that were common to the jejunum as well as the cecum, Firmicutes clones associated with mucosa dominated in the ileum, cecum, and descending colon. In the descending colon, clone library analysis did not reveal a difference in the richness or diversity of bacterial communities within digesta relative to those associated with mucosa. However, T-RFLP analysis indicated a significant difference in T-RF relative abundance (i.e. difference in relative taxon abundance) between mucosa-associated and digesta communities attributed in part to the differential abundance of Bacteriodes, Alistipes, Oscillibacter, and unclassified Clostridiales. Conclusions These data demonstrate that there was no significant difference in the composition of the predominant intestinal bacteria constituents within animals administered Aureo S-700G and those not administered AGPs after a 28day withdrawal period. PMID:23578222

  14. Toxicity of four spill-treating agents on bacterial growth and sea urchin embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Murado, Miguel A; Beiras, Ricardo; Vázquez, José A

    2014-06-01

    The toxicity of spill-treating agents (STAs) is a topic that needs to be assessed prior to their potential application in environmental disasters. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of four commercial STAs (CytoSol, Finasol OSR 51, Agma OSD 569 and OD4000) on the growth of marine (Phaeobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp.) and terrestrial (Leuconostoc mesenteroides) bacteria, and sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryolarval development. In general, STA did not inhibit significantly the biomass production of the tested marine bacteria. Finasol OSR 51 and OD4000 clearly inhibited the growth of L. mesenteroides and an accurate description of the kinetics was provided by a proposed bivariate equation. For this species, a global parameter (EC50,τ) was defined to summarize the set of growth kinetics. Using this parameter Finasol OSR 51 was found to be less toxic (754μL L(-1)) than OD4000 (129μL L(-1)). For the sea urchin embryo assay, the ranking of toxicity as EC50 (μL L(-1)) was Agma OSD 569 (34.0)

  15. Growth-promoting effects of caseinomacropeptide from cow and goat milk on probiotics.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Gilles

    2013-02-01

    Caseinomacropeptide (CMP), a 7-kDa phosphoglycopolypeptide fragment released from ?-casein during milk renneting, is heterogeneous with respect to post-translational glycosylation. Several studies have reported that CMP has growth-promoting activity on lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycosylation and sequence variations between bovine and caprine CMP on the growth of two probiotics: Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595-M and Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67. The growth-promoting activities of CMP (mixture of glycosylated (gCMP) and non-glycosylated (aCMP) fractions), aCMP and gCMP were measured in a basal minimal culture medium using turbidimetric microplate assay at 37 C. Supplementation of the culture media at 2 mg/ml significantly improved maximum growth by 1.5 to 1.8 times depending on the strain, the additive (CMP, aCMP, gCMP), and the bovine or caprine origin (P < 0.05). CMP preparations also decreased the time needed to reach the inflexion point of the growth curve and increase the cell density at that time (P < 0.05). The effects of CMP preparations were dose dependent and significantly superior to the effect of bovine ?-lactoglobulin added to the culture media. As gCMP and aCMP were as efficient as bovine and caprine CMP (P > 0.1), it was concluded that the presence of oligosaccharides linked to CMP was not essential for growth-promoting activity of CMP. PMID:23182022

  16. Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting traits of a rhizobacteria: Pantoea agglomerans lma2.

    PubMed

    Silini-Chrif, H; Silini, A; Ghoul, M; Yadav, S

    2012-03-15

    The use of microbial technology in agriculture is expanding quickly with the identification of new bacterial strains which are more effective in promoting the growth of plants. The rhizobacteria that promote the growth of plants can have a positive effect on the productivity of crops especially when subjected to salt stress. A nitrogen-fixing bacterium was isolated from the wheat rhizosphere of an arid region. The strain was identified on the basis of tests API20E and 16S rRNA sequencing, as Pantoea agglomerans lma2. This strain degraded several carbon sources: sugars (fructose, ribose, dextrin, salicin...), lipids (lecithin, tributyrin and tween 80), proteins (gelatin, casein), grew on KCN and could grow from pH 4 to 8 and had an optimum at pH 7. The growth temperature showed a maximum at 30 degrees C and the bacteria could tolerate from 4 to 41 degrees C and the growth rate was higher when the NaCl concentration was between 100 and 300 mM. The performance of activities enhancing the growth of plants of P. agglomerans lma2 was significantly better in the presence of salt. Rates of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), siderophores production and solubilization of phosphate increased between 100 and 400 mM NaCl compared to the control without salt. The maximum values were saved to 300 mM for the production of siderophores (18.32%) and solubilization of phosphate (1061.49 microg mL(-1)) and 100 mM for the production of IAA (161 microg mL(-1)). A significant correlation existed between these three activities. These results showed that P. agglomerans lma2 with its Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and halophilic properties could constitute a good fertilizer in arid and saline zone. PMID:24175423

  17. The Activation of Free Dipeptides Promoted by Strong Activating Agents in Water Does not Yield Diketopiperazines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaufils, Damien; Jepaul, Sandra; Liu, Ziwei; Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The activation of dipeptides was studied in the perspective of the abiotic formation of oligopeptides of significant length as a requirement for secondary structure formation. The formation of piperazin-2,5-diones (DKP), previously considered as a dead end when activating free dipeptides, was shown in this work to be efficiently suppressed when using strong activating agents (e.g., carbodiimides). This behaviour was explained by the fast formation of a 5(4 H)-oxazolone intermediate at a rate that exceeds the time scale of the rotation of the peptide bond from the predominant trans-conformation into the cis-isomer required for DKP formation. No DKP was observed when using strong activating agents whereas phosphate mixed anhydrides or moderately activated esters were observed to predominantly yield DKP. The DKP side-reaction no longer constitutes a drawback for the C-terminus elongation of peptides. These results are considered as additional evidence that pathways involving strong activation are required to drive the emergence of living entities rather than close to equilibrium processes.

  18. Lapatinib promotes the incidence of hepatotoxicity by increasing chemotherapeutic agent accumulation in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Zhao, HongYun; Wu, XingPing; Huang, ZhenCong; Chen, ZheSheng; To, Kenneth; Fu, LiWu

    2015-01-01

    Lapatinib has been used in combination with capecitabine or paclitaxel to treat patients with progressive HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Unfortunately, an increased incidence of hepatotoxicity had been reported in the combinational therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential mechanisms of this combinational therapy. We found that the patients receiving lapatinib and paclitaxel treatment showed a higher incidence of hepatobiliary system disorders than those receiving paclitaxel alone. Lapatinib was shown to increase the accumulation of doxorubicin in ABCB1-overexpressing hepatocellular cancer cells and normal liver tissues without altering the protein level of ABCB1. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that lapatinib could increase the systematic exposure of paclitaxel and doxorubicin. Moreover, the in vivo experiments showed that the levels of alanine aminotransferase and serious hepatocyte injury in the group of lapatinib plus chemotherapeutic agent were significantly higher than those in the group of single chemotherapeutic agent such as paclitaxel or doxorubicin. Our study thus revealed for the first time that the higher incidence of hepatotoxicity during this combinational treatment was due to the increased drug accumulation in hepatocytes mediated by the inhibition of ABCB1 by lapatinib. Appropriate dose adjustment may be needed to optimize the combination therapy. PMID:26036634

  19. The Activation of Free Dipeptides Promoted by Strong Activating Agents in Water Does not Yield Diketopiperazines.

    PubMed

    Beaufils, Damien; Jepaul, Sandra; Liu, Ziwei; Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The activation of dipeptides was studied in the perspective of the abiotic formation of oligopeptides of significant length as a requirement for secondary structure formation. The formation of piperazin-2,5-diones (DKP), previously considered as a dead end when activating free dipeptides, was shown in this work to be efficiently suppressed when using strong activating agents (e.g., carbodiimides). This behaviour was explained by the fast formation of a 5(4H)-oxazolone intermediate at a rate that exceeds the time scale of the rotation of the peptide bond from the predominant trans-conformation into the cis-isomer required for DKP formation. No DKP was observed when using strong activating agents whereas phosphate mixed anhydrides or moderately activated esters were observed to predominantly yield DKP. The DKP side-reaction no longer constitutes a drawback for the C-terminus elongation of peptides. These results are considered as additional evidence that pathways involving strong activation are required to drive the emergence of living entities rather than close to equilibrium processes. PMID:26205652

  20. Lapatinib promotes the incidence of hepatotoxicity by increasing chemotherapeutic agent accumulation in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Dai, ChunLing; Ma, ShaoLin; Wang, Fang; Zhao, HongYun; Wu, XingPing; Huang, ZhenCong; Chen, ZheSheng; To, Kenneth; Fu, LiWu

    2015-07-10

    Lapatinib has been used in combination with capecitabine or paclitaxel to treat patients with progressive HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Unfortunately, an increased incidence of hepatotoxicity had been reported in the combinational therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential mechanisms of this combinational therapy. We found that the patients receiving lapatinib and paclitaxel treatment showed a higher incidence of hepatobiliary system disorders than those receiving paclitaxel alone. Lapatinib was shown to increase the accumulation of doxorubicin in ABCB1-overexpressing hepatocellular cancer cells and normal liver tissues without altering the protein level of ABCB1. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that lapatinib could increase the systematic exposure of paclitaxel and doxorubicin. Moreover, the in vivo experiments showed that the levels of alanine aminotransferase and serious hepatocyte injury in the group of lapatinib plus chemotherapeutic agent were significantly higher than those in the group of single chemotherapeutic agent such as paclitaxel or doxorubicin. Our study thus revealed for the first time that the higher incidence of hepatotoxicity during this combinational treatment was due to the increased drug accumulation in hepatocytes mediated by the inhibition of ABCB1 by lapatinib. Appropriate dose adjustment may be needed to optimize the combination therapy. PMID:26036634

  1. Optimize Flue Gas Settings to Promote Microalgae Growth in Photobioreactors via Computer Simulations

    PubMed Central

    He, Lian; Chen, Amelia B; Yu, Yi; Kucera, Leah; Tang, Yinjie

    2013-01-01

    Flue gas from power plants can promote algal cultivation and reduce greenhouse gas emissions1. Microalgae not only capture solar energy more efficiently than plants3, but also synthesize advanced biofuels2-4. Generally, atmospheric CO2 is not a sufficient source for supporting maximal algal growth5. On the other hand, the high concentrations of CO2 in industrial exhaust gases have adverse effects on algal physiology. Consequently, both cultivation conditions (such as nutrients and light) and the control of the flue gas flow into the photo-bioreactors are important to develop an efficient flue gas to algae system. Researchers have proposed different photobioreactor configurations4,6 and cultivation strategies7,8 with flue gas. Here, we present a protocol that demonstrates how to use models to predict the microalgal growth in response to flue gas settings. We perform both experimental illustration and model simulations to determine the favorable conditions for algal growth with flue gas. We develop a Monod-based model coupled with mass transfer and light intensity equations to simulate the microalgal growth in a homogenous photo-bioreactor. The model simulation compares algal growth and flue gas consumptions under different flue-gas settings. The model illustrates: 1) how algal growth is influenced by different volumetric mass transfer coefficients of CO2; 2) how we can find optimal CO2 concentration for algal growth via the dynamic optimization approach (DOA); 3) how we can design a rectangular on-off flue gas pulse to promote algal biomass growth and to reduce the usage of flue gas. On the experimental side, we present a protocol for growing Chlorella under the flue gas (generated by natural gas combustion). The experimental results qualitatively validate the model predictions that the high frequency flue gas pulses can significantly improve algal cultivation. PMID:24121788

  2. Optimize flue gas settings to promote microalgae growth in photobioreactors via computer simulations.

    PubMed

    He, Lian; Chen, Amelia B; Yu, Yi; Kucera, Leah; Tang, Yinjie

    2013-01-01

    Flue gas from power plants can promote algal cultivation and reduce greenhouse gas emissions(1). Microalgae not only capture solar energy more efficiently than plants(3), but also synthesize advanced biofuels(2-4). Generally, atmospheric CO2 is not a sufficient source for supporting maximal algal growth(5). On the other hand, the high concentrations of CO2 in industrial exhaust gases have adverse effects on algal physiology. Consequently, both cultivation conditions (such as nutrients and light) and the control of the flue gas flow into the photo-bioreactors are important to develop an efficient "flue gas to algae" system. Researchers have proposed different photobioreactor configurations(4,6) and cultivation strategies(7,8) with flue gas. Here, we present a protocol that demonstrates how to use models to predict the microalgal growth in response to flue gas settings. We perform both experimental illustration and model simulations to determine the favorable conditions for algal growth with flue gas. We develop a Monod-based model coupled with mass transfer and light intensity equations to simulate the microalgal growth in a homogenous photo-bioreactor. The model simulation compares algal growth and flue gas consumptions under different flue-gas settings. The model illustrates: 1) how algal growth is influenced by different volumetric mass transfer coefficients of CO2; 2) how we can find optimal CO2 concentration for algal growth via the dynamic optimization approach (DOA); 3) how we can design a rectangular on-off flue gas pulse to promote algal biomass growth and to reduce the usage of flue gas. On the experimental side, we present a protocol for growing Chlorella under the flue gas (generated by natural gas combustion). The experimental results qualitatively validate the model predictions that the high frequency flue gas pulses can significantly improve algal cultivation. PMID:24121788

  3. Growth-promoting effect of oestriol in a lymphoma lacking oestrogen receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Kawatsu, R.; Ezaki, T.; Kotani, M.; Akagi, M.

    1989-01-01

    Various doses (1 microgram to 10 mg) of oestriol (E3) were intraperitoneally injected into mice immediately after subcutaneous inoculation of an oestrogen receptor-negative lymphoma cell line (KE-5) established from a spontaneously developed AKR thymic lymphoma. The growth of KE-5 cells was markedly promoted by E3 at the early stage of tumour growth. At this stage, 1 microgram E3 enhanced tumour growth significantly and the maximum effect was obtained with 1 mg E3. Normal female mice showed a higher incidence and shorter latency than males. However, once tumours became palpable, the tumour growth rate appeared to be unaffected. Histological observations using Alcian blue and colloidal iron revealed a marked increase of hyaluronic acid in the subcutaneous connective tissue of the tumour-injection site within 3-5 days after intraperitoneal administration of 1 mg E3. Biochemical analyses showed a rapid and marked increase in skin hyaluronic acid content to over 3 times the control levels (0.25 +/- 0.10 mg g-1 skin) within 3 days of E3 administration. Subcutaneous inoculation of KE-5 cells together with hyaluronic acid (0.2 mg) resulted in markedly enhanced tumour growth, particularly at the early stage. These results suggest that an increase in stromal hyaluronic acid content is the most likely mechanism responsible for the promoting effect of E3 on KE-5 cells. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2713243

  4. Mitochondrial biogenesis in epithelial cancer cells promotes breast cancer tumor growth and confers autophagy resistance

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Ahmed F.; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we set out to test the novel hypothesis that increased mitochondrial biogenesis in epithelial cancer cells would fuel enhanced tumor growth. For this purpose, we generated MDA-MB-231 cells (a triple-negative human breast cancer cell line) overexpressing PGC-1? and MitoNEET, which are established molecules that drive mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Interestingly, both PGC-1? and MitoNEET increased the abundance of OXPHOS protein complexes, conferred autophagy resistance under conditions of starvation and increased tumor growth by up to ~3-fold. However, this increase in tumor growth was independent of neo-angiogenesis, as assessed by immunostaining and quantitation of vessel density using CD31 antibodies. Quantitatively similar increases in tumor growth were also observed by overexpression of PGC-1? and POLRMT in MDA-MB-231 cells, which are also responsible for mediating increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, we propose that increased mitochondrial power in epithelial cancer cells oncogenically promotes tumor growth by conferring autophagy resistance. As such, PGC-1?, PGC-1?, mitoNEET and POLRMT should all be considered as tumor promoters or metabolic oncogenes. Our results are consistent with numerous previous clinical studies showing that metformin (a weak mitochondrial poison) prevents the onset of nearly all types of human cancers in diabetic patients. Therefore, metformin (a complex I inhibitor) and other mitochondrial inhibitors should be developed as novel anticancer therapies, targeting mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells. PMID:23070475

  5. Integrin ?v?6 sustains and promotes tumor invasive growth in colon cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang-Yun; Guo, Sen; Dong, Cong-Ying; Wang, Xian-Qiang; Hu, Bing-Yang; Liu, Yang-Feng; Chen, Yong-Wei; Niu, Jun; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To detect the mechanism by which colon tumor escapes the growth constraints imposed on normal cells by cell crowding and dense pericellular matrices. METHODS: An immunohistochemical study of integrin ?v?6 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was performed on tissue microarrays of 200 spots, including 100 cases of colon tumors. RESULTS: High immunoreactivity for ?v?6 (73.7%; 28/38) and MMP-9 (76.5%; 52/68) was observed in invasive tumor portions. Furthermore, the effects of integrin ?v?6 on tumor invasive growth in nude mice were detected. Tumor invasive growth and high expression of both ?v?6 and MMP-9 were only seen in tumors resulting from WiDr cells expressing ?v?6 in the tumorigenicity assay. Flow cytometry was applied to analyze ?v?6 expression in colon cancer WiDr and SW480 cells. The effects of cell density on ?v?6 expression and MMP-9 secretion were also detected by Biotrak MMP-9 activity assay and gelatin zymography assay. High cell density evidently enhanced ?v?6 expression and promoted MMP-9 secretion compared with low density. CONCLUSION: Integrin ?v?6 sustains and promotes tumor invasive growth in tumor progression via a self-perpetuating mechanism. Integrin ???6-mediated MMP-9 secretion facilitates pericellular matrix degradation at high cell density, which provides the basis of invasive growth. PMID:26139991

  6. Mitochondrial biogenesis in epithelial cancer cells promotes breast cancer tumor growth and confers autophagy resistance.

    PubMed

    Salem, Ahmed F; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2012-11-15

    Here, we set out to test the novel hypothesis that increased mitochondrial biogenesis in epithelial cancer cells would "fuel" enhanced tumor growth. For this purpose, we generated MDA-MB-231 cells (a triple-negative human breast cancer cell line) overexpressing PGC-1α and MitoNEET, which are established molecules that drive mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Interestingly, both PGC-1α and MitoNEET increased the abundance of OXPHOS protein complexes, conferred autophagy resistance under conditions of starvation and increased tumor growth by up to ~3-fold. However, this increase in tumor growth was independent of neo-angiogenesis, as assessed by immunostaining and quantitation of vessel density using CD31 antibodies. Quantitatively similar increases in tumor growth were also observed by overexpression of PGC-1β and POLRMT in MDA-MB-231 cells, which are also responsible for mediating increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, we propose that increased mitochondrial "power" in epithelial cancer cells oncogenically promotes tumor growth by conferring autophagy resistance. As such, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, mitoNEET and POLRMT should all be considered as tumor promoters or "metabolic oncogenes." Our results are consistent with numerous previous clinical studies showing that metformin (a weak mitochondrial "poison") prevents the onset of nearly all types of human cancers in diabetic patients. Therefore, metformin (a complex I inhibitor) and other mitochondrial inhibitors should be developed as novel anticancer therapies, targeting mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells. PMID:23070475

  7. The OXI1 Kinase Pathway Mediates Piriformospora indica-Induced Growth Promotion in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Camehl, Iris; Drzewiecki, Corinna; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Shahollari, Bationa; Sherameti, Irena; Forzani, Celine; Munnik, Teun; Hirt, Heribert; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes roots of many plant species and promotes growth and resistance to certain plant pathogens. Despite its potential use in agriculture, little is known on the molecular basis of this beneficial plant-fungal interaction. In a genetic screen for plants, which do not show a P. indica- induced growth response, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant in the OXI1 (Oxidative Signal Inducible1) gene. OXI1 has been characterized as a protein kinase which plays a role in pathogen response and is regulated by H2O2 and PDK1 (3-PHOSPHOINOSITIDE-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE1). A genetic analysis showed that double mutants of the two closely related PDK1.1 and PDK1.2 genes are defective in the growth response to P. indica. While OXI1 and PDK1 gene expression is upregulated in P. indica-colonized roots, defense genes are downregulated, indicating that the fungus suppresses plant defense reactions. PDK1 is activated by phosphatidic acid (PA) and P. indica triggers PA synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Under beneficial co-cultivation conditions, H2O2 formation is even reduced by the fungus. Importantly, phospholipase D (PLD)α1 or PLDδ mutants, which are impaired in PA synthesis do not show growth promotion in response to fungal infection. These data establish that the P. indica-stimulated growth response is mediated by a pathway consisting of the PLD-PDK1-OXI1 cascade. PMID:21625539

  8. Solid source growth of Si oxide nanowires promoted by carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Congxiang; Liu, Wen-wen; Wang, Xingli; Li, Xiaocheng; Tan, Chong Wei; Tay, Beng Kang; Coquet, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    We report a method to promote solid source growth of Si oxide nanowires (SiONWs) by using an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It starts with the fabrication of CNT array by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on Si wafers, followed by growth of SiONWs. Herein, CNTs serve as a scaffold, which helps the dispersion of catalysts for SiONWs and also provides space for hydrogen which boosts the diffusion of Si atoms and hence formation of SiONWs. As the result, a three dimensional (3D) hybrid network of densely packed SiONWs and CNTs can be produced rapidly.

  9. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Downregulates Transforming Growth Factor ?2 To Promote Enhanced Stability of Capillary-Like Tube Formation

    PubMed Central

    DiMaio, Terri A.; Gutierrez, Kimberley D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the most common tumor of AIDS patients worldwide. A key characteristic of KS tumors is extremely high levels of vascular slits and extravasated red blood cells, making neoangiogenesis a key component of the tumor. The main KS tumor cell is the spindle cell, a cell of endothelial origin that maintains KSHV predominantly in the latent state. In cultured endothelial cells, latent KSHV infection induces angiogenic phenotypes, including longer-term stabilization of capillary-like tube formation in Matrigel, a basement membrane matrix. The present studies show that KSHV infection of endothelial cells strongly downregulates transforming growth factor ?2 (TGF-?2). This downregulation allows the stabilization of capillary-like tube formation during latent infection, as the addition of exogenous TGF-?2 inhibits the KSHV-induced stability of these structures. While two KSHV microRNAs are sufficient to downregulate TGF-?2 in endothelial cells, they are not required during KSHV infection. However, activation of the gp130 cell surface receptor is both necessary and sufficient for downregulation of TGF-?2 in KSHV-infected cells. IMPORTANCE Kaposi's sarcoma is a highly vascularized, endothelial cell-based tumor supporting large amounts of angiogenesis. There is evidence that KSHV, the etiologic agent of KS, induces aberrant angiogenesis. For example, KSHV induces stabilization of capillary-like tube formation in cultured endothelial cells. A clearer understanding of how KSHV regulates angiogenesis could provide potential therapeutic targets for KS. We found that KSHV downregulates TGF-?2, a cytokine related to TGF-?1 that is known to inhibit angiogenesis. The downregulation of this inhibitor promotes the stability of capillary-like tube formation insofar as adding back TGF-?2 to infected cells blocks KSHV-induced long-term tubule stability. Therefore, KSHV downregulation of TGF-?2 may increase aberrant vascularization in KS tumors through increased capillary formation and thereby aid in KS tumor promotion. PMID:25275137

  10. Screening of multiple metal and antibiotic resistant isolates and their plant growth promoting activity.

    PubMed

    Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2014-01-15

    Heavy metal contamination has accelerated due to the rapid industrialization world wide. Accumulation of metals in excess can modify the structure of essential protein or can replace an essential element. Bradyrhizobium strains showed tolerance to cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc and copper. All the isolates showed maximum tolerance towards lead and zinc which was followed by nickel and chromium. These strains also showed tolerance towards most of the antibiotics. Bradyrhizobium strains were also tested for their Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) substances, all isolates produced good amount of indole acetic acid and were positive for ammonia but only three strains were positive for HCN and siderophore (RM1, RM2 and RM8), the rest isolates showed negative result. Based on the above intrinsic abilities of Bradyrhizobium species, these strains can be used for the growth promotion, as well for the detoxification of the heavy metals in metal polluted soils. PMID:24783803

  11. PVC-piping promotes growth of Ralstonia pickettii in dialysis water treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Dombrowsky, Matthias; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms forming inside dialysis water treatment systems are one of the main sources of microbiological contamination. Among the bacteria found in biofilms, Ralstonia pickettii is frequently encountered in dialysis water treatment systems and has been shown to develop extreme oligotrophic talents. In Austria, R. pickettii was exclusively detected in high numbers in dialysis water treatment facilities equipped with chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) piping. In this laboratory study it was shown that PVC-C effectively promotes growth of R. pickettii biofilms, while residual organic carbon in purified dialysis water is sufficient for promoting substantial growth of planktic R. pickettii. This provides evidence that PVC-C is an unsuitable material for piping in dialysis water treatment systems. PMID:23985526

  12. [New strategy to promote adult spinal cord regeneration: enhance adult neurons' intrinsic growth capability].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping

    2009-01-01

    Injured adult spinal cord neurons are usually unable to regenerate their axons due to the inhibitory environment and low intrinsic regenerative capability. One of the main strategies to promote spinal cord regeneration is blocking and/or neutralizing the inhibitory factors or their common inhibitory signal pathway. However, overcoming inhibition alone is insufficient to cause extensive regeneration when neurons' intrinsic growth state has not been activated. Therefore, it becomes one of the most interested targets for promoting spinal cord regeneration that how to enhance adult neurons' intrinsic growth capability, such as elevating adult neuron cAMP/PKA level, blocking Rho/ROCK pathway, modulating transcriptional factors etc., such that they no longer response to inhibitory environment. In this paper we will review the current research findings and recent progresses in this field. PMID:19408697

  13. Colonization by endophytic Ochrobactrum anthropi?Mn1 promotes growth of Jerusalem artichoke

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xianfa; Yan, Dekai; Long, Xiaohua; Wang, Changhai; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2014-01-01

    The Ochrobactrum anthropi?Mn1 strain, taxonomically identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequence, was isolated from roots of Jerusalem artichoke. Its endophytic colonization was investigated microscopically using green fluorescent protein introduced by vector pHC60. The strain entered Jerusalem artichoke tissues through the root, and was localized in the roots and stems. The plant growth-promoting (PGP) effects of O. anthropi?Mn1 were assessed in greenhouse as well as field trials with different nitrogen supplies. Only under moderate to ample nitrogen supply, could O. anthropi?Mn1 promoted growth of host plant. The PGP effects of the strain were symbiotic nitrogen fixation, root morphological optimization and enhanced nutrient uptake. We hypothesize that the symbiotic interspecies interaction might be quorum sensing related. PMID:25073416

  14. Effects of repeated growth-promoting doses of clenbuterol on the hepatic function of female pigs.

    PubMed

    Gojmerac, Tihomira; Pleadin, Jelka; Zuric, Marijan; Mirko, Lojkic; Stipica, Curic

    2002-10-01

    The effect of repeated administration of clenbuterol in a growth-promoting dose on hepatocellular integrity of female pigs was assessed by correlating histopathologic lesions in the livers of dosed pigs with changes in serum ALT, AST, GGT and AP activities. The experiments were carried out in 12 (6 control and 6 treated) female pigs (Fl generation Swedish Landrace and Large Yorkshire) 6-7 mo and 80-100 kg bw. Experimental animals were treated with 10 microg clenbuterol/kg bw iv twice daily for 25 d prior to being sacrificed. Blood and liver samples were collected. Treated animals had increased serum AP and ALT activities (p< 0.02), whereas serum AST and GGT activities did not significantly change. Mild hyperplasia of biliary ducts, interstitial liver inflammation and hydropic and vacuolar hepatocyte degeneration were observed. These findings indicate that repeated administration of growth-promoting doses of clenbuterol to female pigs adversely affect liver function. PMID:12361107

  15. Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9

    PubMed Central

    Hgberg, Nils; Alstrm, Sadhna; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Lu, Megan; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Tapia, Roxanne; Fiebig, Anne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010). PMID:22675598

  16. The miR-24-Bim pathway promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis in pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Haiyang; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Likun; Li, Hongli; Deng, Ting; Qu, Yanjun; Duan, Jingjing; Bai, Ming; Ge, Shaohua; Ning, Tao; Zhang, Le; Huang, Dingzhi; Ba, Yi

    2015-12-22

    miRNAs are a group of small RNAs that have been reported to play a key role at each stage of tumorigenesis and are believed to have future practical value. We now demonstrate that Bim, which stimulates cell apoptosis, is obviously down-regulated in pancreatic cancer (PaC) tissues and cell lines. And Bim-related miR-24 is significantly up-regulated in PaC. The repressed expression of Bim is proved to be a result of miR-24, thus promoting cell growth of both cancer and vascular cells, and accelerating vascular ring formation. By using mouse tumor model, we clearly showed that miR-24 promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis by suppressing Bim expression in vivo. Therefore, a new pathway comprising miR-24 and Bim can be used in the exploration of drug-target therapy of PaC. PMID:26517093

  17. Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9

    SciTech Connect

    Neupane, Saraswoti; Hogberg, Nils; Alstrom, Sadhna; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Lu, Megan; Han, Cliff; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Fiebig, Anne; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).

  18. The miR-24-Bim pathway promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis in pancreatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Haiyang; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Likun; Li, Hongli; Deng, Ting; Qu, Yanjun; Duan, Jingjing; Bai, Ming; Ge, Shaohua; Ning, Tao; Zhang, Le

    2015-01-01

    miRNAs are a group of small RNAs that have been reported to play a key role at each stage of tumorigenesis and are believed to have future practical value. We now demonstrate that Bim, which stimulates cell apoptosis, is obviously down-regulated in pancreatic cancer (PaC) tissues and cell lines. And Bim-related miR-24 is significantly up-regulated in PaC. The repressed expression of Bim is proved to be a result of miR-24, thus promoting cell growth of both cancer and vascular cells, and accelerating vascular ring formation. By using mouse tumor model, we clearly showed that miR-24 promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis by suppressing Bim expression in vivo. Therefore, a new pathway comprising miR-24 and Bim can be used in the exploration of drug-target therapy of PaC. PMID:26517093

  19. Epidermal Growth Factor Induction of the c-jun Promoter by a Rac Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Nicole; Arenzana, Natalia; Hai, Tsonwin; Minden, Audrey; Prywes, Ron

    1998-01-01

    The c-jun proto-oncogene encodes a transcription factor which is activated by mitogens both transcriptionally and by phosphorylation by Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). We have investigated the cellular signalling pathways involved in epidermal growth factor (EGF) induction of the c-jun promoter. We find that two sequence elements, which bind ATF1 and MEF2D transcription factors, are required in HeLa cells, although they are not sufficient for maximal induction. Activated forms of Ras, RacI, Cdc42Hs, and MEKK increased expression of the c-jun promoter, while dominant negative forms of Ras, RacI, and MEK kinase (MEKK) inhibited EGF induction. These and previously published results suggest that EGF activates the c-jun promoter by a Ras-to-Rac-to-MEKK pathway. This pathway is similar to that used for posttranslational activation of c-jun by JNK. PMID:9448004

  20. Critical effective methods to detect genotoxic carcinogens and neoplasm-promoting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Weisburger, J H; Williams, G M

    1991-01-01

    Neoplasia in fish can result from contamination of waters with carcinogens and promoters. Cancer in fish, therefore, is a possible indicator of cancer risk to man and serves as a guide to the need for preventive approaches involving improved means of waste disposal and environmental hygiene. Moreover, cancer in fish indicates that this important food source may be contaminated. Detection of genotoxic carcinogens to which fish are exposed can be achieved quickly and efficiently by carefully selected batteries of complementary in vitro and in vivo bioassays. One such battery consists of the Ames test, a reverse mutation assay in prokaryotic Salmonella typhimurium, and the Williams test, involving DNA repair in freshly explanted metabolically highly competent liver cells from diverse species, including humans. Determination of DNA-carcinogen adducts by varied techniques, including 32P-postlabeling, as well as DNA breakage, mammalian cell mutagenicity, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, or cell transformation represent additional approaches, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. More research is needed on systems to apprehend neoplasm promoters, but tests to determine interruption of intercellular communications through gap junctions appear promising. Other approaches rely on measurement of enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase and protein kinase C. Approaches to the definition of risk to fish or humans require characterization of the genotoxic or nongenotoxic properties of a chemical, relative potency data obtained in select, limited rodent bioassays, and knowledge of prevailing environmental concentrations of specific carcinogens. PMID:2050049

  1. Sugarcane Growth Promotion by the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1

    PubMed Central

    Rossetto, P. B.; Ferreira, A.; Tsui, S.; Lacava, P. T.; Mondin, M.; Azevedo, J. L.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1::pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and aerial plant tissues. Microscopic analysis was performed at 5, 10, and 18 days after inoculation. Under greenhouse conditions, P. agglomerans 33.1-inoculated sugarcane plants presented more dry mass 30 days after inoculation. Cross-colonization was confirmed by reisolation of the GFP-tagged strain. These data demonstrate that 33.1::pNKGFP is a superior colonizer of sugarcane due to its ability to colonize a number of different plant parts. The growth promotion observed in colonized plants may be related to the ability of P. agglomerans 33.1 to synthesize indoleacetic acid and solubilize phosphate. Additionally, this strain may trigger chitinase and cellulase production by plant roots, suggesting the induction of a plant defense system. However, levels of indigenous bacterial colonization did not vary between inoculated and noninoculated sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions, suggesting that the presence of P. agglomerans 33.1 has no effect on these communities. In this study, different techniques were used to monitor 33.1::pNKGFP during sugarcane cross-colonization, and our results suggested that this plant growth promoter could be used with other crops. The interaction between sugarcane and P. agglomerans 33.1 has important benefits that promote the plant's growth and fitness. PMID:22865062

  2. Complete genome sequence of Serratia fonticola DSM 4576 T, a potential plant growth promoting bacterium.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yan-Lue; Yong, Delicia; Ee, Robson; Krishnan, Thiba; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-11-20

    Here, we present the first complete genome sequence of Serratia fonticola DSM 4576(T), a potential plant growth promoting (PGP) bacterium which confers solubilization of inorganic phosphate, indole-3-acetic acid production, hydrogen cyanideproduction, siderophore production and assimilation of ammonia through the glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) pathway. This genome sequence is valuable for functional genomics and ecological studies which are related to PGP and biocontrol activities. PMID:26376471

  3. Subcutaneous fatty acid composition of steers finished as weanlings or yearlings with and without growth promotants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current study evaluated the subcutaneous fatty acid (FA) composition of calf- and yearling-fed steers with or without growth promoting implants. Crossbred steers (n = 112; 267 ± 5.0 kg) of the same contemporary group were allocated to one of four production system and implant strategy based treatments in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Results There were no interactions (P > 0.05) between production systems and growth promoting implants for the total and individual subcutaneous FA. Yearling as opposed to calf finishing reduced (P < 0.05) subcutaneous proportions of C20:3n-6, trans (t)12-18:1, C14:0, several minor cis-monounsaturated FA (c-MUFA; c9-14:1, c11-16:1, c11-18:1, c12-18:1, c13-18:1, c9-20:1 and c11-20:1), and increased (P < 0 .05) subcutaneous proportions of t11c15-18:2, total and individual branched-chain FA. Subcutaneous fat from steers implanted with growth promotants had higher (P < 0.05) proportions of total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), total n-6 PUFA, C18:2n-6 and individual t-18:1 isomers (t6 to t10) compared to non-implanted steers. Conclusions Overall, current findings show that production systems and growth promotants led to only minor differences in subcutaneous FA composition of beef steers. PMID:24188642

  4. Growth of infective forms of Trypanosoma rhodesiense in vitro, the causative agent of African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Hill, G C; Shimer, S P; Caughey, B; Sauer, L S

    1978-11-17

    A new approach to the culture of African trypanosomes led to the growth of the infective forms of the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis. Infective cultures of Trypanosoma rhodesiense were initiated and maintained in vitro on Chinese hamster lung cells. By changing daily one-third of the Hepes-buffered RPMI 1640 medium containing 20 percent fetal bovine serum, the trypanosome numbers increased to 3 X 10(6) to 5 X 10(6) cells per milliliter. After 80 days in vitro at 37 degrees C, the cultured trypomastigotes are infective for mice and rats and morphologically similar to bloodstream trypomastigotes in having a subterminal kinetoplast and a surface coat. In addition, they possess L-alpha-glycerophosphate oxidase, the predominant steady-state terminal oxidase of bloodstream trypomastigotes. PMID:715441

  5. Connective tissue growth factor modulates adult ?-cell maturity and proliferation to promote ?-cell regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kimberly G; Pasek, Raymond C; Maulis, Matthew F; Peek, Jennifer; Thorel, Fabrizio; Brigstock, David R; Herrera, Pedro L; Gannon, Maureen

    2015-04-01

    Stimulation of endogenous ?-cell expansion could facilitate regeneration in patients with diabetes. In mice, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is expressed in embryonic ?-cells and in adult ?-cells during periods of expansion. We discovered that in embryos CTGF is necessary for ?-cell proliferation, and increased CTGF in ?-cells promotes proliferation of immature (MafA(-)) insulin-positive cells. CTGF overexpression, under nonstimulatory conditions, does not increase adult ?-cell proliferation. In this study, we tested the ability of CTGF to promote ?-cell proliferation and regeneration after partial ?-cell destruction. ?-Cell mass reaches 50% recovery after 4 weeks of CTGF treatment, primarily via increased ?-cell proliferation, which is enhanced as early as 2 days of treatment. CTGF treatment increases the number of immature ?-cells but promotes proliferation of both mature and immature ?-cells. A shortened ?-cell replication refractory period is also observed. CTGF treatment upregulates positive cell-cycle regulators and factors involved in ?-cell proliferation, including hepatocyte growth factor, serotonin synthesis, and integrin ?1. Ex vivo treatment of whole islets with recombinant human CTGF induces ?-cell replication and gene expression changes consistent with those observed in vivo, demonstrating that CTGF acts directly on islets to promote ?-cell replication. Thus, CTGF can induce replication of adult mouse ?-cells given a permissive microenvironment. PMID:25392241

  6. MiR-1228 promotes breast cancer cell growth and metastasis through targeting SCAI protein

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Luoqiang; Liu, Dan; Liang, Hongyan; Xue, Li; Su, Changlei; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women around the world. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer pathogenesis are only partially understood. Here, in this study, we found that miR-1228 was up-regulated in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-1228 mimics leads to promoted cell growth, invasion and migration. Using bioinfomatic analysis and 3UTR luciferase reporter assay, we determined SCAI can be directly targeted by miR-1228, which can down-regulate endogenous SCAI protein level. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that SCAI was down-regulated in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. Rescue experiment demonstrated that miR-1228 promoted cell growth is attenuated by over-expression of MOAP1 and miR-1228 promoted cell invasion and migration can be attenuated by over-expression of SCAI. Taken together, this study provides evidences that miR-1228 serves as an oncogene to promote breast cancer proliferation, invasion and migration, which may become a critical therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment. PMID:26261546

  7. Acute dosing and p53-deficiency promote cellular sensitivity to DNA methylating agents.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Katherine E; Doak, Shareen H; Jenkins, Gareth J S

    2015-04-01

    Risk assessment of human exposure to chemicals is crucial for understanding whether such agents can cause cancer. The current emphasis on avoidance of animal testing has placed greater importance on in vitro tests for the identification of genotoxicants. Selection of an appropriate in vitro dosing regime is imperative in determining the genotoxic effects of test chemicals. Here, the issue of dosing approaches was addressed by comparing acute and chronic dosing, uniquely using low-dose experiments. Acute 24?h exposures were compared with equivalent dosing every 24?h over 5-day, fractionated treatment periods. The in vitro micronucleus assay was used to measure clastogenicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in human lymphoblastoid cell line, TK6. Quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR was used to measure mRNA level induction of DNA repair enzymes. Lowest observed genotoxic effect levels (LOGELs) for MMS were obtained at 0.7?g/ml for the acute study and 1.0?g/ml for the chronic study. For acute MNU dosing, a LOGEL was observed at 0.46?g/ml, yet genotoxicity was completely removed following the chronic study. Interestingly, acute MNU dosing demonstrated a statistically significant decrease at 0.009?g/ml. Levels of selected DNA repair enzymes did not change significantly following doses tested. However, p53 deficiency (using the TK6-isogenic cell line, NH32) increased sensitivity to MMS during chronic dosing, causing this LOGEL to equate to the acute treatment LOGEL. In the context of the present data for 2 alkylating agents, chronic dosing could be a valuable in vitro supplement to acute dosing and could contribute to reduction of unnecessary in vivo follow-up tests. PMID:25595616

  8. Bunched, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian tumor suppressor TSC-22, promotes cellular growth

    PubMed Central

    Gluderer, Silvia; Oldham, Sean; Rintelen, Felix; Sulzer, Andrea; Schütt, Corina; Wu, Xiaodong; Raftery, Laurel A; Hafen, Ernst; Stocker, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    Background Transforming Growth Factor-β1 stimulated clone-22 (TSC-22) is assumed to act as a negative growth regulator and tumor suppressor. TSC-22 belongs to a family of putative transcription factors encoded by four distinct loci in mammals. Possible redundancy among the members of the TSC-22/Dip/Bun protein family complicates a genetic analysis. In Drosophila, all proteins homologous to the TSC-22/Dip/Bun family members are derived from a single locus called bunched (bun). Results We have identified bun in an unbiased genetic screen for growth regulators in Drosophila. Rather unexpectedly, bun mutations result in a growth deficit. Under standard conditions, only the long protein isoform BunA – but not the short isoforms BunB and BunC – is essential and affects growth. Whereas reducing bunA function diminishes cell number and cell size, overexpression of the short isoforms BunB and BunC antagonizes bunA function. Conclusion Our findings establish a growth-promoting function of Drosophila BunA. Since the published studies on mammalian systems have largely neglected the long TSC-22 protein version, we hypothesize that the long TSC-22 protein is a functional homolog of BunA in growth regulation, and that it is antagonized by the short TSC-22 protein. PMID:18226226

  9. Occurrence and Characterization of Steroid Growth Promoters Associated with Particulate Matter Originating from Beef Cattle Feedyards.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Brett R; Wooten, Kimberly J; Buser, Michael D; Johnson, Bradley J; Cobb, George P; Smith, Philip N

    2015-07-21

    Studies of steroid growth promoters from beef cattle feedyards have previously focused on effluent or surface runoff as the primary route of transport from animal feeding operations. There is potential for steroid transport via fugitive airborne particulate matter (PM) from cattle feedyards; therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence and concentration of steroid growth promoters in PM from feedyards. Air sampling was conducted at commercial feedyards (n = 5) across the Southern Great Plains from 2010 to 2012. Total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 were collected for particle size analysis and steroid growth promoter analysis. Particle size distributions were generated from TSP samples only, while steroid analysis was conducted on extracts of PM samples using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Of seven targeted steroids, 17?-estradiol and estrone were the most commonly detected, identified in over 94% of samples at median concentrations of 20.6 and 10.8 ng/g, respectively. Melengestrol acetate and 17?-trenbolone were detected in 31% and 39% of all PM samples at median concentrations of 1.3 and 1.9 ng/g, respectively. Results demonstrate PM is a viable route of steroid transportation and may be a significant contributor to environmental steroid hormone loading from cattle feedyards. PMID:26098147

  10. Biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity of rhizobacteria from Chinese fields with contaminated soils

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuefei; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Ke, Linfeng; Mavrodi, Olga V; Yang, Mingming; Thomashow, Linda S; Zheng, Na; Weller, David M; Zhang, Jibin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to inventory the types of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) present in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soils contaminated with heavy metals, recalcitrant organics, petroleum sewage or salinity in China. We screened 1223 isolates for antifungal activity and about 24% inhibited Rhizoctonia solani or Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Twenty-four strains inhibitory to R. solani, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and/or S. sclerotiorum and representing the dominant morphotypes were assayed for PGPR activity. Seven strains contained phlD, prnD, pltC or phzF genes and produced the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin and phenazines respectively. Six strains contained acdS, which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA and phlD, phzF and acdS genes demonstrated that some strains identified as Pseudomonas were similar to model PGPR strains Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens 30–84 and P. brassicacearum Q8r1-96. Pseudomonas protegens- and P. chlororaphis-like strains had the greatest biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia root rot and take-all of wheat. Pseudomonas protegens and P. brassicacearum-like strains showed the greatest promotion of canola growth. Our results indicate that strains from contaminated soils are similar to well-described PGPR found in agricultural soils worldwide. Growth-promoting rhizobacteria in polluted soils PMID:25219642

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen promotes malignant glioma cell growth and inhibits cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YONG-GANG; ZHAN, YI-PING; PAN, SHU-YI; WANG, HAI-DONG; ZHANG, DUN-XIAO; GAO, KAI; QI, XUE-LING; YU, CHUN-JIANG

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequently diagnosed intracranial malignant tumor in adults. Clinical studies have indicated that hyperbaric oxygen may improve the prognosis and reduce complications in glioma patients; however, the specific mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. The present study investigated the direct effects of hyperbaric oxygen stimulation on glioma by constructing an intracranial transplanted glioma model in congenic C57BL/6J mice. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was used to assess the growth of intracranial transplanted GL261-Luc glioma cells in vivo, while flow cytometric and immunohistochemical assays were used to detect and compare the expression of the biomarkers, Ki-67, CD34 and TUNEL, reflecting the cell cycle, apoptosis and angiogenesis. BLI demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen promoted the growth of intracranially transplanted GL261-Luc glioma cells in vivo. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that hyperbaric oxygen promoted GL261-Luc glioma cell proliferation and also prevented cell cycle arrest. In addition, hyperbaric oxygen inhibited the apoptosis of the transplanted glioma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis also indicated that hyperbaric oxygen increased positive staining for Ki-67 and CD34, while reducing staining for TUNEL (a marker of apoptosis). The microvessel density was significantly increased in the hyperbaric oxygen treatment group compared with the control group. In conclusion, hyperbaric oxygen treatment promoted the growth of transplanted malignant glioma cells in vivo and also inhibited the apoptosis of these cells. PMID:26170997

  12. The complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J; Glick, Bernard R

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated "housekeeping" genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup. PMID:23516524

  13. Regulatory B cells preferentially accumulate in tumor-draining lymph nodes and promote tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Ganti, Sheila N.; Albershardt, Tina C.; Iritani, Brian M.; Ruddell, Alanna

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies found that B16-F10 melanoma growth in the rear footpad of immunocompetent mice induces marked B cell accumulation within tumor-draining popliteal lymph nodes (TDLN). This B cell accumulation drives TDLN remodeling that precedes and promotes metastasis, indicating a tumor-promoting role for TDLN B cells. Here we show that phenotypic characterization of lymphocytes in mice bearing B16-F10 melanomas identifies preferential accumulation of T2-MZP B cells in the TDLN. Comparison of non-draining LNs and spleens of tumor-bearing mice with LNs and spleens from nave mice determined that this pattern of B cell accumulation was restricted to the TDLN. B cell-deficient and immunocompetent mice reconstituted with T2-MZP B cells but not with other B cell subsets displayed accelerated tumor growth, demonstrating that T2-MZP B cells possess regulatory activity in tumor-bearing mice. Unlike splenic regulatory B cells, however, these TDLN B cells did not exhibit increased IL-10 production, nor did they promote Treg generation in the TDLN. These findings demonstrate that tumors initially signal via the lymphatic drainage to stimulate the preferential accumulation of T2-MZP regulatory B cells. This local response may be an early and critical step in generating an immunosuppressive environment to permit tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:26193241

  14. Veterinary Drugs and Growth Promoters Residues in Meat and Processed Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, Milagro; Toldr, Fidel

    Veterinary drugs, which comprise a large number of different types of substances, are generally intended for therapeutic (to control infectious diseases) and prophylactic (to prevent against infections) purposes in farm animals. Other substances with growth promoting effect may exert antimicrobial effect against the microbial flora in the gut to take maximum profit of nutrients in the feed or by affecting the animals metabolism. Most of these substances are orally active and can be administered either in the feed or in the drinking water. Other active hormones are applied in the form of small implants into the subcutaneous tissue of the ears. These are slow release (several weeks or months) devices and the ears are discarded at the slaughter. Growth promoters allow a better efficiency in the feed conversion rate. The net effect is an increased protein deposition, partly due to muscle proteases inhibition (Fiems, Buts, Boucque, Demeyer, & Cottyn, 1990), usually linked to fat utilization (Brockman & Laarveld, 1986). The result is a leaner meat (Lone, 1997) with some toughness derived from the production of connective tissue and collagen crosslinking (Miller, Judge, Diekman, Hudgens, & Aberle, 1989; Miller, Judge, & Schanbacher, 1990). Some recent fraudulent practices, consisting of the use of a kind of cocktails or mixtures of several substances like ?-agonists and corticosteroids at very low amounts (Monsn et al., 2007), are difficult to detect with modern analytical instrumentation. They try to obtain a synergistic effect for a similar growth promotion with lower probability of detection by official control laboratories (Reig & Toldr, 2007).

  15. Penicillium menonorum: A Novel Fungus to Promote Growth and Nutrient Management in Cucumber Plants

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Anam Giridhar; Kim, Sang Woo; Yadav, Dil Raj; Hyum, Umyong; Adhikari, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    The present study is the first report on the isolation of Penicillium menonorum from rhizosphere soil in Korea and its identification based on morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer gene sequence. The fungal isolate was named KNU-3 and was found to exhibit plant growth-promoting (PGP) activity through indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore production, as well as P solubilization. KNU-3 produced 9.7 mg/L IAA and solubilized 408 mg of Ca3PO4/L, and inoculation with the isolate significantly (p < 0.05) increased the dry biomass of cucumber roots (57%) and shoots (52%). Chlorophyll, starch, protein, and P contents were increased by 16%, 45%, 22%, and 14%, respectively, compared to plants grown in uninoculated soil. The fungus also increased soil dehydrogenase (30%) and acid phosphatase (19%) activities. These results demonstrate that the isolate KNU-3 has potential PGP attributes, and therefore it can be considered as a new fungus to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth. Moreover, the discovery of PGP ability and traits of this fungus will open new aspects of research and investigations. In this study, plant growth promotion by P. menonorum KNU-3 is reported for the first time in Korea after its original description. PMID:25892915

  16. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated “housekeeping” genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup. PMID:23516524

  17. Combination of Hedgehog inhibitors and standard anticancer agents synergistically prevent osteosarcoma growth.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Yoshinobu; Setoguchi, Takao; Nagata, Masahito; Tsuru, Arisa; Nakamura, Shunsuke; Nagano, Satoshi; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Yokouchi, Masahiro; Maeda, Shingo; Tanimoto, Akihide; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Komiya, Setsuro

    2016-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy and surgical intervention have improved long-term prognosis for non-metastatic osteosarcoma to 50-80%. However, metastatic osteosarcoma exhibits resistance to standard chemotherapy. We and others have investigated the function of Hedgehog pathway in osteosarcoma. To apply our previous findings in clinical settings, we examined the effects of Hedgehog inhibitors including arsenic trioxide (ATO) and vismodegib combined with standard anticancer agents. We performed WST-1 assays using ATO, cisplatin (CDDP), ifosfamide (IFO), doxorubicin (DOX), and vismodegib. Combination-index (CI) was used to examine synergism using CalcuSyn software. Xenograft models were used to examine the synergism invivo. WST-1 assays showed that 143B and Saos2 cell proliferation was inhibited by ATO combined with CDDP, IFO, DOX, and vismodegib. Combination of ATO and CDDP, IFO, DOX or vismodegib was synergistic when the two compounds were used on proliferating 143B and Saos2 human osteosarcoma cells. An osteosarcoma xenograft model showed that treatment with ATO and CDDP, IFO, or vismodegib significantly prevented osteosarcoma growth invivo compared with vehicle treatment. Our findings indicate that combination of Hedgehog pathway inhibitors and standard FDA-approved anticancer agents with established safety for human use may be an attractive therapeutic method for treating osteosarcoma. PMID:26548578

  18. Modeling hairy root tissue growth in in vitro environments using an agent-based, structured growth model.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Felix; Sürmann, Almuth; Oberthür, Patrick; Schneider, Mandy; Steingroewer, Juliane; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    An agent-based model for simulating the in vitro growth of Beta vulgaris hairy root cultures is described. The model fitting is based on experimental results and can be used as a virtual experimentator for root networks. It is implemented in the JAVA language and is designed to be easily modified to describe the growth of diverse biological root networks. The basic principles of the model are outlined, with descriptions of all of the relevant algorithms using the ODD protocol, and a case study is presented in which it is used to simulate the development of hairy root cultures of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) in a Petri dish. The model can predict various properties of the developing network, including the total root length, branching point distribution, segment distribution and secondary metabolite accumulation. It thus provides valuable information that can be used when optimizing cultivation parameters (e.g., medium composition) and the cultivation environment (e.g., the cultivation temperature) as well as how constructional parameters change the morphology of the root network. An image recognition solution was used to acquire experimental data that were used when fitting the model and to evaluate the agreement between the simulated results and practical experiments. Overall, the case study simulation closely reproduced experimental results for the cultures grown under equivalent conditions to those assumed in the simulation. A 3D-visualization solution was created to display the simulated results relating to the state of the root network and its environment (e.g., oxygen and nutrient levels). PMID:24218303

  19. Non-nuclear estrogen receptor ? signaling promotes cardiovascular protection but not uterine or breast cancer growth in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chambliss, Ken L.; Wu, Qian; Oltmann, Sarah; Konaniah, Eddy S.; Umetani, Michihisa; Korach, Kenneth S.; Thomas, Gail D.; Mineo, Chieko; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Kim, Sung Hoon; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Maggi, Adriana; Dineen, Sean P.; Roland, Christina L.; Hui, David Y.; Brekken, Rolf A.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.; Shaul, Philip W.

    2010-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors function classically in the nucleus as transcription factors. However, recent data indicate that there are also non-nuclear subpopulations of steroid hormone receptors, including estrogen receptors (ERs), that mediate membrane-initiated signaling of unclear basis and significance. Here we have shown that an estrogen-dendrimer conjugate (EDC) that is excluded from the nucleus stimulates endothelial cell proliferation and migration via ER?, direct ER?-G?i interaction, and endothelial NOS (eNOS) activation. Analysis of mice carrying an estrogen response element luciferase reporter, ER-regulated genes in the mouse uterus, and eNOS enzyme activation further indicated that EDC specifically targets non-nuclear processes in vivo. In mice, estradiol and EDC equally stimulated carotid artery reendothelialization in an ER?- and G proteindependent manner, and both agents attenuated the development of neointimal hyperplasia following endothelial injury. In contrast, endometrial carcinoma cell growth in vitro and uterine enlargement and MCF-7 cell breast cancer xenograft growth in vivo were stimulated by estradiol but not EDC. Thus, EDC is a non-nuclear selective ER modulator (SERM) in vivo, and in mice, non-nuclear ER signaling promotes cardiovascular protection. These processes potentially could be harnessed to provide vascular benefit without increasing the risk of uterine or breast cancer. PMID:20577047

  20. Paracrine signaling by platelet-derived growth factor-CC promotes tumor growth by recruitment of cancer-associated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Anderberg, Charlotte; Li, Hong; Fredriksson, Linda; Andrae, Johanna; Betsholtz, Christer; Li, Xuri; Eriksson, Ulf; Pietras, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Cancer results from the concerted performance of malignant cells and stromal cells. Cell types populating the microenvironment are enlisted by the tumor to secrete a host of growth-promoting cues, thus upholding tumor initiation and progression. Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) support the formation of a prominent tumor stromal compartment by as of yet unidentified molecular effectors. Whereas PDGF-CC induces fibroblast reactivity and fibrosis in a range of tissues, little is known about the function of PDGF-CC in shaping the tumor-stroma interplay. Herein, we present evidence for a paracrine signaling network involving PDGF-CC and PDGF receptor-alpha in malignant melanoma. Expression of PDGFC in a mouse model accelerated tumor growth through recruitment and activation of different subsets of cancer-associated fibroblasts. In seeking the molecular identity of the supporting factors provided by cancer-associated fibroblasts, we made use of antibody arrays and an in vivo coinjection model to identify osteopontin as the effector of the augmented tumor growth induced by PDGF-CC. In conclusion, we establish paracrine signaling by PDGF-CC as a potential drug target to reduce stromal support in malignant melanoma. PMID:19118022

  1. Growth promotion of Xanthium italicum by application of rhizobacterial isolates of Bacillus aryabhattai in microcosm soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sol; Ka, Jong-Ok; Song, Hong-Gyu

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted using rhizobacteria, which are able to exert beneficial effects upon plant growth in the infertile soil collected from barren lakeside areas. Four strains of plant growth promoting bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of a common wild plant, Erigeron canadensis. Isolated strains LS9, LS11, LS12, and LS15 were identified as Bacillus aryabhattai by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. B. aryabhattai LS9, LS11, LS12, and LS15 could solubilize 577.9, 676.8, 623.6, and 581.3 mg/L of 0.5% insoluble calcium phosphate within 2 days of incubation. Production of indole acetic acid, a typical growth promoting phytohormone auxin, by strain LS15 was 471.3 mg/L in 2 days with the addition of auxin precursor L-tryptophan. All the strains also produced other phytohormones such as indole butyric acid, gibberellins, and abscisic acid, and strain LS15 showed the highest production rate of gibberellin (GA(3)), 119.0 ?g/mg protein. Isolated bacteria were used in a microcosm test for growth of wild plant Xanthium italicum, which can be utilized as a pioneer plant in barren lands. Seed germination was facilitated, and the lengths of roots, and shoots and the dry weights of germinated seedlings after 16 days were higher than those of the uninoculated control plants. Root lengths of seedlings of X. italicum increased by 121.1% in LS11-treated samples after 16 days. This plant growth-promoting capability of B. aryabhattai strains may be utilized as an environmentally friendly means of revegetating barren lands, especially sensitive areas such as lakeside lands. PMID:22367936

  2. Conjugated bile acids promote cholangiocarcinoma cell invasive growth through activation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Runping; Zhao, Renping; Zhou, Xiqiao; Liang, Xiuyin; Campbell, Deanna JW; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Luyong; Shi, Ruihua; Wang, Guangji; Pandak, William M; Sirica, Alphonse E; Hylemon, Phillip B; Zhou, Huiping

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an often fatal primary malignancy of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tract that is commonly associated with chronic cholestasis and significantly elevated levels of primary and conjugated bile acids (CBAs), which are correlated with bile duct obstruction (BDO). BDO has also recently been shown to promote CCA progression. However, whereas there is increasing evidence linking chronic cholestasis and abnormal bile acid profiles to CCA development and progression, the specific mechanisms by which bile acids may be acting to promote cholangiocarcinogenesis and invasive biliary tumor growth have not been fully established. Recent studies have shown that CBAs, but not free bile acids, stimulate CCA cell growth, and that an imbalance in the ratio of free to CBAs may play an important role in the tumorigenesis of CCA. Also, CBAs are able to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2- and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (AKT)-signaling pathways through sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) in rodent hepatocytes. In the current study, we demonstrate S1PR2 to be highly expressed in rat and human CCA cells, as well as in human CCA tissues. We further show that CBAs activate the ERK1/2- and AKT-signaling pathways and significantly stimulate CCA cell growth and invasion in vitro. Taurocholate (TCA)-mediated CCA cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were significantly inhibited by JTE-013, a chemical antagonist of S1PR2, or by lentiviral short hairpin RNA silencing of S1PR2. In a novel organotypic rat CCA coculture model, TCA was further found to significantly increase the growth of CCA cell spheroidal/duct-like structures, which was blocked by treatment with JTE-013. Conclusion: Our collective data support the hypothesis that CBAs promote CCA cell-invasive growth through S1PR2. PMID:24700501

  3. Acrylamide biodegradation ability and plant growth-promoting properties of Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Hua; Cao, Yu-Min; Zhou, Qian-Wen; Guo, Kun; Ge, Feng; Hou, Jun-Yi; Hu, Si-Yi; Yuan, Sheng; Dai, Yi-Jun

    2013-11-01

    Species of the genus Variovorax are often isolated from nitrile or amide-containing organic compound-contaminated soil. However, there have been few biological characterizations of Variovorax and their contaminant-degrading enzymes. Previously, we reported a new soil isolate, Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969, and its nitrile hydratase that transforms the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid into an amide metabolite. In this study, we showed that CGMCC 4969 is able to degrade acrylamide, a neurotoxicant and carcinogen in animals, during cell growth in a mineral salt medium as well as in its resting state. Resting cells rapidly hydrolyzed 600mg/L acrylamide to acrylic acid with a half-life of 2.5min. In in vitro tests, CGMCC 4969 showed plant growth-promoting properties; it produced a siderophore, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, and the phytohormone salicylic acid. Interestingly, in soil inoculated with this strain, 200mg/L acrylamide was completely degraded in 4days. Gene cloning and overexpression in the Escherichia coli strain Rosetta (DE3) pLysS resulted in the production of an aliphatic amidase of 345 amino acids that hydrolyzed acrylamide into acrylic acid. The amidase contained a conserved catalytic triad, Glu59, Lys 134, and Cys166, and an "MRHGDISSS" amino acid sequence at the N-terminal region. Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969, which is able to use acrylamide for cell growth and rapidly degrade acrylamide in soil, shows promising plant growth-promoting properties. As such, it has the potential to be developed into an effective Bioaugmentation strategy to promote growth of field crops in acrylamide-contaminated soil. PMID:23546990

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cell 1 (MSC1)-Based Therapy Attenuates Tumor Growth Whereas MSC2-Treatment Promotes Tumor Growth and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Ruth S.; Henkle, Sarah L.; Betancourt, Aline M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, there are many promising clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cell-based therapies of numerous diseases. Increasingly, however, there is a concern over the use of MSCs because they home to tumors and can support tumor growth and metastasis. For instance, we established that MSCs in the ovarian tumor microenvironment promoted tumor growth and favored angiogenesis. In parallel studies, we also developed a new approach to induce the conventional mixed pool of MSCs into two uniform but distinct phenotypes we termed MSC1 and MSC2. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we tested the in vitro and in vivo stability of MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes as well as their effects on tumor growth and spread. In vitro co-culture of MSC1 with various cancer cells diminished growth in colony forming units and tumor spheroid assays, while conventional MSCs or MSC2 co-culture had the opposite effect in these assays. Co-culture of MSC1 and cancer cells also distinctly affected their migration and invasion potential when compared to MSCs or MSC2 treated samples. The expression of bioactive molecules also differed dramatically among these samples. MSC1-based treatment of established tumors in an immune competent model attenuated tumor growth and metastasis in contrast to MSCs- and MSC2-treated animals in which tumor growth and spread was increased. Also, in contrast to these groups, MSC1-therapy led to less ascites accumulation, increased CD45+leukocytes, decreased collagen deposition, and mast cell degranulation. Conclusion/Significance These observations indicate that the MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes may be convenient tools for the discovery of critical components of the tumor stroma. The continued investigation of these cells may help ensure that cell based-therapy is used safely and effectively in human disease. PMID:23029122

  5. Autoimmunity as a Double Agent in Tumor Killing and Cancer Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Toomer, Kevin H.; Chen, Zhibin

    2014-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy through manipulation of the immune system holds great potential for the treatment of human cancers. However, recent trials targeting the negative immune regulators cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, programed death 1 (PD-1), and PD-1 receptor ligand (PD-L1) demonstrated that clinically significant antitumor responses were often associated with the induction of autoimmune toxicity. This finding suggests that the same immune mechanisms that elicit autoimmunity may also contribute to the destruction of tumors. Given the fact that the immunological identity of tumors might be largely an immunoprivileged self, autoimmunity may not represent a wholly undesirable outcome in the context of cancer immunotherapy. Rather, targeted killing of cancer cells and autoimmune damage to healthy tissues may be intricately linked through molecular mechanisms, in particular inflammatory cytokine signaling. On the other hand, since chronic inflammation is a well-recognized condition that promotes tumor development, it appears that autoimmunity can be a “double agent” in mediating either pro-tumor or antitumor effects. This review surveys the tumor-promoting and tumoricidal activities of several prominent cytokines: IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-17, IL-23, IL-4, and IL-13, produced by three major subsets of T helper cells that interact with innate immune cells. Many of these cytokines exert divergent and seemingly contradictory effects on cancer development in different human and animal models, suggesting a high degree of context dependence in their functions. We hypothesize that these inflammatory cytokines could mediate a feedback loop of autoimmunity, antitumor immunity, and tumorigenesis. Understanding the diverse and paradoxical roles of cytokines from autoimmune responses in the setting of cancer will advance the long-term goal of improving cancer immunotherapy, while minimizing the hazards of immune-mediated tissue damage and the possibility of de novo tumorigenesis, through proper monitoring and preventive measures. PMID:24672527

  6. Interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta promoter polymorphisms in allergies and asthma.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, K; Negri, J; Klinnert, M; Rosenwasser, L J; Borish, L

    1998-12-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) are inhibitory for B and T cells, IgE production, and mast cell proliferation, and they induce apoptosis in eosinophils. These cytokines are therefore candidate genes which could contribute to the development of asthma or allergies. We investigated the hypothesis that polymorphic nucleotides within the IL-10 and TGF-beta gene promoters would link to the expression of allergies and asthma. DNA taken from families with an asthmatic proband was examined for base exchanges by single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP). We demonstrated the presence of a polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL-10 gene and four in the TGF-beta gene promoters (3 in TGF-beta1 and 1 in TGF-beta2). The IL-10 gene polymorphism was a C-to-A exchange 571 base pairs upstream from the translation start site and was present between consensus binding sequences for Sp1 and elevated total serum. This polymorphism was associated with elevated total serum IgE in subjects heterozygotic or homozygotic for this base exchange (p < 0.009). The base exchange at -509 (from the transcription initiation site) in the TGF-beta promoter also linked to elevated total IgE (p < 0.01). This polymorphism represented a C-to-T base exchange which induced a YY1 consensus sequence and is present in a region of the promoter associated with negative transcription regulation. PMID:9847292

  7. Isolation of hydrocarbon-degrading and biosurfactant-producing bacteria and assessment their plant growth-promoting traits.

    PubMed

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płociniczak, Tomasz; Iwan, Joanna; Żarska, Monika; Chorążewski, Mirosław; Dzida, Marzena; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-03-01

    Forty-two hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strains were isolated from the soil heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Forty-one strains were identified based on their whole-cell fatty acid profiles using the MIDI-MIS method. Thirty-three of them belong to species Rhodococcus erythropolis, while the others to the genera Rahnella (4), Serratia (3) and Proteus (1). Isolates were screened for their ability to produce biosurfactants/bioemulsifiers. For all of them the activity of several mechanisms characteristic for plant growth-promoting bacteria was also determined. In order to investigate surface active and emulsifying abilities of isolates following methods: oil-spreading, blood agar, methylene blue agar and determination of emulsification index, were used. Among studied bacteria 12 strains (CD 112, CD 126, CD 131, CD 132, CD 135, CD 147, CD 154, CD 155, CD 158, CD 161, CD 166 and CD 167) have been chosen as promising candidates for the production of biosurfactants and/or bioemulsifiers. Among them 2 strains (R. erythropolis CD 126 and Rahnella aquatilis CD 132) had the highest potential to be used in the bioaugmentation of PH-contaminated soil. Moreover, 15 of tested strains (CD 105, CD 106, CD 108, CD 111, CD 116, CD 120, CD 124, CD 125, CD 130, CD 132, CD 134, CD 154, CD 156, CD 161 and CD 170) showed the activity of four mechanisms (ACC deaminase activity, IAA and siderophore production, phosphate solubilization) considered to be characteristic for plant growth-promoting bacteria. Two of them (R. erythropolis CD 106 and R. erythropolis CD 111) showed the highest activity of above-mentioned mechanisms and thus are considered as promising agents in microbe assisted phytoremediation. PMID:26708648

  8. Up-regulation of C1GALT1 promotes breast cancer cell growth through MUC1-C signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chih-Hsing; Huang, Miao-Juei; Chen, Chi-Hau; Shyu, Ming-Kwang; Huang, John; Hung, Ji-Shiang; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2015-03-20

    Aberrant glycosylation is frequently observed in cancers. Core 1 ?1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) is an exclusive enzyme in humans that catalyzes the biosynthesis of core 1 O-glycan structure, Gal-GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr, whose expression is commonly up-regulated during tumorigenesis. Little is known about the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer. This study aims to determine the correlation between C1GALT1 expression and breast cancer clinicopathological features and roles of C1GALT1 in breast cancer malignant phenotypes. Public databases and our data showed that C1GALT1 mRNA and C1GALT1 protein are frequently up-regulated in breast cancer; and increased C1GALT1 expression correlates with higher histological grade and advanced tumor stage. Overexpression of C1GALT1 enhanced breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion in vitro as well as tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, C1GALT1 knockdown suppressed these malignant phenotypes. Furthermore, C1GALT1 modulates O-glycan structures on Mucin (MUC) 1 and promotes MUC1-C/?-catenin signaling in breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that C1GALT1 enhances breast cancer malignant progression through promoting MUC1-C/?-catenin signaling pathway. Unveiling the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer opens new insights to the roles of C1GALT1 and O-glycosylation in tumorigenesis and renders the potential of C1GALT1 as a target of novel therapeutic agent development. PMID:25762620

  9. Up-regulation of C1GALT1 promotes breast cancer cell growth through MUC1-C signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chih-Hsing; Huang, Miao-Juei; Chen, Chi-Hau; Shyu, Ming-Kwang; Huang, John; Hung, Ji-Shiang; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is frequently observed in cancers. Core 1 ?1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) is an exclusive enzyme in humans that catalyzes the biosynthesis of core 1 O-glycan structure, Gal-GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr, whose expression is commonly up-regulated during tumorigenesis. Little is known about the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer. This study aims to determine the correlation between C1GALT1 expression and breast cancer clinicopathological features and roles of C1GALT1 in breast cancer malignant phenotypes. Public databases and our data showed that C1GALT1 mRNA and C1GALT1 protein are frequently up-regulated in breast cancer; and increased C1GALT1 expression correlates with higher histological grade and advanced tumor stage. Overexpression of C1GALT1 enhanced breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion in vitro as well as tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, C1GALT1 knockdown suppressed these malignant phenotypes. Furthermore, C1GALT1 modulates O-glycan structures on Mucin (MUC) 1 and promotes MUC1-C/?-catenin signaling in breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that C1GALT1 enhances breast cancer malignant progression through promoting MUC1-C/?-catenin signaling pathway. Unveiling the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer opens new insights to the roles of C1GALT1 and O-glycosylation in tumorigenesis and renders the potential of C1GALT1 as a target of novel therapeutic agent development. PMID:25762620

  10. Src and cortactin promote lamellipodia protrusion and filopodia formation and stability in growth cones

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingpei; Ren, Yuan; Wu, Bingbing; Decourt, Boris; Lee, Aih Cheun; Taylor, Aaron; Suter, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Src tyrosine kinases have been implicated in axonal growth and guidance; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms are not well understood. Specifically, it is unclear which aspects of actin organization and dynamics are regulated by Src in neuronal growth cones. Here, we investigated the function of Src2 and one of its substrates, cortactin, in lamellipodia and filopodia of Aplysia growth cones. We found that up-regulation of Src2 activation state or cortactin increased lamellipodial length, protrusion time, and actin network density, whereas down-regulation had opposite effects. Furthermore, Src2 or cortactin up-regulation increased filopodial density, length, and protrusion time, whereas down-regulation promoted lateral movements of filopodia. Fluorescent speckle microscopy revealed that rates of actin assembly and retrograde flow were not affected in either case. In summary, our results support a model in which Src and cortactin regulate growth cone motility by increasing actin network density and protrusion persistence of lamellipodia by controlling the state of actin-driven protrusion versus retraction. In addition, both proteins promote the formation and stability of actin bundles in filopodia. PMID:26224308

  11. Brevundimonas diminuta mediated alleviation of arsenic toxicity and plant growth promotion in Oryza sativa L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namrata; Marwa, Naina; Mishra, Shashank K; Mishra, Jyoti; Verma, Praveen C; Rathaur, Sushma; Singh, Nandita

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As), a toxic metalloid adversely affects plant growth in polluted areas. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of improving phytostablization of arsenic through application of new isolated strain Brevundimonas diminuta (NBRI012) in rice plant [Oryza sativa (L.) Var. Sarju 52] at two different concentrations [10ppm (low toxic) and 50ppm (high toxic)] of As. The plant growth promoting traits of bacterial strains revealed the inherent ability of siderophores, phosphate solubilisation, indole acetic acid (IAA), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase production which may be associated with increased biomass, chlorophyll and MDA content of rice and thereby promoting plant growth. The study also revealed the As accumulation property of NBRI012 strain which could play an important role in As removal from contaminated soil. Furthermore, NBRI012 inoculation significantly restored the hampered root epidermal and cortical cell growth of rice plant and root hair elimination. Altogether our study highlights the multifarious role of B. diminuta in mediating stress tolerance and modulating translocation of As in edible part of rice plant. PMID:26650422

  12. Loss of GATA5 expression due to gene promoter methylation induces growth and colony formation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    XIA, LEI; GONG, YAN; ZHANG, AIQUN; CAI, SHOUWANG; ZENG, QIANG

    2016-01-01

    GATA5 is a transcription factor that is capable of suppressing the development of various types of human cancer. The present study investigated the expression of GATA5 and GATA4, and examined their roles in the proliferation and colony formation ability of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and cells. The GATA4 and GATA5 expression levels and gene promoter methylation of HCC tissue samples from 38 patients and HCC cell lines were analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and methylation-specific PCR (MSP), respectively. The effects of GATA4 and GATA5 overexpression on the proliferation and colony forming ability of HCC cells were also assessed using cell viability and colony formation assays. A luciferase reporter assay was utilized to investigate the transcriptional interaction of GATA4 and GATA5 with canonical Wnt signaling. The results indicated that the expression levels of GATA4 and GATA5 were lost or reduced following methylation of gene promoters in HCC tissues and cell lines. Treatment with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5-AZA), restored GATA4 and GATA5 expression in HCC cell lines. Furthermore, methylation of the GATA5 promoter was observed to be associated with the age of patients exhibiting HCC. Restoration of GATA4 and GATA5 expression inhibited colony formation and induced apoptosis of HCC cells in vitro. The present study concluded that the expression levels of GATA4 and GATA5 were reduced in HCC tissues and cell lines. Treatment with 5-AZA restored GATA4 and GATA5 expression in HCC cell lines, suppressing tumor cell growth and colony formation, as well as inducing apoptosis. PMID:26870297

  13. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  14. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of plant-growth promoting Serratia proteamaculans S4

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Lynne A.; Hgberg, Nils; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Alstrm, Sadhna; Bruce, David; Quintana, Beverly; Munk, Christine; Daligault, Hajnalka; Teshima, Hazuki; Davenport, Karen; Reitenga, Krista; Green, Lance; Chain, Patrick; Erkkila, Tracy; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Xu, Yan; Kunde, Yulia; Chertkov, Olga; Han, James; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Szeto, Ernest; Mavromatis, Kostas; Huntemann, Marcel; Nolan, Matt; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Markowitz, Victor; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Serratia proteamaculans S4 (previously Serratia sp. S4), isolated from the rhizosphere of wild Equisetum sp., has the ability to stimulate plant growth and to suppress the growth of several soil-borne fungal pathogens of economically important crops. Here we present the non-contiguous, finished genome sequence of S. proteamaculans S4, which consists of a 5,324,944 bp circular chromosome and a 129,797 bp circular plasmid. The chromosome contains 5,008 predicted genes while the plasmid comprises 134 predicted genes. In total, 4,993 genes are assigned as protein-coding genes. The genome consists of 22 rRNA genes, 82 tRNA genes and 58 pseudogenes. This genome is a part of the project Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth-promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGIs Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24501629

  15. Fatty Acids Identified in the Burmese Python Promote Beneficial Cardiac Growth

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Cecilia A.; Magida, Jason A.; Harrison, Brooke C.; Wall, Christopher E.; Marr, Thomas G.; Secor, Stephen M.; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Burmese pythons display a dramatic increase in heart mass after a large meal. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of this physiological heart growth, with the goal of applying this knowledge to the mammalian heart. We found that heart growth in pythons is characterized by myocyte hypertrophy in the absence of cell proliferation and by activation of PI3K/Akt/mTor signaling pathways. Despite high levels of circulating lipids, the postprandial python heart does not accumulate triglycerides or fatty acids. Instead, there is robust activation of pathways of fatty acid transport and oxidation combined with increased expression and activity of the cardioprotective enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Finally, we identified a combination of fatty acids in python plasma that promotes physiological heart growth when injected into either pythons or mice. PMID:22034436

  16. Biosafety Test for Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Proposed Environmental and Human Safety Index (EHSI) Protocol.

    PubMed

    Vlchez, Juan I; Navas, Alfonso; Gonzlez-Lpez, Jess; Arcos, Susana C; Manzanera, Maximino

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) colonize plants and enhance their growth by different mechanisms. Some of these microorganisms may represent a potential threat to human, animal or plant health; however, their use might be approved in parts of Europe if they have been recommended as plant growth enhancers. The current regulatory framework has resulted in a fragmented, contradictory system, and there is an urgent need to establish harmonized protocols for the predictability, efficiency, consistency and especially the safety of PGPB for human and animal health and for the environment. In response to current efforts to update biosafety policies and provide alternative methods to replace the use of vertebrate animals, we propose a panel of tests and an evaluation system to reliably determine the biosafety of bacterial strains used as PGPB. Based on the results of different tests, we propose a scoring system to evaluate the safety of candidates for PGPB within the limitations of the assays used. PMID:26779168

  17. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of plant-growth promoting Serratia proteamaculans S4.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Saraswoti; Goodwin, Lynne A; Högberg, Nils; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Alström, Sadhna; Bruce, David; Quintana, Beverly; Munk, Christine; Daligault, Hajnalka; Teshima, Hazuki; Davenport, Karen; Reitenga, Krista; Green, Lance; Chain, Patrick; Erkkila, Tracy; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Xu, Yan; Kunde, Yulia; Chertkov, Olga; Han, James; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Szeto, Ernest; Mavromatis, Kostas; Huntemann, Marcel; Nolan, Matt; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Markowitz, Victor; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D

    2013-07-30

    Serratia proteamaculans S4 (previously Serratia sp. S4), isolated from the rhizosphere of wild Equisetum sp., has the ability to stimulate plant growth and to suppress the growth of several soil-borne fungal pathogens of economically important crops. Here we present the non-contiguous, finished genome sequence of S. proteamaculans S4, which consists of a 5,324,944 bp circular chromosome and a 129,797 bp circular plasmid. The chromosome contains 5,008 predicted genes while the plasmid comprises 134 predicted genes. In total, 4,993 genes are assigned as protein-coding genes. The genome consists of 22 rRNA genes, 82 tRNA genes and 58 pseudogenes. This genome is a part of the project "Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth-promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens" awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI's Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24501629

  18. Biosafety Test for Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Proposed Environmental and Human Safety Index (EHSI) Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Vílchez, Juan I.; Navas, Alfonso; González-López, Jesús; Arcos, Susana C.; Manzanera, Maximino

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) colonize plants and enhance their growth by different mechanisms. Some of these microorganisms may represent a potential threat to human, animal or plant health; however, their use might be approved in parts of Europe if they have been recommended as plant growth enhancers. The current regulatory framework has resulted in a fragmented, contradictory system, and there is an urgent need to establish harmonized protocols for the predictability, efficiency, consistency and especially the safety of PGPB for human and animal health and for the environment. In response to current efforts to update biosafety policies and provide alternative methods to replace the use of vertebrate animals, we propose a panel of tests and an evaluation system to reliably determine the biosafety of bacterial strains used as PGPB. Based on the results of different tests, we propose a scoring system to evaluate the safety of candidates for PGPB within the limitations of the assays used. PMID:26779168

  19. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  20. Biological management of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in pea using plant growth promoting microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Jain, Akansha; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Surendra; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial plant-microbe interactions play crucial roles in protection against large number of plant pathogens causing disease. The present study aims to investigate the growth promoting traits induced by beneficial microbes namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa PJHU15, Trichoderma harzianum TNHU27, and Bacillus subtilis BHHU100 treated singly and in combinations under greenhouse and field conditions to control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plants treated with three microbe consortium enhanced plant growth maximally both in the presence and absence of the pathogen. Increase in plant length, total biomass, number of leaves, nodules and secondary roots, total chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and yield were recorded in plants treated with microbial consortia. Also, a decrease in plant mortality was observed in plants treated with microbial consortia in comparison to untreated control plants challenged with S. sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the decrease in disease of all the treatments can be associated with differential improvement of growth induced in pea. PMID:25727183

  1. Fatty acids identified in the Burmese python promote beneficial cardiac growth.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Cecilia A; Magida, Jason A; Harrison, Brooke C; Wall, Christopher E; Marr, Thomas G; Secor, Stephen M; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2011-10-28

    Burmese pythons display a marked increase in heart mass after a large meal. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of this physiological heart growth with the goal of applying this knowledge to the mammalian heart. We found that heart growth in pythons is characterized by myocyte hypertrophy in the absence of cell proliferation and by activation of physiological signal transduction pathways. Despite high levels of circulating lipids, the postprandial python heart does not accumulate triglycerides or fatty acids. Instead, there is robust activation of pathways of fatty acid transport and oxidation combined with increased expression and activity of superoxide dismutase, a cardioprotective enzyme. We also identified a combination of fatty acids in python plasma that promotes physiological heart growth when injected into either pythons or mice. PMID:22034436

  2. Water soluble carbon nano-onions from wood wool as growth promoters for gram plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Roy, Manas; Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2012-11-01

    Water-soluble carbon nano-onions (wsCNOs) isolated from wood wool--a wood-based pyrolysis waste product of wood, can enhance the overall growth rate of gram (Cicer arietinum) plants. Treatment of plants with upto 30 ?g mL-1 of wsCNOs for an initial 10 day period in laboratory conditions led to an increase in the overall growth of the plant biomass. In order to examine the growth stimulating effects of wsCNOs under natural conditions, 10 day-old plants treated with and without wsCNOs were transplanted into soil of standard carbon and nitrogen composition. We observed an enhanced growth rate of the wsCNOs pre-treated plants in soil, which finally led to an increased productivity of plants in terms of a larger number of grams. On analyzing the carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) content for the shoot and fruit sections of the plants treated with and without wsCNOs, only a minor difference in the composition was noticed. However, a slight increase in the percentage of carbon and hydrogen in shoots reflects the synthesis of more organic biomass in the case of treated plants. This work shows that wsCNOs are non-toxic to plant cells and can act as efficient growth stimulants which can be used as benign growth promoters.

  3. FGF8 promotes colorectal cancer growth and metastasis by activating YAP1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kui; Liu, Bo; Nice, Edouard C.; Xiang, Rong; Xie, Ke; Li, Jingyi; Huang, Canhua

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The poor prognosis of CRC is mainly due to uncontrolled tumor growth and distant metastases. In this study, we found that the level of FGF8 was elevated in the great majority of CRC cases and high FGF8 expression was significantly correlated with lymph nodes metastasis and worse overall survival. Functional studies showed that FGF8 can induce a more aggressive phenotype displaying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhanced invasion and growth in CRC cells. Consistent with this, FGF8 can also promote tumor growth and metastasis in mouse models. Bioinformatics and pathological analysis suggested that YAP1 is a potential downstream target of FGF8 in CRC cells. Molecular validation demonstrated that FGF8 fully induced nuclear localization of YAP1 and enhanced transcriptional outcomes such as the expression of CTGF and CYR61, while decreasing YAP1 expression impeded FGF-8induced cell growth, EMT, migration and invasion, revealing that YAP1 is required for FGF8-mediated CRC growth and metastasis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FGF8 contributes to the proliferative and metastatic capacity of CRC cells and may represent a novel candidate for intervention in tumor growth and metastasis formation. PMID:25473897

  4. Melatonin promotes seminal root elongation and root growth in transgenic rice after germination.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2012-11-01

    The effect of melatonin on root growth after germination was examined in transgenic rice seedlings expressing sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Enhanced melatonin levels were found in T(3) homozygous seedlings because of the ectopic overexpression of sheep NAT, which is believed to be the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in animals. Compared with wild-type rice seeds, the transgenic rice seeds showed enhanced seminal root growth and an analogous number of adventitious roots 4 and 10 days after seeding on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium. The enhanced initial seminal root growth in the transgenic seedlings matched their increased root biomass well. We also found that treatment with 0.5 and 1 ?M melatonin promoted seminal root growth of the wild type under continuous light. These results indicate that melatonin plays an important role in regulating both seminal root length and root growth after germination in monocotyledonous rice plants. This is the first report on the effects of melatonin on root growth in gain-of-function mutant plants that produce high levels of melatonin. PMID:22640001

  5. Perceptions of growth monitoring and promotion among an international panel of district medical officers.

    PubMed

    Roberfroid, Dominique; Lefèvre, Pierre; Hoerée, Tom; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    The growth chart has been proposed as an educational tool to make the child's growth visible to both health workers and caregivers and to enhance communication between them. In the case of growth faltering, this would trigger timely corrective measures. Although the relevance of growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) has often been questioned in the literature, opinions of District Medical Officers responsible for local implementation of GMP are unknown. The aim of this qualitative research was to explore the perceptions and difficulties of an international panel of District Medical Officers regarding GMP. As an exploratory study, in-depth interviews of an international panel of District Medical Officers (n=19) were conducted. Data were coded using the QSR Nudist 5.0 software. A discrepancy between intended purposes and practice of GMP was detected at two levels. First, lack of participation of care-givers was reported. Second, the District Medical Officers expressed a restrictive interpretation of the concept of growth monitoring. The communication with parents was never reported as a means or a result of GMP, neither as an evaluation criterion of programme efficiency. The growth chart was mainly considered a tool intended to be used by health services for the purpose of diagnosis. This two-fold discrepancy between the intention of international policy-planners and practice of local programme implementers could be a crucial factor affecting the performance of GMP. More emphasis should be put on social communication and involvement of caregivers. PMID:16262016

  6. Leptin activates chicken growth hormone promoter without chicken STAT3 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Murase, Daisuke; Namekawa, Shoko; Ohkubo, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that not only regulates food intake and energy homeostasis but also induces growth hormone (GH) mRNA expression and release, thereby controlling growth and metabolism in mammals. The molecular mechanism of leptin-induced regulation of GH gene transcription is unclear. The current study investigated the effects of leptin on the chicken GH (cGH) promoter and the molecular mechanism underlying leptin-induced cGH gene expression in vitro. Leptin activated the cGH promoter in the presence of chPit-1α in CHO cells stably expressing the chicken leptin receptor. Promoter activation did not require STAT-binding elements in the cGH promoter or STAT3 activity. However, JAK2 activation was required for leptin-dependent activity. JAK2-dependent pathways include p42/44 MAPK and PI3K, and inhibition of these pathways partially blocked leptin-induced cGH gene transcription. Although CK2 directly activates JAK2, a CK2 inhibitor blocked leptin-dependent activation of the cGH gene without affecting JAK2 phosphorylation. The CK2 inhibitor suppressed Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. Additional data implicate Src family kinases in leptin-dependent cGH gene activation. These results suggest that leptin activates the cGH gene in the presence of chPit-1α via several leptin-activated kinases. Although further study is required, we suggest that the leptin-induced JAK2/p42/44 MAPK and JAK2/PI3K cascades are activated by Src-meditated CK2, leading to CBP phosphorylation and interaction with chPit-1α, resulting in transactivation of the cGH promoter. PMID:26403688

  7. Volatiles released by endophytic Pseudomonas fluorescens promoting the growth and volatile oil accumulation in Atractylodes lancea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia-Yu; Li, Xia; Zheng, Jiao-Yan; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Atractylodes lancea is a well-known, but endangered, Chinese medicinal plant whose volatile oils are its main active components. As the volatile oil content in cultivated A. lancea is much lower than that in the wild herb, the application of microbes or related elicitors to promote growth and volatile oil accumulation in the cultivated herb is an important area of research. This study demonstrates that the endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens ALEB7B isolated from the geo-authentic A. lancea can release several nitrogenous volatiles, such as formamide and N,N-dimethyl-formamide, which significantly promote the growth of non-infected A. lancea. Moreover, the main bacterial volatile benzaldehyde significantly promotes volatile oil accumulation in non-infected A. lancea via activating plant defense responses. Notably, the bacterial nitrogenous volatiles cannot be detected in the A. lancea - Pseudomonas fluorescens symbiont while the benzaldehyde can be detected, indicating the nitrogenous volatiles or their precursors may have been consumed by the host plant. This study firstly demonstrates that the interaction between plant and endophytic bacterium is not limited to the commonly known physical contact, extending the ecological functions of endophyte in the phytosphere and deepening the understandings about the symbiotic interaction. PMID:26874622

  8. Tools for genetic manipulation of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum amazonense

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Azospirillum amazonense has potential to be used as agricultural inoculant since it promotes plant growth without causing pollution, unlike industrial fertilizers. Owing to this fact, the study of this species has gained interest. However, a detailed understanding of its genetics and physiology is limited by the absence of appropriate genetic tools for the study of this species. Results Conjugation and electrotransformation methods were established utilizing vectors with broad host-replication origins (pVS1 and pBBR1). Two genes of interest - glnK and glnB, encoding PII regulatory proteins - were isolated. Furthermore, glnK-specific A. amazonense mutants were generated utilizing the pK19MOBSACB vector system. Finally, a promoter analysis protocol based on fluorescent protein expression was optimized to aid genetic regulation studies on this bacterium. Conclusion In this work, genetic tools that can support the study of A. amazonense were described. These methods could provide a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of this species that underlie its plant growth promotion. PMID:21575234

  9. Alkamides Isolated from Plants Promote Growth and Alter Root Development in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; López-Bucio, José; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Molina-Torres, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    To date, several classes of hormones have been described that influence plant development, including auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, and, more recently, brassinosteroids. However, it is known that many fungal and bacterial species produce substances that alter plant growth that, if naturally present in plants, might represent novel classes of plant growth regulators. Alkamides are metabolites widely distributed in plants with a broad range of biological activities. In this work, we investigated the effects of affinin, an alkamide naturally occurring in plants, and its derivates, N-isobutyl-2E-decenamide and N-isobutyl-decanamide, on plant growth and early root development in Arabidopsis. We found that treatments with affinin in the range of 10-6 to 10-4 m alter shoot and root biomass production. This effect correlated with alteration on primary root growth, lateral root formation, and root hair elongation. Low concentrations of affinin (7 × 10-6–2.8 × 10-5 m) enhanced primary root growth and root hair elongation, whereas higher concentrations inhibited primary root growth that related with a reduction in cell proliferating activity and cell elongation. N-isobutyl-2E-decenamide and N-isobutyl-decanamide were found to stimulate root hair elongation at concentrations between 10-8 to 10-7 m. Although the effects of alkamides were similar to those produced by auxins on root growth and cell parameters, the ability of the root system to respond to affinin was found to be independent of auxin signaling. Our results suggest that alkamides may represent a new group of plant growth promoting substances with significant impact on root development and opens the possibility of using these compounds for improved plant production. PMID:14988477

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D promotes growth, lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Jiang, Lei; Chen, Yanling; She, Feifei; Han, Shenghua; Zhu, Jinhai; Zhou, Liangyi; Tang, Nanhong; Wang, Xiaoqian; Li, Xiujin

    2012-01-28

    Lymph node metastasis is a major prognostic factor for patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC), and greater understanding of the molecule mechanism of lymph node metastasis in GBC is needed to improve prognosis. VEGF-D has been implicated in the control of lymphangiogenesis in many carcinomas, but the biological function of VEGF-D in human GBC remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the role of the VEGF-D in human GBC cells and addressed the functional role of VEGF-D using a xenograft mouse model. We examined the expression of VEGF-D in three human gallbladder cancer cell lines. A lentivirus-based effective VEGF-D siRNA vector was infected into GBC NOZ cells. The effect of VEGF-D siRNA on GBC NOZ cells was investigated by cell proliferation assay and invasion assay. Furthermore, we examined the role of VEGF-D-SiRNA on GBC NOZ cells in the mice of subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft tumor. Our results are as follows: VEGF-D mRNA and protein were expressed in all three GBC cell lines (GBC-SD, NOZ, and SGC-996). We successfully selected D-3/siRNA as the most effective siRNA to silence VEGF-D expression after four VEGF-D siRNA plasmid transfection in NOZ cells. VEGF-D mRNA and protein expression were suppressed by lentivirus-mediated D-3/siRNA. D-3-RNAi-LV inhibited NOZ cells proliferation and invasion ability in vitro. D-3-RNAi-LV inhibited tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis in the NOZ cell subcutaneous xenograft model. D-3-RNAi-LV inhibited lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in the NOZ cell orthotopic xenograft model. Furthermore, D-3-RNAi-LV inhibited tumor ascites and hepatic invasion in the NOZ cell orthotopic xenograft model. In conclusion, VEGF-D is involved and plays an important role in GBC progression, suggesting that VEGF-D may be a potential molecular target in the treatment of GBC. PMID:22071224

  11. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Guifang; Cai, Xiaojun; Falck, John R.; Yang, Jing; Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071

    2012-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ► CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ► The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have been studied in vitro and in vivo. ► CYP4Z1 regulates expression and production of VEGF-A and TIMP-2. ► CYP4Z1-induced angiogenesis is associated with PI3K and ERK1/2 activation. ► CYP4Z1 may be an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy.

  12. Characterization of the PLCB1 promoter and regulation by early growth response transcription factor EGR-1.

    PubMed

    Klenke, Stefanie; Rump, Katharina; Buschkamp, Kai; Engler, Andrea; Peters, Jürgen; Siffert, Winfried; Frey, Ulrich H

    2014-11-01

    The Gαq/-Gα11-PLCβ1 pathway is important for intracellular signalling and associated with pathological conditions, such as cardiac hypertrophy. The GNAQ and GNA11 promoters (encoding for Gαq and Gα11) have already been characterized and are both regulated by the transcription factor early growth response 1 (Egr-1). In contrast, the PLCB1 promoter (encoding for the direct downstream effector PLCβ1) has neither been cloned nor characterized. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to 1) characterize the PLCB1 promoter, and 2) assess its potential regulation by Egr-1. By means of 5'- Rapid Amplification of 5'-cDNA ends analysis in human heart tissue we found an initiation of transcription from multiple starting points, the main transcription starting point being located at nt-235 relative to the translation start point. The PLCB1 promoter was cloned and deletion constructs were generated. Luciferase assays were performed in three different cell lines and regulatory regions were identified between nt-595/nt-313 (Hek293: P=0.013; HASMC: P=0.019; H9c2: P=0.005). In electrophoretic mobility shift assays one specific Egr-1 binding site was identified at nt-451/-419 and PLCB1 promoter activity was increased more than 5-fold (Hek293: P=0.0008) and 1,6- fold (H9c2: P=0.0499) following overexpression of Egr-1. Thus, the PLCB1 promoter was characterized for the first time and a specific interaction with the transcription factor Egr-1 was shown. Our data provide a potential molecular mechanism relating to pathophysiological conditions such as cardiac hypertrophy where activation by Egr-1 of Gαq/Gα11-PLCβ1 plays an important role. PMID:25192965

  13. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Inoculation to Enhance Vegetative Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrogen Remobilisation of Maize under Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Khing Boon; Othman, Radziah; Abdul Rahim, Khairuddin; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may provide a biological alternative to fix atmospheric N2 and delay N remobilisation in maize plant to increase crop yield, based on an understanding that plant-N remobilisation is directly correlated to its plant senescence. Thus, four PGPR strains were selected from a series of bacterial strains isolated from maize roots at two locations in Malaysia. The PGPR strains were screened in vitro for their biochemical plant growth-promoting (PGP) abilities and plant growth promotion assays. These strains were identified as Klebsiella sp. Br1, Klebsiella pneumoniae Fr1, Bacillus pumilus S1r1 and Acinetobacter sp. S3r2 and a reference strain used was Bacillus subtilis UPMB10. All the PGPR strains were tested positive for N2 fixation, phosphate solubilisation and auxin production by in vitro tests. In a greenhouse experiment with reduced fertiliser-N input (a third of recommended fertiliser-N rate), the N2 fixation abilities of PGPR in association with maize were determined by 15N isotope dilution technique at two harvests, namely, prior to anthesis (D50) and ear harvest (D65). The results indicated that dry biomass of top, root and ear, total N content and bacterial colonisations in non-rhizosphere, rhizosphere and endosphere of maize roots were influenced by PGPR inoculation. In particular, the plants inoculated with B. pumilus S1r1 generally outperformed those with the other treatments. They produced the highest N2 fixing capacity of 30.5% (262 mg N2 fixed plant−1) and 25.5% (304 mg N2 fixed plant−1) of the total N requirement of maize top at D50 and D65, respectively. N remobilisation and plant senescence in maize were delayed by PGPR inoculation, which is an indicative of greater grain production. This is indicated by significant interactions between PGPR strains and time of harvests for parameters on N uptake and at. % 15Ne of tassel. The phenomenon is also supported by the lower N content in tassels of maize treated with PGPR, namely, B. pumilus S1r1, K. pneumoniae Fr1, B. subtilis UPMB10 and Acinetobacter sp. S3r2 at D65 harvest. This study provides evidence that PGPR inoculation, namely, B. pumilus S1r1 can biologically fix atmospheric N2 and provide an alternative technique, besides plant breeding, to delay N remobilisation in maize plant for higher ear yield (up to 30.9%) with reduced fertiliser-N input. PMID:27011317

  14. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Inoculation to Enhance Vegetative Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrogen Remobilisation of Maize under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Khing Boon; Othman, Radziah; Abdul Rahim, Khairuddin; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may provide a biological alternative to fix atmospheric N2 and delay N remobilisation in maize plant to increase crop yield, based on an understanding that plant-N remobilisation is directly correlated to its plant senescence. Thus, four PGPR strains were selected from a series of bacterial strains isolated from maize roots at two locations in Malaysia. The PGPR strains were screened in vitro for their biochemical plant growth-promoting (PGP) abilities and plant growth promotion assays. These strains were identified as Klebsiella sp. Br1, Klebsiella pneumoniae Fr1, Bacillus pumilus S1r1 and Acinetobacter sp. S3r2 and a reference strain used was Bacillus subtilis UPMB10. All the PGPR strains were tested positive for N2 fixation, phosphate solubilisation and auxin production by in vitro tests. In a greenhouse experiment with reduced fertiliser-N input (a third of recommended fertiliser-N rate), the N2 fixation abilities of PGPR in association with maize were determined by 15N isotope dilution technique at two harvests, namely, prior to anthesis (D50) and ear harvest (D65). The results indicated that dry biomass of top, root and ear, total N content and bacterial colonisations in non-rhizosphere, rhizosphere and endosphere of maize roots were influenced by PGPR inoculation. In particular, the plants inoculated with B. pumilus S1r1 generally outperformed those with the other treatments. They produced the highest N2 fixing capacity of 30.5% (262 mg N2 fixed plant-1) and 25.5% (304 mg N2 fixed plant-1) of the total N requirement of maize top at D50 and D65, respectively. N remobilisation and plant senescence in maize were delayed by PGPR inoculation, which is an indicative of greater grain production. This is indicated by significant interactions between PGPR strains and time of harvests for parameters on N uptake and at. % 15Ne of tassel. The phenomenon is also supported by the lower N content in tassels of maize treated with PGPR, namely, B. pumilus S1r1, K. pneumoniae Fr1, B. subtilis UPMB10 and Acinetobacter sp. S3r2 at D65 harvest. This study provides evidence that PGPR inoculation, namely, B. pumilus S1r1 can biologically fix atmospheric N2 and provide an alternative technique, besides plant breeding, to delay N remobilisation in maize plant for higher ear yield (up to 30.9%) with reduced fertiliser-N input. PMID:27011317

  15. 17?-estradiol and lipopolysaccharide additively promote pelvic inflammation and growth of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khaleque Newaz; Kitajima, Michio; Inoue, Tsuneo; Fujishita, Akira; Nakashima, Masahiro; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2015-05-01

    Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age. An additive effect between inflammation and stress reaction on the growth of endometriosis has been demonstrated. Here we investigated the combined effect between 17?-estradiol (E2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on pelvic inflammation and growth of endometriotic cells. Peritoneal fluid was collected from 46 women with endometriosis and 30 control women during laparoscopy. Peritoneal macrophages (M?) and stromal cells from eutopic/ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) were isolated from 10 women each with and without endometriosis in primary culture. Changes in cytokine secretion (interleukin 6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor ? [TNF-?]) by M? and proliferation of ESCs in response to single and combined treatment with E2 and LPS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay, respectively. A significantly increased secretion of IL-6 and TNF-? in M? culture media was found in response to E2 (10(-8) mol/L) compared to nontreated M?. This effect of E2 was abrogated after pretreatment of cells with ICI 182720 (10(-6) mol/L; an estrogen receptor [ER] antagonist). Combined treatment with E2 and LPS (10 ng/mL) additively promoted IL-6 and TNF-? secretion by peritoneal M? and growth of eutopic/ectopic ESCs. The additive effects of E2 + LPS on cytokine secretion and growth of ESCs were effectively suppressed after combined blocking of ER and Toll-like receptor 4. An additive effect was observed between E2 and LPS on promoting proinflammatory response in pelvis and growth of endometriosis. PMID:25355803

  16. Sildenafil Potentiates a cGMP-Dependent Pathway to Promote Melanoma Growth.

    PubMed

    Dhayade, Sandeep; Kaesler, Susanne; Sinnberg, Tobias; Dobrowinski, Hyazinth; Peters, Stefanie; Naumann, Ulrike; Liu, He; Hunger, Robert E; Thunemann, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Schittek, Birgit; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Feil, Susanne; Feil, Robert

    2016-03-22

    Sildenafil, an inhibitor of the cGMP-degrading phosphodiesterase 5 that is used to treat erectile dysfunction, has been linked to an increased risk of melanoma. Here, we have examined the potential connection between cGMP-dependent signaling cascades and melanoma growth. Using a combination of biochemical assays and real-time monitoring of melanoma cells, we report a cGMP-dependent growth-promoting pathway in murine and human melanoma cells. We document that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a ligand of the membrane-bound guanylate cyclase B, enhances the activity of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) in melanoma cells by increasing the intracellular levels of cGMP. Activation of this cGMP pathway promotes melanoma cell growth and migration in a p44/42 MAPK-dependent manner. Sildenafil treatment further increases intracellular cGMP concentrations, potentiating activation of this pathway. Collectively, our data identify this cGMP-cGKI pathway as the link between sildenafil usage and increased melanoma risk. PMID:26971999

  17. Diversity, Biocontrol, and Plant Growth Promoting Abilities of Xylem Residing Bacteria from Solanaceous Crops

    PubMed Central

    Achari, Gauri A.

    2014-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the solanaceous crops of economic and cultural importance and is widely cultivated in the state of Goa, India. Eggplant cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that colonizes the xylem tissue. In this study, 167 bacteria were isolated from the xylem of healthy eggplant, chilli, and Solanum torvum Sw. by vacuum infiltration and maceration. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) grouped these xylem residing bacteria (XRB) into 38 haplotypes. Twenty-eight strains inhibited growth of R. solanacearum and produced volatile and diffusible antagonistic compounds and plant growth promoting substances in vitro. Antagonistic strains XB86, XB169, XB177, and XB200 recorded a biocontrol efficacy greater than 85% against BW and exhibited 12%–22 % increase in shoot length in eggplant in the greenhouse screening. 16S rRNA based identification revealed the presence of 23 different bacterial genera. XRB with high biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities were identified as strains of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptomyces sp., Enterobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp. This study is the first report on identity of bacteria from the xylem of solanaceous crops having traits useful in cultivation of eggplant. PMID:24963298

  18. Doublecortin-Like Kinases Promote Neuronal Survival and Induce Growth Cone Reformation via Distinct Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nawabi, Homaira; Belin, Stephane; Cartoni, Romain; Williams, Philip R; Wang, Chen; Latremolire, Alban; Wang, Xuhua; Zhu, Junjie; Taub, Daniel G; Fu, Xiaoqin; Yu, Bin; Gu, Xiaosong; Woolf, Clifford J; Liu, Judy S; Gabel, Christopher V; Steen, Judith A; He, Zhigang

    2015-11-18

    After axotomy, neuronal survival and growth cone re-formation are required for axon regeneration. We discovered that doublecortin-like kinases (DCLKs), members of the doublecortin (DCX) family expressed in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), play critical roles in both processes, through distinct mechanisms. Overexpression of DCLK2 accelerated growth cone re-formation invitro and enhanced the initiation and elongation of axon re-growth after optic nerve injury. These effects depended on both the microtubule (MT)-binding domain and the serine-proline-rich (S/P-rich) region of DCXs in-cis in the same molecules. While the MT-binding domain is known to stabilize MT structures, we show that the S/P-rich region prevents F-actin destabilization in injured axon stumps. Additionally, while DCXs synergize with mTOR to stimulate axon regeneration, alone they can promote neuronal survival possibly by regulating the retrograde propagation of injury signals. Multifunctional DCXs thus represent potential targets for promoting both survival and regeneration of injured neurons. PMID:26526391

  19. Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils

    PubMed Central

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands. PMID:23781499

  20. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b, RGMb) is a novel gene that promotes colorectal cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ying; Chen, Guo-Bin; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Wang, Huan-Huan; Li, Ye-Sen; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Li, Shao; Xia, Yin; Ren, Jian-Lin; Guleng, Bayasi

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a major cause of cancer death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC initiation, growth and metastasis are poorly understood. Dragon (RGMb), a member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, has been recently identified as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, but the role of Dragon in CRC development is undefined. Here, we show that Dragon expression was increased in colon cancer tissues compared to control tissues in CAC mouse model and in human patients. Dragon promoted proliferation of CT26.WT and CMT93 colon cancer cells and accelerated tumor growth in the xenograft mouse model. Dragon's action on colon cancer development was mediated via the BMP4-Smad1/5/8 and Erk1/2 pathways. Therefore, our results have revealed that Dragon is a novel gene that promotes CRC growth through the BMP pathway. Dragon may be exploited as a potential therapeutic target for CRC treatment. PMID:26029998

  1. Alternatively spliced tissue factor promotes breast cancer growth in a β1 integrin-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Kocatürk, Begüm; Van den Berg, Yascha W.; Tieken, Chris; Mieog, J. Sven D.; de Kruijf, Esther M.; Engels, Charla C.; van der Ent, Martijn A.; Kuppen, Peter J.; Van de Velde, Cornelis J.; Ruf, Wolfram; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Osanto, Susanne; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Bogdanov, Vladimir Y.; Versteeg, Henri H.

    2013-01-01

    Full-length tissue factor (flTF), the coagulation initiator, is overexpressed in breast cancer (BrCa), but associations between flTF expression and clinical outcome remain controversial. It is currently not known whether the soluble alternatively spliced TF form (asTF) is expressed in BrCa or impacts BrCa progression. We are unique in reporting that asTF, but not flTF, strongly associates with both tumor size and grade, and induces BrCa cell proliferation by binding to β1 integrins. asTF promotes oncogenic gene expression, anchorage-independent growth, and strongly up-regulates tumor expansion in a luminal BrCa model. In basal BrCa cells that constitutively express both TF isoforms, asTF blockade reduces tumor growth and proliferation in vivo. We propose that asTF plays a major role in BrCa progression acting as an autocrine factor that promotes tumor progression. Targeting asTF may comprise a previously unexplored therapeutic strategy in BrCa that stems tumor growth, yet does not impair normal hemostasis. PMID:23801760

  2. Trichoderma gamsii (NFCCI 2177): a newly isolated endophytic, psychrotolerant, plant growth promoting, and antagonistic fungal strain.

    PubMed

    Rinu, K; Sati, Priyanka; Pandey, Anita

    2014-05-01

    An endophytic fungus has been isolated from the lateral roots of lentil (Lens esculenta Moench), growing under mountain ecosystem of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). While the fungus was observed as fast growing with white scanty mycelium turning to turmeric brown in 5 days of incubation at 25?C, it also produced a unique odor. The fungus exhibited growth between 4 and 30?C (optimum 25?C) and tolerated pH between 2.0 and 13.5 (optimum 4-6). Based on phenotypic (colony morphology and microscopy) and genotypic (18S rRNA analysis) characters, the fungus was identified as Trichoderma gamsii (99% similarity). The fungus was evaluated for its plant growth promotion and biocontrol properties. The fungus was found to be positive for phosphate solubilization, chitinase activity, and production of ammonia and salicylic acid, while the results for production of IAA, HCN, and siderophores were negative. Out of the seven phytopathogenic fungi tested, it showed antagonism against six. Bioassays conducted under green house using four test crops (two cereals and two legumes) showed its potential in plant growth promotion. The fungus has potential to be developed as a bioformulation for application under mountain ecosystem. PMID:23564225

  3. Fgf receptor 3 activation promotes selective growth and expansion of occipitotemporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Rachel E; Kind, Peter C; Graham, Nicholas A; Etherson, Michelle L; Kennedy, John; Fernandes, Ana C; Marques, Catia S; Hevner, Robert F; Iwata, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) are important regulators of cerebral cortex development. Fgf2, Fgf8 and Fgf17 promote growth and specification of rostromedial (frontoparietal) cortical areas. Recently, the function of Fgf15 in antagonizing Fgf8 in the rostral signaling center was also reported. However, regulation of caudal area formation by Fgf signaling remains unknown. Results In mutant mice with constitutive activation of Fgf receptor 3 (Fgfr3) in the forebrain, surface area of the caudolateral cortex was markedly expanded at early postnatal stage, while rostromedial surface area remained normal. Cortical thickness was also increased in caudal regions. The expression domain and levels of Fgf8, as well as overall patterning, were unchanged. In contrast, the changes in caudolateral surface area were associated with accelerated cell cycle in early stages of neurogenesis without an alteration of cell cycle exit. Moreover, a marked overproduction of intermediate neuronal progenitors was observed in later stages, indicating prolongation of neurogenesis. Conclusion Activation of Fgfr3 selectively promotes growth of caudolateral (occipitotemporal) cortex. These observations support the 'radial unit' and 'radial amplification' hypotheses and may explain premature sulcation of the occipitotemporal cortex in thanatophoric dysplasia, a human FGFR3 disorder. Together with previous work, this study suggests that formation of rostral and caudal areas are differentially regulated by Fgf signaling in the cerebral cortex. PMID:19192266

  4. Progesterone and HMOX-1 promote fetal growth by CD8+ T cell modulation

    PubMed Central

    Solano, María Emilia; Kowal, Mirka Katharina; O’Rourke, Greta Eugenia; Horst, Andrea Kristina; Modest, Kathrin; Plösch, Torsten; Barikbin, Roja; Remus, Chressen Catharina; Berger, Robert G.; Jago, Caitlin; Ho, Hoang; Sass, Gabriele; Parker, Victoria J.; Lydon, John P.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Hecher, Kurt; Karimi, Khalil; Arck, Petra Clara

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects up to 10% of pregnancies in Western societies. IUGR is a strong predictor of reduced short-term neonatal survival and impairs long-term health in children. Placental insufficiency is often associated with IUGR; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of placental insufficiency and IUGR are largely unknown. Here, we developed a mouse model of fetal-growth restriction and placental insufficiency that is induced by a midgestational stress challenge. Compared with control animals, pregnant dams subjected to gestational stress exhibited reduced progesterone levels and placental heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) expression and increased methylation at distinct regions of the placental Hmox1 promoter. These stress-triggered changes were accompanied by an altered CD8+ T cell response, as evidenced by a reduction of tolerogenic CD8+CD122+ T cells and an increase of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Using progesterone receptor– or Hmox1-deficient mice, we identified progesterone as an upstream modulator of placental Hmox1 expression. Supplementation of progesterone or depletion of CD8+ T cells revealed that progesterone suppresses CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity, whereas the generation of CD8+CD122+ T cells is supported by Hmox1 and ameliorates fetal-growth restriction in Hmox1 deficiency. These observations in mice could promote the identification of pregnancies at risk for IUGR and the generation of clinical interventional strategies. PMID:25774501

  5. Diversity, biocontrol, and plant growth promoting abilities of xylem residing bacteria from solanaceous crops.

    PubMed

    Achari, Gauri A; Ramesh, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the solanaceous crops of economic and cultural importance and is widely cultivated in the state of Goa, India. Eggplant cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that colonizes the xylem tissue. In this study, 167 bacteria were isolated from the xylem of healthy eggplant, chilli, and Solanum torvum Sw. by vacuum infiltration and maceration. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) grouped these xylem residing bacteria (XRB) into 38 haplotypes. Twenty-eight strains inhibited growth of R. solanacearum and produced volatile and diffusible antagonistic compounds and plant growth promoting substances in vitro. Antagonistic strains XB86, XB169, XB177, and XB200 recorded a biocontrol efficacy greater than 85% against BW and exhibited 12%-22 % increase in shoot length in eggplant in the greenhouse screening. 16S rRNA based identification revealed the presence of 23 different bacterial genera. XRB with high biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities were identified as strains of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptomyces sp., Enterobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp. This study is the first report on identity of bacteria from the xylem of solanaceous crops having traits useful in cultivation of eggplant. PMID:24963298

  6. Atg7 overcomes senescence and promotes growth of BRAFV600E-driven melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaoqi; Koh, Ju Yong; Price, Sandy; White, Eileen; Mehnert, Janice M.

    2015-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy hereafter) may promote survival and growth of spontaneous tumors, including melanoma. We utilized a genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM) driven by oncogenic BRAFV600E and deficiency in the Pten tumor suppressor gene in melanocytes to test the functional consequences of loss of the essential autophagy gene autophagy-related-7, Atg7. Atg7 deficiency prevented melanoma development by BRAFV600E and allelic Pten loss, indicating that autophagy is essential for melanomagenesis. Moreover, BRAFV600E mutant, Pten-null, Atg7-deficient melanomas displayed accumulation of autophagy substrates and growth defects, which extended animal survival. Atg7-deleted tumors showed increased oxidative stress and senescence, a known barrier to melanomagenesis. Treatment with the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib decreased tumor growth and induced senescence that was more pronounced in tumors with Atg7 deficiency. Thus Atg7 promotes melanoma by limiting oxidative stress and overcoming senescence, and autophagy inhibition may be of therapeutic value by augmenting the anti-tumor activity of BRAF inhibitors. PMID:25673642

  7. Hair Growth Promoting Potential of Phospholipids Purified from Porcine Lung Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-Il; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products. PMID:25767686

  8. Hair growth promoting potential of phospholipids purified from porcine lung tissues.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-Il; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-03-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products. PMID:25767686

  9. Adipocytes promote ovarian cancer metastasis and provide energy for rapid tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, Kristin M; Kenny, Hilary A; Penicka, Carla V; Ladanyi, Andras; Buell-Gutbrod, Rebecca; Zillhardt, Marion R; Romero, Iris L; Carey, Mark S; Mills, Gordon B; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S; Yamada, S Diane; Peter, Marcus E; Gwin, Katja; Lengyel, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    Intra-abdominal tumors, such as ovarian cancer1,2, have a clear predilection for metastasis to the omentum, an organ primarily composed of adipocytes. Currently, it is unclear why tumor cells preferentially home to and proliferate in the omentum, yet omental metastases typically represent the largest tumor in the abdominal cavities of women with ovarian cancer. We show here that primary human omental adipocytes promote homing, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, and that adipokines including interleukin-8 (IL-8) mediate these activities. Adipocyte–ovarian cancer cell coculture led to the direct transfer of lipids from adipocytes to ovarian cancer cells and promoted in vitro and in vivo tumor growth. Furthermore, coculture induced lipolysis in adipocytes and β-oxidation in cancer cells, suggesting adipocytes act as an energy source for the cancer cells. A protein array identified upregulation of fatty acid–binding protein 4 (FABP4, also known as aP2) in omental metastases as compared to primary ovarian tumors, and FABP4 expression was detected in ovarian cancer cells at the adipocyte-tumor cell interface. FABP4 deficiency substantially impaired metastatic tumor growth in mice, indicating that FABP4 has a key role in ovarian cancer metastasis. These data indicate adipocytes provide fatty acids for rapid tumor growth, identifying lipid metabolism and transport as new targets for the treatment of cancers where adipocytes are a major component of the microenvironment. PMID:22037646

  10. A new species of Burkholderia isolated from sugarcane roots promotes plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Lonhienne, Thierry G A; Yeoh, Yun Kit; Webb, Richard I; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chan, Cheong Xin; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Ragan, Mark A; Schmidt, Susanne; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is a globally important food, biofuel and biomaterials crop. High nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates aimed at increasing yield often result in environmental damage because of excess and inefficient application. Inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria is an attractive option for reducing N fertilizer needs. However, the efficacy of bacterial inoculants is variable, and their effective formulation remains a knowledge frontier. Here, we take a new approach to investigating diazotrophic bacteria associated with roots using culture-independent microbial community profiling of a commercial sugarcane variety (Q208A) in a field setting. We first identified bacteria that were markedly enriched in the rhizosphere to guide isolation and then tested putative diazotrophs for the ability to colonize axenic sugarcane plantlets (Q208A) and promote growth in suboptimal N supply. One isolate readily colonized roots, fixed N2 and stimulated growth of plantlets, and was classified as a new species, Burkholderia australis sp. nov. Draft genome sequencing of the isolate confirmed the presence of nitrogen fixation. We propose that culture-independent identification and isolation of bacteria that are enriched in rhizosphere and roots, followed by systematic testing and confirming their growth-promoting capacity, is a necessary step towards designing effective microbial inoculants. PMID:24350979

  11. Potential for plant growth promotion of rhizobacteria associated with Salicornia growing in Tunisian hypersaline soils.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands. PMID:23781499

  12. AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Darrion L.; DiMario, Joseph X.

    2010-01-15

    Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

  13. Site-specific methylation of the rat prolactin and growth hormone promoters correlates with gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Ngô, V; Gourdji, D; Laverrière, J N

    1996-01-01

    The methylation patterns of the rat prolactin (rPRL) (positions -440 to -20) and growth hormone (rGH) (positions -360 to -110) promoters were analyzed by bisulfite genomic sequencing. Two normal tissues, the anterior pituitary and the liver, and three rat pituitary GH3 cell lines that differ considerably in their abilities to express both genes were tested. High levels of rPRL gene expression were correlated with hypomethylation of the CpG dinucleotides located at positions -277 and -97, near or within positive cis-acting regulatory elements. For the nine CpG sites analyzed in the rGH promoter, an overall hypomethylation-expression coupling was also observed for the anterior pituitary, the liver, and two of the cell lines. The effect of DNA methylation was tested by measuring the transient expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene driven by a regionally methylated rPRL promoter. CpG methylation resulted in a decrease in the activity of the rPRL promoter which was proportional to the number of modified CpG sites. The extent of the inhibition was also found to be dependent on the position of methylated sites. Taken together, these data suggest that site-specific methylation may modulate the action of transcription factors that dictate the tissue-specific expression of the rPRL and rGH genes in vivo. PMID:8668139

  14. Regioselective hydrogenation of conjugated dienes catalyzed by hydridopentacyanocobaltate anion using. beta. -cyclodextrin as the phase-transfer agent and lanthanide halides as promoters

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongtae; Alper, H. )

    1990-03-16

    {beta}-Cyclodextrin is a useful phase-transfer agent for the hydrogenation of conjugated dienes to monoolefins catalyzed by the in situ generated hydridopentacyanocobaltate anion. This reaction, which usually proceeds by 1,2-addition to the diene, is promoted by cerium or lanthanum chloride. Polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), with or without added lanthanide, can also be used as the phase-transfer agent for the reduction process.

  15. N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine regulates Hedgehog signaling and promotes growth of cortical axons

    PubMed Central

    Kharebava, Giorgi; Rashid, Mohammad A.; Lee, Ji-Won; Sarkar, Sarmila; Kevala, Karl; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Axonogenesis, a process for the establishment of neuron connectivity, is central to brain function. The role of metabolites derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) that is specifically enriched in the brain, has not been addressed in axon development. In this study, we tested if synaptamide (N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine), an endogenous metabolite of DHA, affects axon growth in cultured cortical neurons. We found that synaptamide increased the average axon length, inhibited GLI family zinc finger 1 (GLI1) transcription and sonic hedgehog (Shh) target gene expression while inducing cAMP elevation. Similar effects were produced by cyclopamine, a regulator of the Shh pathway. Conversely, Shh antagonized elevation of cAMP and blocked synaptamide-mediated increase in axon length. Activation of Shh pathway by a smoothened (SMO) agonist (SAG) or overexpression of SMO did not inhibit axon growth mediated by synaptamide or cyclopamine. Instead, adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 abolished synaptamide-mediated axon growth indicating requirement of cAMP elevation for this process. Our findings establish that synaptamide promotes axon growth while Shh antagonizes synaptamide-mediated cAMP elevation and axon growth by a SMO-independent, non-canonical pathway. PMID:26545965

  16. N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine regulates Hedgehog signaling and promotes growth of cortical axons.

    PubMed

    Kharebava, Giorgi; Rashid, Mohammad A; Lee, Ji-Won; Sarkar, Sarmila; Kevala, Karl; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Axonogenesis, a process for the establishment of neuron connectivity, is central to brain function. The role of metabolites derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) that is specifically enriched in the brain, has not been addressed in axon development. In this study, we tested if synaptamide (N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine), an endogenous metabolite of DHA, affects axon growth in cultured cortical neurons. We found that synaptamide increased the average axon length, inhibited GLI family zinc finger 1 (GLI1) transcription and sonic hedgehog (Shh) target gene expression while inducing cAMP elevation. Similar effects were produced by cyclopamine, a regulator of the Shh pathway. Conversely, Shh antagonized elevation of cAMP and blocked synaptamide-mediated increase in axon length. Activation of Shh pathway by a smoothened (SMO) agonist (SAG) or overexpression of SMO did not inhibit axon growth mediated by synaptamide or cyclopamine. Instead, adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 abolished synaptamide-mediated axon growth indicating requirement of cAMP elevation for this process. Our findings establish that synaptamide promotes axon growth while Shh antagonizes synaptamide-mediated cAMP elevation and axon growth by a SMO-independent, non-canonical pathway. PMID:26545965

  17. Isolation and characterization of the hamster gadd153 gene. Activation of promoter activity by agents that damage DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Luethy, J.D.; Fargnoli, J.; Park, J.S.; Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Holbrook, N.J. )

    1990-09-25

    A group of five cDNA clones, representing the gadd genes, were recently isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as genes induced upon growth arrest and after DNA damage. We have isolated and characterized one of these genes, gadd153. The gene spans five kilobases and contains four exons. The 5'-flanking region of the gene, within 420 base pairs of the transcription initiation site, contains a number of cis elements associated with transcriptional regulation in other genes. These include a Hogness box, ATAAAA, an inverted GCCAAT box; seven SP1 transcription factor binding sites, and an AP-1 site. This region is rich in G + C content (greater than 70%) and contains an unusually long stretch of alternating CpG residues. The 800-base pair region immediately upstream of the transcription start site can drive expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, but only in its endogenous orientation, in three different cell lines: HeLa, CHO, and Jurkat. The gadd153 promoter is strongly activated by methyl methanesulfonate, hydrogen peroxide, and UV irradiation, but not by growth arrest signals. This suggests that separate and very different regulatory pathways are involved in the induction of the gadd153 gene by growth cessation and DNA damage.

  18. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of multi-trait plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for their growth promoting and disease suppressing effects on ginger.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Raghavan; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy; Kumar, Aundy; Bini, Yogiyar Kundil; Subila, Kizhakke Purayil; Aravind, Ravindran

    2015-04-01

    In this study, 100 PGPR strains isolated from different varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) were first characterized for their morphological, biochemical, and nutrient mobilization traits in vitro. The PGPR were also screened in vitro for inhibition of Pythium myriotylum causing soft rot in ginger. Results revealed that only five PGPR showed >70% suppression of P. myriotylum. These 5 PGPR viz., GRB (Ginger rhizobacteria) 25--Burkholderia cepacia, GRB35--Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; GRB58--Serratia marcescens; GRB68--S. marcescens; GRB91--Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for further growth promotion and biocontrol studies in the green house and field. The green house study revealed that GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) and GRB68 (S. marcescens) registered markedly higher sprouting (96.3%) and lower disease incidence (48.1%) and greater rhizome yield (365.6 g pot(-1) and 384.4 g pot(-1), respectively), while control registered the lowest sprouting (66%), maximum soft rot incidence (100%) and lowest rhizome yield (134.4 g pot(-1)). In the field experiments also, GRB68 (S. marcescens) and GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) registered the greatest sprouting (80% each), markedly lower soft rot incidence (5.2% and 7.3%, respectively) and higher yield (5.0 and 4.3 kg(3)m(-2), respectively) compared to chemicals like Streptomycin sulphate (73.0%, 18.5% and 2.3 kg(3)m(-2), respectively), Metalaxyl-Mancozeb (73.0%, 14.0% and 3.8 kg(3)m(-2), respectively) and control (73.0%, 25.1% and 2.2 kg 3m(-2), respectively). Overall, the results suggested that for growth promotion and management of soft rot disease in ginger, GRB35 B. amyloliquefaciens and GRB68 S. marcescens could be good alternatives to chemical measures. Since, the latter has been reported to be an opportunistic human pathogen, we recommend the use of B. amyloliquefaciens for integration into nutrient and disease management schedules for ginger cultivation. PMID:25801969

  19. Fibroblast growth factor 8 increases breast cancer cell growth by promoting cell cycle progression and by protecting against cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Emeli M.; Brokken, Leon J.S.; Haerkoenen, Pirkko L.

    2010-03-10

    Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF-8) is expressed in a large proportion of breast cancers, whereas its level in normal mammary gland epithelium is low. Previous studies have shown that FGF-8b stimulates breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. To explore the mechanisms by which FGF-8b promotes growth, we studied its effects on cell cycle regulatory proteins and signalling pathways in mouse S115 and human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We also studied the effect of FGF-8b on cell survival. FGF-8b induced cell cycle progression and up-regulated particularly cyclin D1 mRNA and protein in S115 cells. Silencing cyclin D1 with siRNA inhibited most but not all FGF-8b-induced proliferation. Inhibition of the FGF-8b-activated ERK/MAPK pathway decreased FGF-8b-stimulated proliferation. Blocking the constitutively active PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways also lowered FGF-8b-induced cyclin D1 expression and proliferation. Corresponding results were obtained in MCF-7 cells. In S115 and MCF-7 mouse tumours, FGF-8b increased cyclin D1 and Ki67 levels. Moreover, FGF-8b opposed staurosporine-induced S115 cell death which effect was blocked by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway but not the ERK/MAPK pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest that FGF-8b increases breast cancer cell growth both by stimulating cell cycle progression and by protecting against cell death.

  20. Growth promoting effects of prebiotic yeast cell wall products in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to investigate the growth promoting effects of supplementing different sources and concentrations of prebiotic yeast cell wall (YCW) products containing mannanoligosaccharides in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge. Through a series ...

  1. Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1 associated with Dendrobium officinale through phytohormone production and nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Suijuan; Zhang, Xinghai; Cao, Zhaoyun; Zhao, Kaipeng; Wang, Sai; Chen, Mingxue; Hu, Xiufang

    2014-11-01

    Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1, associated with Dendrobium officinale, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, was characterized. At 90 days post-inoculation, strain ZJSH1 significantly promoted the growth of D.?officinale seedlings, with increases of stems by 8.6% and fresh weight by 7.5%. Interestingly, the polysaccharide content extracted from the inoculated seedlings was 0.6% higher than that of the control. Similar growth promotion was observed with the transplants inoculated with strain ZJSH1. The mechanism of growth promotion was attributed to a combination of phytohormones and nitrogen fixation. Strain ZJSH1 was found using the Kjeldahl method to have a nitrogen fixation activity of 1.15?mg?l(-1) , which was confirmed by sequencing of the nifH gene. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, strain ZJSH1 was found to produce various phytohormones, including salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Zeatin and abscisic acid (ABA). The growth curve showed that strain ZJSH1 grew well in the seedlings, especially in the roots. Accordingly, much higher contents of SA, ABA, IAA and c-ZR were detected in the inoculated seedlings, which may play roles as both phytohormones and 'Systemic Acquired Resistance' drivers. Nitrogen fixation and secretion of plant growth regulators (SA, IAA, Zeatin and ABA) endow S.?paucimobilis?ZJSH1 with growth-promoting properties, which provides a potential for application in the commercial growth of D.?officinale. PMID:25142808

  2. Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis ZJSH1 associated with Dendrobium officinale through phytohormone production and nitrogen fixation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Suijuan; Zhang, Xinghai; Cao, Zhaoyun; Zhao, Kaipeng; Wang, Sai; Chen, Mingxue; Hu, Xiufang

    2014-01-01

    Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis ZJSH1, associated with Dendrobium officinale, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, was characterized. At 90 days post-inoculation, strain ZJSH1 significantly promoted the growth of D. officinale seedlings, with increases of stems by 8.6% and fresh weight by 7.5%. Interestingly, the polysaccharide content extracted from the inoculated seedlings was 0.6% higher than that of the control. Similar growth promotion was observed with the transplants inoculated with strain ZJSH1. The mechanism of growth promotion was attributed to a combination of phytohormones and nitrogen fixation. Strain ZJSH1 was found using the Kjeldahl method to have a nitrogen fixation activity of 1.15 mg l−1, which was confirmed by sequencing of the nifH gene. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, strain ZJSH1 was found to produce various phytohormones, including salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Zeatin and abscisic acid (ABA). The growth curve showed that strain ZJSH1 grew well in the seedlings, especially in the roots. Accordingly, much higher contents of SA, ABA, IAA and c-ZR were detected in the inoculated seedlings, which may play roles as both phytohormones and ‘Systemic Acquired Resistance’ drivers. Nitrogen fixation and secretion of plant growth regulators (SA, IAA, Zeatin and ABA) endow S. paucimobilis ZJSH1 with growth-promoting properties, which provides a potential for application in the commercial growth of D. officinale. PMID:25142808

  3. Omental adipose tissue-derived stromal cells promote vascularization and growth of endometrial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Klopp, Ann H.; Zhang, Yan; Solley, Travis; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Marini, Frank; Andreeff, Michael; Debeb, Bisrat; Woodward, Wendy; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Broaddus, Russell; Lu, Karen; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Adipose tissue contains a population of tumor-tropic mesenchymal progenitors, termed adipose stromal cells (ASC), which engraft in neighboring tumors to form supportive tumor stroma. We hypothesized that intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue may contain a uniquely tumor promoting population of ASC to account for the relationship between excess visceral adipose tissue and mortality of intra-abdominal cancers. Experimental Design To investigate this, we isolated and characterized ASC from intra-abdominal omental adipose tissue (O-ASC) and characterized their effects on endometrial cancer progression as compared to subcutaneous adipose derived mesenchymal stromal cells (SC-ASC), bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC) and lung fibroblasts. To model chronic recruitment of ASC by tumors, cells were injected metronomically into mice bearing Hec1a xenografts. Results O-ASC expressed cell surface markers characteristic of BM-MSC and differentiated into mesenchymal lineages. Co-culture with O-ASC increased endometrial cancer cell proliferation in-vitro. Tumor tropism of O-ASC and SC-ASC for human Hec1a endometrial tumor xenografts was comparable, but O-ASC more potently promoted tumor growth. Compared with tumors in SC-ASC-injected mice, tumors in O-ASC-injected mice contained higher numbers of large tortuous desmin-positive blood vessels, which correlated with decreased central tumor necrosis and increased tumor cell proliferation. O-ASC-exhibited enhanced motility as compared to SC-ASC in response to Hec1a secreted factors. Conclusions Visceral adipose contains a population of multipotent MSC that promote endometrial tumor growth more potently than MSC from subcutaneous adipose tissue. We propose that O-ASC recruited to tumors express specific factors that enhance tumor vascularization, promoting survival and proliferation of tumor cells. PMID:22167410

  4. Mechanisms of growth-promoting and tumor-protecting effects of epithelial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Chernyavsky, Alex I; Shchepotin, Igor B; Grando, Sergei A

    2015-11-01

    Although the role of nicotine as a carcinogen is debatable, it is widely accepted that it contributes to cancer by promoting growth and survival of mutated cell clones and protecting them from the chemo- and radiotherapy-induced apoptosis. On the cell membrane (cm), the nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) implement upregulation of proliferative and survival genes. Nicotine also can permeate cells and activate mitochondrial (mt)-nAChRs coupled to inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, thus preventing apoptosis. In this study, we sought to pin down principal mechanisms mediating the tumor-promoting activities of nicotine resulting from activation of cm- and mt-nAChRs in oral and lung cancer cells, SCC25 and SW900, respectively. Activated cm-nAChRs were found to form complexes with receptors for EGF and VEGEF via the ?7 and ?2 nAChR subunits, respectively, whereas activated mt-nAChRs physically associated with the intramitochondrial protein kinases PI3K and Src via the ?7 and ?4 subunits. This was associated with upregulated expression of cyclin D1/activation of ERK1/2 and inhibition of mPTP opening, respectively, as well as upregulated proliferation and resistance to H2O2-induced apoptosis. The molecular synergy between cm-nAChRs and growth factor receptors helps explain how one biological mediator, such as ACh, can modulate activity of the other, such as a growth factor, and vice versa. Establishment of functional coupling of mt-nAChRs to regulation of mPTP opening provides a novel mechanism of nicotine-dependent protection from cell death. Further elucidation of this novel mechanism of tumor-promoting activities of nicotine should have a strong translational impact, because extraneuronal nAChRs may provide a novel molecular target to prevent, reverse, or retard progression of both nicotine-related and unrelated cancers. PMID:26071223

  5. Growth mechanisms of MgO nanocrystals via a sol-gel synthesis using different complexing agents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the preparation of nanostructured materials, it is important to optimize synthesis parameters in order to obtain the desired material. This work investigates the role of complexing agents, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, in the production of MgO nanocrystals. Results from simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (STA) show that the two different synthesis routes yield precursors with different thermal profiles. It is found that the thermal profiles of the precursors can reveal the effects of crystal growth during thermal annealing. X-ray diffraction confirms that the final products are pure, single phase and of cubic shape. It is also found that complexing agents can affect the rate of crystal growth. The structures of the oxalic acid and tartaric acid as well as the complexation sites play very important roles in the formation of the nanocrystals. The complexing agents influence the rate of growth which affects the final crystallite size of the materials. Surprisingly, it is also found that oxalic acid and tartaric acid act as surfactants inhibiting crystal growth even at a high temperature of 950°C and a long annealing time of 36 h. The crystallite formation routes are proposed to be via linear and branched polymer networks due to the different structures of the complexing agents. PMID:24650322

  6. Growth mechanisms of MgO nanocrystals via a sol-gel synthesis using different complexing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastuli, Mohd Sufri; Kamarulzaman, Norlida; Nawawi, Mohd Azizi; Mahat, Annie Maria; Rusdi, Roshidah; Kamarudin, Norashikin

    2014-03-01

    In the preparation of nanostructured materials, it is important to optimize synthesis parameters in order to obtain the desired material. This work investigates the role of complexing agents, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, in the production of MgO nanocrystals. Results from simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (STA) show that the two different synthesis routes yield precursors with different thermal profiles. It is found that the thermal profiles of the precursors can reveal the effects of crystal growth during thermal annealing. X-ray diffraction confirms that the final products are pure, single phase and of cubic shape. It is also found that complexing agents can affect the rate of crystal growth. The structures of the oxalic acid and tartaric acid as well as the complexation sites play very important roles in the formation of the nanocrystals. The complexing agents influence the rate of growth which affects the final crystallite size of the materials. Surprisingly, it is also found that oxalic acid and tartaric acid act as surfactants inhibiting crystal growth even at a high temperature of 950C and a long annealing time of 36 h. The crystallite formation routes are proposed to be via linear and branched polymer networks due to the different structures of the complexing agents.

  7. Synthesis of brassinosteroids analogues from laxogenin and their plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Xu, Jing; Liu, XiaoLi; Gong, WenXiu; Zhang, CunLi

    2015-01-01

    Four steroid saponins (2-5) and three derivatives (6-8) were synthesised from laxogenin. Four of them were new compounds: (25R)-3?-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-?-D-galactopyranosyloxy)-5?-spirostan-6-one (3), (25R)-3?-(?-D-galactopyranosyloxy)-5?-spirostan-6-one (5), 3?,16-diacetyl-26-hydroxy-5?-cholestan-6,22-dione (6) and 16-acetyl-3?,26-dihydroxy-5?-cholestan-6,22-dione (7). All the compounds showed plant growth-promoting activity in the radish hypocotyl elongation and cotyledon expansion bioassay. Above all, 2 and 6 were found to be more active. PMID:25311045

  8. Identification of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Using Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis-Assisted Photoacoustic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Marn, E.; Caldern, A.

    2013-09-01

    The effect of titanium dioxide photocatalysis against bacteria that are dangerous for human health has been investigated in the past, suggesting the possibility of using a specific behavior for each microorganism during this process for its discrimination. In this study, the behavior of some plants growth promoting bacteria ( Burkholderia unamae (Strain MTI 641), Acetobacter diazotrophicus (Strain PAl 5T), A. diazotrophicus (Strain CFN-Cf 52), and B. unamae (Strain TATl-371)) interacting with light and bactericidal titanium dioxide films have been analyzed using the photoacoustic technique. The monitoring of these interactions shows particular characteristics that could serve for identifying these species.

  9. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): the bugs to debug the root zone.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Swarnalee; Podile, Appa Rao

    2010-08-01

    Interaction of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with host plants is an intricate and interdependent relationship involving not only the two partners but other biotic and abiotic factors of the rhizosphere region. Survival and establishment of PGPR in the rhizosphere is a major concern of agricultural microbiologists. Various factors that play a determining role include the composition of root exudates, properties of bacterial strain, soil status, and activities of other soil microbes. This review focuses on the different components that affect root colonization of PGPR and the underlying principles behind the success of these bugs to tide over the unfavorable conditions. PMID:20635858

  10. Adipose-derived stem cells promote tumor initiation and accelerate tumor growth by interleukin-6 production

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Rong; Lu, Jui-Hua; Lai, Wen-Fu T.; Chen, Wei-Hong; Liu, Hen-Yu; Chang, Ya-Ting; Deng, Win-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent cells that have attracted much recent attention. Here, we show that ADSCs enhance sphere formation and in vivo tumor initiation of breast and colon cancer cells. In co-culture, ADSCs induced several stem cell markers in cancer cells. ADSCs also accelerated tumor growth. Interaction of ADSCs and cancer cells stimulated secretion of interlukin-6 in ADSCs, which in turn acted in a paracrine manner on cancer cells to enhance their malignant properties. Interleukin-6 regulated stem cell-related genes and activated JAK2/STAT3 in cancer cells. We suggest that ADSCs may enhance tumor initiation and promotion. PMID:25797257

  11. Cancer Stem Cell Plasticity as Tumor Growth Promoter and Catalyst of Population Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Poleszczuk, Jan; Enderling, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly argued that cancer stem cells are not a cellular phenotype but rather a transient state that cells can acquire, either through intrinsic signaling cascades or in response to environmental cues. While cancer stem cell plasticity is generally associated with increased aggressiveness and treatment resistance, we set out to thoroughly investigate the impact of different rates of plasticity on early and late tumor growth dynamics and the response to therapy. We develop an agent-based model of cancer stem cell driven tumor growth, in which plasticity is defined as a spontaneous transition between stem and nonstem cancer cell states. Simulations of the model show that plasticity can substantially increase tumor growth rate and invasion. At high rates of plasticity, however, the cells get exhausted and the tumor will undergo spontaneous remission in the long term. In a series of in silico trials, we show that such remission can be facilitated through radiotherapy. The presented study suggests that stem cell plasticity has rather complex, nonintuitive implications on tumor growth and treatment response. Further theoretical, experimental, and integrated studies are needed to fully decipher cancer stem cell plasticity and how it can be harnessed for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26858759

  12. Acetylation of Beclin 1 inhibits autophagosome maturation and promotes tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ting; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Wen-Dan; Zhang, Hai-liang; Li, Dan-Dan; Deng, Rong; Qian, Xiao-Jun; Jiao, Lin; Ji, Jiao; Li, Yun-Tian; Wu, Rui-Yan; Yu, Yan; Feng, Gong-Kan; Zhu, Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Beclin 1, a protein essential for autophagy, regulates autophagy by interacting with Vps34 and other cofactors to form the Beclin 1 complex. Modifications of Beclin 1 may lead to the induction, inhibition or fine-tuning of the autophagic response under a variety of conditions. Here we show that Beclin 1 is acetylated by p300 and deacetylated by SIRT1 at lysine residues 430 and 437. In addition, the phosphorylation of Beclin 1 at S409 by CK1 is required for the subsequent p300 binding and Beclin 1 acetylation. Beclin 1 acetylation inhibits autophagosome maturation and endocytic trafficking by promoting the recruitment of Rubicon. In tumour xenografts, the expression of 2KR mutant Beclin 1 (substitution of K430 and K437 to arginines) leads to enhanced autophagosome maturation and tumour growth suppression. Therefore, our study identifies an acetylation-dependent regulatory mechanism governing Beclin 1 function in autophagosome maturation and tumour growth. PMID:26008601

  13. Anatomical, morphological, and phytochemical effects of inoculation with plant growth- promoting rhizobacteria on peppermint (Mentha piperita).

    PubMed

    del Rosario Cappellari, Lorena; Santoro, Maricel Valeria; Reinoso, Herminda; Travaglia, Claudia; Giordano, Walter; Banchio, Erika

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) generally exert their effects through enhancement of plant nutrient status and/or phytohormone production. The effects of PGPR on aromatic plant species are poorly known. We measured plant growth parameters, chlorophyll content, trichome density, stomatal density, and levels of secondary metabolites in peppermint (Mentha piperita) seedlings inoculated with PGPR strains Bacillus subtilis GB03, Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r, P. putida SJ04, or a combination of WCS417r?+?SJ04. The treated plants, in comparison with controls, showed increases in shoot biomass, root biomass, leaf area, node number, trichome density, and stomatal density, and marked qualitative and quantitative changes in monoterpene content. Improved knowledge of the factors that control or affect biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and monoterpene accumulation will lead to strategies for improved cultivation and productivity of aromatic plants and other agricultural crops without the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides. PMID:25655927

  14. Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Nishiofuku, Mariko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2008-03-07

    Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle.

  15. Prosaposin, a regulator of estrogen receptor alpha, promotes breast cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yihong; Sun, Linlin; Zou, Weiying; Xu, Jiejie; Liu, Haiou; Wang, Wenzhong; Yun, Xiaojing; Gu, Jianxin

    2012-10-01

    Prosaposin, a secreted protein, is a well-known pleiotropic growth factor. Although a previous report has indicated that prosaposin is overexpressed in breast cancer cell lines, the role of prosaposin in the development of breast cancer remains to be identified. Here, we first revealed that prosaposin upregulated estrogen receptor alpha expression, nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity by western blot, immunofluorescence assay and dual luciferase reporter gene assay, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated prosaposin upregulated estrogen receptor alpha expression through MAPK-signaling pathway using MAPK inhibitor. Proliferation assay and tumor xenograft experiments in nude mice (n = 6 per group) further confirmed prosaposin could promote breast cancer growth significantly in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggested that prosaposin might enhance estrogen receptor alpha-mediated signaling axis and play a role in breast cancer development and progression. PMID:22738294

  16. How Structure-Directing Agents Control Nanocrystal Shape: Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Mediated Growth of Ag Nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Balankura, Tonnam; Zhou, Ya; Fichthorn, Kristen A

    2015-11-11

    The importance of structure-directing agents (SDAs) in the shape-selective synthesis of colloidal nanostructures has been well documented. However, the mechanisms by which SDAs actuate shape control are poorly understood. In the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-mediated growth of {100}-faceted Ag nanocrystals, this capability has been attributed to preferential binding of PVP to Ag(100). We use molecular dynamics simulations to probe the mechanisms by which Ag atoms add to Ag(100) and Ag(111) in ethylene glycol solution with PVP. We find that PVP induces kinetic Ag nanocrystal shapes by regulating the relative Ag fluxes to these facets. Stronger PVP binding to Ag(100) leads to a larger Ag flux to Ag(111) and cubic nanostructures through two mechanisms: enhanced Ag trapping by more extended PVP films on Ag(111) and a reduced free-energy barrier for Ag to cross lower-density films on Ag(111). These flux-regulating capabilities depend on PVP concentration and chain length, consistent with experiment. PMID:26509492

  17. Cancer and Pregnancy: Parallels in Growth, Invasion, and Immune Modulation and Implications for Cancer Therapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Holtan, Shernan G.; Creedon, Douglas J.; Haluska, Paul; Markovic, Svetomir N.

    2009-01-01

    Many proliferative, invasive, and immune tolerance mechanisms that support normal human pregnancy are also exploited by malignancies to establish a nutrient supply and evade or edit the host immune response. In addition to the shared capacity for invading through normal tissues, both cancer cells and cells of the developing placenta create a microenvironment supportive of both immunologic privilege and angiogenesis. Systemic alterations in immunity are also detectable, particularly with respect to a helper T cell type 2 polarization evident in advanced cancers and midtrimester pregnancy. This review summarizes the similarities between growth and immune privilege in cancer and pregnancy and identifies areas for further investigation. Our PubMed search strategy included combinations of terms such as immune tolerance, pregnancy, cancer, cytokines, angiogenesis, and invasion. We did not place any restrictions on publication dates. The knowledge gained from analyzing similarities and differences between the physiologic state of pregnancy and the pathologic state of cancer could lead to identification of new potential targets for cancer therapeutic agents. PMID:19880689

  18. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a potential targeting agent for delivery of boron to malignant gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Capala, J.; Barth, R.F.; Adams, D.M.; Bailey, M.Q.; Soloway, A.H.; Carlsson, J.

    1994-12-31

    The majority of high grade gliomas express an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and this often is associated with an increase in cell surface receptor expression. The rapid internalization and degradation of EGF-EGFR complexes, as well as their high affinity make EGF a potential targeting agent for delivery of {sup 10}B to tumor cells with an amplified number of EGFR. Human glioma cells can expresses as many as 10{sup 5} {minus}10{sup 6} EGF receptors per cell, and if these could be saturated with boronated EGF, then > 10{sup 8} boron atoms would be delivered per cell. Since EGF has a comparatively low molecular weight ({approximately} 6 kD), this has allowed us to construct relatively small bioconjugates containing {approximately} 900 boron atoms per EGF molecule{sup 3}, which also had high affinity for EGFR on tumor cells. In the present study, the feasibility of using EGF receptors as a potential target for therapy of gliomas was investigated by in vivo scintigraphic studies using {sup 131}I{minus} or {sup 99m}{Tc}-labeled EGF in a rat brain tumor model. Our results indicate that intratumorally delivered boron- EGF conjugates might be useful for targeting EGFR on glioma cells if the boron containing moiety of the conjugates persisted intracellularly. Further studies are required, however, to determine if this approach can be used for BNCT of the rat glioma.

  19. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote growth and angiogenesis of breast and prostate tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to migrate to tumor tissues. This behavior of MSCs has been exploited as a tumor-targeting strategy for cell-based cancer therapy. However, the effects of MSCs on tumor growth are controversial. This study was designed to determine the effect of MSCs on the growth of breast and prostate tumors. Methods Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) were isolated and characterized. Effects of BM-MSCs on tumor cell proliferation were analyzed in a co-culture system with mouse breast cancer cell 4T1 or human prostate cancer cell DU145. Tumor cells were injected into nude mice subcutaneously either alone or coupled with BM-MSCs. The expression of cell proliferation and angiogenesis-related proteins in tumor tissues were immunofluorescence analyzed. The angiogenic effect of BM-MSCs was detected using a tube formation assay. The effects of the crosstalk between tumor cells and BM-MSCs on expression of angiogenesis related markers were examined by immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Results Both co-culturing with mice BM-MSCs (mBM-MSCs) and treatment with mBM-MSC-conditioned medium enhanced the growth of 4T1 cells. Co-injection of 4T1 cells and mBM-MSCs into nude mice led to increased tumor size compared with injection of 4T1 cells alone. Similar experiments using DU145 cells and human BM-MSCs (hBM-MSCs) instead of 4T1 cells and mBM-MSCs obtained consistent results. Compared with tumors induced by injection of tumor cells alone, the blood vessel area was greater in tumors from co-injection of tumor cells with BM-MSCs, which correlated with decreased central tumor necrosis and increased tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, both conditioned medium from hBM-MSCs alone and co-cultures of hBM-MSCs with DU145 cells were able to promote tube formation ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. When hBM-MSCs are exposed to the DU145 cell environment, the expression of markers associated with neovascularization (macrophage inflammatory protein-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and IL-6) was increased. Conclusion These results indicate that BM-MSCs promote tumor growth and suggest that the crosstalk between tumor cells and BM-MSCs increased the expression of pro-angiogenic factors, which may have induced tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis thereby increasing solid tumor growth. PMID:23763837

  20. Endophytic colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia reveals plant growth promotion and a general defense and stress transcriptomic response.

    PubMed

    Larriba, Eduardo; Jaime, María D L A; Nislow, Corey; Martín-Nieto, José; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2015-07-01

    Plant crop yields are negatively conditioned by a large set of biotic and abiotic factors. An alternative to mitigate these adverse effects is the use of fungal biological control agents and endophytes. The egg-parasitic fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia has been traditionally studied because of its potential as a biological control agent of plant-parasitic nematodes. This fungus can also act as an endophyte in monocot and dicot plants, and has been shown to promote plant growth in different agronomic crops. An Affymetrix 22K Barley GeneChip was used in this work to analyze the barley root transcriptomic response to P. chlamydosporia root colonization. Functional gene ontology (GO) and gene set enrichment analyses showed that genes involved in stress response were enriched in the barley transcriptome under endophytism. An 87.5% of the probesets identified within the abiotic stress response group encoded heat shock proteins. Additionally, we found in our transcriptomic analysis an up-regulation of genes implicated in the biosynthesis of plant hormones, such as auxin, ethylene and jasmonic acid. Along with these, we detected induction of brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BR1) and other genes related to effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Our study supports at the molecular level the growth-promoting effect observed in plants endophytically colonized by P. chlamydosporia, which opens the door to further studies addressing the capacity of this fungus to mitigate the negative effects of biotic and abiotic factors on plant crops. PMID:25982739

  1. The RGD Domain of Human Osteopontin Promotes Tumor Growth and Metastasis through Activation of Survival Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Shirley; Kong, Christina; Banh, Alice; Kuo, Peiwen; Bouley, Donna M.; Vice, Carmen; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Denko, Nicholas C.; Koong, Albert C.; Giaccia, Amato; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2010-01-01

    Background Human osteopontin (OPN), a known tumor associated protein, exists in different isoforms, whose function is unclear. It also possesses a RGD domain, which has been implicated in diverse function. Here, we use genetic approaches to systematically investigate the function of the RGD domain in different OPN isoforms on tumor progression and metastasis for 2 different solid tumor models. Methodology/Principal Findings Using isoform-specific qRT-PCR, we found that OPN-A and B were the main isoforms overexpressed in evaluated human tumors, which included 4 soft tissue sarcomas, 24 lung and 30 head and neck carcinomas. Overexpression of either OPN-A or B in two different cell types promoted local tumor growth and lung metastasis in SCID mouse xenografts. However, expression of either isoform with the RGD domain either mutated or deleted decreased tumor growth and metastasis, and resulted in increased apoptosis by TUNEL staining. In vitro, whereas mutation of the RGD domain did not affect cell-cell adhesion, soft agar growth or cell migration, it increased apoptosis under hypoxia and serum starvation. This effect could be mitigated when the RGD mutant cells were treated with condition media containing WT OPN. Mechanistically, the RGD region of OPN inhibited apoptosis by inducing NF-?B activation and FAK phosphorylation. Inhibition of NF-?B (by siRNA to the p65 subunit) or FAK activation (by a inhibitor) significantly increased apoptosis under hypoxia in WT OPN cells, but not in RGD mutant cells. Conclusion/Significance Unlike prior reports, our data suggest that the RGD domain of both OPN-A and B promote tumor growth and metastasis mainly by protecting cells against apoptosis under stressed conditions and not via migration or invasion. Future inhibitors directed against OPN should target multiple isoforms and should inhibit cell survival mechanisms that involve the RGD domain, FAK phosphorylation and NF-?B activation. PMID:20224789

  2. Dysregulation of clathrin promotes thyroid cell growth and contributes to multinodular goiter pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lau, Sin-Ting; Zhou, Tingwen; Liu, Jessica Ai-Jia; Fung, Eva Yi-Man; Che, Chi-Ming; Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Ngan, Elly Sau-Wai

    2015-08-01

    A germline mutation (A339V) in thyroid transcription factor-1 (TITF1/NKX2.1) was shown to be associated with multinodular goiter (MNG) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) pathogenesis. The overexpression of A339V TTF1 significantly promoted hormone-independent growth of the normal thyroid cells, representing a cause of MNG and/or PTC. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism still remains unclear. In this study, we used liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based shotgun proteomics comparing the global protein expression profiles of normal thyroid cells (PCCL3) that overexpressed the wild-type or A339V TTF1 to identify key proteins implicated in this process. Proteomic pathway analysis revealed that the aberrant activation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling is significantly associated with the overexpression of A339V TTF1 in PCCL3, and clathrin heavy chain (Chc) is the most significantly up-regulated protein of the pathway. Intriguingly, dysregulated Chc expression facilitated a nuclear accumulation of pStat3, leading to an enhanced cell proliferation of the A339V clones. Down-regulation and abrogation of Chc-mediated cellular trafficking, respectively, by knocking-down Chc and ectopic expression of a dominant-negative (DN) form of Chc could significantly reduce the nuclear pStat3 and rescue the aberrant cell proliferation of the A339V clones. Subsequent expression analysis further revealed that CHC and pSTAT3 are co-overexpressed in 66.7% (10/15) MNG. Taken together, our results suggest that the A339V TTF1 mutant protein up-regulates the cellular expression of Chc, resulting in a constitutive activation of Stat3 pathway, and prompting the aberrant growth of thyroid cells. This extensive growth signal may promote the development of MNG. PMID:25981745

  3. High levels of Hdmx promote cell growth in a subset of uveal melanomas

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Job; Teunisse, Amina FAS; Vries, Matty Verlaan-de; Lodder, Kirsten; Lam, Suzanne; Luyten, Gregorius PM; Bernal, Federico; Jager, Martine J; Jochemsen, Aart G

    2012-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor pathway is inactivated in cancer either via direct mutation or via deregulation of upstream regulators or downstream effectors. P53 mutations are rare in uveal melanoma. Here we investigated the role of the p53 inhibitor Hdmx in uveal melanoma. We found Hdmx over-expression in a subset of uveal melanoma cell lines and fresh-frozen tumor samples. Hdmx depletion resulted in cell-line dependent growth inhibition, apparently correlating with differential Hdm2 levels. Surprisingly, p53 knockdown hardly rescued cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction upon Hdmx knockdown, whereas it effectively prevented growth suppression induced by the potent p53 activator Nutlin-3. In addition, two compounds inhibiting Hdmx function or expression, SAH-p53-8 and XI-011, also elicited a growth inhibitory effect in a partly p53-independent manner. These findings suggest a novel, growth-promoting function of Hdmx that does not rely on its ability to inhibit p53. We provide evidence for a contribution of p27 protein induction to the observed p53-independent G1 arrest in response to Hdmx knockdown. In conclusion, our study establishes the importance of Hdmx as an oncogene in a subset of uveal melanomas and widens the spectrum of its function beyond p53 inhibition. PMID:22957303

  4. Eliminating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using plant growth promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Radziah, Othman; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Razi, Ismail Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum toxicity is widely considered as the most important limiting factor for plants growing in acid sulfate soils. A study was conducted in laboratory and in field to ameliorate Al toxicity using plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), ground magnesium limestone (GML) and ground basalt. Five-day-old rice seedlings were inoculated by Bacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia seminalis and grown for 21 days in Hoagland solution (pH 4.0) at various Al concentrations (0, 50 and 100 μM). Toxicity symptoms in root and leaf were studied using scanning electron microscope. In the field, biofertilizer (PGPB), GML and basalt were applied (4 t·ha-1 each). Results showed that Al severely affected the growth of rice. At high concentrations, the root surface was ruptured, leading to cell collapse; however, no damages were observed in the PGPB inoculated seedlings. After 21 days of inoculation, solution pH increased to >6.0, while the control treatment remained same. Field study showed that the highest rice growth and yield were obtained in the bio-fertilizer and GML treatments. This study showed that Al toxicity was reduced by PGPB via production of organic acids that were able to chelate the Al and the production of polysaccharides that increased solution pH. The release of phytohormones further enhanced rice growth that resulted in yield increase. PMID:25710843

  5. Rck1 promotes pseudohyphal growth via the activation of Ubp3 phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Min; Chang, Miwha; Park, Yong-Sung; Yun, Cheol-Won

    2016-01-15

    Previously, we reported that Rck1 up-regulates Ras2 and pseudohyphal growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we further investigate the involvement of Rck1 in the activation of pseudohyphal growth. Rck1 activated phosphorylation of the deubiquitinase Ubp3 through a direct protein interaction between Rck1 and Ubp3. The N-terminal Bre5 binding region of Ubp3 physically interacted with Rck1, and Ubp3 and Rck1 co-precipitated. Overexpression of UBP3 using a high-copy plasmid resulted in the upregulation of Ras2, and deletion of UBP3 blocked the upregulation of Ras2 by RCK1 overexpression. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 resulted in accumulation of Ras2, indicating that Rck1 is involved in Ras2 degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Furthermore, deletion of UBP3 blocked the upregulation of FLO11, a flocculin required for pseudohyphal and invasive growth induced by RCK1 overexpression in S.cerevisiae. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Rck1 promotes S.cerevisiae pseudohyphal growth via the activation of Ubp3 phosphorylation. PMID:26657849

  6. A Naturally Associated Rhizobacterium of Arabidopsis thaliana Induces a Starvation-Like Transcriptional Response while Promoting Growth

    PubMed Central

    Thormählen, Ina; Bernholz, Carolin; Kunz, Sabine; Brouwer, Stephan; Schwochow, Melanie; Köhl, Karin; van Dongen, Joost T.

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth promotion by rhizobacteria is a known phenomenon but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We searched for plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that are naturally associated with Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate the molecular mechanisms that are involved in plant growth-promotion. We isolated a Pseudomonas bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. G62) from roots of field-grown Arabidopsis plants that has not been described previously and analyzed its effect on plant growth, gene expression and the level of sugars and amino acids in the host plant. Inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. G62 promoted plant growth under various growth conditions. Microarray analysis revealed rapid changes in transcript levels of genes annotated to energy-, sugar- and cell wall metabolism in plants 6 h after root inoculation with P. sp. G62. The expression of several of these genes remained stable over weeks, but appeared differentially regulated in roots and shoots. The global gene expression profile observed after inoculation with P. sp. G62 showed a striking resemblance with previously described carbohydrate starvation experiments, although plants were not depleted from soluble sugars, and even showed a slight increase of the sucrose level in roots 5 weeks after inoculation. We suggest that the starvation-like transcriptional phenotype - while steady state sucrose levels are not reduced - is induced by a yet unknown signal from the bacterium that simulates sugar starvation. We discuss the potential effects of the sugar starvation signal on plant growth promotion. PMID:22216267

  7. Effects of plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from copper tailings on plants in sterilized and non-sterilized tailings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiqiu; Yang, Chao; Shi, Si; Shu, Wensheng

    2014-02-01

    Ten strains of Cu-tolerant bacteria with potential plant growth-promoting ability were isolated by selecting strains with the ability to use 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate as a sole nitrogen source (designated ACC-B) or fix nitrogen (designated FLN-B) originating from the rhizosphere of plants growing on copper tailings. All 10 strains proved to have intrinsic ability to produce indole acetic acid and siderophores, and most of them could mobilize insoluble phosphate. In addition, a greenhouse study showed that ACC-B, FLN-B and a mixture of both had similar, potent ability to stimulate growth of Pennisetum purpureum, Medicago sativa and Oenothera erythrosepala plants grown on sterilized tailings. For instance, above-ground biomass of P. purpureum was 278-357% greater after 60d growth on sterilized tailings in their presence. They could also significantly promote the growth of the plants grown on non-sterilized tailings, though the growth-promoting effects were much weaker. So, strategies for using of the plant growth-promoting bacteria in the practice of phytoremediation deserve further studies to get higher growth-promoting efficiency. PMID:24289981

  8. Biochanin A Modulates Cell Viability, Invasion, and Growth Promoting Signaling Pathways in HER-2-Positive Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sehdev, Vikas; Lai, James C. K.; Bhushan, Alok

    2009-01-01

    Overexpression of HER-2 receptor is associated with poor prognosis and aggressive forms of breast cancer. Scientific literature indicates a preventive role of isoflavones in cancer. Since activation of HER-2 receptor initiates growth-promoting events in cancer cells, we studied the effect of biochanin A (an isoflavone) on associated signaling events like receptor activation, downstream signaling, and invasive pathways. HER-2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells, MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells, and NIH-3T3 normal fibroblast cells were treated with biochanin A (2–100 μM) for 72 hours. Subsequently cell viability assay, western blotting and zymography were carried out. The data indicate that biochanin A inhibits cell viability, signaling pathways, and invasive enzyme expression and activity in SK-BR-3 cancer cells. Biochanin A did not inhibit MCF-10A and NIH-3T3 cell viability. Therefore, biochanin A could be a unique natural anticancer agent which can selectively target cancer cells and inhibit multiple signaling pathways in HER-2-positive breast cancer cells. PMID:20169097

  9. Promotion of growth by Coenzyme Q10 is linked to gene expression in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Alexandra; Niklowitz, Petra; Menke, Thomas; Dring, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ, ubiquinone) is an essential component of the respiratory chain, a cofactor of pyrimidine biosynthesis and acts as an antioxidant in extra mitochondrial membranes. More recently CoQ has been identified as a modulator of apoptosis, inflammation and gene expression. CoQ deficient Caenorhabditis elegans clk-1 mutants show several phenotypes including a delayed postembryonic growth. Using wild type and two clk-1 mutants, here we established an experimental set-up to study the consequences of endogenous CoQ deficiency or exogenous CoQ supply on gene expression and growth. We found that a deficiency of endogenous CoQ synthesis down-regulates a cluster of genes that are important for growth (i.e., RNA polymerase II, eukaryotic initiation factor) and up-regulates oxidation reactions (i.e., cytochrome P450, superoxide dismutase) and protein interactions (i.e., F-Box proteins). Exogenous CoQ supply partially restores the expression of these genes as well as the growth retardation of CoQ deficient clk-1 mutants. On the other hand exogenous CoQ supply does not alter the expression of a further sub-set of genes. These genes are involved in metabolism (i.e., succinate dehydrogenase complex), cell signalling or synthesis of lectins. Thus, our work provides a comprehensive overview of genes which can be modulated in their expression by endogenous or exogenous CoQ. As growth retardation in CoQ deficiency is linked to the gene expression profile we suggest that CoQ promotes growth via gene expression. PMID:25234594

  10. Adaptive growth factor delivery from a polyelectrolyte coating promotes synergistic bone tissue repair and reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nisarg J.; Hyder, Md. Nasim; Quadir, Mohiuddin A.; Dorval Courchesne, Noémie-Manuelle; Seeherman, Howard J.; Nevins, Myron; Spector, Myron; Hammond, Paula T.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic wounds and congenital defects that require large-scale bone tissue repair have few successful clinical therapies, particularly for craniomaxillofacial defects. Although bioactive materials have demonstrated alternative approaches to tissue repair, an optimized materials system for reproducible, safe, and targeted repair remains elusive. We hypothesized that controlled, rapid bone formation in large, critical-size defects could be induced by simultaneously delivering multiple biological growth factors to the site of the wound. Here, we report an approach for bone repair using a polyelectrolye multilayer coating carrying as little as 200 ng of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB that were eluted over readily adapted time scales to induce rapid bone repair. Based on electrostatic interactions between the polymer multilayers and growth factors alone, we sustained mitogenic and osteogenic signals with these growth factors in an easily tunable and controlled manner to direct endogenous cell function. To prove the role of this adaptive release system, we applied the polyelectrolyte coating on a well-studied biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) support membrane. The released growth factors directed cellular processes to induce bone repair in a critical-size rat calvaria model. The released growth factors promoted local bone formation that bridged a critical-size defect in the calvaria as early as 2 wk after implantation. Mature, mechanically competent bone regenerated the native calvaria form. Such an approach could be clinically useful and has significant benefits as a synthetic, off-the-shelf, cell-free option for bone tissue repair and restoration. PMID:25136093

  11. Tumor associated osteoclast-like giant cells promote tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis by secreting vascular endothelial growth factor-C

    SciTech Connect

    Hatano, Yu; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Morita, Ikuo

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • M-CSF and RANKL expressing HeLa cells induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. • We established OGC-containing tumor model in vivo. • OGC-containing tumor became larger independent of M-CSF or RANKL effect. • VEGF-C secreted from OGCs was a one of candidates for OGC-containing tumor growth. - Abstract: Tumors with osteoclast-like giant cells (OGCs) have been reported in a variety of organs and exert an invasive and prometastatic phenotype, but the functional role of OGCs in the tumor environment has not been fully clarified. We established tumors containing OGCs to clarify the role of OGCs in tumor phenotype. A mixture of HeLa cells expressing macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, HeLa-M) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, HeLa-R) effectively supported the differentiation of osteoclast-like cells from bone marrow macrophages in vitro. Moreover, a xenograft study showed OGC formation in a tumor composed of HeLa-M and HeLa-R. Surprisingly, the tumors containing OGCs were significantly larger than the tumors without OGCs, although the growth rates were not different in vitro. Histological analysis showed that lymphangiogenesis and macrophage infiltration in the tumor containing OGCs, but not in other tumors were accelerated. According to quantitative PCR analysis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C mRNA expression increased with differentiation of osteoclast-like cells. To investigate whether VEGF-C expression is responsible for tumor growth and macrophage infiltration, HeLa cells overexpressing VEGF-C (HeLa-VC) were established and transplanted into mice. Tumors composed of HeLa-VC mimicked the phenotype of the tumors containing OGCs. Furthermore, the vascular permeability of tumor microvessels also increased in tumors containing OGCs and to some extent in VEGF-C-expressing tumors. These results suggest that macrophage infiltration and vascular permeability are possible mediators in these tumors. These findings revealed that OGCs in the tumor environment promoted tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis, at least in part, by secreting VEGF-C.

  12. Influence of inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on tomato plant growth and nematode reproduction under greenhouse conditions

    PubMed Central

    Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Massoud, Samia I.; Abdelmoneim, Tamer S.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous species of soil bacteria which flourish in the rhizosphere of plants or around plant tissues stimulate plant growth and reduce nematode population by antagonistic behavior. These bacteria are collectively known as PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria). The effects of six isolates of PGPR Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, were studied on tomato plant growth and root knot nematode reproduction after 45days from nematode infection. The highest number of shoot dry weight/g (43.00g) was detected in the plant treated with S. marcescens; then P. putida (34.33g), B. amyloliquefaciens (31.66g), P. fluorescens (30.0g), B. subtilis (29.0g), B. cereus (27.0g) and nematode alone (untreated) 20g/plant. While the highest number of plant height was observed when plant was treated with S. marcescens, P. fluorescens, P. putida, B. amyloliquefaciens and P. putida 52.66, 50.66, 48 and 48cm respectively. No significant differences were seen between previous treatments but only had significant differences compared with untreated plant. The highest number of fruit/plant was observed when plants were treated with S. marcescens (10.66), then B. amyloliquefaciens (8.66), P. putida (8), P. fluorescens (8) and B. cereus (7.66). No significant differences between the last 4 treatments, but all had significant differences compared with untreated plants. The highest weight of plant yield (g) was observed with S. marcescens (319.6g/plant) and the lowest weight of plant yield was observed in plants treated with nematode alone (untreated). On the other hand, the lowest numbers of J2/10g of soil (78), galls/root, (24.33) galls/root, egg masses/root (12.66) and egg/egg masses were observed in the plants treated with S. marcescens. PMID:23961220

  13. Growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits as affected by different growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Attia, Y A; El-Hanoun, A M; Bovera, F; Monastra, G; El-Tahawy, W S; Habiba, H I

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the article was to study the effect of different growth promoters on growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits. A total number of 105 male growing NZW rabbits during 35-91days of age were randomly distributed among 7 groups fed the same basal diet and submitted to different dietary treatments: the first group was unsupplemented and used as control; the other groups were supplemented respectively with bee pollen and/or propolis at 200mg/kg BW of each and inulin and/or mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) at 35mg/kg BW of each. Body weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), biochemical and haematological blood parameters, carcass characteristics, histological studies of ileum and spleen and economical efficiency were measured. Bee pollen administered alone or with propolis significantly (p<0.01) the body weight gain and improved FCR in respect of the control group. Inulin with MOS significantly improved just FCR than the control group. Bee pollen with propolis and MOS supplemented-groups resulted in significantly higher (7.96 and 8.41% respectively) white blood cells compared to the control group. Plasma total cholesterol was significantly higher for the MOS group in respect of the control, bee pollen, inulin and inulin with MOS supplemented-groups. Propolis resulted in significantly higher dressed carcass percentage than the control group and higher carcass index than only bee pollen with propolis supplemented-group. Bee pollen, in particular if in combination with propolis, could be used as a supplement in the growing rabbits during days 35-91 of age with positive effects on growth rate and feed conversion ratio. PMID:23419029

  14. Bioprospecting of plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli from the cold desert of north western Indian Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli were investigated from different sites in north western Indian Himalayas. A total of 247 morphotypes were obtained from different soil and water samples and were grouped into 43 clusters based on 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis with three restriction endonucleases. Sequencing of representative isolates has revealed that these 43 Bacilli belonged to different species of 11 genera viz., Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus and Virgibacillus. With an aim to develop microbial inoculants that can perform efficiently at low temperatures, all representative isolates were screened for different plant growth promoting traits at low temperatures (5-15 degrees C). Among the strains, variations were observed for production (%) of indole-3-acetic acid (20), ammonia (19), siderophores (11), gibberellic acid (4) and hydrogen cyanide (2); solubilisation (%) of zinc (14), phosphate (13) and potassium (7); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (6%) and biocontrol activity (4%) against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Among all the strains, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus muralis, Desemzia incerta, Paenibacillus tylopili and Sporosarcina globispora were found to be potent candidates to be developed as inoculants as they exhibited multiple PGP traits at low temperature. PMID:26934782

  15. S-nitrosylation triggers ABI5 degradation to promote seed germination and seedling growth

    PubMed Central

    Albertos, Pablo; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Mateos, Isabel; Sánchez-Vicente, Inmaculada; Nambara, Eiji; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Plant survival depends on seed germination and progression through post-germinative developmental checkpoints. These processes are controlled by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA regulates the basic leucine zipper transcriptional factor ABI5, a central hub of growth repression, while the reactive nitrogen molecule nitric oxide (NO) counteracts ABA during seed germination. However, the molecular mechanisms by which seeds sense more favourable conditions and start germinating have remained elusive. Here we show that ABI5 promotes growth via NO, and that ABI5 accumulation is altered in genetic backgrounds with impaired NO homeostasis. S-nitrosylation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 facilitates its degradation through CULLIN4-based and KEEP ON GOING E3 ligases, and promotes seed germination. Conversely, mutation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 deregulates protein stability and inhibition of seed germination by NO depletion. These findings suggest an inverse molecular link between NO and ABA hormone signalling through distinct posttranslational modifications of ABI5 during early seedling development. PMID:26493030

  16. Analysis of the abilities of endophytic bacteria associated with banana tree roots to promote plant growth.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leandro Fernandes; de Souza, Gleika Larisse Oliveira Dorasio; Nietsche, Silvia; Xavier, Adelica Aparecida; Costa, Marcia Regina; Cardoso, Acleide Maria Santos; Pereira, Marlon Cristian Toledo; Pereira, Dbora Francine Gomes Silva

    2014-01-01

    A total of 40 endophytic bacterial isolates obtained from banana tree roots were characterized for their biotechnological potential for promoting banana tree growth. All isolates had at least one positive feature. Twenty isolates were likely diazotrophs and formed pellicles in nitrogen-free culture medium, and 67% of these isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus sp. The isolates EB-04, EB-169, EB-64, and EB-144 had N fixation abilities as measured by the Kjeldahl method and by an acetylene reduction activity assay. Among the 40 isolates, 37.5% were capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and the isolates EB-47 and EB-64 showed the highest solubilization capacity. The isolate EB-53 (Lysinibacillus sp.) had a high solubilization index, whereas 73% of the isolates had low solubilization indices. The synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the presence of L-tryptophan was detected in 40% of the isolates. The isolate EB-40 (Bacillus sp.) produced the highest amount of IAA (47.88 ?g/ml) in medium supplemented with L-tryptophan and was able to synthesize IAA in the absence of L-tryptophan. The isolates EB-126 (Bacillus subtilis) and EB-47 (Bacillus sp.) were able to simultaneously fix nitrogen, solubilize phosphate and produce IAA in vitro. The results of this study demonstrated that the isolates analyzed here had diverse abilities and all have the potential to be used as growth-promoting microbial inoculants for banana trees. PMID:24390835

  17. Vascular endothelial growth factor c promotes ovarian carcinoma progression through paracrine and autocrine mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Decio, Alessandra; Taraboletti, Giulia; Patton, Veronica; Alzani, Rachele; Perego, Patrizia; Fruscio, Robert; Jürgensmeier, Juliane M; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Belotti, Dorina

    2014-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) has been reported to promote tumor progression in several tumor types, mainly through the stimulation of lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. However, the expression and biological significance of the VEGFC/VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 pathway in ovarian cancer growth and dissemination are unclear, and have been investigated in this study. Soluble VEGFC was detected in the plasma and ascites of patients with ovarian carcinoma, and VEGFR3 expression was found in their tumor tissues. In human ovarian carcinoma xenograft models, high levels of soluble VEGFC in ascites and serum were detected, in association with disease progression, tumor burden, and volume of ascites. Peak VEGFC expression preceded para-aortic lymph node infiltration by HOC8 neoplastic cells. Histological detection of tumor cells in blood and lymphatic vessels indicated both hematogenous and lymphatic dissemination. Overexpression of VEGFC in the VEGFR3-positive and luciferase-expressing IGROV1 cells promoted carcinoma dissemination after orthotopic transplantation in the ovary of immunodeficient mice. In vitro, VEGFC released by the tumor cells stimulated tumor cell migration in an autocrine manner. Cediranib, an inhibitor of VEGFR1-3 and c-kit, inhibited in vivo metastasis of VEGFC-overexpressing IGROV1 and in vitro autocrine effects. These findings suggest that the VEGFC/VEGFR3 pathway acts as an enhancer of ovarian cancer progression through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms, hence offering a potential target for therapy. PMID:24508126

  18. Functional abilities of cultivable plant growth promoting bacteria associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fernanda da S; Costa, Pedro B da; Souza, Rocheli de; Beneduzi, Anelise; Lisboa, Bruno B; Vargas, Luciano K; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2016-03-01

    In the pursuit of sustainable agriculture, bioinoculants usage as providers of a crop's needs is a method to limit environmental damage. In this study, a collection of cultivable putative plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with wheat crops was obtained and this bacterial sample was characterized in relation to the functional diversity of certain PGP features. The isolates were obtained through classical cultivation methods, identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and characterized for PGP traits of interest. Functional diversity characterization was performed using Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CatPCA) and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). The most abundant genera found among the 346 isolates were Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Enterobacter. Occurrence of PGP traits was affected by genus, niche, and sampling site. A large number of genera grouped together with the ability to produce indolic compounds; phosphate solubilization and siderophores production formed a second group related to fewer genera, in which the genus Burkholderia has a great importance. The results obtained may help future studies aiming prospection of putative plant growth promoting bacteria regarding the desired organism and PGP trait. PMID:27007904

  19. Sustaining intrinsic growth capacity of adult neurons promotes spinal cord regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Simona; Skinner, Kate; Basbaum, Allan I.

    2005-11-01

    The peripheral axonal branch of primary sensory neurons readily regenerates after peripheral nerve injury, but the central branch, which courses in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, does not. However, if a peripheral nerve is transected before a spinal cord injury, sensory neurons that course in the dorsal columns will regenerate, presumably because their intrinsic growth capacity is enhanced by the priming peripheral nerve lesion. As the effective priming lesion is made before the spinal cord injury it would clearly have no clinical utility, and unfortunately, a priming lesion made after a spinal cord injury results in an abortive regenerative response. Here, we show that two priming lesions, one made at the time of a spinal cord injury and a second 1 week after a spinal cord injury, in fact, promote dramatic regeneration, within and beyond the lesion. The first lesion, we hypothesize, enhances intrinsic growth capacity, and the second one sustains it, providing a paradigm for promoting CNS regeneration after injury. primary afferents | dorsal columns | neurite outgrowth | sprouting | priming

  20. After-rinsing hair growth promotion of minoxidil-containing amino alpha-cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Chul; Kim, Myoung-Dong

    2007-12-01

    Triamino alpha-cyclodextrin (CD) was synthesized and the inclusion complex with Minoxidil (MXD) was prepared. alpha-CD was azidated by modifying the 6-hydroxylmethyl CD rim with sodium azide. Then, mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-azidocyclodextrins were separated by a flash column chromatography and reduced to the corresponding amines by hydrogenation with Pd/C. The substantivities of MXD included in either 2-hydroxypropyl alpha-CD (HP alpha-CD) or triamino alpha-CD were evaluated in vitro using hairless mice skins. After applying the preparations onto the skin and rinsing it, the amount of the drug left on the skin was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was the highest when the drug was included in triamino alpha-CD. The electrostatic interaction between the protonated amino CD and the negatively charged skin would be responsible for the relatively high substantivity. The in vivo hair growth promotion effect of each preparation was investigated, where the sample application onto the clipped backs of female mice (C57BL6) and the subsequent rinsing of the backs were done once a day for 30 days. Only MXD in triamino alpha-CD had hair growth promotion effect, possibly due to the significant substantivity. PMID:18167443

  1. Sialylated Milk Oligosaccharides Promote Microbiota-Dependent Growth in Models of Infant Undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Mark R; O'Donnell, David; Blanton, Laura V; Totten, Sarah M; Davis, Jasmine C C; Barratt, Michael J; Cheng, Jiye; Guruge, Janaki; Talcott, Michael; Bain, James R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Ilkayeva, Olga; Wu, Chao; Struckmeyer, Tedd; Barile, Daniela; Mangani, Charles; Jorgensen, Josh; Fan, Yue-Mei; Maleta, Kenneth; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Per; Newgard, Christopher B; Lebrilla, Carlito; Mills, David A; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2016-02-25

    Identifying interventions that more effectively promote healthy growth of children with undernutrition is a pressing global health goal. Analysis of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) from 6-month-postpartum mothers in two Malawian birth cohorts revealed that sialylated HMOs are significantly less abundant in those with severely stunted infants. To explore this association, we colonized young germ-free mice with a consortium of bacterial strains cultured from the fecal microbiota of a 6-month-old stunted Malawian infant and fed recipient animals a prototypic Malawian diet with or without purified sialylated bovine milk oligosaccharides (S-BMO). S-BMO produced a microbiota-dependent augmentation of lean body mass gain, changed bone morphology, and altered liver, muscle, and brain metabolism in ways indicative of a greater ability to utilize nutrients for anabolism. These effects were also documented in gnotobiotic piglets using the same consortium and Malawian diet. These preclinical models indicate a causal, microbiota-dependent relationship between S-BMO and growth promotion. PAPERCLIP. PMID:26898329

  2. Potential of plant growth promoting traits by bacteria isolated from heavy metal contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Simranjeet; Singh, Joginder; Upadhyay, Niraj

    2015-06-01

    Rhizobacteria can enhance biomass production and heavy metal tolerance of plants under the stress environment. The aim of this study was to collect soil samples from different industrial sites followed by their heavy metal analysis. After performing the ICP-AES analysis of soil samples from seven different sites, bacterial strains were isolated from the soil samples of most polluted (heavy metal) site. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolates belonged to four species: Bacillus thuringiensis, Azotobacter chroococcum, Paenibacillus ehimensis and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes. Plant growth promoting activities; siderophore production, indole acetic acid production, HCN production, and phosphate solubilisation were assayed in vitro, and statistically analysis done by using ANOVA analysis and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference test (p ≤ 0.05). Plant growth-promoting characteristics of isolated strains were higher compared to the control Pseudomonas fluorescens (NICM 5096). In vitro study was performed to check resistance against two heavy metals of isolates. It was observed that isolated bacterial strains have higher heavy metal resistance as compared to control E. coli (NICM 2563). These isolates may cause pathogenic effects, so to avoid this risk, their antibacterial susceptibility was checked against eight antibiotics. Among the eight antibiotics, Ciprofloxacin-1 has shown higher inhibition against all the isolated bacterial strains. PMID:25782590

  3. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Zhou, Xia; Fan, Lucy X; Yao, Ying; Swenson-Fields, Katherine I; Gadjeva, Mihaela; Wallace, Darren P; Peters, Dorien J M; Yu, Alan; Grantham, Jared J; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-06-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by renal cyst formation, inflammation, and fibrosis. Macrophages infiltrate cystic kidneys, but the role of these and other inflammatory factors in disease progression are poorly understood. Here, we identified macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as an important regulator of cyst growth in ADPKD. MIF was upregulated in cyst-lining epithelial cells in polycystin-1-deficient murine kidneys and accumulated in cyst fluid of human ADPKD kidneys. MIF promoted cystic epithelial cell proliferation by activating ERK, mTOR, and Rb/E2F pathways and by increasing glucose uptake and ATP production, which inhibited AMP-activated protein kinase signaling. MIF also regulated cystic renal epithelial cell apoptosis through p53-dependent signaling. In polycystin-1-deficient mice, MIF was required for recruitment and retention of renal macrophages, which promoted cyst expansion, and Mif deletion or pharmacologic inhibition delayed cyst growth in multiple murine ADPKD models. MIF-dependent macrophage recruitment was associated with upregulation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and inflammatory cytokine TNF-?. TNF-? induced MIF expression, and MIF subsequently exacerbated TNF-? expression in renal epithelial cells, suggesting a positive feedback loop between TNF-? and MIF during cyst development. Our study indicates MIF is a central and upstream regulator of ADPKD pathogenesis and provides a rationale for further exploration of MIF as a therapeutic target for ADPKD. PMID:25961459

  4. A Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium That Decreases Nickel Toxicity in Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Genrich I.; Dixon, D. George; Glick, Bernard R.

    1998-01-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and CrO4−, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel. PMID:9758782

  5. Multitrait plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Mohmmad Shahbaz; Siddique, Mohammad Tahir; Verma, Amit; Rao, Yalaga Rama; Nailwal, Tapan; Ansari, Mohammad; Pande, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, a beneficial microbe colonizing plant roots, enhanced crop productivity and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. The keratinous waste which comprises feathers, hairs, nails, skin and wool creates problem of solid waste management due to presence of highly recalcitrant keratin. The multi traits rhizobacteria effective to remove both keratine from the environment by producing keratinase enzyme and to eradicate the chemical fertilizer by providing different PGP activity is novel achievement. In the present study, the effective PM2 strain of PGPR was isolated from rhizospheric soil of mustard (Brassica juncea) field, Pantnagar and they were identified on the basis of different biochemical tests as belonging to Bacillus genera. Different plant growth promoting activity, feather degradation and keratinolytic activity was performed and found very effective toward all the parameters. Furthermore, the efficient strain PM2 was identified on the basis of 16s rRNA sequencing and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The strain PM2 might be used efficiently for keratinous waste management and PGP activity. Therefore, the present study suggests that Bacillus cereus have multi traits activity which extremely useful for different PGP activity and biotechnological process involving keratin hydrolysis, feather biodegradation or in the leather industry. PMID:24778758

  6. S-nitrosylation triggers ABI5 degradation to promote seed germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Albertos, Pablo; Romero-Puertas, Mara C; Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Mateos, Isabel; Snchez-Vicente, Inmaculada; Nambara, Eiji; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Plant survival depends on seed germination and progression through post-germinative developmental checkpoints. These processes are controlled by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA regulates the basic leucine zipper transcriptional factor ABI5, a central hub of growth repression, while the reactive nitrogen molecule nitric oxide (NO) counteracts ABA during seed germination. However, the molecular mechanisms by which seeds sense more favourable conditions and start germinating have remained elusive. Here we show that ABI5 promotes growth via NO, and that ABI5 accumulation is altered in genetic backgrounds with impaired NO homeostasis. S-nitrosylation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 facilitates its degradation through CULLIN4-based and KEEP ON GOING E3 ligases, and promotes seed germination. Conversely, mutation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 deregulates protein stability and inhibition of seed germination by NO depletion. These findings suggest an inverse molecular link between NO and ABA hormone signalling through distinct posttranslational modifications of ABI5 during early seedling development. PMID:26493030

  7. Pericytes in the myovascular niche promote post-natal myofiber growth and satellite cell quiescence.

    PubMed

    Kostallari, Enis; Baba-Amer, Yasmine; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Ngoh, Pamela; Relaix, Frederic; Lafuste, Peggy; Gherardi, Romain K

    2015-04-01

    The satellite cells, which serve as adult muscle stem cells, are both located beneath myofiber basement membranes and closely associated with capillary endothelial cells. We observed that 90% of capillaries were associated with pericytes in adult mouse and human muscle. During post-natal growth, newly formed vessels with their neuroglial 2 proteoglycan (NG2)-positive pericytes became progressively associated with the post-natal muscle stem cells, as myofibers increased in size and satellite cells entered into quiescence. In vitro, human muscle-derived pericytes promoted myogenic cell differentiation through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and myogenic cell quiescence through angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1). Diphtheria toxin-induced ablation of muscle pericytes in growing mice led both to myofiber hypotrophy and to impaired establishment of stem cells quiescence. Similar effects were observed following conditional in vivo deletion of pericyte Igf1 and Angpt1 genes, respectively. Our data therefore demonstrate that, by promoting post-natal myogenesis and stem cell quiescence, pericytes play a key role in the microvascular niche of satellite cells. PMID:25742797

  8. Gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Hilda; Gonzalez, Tania; Goire, Isabel; Bashan, Yoav

    2004-11-01

    In vitro gluconic acid formation and phosphate solubilization from sparingly soluble phosphorus sources by two strains of the plant growth-promoting bacteria A. brasilense (Cd and 8-I) and one strain of A. lipoferum JA4 were studied. Strains of A. brasilense were capable of producing gluconic acid when grown in sparingly soluble calcium phosphate medium when their usual fructose carbon source is amended with glucose. At the same time, there is a reduction in pH of the medium and release of soluble phosphate. To a greater extent, gluconic acid production and pH reduction were observed for A. lipoferum JA4. For the three strains, clearing halos were detected on solid medium plates with calcium phosphate. This is the first report of in vitro gluconic acid production and direct phosphate solubilization by A. brasilense and the first report of P solubilization by A. lipoferum. This adds to the very broad spectrum of plant growth-promoting abilities of this genus.

  9. Endothelial Jagged1 promotes solid tumor growth through both pro-angiogenic and angiocrine functions

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Ana-Rita; Trindade, Alexandre; Carvalho, Catarina; Graça, José; Carvalho, Sandra; Peleteiro, Maria C.; Adams, Ralf H.; Duarte, António

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process required for tumor growth and progression. The Notch signaling pathway has been identified as a key regulator of the neo-angiogenic process. Jagged-1 (Jag1) is a Notch ligand required for embryonic and retinal vascular development, which direct contribution to the regulation of tumor angiogenesis remains to be fully characterized. The current study addresses the role of endothelial Jagged1-mediated Notch signaling in the context of tumoral angiogenesis in two different mouse tumor models: subcutaneous Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) tumor transplants and the autochthonous Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP). The role of endothelial Jagged1 in tumor growth and neo-angiogenesis was investigated with endothelial-specific Jag1 gain- and loss-of-function mouse mutants (eJag1OE and eJag1cKO). By modulating levels of endothelial Jag1, we observed that this ligand regulates tumor vessel density, branching, and perivascular maturation, thus affecting tumor vascular perfusion. The pro-angiogenic function is exerted by its ability to positively regulate levels of Vegfr-2 while negatively regulating Vegfr-1. Additionally, endothelial Jagged1 appears to exert an angiocrine function possibly by activating Notch3/Hey1 in tumor cells, promoting proliferation, survival and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), potentiating tumor development. These findings provide valuable mechanistic insights into the role of endothelial Jagged1 in promoting solid tumor development and support the notion that it may constitute a promising target for cancer therapy. PMID:26213336

  10. A plant growth-promoting bacterium that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Burd, G.I.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R.

    1998-10-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and CrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel.

  11. Mixtures of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria enhance biological control of multiple cucumber pathogens.

    PubMed

    Raupach, G S; Kloepper, J W

    1998-11-01

    ABSTRACT Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains INR7 (Bacillus pumilus), GB03 (Bacillus subtilis), and ME1 (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens) were tested singly and in combinations for biological control against multiple cucumber pathogens. Investigations under greenhouse conditions were conducted with three cucumber pathogens-Colletotrichum orbiculare (causing anthracnose), Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans (causing angular leaf spot), and Erwinia tracheiphila(causing cucurbit wilt disease)-inoculated singly and in all possible combinations. There was a general trend across all experiments toward greater suppression and enhanced consistency against multiple cucumber pathogens using strain mixtures. The same three PGPR strains were evaluated as seed treatments in two field trials over two seasons, and two strains, IN26 (Burkholderia gladioli) and INR7 also were tested as foliar sprays in one of the trials. In the field trials, the efficacy of induced systemic resistance activity was determined against introduced cucumber pathogens naturally spread within plots through placement of infected plants into the field to provide the pathogen inoculum. PGPR-mediated disease suppression was observed against angular leaf spot in 1996 and against a mixed infection of angular leaf spot and anthracnose in 1997. The three-way mixture of PGPR strains (INR7 plus ME1 plus GB03) as a seed treatment showed intensive plant growth promotion and disease reduction to a level statistically equivalent to the synthetic elicitor Actigard applied as a spray. PMID:18944848

  12. Leukemia inhibitory factor promotes tumor growth and metastasis in human osteosarcoma via activating STAT3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Lu, Yi; Li, Jinzhi; Liu, Yanping; Liu, Jian; Wang, Weiguo

    2015-10-01

    The leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been demonstrated to be an oncogene and participated in multiple procedures during the initiation and progression of many human malignancies. However, the role of LIF in osteosarcoma is still largely unknown. Here, we performed a series of invitro and invivo experiments to investigate the expression and biological functions of LIF in osteosarcoma. Compared to that in the non-cancerous tissues, LIF was significantly overexpressed in a panel of 68 osteosarcoma samples (p<0.0001). Moreover, the overexpression of LIF was significantly correlated with advanced tumor stage, larger tumor size, and shorter overall survival. In addition, knockdown of LIF notably suppressed the proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma via blocking the STAT3 signal pathway; in contrast, treatment with the recombinant LIF protein significantly promoted the growth and invasion of osteosarcoma through enhancing the phosphorylation of STAT3, which can be partially neutralized by the STAT3 inhibitor, HO-3867. In conclusion, we demonstrated that LIF was frequently overexpressed in osteosarcoma, which could promote the growth and invasion through activating the STAT3 pathway. Our findings proposed that LIF might be a potent therapeutic target for osteosarcoma. PMID:26271643

  13. Diversity analysis of pseudomonas in rice rhizosphere for multifaceted plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Naganandini, Srinivasan; Balachandar, Dananjeyan; Kumar, Krishnamoorthy

    2011-12-01

    This investigation was carried out based on the hypothesis that there may be some pseudomonad strains, which could exist in rhizosphere of plant species contributing multifaceted beneficial activities. For this purpose, 21 pseudomonad isolates from the rhizosphere of rice, cultivated in western parts of Tamil Nadu were screened. All the 21 isolates were authenticated as pseudomonads by a genus-specific PCR screening. The molecular diversity of these isolates was investigated by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) and the dendrogram obtained from the analysis revealed that all the 21 isolates clustered into seven groups. Further, these isolates were screened for plant growth promoting activities such as diazotrophy (PCR amplification of nifH gene and acetylene reduction assay), Indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore production (spectrometrically), 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase for ethylene regulation (PCR screening), mineral solubilization (biochemically) and antagonistic potential against soil pathogenic fungi (dual culture assay). Based on the results, two elite Pseudomonas isolates (S9 and O3) were chosen as multi-functional plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, paving way for potential use as bioinoculants in rice. PMID:22207283

  14. Withdrawal of growth-promoting antibiotics in Europe and its effects in relation to human health.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ian

    2007-08-01

    The glycopeptide avoparcin, bacitracin, the macrolides spiramycin and tylosin, and the streptogramin virginiamycin were withdrawn as growth promoters in the European Union between 1995 and 1999 on the basis of the Precautionary Principle. Relevant resistance thereupon diminished among enterococci (the indicator organisms) isolated from animal and human faeces. However, animal enterococci were shown to differ from those that caused human infections, although their resistance genes were sometimes indistinguishable and thus probably have a common origin. Before the ban, human clinical isolates of enterococci resistant to vancomycin or teicoplanin were uncommon in many, but not all, parts of Europe and resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin in the case of Enterococcus faecium was very rare. After the ban, these resistances increased in prevalence almost universally, to the detriment of human health. Campylobacters, normally susceptible to macrolides, increased in prevalence before and after the ban. Analyses suggest that the added risk to human health from resistance among enterococci and campylobacters selected by growth promoter use is small, whilst the benefit to human health from their use, hitherto largely ignored, might more than counterbalance this. PMID:17467959

  15. Withdrawal of growth-promoting antibiotics in Europe and its effects in relation to human health.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Phillips I

    2007-08-01

    The glycopeptide avoparcin, bacitracin, the macrolides spiramycin and tylosin, and the streptogramin virginiamycin were withdrawn as growth promoters in the European Union between 1995 and 1999 on the basis of the Precautionary Principle. Relevant resistance thereupon diminished among enterococci (the indicator organisms) isolated from animal and human faeces. However, animal enterococci were shown to differ from those that caused human infections, although their resistance genes were sometimes indistinguishable and thus probably have a common origin. Before the ban, human clinical isolates of enterococci resistant to vancomycin or teicoplanin were uncommon in many, but not all, parts of Europe and resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin in the case of Enterococcus faecium was very rare. After the ban, these resistances increased in prevalence almost universally, to the detriment of human health. Campylobacters, normally susceptible to macrolides, increased in prevalence before and after the ban. Analyses suggest that the added risk to human health from resistance among enterococci and campylobacters selected by growth promoter use is small, whilst the benefit to human health from their use, hitherto largely ignored, might more than counterbalance this.

  16. Axotomy-Induced miR-21 Promotes Axon Growth in Adult Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Iain T.; Richards, Louise; Holmes, Fiona E.; Wynick, David; Uney, James B.; Wong, Liang-Fong

    2011-01-01

    Following injury, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons undergo transcriptional changes so as to adopt phenotypic changes that promote cell survival and axonal regeneration. Here we used a microarray approach to profile changes in a population of small noncoding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) in the L4 and L5 DRG following sciatic nerve transection. Results showed that 20 miRNA transcripts displayed a significant change in expression levels, with 8 miRNAs transcripts being altered by more than 1.5-fold. Using quantitative reverse transcription PCR, we demonstrated that one of these miRNAs, miR-21, was upregulated by 7-fold in the DRG at 7 days post-axotomy. In dissociated adult rat DRG neurons lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of miR-21 promoted neurite outgrowth on a reduced laminin substrate. miR-21 directly downregulated expression of Sprouty2 protein, as confirmed by Western blot analysis and 3? untranslated region (UTR) luciferase assays. Our data show that miR-21 is an axotomy-induced miRNA that enhances axon growth, and suggest that miRNAs are important players in regulating growth pathways following peripheral nerve injury. PMID:21853131

  17. Biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity of rhizobacteria from Chinese fields with contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefei; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Ke, Linfeng; Mavrodi, Olga V; Yang, Mingming; Thomashow, Linda S; Zheng, Na; Weller, David M; Zhang, Jibin

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to inventory the types of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) present in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soils contaminated with heavy metals, recalcitrant organics, petroleum sewage or salinity in China. We screened 1223 isolates for antifungal activity and about 24% inhibited Rhizoctonia solani or Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Twenty-four strains inhibitory to R.?solani, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and/or S.?sclerotiorum and representing the dominant morphotypes were assayed for PGPR activity. Seven strains contained phlD, prnD, pltC or phzF genes and produced the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin and phenazines respectively. Six strains contained acdS, which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA and phlD, phzF and acdS genes demonstrated that some strains identified as Pseudomonas were similar to model PGPR strains Pseudomonas protegens?Pf-5, Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens 30-84 and P.?brassicacearum?Q8r1-96. Pseudomonas protegens- and P.?chlororaphis-like strains had the greatest biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia root rot and take-all of wheat. Pseudomonas protegens and P.?brassicacearum-like strains showed the greatest promotion of canola growth. Our results indicate that strains from contaminated soils are similar to well-described PGPR found in agricultural soils worldwide. PMID:25219642

  18. Rational Polypharmacology: Systematically Identifying and Engaging Multiple Drug Targets To Promote Axon Growth.

    PubMed

    Al-Ali, Hassan; Lee, Do-Hun; Danzi, Matt C; Nassif, Houssam; Gautam, Prson; Wennerberg, Krister; Zuercher, Bill; Drewry, David H; Lee, Jae K; Lemmon, Vance P; Bixby, John L

    2015-08-21

    Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) neurons regrow their axons poorly following injury, resulting in irreversible functional losses. Identifying therapeutics that encourage CNS axon repair has been difficult, in part because multiple etiologies underlie this regenerative failure. This suggests a particular need for drugs that engage multiple molecular targets. Although multitarget drugs are generally more effective than highly selective alternatives, we lack systematic methods for discovering such drugs. Target-based screening is an efficient technique for identifying potent modulators of individual targets. In contrast, phenotypic screening can identify drugs with multiple targets; however, these targets remain unknown. To address this gap, we combined the two drug discovery approaches using machine learning and information theory. We screened compounds in a phenotypic assay with primary CNS neurons and also in a panel of kinase enzyme assays. We used learning algorithms to relate the compounds' kinase inhibition profiles to their influence on neurite outgrowth. This allowed us to identify kinases that may serve as targets for promoting neurite outgrowth as well as others whose targeting should be avoided. We found that compounds that inhibit multiple targets (polypharmacology) promote robust neurite outgrowth in vitro. One compound with exemplary polypharmacology was found to promote axon growth in a rodent spinal cord injury model. A more general applicability of our approach is suggested by its ability to deconvolve known targets for a breast cancer cell line as well as targets recently shown to mediate drug resistance. PMID:26056718

  19. Dietary supplements and the promotion of muscle growth with resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Kreider, R B

    1999-02-01

    Nutritional strategies of overfeeding, ingesting carbohydrate/protein before and after exercise, and dietary supplementation of various nutrients [e.g. protein, glutamine, branched-chain amino acid, creatine, leucine, beta-hydroxy beta-methyl-butyrate (beta-HMB), chromium, vanadyl sulfate, boron, prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA]) and androstenedione] have been purported to promote gains in fat-free mass during resistance training. Most studies indicate that chromium, vanadyl sulfate and boron supplementation do not affect muscle growth. However, there is evidence that ingesting carbohydrate/protein prior to exercise may reduce catabolism during exercise and that ingesting carbohydrate/protein following resistance-exercise may promote a more anabolic hormonal profile. Furthermore, glutamine, creatine, leucine, and calcium beta-HMB may affect protein synthesis. Creatine and calcium beta-HMB supplementation during resistance training have been reported to increase fat-free mass in athletic and nonathletic populations. Prasterone supplementation has been reported to increase testosterone and fat-free mass in nontrained populations. However, results are equivocal, studies have yet to be conducted on athletes, and prasterone is considered a banned substance by some athletic organisations. This paper discusses rationale and effectiveness of these nutritional strategies in promoting lean tissue accretion during resistance training. PMID:10091274

  20. Transgenic Studies with a Keratin Promoter-Driven Growth Hormone Transgene: Prospects for Gene Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zinkel, Sandra; Polonsky, Kenneth; Fuchs, Elaine

    1997-01-01

    Keratinocytes are potentially appealing vehicles for the delivery of secreted gene products because they can be transferred to human skin by the relatively simple procedure of grafting. Adult human keratinocytes can be efficiently propagated in culture with sufficient proliferative capacity to produce enough epidermis to cover the body surface of an average adult. However, the feasibility of delivering secreted proteins through skin grafting rests upon (i) the strength of the promoter in keratinocytes and (ii) the efficiency of protein transport through the basement membrane of the stratified epithelium and into the bloodstream. In this paper, we use transgenic technology to demonstrate that the activity of the human keratin 14 promoter remains high in adult skin and that keratinocyte-derived human growth hormone (hGH) can be produced, secreted, and transported to the bloodstream of mice with efficiency that is sufficient to exceed by an order of magnitude the circulating hGH concentration in growing children. Transgenic skin grafts from these adults continue to produce and secrete hGH stably, at ≈ 1/10 physiological levels in the bloodstream of nontransgenic recipient mice. These studies underscore the utility of the keratin 14 promoter for expressing foreign transgenes in keratinocytes and demonstrate that keratinocytes can be used as effective vehicles for transporting factors to the bloodstream and for eliciting metabolic changes. These findings have important implications for considering the keratinocyte as a possible vehicle for gene therapy.

  1. CUDR promotes liver cancer stem cell growth through upregulating TERT and C-Myc

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Hu; Zheng, Qidi; Li, Haiyan; Wu, Mengying; An, Jiahui; Gui, Xin; Li, Tianming; Lu, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    Cancer up-regulated drug resistant (CUDR) is a novel non-coding RNA gene. Herein, we demonstrate excessive CUDR cooperates with excessive CyclinD1 or PTEN depletion to accelerate liver cancer stem cells growth and liver stem cell malignant transformation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we reveal the decrease of PTEN in cells may lead to increase binding capacity of CUDR to CyclinD1. Therefore, CUDR-CyclinD1 complex loads onto the long noncoding RNA H19 promoter region that may lead to reduce the DNA methylation on H19 promoter region and then to enhance the H19 expression. Strikingly, the overexpression of H19 increases the binding of TERT to TERC and reduces the interplay between TERT with TERRA, thus enhancing the cell telomerase activity and extending the telomere length. On the other hand, insulator CTCF recruits the CUDR-CyclinD1 complx to form the composite CUDR-CyclinD1-insulator CTCF complex which occupancied on the C-myc gene promoter region, increasing the outcome of oncogene C-myc. Ultimately, excessive TERT and C-myc lead to liver cancer stem cell and hepatocyte-like stem cell malignant proliferation. To understand the novel functions of long noncoding RNA CUDR will help in the development of new liver cancer therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. PMID:26513297

  2. Biomimetic scaffold combined with electrical stimulation and growth factor promotes tissue engineered cardiac development

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyoungshin; Larson, Benjamin L.; Kolewe, Martin E.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Freed, Lisa E.

    2013-01-01

    Toward developing biologically sound models for the study of heart regeneration and disease, we cultured heart cells on a biodegradable, microfabricated poly(glycerol sebacate)(PGS) scaffold designed with micro-structural features and anisotropic mechanical properties to promote cardiac-like tissue architecture. Using this biomimetic system, we studied individual and combined effects of supplemental insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and electrical stimulation (ES). On culture day 8, all tissue constructs could be paced and expressed the cardiac protein troponin-T. IGF-1 reduced apoptosis, promoted cell-to-cell connectivity, and lowered excitation threshold, an index of electrophysiological activity. ES promoted formation of tissue-like bundles oriented in parallel to the electrical field and a more than tenfold increase in matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) gene expression. The combination of IGF-1 and ES increased 2D projection length, an index of overall contraction strength, and enhanced expression of the gap junction protein connexin-43 and sarcomere development. This culture environment, designed to combine cardiac-like scaffold architecture and biomechanics with molecular and biophysical signals, enabled functional assembly of engineered heart muscle from dissociated cells and could serve as a template for future studies on the hierarchy of various signaling domains relative to cardiac tissue development. PMID:24240126

  3. Regulatory T cells-derived IL-35 promotes the growth of adult acute myeloid leukemia blasts.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qianshan; Pan, Ying; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Huiping; Xiong, Shudao; Li, Qing; Wang, Jia; Tao, Lili; Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Rui; Zhai, Zhimin

    2015-11-15

    Tumor immune escape mechanism mediated by CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a key factor in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). IL-35, as a novel inhibitory cytokine, is produced by Tregs specially and regulates functions of Tregs in murine. However, IL-35 expression of Tregs in human is still disputed, and its role in AML is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found that IL-35 was expressed highly in peripheral blood plasma of adult patients with AML and significantly correlated with the clinical stages of malignancy. Tregs-derived from adult AML patients produced IL-35 in a stimulation-dependent manner. IL-35 promoted AML blasts immune escape by expanding Tregs and inhibiting CD4+CD25-effector T cells (Teffs). Furthermore, IL-35 directly promoted the proliferation of AML blasts and reduced the apoptosis of AML blasts. Together, our study demonstrates that IL-35-derived from Tregs promotes the growth of adult AML blasts, suggesting that IL-35 has an important role in the pathogenesis of AML. PMID:25866142

  4. Root and bacterial secretions regulate the interaction between plants and PGPR leading to distinct plant growth promotion effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have garnered interest in agriculture due to their ability to influence the growth and production of host plants. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play important roles in plant-microbe interactions by modulating plant root exudation. The present stu...

  5. RFPL3 and CBP synergistically upregulate hTERT activity and promote lung cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wendan; Cai, Xin; Dai, Meng; Xu, Tingting; Huang, Wenlin; Guo, Wei; Deng, Wuguo; Wu, Taihua

    2015-01-01

    hTERT is the key component of telomerase and its overactivation contributes to maintaining telomere length and cell immortalization. Previously, we identified RFPL3 as a new transcription activator of hTERT in lung cancers. However, the exact mechanism of RFPL3 in mediating hTERT activation and its associated signal regulatory network remain unclear. In this study, we found that RFPL3 colocalized and interacted directly with CBP in the nucleus of lung cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays of lung cancers revealed the simultaneous overexpression of both RFPL3 and CBP predicted relatively poor prognosis. Furthermore, we confirmed their synergistic stimulation on hTERT expression and tumor cell growth. The binding of RFPL3 to hTERT promoter was reduced markedly when CBP was knocked down by its specific siRNA or suppressed by its inhibitor in lung cancer cells with stable overexpression of RFPL3. When one of the two proteins RFPL3 and CBP was upregulated or downregulated, whereas the another remains unchanged, hTERT expression and telomerase activity were activated or repressed accordingly. In the meantime, the growth of lung cancer cells was also promoted or attenuated accordingly. Furthermore, we also found that RFPL3 coordinated with CBP to upregulate hTERT through the CBP-induced acetylation of RFPL3 protein and their co-anchoring at hTERT promoter region. Collectively, our results reveal a new mechanism of hTERT regulation in lung cancer cells and suggest the RFPL3/CBP/hTERT signaling pathway may be a new targets for lung cancer treatment. PMID:26318425

  6. A Trypanosoma brucei Kinesin Heavy Chain Promotes Parasite Growth by Triggering Host Arginase Activity

    PubMed Central

    De Muylder, Géraldine; Daulouède, Sylvie; Lecordier, Laurence; Uzureau, Pierrick; Morias, Yannick; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Caljon, Guy; Hérin, Michel; Holzmuller, Philippe; Semballa, Silla; Courtois, Pierrette; Vanhamme, Luc; Stijlemans, Benoît; De Baetselier, Patrick; Barrett, Michael P.; Barlow, Jillian L.; McKenzie, Andrew N. J.; Barron, Luke; Wynn, Thomas A.; Beschin, Alain; Vincendeau, Philippe; Pays, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to promote infection, the blood-borne parasite Trypanosoma brucei releases factors that upregulate arginase expression and activity in myeloid cells. Methodology/Principal findings By screening a cDNA library of T. brucei with an antibody neutralizing the arginase-inducing activity of parasite released factors, we identified a Kinesin Heavy Chain isoform, termed TbKHC1, as responsible for this effect. Following interaction with mouse myeloid cells, natural or recombinant TbKHC1 triggered SIGN-R1 receptor-dependent induction of IL-10 production, resulting in arginase-1 activation concomitant with reduction of nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity. This TbKHC1 activity was IL-4Rα-independent and did not mirror M2 activation of myeloid cells. As compared to wild-type T. brucei, infection by TbKHC1 KO parasites was characterized by strongly reduced parasitaemia and prolonged host survival time. By treating infected mice with ornithine or with NO synthase inhibitor, we observed that during the first wave of parasitaemia the parasite growth-promoting effect of TbKHC1-mediated arginase activation resulted more from increased polyamine production than from reduction of NO synthesis. In late stage infection, TbKHC1-mediated reduction of NO synthesis appeared to contribute to liver damage linked to shortening of host survival time. Conclusion A kinesin heavy chain released by T. brucei induces IL-10 and arginase-1 through SIGN-R1 signaling in myeloid cells, which promotes early trypanosome growth and favors parasite settlement in the host. Moreover, in the late stage of infection, the inhibition of NO synthesis by TbKHC1 contributes to liver pathogenicity. PMID:24204274

  7. RFPL3 and CBP synergistically upregulate hTERT activity and promote lung cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu; Chen, Wangbing; Xiao, Yao; Yu, Wendan; Cai, Xin; Dai, Meng; Xu, Tingting; Huang, Wenlin; Guo, Wei; Deng, Wuguo; Wu, Taihua

    2015-09-29

    hTERT is the key component of telomerase and its overactivation contributes to maintaining telomere length and cell immortalization. Previously, we identified RFPL3 as a new transcription activator of hTERT in lung cancers. However, the exact mechanism of RFPL3 in mediating hTERT activation and its associated signal regulatory network remain unclear. In this study, we found that RFPL3 colocalized and interacted directly with CBP in the nucleus of lung cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays of lung cancers revealed the simultaneous overexpression of both RFPL3 and CBP predicted relatively poor prognosis. Furthermore, we confirmed their synergistic stimulation on hTERT expression and tumor cell growth. The binding of RFPL3 to hTERT promoter was reduced markedly when CBP was knocked down by its specific siRNA or suppressed by its inhibitor in lung cancer cells with stable overexpression of RFPL3. When one of the two proteins RFPL3 and CBP was upregulated or downregulated, whereas the another remains unchanged, hTERT expression and telomerase activity were activated or repressed accordingly. In the meantime, the growth of lung cancer cells was also promoted or attenuated accordingly. Furthermore, we also found that RFPL3 coordinated with CBP to upregulate hTERT through the CBP-induced acetylation of RFPL3 protein and their co-anchoring at hTERT promoter region. Collectively, our results reveal a new mechanism of hTERT regulation in lung cancer cells and suggest the RFPL3/CBP/hTERT signaling pathway may be a new targets for lung cancer treatment. PMID:26318425

  8. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Guifang; Cai, Xiaojun; Falck, John R.; Yang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. PMID:22841774

  9. Mechanism of BMP9 promotes growth of osteosarcoma mediated by the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIU, PENG; MAN, YUQIANG; WANG, YANQUN; BAO, YUSONG

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), also known as growth differentiation factor 2, plays a key role in promoting osteosarcoma growth. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism of BMP9 promoting the growth of osteosarcoma mediated by the Notch signaling pathway. Osteosarcoma cell lines, 143B and MG63, were used for the in vitro experiments. Cell proliferation, cell migration and cell cycle transformation were monitored under various settings. The control and experimental groups used in the present study were BMP9 adenovirus (AdBMP9), a recombinant adenovirus expressing the dominant-negative mutant of Notch1 (AdR-dnNotch1), AdBMP9+AdR-dnNotch1 and AdBMP9+compound E (blocker of the Notch signaling pathway). The results showed that Notch ligands DLL1, JAG1 and JAG2, as well as Notch receptors Notch1, Notch2 and Notch3 were markedly expressed in the two cell lines. Cell proliferation and migration ability increased in the AdBMP9 group and were higher than that in the AdBMP9+AdR-dn Notch1 and AdBMP9+compound E group. Cell proliferation and migration in the AdR-dnNothc1 group was lower than that in the AdBMP9 group, although the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The cell cycle ratio in the S/G2 phase increased significantly in the AdBMP9 group and was higher than that in the AdBMP9+AdR-dnNotch1 and AdBMP9+compound E groups. By contrast, the ratio of the cell cycle in S/G2 phase in the AdR-dnNotch1 group was lower than that in the AdBMP9 group. The differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In conclusion, the results showed that the Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in mediating the growth of osteosarcoma promoted by BMP9. PMID:26893744

  10. Psychostimulant-like discriminative stimulus and locomotor sensitization properties of the wake-promoting agent modafinil in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Neil E.; Fedolak, Allison; Olivier, Berend; Hanania, Taleen; Ghavami, Afshin; Caldarone, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The present studies assessed the potential abuse liability and likely mechanism(s) of action of the wake-promoting agent modafinil. Methods Experiments assessed the locomotor sensitization (LS) and discriminative stimulus (DS) properties of modafinil in mouse and rat, respectively. Comparative data were generated with a range of psychostimulants and monoamine reuptake inhibitors. Results Repeated administration of d-amphetamine and cocaine, psychostimulants with high abuse liability, resulted in the induction and expression of LS in mice. Bupropion and caffeine, two psychostimulants not abused in humans, were not associated with LS. GBR12909 induced LS during repeated exposure, but there was no evidence of expression of LS after acute challenge following withdrawal. In contrast, repeated administration of modafinil resulted in the expression, but not induction, of LS. d-amphetamine, but not the ?-opioid agonist morphine or the nAChR agonist nicotine, fully substituted for the cocaine DS in rats. The selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor GBR12909 fully substituted, the preferential norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor desipramine partially substituted, and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram failed to substitute for cocaine. Modafinil fully substituted for cocaine, similar to the mixed DAT/NET inhibitor bupropion. Conclusions Two preclinical assays indicated potential abuse liability of modafinil; drug discrimination studies suggest DAT blockade by modafinil is a likely mechanism of action in vivo. PMID:20346966

  11. The Macrophage-depleting Agent Clodronate Promotes Durable Hematopoietic Chimerism and Donor-specific Skin Allograft Tolerance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanzhuo; Xu, Xin; Feng, Xingmin; Murphy, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic chimerism is known to promote donor-specific organ allograft tolerance; however, clinical translation has been impeded by the requirement for toxic immunosuppression and large doses of donor bone marrow (BM) cells. Here, we investigated in mice whether durable chimerism might be enhanced by pre-treatment of the recipient with liposomal clodronate, a macrophage depleting agent, with the goal of vacating BM niches for preferential reoccupation by donor hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). We found that liposomal clodronate pretreatment of C57BL/6 mice permitted establishment of durable hematopoietic chimerism when the mice were given a low dose of donor BM cells and transient immunosuppression. Moreover, clodronate pre-treatment increased durable donor-specific BALB/c skin allograft tolerance. These results provide proof-of-principle that clodronate is effective at sparing the number of donor BM cells required to achieve durable hematopoietic chimerism and donor-specific skin allograft tolerance and justify further development of a tolerance protocol based on this principle. PMID:26917238

  12. Rice LGD1 containing RNA binding activity affects growth and development through alternative promoters.

    PubMed

    Thangasamy, Saminathan; Chen, Pei-Wei; Lai, Ming-Hsing; Chen, Jychian; Jauh, Guang-Yuh

    2012-07-01

    Tiller initiation and panicle development are important agronomical traits for grain production in Oryza sativa L. (rice), but their regulatory mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, T-DNA mutant and RNAi transgenic approaches were used to functionally characterize a unique rice gene, LAGGING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 1 (LGD1). The lgd1 mutant showed slow growth, reduced tiller number and plant height, altered panicle architecture and reduced grain yield. The fewer unelongated internodes and cells in lgd1 led to respective reductions in tiller number and to semi-dwarfism. Several independent LGD1-RNAi lines exhibited defective phenotypes similar to those observed in lgd1. Interestingly, LGD1 encodes multiple transcripts with different transcription start sites (TSSs), which were validated by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' and 3' cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). Additionally, GUS assays and a luciferase promoter assay confirmed the promoter activities of LGD1.1 and LGD1.5. LGD1 encoding a von Willebrand factor type A (vWA) domain containing protein is a single gene in rice that is seemingly specific to grasses. GFP-tagged LGD1 isoforms were predominantly detected in the nucleus, and weakly in the cytoplasm. In vitro northwestern analysis showed the RNA-binding activity of the recombinant C-terminal LGD1 protein. Our results demonstrated that LGD1 pleiotropically regulated rice vegetative growth and development through both the distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns of its multiple transcripts and RNA binding activity. Hence, the study of LGD1 will strengthen our understanding of the molecular basis of the multiple transcripts, and their corresponding polypeptides with RNA binding activity, that regulate pleiotropic effects in rice. PMID:22409537

  13. Beta-nerve growth factor promotes neurogenesis and angiogenesis during the repair of bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-hui; Mao, Chuan-qing; Zhuo, Li-li; Ong, Joo L.

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that the repair of bone defects is regulated by neural and vascular signals. In the present study, we examined the effect of topically applied ?-nerve growth factor (?-NGF) on neurogenesis and angiogenesis in critical-sized bone defects filled with collagen bone substitute. We created two symmetrical defects, 2.5 mm in diameter, on either side of the parietal bone of the skull, and filled them with bone substitute. Subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps were used to infuse 10 ?g ?-NGF in PBS (?-NGF + PBS) into the right-hand side defect, and PBS into the left (control) defect, over the 7 days following surgery. Immunohistochemical staining and hematoxylin-eosin staining were carried out at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days postoperatively. On day 7, expression of ? III-tubulin was lower on the ?-NGF + PBS side than on the control side, and that of neurofilament 160 was greater. On day 14, ? III-tubulin and protein gene product 9.5 were greater on the ?-NGF + PBS side than on the control side. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression was greater on the experimental side than the control side at 7 days, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression was elevated on days 14 and 21, but lower than control levels on day 28. However, no difference in the number of blood vessels was observed between sides. Our results indicate that topical application of ?-NGF promoted neurogenesis, and may modulate angiogenesis by promoting nerve regeneration in collagen bone substitute-filled defects. PMID:26330843

  14. Pim Kinases Promote Migration and Metastatic Growth of Prostate Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Santio, Niina M.; Eerola, Sini K.; Paatero, Ilkka; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Anizon, Fabrice; Moreau, Pascale; Tuomela, Johanna; Hrknen, Pirkko; Koskinen, Pivi J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and methods Pim family proteins are oncogenic kinases implicated in several types of cancer and involved in regulation of cell proliferation, survival as well as motility. Here we have investigated the ability of Pim kinases to promote metastatic growth of prostate cancer cells in two xenograft models for human prostate cancer. We have also evaluated the efficacy of Pim-selective inhibitors to antagonize these effects. Results We show here that tumorigenic growth of both subcutaneously and orthotopically inoculated prostate cancer xenografts is enhanced by stable overexpression of either Pim-1 or Pim-3. Moreover, Pim-overexpressing orthotopic prostate tumors are highly invasive and able to migrate not only to the nearby prostate-draining lymph nodes, but also into the lungs to form metastases. When the xenografted mice are daily treated with the Pim-selective inhibitor DHPCC-9, both the volumes as well as the metastatic capacity of the tumors are drastically decreased. Interestingly, the Pim-promoted metastatic growth of the orthotopic xenografts is associated with enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, forced Pim expression also increases phosphorylation of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, which may enable the tumor cells to migrate towards tissues such as the lungs that express the CXCL12 chemokine ligand. Conclusions Our results indicate that Pim overexpression enhances the invasive properties of prostate cancer cells in vivo. These effects can be reduced by the Pim-selective inhibitor DHPCC-9, which can reach tumor tissues without serious side effects. Thus, Pim-targeting therapies with DHPCC-9-like compounds may help to prevent progression of local prostate carcinomas to fatally metastatic malignancies. PMID:26075720

  15. NeuroD1 promotes neuroblastoma cell growth by inducing the expression of ALK

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fangjin; Kishida, Satoshi; Mu, Ping; Huang, Peng; Cao, Dongliang; Tsubota, Shoma; Kadomatsu, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is derived from the sympathetic neuronal lineage of neural crest cells, and is the most frequently observed of the extracranial pediatric solid tumors. The neuronal differentiation factor, NeuroD1, has previously been shown to promote cell motility in neuroblastoma by suppressing the expression of Slit2. Here we report that NeuroD1 is also involved in the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells, including human cell lines and primary tumorspheres cultured from the tumor tissues of model mice. Interestingly, the growth inhibition of neuroblastoma cells induced by knockdown of NeuroD1 was accompanied by a reduction of ALK expression. ALK is known to be one of the important predisposition genes for neuroblastoma. The phenotype resulting from knockdown of NeuroD1 was suppressed by forced expression of ALK and, therefore, NeuroD1 appears to act mainly through ALK to promote the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, we showed that NeuroD1 directly bound to the promoter region of ALK gene. In addition, the particular E-box in the promoter was responsible for NeuroD1-mediated ALK expression. These results indicate that ALK should be a direct target gene of NeuroD1. Finally, the expressions of NeuroD1 and ALK in the early tumor lesions of neuroblastoma model mice coincided invivo. We conclude that the novel mechanism would regulate the expression of ALK in neuroblastoma and that NeuroD1 should be significantly involved in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis. PMID:25652313

  16. Pin1 promotes transforming growth factor-beta-induced migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Isao; Chiang, Keng-Nan; Lai, Chen-Yu; He, Dongming; Wang, Guannan; Ramkumar, Romila; Uchida, Takafumi; Ryo, Akihide; Lu, Kunping; Liu, Fang

    2010-01-15

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates a wide variety of biological activities. It induces potent growth-inhibitory responses in normal cells but promotes migration and invasion of cancer cells. Smads mediate the TGF-beta responses. TGF-beta binding to the cell surface receptors leads to the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in their C terminus as well as in the proline-rich linker region. The serine/threonine phosphorylation sites in the linker region are followed by the proline residue. Pin1, a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase, recognizes phosphorylated serine/threonine-proline motifs. Here we show that Smad2/3 interacts with Pin1 in a TGF-beta-dependent manner. We further show that the phosphorylated threonine 179-proline motif in the Smad3 linker region is the major binding site for Pin1. Although epidermal growth factor also induces phosphorylation of threonine 179 and other residues in the Smad3 linker region the same as TGF-beta, Pin1 is unable to bind to the epidermal growth factor-stimulated Smad3. Further analysis suggests that phosphorylation of Smad3 in the C terminus is necessary for the interaction with Pin1. Depletion of Pin1 by small hairpin RNA does not significantly affect TGF-beta-induced growth-inhibitory responses and a number of TGF-beta/Smad target genes analyzed. In contrast, knockdown of Pin1 in human PC3 prostate cancer cells strongly inhibited TGF-beta-mediated migration and invasion. Accordingly, TGF-beta induction of N-cadherin, which plays an important role in migration and invasion, is markedly reduced when Pin1 is depleted in PC3 cells. Because Pin1 is overexpressed in many cancers, our findings highlight the importance of Pin1 in TGF-beta-induced migration and invasion of cancer cells. PMID:19920136

  17. Efficiency of plant growth-promoting P-solubilizing Bacillus circulans CB7 for enhancement of tomato growth under net house conditions.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Preeti; Walia, Abhishek; Kulshrestha, Saurabh; Chauhan, Anjali; Shirkot, Chand Karan

    2015-01-01

    P-solubilizing bacterial isolate CB7 isolated from apple rhizosphere soil of Himachal Pradesh, India was identified as Bacillus circulans on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, biochemical tests, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolate exhibited plant growth-promoting traits of P-solubilization, auxin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, siderophore, nitrogenase activity, and antagonistic activity against Dematophora necatrix. In vitro studies revealed that P-solubilization and other plant growth-promoting traits were dependent on the presence of glucose in PVK medium and removal of yeast extract had no significant effect on plant growth-promoting traits. Plant growth-promoting traits of isolate CB7 were repressed in the presence of KH2 PO4 . P-solubilization activity was associated with the release of organic acids and a drop in the pH of the Pikovskaya's medium. HPLC analysis detected gluconic and citric acid as major organic acids in the course of P-solubilization. Remarkable increase was observed in seed germination (22.32%), shoot length (15.91%), root length (25.10%), shoot dry weight (52.92%) and root dry weight (31.4%), nitrogen (18.75%), potassium (57.69%), and phosphorus (22.22%) content of shoot biomass over control. These results demonstrate that isolate CB7 has the promising PGPR attributes to be developed as a biofertilizer to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth. PMID:24464353

  18. Drosophila Casein Kinase 2 (CK2) Promotes Warts Protein to Suppress Yorkie Protein Activity for Growth Control*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lianxin; Huang, Hongling; Li, Jinhui; Yin, Meng-Xin; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wenqing; Zeng, Rong; Jiang, Jin; Zhao, Yun; Zhang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila Hippo signaling regulates Wts activity to phosphorylate and inhibit Yki in order to control tissue growth. CK2 is widely expressed and involved in a variety of signaling pathways. In this study we report that Drosophila CK2 promotes Wts activity to phosphorylate and inhibit Yki activity, which is independent of Hpo-induced Wts promotion. In vivo, CK2 overexpression suppresses hpo mutant-induced expanded (Ex) up-regulation and overgrowth phenotype, whereas it cannot affect wts mutant. Consistent with this, knockdown of CK2 up-regulates Hpo pathway target expression. We also found that Drosophila CK2 is essential for tissue growth as a cell death inhibitor as knockdown of CK2 in the developing disc induces severe growth defects as well as caspase3 signals. Taken together, our results uncover a dual role of CK2; although its major role is promoting cell survive, it may potentially be a growth inhibitor as well. PMID:25320084

  19. Annual ryegrass-associated bacteria with potential for plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Nádia; Dourado, Ana Catarina; Alves, Paula Isabel; Cortés-Pallero, Alícia Maria; Delgado-Rodríguez, Ana Isabel; Prazeres, Ângela; Borges, Nuno; Sánchez, Claudia; Barreto Crespo, Maria Teresa; Fareleira, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Annual ryegrass is a fast-growing cool-season grass broadly present in the Portuguese "montado", a typically Mediterranean agro-forestry-pastoral ecosystem. A culture-dependent approach was used to investigate natural associations of this crop with potentially beneficial bacteria, aiming to identify strains suitable for biofertilization purposes. Annual ryegrass seedlings were used to trap bacteria from three different soils in laboratory conditions. Using a nitrogen-free microaerophilic medium, 147 isolates were recovered from the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and surface-sterilized plant tissues, which were assigned to 12 genera in classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. All isolates were able to grow in the absence of nitrogen and several of them were able to perform in vitro activities related to plant growth promotion. Isolates of the genera Sphingomonas and Achromobacter were found to be the most effective stimulators of annual ryegrass growth under nitrogen limitation (47-92% biomass increases). Major enhancements were obtained with isolates G3Dc4 (Achromobacter sp.) and G2Ac10 (Sphingomonas sp.). The latest isolate was also able to increment plant growth in nitrogen-supplemented medium, as well as the phosphate solubilizer and siderophore producer, G1Dc10 (Pseudomonas sp.), and the cellulose/pectin hydrolyser, G3Ac9 (Paenibacillus sp.). This study represents the first survey of annual ryegrass-associated bacteria in the "montado" ecosystem and unveiled a set of strains with potential for use as inoculants. PMID:24485300

  20. Fe-Chlorophyllin Promotes the Growth of Wheat Roots Associated with Nitric Oxide Generation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Min; Zhang, Liefeng; Wang, Yifan; Jiang, Hui; Ren, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Effects of Fe-chlorophyllin on the growth of wheat root were investigated in this study. We found that Fe-chlorophyllin can promote root growth. The production of nitric oxide in wheat root was detected using DAF-2DA fluorescent emission. The intensity of fluorescent in the presence of 0.1 mg/L Fe-chlorophyllin was near to that observed with the positive control of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the nitric oxide donor. IAA oxidase activity decreased with all treatments of Fe-chlorophyllin from 0.01 to 10 mg/L. At the relatively lower Fe-chlorophyllin concentration of 0.1 mg/L, the activity of IAA oxidase displayed a remarkable decrease, being 40.1% lower than the control. Meanwhile, Fe-chlorophyllin treatment could increase the activities of reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), as determined using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that Fe-chlorophyllin contributes to the growth of wheat root associated with nitric oxide generation. PMID:21614205

  1. The Role of NELL-1, a Growth Factor Associated with Craniosynostosis, in Promoting Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X.; Zara, J.; Siu, R.K.; Ting, K.; Soo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to enhance bone regeneration in orthopedic and dental cases have grown steadily for the past decade, in line with increasingly sophisticated regenerative medicine. To meet the unprecedented demand for novel osteospecific growth factors with fewer adverse effects compared with those of existing adjuncts such as BMPs, our group has identified a craniosynostosis-associated secreted molecule, NELL-1, which is a potent growth factor that is highly specific to the osteochondral lineage, and has demonstrated robust induction of bone in multiple in vivo models from rodents to pre-clinical large animals. NELL-1 is preferentially expressed in osteoblasts under direct transcriptional control of Runx2, and is well-regulated during skeletal development. NELL-1/Nell-1 can promote orthotopic bone regeneration via either intramembranous or endochondral ossification, both within and outside of the craniofacial complex. Unlike BMP-2, Nell-1 cannot initiate ectopic bone formation in muscle, but can induce bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to form bone in a mouse muscle pouch model, exhibiting specificity that BMPs lack. In addition, synergistic osteogenic effects of Nell-1 and BMP combotherapy have been observed, and are likely due to distinct differences in their signaling pathways. NELL-1's unique role as a novel osteoinductive growth factor makes it an attractive alternative with promise for future clinical applications. [Note: NELL-1 and NELL-1 indicate the human gene and protein, respectively; Nell-1 and Nell-1 indicate the mouse gene and protein, respectively.] PMID:20647499

  2. Promoting blood vessel growth in ischemic diseases: challenges in translating preclinical potential into clinical success

    PubMed Central

    Dragneva, Galina; Korpisalo, Petra; Yl-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenic therapy, which involves the use of an exogenous stimulus to promote blood vessel growth, is an attractive approach for the treatment of ischemic diseases. It has been shown in animal models that the stimulation of blood vessel growth leads to the growth of the whole vascular tree, improvement of ischemic tissue perfusion and improved muscle aerobic energy metabolism. However, very few positive results have been gained from Phase 2 and 3 clinical angiogenesis trials. Many reasons have been given for the failures of clinical trials, including poor transgene expression (in gene-therapy trials) and instability of the vessels induced by therapy. In this Review, we discuss the selection of preclinical models as one of the main reasons why clinical translation has been unsuccessful thus far. This issue has received little attention, but could have had dramatic implications on the expectations of clinical trials. We highlight crucial differences between human patients and animal models with regards to blood flow and pressure, as well as issues concerning the chronic nature of ischemic diseases in humans. We use these as examples to demonstrate why the results from preclinical trials might have overestimated the efficacy of angiogenic therapies developed to date. We also suggest ways in which currently available animal models of ischemic disease could be improved to better mimic human disease conditions, and offer advice on how to work with existing models to avoid overestimating the efficacy of new angiogenic therapies. PMID:23471910

  3. Promoting blood vessel growth in ischemic diseases: challenges in translating preclinical potential into clinical success.

    PubMed

    Dragneva, Galina; Korpisalo, Petra; Yl-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-03-01

    Angiogenic therapy, which involves the use of an exogenous stimulus to promote blood vessel growth, is an attractive approach for the treatment of ischemic diseases. It has been shown in animal models that the stimulation of blood vessel growth leads to the growth of the whole vascular tree, improvement of ischemic tissue perfusion and improved muscle aerobic energy metabolism. However, very few positive results have been gained from Phase 2 and 3 clinical angiogenesis trials. Many reasons have been given for the failures of clinical trials, including poor transgene expression (in gene-therapy trials) and instability of the vessels induced by therapy. In this Review, we discuss the selection of preclinical models as one of the main reasons why clinical translation has been unsuccessful thus far. This issue has received little attention, but could have had dramatic implications on the expectations of clinical trials. We highlight crucial differences between human patients and animal models with regards to blood flow and pressure, as well as issues concerning the chronic nature of ischemic diseases in humans. We use these as examples to demonstrate why the results from preclinical trials might have overestimated the efficacy of angiogenic therapies developed to date. We also suggest ways in which currently available animal models of ischemic disease could be improved to better mimic human disease conditions, and offer advice on how to work with existing models to avoid overestimating the efficacy of new angiogenic therapies. PMID:23471910

  4. The Terminal Oxidase Cytochrome bd Promotes Sulfide-resistant Bacterial Respiration and Growth.

    PubMed

    Forte, Elena; Borisov, Vitaliy B; Falabella, Micol; Colaço, Henrique G; Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Poole, Robert K; Vicente, João B; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) impairs mitochondrial respiration by potently inhibiting the heme-copper cytochrome c oxidase. Since many prokaryotes, including Escherichia (E.) coli, generate H2S and encounter high H2S levels particularly in the human gut, herein we tested whether bacteria can sustain sulfide-resistant O2-dependent respiration. E. coli has three respiratory oxidases, the cyanide-sensitive heme-copper bo3 enzyme and two bd oxidases much less sensitive to cyanide. Working on the isolated enzymes, we found that, whereas the bo3 oxidase is inhibited by sulfide with half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 = 1.1 ± 0.1 μM, under identical experimental conditions both bd oxidases are insensitive to sulfide up to 58 μM. In E. coli respiratory mutants, both O2-consumption and aerobic growth proved to be severely impaired by sulfide when respiration was sustained by the bo3 oxidase alone, but unaffected by ≤200 μM sulfide when either bd enzyme acted as the only terminal oxidase. Accordingly, wild-type E. coli showed sulfide-insensitive respiration and growth under conditions favouring the expression of bd oxidases. In all tested conditions, cyanide mimicked the functional effect of sulfide on bacterial respiration. We conclude that bd oxidases promote sulfide-resistant O2-consumption and growth in E. coli and possibly other bacteria. The impact of this discovery is discussed. PMID:27030302

  5. Chemokines and chemokine receptors as promoters of prostate cancer growth and progression.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Nicole; Castellan, Miguel; Shirodkar, Samir S; Lokeshwar, Bal L

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is estimated to be first in incidence among cancers, with more than 240,000 new cases in 2012 in the United States. Chemokines and their receptors provide survival, proliferation, and invasion characteristics to CaP cells in both primary sites of cancer and metastatic locations. The emerging data demonstrate that many chemokines and their receptors are involved in the multistep process of CaP, leading to metastasis, and, further, that these factors act cooperatively to enhance other mechanisms of tumor cell survival, growth, and metastasis. Changes of chemokine receptor cohorts may be necessary to activate tumor-promoting signals. Chemokine receptors can activate downstream effectors, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases, by complex mechanisms of ligand-dependent activation of cryptic growth factors; guanosine triphosphate-binding, protein-coupled activation of survival kinases; or transactivation of other receptors such as ErbB family members. We describe vanguard research in which more than the classic view of chemokine receptor biology was clarified. Control of chemokines and inhibition of their receptor activation may add critical tools to reduce tumor growth, especially in chemo-hormonal refractory CaP that is both currently incurable and the most aggressive form of the disease, accounting for most of the more than 28,000 annual deaths. PMID:23557339

  6. Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors as Promoters of Prostate Cancer Growth and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Nicole; Castellan, Miguel; Shirodkar, Samir S.; Lokeshwar, Bal L.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is estimated to be first in incidence among cancers, with more than 240,000 new cases in 2012 in the United States. Chemokines and their receptors provide survival, proliferation, and invasion characteristics to CaP cells in both primary sites of cancer and metastatic locations. The emerging data demonstrate that many chemokines and their receptors are involved in the multistep process of CaP, leading to metastasis, and, further, that these factors act cooperatively to enhance other mechanisms of tumor cell survival, growth, and metastasis. Changes of chemokine receptor cohorts may be necessary to activate tumor-promoting signals. Chemokine receptors can activate downstream effectors, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases, by complex mechanisms of ligand-dependent activation of cryptic growth factors; guanosine triphosphatebinding, protein-coupled activation of survival kinases; or transactivation of other receptors such as ErbB family members. We describe vanguard research in which more than the classic view of chemokine receptor biology was clarified. Control of chemokines and inhibition of their receptor activation may add critical tools to reduce tumor growth, especially in chemo-hormonal refractory CaP that is both currently incurable and the most aggressive form of the disease, accounting for most of the more than 28,000 annual deaths. PMID:23557339

  7. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and endophytes accelerate phytoremediation of metalliferous soils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Prasad, M N V; Rajkumar, M; Freitas, H

    2011-01-01

    Technogenic activities (industrial-plastic, textiles, microelectronics, wood preservatives; mining-mine refuse, tailings, smelting; agrochemicals-chemical fertilizers, farm yard manure, pesticides; aerosols-pyrometallurgical and automobile exhausts; biosolids-sewage sludge, domestic waste; fly ash-coal combustion products) are the primary sources of heavy metal contamination and pollution in the environment in addition to geogenic sources. During the last two decades, bioremediation has emerged as a potential tool to clean up the metal-contaminated/polluted environment. Exclusively derived processes by plants alone (phytoremediation) are time-consuming. Further, high levels of pollutants pose toxicity to the remediating plants. This situation could be ameliorated and accelerated by exploring the partnership of plant-microbe, which would improve the plant growth by facilitating the sequestration of toxic heavy metals. Plants can bioconcentrate (phytoextraction) as well as bioimmobilize or inactivate (phytostabilization) toxic heavy metals through in situ rhizospheric processes. The mobility and bioavailability of heavy metal in the soil, particularly at the rhizosphere where root uptake or exclusion takes place, are critical factors that affect phytoextraction and phytostabilization. Developing new methods for either enhancing (phytoextraction) or reducing the bioavailability of metal contaminants in the rhizosphere (phytostabilization) as well as improving plant establishment, growth, and health could significantly speed up the process of bioremediation techniques. In this review, we have highlighted the role of plant growth promoting rhizo- and/or endophytic bacteria in accelerating phytoremediation derived benefits in extensive tables and elaborate schematic sketches. PMID:21147211

  8. In vivo hair growth-promoting effect of rice bran extract prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Woi-Sook; Moon, Jin-Nam; Cheon, Eun Jin; Kim, Joo-Wan; Jung, Sung Kyu; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2014-01-01

    The potential hair growth-promoting activity of rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) and major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid, policosanol, ?-oryzanol, and ?-tocotrienol, were evaluated with the histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in C57BL/6 mice. RB-SCE showed hair growth-promoting potential to a similar extent as 3% minoxidil, showing that the hair follicles were induced to be in the anagen stage. The numbers of the hair follicles were significantly increased. In addition, mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) were also significantly increased and that of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) decreased in RB-SCE-treated groups. Among the major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid and ?-oryzanol induced the formation of hair follicles according to examination of histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that RB-SCE, particularly linoleic acid and ?-oryzanol, promotes hair growth and suggests RB-SCE can be applied as hair loss treatment. PMID:24389480

  9. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Moon; Kim, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. Interestingly, we found that extraction with n-butanol is most efficient in producing the hair promoting activity. In addition, the soluble fraction of the n-butanol extract was further separated by silica gel chromatography and thin layer chromatography (TLC) resulting in isolating four single fractions which have hair growth regeneration potential. Furthermore, administration of ATRES extracts to dorsal skin area increased the number of hair follicles compared with control mouse group. Interestingly, administration of ATRES extract stimulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) but not of keratin growth factor (KGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Taken together, these results suggest that ATRES possesses strong hair growth promoting potential which controls the expression of IGF-1. PMID:26078771

  10. Astragalosides promote angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in a rat model of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    YU, JUN-MIN; ZHANG, XIAO-BO; JIANG, WEN; WANG, HUI-DONG; ZHANG, YI-NA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of astragalosides (ASTs) on angiogenesis, as well as the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) following myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced in rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Twenty-four hours after surgery, the rats were divided into low-dose, high-dose, control and sham surgery groups (n=8 per group). The low- and high-dose groups were treated with ASTs (2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively, via intraperitoneal injection), while, the control and sham surgery group rats received saline. Serum levels, and mRNA and protein expression levels of VEGF and bFGF, as well as the microvessel density (MVD) were determined four weeks post-treatment. Twenty-four hours post-surgery, VEGF and bFGF serum levels were observed to be comparable between the groups; while at four weeks, the VEGF and bFGF levels were higher in the AST-treated rats (P<0.01). Similarly, VEGF and bFGF mRNA and protein expression levels were higher following AST treatment (P<0.05). No difference in VEGF mRNA expression between the low- and high-dose groups was noted, however, an increase in the bFGF expression levels was detected in the high-dose group. Newly generated blood vessels were observed following MI, with a significant increase in MVD observed in the AST-treated groups (P<0.05). AST promotes angiogenesis of the heart and increases VEGF and bFGF expression levels. Thus, it is hypothesized that increased VEGF and bFGF levels may contribute to the AST-induced increase in angiogenesis in rat models of MI. PMID:26352430

  11. USP39 promotes the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xianwen; Sun, Xitai; Shi, Xiaolei; Jiang, Chunping; Yu, Decai; Zhang, Weiwei; Guan, Wenxian; Zhou, Jianxin; Wu, Yafu; Qiu, Yudong; Ding, Yitao

    2015-08-01

    Ubiquitin specific protease 39 (USP39) plays an important role in mRNA splicing. In the present study, we investigated the role of USP39 in regulating the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We detected USP39 expression in more than 100 HCC clinical samples. The USP39 expression was significantly higher in the tumor tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues, and was strongly associated with the pathological grade of HCC. USP39 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro in the HepG2 cells, while upregulation of USP39 promoted tumor cell growth. FCM assay showed that USP39 knockdown led to G2/M arrest and induced apoptosis in the HepG2 cells. USP39 knockdown by shRNA inhibited xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, USP39 knockdown led to the upregulation of p-Cdc2 and downregulation of p-Cdc25c and p-myt1, while the expression of total Cdc2, Cdc25c and myt1 was not changed in the USP39-knockdown cells. We also found that p-Cdc2 was decreased in the USP39-overexpressing cells and was upregulated in the xenografted tumors derived from the HepG2/KD cells from nude mice. Meanwhile, the expression levels of FoxM1 and its target genes PLK1 and cyclin B1 were decreased in the USP39-knockdown cells. These results suggest that USP39 may contribute to FoxM1 splicing in HCC tumor cells. Our data indicate that USP39 knockdown inhibited the growth of HCC both in vitro and in vivo through G2/M arrest, which was partly achieved via the inhibition of FoxM1 splicing. PMID:26081192

  12. Secreted Pyomelanin of Legionella pneumophila Promotes Bacterial Iron Uptake and Growth under Iron-Limiting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huaixin; Chatfield, Christa H.; Liles, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Iron acquisition is critical to the growth and virulence of Legionella pneumophila. Previously, we found that L. pneumophila uses both a ferrisiderophore pathway and ferrous iron transport to obtain iron. We now report that two molecules secreted by L. pneumophila, homogentisic acid (HGA) and its polymerized variant (HGA-melanin, a pyomelanin), are able to directly mediate the reduction of various ferric iron salts. Furthermore, HGA, synthetic HGA-melanin, and HGA-melanin derived from bacterial supernatants enhanced the ability of L. pneumophila and other species of Legionella to take up radiolabeled iron. Enhanced iron uptake was not observed with a ferrous iron transport mutant. Thus, HGA and HGA-melanin mediate ferric iron reduction, with the resulting ferrous iron being available to the bacterium for uptake. Upon further testing of L. pneumophila culture supernatants, we found that significant amounts of ferric and ferrous iron were associated with secreted HGA-melanin. Importantly, a pyomelanin-containing fraction obtained from a wild-type culture supernatant was able to stimulate the growth of iron-starved legionellae. That the corresponding supernatant fraction obtained from a nonpigmented mutant culture did not stimulate growth demonstrated that HGA-melanin is able to both promote iron uptake and enhance growth under iron-limiting conditions. Indicative of a complementary role in iron acquisition, HGA-melanin levels were inversely related to the levels of siderophore activity. Compatible with a role in the ecology and pathogenesis of L. pneumophila, HGA and HGA-melanin were effective at reducing and releasing iron from both insoluble ferric hydroxide and the mammalian iron chelates ferritin and transferrin. PMID:23980114

  13. Sequential Platelet-Derived Growth FactorSimvastatin Release Promotes Dentoalveolar Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Li Yen; Dovban, Alex S.M.; Lim, Lum Peng; Lim, Jason C.; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Timely augmentation of the physiological events of dentoalveolar repair is a prerequisite for the optimization of the outcome of regeneration. This study aimed to develop a treatment strategy to promote dentoalveolar regeneration by the combined delivery of the early mitogenic factor platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and the late osteogenic differentiation factor simvastatin. Materials and Methods: By using the coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomization technique, PDGF and simvastatin were encapsulated in a double-walled poly(d,l-lactide) and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLLAPLGA) microspheres in five different modes: microspheres encapsulating bovine serum albumin (BB), PDGF alone (XP), simvastatin alone (SB), PDGF-in-core and simvastatin-in-shell (PS), and simvastatin-in-core and PDGF-in-shell (SP). The microspheres were characterized using scanning electronic microscopy, and the in vitro release profile was evaluated. Microspheres were delivered to fill large osteotomy sites on rat maxillae for 14 and 28 days, and the outcome of regeneration was evaluated by microcomputed tomography and histological assessments. Results: Uniform 20-?m controlled release microspheres were successfully fabricated. Parallel PDGFsimvastatin release was noted in the PS group, and the fast release of PDGF followed by the slow release of simvastatin was noted in the SP group. The promotion of osteogenesis was observed in XP, PS, and SP groups at day 14, whereas the SP group demonstrated the greatest bone fill, trabecular numbers, and thickest trabeculae. Bone bridging was evident in the PS and SP group, with significantly increased osteoblasts in the SP group, and osteoclastic cell recruitment was promoted in all bioactive molecule-treated groups. At day 28, osteogenesis was promoted in all bioactive molecule-treated groups. Initial corticalization was noted in the XP, PS, and SP groups. Osteoblasts appeared to be decreased in all groups, and significantly, a greater osteoclastic cell recruitment was noted in the SB and SP groups. Conclusions: Both PDGF and simvastatin facilitate dentoalveolar regeneration, and sequential PDGFsimvastatin release (SP group) further accelerated the regeneration process through the enhancement of osteoblastogenesis and the promotion of bone maturation. PMID:23980713

  14. Transforming growth factor-alpha promotes mammary tumorigenesis through selective survival and growth of secretory epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. H.; Sharp, R.; Kordon, E. C.; Jhappan, C.; Merlino, G.

    1995-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha stimulates the growth and development of mammary epithelial cells and is implicated in the pathogenesis of human breast cancer. In this report we evaluate the consequences of overexpressing TGF-alpha in the mammary gland of transgenic mice and examine associated cellular mechanisms. When operating on a FVB/N genetic background (line MT100), TGF-alpha induced the stochastic development of mammary adenomas and adenocarcinomas f secretory epithelial origin in 64% of multiparous females. In contrast, tumors were exceedingly rare in virgin MT100 females, MT100 males, and multiparous FVB/N females. In MT100 females multiple foci of hyperplastic secretory lesions preceded the development of frank tumors; these initial lesions appeared during the involution period after the first lactation. Serial transplantation of these hyperplasias indicated an absence of proliferative immortality. Nevertheless, they gave rise to tumors at a low frequency and after a prolonged latency in virgin hosts; in multiparous hosts, tumors developed earlier and at a high incidence. The TGF-alpha transgene was highly expressed in hyperplasias and tumors but not in virgin and nonlesion-bearing tissue, suggesting that TGF-alpha overexpression provides a selective growth advantage. TGF-alpha also induced at lactation a 6.4-fold increase in DNA synthesis in MT100 epithelial cells, many of which were binucleated. MT100 mammary tissue experienced an obvious delay in involution, resulting in the postlactational survival of a significant population of unregressed secretory epithelial cells. In contrast, another line of transgenic mice on a CD-1 genetic background (MT42), in which TGF-alpha overexpression induced liver but not mammary tumors, failed to demonstrate postlactational epithelial cell survival. These data show that TGF-alpha promotes mammary tumorigenesis in multiparous MT100 mice by stimulating secretory epithelial cell proliferation during lactation and prolonging survival during involution. These points support the notion that TGF-alpha can act as a mitogen and also as a differentiation factor in mammary epithelium. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7573353

  15. HOIL-1L Functions as the PKC? Ubiquitin Ligase to Promote Lung