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1

Endophytic Actinomycetes: Biocontrol Agents and Growth Promoters  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Diverse endophytic microbes construct complex interactions with their living hosts. Some are mutually supportive and others\\u000a parasitic, giving a large influence to plant health. Endophytic actinomycetes have attracted interest of microbiologists,\\u000a agrochemists and pharmacologists as the promising producers of novel antibiotics, growth promoters, and lead compounds to\\u000a develop new medicines and agrochemicals. Although the fruits of basic research concerning these

Masafumi Shimizu

2

Hormonal Growth Promoting Agents in Food Producing Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In contrast to the use of hormonal doping agents in sports to enhance the performance of athletes, in the livestock industry\\u000a hormonal growth promoters (“anabolics”) are used to increase the production of muscle meat. This leads to international disputes\\u000a about the safety of meat originating from animals treated with such anabolics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a As a consequence of the total ban in the

Rainer W. Stephany

3

Effect of Abolishment of the Use of Antimicrobial Agents for Growth Promotion on Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Fecal Enterococci from Food Animals in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1995 to 2000, a total of 673 Enterococcus faecium and 1,088 Enterococcus faecalis isolates from pigs together with 856 E. faecium isolates from broilers were isolated and tested for susceptibility to four classes of antimicrobial agents used for growth promotion as part of the Danish program of monitoring for antimicrobial resistance. The four antimicrobials were avilamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, and

FRANK MØLLER AARESTRUP; ANNE METTE SEYFARTH; HANNE-DORTHE EMBORG; KARL PEDERSEN; R. S. Hendriksen; F. Bager

2001-01-01

4

Siderophore as a potential plant growth-promoting agent produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25.  

PubMed

Siderophores scavenges Fe(+3) from the vicinity of the roots of plants, and thus limit the amount of iron required for the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium ultimum, and Fusarium udum, which cause wilt and root rot disease in crops. The ability of Pseudomonas to grow and to produce siderophore depends upon the iron content, pH, and temperature. Maximum yield of siderophore of 130 ?M was observed at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 and temperature of 30 °C at 30 h. The threshold level of iron was 50 ?M, which increases up to 150 ?M, favoring growth but drastically affecting the production of siderophore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25. The seeds of agricultural crops like Cicer arietinum (chick pea), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), and Arachis hypogaea (ground nut) were treated with P. aeruginosa JAS-25, which enhanced the seed germination, root length, shoot length, and dry weight of chick pea, pigeon pea, and ground nut plants under pot studies. The efficient growth of the plants was not only due to the biocontrol activity of the siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa JAS-25 but also may be by the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), which influences the growth of the plants as phytohormones. PMID:25062779

Sulochana, M B; Jayachandra, S Y; Kumar, S Anil; Parameshwar, A B; Reddy, K Mohan; Dayanand, A

2014-09-01

5

Identification of Volatiles Produced by Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1, a Fungal Biocontrol Agent That Promotes Plant Growth  

PubMed Central

Certain microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) have been reported to enhance the growth and development of plants. The biocontrol fungi, Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1 significantly improved the growth of tobacco seedlings in vitro when they were co-cultivated without physical contact. SPME Quadrupole GC/MS/MS revealed that CL-1 emited the volatiles ?-pinene, (?)-trans-caryophyllene, tetrahydro-2,2,5,5-tetramethylfuran, dehydroaromadendrene, and (+)-sativene. Potential roles of these volatiles in plant growth and development are discussed. Even though there were several fungal VOCs reported in the past that could influence plant growth, their exact mechanisms of action are not fully known. Fungal VOC-mediated plant growth promotion requires in-depth study in order for this technology to be used in large scale for crops, especially those grown under greenhouse conditions. PMID:24135990

Paul, Diby; Park, Kyung Seok

2013-01-01

6

Benefits and risks of growth promoters in animal production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Producers use growth promoters to increase growth rates and improve overall efficiency and product quality. Various compounds have been tried for growth promotion, including hormones and antimicrobial agents. Natural hormones such estradiol (estrogen), progestrone and testosterone or synthetic hormones such as zeranol, melengestrol acetate and trenbolone acetate are widely used as growth promoters in animals. The non- therapeutic use of

S. N. Al-Dobai; H. M. Mous

2009-01-01

7

Engineered collagen hydrogels for the sustained release of biomolecules and imaging agents: promoting the growth of human gingival cells  

PubMed Central

We present here the in vitro release profiles of either fluorescently labeled biomolecules or computed tomography contrast nanoagents from engineered collagen hydrogels under physiological conditions. The collagen constructs were designed as potential biocompatible inserts into wounded human gingiva. The collagen hydrogels were fabricated under a variety of conditions in order to optimize the release profile of biomolecules and nanoparticles for the desired duration and amount. The collagen constructs containing biomolecules/nanoconstructs were incubated under physiological conditions (ie, 37°C and 5% CO2) for 24 hours, and the release profile was tuned from 20% to 70% of initially loaded materials by varying the gelation conditions of the collagen constructs. The amounts of released biomolecules and nanoparticles were quantified respectively by measuring the intensity of fluorescence and X-ray scattering. The collagen hydrogel we fabricated may serve as an efficient platform for the controlled release of biomolecules and imaging agents in human gingiva to facilitate the regeneration of oral tissues. PMID:25429215

Choi, Jonghoon; Park, Hoyoung; Kim, Taeho; Jeong, Yoon; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Gilad, Assaf A; Lee, Kwan Hyi

2014-01-01

8

Cloning of genes involved in the biosynthesis of pseudobactin, a high-affinity iron transport agent of a plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas strain.  

PubMed Central

A gene bank of DNA from plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas sp. strain B10 was constructed using the broad host-range conjugative cosmid pLAFR1. The recombinant cosmids contained insert DNA averaging 21.5 kilobase pairs in length. Nonfluorescent mutants of Pseudomonas sp. strain B10 were obtained by mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, ethyl methanesulfonate, or UV light and were defective in the biosynthesis of its yellow-green, fluorescent siderophore (microbial iron transport agent) pseudobactin. No yellow-green, fluorescent mutants defective in the production of pseudobactin were identified. Nonfluorescent mutants were individually complemented by mating the gene bank en masse and identifying fluorescent transconjugants. Eight recombinant cosmids were sufficient to complement 154 nonfluorescent mutants. The pattern of complementation suggests that a minimum of 12 genes arranged in four gene clusters is required for the biosynthesis of pseudobactin. This minimum number of genes seems reasonable considering the structural complexity of pseudobactin. Images PMID:6690426

Moores, J C; Magazin, M; Ditta, G S; Leong, J

1984-01-01

9

Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains SF39a and SF4c, Potential Plant Growth Promotion and Biocontrol Agents  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas fluorescens SF4c and SF39a, strains isolated from wheat rhizosphere, have potential applications in plant growth promotion and biocontrol of fungal diseases of crop plants. We report the draft genome sequences of SF4c and SF39a with estimated sizes of 6.5 Mb and 5.9 Mb, respectively. PMID:25814613

Ly, Lindsey K.; Underwood, Grace E.; McCully, Lucy M.; Bitzer, Adam S.; Godino, Agustina; Bucci, Vanni; Brigham, Christopher J.; Príncipe, Analía; Fischer, Sonia E.

2015-01-01

10

Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains SF39a and SF4c, Potential Plant Growth Promotion and Biocontrol Agents.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas fluorescens SF4c and SF39a, strains isolated from wheat rhizosphere, have potential applications in plant growth promotion and biocontrol of fungal diseases of crop plants. We report the draft genome sequences of SF4c and SF39a with estimated sizes of 6.5 Mb and 5.9 Mb, respectively. PMID:25814613

Ly, Lindsey K; Underwood, Grace E; McCully, Lucy M; Bitzer, Adam S; Godino, Agustina; Bucci, Vanni; Brigham, Christopher J; Príncipe, Analía; Fischer, Sonia E; Silby, Mark W

2015-01-01

11

Agent-Based Plant Growth Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducing Agent theory is an efficient way to solve the limitation of the method that constructing plant growth modeling in the virtual plant research, based on the definition and features of Agent and introduction of the virtual plant's significance and present situation. A new system of plant growth modeling is proposed, which is applied in soybean growth system, according to

Xiaoming Li; Zhongbin Su; Hongmin Sun; Ping Zheng

2009-01-01

12

Bacterial volatiles promote growth in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several chemical changes in soil are associated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Some bacterial strains directly regulate plant physiology by mimicking synthesis of plant hormones, whereas others increase mineral and nitrogen availability in the soil as a way to augment growth. Identification of bacterial chemical messengers that trigger growth promotion has been limited in part by the understanding of how

Choong-Min Ryu; Mohamed A. Farag; Chia-Hui Hu; Munagala S. Reddy; Han-Xun Wei; Paul W. Paré; Joseph W. Kloepper

2003-01-01

13

Hair growth-promoting effect of Carthamus tinctorius floret extract.  

PubMed

The florets of Carthamus tinctorius L. have traditionally been used for hair growth promotion. This study aimed to examine the potential of hydroxysafflor yellow A-rich C.?tinctorius extract (CTE) on hair growth both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of CTE on cell proliferation and hair growth-associated gene expression in dermal papilla cells and keratinocytes (HaCaT) was determined. In addition, hair follicles from mouse neonates were isolated and cultured in media supplemented with CTE. Moreover, CTE was applied topically on the hair-shaved skin of female C57BL/6 mice, and the histological profile of the skin was investigated. C.?tinctorius floret ethanolic extract promoted the proliferation of both dermal papilla cells and HaCaT and significantly stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor and keratinocyte growth factor. In contrast, CTE suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-?1 that is the hair loss-related gene. Furthermore, CTE treatment resulted in a significant increase in the length of cultured hair follicles and stimulated the growth of hair with local effects in mice. The results provided the preclinical data to support the potential use of CTE as a hair growth-promoting agent. PMID:24338940

Junlatat, Jintana; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

2014-07-01

14

Identification of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor as a Potent Endothelial Cell Growth-Promoting Agent Released by Ectopic Human Endometrial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of endometrial cells in ectopic locations (endometriosis) is dependent on the establishment of an adequate blood supply. Neo- vascularization (angiogenesis) is therefore a vital step toward the progression of this disease. We first revealed the presence of a potent mitogenic activity for human endothelial cells in the culture medium of immortalized human endometriotic cells. The activity, measured by

YINGBO YANG; PIERRE DEGRANPRE; ABDELAZIZ KHARFI; ALI AKOUM

2010-01-01

15

Enterobacter : Role in Plant Growth Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is believed that inoculation with rhizobacteria containing plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics consequently promote\\u000a root and shoot growth. Further evaluation of these bacteria exhibiting multiple PGP traits on soil–plant system is needed\\u000a to uncover their efficacy as effective PGP rhizobacteria (PGPR) or PGP bacteria (PGPB) depending upon their nature. The genera\\u000a within the family Enterobacteriaceae that feature members described

Chaitanya Kumar Jha; Abhinav Aeron; Baldev V. Patel; Dinesh K. Maheshwari; Meenu Saraf

16

Promotion of asparagus shoot and root growth by growth retardants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plantlets regenerated from shoot-tip culture of Asparagus officinalis L. possessed weak shoots and roots. Various combinations of auxins and cytokinins did not improve the plantlets. Incorporation of a number of growth retardants, viz. ancymidol, B-995, phosfon, Amo 1618, cycocel and paclobutrazol, promoted growth of stronger shoots and roots. The effectiveness of the growth retardants varied, with ancymidol being most effective

Alisa Khunachak; Chee-Kok Chin; Trang Le; Tom Gianfagna

1987-01-01

17

Using Community Health Workers in Community-Based Growth Promotion: What Stakeholders Think  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Nutrition and Malaria Control for Child Survival Project is a community-based growth promotion project that utilizes Community Health Workers (CHWs), referred to as Community Child Growth Promoters (CCGPs), as the principal change agents. The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of key stakeholders about the project and the role…

Afulani, Patience A.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Opoku, Ernest C.; Asunka, Joseph

2012-01-01

18

Growth factors, tumor promoters, and cancer genes  

SciTech Connect

This book contains over 30 selections. Some of the titles are: Growth-regulated genes and human leukemias; Tyrosyl and phosphatidylinositol kinases of human erythrocyte membranes; Growth factors, oncogenes, and multistage carcinogenesis; Tumorigenic transformation of human teratocarcinoma cells by activated ras oncogene but not the homologous photo-oncogene; and Genes that cooperate with tumor promoters in transformation.

Colburn, N.H.; Moses, H.L.; Stanbridge, E.J.

1988-01-01

19

Microaerophilic Conditions Promote Growth of Mycobacterium genavense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our studies show that microaerophilic conditions promote the growth of Mycobacterium genavense in semi- solid medium. The growth of M. genavense at 2.5 or 5% oxygen was superior to that obtained at 21% oxygen in BACTEC primary cultures (Middlebrook 7H12, pH 6.0, without additives). By using nondecontaminated speci- mens, it was possible to detect growth with very small inocula (25

L. REALINI; K. DE RIDDER; J.-C. PALOMINO; B. HIRSCHEL; F. PORTAELS

1998-01-01

20

Growth-promotant implants: managing the tools.  

PubMed

Great contemplation, conversation, and controversy have surrounded the use of growth-promotant implants since their inception in the 1950s. Since the very beginning, the purpose of growth promotants has been to enhance production efficiency, reduce the cost of production, and improve profitability. Changes in our understanding of the physiologic mechanisms involved in growth promotion have not altered this fundamental purpose. With enhanced knowledge of the impact of various compounds and doses on different classes of animals, and with the introduction of numerous products providing those compounds and doses, planning implant programs has become difficult. However, the net return from a well-designed implant program may mean the difference between profit and loss on a given set of cattle. PMID:17606153

Reinhardt, Chris

2007-07-01

21

How the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Azospirillum Promotes Plant Growth—A Critical Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 35 years of studies of Azospirillum–plant interaction, over 20 proposals were suggested for the mechanism of action by which Azospirillum spp., the most intensively studied plant growth-promoting bacteria, enhances plant growth. The proposals include a single phytohormone activity, multiple phytohormones, nitrogen fixation, assortments of small-sized molecules and enzymes, enhanced membrane activity, proliferation of the root system, enhanced

Yoav Bashan; Luz E. de-Bashan

2010-01-01

22

Twist promotes tumor cell growth through YB-1 expression.  

PubMed

YB-1 controls gene expression through both transcriptional and translational mechanisms and is involved in various biological activities such as brain development, chemoresistance, and tumor progression. We have previously shown that YB-1 is overexpressed in cisplatin-resistant cells and is involved in resistance against DNA-damaging agents. Structural analysis of the YB-1 promoter reveals that several E-boxes may participate in the regulation of YB-1 expression. Here, we show that the E-box-binding transcription factor Twist is overexpressed in cisplatin-resistant cells and that YB-1 is a target gene of Twist. Silencing of either Twist or YB-1 expression induces G(1) phase cell cycle arrest of tumor cell growth. Significantly, reexpression of YB-1 led to increase colony formation when Twist expression was down-regulated by small interfering RNA. However, cotransfection of Twist expression plasmid could not increase colony formation when YB-1 expression was down-regulated. Collectively, these data suggest that YB-1 is a major downstream target of Twist. Both YB-1 and Twist expression could induce tumor progression, promoting cell growth and driving oncogenesis in various cancers. Thus, both YB-1 and Twist may represent promising molecular targets for cancer therapy. PMID:18172301

Shiota, Masaki; Izumi, Hiroto; Onitsuka, Takamitsu; Miyamoto, Naoya; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Kidani, Akihiko; Yokomizo, Akira; Naito, Seiji; Kohno, Kimitoshi

2008-01-01

23

A natural plant growth promoter calliterpenone from a plant Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl improves the plant growth promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs).  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calliterpenone, a natural plant growth promoter from a shrub Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl., in enhancing the growth and yield promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), in menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L).This study is based on our previous results indicating the microbial growth promotion by calliterpenone and assumption that application of calliterpenone along with PGPRs will improve the population of PGPRs resulting in higher impacts on plant growth and yield. Of the 15 PGPRs (identified as potent ones in our laboratory), 25 ?l of 0.01 mM calliterpenone (8.0 ?g/100 ml) was found to be useful in improving the population of nine PGPRs in culture media. The five selected strains of PGPRs exhibiting synergy with calliterpenone in enhancing growth of maize compared to PGPR or calliterpenone alone were selected and tested on two cultivars (cvs. Kosi and Kushal) of M. arvensis. Of the five strains, Bacillus subtilis P-20 (16S rDNA sequence homologous to Accession No NR027552) and B. subtilis Daz-26 (16SrDNA sequence homologuos to Accession No GU998816) were found to be highly effective in improving the herb and essential oil yield in the cultivars Kushal and Kosi respectively when co-treated with calliterpenone. The results open up the possibilities of using a natural growth promoter along with PGPRs as a bio-agri input for sustainable and organic agriculture. PMID:23271460

Maji, Deepamala; Barnawal, Deepti; Gupta, Aakansha; King, Shikha; Singh, A K; Kalra, A

2013-05-01

24

Comparative performance of formulations of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in growth promotion and suppression of downy mildew in pearl millet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five plant growth promoting rhizobacterial formulations, each consisting of two Bacilli strains with chitosan as a carrier were tested for their capacity to promote growth and induce resistance against downy mildew in pearl millet under both greenhouse and field conditions. Three modes of applications were tested: seed treatment, soil amendment, and seed treatment+soil amendment. In general, irrespective of application method,

S. Niranjan Raj; S. A. Deepak; P. Basavaraju; H. S. Shetty; M. S. Reddy; Joseph W. Kloepper

2003-01-01

25

Growth promoting effects of growth hormone and IGF-I are additive in experimental uremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth promoting effects of growth hormone and IGF-I are additive in experimental uremia. Exogenous growth hormone (GH) stimulates the endogenous production of IGF-I and improves growth in uremia. We investigated whether exogenous IGF-I is also able to improve uremic growth failure in rats and whether the growth promoting effects of GH and IGF-I are additive. In female 150 g uremic

Gábor T Kovács; Jun Oh; József Kovács; Burkhard Tönshoff; Ernst B Hunziker; Jürgen Zapf; Otto Mehls

1996-01-01

26

Induction of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by inflammatory agents and tumor promoters  

SciTech Connect

The production of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity (MEG-CSA) was assayed in acetic acid extracts of skin from mice topically treated with inflammatory and tumor-promoting agents. A rapid induction of MEG-CSA was found in skin treated both with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a strong tumor promoter, and with mezerein, a weak tumor promoter, but no induction was found in untreated skin. The time course of induction of MEG-CSA following treatment of skin with PMA or mezerein was very similar to that previously demonstrated for the induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by these agents. The induced MEG-CSA was found in both the epidermis and the dermis. Pretreatment of the skin with US -methasone abrogated the MEG-CSA induction. The cell number response curve suggests that the MEG-CSA acts directly on the progenitor cells of the megakaryocyte colonies. That topical administration of diterpene esters results in the rapid, local induction of MEG-CSA which can be blocked by US -methasone pretreatment suggests a mechanism for the thrombocytosis associated with some inflammatory states. The indirect action in which diterpene esters induce in certain cells the production or release of growth regulatory factors for other cell types may also aid in understanding their carcinogenic properties.

Clark, D.A.; Dessypris, E.N.; Koury, M.J.

1987-03-01

27

Agent-Based Modeling of Growth Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growth processes abound in nature, and are frequently the target of modeling exercises in the sciences. In this article we illustrate an agent-based approach to modeling, in the case of a single example from the social sciences: bullying.

Abraham, Ralph

2014-01-01

28

Preferential Promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Growth by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Tomato.  

PubMed

A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant. PMID:25320438

Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Dutta, Swarnalee; Samudrala, Ram Babu; Rao, Vukanti R V N; Kalam, Sadaf; Podile, Appa Rao

2014-12-01

29

PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING ACTIVITY OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies on the effects of humic substances (HS) on plants, under conditions of adequate mineral nutrition, consistently show stimulation of plant growth. Enhancement of root growth was usually more apparent than stimulation of shoot growth. Both increase in root length and development of secondary r...

30

Control of cell differentiation in cultured human cells by tumor promoting agents  

SciTech Connect

Unlike tumor initiators, the chemicals that promote tumor formation are devoid of mutagenic activity. These chemicals may exert their promotional effect by causing the expression of the mutated tumor genes in a process similar to gene expression during cell differentiation. Indeed, phorbol diesters and teleocidin have been shown to act as inducers of cell differentiation in a number of cell types. In cell differentiation studies with tumor promoters, the authors used 3 different human cell types, HO melanoma cells and the promyelocytic HL-60 and T lymphoid CEM leukemia cells. In the HO melanoma cells, the prototype phorbol diester phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), at doses as low as 10/sup -10/ to 10/sup -9/ M, induces a cell differentiation characterized by an inhibition of cell growth, increased synthesis of melanin, and induction of dendritelike structures. In this system, the authors demonstrated a relationship between the tumor-promoting activity of a series of phorbol diesters in vivo and the degree to which these agents induce differentiation in vitro. A similar relationship was demonstrated using the HL-60 cells.

Huberman, E.

1984-04-01

31

New agents promote neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease models.  

PubMed

Although researchers are pursuing "disease modifying" medications to slow or stop Parkinson's disease (PD) progression, a myriad of agents with protective properties in cell cultures and animal models have yielded few treatments in clinical practice. Developing safe and effective treatments with disease-modifying/neuroprotective mechanisms of action and identifying patients in the pre-motor phase will be a challenge. The implication of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, in the pathogenesis of PD at different levels makes it a promising candidate for developing efficient treatment based on correcting or bypassing the enzyme deficiency. TH is also the key enzyme for immunorreactivity in PD models and is used to assess the efficacy of novel disease-modifying medications. PD animal models are genetic: alpha-synuclein models, parkin (PINK 1 and DJ1) and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 or pharmacological and neurotoxic: reserpine, 6-hydroxydopamine, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine, rotenone, paraquat/maneb, and trichloroethylene. This review is focused on the state of art of PD models, the relationship with TH, and potential neuroprotective agents to treat PD. The latter include gene therapy, transplantation, erythropoietin, natural phenolic compounds, doxycycline, ethyl pyruvate, 9-methyl-beta-carboline, vascular endothelial growth factor, simvastatin, zonisamide, modafinil, melatonin, cannabinoids, rottlerin, fluoxetine, paroxetine, coenzyme Q10, N-acetylcysteine and vaccines like Bacille Calmette-Guerin, with different proposed mechanisms of action. Also of note is the link between hypovitaminosis D and neurodegeneration opening new perspectives in research with TH genes and PD models treated with vitamin D. Translational scientists can contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of PD and lead to more effective treatments. PMID:22483311

Santos, Claudia Maria Miranda

2012-06-01

32

Mechanisms of Fluorescent Pseudomonads That Mediate Biological Control of Phytopathogens and Plant Growth Promotion of Crop Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plant pathogens cause persistent and significant yield losses in economically important crop plants. Incessant use of chemicals\\u000a to control pathogens causes health problems and environmental pollution. Biological control agents are eco friendly and, therefore,\\u000a have emerged as promising alternatives. Fluorescent pseudomonads, the ubiquitous soil bacteria, form a large group of plant\\u000a growth-promoting rhizobacteria with plant growth-promoting and disease-suppressing attributes. They

J. Pathma; R. Kamaraj Kennedy; N. Sakthivel

33

Promoter analysis of a growth hormone transgene in Atlantic salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus) op5a antifreeze protein gene promoter has been used to generate a line of growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon with greatly enhanced growth rates. A study of the genomically integrated GH transgene (EO-1?) in this line of salmon revealed that the first 1579bp of the 2115-bp promoter was deleted and relocated downstream of the GH

T. M. Butler; G. L. Fletcher

2009-01-01

34

Growth-promoting activity of Hominis Placenta extract on regenerating sciatic nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:Extract of Hominis Placenta (HP) has been used in oriental medicine as an agent for improving physiological function. The present study was conducted to investigate whether HP treatment in an experimental sciatic nerve injury animal model produces growth-promoting effects on regenerating peripheral nerve fibers after injury.Methods:After HP was injected into a sciatic nerve injury site, changes in protein levels were

Tae-beom Seo; In-sun Han; Jin-hwan Yoon; In-chan Seol; Yun-sik Kim; Hyun-kyung Jo; Joung-jo An; Kwon-eui Hong; Young-bae Seo; Dong-hee Kim; Seung-kiel Park; Deok-chun Yang

2006-01-01

35

Environmental uses of plant growth-promoting bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ,Pl ant growth-promoting,bacteria,(PGPB) are commonly used to improve crop yields. In addition to their agricultural usefulness, there are potential benefits in environmental applications. For example, species of Azospirillum can increase bioremediation of wastewater by ,microalgae by increasing algal proliferation and metabolism. Additionally, these genera and ,several other bacterial species may prevent soil erosion in arid ,zones by improving growth

Yoav Bashan; M. Esther Puente; Juan-Pablo Hernandez

36

Applications of free living plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-living plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can be used in a variety of ways when plant growth enhancements are required. The most intensively researched use of PGPR has been in agriculture and horticulture. Several PGPR formulations are currently available as commercial products for agricultural production. Recently developing areas of PGPR usage include forest regeneration and phytoremediation of contaminated soils. As the

M. Lucy; E. Reed; Bernard R. Glick

2004-01-01

37

Method of Promoting Single Crystal Growth During Melt Growth of Semiconductors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of the invention promotes single crystal growth during fabrication of melt growth semiconductors. A growth ampoule and its tip have a semiconductor source material placed therein. The growth ampoule is placed in a first thermal environment that raises the temperature of the semiconductor source material to its liquidus temperature. The growth ampoule is then transitioned to a second thermal environment that causes the semiconductor source material in the growth ampoule's tip to attain a temperature that is below the semiconductor source material's solidus temperature. The growth ampoule so-transitioned is then mechanically perturbed to induce single crystal growth at the growth ampoule's tip.

Su, Ching-Hua (Inventor)

2013-01-01

38

Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake

Sumera Afzal Khan; Muhammad Hamayun; Hyeokjun Yoon; Ho-Youn Kim; Seok-Jong Suh; Seon-Kap Hwang; Jong-Myeong Kim; In-Jung Lee; Yeon-Sik Choo; Ung-Han Yoon; Won-Sik Kong; Byung-Moo Lee; Jong-Guk Kim

2008-01-01

39

[Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].  

PubMed

An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness < 0.005 mm) on winter wheat growth, soil moisture and nutrition conditions, and precipitation use. All the three measures promoted winter wheat growth, enhanced grain yield and precipitation use efficiency, and improved soil moisture and nutritional regimes. These positive effects were more obvious when the straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass. PMID:21548293

Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

2011-01-01

40

The Interrelationship between Promoter Strength, Gene Expression, and Growth Rate  

PubMed Central

In exponentially growing bacteria, expression of heterologous protein impedes cellular growth rates. Quantitative understanding of the relationship between expression and growth rate will advance our ability to forward engineer bacteria, important for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology applications. Recently, a work described a scaling model based on optimal allocation of ribosomes for protein translation. This model quantitatively predicts a linear relationship between microbial growth rate and heterologous protein expression with no free parameters. With the aim of validating this model, we have rigorously quantified the fitness cost of gene expression by using a library of synthetic constitutive promoters to drive expression of two separate proteins (eGFP and amiE) in E. coli in different strains and growth media. In all cases, we demonstrate that the fitness cost is consistent with the previous findings. We expand upon the previous theory by introducing a simple promoter activity model to quantitatively predict how basal promoter strength relates to growth rate and protein expression. We then estimate the amount of protein expression needed to support high flux through a heterologous metabolic pathway and predict the sizable fitness cost associated with enzyme production. This work has broad implications across applied biological sciences because it allows for prediction of the interplay between promoter strength, protein expression, and the resulting cost to microbial growth rates. PMID:25286161

Klesmith, Justin R.; Detwiler, Emily E.; Tomek, Kyle J.; Whitehead, Timothy A.

2014-01-01

41

Promoter analysis of a growth hormone transgene in Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

The ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus) op5a antifreeze protein gene promoter has been used to generate a line of growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon with greatly enhanced growth rates. A study of the genomically integrated GH transgene (EO-1 alpha) in this line of salmon revealed that the first 1579 bp of the 2115-bp promoter was deleted and relocated downstream of the GH coding region, raising questions regarding the ability of the truncated promoter to drive expression of the GH transgene and the potential influence of the relocated 5' promoter region. In this study, 11 promoter constructs were fused to a luciferase reporter gene, and their transcriptional ability was examined after transfection into salmon and human cell lines cultured at 21 and 37 degrees C, respectively. Construct expression was similar in all cell lines, apart from those of less than 266 bp, where expression in the salmon cells greatly exceeded that of the human cells. The results demonstrated the presence of positive and negative regulatory regions within the promoter that would allow the regulation of gene expression at multiple sites. Removal of the first 1579 bp from the promoter resulted in a 70% loss of the luciferase expression exhibited by the full-length promoter, whereas ligating the deleted 5' promoter sequence downstream of the luciferase reporter gene only restored approximately 10% of this loss. These results suggested that in vivo expression of the EO-1 alpha transgene is driven by elements within the weak truncated promoter in conjunction with the relocated 5' promoter region. PMID:19324402

Butler, T M; Fletcher, G L

2009-07-01

42

RGS5 promotes arterial growth during arteriogenesis  

PubMed Central

Arteriogenesis—the growth of collateral arterioles—partially compensates for the progressive occlusion of large conductance arteries as it may occur as a consequence of coronary, cerebral or peripheral artery disease. Despite being clinically highly relevant, mechanisms driving this process remain elusive. In this context, our study revealed that abundance of regulator of G-protein signalling 5 (RGS5) is increased in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of remodelling collateral arterioles. RGS5 terminates G-protein-coupled signalling cascades which control contractile responses of SMCs. Consequently, overexpression of RGS5 blunted G?q/11-mediated mobilization of intracellular calcium, thereby facilitating G?12/13-mediated RhoA signalling which is crucial for arteriogenesis. Knockdown of RGS5 evoked opposite effects and thus strongly impaired collateral growth as evidenced by a blockade of RhoA activation, SMC proliferation and the inability of these cells to acquire an activated phenotype in RGS5-deficient mice after the onset of arteriogenesis. Collectively, these findings establish RGS5 as a novel determinant of arteriogenesis which shifts G-protein signalling from G?q/11-mediated calcium-dependent contraction towards G?12/13-mediated Rho kinase-dependent SMC activation. Subject Categories Vascular Biology & Angiogenesis PMID:24972930

Arnold, Caroline; Feldner, Anja; Pfisterer, Larissa; Hödebeck, Maren; Troidl, Kerstin; Genové, Guillem; Wieland, Thomas; Hecker, Markus; Korff, Thomas

2014-01-01

43

RGS5 promotes arterial growth during arteriogenesis.  

PubMed

Arteriogenesis-the growth of collateral arterioles-partially compensates for the progressive occlusion of large conductance arteries as it may occur as a consequence of coronary, cerebral or peripheral artery disease. Despite being clinically highly relevant, mechanisms driving this process remain elusive. In this context, our study revealed that abundance of regulator of G-protein signalling 5 (RGS5) is increased in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of remodelling collateral arterioles. RGS5 terminates G-protein-coupled signalling cascades which control contractile responses of SMCs. Consequently, overexpression of RGS5 blunted G?q/11-mediated mobilization of intracellular calcium, thereby facilitating G?12/13-mediated RhoA signalling which is crucial for arteriogenesis. Knockdown of RGS5 evoked opposite effects and thus strongly impaired collateral growth as evidenced by a blockade of RhoA activation, SMC proliferation and the inability of these cells to acquire an activated phenotype in RGS5-deficient mice after the onset of arteriogenesis. Collectively, these findings establish RGS5 as a novel determinant of arteriogenesis which shifts G-protein signalling from G?q/11-mediated calcium-dependent contraction towards G?12/13-mediated Rho kinase-dependent SMC activation. PMID:24972930

Arnold, Caroline; Feldner, Anja; Pfisterer, Larissa; Hödebeck, Maren; Troidl, Kerstin; Genové, Guillem; Wieland, Thomas; Hecker, Markus; Korff, Thomas

2014-01-01

44

Efficacy of Melatonin as a Sleep-Promoting Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have demonstrated sleep-promoting effects of melatonin treatment in humans, as evidenced by subjects' self-reports, polysomnographic recordings, and continuous actigraphic registration of motor activity. The sleep-promoting effects of either physiological or pharmacological doses of melatonin typically are observed within 1 h following treatment regardless of the time of melatonin administration. This fact indicates the acute nature of this effect

Irina V Zhdanova; Richard J. Wurtman

1997-01-01

45

Growth-promotion of plants with depolymerized alginates by irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alginate has been degraded by gamma-ray irradiation from a Co-60 source in liquid state (aqueous solution) and in solid state (powder form). The irradiated alginate with a molecular weight less than 10 4 shows a strong effect on the growth-promotion of rice and peanut. Low concentration of degraded alginate from 4% solution irradiated at 100 kGy is effective for the growth-promotion of plants and the suitable concentrations are ca 50 ppm for rice and ca 100 ppm for peanut.

Hien, Nguyen Quoc; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Tham, Le Xuan; Yoshii, Fumio; Dang, Vo Huy; Mitomo, Hiroshi; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu

2000-07-01

46

[Characterization of growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Eucalyptus nitens seedlings].  

PubMed

Rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rizosphere and root tissue of Eucalyptus nitens. The objective of this work was to evaluate their capacity to promote growth in seedlings of the same species under greenhouse conditions. The isolates that improved seedling growth were identified and characterized by their capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphates and increase 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. One hundred and five morphologically different strains were isolated, 15 of which promoted E. nitens seedling growth, significantly increasing the height (50%), root length (45%) as well as the aerial and root dry weight (142% and 135% respectively) of the plants. Bacteria belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, Lysinibacillus, Rahnella and Bacillus. Isolates A. phenanthrenivorans 21 and B. cereus 113 improved 3.15 times the emergence of E. nitens after 12 days, compared to control samples. Among isolated R. aquatilis, 78 showed the highest production of IAA (97.5±2.87 ?g/ml) in the presence of tryptophan and the highest solubilizer index (2.4) for phosphorus, while B. amyloliquefaciens 60 isolate was positive for ACC deaminase activity. Our results reveal the potential of the studied rhizobacteria as promoters of emergence and seedling growth of E. nitens, and their possible use as PGPR inoculants, since they have more than one mechanism associated with plant growth promotion. PMID:25576419

Angulo, Violeta C; Sanfuentes, Eugenio A; Rodríguez, Francisco; Sossa, Katherine E

2014-01-01

47

Hair growth-promoting activity of hot water extract of Thuja orientalis  

PubMed Central

Background Thuja orientalis has been traditionally used to treat patients who suffer from baldness and hair loss in East Asia. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth-promoting activity of T. orientalis hot water extract and the underlying mechanism of action. Methods After T. orientalis extract was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6?N mice, the histomorphometric analysis was employed to study induction of the hair follicle cycle. To determine the effect of T. orientalis extract on the telogen to anagen transition, the protein expression levels of ?-catenin and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in hair follicles were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results We observed that T. orientalis extract promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6?N mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric analysis data indicates that topical application of T. orientalis extract induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, in contrast to either the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. We also observed increases in both the number and size of hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis reveals earlier induction of ?-catenin and Shh proteins in hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group, compared to the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. Conclusion These results suggest that T. orientalis extract promotes hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles and might therefore be a potential hair growth-promoting agent. PMID:23305186

2013-01-01

48

Growth Promoting Effect of Hyaluronan Synthesis Promoting Substances on Japanese Eel Leptocephali  

PubMed Central

Hyaluronans (HAs) are glycosaminoglycans produced in the bodies of Anguilliform and Elopiform leptocephali, and play a role in metabolic energy. In mammals, HA synthesis-promoting substances (HASPS) up-regulate the expression of HA synthase (HAS) and increase the amount of HA in the body. In this study, Japanese eel leptocephali were fed a HASPS containing diet. We analyzed HAS1s and HAS2 expression, HA content, and their influence on growth. HASPS extracted from Grifola frondosa promoted HAS1s and HAS2 mRNA and HA content. Other than mammals, these results are first reported in vertebrate. Moreover, HASPS extracted from G. frondosa promoted leptocephalus growth. The relationship between growth and HA in the leptocephali is not yet clear. However, based on our results we hypothesize that HA is involved in the storage of energy, which is metabolized to sugars when needed for metabolic energy. PMID:24896609

Kawakami, Yutaka; Nomura, Kazuharu; Tanaka, Hideki

2014-01-01

49

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Mycorrhizal Fungi in Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) encourage plant growth by producing growth regulators, facilitating nutrient uptake, accelerating mineralization, reducing plant stress, stimulating nodulation, providing nitrogen fixation, promoting mycorrhizal fungi, suppressing plant diseases, and funct...

50

Promotion  

PubMed Central

This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

Alam, Hasan B.

2013-01-01

51

Piriformospora indica, a Cultivable Plant-Growth-Promoting Root Endophyte  

PubMed Central

Piriformospora indica (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycota) is a newly described cultivable endophyte that colonizes roots. Inoculation with the fungus and application of fungal culture filtrate promotes plant growth and biomass production. Due to its ease of culture, this fungus provides a model organism for the study of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and a new tool for improving plant production systems. PMID:10347070

Varma, Ajit; Savita Verma; Sudha; Sahay, Nirmal; Bütehorn, Britta; Franken, Philipp

1999-01-01

52

Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Mechanisms and Applications  

PubMed Central

The worldwide increases in both environmental damage and human population pressure have the unfortunate consequence that global food production may soon become insufficient to feed all of the world's people. It is therefore essential that agricultural productivity be significantly increased within the next few decades. To this end, agricultural practice is moving toward a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach. This includes both the increasing use of transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as a part of mainstream agricultural practice. Here, a number of the mechanisms utilized by plant growth-promoting bacteria are discussed and considered. It is envisioned that in the not too distant future, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) will begin to replace the use of chemicals in agriculture, horticulture, silviculture, and environmental cleanup strategies. While there may not be one simple strategy that can effectively promote the growth of all plants under all conditions, some of the strategies that are discussed already show great promise. PMID:24278762

Glick, Bernard R.

2012-01-01

53

Catecholamines Promote Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Growth by Regulating Iron Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Catecholamines are host stress hormones that can induce the growth of many bacteria by facilitating iron utilization and/or regulate the expression of virulence genes through specific hormone receptors. Whether these two responsive pathways are interconnected is unknown. In our previous study, it was found that catecholamines can regulate the expression of a great number of genes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important swine respiratory pathogen. However, bacterial growth was not affected by catecholamines in rich medium. In this study, it was discovered that catecholamines affected A. pleuropneumoniae growth in chemically defined medium (CDM). We found that serum inhibited A. pleuropneumoniae growth in CDM, while epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine promoted A. pleuropneumoniae growth in the CDM containing serum. The known bacterial hormone receptor QseC didn’t play roles in this process. Ion-supplementation and transcriptome analysis indicated that serum addition resulted in iron-restricted conditions which were alleviated by the addition of catecholamines. Transferrin, one of the components in serum, inhibited the growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in CDM, an effect reversed by addition of catecholamines in a TonB2-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate that catecholamines promote A. pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron-acquisition and metabolism, which is independent of the adrenergic receptor QseC. PMID:25849041

Li, Lu; Chen, Zhaohui; Bei, Weicheng; Su, Zhipeng; Huang, Qi; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Huanchun; Zhou, Rui

2015-01-01

54

Androgens promote prostate cancer cell growth through induction of autophagy.  

PubMed

Androgens regulate both the physiological development of the prostate and the pathology of prostatic diseases. However, the mechanisms by which androgens exert their regulatory activities on these processes are poorly understood. In this study, we have determined that androgens regulate overall cell metabolism and cell growth, in part, by increasing autophagy in prostate cancer cells. Importantly, inhibition of autophagy using either pharmacological or molecular inhibitors significantly abrogated androgen-induced prostate cancer cell growth. Mechanistically, androgen-mediated autophagy appears to promote cell growth by augmenting intracellular lipid accumulation, an effect previously demonstrated to be necessary for prostate cancer cell growth. Further, autophagy and subsequent cell growth is potentiated, in part, by androgen-mediated increases in reactive oxygen species. These findings demonstrate a role for increased fat metabolism and autophagy in prostatic neoplasias and highlight the potential of targeting underexplored metabolic pathways for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:23250485

Shi, Yan; Han, Jenny J; Tennakoon, Jayantha B; Mehta, Fabiola F; Merchant, Fatima A; Burns, Alan R; Howe, Matthew K; McDonnell, Donald P; Frigo, Daniel E

2013-02-01

55

Androgens Promote Prostate Cancer Cell Growth through Induction of Autophagy  

PubMed Central

Androgens regulate both the physiological development of the prostate and the pathology of prostatic diseases. However, the mechanisms by which androgens exert their regulatory activities on these processes are poorly understood. In this study, we have determined that androgens regulate overall cell metabolism and cell growth, in part, by increasing autophagy in prostate cancer cells. Importantly, inhibition of autophagy using either pharmacological or molecular inhibitors significantly abrogated androgen-induced prostate cancer cell growth. Mechanistically, androgen-mediated autophagy appears to promote cell growth by augmenting intracellular lipid accumulation, an effect previously demonstrated to be necessary for prostate cancer cell growth. Further, autophagy and subsequent cell growth is potentiated, in part, by androgen-mediated increases in reactive oxygen species. These findings demonstrate a role for increased fat metabolism and autophagy in prostatic neoplasias and highlight the potential of targeting underexplored metabolic pathways for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:23250485

Shi, Yan; Han, Jenny J.; Tennakoon, Jayantha B.; Mehta, Fabiola F.; Merchant, Fatima A.; Burns, Alan R.; Howe, Matthew K.; McDonnell, Donald P.

2013-01-01

56

Sorption and mineral-promoted transformation of synthetic hormone growth promoters in soil systems.  

PubMed

This work examines the fate of synthetic growth promoters (trenbolone acetate, melengestrol acetate, and zeranol) in sterilized soil systems, focusing on their sorption to organic matter and propensity for mineral-promoted reactions. In organic-rich soil matrices (e.g., Pahokee Peat), the extent and reversibility of sorption did not generally correlate with compound hydrophobicity (e.g., K(ow) values), suggesting that specific binding interactions (e.g., potentially hydrogen bonding through C17 hydroxyl groups for the trenbolone and melengestrol families) can also contribute to uptake. In soils with lower organic carbon contents (1-5.9% OC), evidence supports sorption occurring in parallel with surface reaction on inorganic mineral phases. Subsequent experiments with pure mineral phases representative of those naturally abundant in soil (e.g., iron, silica, and manganese oxides) suggest that growth promoters are prone to mineral-promoted oxidation, hydrolysis, and/or nucleophilic (e.g., H2O or OH(-)) addition reactions. Although reaction products remain unidentified, this study shows that synthetic growth promoters can undergo abiotic transformation in soil systems, a previously unidentified fate pathway with implications for their persistence and ecosystem effects in the subsurface. PMID:25426694

Qu, Shen; Kolodziej, Edward P; Cwiertny, David M

2014-12-24

57

Scarcity may promote cooperation in populations of simple agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study of the evolution of cooperation, resource limitations are usually assumed just to provide a finite population size. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that resource limitation may also generate dynamical payoffs able to modify the original structure of the games. Here we study analytically a phase transition from a homogeneous population of defectors when resources are abundant to the survival of unconditional cooperators when resources reduce below a threshold. To this end, we introduce a model of simple agents, with no memory or ability of recognition, interacting in well-mixed populations. The result might shed light on the role played by resource constraints on the origin of multicellularity.

Requejo, R. J.; Camacho, J.

2013-02-01

58

Scarcity may promote cooperation in populations of simple agents  

E-print Network

In the study of the evolution of cooperation, resource limitations are usually assumed just to provide a finite population size. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that resource limitation may also generate dynamical payoffs able to modify the original structure of the games. Here we study analytically a phase transition from a homogeneous population of defectors when resources are abundant to the survival of unconditional cooperators when resources reduce below a threshold. To this end, we introduce a model of simple agents, with no memory or ability of recognition, interacting in well-mixed populations. The result might shed light on the role played by resource constraints on the origin of multicellularity.

Requejo, R J

2013-01-01

59

Human Milk Oligosaccharides Promote the Growth of Staphylococci  

PubMed Central

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), which constitute a major component of human milk, promote the growth of particular bacterial species in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that HMO also interact with the bacterial communities present in human milk. To test this hypothesis, two experiments were conducted. First, milk samples were collected from healthy women (n = 16); culture-independent analysis of the bacterial communities was performed, HMO content was analyzed, and the relation between these factors was investigated. A positive correlation was observed between the relative abundance of Staphylococcus and total HMO content (r = 0.66). In a follow-up study, we conducted a series of in vitro growth curve experiments utilizing Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and HMO isolated from human milk. HMO exhibited stimulatory effects on bacterial growth under various nutritional conditions. Analysis of culture supernatants from these experiments revealed that HMO did not measurably disappear from the culture medium, indicating that the growth-enhancing effects were not a result of bacterial metabolism of the HMO. Instead, stimulation of growth caused greater utilization of amino acids in minimal medium. Collectively, the data provide evidence that HMO may promote the growth of Staphylococcus species in the lactating mammary gland. PMID:22562995

Hunt, K. M.; Preuss, J.; Nissan, C.; Davlin, C. A.; Williams, J. E.; Shafii, B.; Richardson, A. D.; McGuire, M. K.; Bode, L.

2012-01-01

60

Growth promoting effects of some lichen metabolites on probiotic bacteria.  

PubMed

In the present study, the extract of four natural lichen species Canoparmelia eruptens, Everniastrum cirrhatum, Parmotrema austrosinense and Rimelia cetrata were studied for the source of natural antioxidant and their purified secondary metabolites were evaluated for growth promoting effects on probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei. The methanolic fraction of lichen species showed moderate to high antioxidant activity in the order P. austrosinense > E. cirrhatum > C. eruptens > R. cetrata. The lichen metabolites showed antioxidant activity with an IC50 values (?g/ml); lecanoric acid 79-95, salazinic 88-108, atranorin 100-116 and consalazinic acid 119-125. As far as the growth promoting effects of lichen metabolites on L. casei is concerned, lecanoric acid at 100 ?g/ml conc. showed high growth stimulating activity in terms of increased dry matter of biomass (56.08 mg) of L. casei. Other lichen metabolites; salazinic acid, atranorin and consalazinic acid produced relatively less dry biomass 43.98 mg, 41.1 mg, 40.68 mg, respectively. However, standard antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and Trolox after 36 h produced 39.04-47.81 mg dry biomass. At lower pH the growth promoting activity of lichen metabolites was found stable. PMID:25328204

Gaikwad, Subhash; Verma, Neeraj; Sharma, B O; Behera, B C

2014-10-01

61

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638  

PubMed Central

Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT–PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar as an energy feedstock on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria as growth promoting agents. PMID:20485560

Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Hoffman, Adam; Zhang, Yian-Biao; Walla, Michael D.; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Newman, Lee; Monchy, Sébastien

2010-01-01

62

Plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus rhizosphere.  

PubMed

Present study deals with the isolation of rhizobacteria and selection of plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus (Saffron) rhizosphere during its flowering period (October-November). Bacterial load was compared between rhizosphere and bulk soil by counting CFU/gm of roots and soil respectively, and was found to be ~40 times more in rhizosphere. In total 100 bacterial isolates were selected randomly from rhizosphere and bulk soil (50 each) and screened for in-vitro and in vivo plant growth promoting properties. The randomly isolated bacteria were identified by microscopy, biochemical tests and sequence homology of V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA gene. Polyphasic identification categorized Saffron rhizobacteria and bulk soil bacteria into sixteen different bacterial species with Bacillus aryabhattai (WRF5-rhizosphere; WBF3, WBF4A and WBF4B-bulk soil) common to both rhizosphere as well as bulk soil. Pseudomonas sp. in rhizosphere and Bacillus and Brevibacterium sp. in the bulk soil were the predominant genera respectively. The isolated rhizobacteria were screened for plant growth promotion activity like phosphate solubilization, siderophore and indole acetic acid production. 50 % produced siderophore and 33 % were able to solubilize phosphate whereas all the rhizobacterial isolates produced indole acetic acid. The six potential PGPR showing in vitro activities were used in pot trial to check their efficacy in vivo. These bacteria consortia demonstrated in vivo PGP activity and can be used as PGPR in Saffron as biofertilizers.This is the first report on the isolation of rhizobacteria from the Saffron rhizosphere, screening for plant growth promoting bacteria and their effect on the growth of Saffron plant. PMID:23749248

Ambardar, Sheetal; Vakhlu, Jyoti

2013-12-01

63

Efficiency of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the enhancement of rice growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize plant roots and enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. Here, we have isolated and characterized the PGPR from the rhizosphere soil of rice field for the enhancement

M. Ashrafuzzaman; Farid Akhtar Hossen; M. Razi Ismail; M. Zahurul Islam; S. M. Shahidullah; Sariah Meon

2009-01-01

64

Growth promotion and yield enhancement of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

Although plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been reported to influence plant growth, yield and nutrient uptake by an array of mechanisms, the specific traits by which PGPR promote plant growth, yield and nutrient uptake were limited to the expression of one or more of the traits expressed at a given environment of plant-microbe interaction. We selected nine different isolates of PGPR from a pool of 233 rhizobacterial isolates obtained from the peanut rhizosphere on the basis of ACC-deaminase activity. The nine isolates were selected, initially, on the basis of germinating seed bioassay in which the root length of the seedling was enhanced significantly over the untreated control. All the nine isolates were identified as Pseudomonas spp. Four of these isolates, viz. PGPR1, PGPR2, PGPR4 and PGPR7 (all fluorescent pseudomonads), were the best in producing siderophore and indole acetic acid (IAA). In addition to IAA and siderophore-producing attributes, Pseudomonas fluorescens PGPR1 also possessed the characters like tri-calcium phosphate solubilization, ammonification and inhibited Aspergillus niger and A. flavus in vitro. P. fluorescens PGPR2 differed from PGPR1 in the sense that it did not show ammonification. In addition to the traits exhibited by PGPR1, PGPR4 showed strong in vitro inhibition to Sclerotium rolfsii. The performances of these selected plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial isolates were repeatedly evaluated for 3 years in pot and field trials. Seed inoculation of these three isolates, viz. PGPR1, PGPR2 and PGPR4, resulted in a significantly higher pod yield than the control, in pots, during rainy and post-rainy seasons. The contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in soil, shoot and kernel were also enhanced significantly in treatments inoculated with these rhizobacterial isolates in pots during both the seasons. In the field trials, however, there was wide variation in the performance of the PGPR isolates in enhancing the growth and yield of peanut in different years. Plant growth-promoting fluorescent pseudomonad isolates, viz. PGPR1, PGPR2 and PGPR4, significantly enhanced pod yield (23-26%, 24-28% and 18-24%, respectively), haulm yield and nodule dry weight over the control in 3 years. Other attributes like root length, pod number, 100-kernel mass, shelling out-turn and nodule number were also enhanced. Seed bacterization with plant growth-promoting P. fluorescens isolates, viz. PGPR1, PGPR2 and PGPR4, suppressed the soil-borne fungal diseases like collar rot of peanut caused by A. niger and PGPR4 also suppressed stem rot caused by S. rolfsii. Studies on the growth patterns of PGPR isolates utilizing the seed leachate as the sole source of C and N indicated that PGPR4 isolate was the best in utilizing the seed leachate of peanut, cultivar JL24. Studies on the rhizosphere competence of the PGPR isolates, evaluated on the basis of spontaneous rifampicin resistance, indicated that PGPR7 was the best rhizoplane colonizer and PGPR1 was the best rhizosphere colonizer. Although the presence of growth-promoting traits in vitro does not guarantee that an isolate will be plant growth promoting in nature, results suggested that besides ACC-deaminase activity of the PGPR isolates, expression of one or more of the traits like suppression of phytopathogens, solubilization of tri-calcium phosphate, production of siderophore and/or nodulation promotion might have contributed to the enhancement of growth, yield and nutrient uptake of peanut. PMID:15646384

Dey, R; Pal, K K; Bhatt, D M; Chauhan, S M

2004-01-01

65

Vascular endothelial growth factor acts primarily via platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? to promote proliferative vitreoretinopathy.  

PubMed

Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a nonneovascular blinding disease and the leading cause for failure in surgical repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Once formed, PVR is difficult to treat. Hence, there is an acute interest in developing approaches to prevent PVR. Of the many growth factors and cytokines that accumulate in vitreous as PVR develops, neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A has recently been found to prevent PVR in at least one animal model. The goal of this study was to test if Food and Drug Administration-approved agents could protect the eye from PVR in multiple animal models and to further investigate the underlying mechanisms. Neutralizing VEGF with aflibercept (VEGF Trap-Eye) safely and effectively protected rabbits from PVR in multiple models of disease. Furthermore, aflibercept reduced the bioactivity of both experimental and clinical PVR vitreous. Finally, although VEGF could promote some PVR-associated cellular responses via VEGF receptors expressed on the retinal pigment epithelial cells that drive this disease, VEGF's major contribution to vitreal bioactivity occurred via platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?. Thus, VEGF promotes PVR by a noncanonical ability to engage platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?. These findings indicate that VEGF contributes to nonangiogenic diseases and that anti-VEGF-based therapies may be effective on a wider spectrum of diseases than previously appreciated. PMID:25261788

Pennock, Steven; Haddock, Luis J; Mukai, Shizuo; Kazlauskas, Andrius

2014-11-01

66

Auxins as one of the factors of plant growth improvement by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) promote plant growth by various mechanisms such as phytohormone production, enhanced water and nutrient uptake, improved nitrogen availability in the soil, production of ACC-deaminase for ethylene breakdown, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production etc. Microbial auxin production is the major factor not only responsible for strengthening the plant-microbe relationship but it also promotes plant growth and development in a positive manner. Thus, bacterial auxin production potential can be exploited for plant growth improvement that may be effective in reducing the hazardous effects of chemical fertilizers on the ecosystem used to obtain higher yields. The present review gives a better understanding of various factors and mechanisms involved in auxin production by PGPR that may be helpful in proper exploitation of these natural resources in a beneficial way. PMID:25546935

Ahmed, Ambreen; Hasnain, Shahida

2014-01-01

67

Dynamic mast cell-stromal cell interactions promote growth of pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exists in a complex desmoplastic microenvironment, which includes cancer-associated fibroblasts (also known as pancreatic stellate cells, PSCs) and immune cells that provide a fibrotic niche that impedes successful cancer therapy. We have found that mast cells are essential for PDAC tumorigenesis. Whether mast cells contribute to the growth of PDAC and/or PSCs is unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that mast cells contribute to the growth of PSCs and tumor cells, thus contributing to PDAC development. Tumor cells promoted mast cell migration. Both tumor cells and PSCs stimulated mast cell activation. Conversely, mast cell-derived IL-13 and tryptase stimulated PSC proliferation. Treating tumor-bearing mice with agents that block mast cell migration and function depressed PDAC growth. Our findings suggest that mast cells exacerbate the cellular and extracellular dynamics of the tumor microenvironment found in PDAC. Therefore, targeting mast cells may inhibit stromal formation and improve therapy. PMID:23633481

Ma, Ying; Hwang, Rosa F.; Logsdon, Craig D.; Ullrich, Stephen E.

2013-01-01

68

Bacillus strains isolated from rhizosphere showed plant growth promoting and antagonistic activity against phytopathogens.  

PubMed

Seven bacterial isolates screened from rhizosphere of common bean growing at Uttarakhand Himalaya showed potential plant growth promoting (PGP) and antagonistic activities. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence the isolate BPR7 was identified as Bacillus sp. BPR7. The strain BPR7 produced IAA, siderophore, phytase, organic acid, ACC deaminase, cyanogens, lytic enzymes, oxalate oxidase, and solubilized various sources of organic and inorganic phosphates as well as potassium and zinc. Strain BPR7 strongly inhibited the growth of several phytopathogens such as Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Colletotricum sp. in vitro. Cell-free culture filtrate of strain BPR7 also caused colony growth inhibition of all test pathogens. PGP and antifungal activities of Bacillus sp. BPR7 suggest that it may be exploited as a potential bioinoculant agent for P. vulgaris. PMID:22677517

Kumar, Pankaj; Dubey, R C; Maheshwari, D K

2012-09-01

69

New advances in plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for bioremediation.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are bacteria capable of promoting plant growth by colonizing the plant root. For a long period PGPR were mainly used for assisting plants to uptake nutrients from the environment or preventing plant diseases. Phytoremediation is a new and promising approach to remove contaminants in the environment. But using plants alone for remediation confronts many limitations. Recently, the application of PGPR has been extended to remediate contaminated soils in association with plants. Of all the present contaminants, the profound impacts of organic and heavy metal pollutants have attracted world wide attention. Here we review the progress of PGPR for remediation of soils contaminated with these two sources. PMID:17275086

Zhuang, Xuliang; Chen, Jian; Shim, Hojae; Bai, Zhihui

2007-04-01

70

Genetic and Phenotypic Diversity of Plant Growth Promoting Bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bacilli are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive or variable, endospore-forming bacteria that exhibit resistance\\u000a to environmental stress and produce peptide antibiotics, peptide signal molecules, and extracellular enzymes. Bacillus and Paenibacillus genera include the best knowing nitrogen-fixing species. Another characteristic of bacilli is their great potential in producing\\u000a substances that promote direct plant growth by the production of phytohormones (mainly indolic

Anelise Beneduzi; Luciane M. P. Passaglia

71

Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria  

DOEpatents

A material and method is disclosed for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10 to about 60 C until the dissolved oxygen is removed. No Drawings

Adler, H.I.

1984-10-09

72

Screening of plant growth promoting traits of Bacillus thuringiensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to evaluate the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential ofBacillus thuringiensis. In this context, several genetic determinants of factors implicated in PGP potential were investigated by polymerase chain\\u000a reaction (PCR) in 16B. thuringiensis strains of different origin and belonging to different subspecies. PCR screening was performed on acid phosphatase, phytase,\\u000a siderophore biosynthesis protein, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and indolpyruvate

Noura Raddadi; Ameur Cherif; Abdellatif Boudabous; Daniele Daffonchio

2008-01-01

73

Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria  

DOEpatents

A material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10.degree. to about 60.degree. C. until the dissolved oxygen is removed.

Adler, Howard I. (128 Indian La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1984-01-01

74

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638  

SciTech Connect

Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar as an energy feedstock on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria as growth promoting agents. Poplar is considered as the model tree species for the production of lignocellulosic biomass destined for biofuel production. The plant growth promoting endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638 can improve the growth of poplar on marginal soils by as much as 40%. This prompted us to sequence the genome of this strain and, via comparative genomics, identify functions essential for the successful colonization and endophytic association with its poplar host. Analysis of the genome sequence, combined with metabolite analysis and quantitative PCR, pointed to a remarkable interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host with the endophyte responsible for the production of a phytohormone, and a precursor for another that poplar is unable to synthesize, and where the production of the plant growth promoting compounds depended on the presence of plant synthesized compounds, such as sucrose, in the growth medium. Our results provide the basis to better understanding the synergistic interactions between poplar and Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria such as Enterobacter sp. 638 as growth promoting agents.

Taghavi, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Hoffman, A.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Walla, M. D.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.; Monchy, S.

2010-05-13

75

Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Strain WP8, an Efficient Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus strain WP8 is an efficient plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. Here, we present the complete genome of WP8 and its genes involved in plant growth promotion and biocontrol. PMID:25614565

Shen, Min; Wang, Huanli; Zhao, Qingxin

2015-01-01

76

Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Strain WP8, an Efficient Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus strain WP8 is an efficient plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. Here, we present the complete genome of WP8 and its genes involved in plant growth promotion and biocontrol. PMID:25614565

Kang, Yijun; Shen, Min; Wang, Huanli; Zhao, Qingxin

2015-01-01

77

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning.  

PubMed

The rhizosphere supports the development and activity of a huge and diversified microbial community, including microorganisms capable to promote plant growth. Among the latter, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize roots of monocots and dicots, and enhance plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Modification of root system architecture by PGPR implicates the production of phytohormones and other signals that lead, mostly, to enhanced lateral root branching and development of root hairs. PGPR also modify root functioning, improve plant nutrition and influence the physiology of the whole plant. Recent results provided first clues as to how PGPR signals could trigger these plant responses. Whether local and/or systemic, the plant molecular pathways involved remain often unknown. From an ecological point of view, it emerged that PGPR form coherent functional groups, whose rhizosphere ecology is influenced by a myriad of abiotic and biotic factors in natural and agricultural soils, and these factors can in turn modulate PGPR effects on roots. In this paper, we address novel knowledge and gaps on PGPR modes of action and signals, and highlight recent progress on the links between plant morphological and physiological effects induced by PGPR. We also show the importance of taking into account the size, diversity, and gene expression patterns of PGPR assemblages in the rhizosphere to better understand their impact on plant growth and functioning. Integrating mechanistic and ecological knowledge on PGPR populations in soil will be a prerequisite to develop novel management strategies for sustainable agriculture. PMID:24062756

Vacheron, Jordan; Desbrosses, Guilhem; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Touraine, Bruno; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Muller, Daniel; Legendre, Laurent; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

2013-01-01

78

Biotechnological application and taxonomical distribution of plant growth promoting actinobacteria.  

PubMed

Plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria are involved in various interactions known to affect plant fitness and soil quality, thereby increasing the productivity of agriculture and stability of soil. Although the potential of actinobacteria in antibiotic production is well-investigated, their capacity to enhance plant growth is not fully surveyed. Due to the following justifications, PGP actinobacteria (PGPA) can be considered as a more promising taxonomical group of PGP bacteria: (1) high numbers of actinobacteria per gram of soil and their filamentous nature, (2) genome dedicated to the secondary metabolite production (~5 to 10 %) is distinctively more than that of other bacteria and (3) number of plant growth promoter genera reported from actinobacteria is 1.3 times higher than that of other bacteria. Mechanisms by which PGPA contribute to the plant growth by association are: (a) enhancing nutrients availability, (b) regulation of plant metabolism, (c) decreasing environmental stress, (d) control of phytopathogens and (e) improvement of soil texture. Taxonomical and chemical diversity of PGPA and their biotechnological application along with their associated challenges are summarized in this paper. PMID:25410828

Hamedi, Javad; Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh

2015-02-01

79

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning  

PubMed Central

The rhizosphere supports the development and activity of a huge and diversified microbial community, including microorganisms capable to promote plant growth. Among the latter, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize roots of monocots and dicots, and enhance plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Modification of root system architecture by PGPR implicates the production of phytohormones and other signals that lead, mostly, to enhanced lateral root branching and development of root hairs. PGPR also modify root functioning, improve plant nutrition and influence the physiology of the whole plant. Recent results provided first clues as to how PGPR signals could trigger these plant responses. Whether local and/or systemic, the plant molecular pathways involved remain often unknown. From an ecological point of view, it emerged that PGPR form coherent functional groups, whose rhizosphere ecology is influenced by a myriad of abiotic and biotic factors in natural and agricultural soils, and these factors can in turn modulate PGPR effects on roots. In this paper, we address novel knowledge and gaps on PGPR modes of action and signals, and highlight recent progress on the links between plant morphological and physiological effects induced by PGPR. We also show the importance of taking into account the size, diversity, and gene expression patterns of PGPR assemblages in the rhizosphere to better understand their impact on plant growth and functioning. Integrating mechanistic and ecological knowledge on PGPR populations in soil will be a prerequisite to develop novel management strategies for sustainable agriculture. PMID:24062756

Vacheron, Jordan; Desbrosses, Guilhem; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Touraine, Bruno; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Muller, Daniel; Legendre, Laurent; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

2013-01-01

80

The insulin superfamily of growth-promoting proteins  

E-print Network

Recently, structural analysis of the human transferrin and growth hormone (GH) amino acid sequences has unravelled that they harbor a motif identical to a pattern found in viral oncoproteins known to bind the primarily nuclear tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein (RB). Since related signatures had previously been identified also in insulin and the two insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), the aim of the current study has been to investigate whether further hints substantiating these reported homologies can be found in silico. Here, additional similarities are presented supporting the notion of an insulin superfamily of growth-promoting proteins with dual localization in the extracellular environment and the intracellular space, particularly in the nucleus, as well as characterized by a tropism for RB.

Razvan Tudor Radulescu

2007-07-29

81

Identification of Novel Pharmacological Activities of an Antifungal Agent, Nystatin, to Promote Dendritic Cell Maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an unbiased functional screen to identify agents activating dendritic cells (DCs), we recently developed a DC-based biosensor system, in which a stable murine DC line XS106 was engineered to express the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) gene under the control of the IL-1? promoter. Here we report that nystatin (NYT), an antifungal drug of the family of polyene macrolide antibiotics,

Yasushi Ogawa; Norikatsu Mizumoto; Hiroaki Tanaka; Hironori Matsushima; Akira Takashima

2006-01-01

82

Fusarial wilt control and growth promotion of pigeon pea through bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

The bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRLJ 04 and a Bacillus cereus strain BS 03, which showed growth promotion and disease control in pigeon pea against Fusarium udum, were isolated and screened for their efficacy to control fusarial wilt of pigeon pea under gnotobiotic and nursery condition. Bioactive metabolites viz., BM 1 and BM 2 from RRLJ 04 and BM 3 from BS 03 also showed in vitro antibiosis against F. udum. Seeds treated with 50 ?l seed?¹ of BM 1, 30 ?l seed?¹ of BM 2 and 70 ?l seed?¹ of BM 3 and grown in pathogen infested soil showed suppression of wilt disease besides growth enhancement. Per cent disease control was 90 % with BM 2 application as compared to 87 and 83 %, respectively in BM 1 and BM 3 after 90 days of growth. BM 2 treated plants were more resistant to the pathogen as compared to the other fractions tested. Mycelial dry weight was found to be reduced on treatment with the bioactive metabolites. Formation of chlamydospore-like structures was observed in the pathogen mycelium treated with BM 3. The analytical studies confirmed that two of these metabolites are phenazine derivatives. PMID:24154979

Dutta, S; Morang, P; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S

2014-03-01

83

Identification of longevity, fertility and growth-promoting properties of pomegranate in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Background: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is commonly consumed as fresh fruit and fruit juice. It is also used in the production of jam, wine, food coloring agent, and flavor enhancer. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the possible longevity, fertility and growth promoting properties of different ethanolic extract concentrations of pomegranate in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is increasingly popular and has proven to be a very useful experimental model organism for aging studies as well as for testing antioxidants and other compounds for effects on longevity. Materials and Methods: In this study, five experimental groups (20, 10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 mg pomegranate extract/mL and one control group) were used to determine the most effective dose of pomegranate in terms of longevity, fertility and growth parameters. Results: It was seen that, pomegranate extracts up to the concentration of 5 mg/mL, had the potential to promote for the longevity, formation of new generations, fertility of new generations and growth properties of C. elegans although higher concentrations significantly reduced these parameters. Conclusion: these findings indicated that pomegranate could be used as a supplement to enhance longevity, fertility and growth rate for the other living organisms and human beings, but the dose should be carefully adjusted to avoid adverse effects. PMID:25829775

K?l?çgün, Hasan; Arda, Nazl?; Uçar, Evren Önay

2015-01-01

84

Effect of Inoculation with Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria on Growth and Copper Uptake by Sunflowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria inoculation on Helianthus annuus growth and copper (Cu) uptake was investigated. For this, the strains CC22, CC24, CC30, and CC33 previously isolated from\\u000a heavy metal- and hydrocarbon-polluted soil were selected for study. These strains were characterized on the basis of their\\u000a 16S rDNA sequences and identified as Pseudomonas putida CC22, Enterobacter sakazakii CC24, Acinetobacter

Daniel Fernando Rojas-Tapias; Ruth Rebeca Bonilla; Jenny Dussán

85

Capillary endothelial cells express basic fibroblast growth factor, a mitogen that promotes their own growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillaries, which is observed in embryonic and injured tissue and is particularly prominent in the vicinity of solid tumours1, involves the migration and proliferation of capillary endothelial cells. It is probably triggered by agents, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), thought to be released from tissues adjacent to proliferating capillaries1. As well as being

Lothar Schweigerer; Gera Neufeld; Jeff Friedman; Judith A. Abraham; John C. Fiddes; Denis Gospodarowicz

1987-01-01

86

Regulation of the multiple promoters of the human aldolase A gene: response of its two ubiquitous promoters to agents promoting cell proliferation.  

PubMed Central

The human aldolase A gene is transcribed from three distinct promoters, the two ubiquitous promoters PN and PH and the muscle specific promoter PM. In the present study, we investigate further aldolase A mRNA structure and expression. We demonstrate that the upstream N-type exon is, in fact, extremely heterogeneous. RNAse H mapping experiments permit quantification of relative abundance of N, M, and H type mRNAs and show that the level of transcripts containing the downstream H-type exon is at least 30 times higher than that of those containing N exon, in all tissues tested. Aldolase A level is up-regulated in proliferating cells. Here we show that both N and H type mRNAs, although barely detectable in normal liver, are highly expressed in human hepatomas biopsies. Furthermore, in human lymphocytes, N-type mRNA level is enhanced by serum treatment, while in cultured Hep G2 cells, both N-type and H-type mRNA levels are increased by serum and by the tumor promoting agent PMA. Using CAT constructs in transfection experiments, we demonstrate that the H exon plus its upstream region can function autonomously: the 420 base pairs upstream of the H exon are sufficient to confer to promoter PH an efficiency comparable that of the complete SV40 early promoter and enhancer in two cell lines. Images PMID:1850123

Gautron, S; Maire, P; Hakim, V; Kahn, A

1991-01-01

87

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria improve growth and essential oil yield in Origanum majorana L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of root colonization by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on biomass, and qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils, were determined in the aromatic crop Origanum majorana L. (sweet marjoram). PGPR strains evaluated were Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Bradyrhizobium sp. Only P. fluorescens and Bradyrhizobium sp. showed significant increases in shoot length, shoot weight, number of

Erika Banchio; Pablo C. Bogino; Julio Zygadlo; Walter Giordano

2008-01-01

88

Embryonic Morphogen Nodal Promotes Breast Cancer Growth and Progression  

PubMed Central

Breast cancers expressing human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-associated genes are more likely to progress than well-differentiated cancers and are thus associated with poor patient prognosis. Elevated proliferation and evasion of growth control are similarly associated with disease progression, and are classical hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we demonstrate that the hESC-associated factor Nodal promotes breast cancer growth. Specifically, we show that Nodal is elevated in aggressive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t human breast cancer cell lines, compared to poorly aggressive MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Nodal knockdown in aggressive breast cancer cells via shRNA reduces tumour incidence and significantly blunts tumour growth at primary sites. In vitro, using Trypan Blue exclusion assays, Western blot analysis of phosphorylated histone H3 and cleaved caspase-9, and real time RT-PCR analysis of BAX and BCL2 gene expression, we demonstrate that Nodal promotes expansion of breast cancer cells, likely via a combinatorial mechanism involving increased proliferation and decreased apopotosis. In an experimental model of metastasis using beta-glucuronidase (GUSB)-deficient NOD/SCID/mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII) mice, we show that although Nodal is not required for the formation of small (<100 cells) micrometastases at secondary sites, it supports an elevated proliferation:apoptosis ratio (Ki67:TUNEL) in micrometastatic lesions. Indeed, at longer time points (8 weeks), we determined that Nodal is necessary for the subsequent development of macrometastatic lesions. Our findings demonstrate that Nodal supports tumour growth at primary and secondary sites by increasing the ratio of proliferation:apoptosis in breast cancer cells. As Nodal expression is relatively limited to embryonic systems and cancer, this study establishes Nodal as a potential tumour-specific target for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:23144858

Quail, Daniela F.; Zhang, Guihua; Walsh, Logan A.; Siegers, Gabrielle M.; Dieters-Castator, Dylan Z.; Findlay, Scott D.; Broughton, Heather; Putman, David M.; Hess, David A.; Postovit, Lynne-Marie

2012-01-01

89

Dual roles of PARP-1 promote cancer growth and progression  

PubMed Central

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an abundant nuclear enzyme that modifies substrates by poly(ADP-ribose)-ylation. PARP-1 has well-described functions in DNA damage repair, and also functions as a context-specific regulator of transcription factors. Using multiple models, data demonstrate that PARP-1 elicits pro-tumorigenic effects in androgen receptor (AR)-positive prostate cancer (PCa) cells, both in the presence and absence of genotoxic insult. Mechanistically, PARP-1 is recruited to sites of AR function, therein promoting AR occupancy and AR function. It was further confirmed in genetically-defined systems that PARP-1 supports AR transcriptional function, and that in models of advanced PCa, PARP-1 enzymatic activity is enhanced, further linking PARP-1 to AR activity and disease progression. In vivo analyses demonstrate that PARP-1 activity is required for AR function in xenograft tumors, as well as tumor cell growth in vivo and generation and maintenance of castration-resistance. Finally, in a novel explant system of primary human tumors, targeting PARP-1 potently suppresses tumor cell proliferation. Collectively, these studies identify novel functions of PARP-1 in promoting disease progression, and ultimately suggest that the dual functions of PARP-1 can be targeted in human PCa to suppress tumor growth and progression to castration-resistance. PMID:22993403

Schiewer, Matthew J.; Goodwin, Jonathan F.; Han, Sumin; Brenner, J. Chad; Augello, Michael A.; Dean, Jeffry L.; Liu, Fengzhi; Planck, Jamie L.; Ravindranathan, Preethi; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; McCue, Peter; Gomella, Leonard G.; Raj, Ganesh V.; Dicker, Adam P.; Brody, Jonathan R.; Pascal, John M.; Centenera, Margaret M.; Butler, Lisa M.; Tilley, Wayne D.; Feng, Felix Y.; Knudsen, Karen E.

2012-01-01

90

A biosensor for organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters  

PubMed Central

The toxic metalloid arsenic is widely distributed in food, water, and soil. While inorganic arsenic enters the environment primarily from geochemical sources, methylarsenicals either result from microbial biotransformation of inorganic arsenic or are introduced anthropogenically. Methylarsenicals such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA) have been extensively utilized as herbicides, and aromatic arsenicals such as roxarsone (Rox) are used as growth promoters for poultry and swine. Organoarsenicals are degraded to inorganic arsenic. The toxicological effects of arsenicals depend on their oxidation state, chemical composition, and bioavailability. Here we report that the active forms are the trivalent arsenic-containing species. We constructed a whole-cell biosensor utilizing a modified ArsR repressor that is highly selective toward trivalent methyl and aromatic arsenicals, with essentially no response to inorganic arsenic. The biosensor was adapted for in vitro detection of organoarsenicals using fluorescence anisotropy of ArsR-DNA interactions. It detects bacterial biomethylation of inorganic arsenite both in vivo and in vitro with detection limits of 10?7 M and linearity to 10?6 M for phenylarsenite and 5×10?6 M for methylarsenite. The biosensor detects reduced forms of MSMA and roxarsone and offers a practical, low cost method for detecting activate forms and breakdown products of organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters. PMID:24359149

Chen, Jian; Sun, Samio; Li, Chen-Zhong; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rosen, Barry P.

2014-01-01

91

The biosurfactant viscosin produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 aids spreading motility and plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Food security depends on enhancing production and reducing loss to pests and pathogens. A promising alternative to agrochemicals is the use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which are commonly associated with many, if not all, plant species. However, exploiting the benefits of PGPRs requires knowledge of bacterial function and an in-depth understanding of plant-bacteria associations. Motility is important for colonization efficiency and microbial fitness in the plant environment, but the mechanisms employed by bacteria on and around plants are not well understood. We describe and investigate an atypical mode of motility in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 that was revealed only after flagellum production was eliminated by deletion of the master regulator fleQ. Our results suggest that this 'spidery spreading' is a type of surface motility. Transposon mutagenesis of SBW25?fleQ (SBW25Q) produced mutants, defective in viscosin production, and surface spreading was also abolished. Genetic analysis indicated growth-dependency, production of viscosin, and several potential regulatory and secretory systems involved in the spidery spreading phenotype. Moreover, viscosin both increases efficiency of surface spreading over the plant root and protects germinating seedlings in soil infected with the plant pathogen Pythium. Thus, viscosin could be a useful target for biotechnological development of plant growth promotion agents. PMID:24684210

Alsohim, Abdullah S; Taylor, Tiffany B; Barrett, Glyn A; Gallie, Jenna; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Altamirano-Junqueira, Astrid E; Johnson, Louise J; Rainey, Paul B; Jackson, Robert W

2014-07-01

92

Biophysical basis of growth promotion in primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. by hormones versus light: solute accumulation and the growth potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid cell enlargement in primary leaves of bean is induced by bright white light (WL), gibberellic acid (GA3) or the cytokinin N6-benzyladenine (BA). In previous studies it has been show that all three agents cause an increase in wall extensibility, although by different mechanisms. Here we examine the effects of the three growth promoters on the osmotic potential difference (delta Psi), the accumulation of solutes (delta TSC), the wall yield threshold (Y) and the growth potential (delta Psi -Y). With GA3 and BA, but not WL, there was a rapid decline in delta Psi as measured by the osmotic concentration of expressed sap. Unlike WL, neither GA3 nor BA promoted the accumulation of osmotic solutes. The decline in delta Psi, however, was apparently counteracted by a decline in Y since the growth potential, as measured by the external-osmoticum method, remained unchanged. It is concluded that WL, GA3 and BA all promote cell enlargement of bean leaves by increasing one cellular growth parameter, wall extensibility. Only WL, however, promotes osmotic adjustment during growth.

Brock, T. G.; Cleland, R. E.

1990-01-01

93

Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted to characterize the native plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and root-endosphere in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. Nine bacterial isolates were purified, screened in vitro for PGP characteristics and evaluated for their beneficial effects on the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Among nine bacterial isolates, seven were able to produce indole-3- acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium; seven were nitrogen fixer, and four were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate in vitro. Four different morphotypes were genotypically identified based on IGS-RFLP fingerprinting and representative of each morphotype was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis except Gram-positive putative Bacillus sp. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, bacterial isolates AJK-3 and AJK-9 showing multiple PGP-traits were identified as Stenotrophomonas spp. while AJK-7 showed equal homologies to Acetobacter pasteurianus and Stenotrophomonas specie. Plant inoculation studies indicated that these Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains provided a significant increase in shoot and root length, and shoot and root biomass. A significant increase in shoot N contents (up to 76%) and root N contents (up to 32%) was observed over the un-inoculated control. The study indicates the potential of these PGPR for inoculums production or biofertilizers for enhancing growth and nutrient content of wheat and other crops under field conditions. The study is the first report of wheat associated bacterial diversity in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, AJK. PMID:25852661

Majeed, Afshan; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Rahim, Nasir

2015-01-01

94

Nickel detoxification and plant growth promotion by multi metal resistant plant growth promoting Rhizobium species RL9.  

PubMed

Pollution of the biosphere by heavy metals is a global threat that has accelerated dramatically since the beginning of industrial revolution. The aim of the study is to check the resistance of RL9 towards the metals and to observe the effect of Rhizobium species on growth, pigment content, protein and nickel uptake by lentil in the presence and absence of nickel. The multi metal tolerant and plant growth promoting Rhizobium strain RL9 was isolated from the nodules of lentil. The strain not only tolerated nickel but was also tolerant o cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc and copper. The strain tolerated nickel 500 ?g/mL, cadmium 300 ?g/mL, chromium 400 ?g/mL, lead 1,400 ?g/mL, zinc 1,000 ?g/mL and copper 300 ?g/mL, produced good amount of indole acetic acid and was also positive for siderophore, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. The strain RL9 was further assessed with increasing concentrations of nickel when lentil was used as a test crop. The strain RL9 significantly increased growth, nodulation, chlorophyll, leghaemoglobin, nitrogen content, seed protein and seed yield compared to plants grown in the absence of bioinoculant but amended with nickel The strain RL9 decreased uptake of nickel in lentil compared to plants grown in the absence of bio-inoculant. Due to these intrinsic abilities strain RL9 could be utilized for growth promotion as well as for the remediation of nickel in nickel contaminated soil. PMID:23609454

Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

2013-07-01

95

Comparative genomic analysis of four representative plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Pseudomonas  

PubMed Central

Background Some Pseudomonas strains function as predominant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Within this group, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens are non-pathogenic biocontrol agents, and some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains are PGPR. P. chlororaphis GP72 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with a fully sequenced genome. We conducted a genomic analysis comparing GP72 with three other pseudomonad PGPR: P. fluorescens Pf-5, P. aeruginosa M18, and the nitrogen-fixing strain P. stutzeri A1501. Our aim was to identify the similarities and differences among these strains using a comparative genomic approach to clarify the mechanisms of plant growth-promoting activity. Results The genome sizes of GP72, Pf-5, M18, and A1501 ranged from 4.6 to 7.1 M, and the number of protein-coding genes varied among the four species. Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) analysis assigned functions to predicted proteins. The COGs distributions were similar among the four species. However, the percentage of genes encoding transposases and their inactivated derivatives (COG L) was 1.33% of the total genes with COGs classifications in A1501, 0.21% in GP72, 0.02% in Pf-5, and 0.11% in M18. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that GP72 and Pf-5 were the most closely related strains, consistent with the genome alignment results. Comparisons of predicted coding sequences (CDSs) between GP72 and Pf-5 revealed 3544 conserved genes. There were fewer conserved genes when GP72 CDSs were compared with those of A1501 and M18. Comparisons among the four Pseudomonas species revealed 603 conserved genes in GP72, illustrating common plant growth-promoting traits shared among these PGPR. Conserved genes were related to catabolism, transport of plant-derived compounds, stress resistance, and rhizosphere colonization. Some strain-specific CDSs were related to different kinds of biocontrol activities or plant growth promotion. The GP72 genome contained the cus operon (related to heavy metal resistance) and a gene cluster involved in type IV pilus biosynthesis, which confers adhesion ability. Conclusions Comparative genomic analysis of four representative PGPR revealed some conserved regions, indicating common characteristics (metabolism of plant-derived compounds, heavy metal resistance, and rhizosphere colonization) among these pseudomonad PGPR. Genomic regions specific to each strain provide clues to its lifestyle, ecological adaptation, and physiological role in the rhizosphere. PMID:23607266

2013-01-01

96

Basic fibroblast growth factor promotes macaque follicle development in vitro.  

PubMed

Fertility preservation is an important type of frontier scientific research in the field of reproductive health. The culture of ovarian cortices to i) initiate primordial follicle growth and ii) procure developing follicles for later oocyte maturation is a promising fertility preservation strategy, especially for older women or cancer patients. At present, this goal remains largely unsubstantiated in primates because of the difficulty in attaining relatively large follicles via ovarian cortex culture. To overcome this hurdle, we cultured macaque monkey ovarian cortices with FSH, kit ligand (KL), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF). The various factors and factor combinations promoted primordial follicle development to different extents. Notably, both bFF (bFGF, 100?ng/ml and FSH, 50?ng/ml) and KF (KL, 100?ng/ml and FSH, 50?ng/ml) contributed to the activation of primordial follicles at day 12 (D12) of culture, whereas at D18, the proportions of developing follicles were significantly higher in the bFF and KF groups relative to the other treatment groups, particularly in the bFF group. Estradiol and progesterone production were also highest in the bFF group, and primary follicle diameters were the largest. Up until D24, the bFF group still exhibited the highest proportion of developing follicles. In conclusion, the bFGF-FSH combination promotes nonhuman primate primordial follicle development in vitro, with the optimal experimental window within 18 days. These results provide evidence for the future success of human ovarian cortex culture and the eventual acquisition of mature human follicles or oocytes for fertility restoration. PMID:25687412

Lu, C L; Yan, J; Zhi, X; Xia, X; Wang, T R; Yan, L Y; Yu, Y; Ding, T; Gao, J M; Li, R; Qiao, J

2015-05-01

97

Inoculation with nitrogen turnover bacterial agent appropriately increasing nitrogen and promoting maturity in pig manure composting.  

PubMed

The nitrogen turnover bacterial (NTB) agent, which is closely related to nitrogen turnover, was comprised of a bacterial consortium of ammonifiers, nitrobacteria and Azotobacter in this study. The three constituents of the bacterial consortium were added to pig manure and wheat straw mixtures in different doses and at different times, and subsequently composted to investigate their effects on nitrogen transformation and maturity. Throughout the period, the total N loss was 35-56%, 10.7-22.7% of which consisted of NH3, and 18-35% of the initial organic carbon was degraded. Adding the NTB agent prolonged the thermophilic stage by one to six days compared to the control. The lowest N loss (35%), the highest degradation rate of organic carbon (35%) and the greatest increase in total nitrogen content (36.1%) occurred in the inoculation with 1% NTB agent at the beginning of composting. However, adding 1% NTB agent after the thermophilic stage and 3% NTB agent at the beginning of composting had no positive effect with respect to retaining nitrogen or accelerating the maturation process. Therefore, the inoculation with 1% NTB agent at the beginning of composting was effective for reducing N loss and promoting maturity. PMID:25769536

Jiang, Jishao; Liu, Xueling; Huang, Yimei; Huang, Hua

2015-05-01

98

Application of plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with composts and macrofauna for growth promotion of Pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were reported to influence the growth, yield, and nutrient uptake by an array of mechanisms. We selected seven different plant growth-promoting traits and antagonistic ability to screen 207 bacteria isolated from composts. Fifty-four percent of PGPB were from farm waste compost (FWC), 56% from rice straw compost (RSC), 64% from Gliricidia vermicompost (GVC), and 41% from

B. Hameeda; O. P. Rupela; Gopal Reddy; K. Satyavani

2006-01-01

99

Cytokines and Growth Factors Promote Airway Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Chronic airway diseases, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are characterized by the presence in the airways of inflammation factors, growth factors and cytokines, which promote airway wall remodelling. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cytokines and growth factors on airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) proliferation, phenotype and responsiveness. Incubation of serum starved human bronchial ASMCs with TNF-?, TGF, bFGF, and PDGF, but not IL-1?, increased methyl-[3H]thymidine incorporation and cell number, mediated by the PI3K and MAPK signalling pathways. Regarding rabbit tracheal ASMC proliferation, TNF-?, IL-1?, TGF, and PDGF increased methyl-[3H]thymidine incorporation in a PI3K- and MAPK-dependent manner. bFGF increased both methyl-[3H]thymidine incorporation and cell number. Moreover, incubation with TGF, bFGF and PDGF appears to drive human ASMCs towards a synthetic phenotype, as shown by the reduction of the percentage of cells expressing SM-? actin. In addition, the responsiveness of epithelium-denuded rabbit tracheal strips to carbachol was not significantly altered after 3-day treatment with bFGF. In conclusion, all the tested cytokines and growth factors increased ASMC proliferation to a different degree, depending on the specific cell type, with bronchial ASMCs being more prone to proliferation than tracheal ASMCs. PMID:24049651

Stamatiou, R.; Paraskeva, E.; Gourgoulianis, K.; Molyvdas, P.-A.; Hatziefthimiou, A.

2012-01-01

100

Procaine is a DNA-demethylating agent with growth-inhibitory effects in human cancer cells.  

PubMed

Methylation-associated silencing of tumor suppressor genes is recognized as being a molecular hallmark of human cancer. Unlike genetic alterations, changes in DNA methylation are potentially reversible. This possibility has attracted considerable attention from a therapeutics standpoint. Nucleoside-analogue inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases, such as 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, are able to demethylate DNA and restore silenced gene expression. Unfortunately, the clinical utility of these compounds has not yet been fully realized, mainly because of their side effects. A few non-nucleoside inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases have been reported, including the anti-arrhythmia drug procainamide. Following this need to find new demethylating agents, we have tested the potential use of procaine, an anesthetic drug related to procainamide. Using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, we have found that procaine is a DNA-demethylating agent that produces a 40% reduction in 5-methylcytosine DNA content as determined by high-performance capillary electrophoresis or total DNA enzyme digestion. Procaine can also demethylate densely hypermethylated CpG islands, such as those located in the promoter region of the RAR beta 2 gene, restoring gene expression of epigenetically silenced genes. This property may be explained by our finding that procaine binds to CpG-enriched DNA. Finally, procaine also has growth-inhibitory effects in these cancer cells, causing mitotic arrest. Thus, procaine is a promising candidate agent for future cancer therapies based on epigenetics. PMID:12941824

Villar-Garea, Ana; Fraga, Mario F; Espada, Jesus; Esteller, Manel

2003-08-15

101

Influence of some growth promoting substances on multiplication of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.  

PubMed

A number of growth promoting substances used in plant tissue culture were investigated for their effect on cultures of malaria parasites. In all, seven such growth promoting substances were employed. Out of these, only three substances, namely indoleacetic acid, indolebutyric acid and gibberellic acid improved P. falciparum growth in vitro. PMID:2093005

Sutar, N K; Renapurkar, D M

1990-12-01

102

Carbon Starvation and Growth Rate-Dependent Regulation of the Escherichia coli Ribosomal RNA Promoters: Differential Control of Dual Promoters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of carbon starvation and of varying the growth rate on the activity of each of the two tandem ribosomal RNA promoters from the rrnA operon of Escherichia coli. The cellular abundance of plasmid-encoded transcripts arising at promoters P1 and P2 and terminating at the ribosomal RNA terminator in promoter-terminator fusions, together with transcript turnover rates, was

Paolo Sarmientos; Michael Cashel

1983-01-01

103

Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Plant Growth-Promoting Fungus Phoma sp. GS8-3 for Growth Promotion Effects on Tobacco  

PubMed Central

We extracted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by a plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF) Phoma sp. GS8-3 by gas chromatography and identified them by mass spectrometry. All of the identified compounds belonged to C4-C8 hydrocarbons. Volatiles varied in number and quantity by the culture period of the fungus (in days). 2-Methyl-propanol and 3-methyl-butanol formed the main components of the volatile blends for all the culture periods of fungus. Growth-promoting effects of the identified synthetic compounds were analyzed individually and in blends using tobacco plants. We found that the mixture of volatiles extracted from 3-day-old culture showed significant growth promotion in tobacco in vitro. The volatile blend showed better growth promotion at lower than higher concentrations. Our results confirm the potential role of volatile organic compounds in the mechanism of growth enhancement by GS8-3. PMID:23080408

Naznin, Hushna Ara; Kimura, Minako; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2013-01-01

104

Isolation and screening of phlD (+) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria antagonistic to Ralstonia solanacearum.  

PubMed

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is important widely grown vegetable in India and its productivity is affected by bacterial wilt disease infection caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. To prevent this disease infection a study was conducted to isolate and screen effective plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) antagonistic to R. solanacearum. A total 297 antagonistic bacteria were isolated through dual culture inoculation technique, out of which forty-two antagonistic bacteria were found positive for phlD gene by PCR amplification using two primer sets Phl2a:Phl2b and B2BF:BPR4. The genetic diversity of phlD (+) bacteria was studied by amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis and demonstrated eleven groups at 65% similarity level. Out of these 42 phlD (+) antagonistic isolates, twenty exhibited significantly fair plant growth promoting activities like phosphate solubilization (0.92-5.33%), 25 produced indole acetic acid (1.63-7.78 ?g ml(-1)) and few strains show production of antifungal metabolites (HCN and siderophore). The screening of PGPR (phlD (+)) for suppression of bacterial wilt disease in glass house conditions was showed ten isolated phlD (+) bacteria were able to suppress infection of bacterial wilt disease in tomato plant (var. Arka vikas) in the presence R. solanacearum. The PGPR (phlD (+)) isolates s188, s215 and s288 was observed to be effective plant growth promoter as it shows highest dry weight per plant (3.86, 3.85 and 3.69 g plant(-1) respectively). The complete absence of wilt disease symptoms in tomato crop plants was observed by these treatments compared to negative control. Therefore inoculation of tomato plant with phlD (+) isolate s188 and other similar biocontrol agents may prove to be a positive strategy for checking wilt disease and thus improving plant vigor. PMID:22805950

Ramadasappa, Srinivasamurthy; Rai, Ashwani K; Jaat, Ranjeet Singh; Singh, Aqbal; Rai, Rhitu

2012-04-01

105

Mathematical Modeling of Interleukin-35 Promoting Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-35 (IL-35), a cytokine from the Interleukin-12 cytokine family, has been considered as an anti-inflammatory cytokine which promotes tumor progression and tumor immune evasion. It has also been demonstrated that IL-35 is secreted by regulatory T cells. Recent mouse experiments have shown that IL-35 produced by cancer cells promotes tumor growth via enhancing myeloid cell accumulation and angiogenesis, and reducing the infiltration of activated CD8 T cells into tumor microenvironment. In the present paper we develop a mathematical model based on these experimental results. We include in the model an anti-IL-35 drug as treatment. The extended model (with drug) is used to design protocols of anti-IL-35 injections for treatment of cancer. We find that with a fixed total amount of drug, continuous injection has better efficacy than intermittent injections in reducing the tumor load while the treatment is ongoing. We also find that the percentage of tumor reduction under anti-IL-35 treatment improves when the production of IL-35 by cancer is increased. PMID:25356878

Liao, Kang-Ling; Bai, Xue-Feng; Friedman, Avner

2014-01-01

106

Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate-co-?-Caprolactone) Promotes Axonal Growth  

PubMed Central

Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) neurons do not regenerate after injury due to the inhibitory environment formed by the glial scar, largely constituted by myelin debris. The use of biomaterials to bridge the lesion area and the creation of an environment favoring axonal regeneration is an appealing approach, currently under investigation. This work aimed at assessing the suitability of three candidate polymers – poly(?-caprolactone), poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-?-caprolactone) (P(TMC-CL)) (11?89 mol%) and poly(trimethylene carbonate) - with the final goal of using these materials in the development of conduits to promote spinal cord regeneration. Poly(L-lysine) (PLL) coated polymeric films were tested for neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth. At similar PLL film area coverage conditions, neuronal polarization and axonal elongation was significantly higher on P(TMC-CL) films. Furthermore, cortical neurons cultured on P(TMC-CL) were able to extend neurites even when seeded onto myelin. This effect was found to be mediated by the glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) signaling pathway with impact on the collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4), suggesting that besides surface topography, nanomechanical properties were implicated in this process. The obtained results indicate P(TMC-CL) as a promising material for CNS regenerative applications as it promotes axonal growth, overcoming myelin inhibition. PMID:24586346

Rocha, Daniela Nogueira; Brites, Pedro; Fonseca, Carlos; Pêgo, Ana Paula

2014-01-01

107

Effect of Trichoderma on plant growth: A balance between inhibition and growth promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of lettuce (Latuca sativa L.) germination and growth in nonsterilized potting compost of 0.1% and 1.0% w\\/w incorporation of fermenter biomass inocula of six strains of Trichoderma was investigated. Except for strains WT and T35 at 0.1 % w\\/w, all inocula inhibited germination. Biomass of strains WT, T35, 20, and 47 at 1.0% promoted shoot fresh weight, whereas

M. A. Ousley; J. M. Lynch; J. M. Whipps

1993-01-01

108

Partner choice promotes cooperation: the two faces of testing with agent-based models.  

PubMed

Reciprocity is one of the most debated among the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the evolution of cooperation. While a distinction can be made between two general processes that can underlie reciprocation (within-pair temporal relations between cooperative events, and partner choice based on benefits received), theoretical modelling has concentrated on the former, while the latter has been often neglected. We developed a set of agent-based models in which agents adopted a strategy of obligate cooperation and partner choice based on benefits received. Our models tested the ability of partner choice both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Populations formed by agents adopting a strategy of obligate cooperation and partner choice based on benefits received showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received, two common phenomena in animal cooperation. When selection across multiple generations was added to the model, agents adopting a strategy of partner choice based on benefits received outperformed selfish agents that did not cooperate. Our results suggest partner choice is a significant aspect of cooperation and provides a possible mechanism for its evolution. PMID:24316108

Campennì, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

2014-03-01

109

Rhizobacteria-Mediated Growth Promotion of Tomato Leads to Protection Against Cucumber mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Murphy, J. F., Reddy, M. S., Ryu, C.-M., Kloepper, J. W., and Li, R. 2003. Rhizobacteria-mediated growth promotion of tomato leads to protection against Cucumber mosaic virus. Phytopathology 93:1301- 1307. We evaluated combinations of two strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) formulated with the carrier chitosan for the ability to induce growth promotion of tomato plants and resistance to infection

John F. Murphy; M. S. Reddy; Choong-Min Ryu; Joseph W. Kloepper; Ruhui Li

2003-01-01

110

Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor promotes lymphangiogenesis in the skin  

PubMed Central

Background The lymphatic vascular system regulates tissue fluid homeostasis and plays important roles in immune surveillance, inflammation and cancer metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lymphangiogenesis remain incompletely characterized. Objective: We aimed to identify new pathways involved in the promotion of skin lymphangiogenesis. Methods We used a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid body vascular differentiation assay to investigate the effects of a selection of pharmacological agents with the potential to inhibit blood and/or lymphatic vessel formation. We also used a subcutaneous Matrigel assay to study candidate lymphangiogenesis factors as well as skin-specific transgenic mice. Results We found that compounds inhibiting the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) led to an impaired formation of lymphatic vessel-like structures. In vitro studies with human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), that were found to express EGFR, revealed that EGF promotes lymphatic vessel formation. This effect was inhibited by an EGFR-blocking antibody and by low molecular weight inhibitors of either the EGFR or its associated tyrosine kinase. Incorporation of EGF into a mouse matrigel plug assay showed that EGF promotes enlargement of lymphatic vessels in the skin in vivo. Moreover, transgenic mice with skin-specific overexpression of amphiregulin, another agonistic ligand of the EGFR, displayed an enhanced size and density of lymphatic vessels in the skin. Conclusion These findings reveal that EGFR activation is involved in lymphatic remodeling and suggest that specific EGFR antagonists might be used to inhibit pathological lymphangiogenesis. PMID:23706492

Marino, Daniela; Angehrn, Yvonne; Klein, Sarah; Riccardi, Sabrina; Baenziger-Tobler, Nadja; Otto, Vivianne I.; Pittelkow, Mark; Detmar, Michael

2013-01-01

111

Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.  

PubMed

Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2?mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5?-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500?µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5?-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5?µg/mL and 5??M, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth. PMID:22517595

Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

2013-02-01

112

HE4 (WFDC2) gene overexpression promotes ovarian tumor growth  

PubMed Central

Selective overexpression of Human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4) points to a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis but little is known about the role the HE4 gene or the gene product plays. Here we show that elevated HE4 serum levels correlate with chemoresistance and decreased survival rates in EOC patients. HE4 overexpression promoted xenograft tumor growth and chemoresistance against cisplatin in an animal model resulting in reduced survival rates. HE4 displayed responses to tumor microenvironment constituents and presented increased expression as well as nuclear translocation upon EGF, VEGF and Insulin treatment and nucleolar localization with Insulin treatment. HE4 interacts with EGFR, IGF1R, and transcription factor HIF1?. Constructs of antisense phosphorothio-oligonucleotides targeting HE4 arrested tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively these findings implicate increased HE4 expression as a molecular factor in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. Selective targeting directed towards the HE4 protein demonstrates therapeutic benefits for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:24389815

Moore, Richard G.; Hill, Emily K.; Horan, Timothy; Yano, Naohiro; Kim, KyuKwang; MacLaughlan, Shannon; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Tseng, YiTang Don; Padbury, James F.; Miller, M. Craig; Lange, Thilo S.; Singh, Rakesh K.

2014-01-01

113

Role of allelochemicals in plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for biocontrol of phytopathogens.  

PubMed

Soil borne fungal diseases pose serious constraints on agro-productivity. Biological control is non-hazardous strategy to control plant pathogens and improve crop productivity. PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) have long been used as plant disease control agents. PGPR produced a wide range of secondary compounds that may act as signals--that is, allelochemicals that include metabolites, siderophores, antibiotics, volatile metabolites, enzymes and others. Their mode of action and molecular mechanisms provide a great awareness for their application for crop disease management. The present review highlights the role of PGPR strains, specifically referring to allelochemicals produced and molecular mechanisms. Further research to fine tune combinations of allelochemicals, plant-microbe-pathogen interaction will ultimately lead to better disease control. PMID:24176815

Saraf, Meenu; Pandya, Urja; Thakkar, Aarti

2014-01-20

114

Isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) growth hormone.  

PubMed

We report the isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus; Teleostei; Perciformes; Siganidae) growth hormone (GH). Rabbitfish GH was extracted from pituitary glands under alkaline conditions, fractionated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions containing GH were identified by immunoblotting with bonito GH antiserum. Under nonreducing conditions, the molecular weight of rabbitfish GH is about 19 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The purified hormone was potent in promoting growth in rabbitfish fry. Weekly intraperitoneal injections of the hormone significantly accelerated growth. This was evident 3 weeks after the start of the treatment, and its effect was still significant 2 weeks after the treatment was terminated. Rabbitfish GH cDNA was cloned to determine its nucleotide sequence. Excluding the poly (A) tail, rabbitfish GH cDNA is 860 base pairs (bp) long. It contained untranslated regions of 94 and 175 bp in the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. It has an open reading frame of 588 bp coding for a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature protein of 178 amino acid residues. Rabbitfish GH has 4 cysteine residues. On the amino acid level, rabbitfish GH shows high identity (71-74%) with GHs of other perciforms, such as tuna, sea bass, yellow tail, bonito, and tilapia, and less (47-49%) identity with salmonid and carp GHs. PMID:10642447

Ayson, F G; de Jesus, E G; Amemiya, Y; Moriyama, S; Hirano, T; Kawauchi, H

2000-02-01

115

Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on young apple tree growth and fruit yield under orchard conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of rootstocks (M9 and MM 106), cultivars (Granny Smith and Stark Spur Golden) and growth promoting rhizobacteria (OSU-142, OSU-7, BA-8 and M-3) on the tree growth and yield at apple (Malus domestica Borkh) trees were studied in a clay loam soil in the eastern Anatolia region of Turkey in 2002–2004. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were capable of

Rafet Aslanta?; Ramazan Çakmakçi; Fikrettin ?ahin

2007-01-01

116

COW PLACENTA EXTRACT PROMOTES MURINE HAIR GROWTH THROUGH ENHANCING THE INSULIN - LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-1  

PubMed Central

Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE), water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice for the case, negative and positive control respectively. We checked the proliferation of cells which are resident in hair sheath, and the expression of a few growth factors which stimulate hair growth. Results: Result shows that placenta extract more efficiently accelerates cell division and growth factor expression, by raising the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) mRNA and protein level to increase HF size and hair length. Conclusions: The extract is not a purified product; so, it is less effective than minoxidil, which is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of male pattern baldness. If refinement is done, the placenta extract would be a good candidate medicine for hair loss. PMID:21572784

Zhang, Dongliang; Lijuan, Gu; Jingjie, Li; Zheng, Li; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Lei; Mira, Li; Sung, Changkeun

2011-01-01

117

Variation in growth and ion uptake of maize due to inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity decreases plant growth and photosynthetic activity besides resulting in nutrient imbalance in plants. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can induce plant tolerance to salinity by producing various hormones and enhancing the availability of nutrients from soil matrix. A pot study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different PGPR strains on maize growth and ions uptake under salt

Sajid M. Nadeem; Zahir A. Zahir; M. Naveed; M. Arshad; S. M. Shahzad

2006-01-01

118

Vitronetcin promotes cell growth and inhibits apoptotic stimuli in a human hepatoma cell line via the activation of caspases.  

PubMed

This study sought to understand the effects of vitronectin (VTN) on the growth of SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells. In addition, this study examined how VTN inhibits the induction of apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells by 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), a metabolite of natural phytochemicals, and preliminarily investigated the signaling molecules involved in this process. A cell proliferation reagent was used to observe the effects of VTN on cell proliferation rates. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was performed to observe the effects of VTN on the morphology of tubulin, a component of the cytoskeleton. Flow cytometry and Western blotting assays were used to observe the inhibitory effects of VTN on DIM-induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells and changes in the expression levels of the signaling molecules involved in this process. VTN promoted tumor cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner and inhibited apoptosis caused by the effects of apoptosis-inducing agents. Under in vitro experimental conditions, VTN contributed to the growth of SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells and protected them from the effects of an apoptosis-inducing agent. These findings suggest that during hepatocellular carcinogenesis, VTN may promote tumor cell growth and inhibit chemically induced apoptosis. PMID:24784470

Zhu, Wei; Liu, Yingzhi; Hu, Konghe; Li, Wenxue; Chen, Jianling; Li, Juntao; Yang, Guangyu; Wu, Jinyin; Liang, Xiaoyun; Fu, Chuanxi; Hu, Qiansheng

2014-05-01

119

Colonization of Arabidopsis roots by Trichoderma atroviride promotes growth and enhances systemic disease resistance through jasmonic acid\\/ethylene and salicylic acid pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma spp. are common soil fungi used as biocontrol agents due to their capacity to produce antibiotics, induce systemic resistance\\u000a in plants and parasitize phytopathogenic fungi of major agricultural importance. The present study investigated whether colonization\\u000a of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings by Trichoderma atroviride affected plant growth and development. Here it is shown that T. atroviride promotes growth in Arabidopsis. Moreover,

Miguel Angel Salas-Marina; Miguel Angel Silva-Flores; Edith Elena Uresti-Rivera; Ernestina Castro-Longoria; Alfredo Herrera-Estrella; Sergio Casas-Flores

120

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria affect the growth and nutrient uptake of Fraxinus americana container seedlings.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are important catalysts that regulate the functional properties of agricultural systems. However, there is little information on the effect of PGPR inoculation on the growth and nutrient accumulation of forest container seedlings. This study determined the effects of a growth medium inoculated with PGPR on the nutrient uptake, nutrient accumulation, and growth of Fraxinus americana container seedlings. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the dry matter accumulation of the F. americana aerial parts with delayed seedling emergence time. Under fertilized conditions, the accumulation time of phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) in the F. americana aerial parts was 13 days longer due to PGPR inoculation. PGPR increased the maximum daily P and K accumulations in fertilized seedlings by 9.31 and 10.44 %, respectively, but had little impact on unfertilized ones. Regardless of fertilizer application, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids, and organic acids significantly increased because of PGPR inoculation. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the root, shoot, and leaf yields by 19.65, 22.94, and 19.44 %, respectively, as well as the P and K contents by 8.33 and 10.60 %, respectively. Consequently, the N, P, and K uptakes increased by 19.85, 31.97, and 33.95 %, respectively. Hence, PGPR inoculation with fertilizer can be used as a bioenhancer for plant growth and nutrient uptake in forest container seedling nurseries. PMID:22777281

Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

2013-05-01

121

Bacillus spp. from rainforest soil promote plant growth under limited nitrogen conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria) isolated from rainforest on different plants under limited nitrogen conditions. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates from a Peruvian rainforest soil were screened for plant growth promoting effects...

122

Genome Sequence of Bacillus mycoides B38V, a Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Sunflower  

PubMed Central

Bacillus mycoides B38V is a bacterium isolated from the sunflower rhizosphere that is able to promote plant growth and N uptake. The genome of the isolate has approximately 5.80 Mb and presents sequence codifiers for plant growth-promoting characteristics, such as nitrate reduction and ammonification and iron-siderophore uptake. PMID:25838494

Ambrosini, Adriana; Sant’Anna, Fernando Hayashi; de Souza, Rocheli; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Alvarenga, Samuel M.; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi

2015-01-01

123

Genome Sequence of Bacillus mycoides B38V, a Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Sunflower.  

PubMed

Bacillus mycoides B38V is a bacterium isolated from the sunflower rhizosphere that is able to promote plant growth and N uptake. The genome of the isolate has approximately 5.80 Mb and presents sequence codifiers for plant growth-promoting characteristics, such as nitrate reduction and ammonification and iron-siderophore uptake. PMID:25838494

Ambrosini, Adriana; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; de Souza, Rocheli; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Alvarenga, Samuel M; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Passaglia, Luciane M P

2015-01-01

124

Genome Sequence of Enterobacter radicincitans DSM16656T, a Plant Growth-Promoting Endophyte  

PubMed Central

Enterobacter radicincitans sp. nov. DSM16656T represents a new species of the genus Enterobacter which is a biological nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacterium with growth-promoting effects on a variety of crop and model plant species. The presence of genes for nitrogen fixation, phosphorous mobilization, and phytohormone production reflects this microbe's potential plant growth-promoting activity. PMID:22965092

Witzel, Katja; Gwinn-Giglio, Michelle; Nadendla, Suvarna; Shefchek, Kent

2012-01-01

125

Original article Effects of gelling agents on growth,  

E-print Network

the ageing of in vitro propagated walnut trees. Juglans / micropropagation / gelling agent / mineral / micropropagation / gélifiant / composition minérale / polyphénol INTRODUCTION Although techniques for micropropaga

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

Neuregulin1 signaling promotes dendritic spine growth through kalirin  

PubMed Central

The biological functions of the NRG1 (Neuregulin-1) and ERBB4 genes have received much recent attention due to several studies showing associations between these genes and schizophrenia. Moreover, reduced forebrain dendritic spine density is a consistent feature of schizophrenia. It is thus important to understand the mechanisms whereby NRG1 and erbB4 modulate spine morphogenesis. Here we show that long-term incubation with NRG1 increases both spine size and density in cortical pyramidal neurons. NRG1 also enhances the content of AMPA receptors in spines. Knockdown of ERBB4 expression prevented the effects of NRG1 on spine size, but not on spine density. The effects of NRG1 and erbB4 on spines were mediated by the RacGEF kalirin, a well-characterized regulator of dendritic spines. Finally, we show that environmental enrichment, known to promote spine growth, robustly enhances the levels of erbB4 protein in the forebrain. These findings provide a mechanistic link between NRG1 signaling and spine morphogenesis. PMID:23742124

Cahill, Michael E.; Remmers, Christine; Jones, Kelly A.; Xie, Zhong; Sweet, Robert A.; Penzes, Peter

2013-01-01

127

Growth promotion of Bifidobacterium species by whey and casein fractions from human and bovine milk.  

PubMed Central

An in vitro assay was used to study the growth-promotional activity of human milk (HM), cow's milk (CM), and whey and casein fractions of HM and CM for five strains of Bifidobacterium species isolated originally from stools of human infants. Whey- and casein-predominant CM-based infant formulas were studied as well. When compared on an equivalent protein basis, the growth promotion activity of HM was greater than that of CM for Bifidobacterium bifidum serovar pennsylvanicus and Bifidobacterium longum but comparable for B. bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve. Pasteurization of HM and CM resulted in an increase of growth promotion activity for B. bifidum serovar pennsylvanicus and B. bifidum, a decrease for B. infantis, and no change for B. longum and B. breve. The growth promotion activity of HM whey was slightly higher than that of HM casein for four strains of bifidobacteria. When CM casein was a substrate, virtually no growth occurred for B. bifidum serovar pennsylvanicus, B. bifidum, B. infantis, and B. longum. The growth promotion activity of CM whey, however, was similar to that of HM whey. A similar trend was observed for CM-based infant formula. Whey-dominant formulas promoted better growth of B. bifidum serovar pennsylvanicus, B. bifidum, and B. infantis than casein-dominant formulas. The data suggest a direct relationship between amount of whey-specific factors and the ability to promote growth of clinically relevant strains of Bifidobacterium species by HM, CM, and CM-based infant formulas. PMID:2312674

Petschow, B W; Talbott, R D

1990-01-01

128

Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil bacteria are very important in biogeochemical cycles and have been used for crop production for decades. Plant–bacterial\\u000a interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health and soil fertility. Free-living soil bacteria beneficial\\u000a to plant growth, usually referred to as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), are capable of promoting plant growth\\u000a by colonizing the plant root. PGPR are

Rifat Hayat; Safdar Ali; Ummay Amara; Rabia Khalid; Iftikhar Ahmed

2010-01-01

129

Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producing soil bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria that contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase facilitate plant\\u000a growth and development by decreasing plant ethylene levels, especially following a variety of environmental stresses. In this\\u000a review, the physiological basis for this growth-promotion effect is examined in some detail. In addition, models are presented\\u000a that endeavour to explain (i) the seemingly paradoxical effects of ethylene on a

Bernard R. Glick; Zhenyu Cheng; Jennifer Czarny; Jin Duan

2007-01-01

130

Public Capital and Growth in a Decentralised Agents Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important features of the Indian economy is the disparate growth of state domestic product (SDP). In India regional disparity in growth of output has increased mainly in the post reform period. Given the fact that inter state disparity in growth rate among the Indian states exists and persists, it has now become very essential to give a

Poulomi Roy; Ajitava Raychaudhuri

131

Evaluation of a Topical Herbal Agent for the Promotion of Bone Healing  

PubMed Central

A topically used Chinese herbal paste, namely, CDNR, was designed to facilitate fracture healing which is usually not addressed in general hospital care. From our in vitro studies, CDNR significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide from RAW264.7 cells by 51 to 77%. This indicated its anti-inflammatory effect. CDNR also promoted the growth of bone cells by stimulating the proliferation of UMR106 cells up to 18%. It also increased the biomechanical strength of the healing bone in a drill-hole defect rat model by 16.5% significantly. This result revealed its in vivo efficacy on facilitation of bone healing. Furthermore, the detection of the chemical markers of CDNR in the skin and muscle of the treatment area demonstrated its transdermal properties. However, CDNR did not affect the bone turnover markers in serum of the rats. With its anti-inflammatory and bone formation properties, CDNR is found effective in promoting bone healing.

Siu, Wing-Sum; Ko, Chun-Hay; Lam, Ka-Wing; Shum, Wai-Ting; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Ko, Kam-Ming; Hung, Leung-Kim; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Leung, Ping-Chung

2015-01-01

132

Intestinal alkaline phosphatase promotes gut bacterial growth by reducing the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates.  

PubMed

The intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in maintaining human health and well-being. Previously, we have shown that mice deficient in the brush-border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) suffer from dysbiosis and that oral IAP supplementation normalizes the gut flora. Here we aimed to decipher the molecular mechanism by which IAP promotes bacterial growth. We used an isolated mouse intestinal loop model to directly examine the effect of exogenous IAP on the growth of specific intestinal bacterial species. We studied the effects of various IAP targets on the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as on a few specific gut organisms. We determined the effects of ATP and other nucleotides on bacterial growth. Furthermore, we examined the effects of IAP on reversing the inhibitory effects of nucleotides on bacterial growth. We have confirmed that local IAP bioactivity creates a luminal environment that promotes the growth of a wide range of commensal organisms. IAP promotes the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and appears to exert its growth promoting effects by inactivating (dephosphorylating) luminal ATP and other luminal nucleotide triphosphates. We observed that compared with wild-type mice, IAP-knockout mice have more ATP in their luminal contents, and exogenous IAP can reverse the ATP-mediated inhibition of bacterial growth in the isolated intestinal loop. In conclusion, IAP appears to promote the growth of intestinal commensal bacteria by inhibiting the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates. PMID:24722905

Malo, Madhu S; Moaven, Omeed; Muhammad, Nur; Biswas, Brishti; Alam, Sayeda N; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Gul, Sarah Shireen; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Malo, Nondita S; Teshager, Abeba; Mohamed, Mussa M Rafat; Tao, Qingsong; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Hohmann, Elizabeth L; Warren, H Shaw; Robson, Simon C; Hodin, Richard A

2014-05-15

133

Novel function of Oncostatin M as a potent tumour-promoting agent in lung.  

PubMed

Oncostatin M is a leukocyte product that has been reported to have anti-proliferative effects directly on melanoma and other cancer cell lines in vitro. However, its function(s) in cancers in vivo appears complex and its roles in cancer growth in lungs are unknown. Here, we show that OSM promotes marked growth of tumour cells in mouse lungs. Local pulmonary administration of adenovirus vector expressing mouse OSM (AdOSM) induced >13-fold increase in lung tumour burden of ectopically delivered B16-F10 melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice. AdOSM caused increases in tumour size (14 days post-challenge), whereas control vector (Addel70) did not. AdOSM had no such action in C57BL/6 mice deficient in the OSM receptor beta chain (OSMR?-/-), indicating that these effects required OSMR? expression on non-tumour cells in the recipient mice. AdOSM induced elevated levels of chemokines and inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, elevated arginase-1 mRNA levels (60-fold), and increased arginase-1+immunostaining macrophage numbers in lungs. Adherent BAL cells collected from AdOSM-treated mice expressed elevated arginase-1 activity. In contrast to AdOSM-induced effects, pulmonary over-expression of IL-1? (AdIL-1?) induced neutrophil accumulation and iNOS mRNA, but did not modulate tumour burden. AdOSM also increased lung tumour load (>50-fold) upon ectopic administration of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells in vivo. However, in vitro, neither recombinant OSM nor AdOSM infection stimulated B16-F10 or LLC cell growth directly. We conclude that pulmonary over-expression of OSM promotes tumour growth, and does so through altering the local lung environment with accumulation of M2 macrophages. PMID:24976180

Lauber, Sean; Wong, Steven; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Tanaka, Minoru; Barra, Nicole; Lhoták, Sárka; Ashkar, Ali; Richards, Carl Douglas

2015-02-15

134

Using detachment-promoting agents for the prevention of chronic peritoneal dialysis-associated infections.  

PubMed

Biofilms are known to be responsible for chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infections. Such infections are still frequent among patients in PD. The aim of this study was to develop a new approach in the prevention of chronic PD-related infection by regular injection of specific formulations containing detachment-promoting agents. A biofilm reactor system reproducing PD-like operating conditions was developed. A first set of experiments allowed the assessment of the anti-biofilm efficacy of various formulations. Then, experiments were performed for a longer duration and selected formulations were tested and compared with taurolidine. Biofilm removal was quantified by calculating the percentage of coverage reduction compared with an untreated control. A regular weekly treatment led to a 97% reduction of the surface coverage although a daily treatment with taurolidine still left 48% of the biomass on the surface. Such treatment is recommended to reduce the frequencies of chronic PD-related infections. PMID:19133019

Branger, Bernard; Marion, Karine; Bergeron, Emmanuelle; Perret, Cécile; Zabadani, Bachir; Reboul, Pascal; Freney, Jean

2008-12-01

135

Maize rhizosphere in Sichuan, China, hosts plant growth promoting Burkholderia cepacia with phosphate solubilizing and antifungal abilities.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria promote plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. We isolated twelve bacterial strains showing different degrees of phosphate solubilizing activity from maize rhizosphere. Four isolates solubilized over 300 ?g mL?¹ phosphate from insoluble Ca?(PO?)?, with isolate SCAUK0330 solubilizing over 450 ?g mL?¹. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis SCAUK0330 was identified as Burkholderia cepacia. SCAUK0330 grew at 10-40 °C and pH 4.0-10.0, tolerated up to 5% NaCl, and showed antagonism against nine pathogenic fungi. SCAUK0330 promoted the growth of both healthy and Helminthosporium maydis infected maize plants, indicating that the isolate was a good candidate to be applied as a biofertilizer and a biocontrol agent under a wide range of environmental conditions.The expression of a single SCAUK0330 gene gave E. coli a pH decrease linked ability to solubilize phosphate. The nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences of this phosphate solubilization linked gene showed high degree of sequence identity with B. cepacia E37gabY. The production of gluconic acid is considered as the principle mechanism for phosphate solubilization. In agreement with the proposed periplasmic location of the gluconic acid production, the predicted signal peptide and transmembrane regions implied that GabY is membrane bound. PMID:23932330

Zhao, Ke; Penttinen, Petri; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ao, Xiaoling; Liu, Maoke; Yu, Xiumei; Chen, Qiang

2014-01-20

136

Effects of Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Yield, Growth, and Some Physiological Characteristics of Wheat and Barley Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009 a greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effects of boron (B) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments, applied either alone or in combination, on yield, plant growth, leaf total chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, membrane leakage, and leaf relative water content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Bezostiya) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Tokak) plants. Results showed

Metin Turan; Medine Gulluce; Fikrettin ?ahin

2012-01-01

137

Auxin promotes Arabidopsis root growth by modulating gibberellin response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of plant organs is influenced by a stream of the phytohormone auxin that flows from the shoot apex to the tip of the root. However, until now it has not been known how auxin regulates the cell proliferation and enlargement that characterizes organ growth. Here we show that auxin controls the growth of roots by modulating cellular responses

Xiangdong Fu; Nicholas P. Harberd

2003-01-01

138

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-04-24

139

Evaluation of Phytase Producing Bacteria for Their Plant Growth Promoting Activities  

PubMed Central

Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076–0.174?U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal activity. All isolates were positive for the above characteristics except for HCN production. The solubilization index for phosphorus on Pikovskaya agar plates was in the range of 2–4. Significant amount of IAA (7.19 to 35.03??g/mL) production and solubilized phosphate (189.53 to 746.84??g/mL) was noticed by these isolates at different time intervals. Besides that, a greenhouse study was also conducted with Indian mustard to evaluate the potential of these isolates to promote plant growth. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters and P uptake by plant were used as indicators. The plant growth promoting ability of bacterial isolates in pot experiments was correlated to IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and other in vitro tests. On the basis of present findings, isolate PB-06 was most promising in plant growth promotion with multiple growth promoting characteristics. PMID:24669222

Singh, Prashant; Agrawal, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

140

Evaluation of phytase producing bacteria for their plant growth promoting activities.  

PubMed

Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076-0.174?U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal activity. All isolates were positive for the above characteristics except for HCN production. The solubilization index for phosphorus on Pikovskaya agar plates was in the range of 2-4. Significant amount of IAA (7.19 to 35.03? ? g/mL) production and solubilized phosphate (189.53 to 746.84? ? g/mL) was noticed by these isolates at different time intervals. Besides that, a greenhouse study was also conducted with Indian mustard to evaluate the potential of these isolates to promote plant growth. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters and P uptake by plant were used as indicators. The plant growth promoting ability of bacterial isolates in pot experiments was correlated to IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and other in vitro tests. On the basis of present findings, isolate PB-06 was most promising in plant growth promotion with multiple growth promoting characteristics. PMID:24669222

Singh, Prashant; Kumar, Vinod; Agrawal, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

141

Growth promotion of ivy (Hedera helix L.) by paclobutrazol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paclobutrazol was applied to juvenile ivy plants in an attempt to induce the mature form by the inhibition of gibberellin biosynthesis. Contrary to expectation, shoot elongation and adventitious root formation on aerial shoots were promoted.

Barbara A. Horrell; Paula E. Jameson; Peter Bannister

1989-01-01

142

Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

1999-01-01

143

Isolation and identification of a plant growth promotive substance from mixture of essential plant oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PCS (commercial products by Field Science Co, Japan, used for air fresheners) was analyzed for the presence of bioactive constituents and their role as root growth promoters. Chromatographic separation of the methanolic solution of PCS resulted in the isolation of an promoting active substance, which was identified using GC-mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy as 1,2-propanediol (CH3CH(OH)CH2OH). Lettuce seedling growth

Eri Nakajima; Zahida Iqbal; Hiroshi Araya; Syuntaro Hiradate; Michiko Hamano; Yoshiharu Fujii

2005-01-01

144

Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pantoea sp. Strain AS-PWVM4  

PubMed Central

Nonpathogenic Pantoea spp. have been shown to confer biofertilizer and biocontrol activities, indicating their potential for increasing crop yield. Herein, we provide the high-quality genome sequence of Pantoea sp. strain AS-PWVM4, a Gram-negative motile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium isolated from a pomegranate plant. The 4.9-Mb genome contains genes related to plant growth promotion and the synthesis of siderophores. PMID:24309733

Khatri, Indu; Kaur, Sukhvir; Devi, Usha; Kumar, Navinder; Sharma, Deepak

2013-01-01

145

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria: Constraints in Bioformulation, Commercialization, and Future Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bioformulations for plant growth promotion continue to inspire research and development in many fields. Increase in soil fertility,\\u000a plant growth promotion, and suppression of phytopathogens are the targets of the bioformulation industry that leads to the\\u000a development of ecofriendly environment. The synthetic chemicals used in the agriculture to increase yields, kill pathogens,\\u000a pests, and weeds, have a big harmful impact

Naveen K. Arora; Ekta Khare; Dinesh K. Maheshwari

146

Complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca strain JD37.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aurantiaca Strain JD37, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from potato rhizosphere soil (Shanghai, China), is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. The JD37 genome consists of only one chromosome with no plasmids. Its genome contains genes involved plant growth promoting, biological control, and other function. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P. aurantiaca JD37. As far as we know, this is the first whole-genome of this species. PMID:25456057

Jiang, Qiuyue; Xiao, Jing; Zhou, Chenhao; Mu, Yonglin; Xu, Bin; He, Qingling; Xiao, Ming

2014-12-20

147

Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were\\u000a undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated

R. K. Roy; Mayank Thakur; V. K. Dixit

2008-01-01

148

Promotion of plant growth by phytohormone-producing endophytic microbes of sugar beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three plant-growth-promoting isolates of endophytic bacteria from sugar beet roots produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in\\u000a vitro in a chemically defined medium. The three isolates were selected from 221 endophytic bacteria isolated from surface-disinfected\\u000a beet roots and evaluated for potential to produce IAA and to promote beet growth under gnotobiotic and glasshouse conditions.\\u000a The inoculation of roots of beet by three

Yingwu Shi; Kai Lou; Chun Li

2009-01-01

149

Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pantoea sp. Strain AS-PWVM4.  

PubMed

Nonpathogenic Pantoea spp. have been shown to confer biofertilizer and biocontrol activities, indicating their potential for increasing crop yield. Herein, we provide the high-quality genome sequence of Pantoea sp. strain AS-PWVM4, a Gram-negative motile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium isolated from a pomegranate plant. The 4.9-Mb genome contains genes related to plant growth promotion and the synthesis of siderophores. PMID:24309733

Khatri, Indu; Kaur, Sukhvir; Devi, Usha; Kumar, Navinder; Sharma, Deepak; Subramanian, Srikrishna; Saini, Adesh K

2013-01-01

150

Genetic, physiological and biochemical characterization of Bacillus sp . strain RMB7 exhibiting plant growth promoting and broad spectrum antifungal activities.  

PubMed

BackgroundPlant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are functionally diverse group of bacteria having immense potential as biofertilizers and biopesticides. Depending upon their function, they may serve as partial replacements for chemical fertilizer or pesticides as an eco-friendly and cost-effective alternatives as compared to their synthetic counterparts. Therefore, isolation, characterization and practical evaluation of PGPRs having the aforementioned multifaceted beneficial characteristics, are essentially required. This study describes the detailed polyphasic characterization of Bacillus sp. strain RMB7 having profound broad spectrum antifungal activity and plant growth promoting potential.ResultsBased on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, strain RMB7 was identified as Bacillus specie. This strain exhibited the production of 8 mg. L¿1of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in tryptophan-supplemented medium. It was able to solubilize 50.6 mg. L¿1 tri-calcium phosphate, reduced 601¿mol acetylene h¿1/vial and inhibited >70% growth of nine fungal phytopathogens tested in vitro. Under natural pathogen pressure, inoculation with strain RMB7 and RMB7-supernatant conferred resistance by arugula plant against Pythium irregulare with a concurrent growth improvement over non-inoculated plants. The T-RFLP analysis based on 16S rRNA gene showed that inoculation with RMB7 or its supernatant have a major impact on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial population. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the production of lipopeptide surfactins as well as iturin A presence in crude extract of RMB7. PCR-amplification further confirmed the presence of genes involved in the biosynthesis of these two bioactive lipopeptide compounds.ConclusionsThe data show that Bacillus sp. strain RMB7 has multifaceted beneficial characteristics. It may be an ideal plant growth promoting as well as biocontrol agent, for its integrated use in disease and nutrient management strategies. PMID:25338952

Ali, Saira; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Iqbal, Mazhar; Lazarovits, George

2014-10-24

151

Involvement of Quinolinate Phosphoribosyl Transferase in Promotion of Potato Growth by a Burkholderia Strain  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN stimulates root growth of potato explants compared to uninoculated controls under gnotobiotic conditions. In order to determine the mechanism by which this growth stimulation occurs, we used Tn5 mutagenesis to produce a mutant, H41, which exhibited no growth-promoting activity but was able to colonize potato plants as well as the wild-type strain. The gene associated with the loss of growth promotion in H41 was shown to exhibit 65% identity at the amino acid level to the nadC gene encoding quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QAPRTase) in Ralstonia solanacearum. Complementation of H41 with QAPRTase restored growth promotion of potato explants by this mutant. Expression of the gene identified in Escherichia coli yielded a protein with QAPRTase activities that catalyzed the de novo formation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN). Two other genes involved in the same enzymatic pathway, nadA and nadB, were physically linked to nadC. The nadA gene was cotranscribed with nadC as an operon in wild-type strain PsJN, while the nadB gene was located downstream of the nadA-nadC operon. Growth promotion by H41 was fully restored by addition of NaMN to the tissue culture medium. These data suggested that QAPRTase may play a role in the signal pathway for promotion of plant growth by PsJN. PMID:16391116

Wang, Keri; Conn, Kenneth; Lazarovits, George

2006-01-01

152

Antifungal, insecticidal, and plant growth promoting potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16.  

PubMed

In the present study, an actinobacterium strain, possessing antagonistic activity against different fungal phytopathogens viz. Colletotrichum acutatum, Cladosporium herbarum, Alternaria brassicicola, Exserohilum sp., Alternaria mali, Colletotrichum gleospoiroides, Alternaria alternata, Cercospora sp., Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and Fusarium moniliformae, was isolated from soil and identified as Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16. Application of culture supernatant (5%)/cells (10(7) ?cfu?ml(-1) ), 2?h post inoculation with A. brassicicola (10(5) ?spores?ml(-1) ), resulted in 85.95 and 93.75% suppression of black leaf spot of Raphanus sativus, respectively on detached leaves. Whereas cells/culture supernatant (above 5%) completely suppressed the disease incidence when co inoculated with fungal pathogen. The crude extract containing antifungal components was completely stable at 70?°C for 1?h retaining 90 and 67.67% activity after boiling (for 1?h) and autoclaving (121?°C for 30?min), respectively. No loss in activity was observed when treated with proteinase K and on exposure to sun and UV light and found to be active over a wide range of pH (2 to 14). Bioautography of the solvent extract against test phytopathogens revealed the presence of three active components. Ethyl acetate extract of DH16 also demonstrated insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura, causing 40% larval mortality and extension of larval period. In addition, it produced 30?µg?ml(-1) of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) in a medium containing tryptophan which promoted lateral root formation in Vigna radiata (green gram). These results indicate that Streptomyces hydrogenans holds the potential to be used as antifungal, insecticidal, and plant growth promoting agent. PMID:23765423

Kaur, Talwinder; Manhas, Rajesh Kumari

2014-11-01

153

Plant growth-promoting activities of Streptomyces spp. in sorghum and rice.  

PubMed

Five strains of Streptomyces (CAI-24, CAI-121, CAI-127, KAI-32 and KAI-90) were earlier reported by us as biological control agents against Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FOC). In the present study, the Streptomyces were characterized for enzymatic activities, physiological traits and further evaluated in greenhouse and field for their plant growth promotion (PGP) of sorghum and rice. All the Streptomyces produced lipase, ?-1-3-glucanase and chitinase (except CAI-121 and CAI-127), grew in NaCl concentrations of up to 6%, at pH values between 5 and 13 and temperatures between 20 and 40°C and were highly sensitive to Thiram, Benlate, Captan, Benomyl and Radonil at field application level. When the Streptomyces were evaluated in the greenhouse on sorghum all the isolates significantly enhanced all the agronomic traits over the control. In the field, on rice, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced stover yield (up to 25%; except CAI-24), grain yield (up to 10%), total dry matter (up to 18%; except CAI-24) and root length, volume and dry weight (up to 15%, 36% and 55%, respectively, except CAI-24) over the control. In the rhizosphere soil, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced microbial biomass carbon (except CAI-24), nitrogen, dehydrogenase (except CAI-24), total N, available P and organic carbon (up to 41%, 52%, 75%, 122%, 53% and 13%, respectively) over the control. This study demonstrates that the selected Streptomyces which were antagonistic to FOC also have PGP properties. PMID:24255867

Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Sree Vidya, Meesala; Rathore, Abhishek

2013-01-01

154

Role of metal resistant plant growth promoting bacteria in ameliorating fly ash to the growth of Brassica juncea.  

PubMed

In this study, we have shown that the plant growth promoting bacterial strain NBRI K24 and strain NBRI K3 from fly ash (FA) contaminated soil reduce the toxicity of Ni and Cr in Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and promote plant growth under pot culture experiments. Isolated strains NBRI K24 and NBRI K3 were characterized based on the 16S rDNA sequencing and identified as Enterobacter aerogenes and Rahnella aquatilis respectively. Both the strains were siderophore producing and found capable of stimulating plant biomass and enhance phytoextraction of metals (Ni and Cr) from FA by metal accumulating plant i.e. B. juncea. Concurrent production of siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA) and phosphate solubilization revealed their plant growth promotion potential. PMID:19487076

Kumar, Kalpna V; Srivastava, Shubhi; Singh, N; Behl, H M

2009-10-15

155

Inability of transforming growth factor-?1, combined with a bioabsorbable polymer paste, to promote healing of bone defects in the rat distal femur  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) to promote bone formation suggests that it may have potential as a\\u000a therapeutic agent in bone defects. However, there still exists a need for an effective method of delivering TGF-?1 to the\\u000a site of an osseous defect. In the present study, TGF-?1 was embedded in a bioabsorbable polymer paste (a blend of an

L. Tielinen; M. Manninen; P. Puolakkainen; M. Kellomäki; P. Törmälä; J. Rich; J. Seppälä; P. Rokkanen

2001-01-01

156

Thymidine Phosphorylase is Angiogenic and Promotes Tumor Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor was previously identified as the sole angiogenic activity present in platelets; it is now known to be thymidine phosphorylase (TP). The effect of TP on [methyl-^3H]thymidine uptake does not arise from de novo DNA synthesis and the molecule is not a growth factor. Despite this, TP is strongly angiogenic in a rat sponge and freeze-injured skin graft model. Neutralizing antibodies and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the enzyme activity of TP is a condition for its angiogenic activity. The level of TP was found to be elevated in human breast tumors compared to normal breast tissue (P < 0.001). Overexpression of TP in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells had no effect on growth in vitro but markedly enhanced tumor growth in vivo. These data and the correlation of expression in tumors with malignancy identify TP as a target for antitumor strategies.

Moghaddam, Amir; Zhang, Hua-Tang; Fan, Tai-Ping D.; Hu, De-En; Lees, Vivien C.; Turley, Helen; Fox, Stephen B.; Gatter, Kevin C.; Harris, Adrian L.; Bicknell, Roy

1995-02-01

157

Enhancement of photosynthesis (CO2 uptake) and plant growth through the promotion of stomatal opening  

E-print Network

1 Enhancement of photosynthesis (CO2 uptake) and plant growth through the promotion of stomatal ­ By determining the key factor in regulating photosynthesis and plant growth, scientists, Prof. Toshinori-Molecules (WPI-ITbM), have succeeded in developing a method to increase photosynthesis (CO2 uptake) and plant

Takahashi, Ryo

158

Complete Genome of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1  

SciTech Connect

We report the complete sequence of the 5.7-Mbp genome of Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1, a metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that is highly tolerant to desiccation and capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and iron and of synthesizing phytohormones that stimulate seed germination and plant growth.

Matilla, M.A.; van der Lelie, D.; Pizarro-Tobias, P.; Roca, A.; Fernandez, M.; Duque, E.; Molina, L.; Wu, X.; Gomez, M. J.; Segura, A.; Ramos, J.-L.

2011-03-01

159

The potential contribution of plant growth-promoting bacteria to reduce environmental degradation – A comprehensive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are commonly used to improve crop yields. In addition to their proven usefulness in agriculture, they possess potential in solving environmental problems. Some examples are highlighted. PGPB may prevent soil erosion in arid zones by improving growth of desert plants in reforestation programs; in turn, this reduces dust pollution. PGPB supports restoration of mangrove ecosystems that

Luz E. de-Bashan; Juan-Pablo Hernandez; Yoav Bashan

160

PROMOTION OF PLANT GROWTH BY SOIL BACTERIA THAT REGULATE PLANT ETHYLENE LEVELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the central the mechanisms used by many soil bacteria to directly promote plant growth is the production of the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. This enzyme facilitates plant growth as a consequence of the fact that it sequesters and cleaves plant- produced ACC (the immediate precursor of ethylene in plants), thereby lowering the level of ethylene in the plant.

Bernard R. Glick

161

Soluble syndecan-1 promotes growth of myeloma tumors in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syndecan-1 (CD138) is a transmembrane heparan sulfate-bearing proteoglycan ex- pressed by most myeloma plasma cells that regulates adhesion, migration, and growth factor activity. In patients with myeloma, shed syndecan-1 accumulates in the bone marrow, and high levels of syndecan-1 in the serum are an indicator of poor prognosis. To test the effect of soluble syndecan-1 on tumor cell growth and

Yang Yang; Shmuel Yaccoby; Wei Liu; J. Kevin Langford; Carla Y. Pumphrey; Allison Theus; Joshua Epstein; Ralph D. Sanderson

2002-01-01

162

Plant Hormones Promote Growth in Lichen-Forming Fungi  

PubMed Central

The effect of plant hormones on the growth of lichen-forming fungi (LFF) was evaluated. The use of 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and indole-3-butyric acid resulted in a 99% and 57% increase in dry weight of the lichen-forming fungus Nephromopsis ornata. The results suggest that some plant hormones can be used as inducers or stimulators of LFF growth for large-scale culture. PMID:23956650

Wang, Xin Yu; Wei, Xin Li; Luo, Heng; Kim, Jung A; Jeon, Hae Sook; Koh, Young Jin

2010-01-01

163

Clove Extract Inhibits Tumor Growth and Promotes Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) have been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for thousands of years. Cloves possess antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties, but their potential anticancer activity remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects and biological mechanisms of ethyl acetate extract of cloves (EAEC) and the potential bioactive components responsible for its antitumor activity. The effects of EAEC on cell growth, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis were investigated using human cancer cell lines. The molecular changes associated with the effects of EAEC were analyzed by Western blot and (qRT)-PCR analysis. The in vivo effect of EAEC and its bioactive component was investigated using the HT-29 tumor xenograft model. We identified oleanolic acid (OA) as one of the components of EAEC responsible for its antitumor activity. Both EAEC and OA display cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines. Interestingly, EAEC was superior to OA and the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil at suppressing growth of colon tumor xenografts. EAEC promoted G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with EAEC and OA selectively increased protein expression of p21WAF1/Cip1 and ?-H2AX and downregulated expression of cell cycle-regulated proteins. Moreover, many of these changes were at the mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional regulation by EAEC treatment. Our results demonstrate that clove extract may represent a novel therapeutic herb for the treatment of colorectal cancer, and OA appears to be one of the bioactive components. PMID:24854101

Liu, Haizhou; Schmitz, John C.; Wei, Jianteng; Cao, Shousong; Beumer, Jan H.; Strychor, Sandra; Cheng, Linyou; Liu, Ming; Wang, Cuicui; Wu, Ning; Zhao, Xiangzhong; Zhang, Yuyan; Liao, Joshua; Chu, Edward; Lin, Xiukun

2014-01-01

164

Activating transcription factor 2 controls Bcl-2 promoter activity in growth plate chondrocytes.  

PubMed

Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) is expressed ubiquitously in mammals. Mice deficient in ATF-2 (ATF-2 m/m) are slightly smaller than their normal littermates at birth. Approximately 50% of mice born mutant in both alleles die within the first month. Those that survive develop a hypochondroplasia-like dwarfism, characterized by shortened growth plates and kyphosis. Expression of ATF-2 within the growth plate is limited to the resting and proliferating zones. We have previously shown that ATF-2 targets the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the promoters of cyclin A and cyclin D1 in growth plate chondrocytes to activate their expression. Here, we demonstrate that Bcl-2, a cell death inhibitor that regulates apoptosis, is expressed within the growth plate in proliferative and prehypertrophic chondrocytes. However, Bcl-2 expression declines in hypertrophic chondrocytes. The Bcl-2 promoter contains a CRE at -1,552 bp upstream of the translation start. Mutations within this CRE cause reduced Bcl-2 promoter activity. We show here that the absence of ATF-2 in growth plate chondrocytes corresponds to a decline in Bcl-2 promoter activity, as well as a reduction in Bcl-2 protein levels. In addition, we show that ATF-2 as well as CREB, a transcription factor that can heterodimerize with ATF-2, bind to the CRE within the Bcl-2 promoter. These data identify the Bcl-2 gene as a novel target of ATF-2 and CREB in growth plate chondrocytes. PMID:17219413

Ma, Qin; Li, Xinying; Vale-Cruz, Dustin; Brown, Mark L; Beier, Frank; LuValle, Phyllis

2007-05-15

165

Colonization and plant growth promoting characterization of endophytic Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain Zong1 isolated from Sophora alopecuroides root nodules  

PubMed Central

The endophytic strain Zong1 isolated from root nodules of the legume Sophora alopecuroides was characterized by conducting physiological and biochemical tests employing gfp-marking, observing their plant growth promoting characteristics (PGPC) and detecting plant growth parameters of inoculation assays under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that strain Zong1 had an effective growth at 28 ºC after placed at 4–60 ºC for 15 min, had a wide range pH tolerance of 6.0–11.0 and salt tolerance up to 5% of NaCl. Zong1 was resistant to the following antibiotics (?g/mL): Phosphonomycin (100), Penicillin (100) and Ampicillin (100). It could grow in the medium supplemented with 1.2 mmol/L Cu, 0.1% (w/v) methylene blue and 0.1–0.2% (w/v) methyl red, respectively. Zong1 is closely related to Pseudomonas chlororaphis based on analysis the sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Its expression of the gfp gene indicated that strain Zong1 may colonize in root or root nodules and verified by microscopic observation. Furthermore, co-inoculation with Zong1 and SQ1 (Mesorhizobium sp.) showed significant effects compared to single inoculation for the following PGPC parameters: siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, organic acid production, IAA production and antifungal activity in vitro. These results suggest strains P. chlororaphi Zong1 and Mesorhizobium sp. SQ1 have better synergistic or addictive effect. It was noteworthy that each growth index of co-inoculated Zong1+SQ1 in growth assays under greenhouse conditions is higher than those of single inoculation, and showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared to a negative control. Therefore, as an endophyte P. chlororaphis Zong1 may play important roles as a potential plant-growth promoting agent. PMID:24294262

Zhao, Long Fei; Xu, Ya Jun; Ma, Zhan Qiang; Deng, Zhen Shan; Shan, Chang Juan; Wei, Ge Hong

2013-01-01

166

Inhibitory effect of endophyte bacteria on Botrytis cinerea and its influence to promote the grapevine growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A grapevine pathogen, Botrytis cinerea, produces characteristic gray mold symptoms on leaves and\\/or stems within 7 days following the inoculation. In this study we used a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain PsJN, which demonstrates an induction of plant growth in parallel with an antagonistic effect on in vitro growth and development of B. cinerea. The simultaneous in vitro co-culture

Essaid Ait Barka; Sabine Gognies; Jerzy Nowak; Jean-Claude Audran; Abdel Belarbi

2002-01-01

167

Biodiversity promotes tree growth during succession in subtropical forest.  

PubMed

Losses of plant species diversity can affect ecosystem functioning, with decreased primary productivity being the most frequently reported effect in experimental plant assemblages, including tree plantations. Less is known about the role of biodiversity in natural ecosystems, including forests, despite their importance for global biogeochemical cycling and climate. In general, experimental manipulations of tree diversity will take decades to yield final results. To date, biodiversity effects in natural forests therefore have only been reported from sample surveys or meta-analyses with plots not initially selected for diversity. We studied biomass and growth of subtropical forests stands in southeastern China. Taking advantage of variation in species recruitment during secondary succession, we adopted a comparative study design selecting forest plots to span a gradient in species richness. We repeatedly censored the stem diameter of two tree size cohorts, comprising 93 species belonging to 57 genera and 33 families. Tree size and growth were analyzed in dependence of species richness, the functional diversity of growth-related traits, and phylogenetic diversity, using both general linear and structural equation modeling. Successional age covaried with diversity, but differently so in the two size cohorts. Plot-level stem basal area and growth were positively related with species richness, while growth was negatively related to successional age. The productivity increase in species-rich, functionally and phylogenetically diverse plots was driven by both larger mean sizes and larger numbers of trees. The biodiversity effects we report exceed those from experimental studies, sample surveys and meta-analyses, suggesting that subtropical tree diversity is an important driver of forest productivity and re-growth after disturbance that supports the provision of ecological services by these ecosystems. PMID:24303037

Barrufol, Martin; Schmid, Bernhard; Bruelheide, Helge; Chi, Xiulian; Hector, Andrew; Ma, Keping; Michalski, Stefan; Tang, Zhiyao; Niklaus, Pascal A

2013-01-01

168

Drought-tolerant plant growth promoting Bacillus spp.: effect on growth, osmolytes, and antioxidant status of maize under drought stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study Bacillus spp. screened for drought tolerance could tolerate minimal water potential (-0.73 MPa) were evaluated for plant growth promoting properties at –0.73 MPa. Drought stress affected growth of isolates as indicated by increased intracellular free amino acids, proline, total soluble sugars, and exopolysaccharides. Drought-tolerant Bacillus spp. HYD-B17, HYTAPB18, HYDGRFB19, BKB30, RMPB44 identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis,

Sandhya Vardharajula; Shaik Zulfikar Ali; Minakshi Grover; Gopal Reddy; Venkateswarlu Bandi

2011-01-01

169

Berberis vulgaris as Growth Promoter in Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk in Persian) is a member of therapeutic plants in herbal medicine. There is evidence that its root contains components, such as berberine, berbamine, culumbamine and berberubine, with a relatively wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The aim of the present study was to examine if the plant root has any effect on the growth of broiler chickens. The

2006-01-01

170

Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in Mexico (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, with rapid growth occurring in the industrial and services sectors. A forward-thinking country on climate change, the nation recognizes that the threat of higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent weather-related disasters could pose a substantial risk to its expanding economy.

Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

2013-11-01

171

Polluted dust promotes new particle formation and growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding new particle formation and their subsequent growth in the troposphere has a critical impact on our ability to predict atmospheric composition and global climate change. High pre-existing particle loadings have been thought to suppress the formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles due to high condensation and coagulation sinks. Here, based on field measurements at a mountain site in South China, we report, for the first time, in situ observational evidence on new particle formation and growth in remote ambient atmosphere during heavy dust episodes mixed with anthropogenic pollution. Both the formation and growth rates of particles in the diameter range 15-50 nm were enhanced during the dust episodes, indicating the influence of photo-induced, dust surface-mediated reactions and resulting condensable vapor production. This study provides unique in situ observations of heterogeneous photochemical processes inducing new particle formation and growth in the real atmosphere, and suggests an unexpected impact of mineral dust on climate and atmospheric chemistry.

Nie, Wei; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; George, Christian; Xue, Likun; Wang, Wenxing; Zhang, Qingzhu; Petäjä, Tuukka; Qi, Ximeng; Gao, Xiaomei; Wang, Xinfeng; Yang, Xiuqun; Fu, Congbin; Kulmala, Markku

2014-10-01

172

Polluted dust promotes new particle formation and growth  

PubMed Central

Understanding new particle formation and their subsequent growth in the troposphere has a critical impact on our ability to predict atmospheric composition and global climate change. High pre-existing particle loadings have been thought to suppress the formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles due to high condensation and coagulation sinks. Here, based on field measurements at a mountain site in South China, we report, for the first time, in situ observational evidence on new particle formation and growth in remote ambient atmosphere during heavy dust episodes mixed with anthropogenic pollution. Both the formation and growth rates of particles in the diameter range 15–50?nm were enhanced during the dust episodes, indicating the influence of photo-induced, dust surface-mediated reactions and resulting condensable vapor production. This study provides unique in situ observations of heterogeneous photochemical processes inducing new particle formation and growth in the real atmosphere, and suggests an unexpected impact of mineral dust on climate and atmospheric chemistry. PMID:25319109

Nie, Wei; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; George, Christian; Xue, Likun; Wang, Wenxing; Zhang, Qingzhu; Petäjä, Tuukka; Qi, Ximeng; Gao, Xiaomei; Wang, Xinfeng; Yang, Xiuqun; Fu, Congbin; Kulmala, Markku

2014-01-01

173

Plant growth promotion by spermidine-producing Bacillus subtilis OKB105.  

PubMed

The interaction between plants and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is a complex, reciprocal process. On the one hand, plant compounds such as carbohydrates and amino acids serve as energy sources for PGPR. On the other hand, PGPR promote plant growth by synthesizing plant hormones and increasing mineral availability in the soil. Here, we evaluated the growth-promoting activity of Bacillus subtilis OKB105 and identified genes associated with this activity. The genes yecA (encoding a putative amino acid/polyamine permease) and speB (encoding agmatinase) are involved in the secretion or synthesis of polyamine in B. subtilis OKB105. Disruption of either gene abolished the growth-promoting activity of the bacterium, which was restored when polyamine synthesis was complemented. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of culture filtrates of OKB105 and its derivatives demonstrated that spermidine, a common polyamine, is the pivotal plant-growth-promoting compound. In addition, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that treatment with B. subtilis OKB105 induced expansin gene (Nt-EXPA1 and Nt-EXPA2) expression and inhibited the expression of the ethylene biosynthesis gene ACO1. Furthermore, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis showed that the ethylene content in plant root cells decreased in response to spermidine produced by OKB105. Therefore, during plant interactions, OKB105 may produce and secrete spermidine, which induces expansin production and lowers ethylene levels. PMID:24678831

Xie, Shan-Shan; Wu, Hui-Jun; Zang, Hao-Yu; Wu, Li-Ming; Zhu, Qing-Qing; Gao, Xue-Wen

2014-07-01

174

Promotion of growth by elevated carbon dioxide is coordinated through a flexible transcriptional network in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Although gibberellins (GAs) promote many developmental responses in plants, little is known about how the hormone interacts with environmental signals at the molecular level for regulating plant growth. Recently, we have demonstrated that inhibition of growth by the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) at ambient [CO?] (350 µmol CO? mol(-1)) is reverted by elevated [CO?] (750 ?mol CO? mol(-1)). Our finding points to an important role of elevated [CO?] as a signal allowing higher growth rates of low-GA plants. GA promotes plant growth via a complex transcriptional network that integrates multiple signaling pathways. Herein, we discuss how elevated [CO?] stimulates biomass accumulation in a GA-independent manner by regulating the expression of growth-related genes. PMID:23333969

Ribeiro, Dimas M; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Schippers, Jos H M

2013-03-01

175

Microbial phytases in phosphorus acquisition and plant growth promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) is one of the major constituents in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of nucleic acids and cell membranes\\u000a with an important role in regulation of a number of enzymes. Soil phosphorous is an important macronutrient for plant growth.\\u000a Phosphorus deficiency in soil is a major problem for agricultural production. Total soil P occurs in either organic or in\\u000a organic

Bijender Singh; T. Satyanarayana

2011-01-01

176

Gene expression of axon growth promoting factors in the deer antler.  

PubMed

The annual regeneration cycle of deer (Cervidae, Artiodactyla) antlers represents a unique model of epimorphic regeneration and rapid growth in adult mammals. Regenerating antlers are innervated by trigeminal sensory axons growing through the velvet, the modified form of skin that envelopes the antler, at elongation velocities that reach one centimetre per day in the common deer (Cervus elaphus). Several axon growth promoters like NT-3, NGF or IGF-1 have been described in the antler. To increase the knowledge on the axon growth environment, we have combined different gene-expression techniques to identify and characterize the expression of promoting molecules not previously described in the antler velvet. Cross-species microarray analyses of deer samples on human arrays allowed us to build up a list of 90 extracellular or membrane molecules involved in axon growth that were potentially being expressed in the antler. Fifteen of these genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing techniques to confirm their expression in the velvet and to compare it with the expression in other antler and skin samples. Expression of 8 axon growth promoters was confirmed in the velvet, 5 of them not previously described in the antler. In conclusion, our work shows that antler velvet provides growing axons with a variety of promoters of axon growth, sharing many of them with deer's normal and pedicle skin. PMID:21187928

Pita-Thomas, Wolfgang; Fernández-Martos, Carmen; Yunta, Mónica; Maza, Rodrigo M; Navarro-Ruiz, Rosa; Lopez-Rodríguez, Marcos Javier; Reigada, David; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Nieto-Diaz, Manuel

2010-01-01

177

Gene Expression of Axon Growth Promoting Factors in the Deer Antler  

PubMed Central

The annual regeneration cycle of deer (Cervidae, Artiodactyla) antlers represents a unique model of epimorphic regeneration and rapid growth in adult mammals. Regenerating antlers are innervated by trigeminal sensory axons growing through the velvet, the modified form of skin that envelopes the antler, at elongation velocities that reach one centimetre per day in the common deer (Cervus elaphus). Several axon growth promoters like NT-3, NGF or IGF-1 have been described in the antler. To increase the knowledge on the axon growth environment, we have combined different gene-expression techniques to identify and characterize the expression of promoting molecules not previously described in the antler velvet. Cross-species microarray analyses of deer samples on human arrays allowed us to build up a list of 90 extracellular or membrane molecules involved in axon growth that were potentially being expressed in the antler. Fifteen of these genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing techniques to confirm their expression in the velvet and to compare it with the expression in other antler and skin samples. Expression of 8 axon growth promoters was confirmed in the velvet, 5 of them not previously described in the antler. In conclusion, our work shows that antler velvet provides growing axons with a variety of promoters of axon growth, sharing many of them with deer's normal and pedicle skin. PMID:21187928

Pita-Thomas, Wolfgang; Fernández-Martos, Carmen; Yunta, Mónica; Maza, Rodrigo M.; Navarro-Ruiz, Rosa; Lopez-Rodríguez, Marcos Javier; Reigada, David; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Nieto-Diaz, Manuel

2010-01-01

178

Introduction of the human growth hormone gene into the guinea pig mammary gland by in vivo transfection promotes sustained expression  

E-print Network

Introduction of the human growth hormone gene into the guinea pig mammary gland by in vivo encoding the human growth hormone (hGH) gene, under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. Guinea pig transfection promotes sustained expression of human growth hormone in the milk throughout lactation Julie R

Mather, Ian

179

CEACAM1 promotes melanoma cell growth through Sox-2.  

PubMed

The prognostic value of the carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in melanoma was demonstrated more than a decade ago as superior to Breslow score. We have previously shown that intercellular homophilic CEACAM1 interactions protect melanoma cells from lymphocyte-mediated elimination. Here, we study the direct effects of CEACAM1 on melanoma cell biology. By employing tissue microarrays and low-passage primary cultures of metastatic melanoma, we show that CEACAM1 expression gradually increases from nevi to metastatic specimens, with a strong dominance of the CEACAM1-Long tail splice variant. Using experimental systems of CEACAM1 knockdown and overexpression of selective variants or truncation mutants, we prove that only the full-length long tail variant enhances melanoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. This effect is not reversed with a CEACAM1-blocking antibody, suggesting that it is not mediated by intercellular homophilic interactions. Downstream, CEACAM1-Long increases the expression of Sox-2, which we show to be responsible for the CEACAM1-mediated enhanced proliferation. Furthermore, analysis of the CEACAM1 promoter reveals two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly enhance the promoter's activity compared with the consensus nucleotides. Importantly, case-control genetic SNP analysis of 134 patients with melanoma and matched healthy donors show that patients with melanoma do not exhibit the Hardy-Weinberg balance and that homozygous SNP genotype enhances the hazard ratio to develop melanoma by 35%. These observations shed new mechanistic light on the role of CEACAM1 in melanoma, forming the basis for development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic technologies. PMID:24931667

Ortenberg, Rona; Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Greenberg, Ilanit; Zamlin, Bella; Sapoznik, Sivan; Greenberg, Eyal; Barshack, Iris; Avivi, Camila; Feiler, Yulia; Zan-Bar, Israel; Besser, Michal J; Azizi, Ester; Eitan, Friedman; Schachter, Jacob; Markel, Gal

2014-05-01

180

Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. PMID:24144612

Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

2014-01-01

181

STAT6 expression in glioblastoma promotes invasive growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive malignant primary brain tumor, characterized by rapid growth, diffuse infiltration\\u000a of cells into both adjacent and remote brain regions, and a generalized resistance to currently available treatment modalities.\\u000a Recent reports in the literature suggest that Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) play important roles\\u000a in the regulation of GBM pathophysiology.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  STAT6 protein expression

Barbara C Merk; Jennifer L Owens; Maria-Beatriz S Lopes; Corinne M Silva; Isa M Hussaini

2011-01-01

182

Susceptibilities of Candida spp. to antifungal agents visualized by two-dimensional scatterplots of relative growth.  

PubMed Central

The growth of 811 clinical yeast isolates in the presence of single concentrations of antifungal agents was measured spectrophotometrically and expressed as a percentage of growth in inhibitor-free control cultures. Two-dimensional scatterplots of the relative growth data allowed for the simple visual determination of some susceptibility trends, including correlations in relative growth between different agents and in relative susceptibilities between different yeast species. A positive susceptibility correlation was found for relative growth results with the azole antifungal agents fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole for 504 Candida albicans isolates. The relative growth scatterplots for fluconazole versus itraconazole showed that 50 (9.9%) of 504 C. albicans isolates were outliers with respect to the 95% confidence limits for a line of correlated relative growth established with an initial test panel of 59 isolates of this species. The outlying isolates were relatively less susceptible to fluconazole than to itraconazole under the conditions of the test. Most of the outliers were received in 1993 and 1994; only 3.9% of the isolates received in 1991 and 1992 and 1.7% of the isolates received before 1991 showed this differential susceptibility. In addition, most of the outliers came from patients with human immunodeficiency virus infections. The relative growth scatterplots confirmed the known high susceptibility of most Candida parapsilosis isolates to both fluconazole and itraconazole and the specifically low susceptibility of Candida krusei isolates to fluconazole. The scatterplots also illustrated a tendency towards lower (and correlative) relative growth among oral isolates obtained from AIDS patients who responded to azole antifungal treatment than among isolates from clinical nonresponders. PMID:8851576

Odds, F C; Dams, G; Just, G; Lewi, P

1996-01-01

183

Role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in chronic stress-promoted tumour growth  

PubMed Central

Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic stress can be a cofactor for the initiation and progression of cancer. Here we evaluated the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in stress-promoted tumour growth of murine B16F10 melanoma cell line in C57BL/6 mice. Animals subjected to restraint stress showed increased levels adrenocorticotropic hormone, enlarged adrenal glands, reduced thymus weight and a 3.61-fold increase in tumour growth in respect to no-stressed animals. Tumour growth was significantly reduced in mice treated with the ?-antagonist propranolol. Tumour samples obtained from stressed mice displayed high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein in immunohistochemistry. Because VEGF can induce eNOS increase, and nitric oxide is a relevant factor in angiogenesis, we assessed the levels of eNOS protein by Western blot analysis. We found a significant increase in eNOS levels in tumour samples from stressed mice, indicating an involvement of this enzyme in stress-induced tumour growth. Accordingly, chronic stress did not promote tumour growth in eNOS?/? mice. These results disclose for the first time a pivotal role for eNOS in chronic stress-induced initiation and promotion of tumour growth. PMID:21722303

Barbieri, Antonio; Palma, Giuseppe; Rosati, Alessandra; Giudice, Aldo; Falco, Antonia; Petrillo, Antonella; Petrillo, Mario; Bimonte, Sabrina; Benedetto, Maria Di; Esposito, Giuseppe; Stiuso, Paola; Abbruzzese, Alberto; Caraglia, Michele; Arra, Claudio

2012-01-01

184

Synergistic effect of beneficial rhizosphere microflora in biocontrol and plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Biological systems are getting more relevance than chemical control of plant pathogens as they are not only eco-friendly and economic in approach but are also involved in improving the soil consistency and maintenance of natural soil flora. Plant growth promoting rhizosphere microorganisms were isolated from three different tree rhizospheres using selective culture media. Five microorganisms were selected from each rhizosphere soil based on their efficiency and screened for their ability to promote plant growth as a consortium. Each of the developed consortium has a phosphate solubilizer, nitrogen fixer, growth hormone producer, heterotrophic member and an antagonist. The plant growth promoting ability of the microbial members present in the consortium was observed by estimating the IAA production level and also by the nitrogenase activity of the nitrogen fixers. The biocontrol potentiality of the consortium and the antagonist present in the consortium were checked by both dual plate assay and cross-streaking technique. Consortial treatments effected very good growth promotion in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill and the treated plants also developed resistance against wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici though the effect was well pronounced with consortium developed from Santalum album. PMID:18792056

Kannan, Vijayaragahavan; Sureendar, Raman

2009-04-01

185

Overexpression of SCLIP promotes growth and motility in glioblastoma cells.  

PubMed

SCLIP, a microtubule-destabilizing phosphoprotein, is known to be involved in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). It has been well established that there are notable parallels between normal development and tumorigenesis, especially in glioma. However, no studies have examined the significance of SCLIP in gliomagenesis. To address this, we investigated the expression of SCLIP and its roles in the development of gliomas. Notably, we found that SCLIP was highly expressed in various grades of glioma samples, as compared with normal brain tissues. Overexpression of SCLIP dramatically stimulated tumor cell migration and invasion as well as proliferation and downregulation of SCLIP showed opposite effects, establishing an important oncogenic role for this gene. Furthermore, we revealed that STAT3 was required to maintain SCLIP stability, suggesting that overexpression of STAT3 may be a critical step to facilitate microtubule dynamics and subsequently promotes migration and invasion of glioma cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that SCLIP plays an important role in glioma pathology, and may represent a novel therapeutic strategy against human glioma. PMID:25511414

Zhang, Yanmin; Ni, Shilei; Huang, Bin; Wang, Liyan; Zhang, Xianghong; Li, Xian; Wang, Han; Liu, Shuai; Hao, Aijun; Li, Xingang

2015-01-01

186

Promotion of the Growth of Boron-Carbide Nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron carbide, is a wide bandgap semiconductor (2.1eV) with a high melting temperature in excess of 2400^circC. Initial studies indicate that nanowires of boron carbide approximately 25 ~30 ?m in length and less than 100 nm in diameter can be grown by the technique of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition by a mode of the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism [1] at relatively low temperatures ( ~1150^circC). Through the use of boron based eutectics such as FeB, NiB and PtB nanowire growth at temperatures below 1150^circC. These metal borides have successively lower melting temperatures, respectively. In this paper we will discuss a simple technique for making submicron metal boride particles, as well as a simple means of depositing them onto a surface. In addition, the effect of droplet size on nanowire diameter and the stability of the size of the metal boride droplet during growth will be discussed. These studies demonstrate that the surface can be selectively seeded thereby controlling the location of the nanowires, i.e. select area deposition. Lastly, the techniques and materials used to grow boron carbide nanowires can easily be used to grow other types of nanowires, as well as carbon nanotubes. [1]. D. N. McIlroy, Daqing Zhang, Robert M. Cohen, J. Wharton, Yongjun Geng, M. Grant Norton, G. De Stasio, B.Gilbert, L.Perfetti, J.H.Streiff, B.Broocks and J.L. McHale, Phys. Rev. B 60 (1999) 4874

Kranov, Yanko; Zhang, Daqing; McIlroy, David; Norton, Grant

2000-03-01

187

Modelling The Growth of 2G Mobile Services: An Agent Based Approach D G Mansbridge & L E Sacks  

E-print Network

Modelling The Growth of 2G Mobile Services: An Agent Based Approach D G Mansbridge & L E Sacks Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering University College London Abstract: A simple agent based) is described. This model specifically addresses the role of the Short Message Service (SMS) in that growth

Haddadi, Hamed

188

Evidence that far-infrared radiation promotes growth of xenopus laevis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most ectotherms, environmental temperature has differential effects on growth and differentiation. For example, amphibian size at maturity decreases with increasing temperature. To address how radiant heat in the form of far-infrared radiation (FIR) may affect development of the aquatic ectotherm Xenopus laevis, we continuously irradiated swimming larvae as they developed into young adults. Here we report evidence that FIR promotes growth of these organisms in an aqueous environment.

Shiurba, Robert; Hirabayashi, Tatsuo; Kiyokawa, Shin; Fukui, Akimasa; Miyanaga, Yuko; Kojima, Issey; Asashima, Makoto

1999-01-01

189

Plant growth promotion by a hexavalent chromium reducing bacterial strain, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans KUCr3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the isolation and characterization of a Cr(VI) resistant bacterial strain, having plant growth promoting\\u000a properties to improve general growth of plant in chromium-contaminated soil through rhizosphere colonization. The strain was\\u000a isolated from the sludge of waste canal carrying industrial effluents. The minimum inhibitory concentration of chromium to\\u000a this strain was found to be 450 and 400 mM

Swagata Chatterjee; Gopi Ballav Sau; Samir Kumar Mukherjee

2009-01-01

190

Porcine growth hormone gene expression from viral promoters in transgenic swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of porcine growth hormone (pGH) from novel expression vectors containing the promoter\\/enhancer elements of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) LTR or the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early gene was examined in transgenic swine. Both fusion genes resulted in elevated levels of serum pGH, elevation of insulin?like growth factor 1 (IGF?1), and a pronounced decrease in carcass fat

K. M. Ebert; T. E. Smith; F. C. Buonomo; E. W. Overstrom; M. J. Low

1990-01-01

191

Plant growth-promoting bacteria confer resistance in tomato plants to salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of the work is to evaluate whether rhizobacteria populating dry salty environments can increase resistance in tomato to salt stress. Seven strains of plant growth-promoting bacteria that have 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity were isolated from soil samples taken from the Arava region of southern Israel. Following growth of these seedlings in the presence of 43 mM NaCl for 7 weeks,

Shimon Mayak; Tsipora Tirosh; Bernard R Glick

2004-01-01

192

Exopolysaccharide-Producing Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Under Salinity Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can play an important role in alleviating soil salinity stress during plant growth and bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) can also help to mitigate salinity stress by reducing the content of Na+ available for plant uptake. In this study, native bacterial strains of wheat rhizosphere in soils of Varanasi, India, were screened to identify the EPS-producing salt-tolerant

S. K. UPADHYAY; J. S. SINGH; D. P. SINGH

2011-01-01

193

The Drosophila phosphoinositide 3-kinase Dp110 promotes cell growth.  

PubMed Central

Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) have been identified in an evolutionarily diverse range of organisms, including mammals, Drosophila, yeast, plants and Dictyostelium. They are activated by a multitude of extracellular signals and implicated in mitogenesis, differentiation and cell survival, as well as in the control of the cytoskeleton and cell shape. Here we describe the molecular and functional analysis of Drosophila p110 (Dp110). A full-length Dp110 cDNA was isolated and found to encode a protein homologous throughout its length to the class I mammalian PI3Ks p110alpha and p110beta. Overexpression of Dp110 in wing or eye imaginal discs resulted in flies with enlarged wings or eyes respectively. In contrast, overexpression of Dp110 containing a mutation predicted to result in the loss of catalytic activity resulted in smaller wings and eyes. The alterations in wing size result from changes in both cell size and cell number, whereas in the eye only differences in cell size were detected. These data imply a role for Dp110 in growth control during Drosophila development and have implications for the function of class I PI3Ks in other organisms. Images PMID:8978685

Leevers, S J; Weinkove, D; MacDougall, L K; Hafen, E; Waterfield, M D

1996-01-01

194

Can cloud-top entrainment promote cloud growth?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary significance of Cloud Deepening through Entrainment (CDE) is that it can prevent the cloud top entrainment instability from destroying a cloud deck. Without suppressing the instability, CDE transforms it from a cloud destroyer to a cloud builder. The analysis does not depend on an entrainment hypothesis. Moreover, it is not restricted to PBL stratocumulus sheets. Stratiform clouds in the free atmosphere can be subject to CDE we need only reinterpret Ps as the pressure at the base of an elevated turbulent mixed layer. Modest departures from well mixedness will alter the results quantitatively but not qualitatively. Processes other than entrainment, such as surface evaporation, radiative cooling, and advection will often work with CDE to build a cloud layer; but of course they can also oppose CDE by reducing the relative humidity. If we make the weak assumption that the deepening of a cloud layer favors an increase in the cloud top entrainment rate (without specifying any particular functional relationship) we are led to speculate that CDE can cause runaway cloud growth, even in the absence of cloud top entrainment instability. through CDE entrainment leads to a deeper cloud, which leads to stronger entrainment.

Randall, D. A.

1984-01-01

195

Metallothionein-IIA promotes neurite growth via the megalin receptor.  

PubMed

Metallothionein (MT)-I/II has been shown to be neuroprotective and neuroregenerative in a model of rat cortical brain injury. Here we examine expression patterns of MT-I/II and its putative receptor megalin in rat retina. At neonatal stages, MT-I/II was present in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) but not glial or amacrine cells; megalin was present throughout the retina. Whilst MT-I/II was absent from adult RGC in normal animals and after optic nerve transection, the constitutive megalin expression in RGCs was lost following optic nerve transection. In vitro MT-IIA treatment stimulated neuritic growth: more RGCs grew neurites longer than 25 microm (P < 0.05) in dissociated retinal cultures and neurite extension increased in retinal explants (P < 0.05). MT-IIA treatment of mixed retinal cultures increased megalin expression in RGCs, and pre-treating cells with anti-megalin antibodies prevented MT-IIA-stimulated neurite extension. Our results indicate that MT-IIA stimulates neurite outgrowth in RGCs and may do so via the megalin receptor; we propose that neurite extension is triggered via signal transduction pathways activated by the NPxY motifs of megalin's cytoplasmic tail. PMID:17634932

Fitzgerald, Melinda; Nairn, Pia; Bartlett, Carole A; Chung, Roger S; West, Adrian K; Beazley, Lyn D

2007-11-01

196

The effect of complexing agents on the oriented growth of electrodeposited microcrystalline cuprous oxide film  

SciTech Connect

Highlight: ? Cu{sub 2}O microcrystalline film is electrodeposited on ITO with complexing agents. ? As the stability constant increasing, the overpotential is negatively shifted. ? The formation energy of different planes is affected by overpotential. ? The overpotential can significantly alter the growth priority of different planes. ? The morphology of Cu{sub 2}O film is significantly modified by complexing agents. -- Abstract: Three conventional complexing agents, including lactic acid, citric acid and EDTA, are applied in the electrodeposition of microcrystalline cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) film on indium tin oxide glass substrate. Both scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction have been performed to characterize the morphology and texture of microcrystalline Cu{sub 2}O film. It is found that the stability constant of copper-based complex compound can obviously influence the deposition overpotential of Cu{sub 2}O, and the overpotential can significantly alter the growth priority of different planes, which results in oriented growth of Cu{sub 2}O grains. The quantitative relationships between the stability constant and the deposition overpotential of different complexing agents, as well as the relationship between the overpotential and the formation energy of microcrystalline cuprous oxide's (1 1 0), (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) planes are calculated, respectively.

Zhang, Zhen; Hu, Wenbin; Deng, Yida; Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Haoren [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wu, Yating, E-mail: tosunbear@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2012-09-15

197

Growth signaling promotes chronological aging in budding yeast by inducing superoxide anions that inhibit quiescence  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of growth signaling pathways protects against aging and age-related diseases in parallel with reduced oxidative stress. The relationships between growth signaling, oxidative stress and aging remain unclear. Here we report that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alterations in growth signaling pathways impact levels of superoxide anions that promote chronological aging and inhibit growth arrest of stationary phase cells in G0/G1. Factors that decrease intracellular superoxide anions in parallel with enhanced longevity and more efficient G0/G1 arrest include genetic inactivation of growth signaling pathways that inhibit Rim15p, which activates oxidative stress responses, and downregulation of these pathways by caloric restriction. Caloric restriction also reduces superoxide anions independently of Rim15p by elevating levels of H2O2, which activates superoxide dismutases. In contrast, high glucose or mutations that activate growth signaling accelerate chronological aging in parallel with increased superoxide anions and reduced efficiency of stationary phase G0/G1 arrest. High glucose also activates DNA damage responses and preferentially kills stationary phase cells that fail to arrest growth in G0/G1. These findings suggest that growth signaling promotes chronological aging in budding yeast by elevating superoxide anions that inhibit quiescence and induce DNA replication stress. A similar mechanism likely contributes to aging and age-related diseases in complex eukaryotes. PMID:21076178

Weinberger, Martin; Mesquita, Ana; Carroll, Timothy; Marks, Laura; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Zhaojie; Ludovico, Paula; Burhans, William C.

2010-01-01

198

A chemical genetic approach identifies piperazine antipsychotics as promoters of CNS neurite growth on inhibitory substrates  

PubMed Central

Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) can result in lifelong loss of function due in part to the regenerative failure of CNS neurons. Inhibitory proteins derived from myelin and the astroglial scar are major barriers for the successful regeneration of injured CNS neurons. Previously, we described the identification of a novel compound, F05, which promotes neurite growth from neurons challenged with inhibitory substrates in vitro, and promotes axonal regeneration in vivo (Usher et al., 2010). To identify additional regeneration-promoting compounds, we used F05-induced gene expression profiles to query the Broad Institute Connectivity Map, a gene expression database of cells treated with >1,300 compounds. Despite no shared chemical similarity, F05-induced changes in gene expression were remarkably similar to those seen with a group of piperazine phenothiazine antipsychotics (PhAPs). In contrast to antipsychotics of other structural classes, PhAPs promoted neurite growth of CNS neurons challenged with two different glial derived inhibitory substrates. Our pharmacological studies suggest a mechanism whereby PhAPs promote growth through antagonism of calmodulin signaling, independent of dopamine receptor antagonism. These findings shed light on mechanisms underlying neurite-inhibitory signaling, and suggest that clinically approved antipsychotic compounds may be repurposed for use in CNS injured patients. PMID:22561309

Johnstone, AL; Reierson, GW; Smith, RP; Goldberg, JL; Lemmon, VP; Bixby, JL

2012-01-01

199

Effects of spill-treating agents on growth kinetics of marine microalgae.  

PubMed

The effects of four spill-treating agents (STAs) (CytoSol, Finasol(®) OSR 51, Agma OSD 569 and OD4000) on the growth kinetics of three marine microalgae (Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) were studied. Chlorophyll a concentration and optical density at 700 nm were assessed to describe the logistic growth of algae in batch cultures. The optical density data were initially analyzed as described for standard algal growth inhibition tests and subsequently modelled by a bivariate model, as a function of time and dose, to assess the toxic effects on growth parameters. Increasing trends in EC50 and EC10 values with time were found with the standard approach. In 8 of the 11 tests, the lag phase (?) or the time required to achieve half the maximum biomass (?) was significantly dependent on the STA concentration. A global parameter (EC50,?) was calculated to summarize the effects of STAs on growth parameters in the bivariate model. The ranking of sensitivity as EC50,? values was I. galbana>C. gracilis>P. tricornutum. For all species tested, the least toxic agent was Agma OSD 569, followed by CytoSol. The mathematical model allowed successful ecotoxicological evaluation of chemicals on microalgal growth. PMID:23911058

Rial, Diego; Murado, Miguel A; Menduiña, Araceli; Fuciños, Pablo; González, Pilar; Mirón, Jesús; Vázquez, José A

2013-12-15

200

Mixtures of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for induction of systemic resistance against multiple plant diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of induced systemic resistance using strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have concentrated on the use of individual PGPR as inducers against multiple diseases of a single crop. To date, few reports have examined the potential of PGPR strain mixtures to induce systemic resistance against diseases of several different plant hosts. The objective of this study was to select

Kanchalee Jetiyanon; Joseph W Kloepper

2002-01-01

201

Burkholderia cenocepacia conditional growth mutant library created by random promoter replacement of essential genes  

PubMed Central

Identification of essential genes by construction of conditional knockouts with inducible promoters allows the identification of essential genes and creation of conditional growth (CG) mutants that are then available as genetic tools for further studies. We used large-scale transposon delivery of the rhamnose-inducible promoter, PrhaB followed by robotic screening of rhamnose-dependent growth to construct a genomic library of 106 Burkholderia cenocepacia CG mutants. Transposon insertions were found where PrhaB was in the same orientation of widely conserved, well-characterized essential genes as well as genes with no previous records of essentiality in other microorganisms. Using previously reported global gene-expression analyses, we demonstrate that PrhaB can achieve the wide dynamic range of expression levels required for essential genes when the promoter is delivered randomly and mutants with rhamnose-dependent growth are selected. We also show specific detection of the target of an antibiotic, novobiocin, by enhanced sensitivity of the corresponding CG mutant (PrhaB controlling gyrB expression) within the library. Modulation of gene expression to achieve 30–60% of wild-type growth created conditions for specific hypersensitivity demonstrating the value of the CG mutant library for chemogenomic experiments. In summary, CG mutants can be obtained on a large scale by random delivery of a tightly regulated inducible promoter into the bacterial chromosome followed by a simple screening for the CG phenotype, without previous information on gene essentiality. PMID:23389959

Bloodworth, Ruhi A M; Gislason, April S; Cardona, Silvia T

2013-01-01

202

Increased Plant Uptake of Nitrogen from 15N Depleted Fertilizer Using Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The techniques of 15N isotope have been very useful for determining the behavior and fate of N in soil, including the use efficiency of applied N fertilizers by plants. Our objective in this study was to use 15N isotope techniques to demonstrate that a model plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGP...

203

Targeting BMP9-promoted human osteosarcoma growth by inactivation of notch signaling.  

PubMed

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone and is usually associated with poor prognosis due to its high incidence of metastasis and chemoresistance. Molecular pathogenesis of OS is poorly understood. We previously showed that OS cells are refractory to BMP9-induced osteogenesis and respond favorably to proliferation and tumor growth. Here we investigate if Notch signaling mediates the BMP9-promoted cell proliferation and tumor growth of human osteosarcoma (OS). We find that the expression of Notch1, Notch2, Notch3, DLL1, JAG1 and JAG2 is readily detected in most of the tested OS cell lines. BMP9-promoted OS cell proliferation, migration, and cell cycle S/G2 progression are effectively inhibited by a dominant-negative mutant of Notch1 (dnNotch1) or the ?-secretase inhibitor Compound E (ComE). Furthermore, BMP9-promoted tumor growth and osteolytic lesions in vivo are significantly inhibited by dnNotch1. BMP9 up-regulates the expression of Notch1, Notch3, DLL1, and JAG1 in OS cells. Accordingly, BMP9 stimulation induces a nuclear accumulation of NICD, which is blocked by ComE. Our results demonstrate that BMP9-promoted OS proliferation and tumor growth is at least in part mediated by Notch signaling, suggesting that osteogenic BMPs may function as upstream regulators of Notch signaling in OS tumorigenesis. Thus, pharmacologic intervention of Notch signaling may be explored as a new therapeutic strategy for human OS tumors. PMID:24605944

Li, Ruidong; Zhang, Wenwen; Cui, Jing; Shui, Wei; Yin, Liangjun; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Ning; Wu, Ningning; Nan, Guoxin; Chen, Xian; Wen, Sheng; Deng, Fang; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhou, Guolin; Liao, Zhan; Zhang, Junhui; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Zhengjian; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhonglin; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; He, Tong-Chuan; Deng, Zhong-Liang

2014-03-01

204

EFFECTS OF A NEW GROWTH PROMOTER (R-ALBUTEROL) FOR COMMERCIAL SWINE PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several beta agonists have been tried as potential growth promoters for swine with variable success; only one is currently commercially available in the USA, ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean®, Elanco). Ractopamine is a preferential beta-1 agonist and has been associated with both behavioral and c...

205

Antimicrobial Growth Promoters and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. in Poultry and Swine, Denmark  

PubMed Central

The use of antimicrobial growth promoters in Danish food animal production was discontinued in 1998. Contrary to concerns that pathogen load would increase; we found a significant decrease in Salmonella in broilers before and after slaughter of swine and pork and no change in the prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers. PMID:12702233

Wegener, Henrik C.

2003-01-01

206

Alcohol promotes mammary tumor growth through activation of VEGF-dependent tumor angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Alcohol consumption has been recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer. Experimental studies demonstrate that alcohol exposure promotes the progression of existing mammary tumors. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. In the present study, the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in alcohol promotion of breast cancer development was investigated using a mouse xenograft model of mammary tumors and a three-dimensional (3D) tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system. For the mouse xenograft model, mouse E0771 breast cancer cells were implanted into the mammary fat pad of C57BL6 mice. These mice were exposed to alcohol in their drinking water. For the 3D co-culture system, E0771 cells and MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were co-cultured with SVEC4-10EE2 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. The results demonstrated that alcohol increased tumor angiogenesis and accelerated tumor growth. Furthermore, it appeared that alcohol induced VEGF expression in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Blocking VEGF signaling by SU5416 inhibited tumor angiogenesis in the 3D tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system. Furthermore, injection of SU5416 into mice inhibited alcohol-promoted mammary tumor growth in vivo. These results indicate that alcohol may promote mammary tumor growth by stimulating VEGF-dependent angiogenesis. PMID:25009649

LU, YANMIN; NI, FANG; XU, MEI; YANG, JINLIAN; CHEN, JI; CHEN, ZHUO; WANG, XINYI; LUO, JIA; WANG, SIYING

2014-01-01

207

Hydrocarbon Utilization by Nodule Bacteria and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard and locally isolated nodule bacteria and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were grown on crude oil and individual pure hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy. The nodule bacteria included two standard Rhizobium leguminosarum strains, two standard Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains, and one unknown nodule bacterial strain that was locally isolated from Vicia faba nodules. The PGPR included one standard

Samir S. Radwan; Narjes Dashti; Israa El-Nemr; Majida Khanafer

2007-01-01

208

Endophytic Bacteria Induce Growth Promotion and Wilt Disease Suppression in Oilseed Rape and Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether bacteria isolated from within plant tissue can have plant growth-promotion potential and provide biological control against soilborne diseases, seeds and young plants of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Casino) and tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum L. cv. Dansk export) were inoculated with individual bacterial isolates or mixtures of bacteria that originated from symptomless oilseed rape, wild and cultivated.

Pajand Nejad; Paul A Johnson

2000-01-01

209

Evolution of the proximal promoter region of the mammalian growth hormone gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary relationship between the proximal growth hormone (GH) gene promoter sequences of 12 mammalian species was explored by comparison of their trinucleotide composition and by multiple sequence alignment. Both approaches yielded results that were consistent with the known fossil record-based phylogeny of the analysed sequences, suggesting that the two methods of tree reconstruction might be equally efficient and reliable.

Michael Krawczak; Nadia A Chuzhanova; David N Cooper

1999-01-01

210

Can Choice Promote Education for All? Evidence from Growth in Private Primary Schooling in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines whether the recent growth in "low-fee private" (LFP) schools is able to promote Education for All by being accessible to the poor. Based primarily on a 13-village survey of 250 households and visits to 26 private and government schools in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, this paper explores who "chooses" private schooling, in the…

Harma, Joanna

2009-01-01

211

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium  

E-print Network

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Wai activity in root colonization and plant and crop protection. Its draft genome sequence comprises 21 contigs of 4.11 Mb, harboring 4,167 coding sequences (CDS). The genome carries several genes encoding

212

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATIONS FOR HAIR GROWTH-PROMOTING ACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk ( Asteraceae), Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn (Malvaceae), Nardostachys Jatamansi ( Valerianaceae) is a well known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. Hair formulation of Eclipta alba Hassk ( Asteraceae ) 10% w\\/v, Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn ( Malvaceae ) 10 %

R. M. Thorat; V. M. Jadhav; V. J. Kadam

213

Induction of resistance in tomato against cucumber mosaic cucumovirus by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were done to evaluate specific strains of plant growth promoting rhizobac- teria (PGPR) for induced resistance against cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) in tomato. In greenhouse experiments where plants were challenged by mechanical inoculation of CMV, the percentage of symptomatic plants in the most effective PGPR treatments ranged from 32 to 58%, compared with 88 to 98% in the nonbacterized,

Geoffrey W. ZEHNDER; Changbin YAO; John F. MURPHY; E dward R. SIKORA; Joseph W. KLOEPPER

2000-01-01

214

Transcriptional activation of the human epidermal growth factor receptor promoter by human p53.  

PubMed Central

The human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promoter is activated by both wild-type and tumor-derived mutant p53. In this communication, we demonstrate that EGFR promoter sequence requirements for transactivation by wild-type and mutant p53 are different. Transient-expression assays with EGFR promoter deletions identified a wild-type human p53 response element, 5'-AGCTAGACGTCCGGGCAGCCCCCGGCG -3', from positions --265 to --239. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis and DNase I footprinting assays indicated that wild-type p53 binds sequence specifically to the response element. Using circularly permuted DNA fragments containing the p53-binding site, we show that wild-type p53 binding induces DNA bending at this site. We further show that the EGFR promoter is also activated by tumor-derived p53 mutants p53-143A, p53-175H, p53-248W, p53-273H, and p53-281G. However, the transactivation by mutant p53 does not require the wild-type p53-binding site. The minimal EGFR promoter from positions --104 to --20 which does not contain the wild-type p53-binding site is transactivated by the p53 mutants but not by the wild-type protein, showing a difference in the mechanism of transactivation by wild-type and mutant p53. Transactivation of the EGFR promoter by p53 may represent a novel mechanism of cell growth regulation. PMID:8887630

Ludes-Meyers, J H; Subler, M A; Shivakumar, C V; Munoz, R M; Jiang, P; Bigger, J E; Brown, D R; Deb, S P; Deb, S

1996-01-01

215

Antibiotic growth promoters enhance animal production by targeting intestinal bile salt hydrolase and its producers  

PubMed Central

The growth-promoting effect of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) was correlated with the decreased activity of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization. Consistent with this finding, independent chicken studies have demonstrated that AGP usage significantly reduced population of Lactobacillus species, the major BSH-producers in the intestine. Recent finding also demonstrated that some AGPs, such as tetracycline and roxarsone, display direct inhibitory effect on BSH activity. Therefore, BSH is a promising microbiome target for developing novel alternatives to AGPs. Specifically, dietary supplementation of BSH inhibitor may promote host lipid metabolism and energy harvest, consequently enhancing feed efficiency and body weight gain in food animals. PMID:24575079

Lin, Jun

2014-01-01

216

Growth Promotion of Yunnan Pine Early Seedlings in Response to Foliar Application of IAA and IBA  

PubMed Central

A field experiment was conducted using a 3 × 3 orthogonal regression design to explore the growth promotion of one-year-old Yunnan pine seedlings (Pinus yunnanensis Franch.) in response to foliar application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L?1 and IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L?1 in order to promote the growth during the seedlings’ early stage. The experiment was conducted at the Lufeng Village Forest Farm of Yiliang County in Kunming, Yunnan, China. The results showed that IAA and IBA were effective in growth promotion of Yunnan pine seedlings. The response of both growth increment and biomass accumulation to the concentration of IAA and IBA can be modeled using a bivariate surface response, and each growth index had a peak value. Growth indexes increased with the increase of the dosage of photohormones before reaching a peak value, and then decreased. The different growth indexes had various responses to the concentrations and ratio of IAA and IBA. The foliar application of IAA in combination with IBA showed the largest improvement on the biomass of the needles, followed by stems and roots. The higher ratio of IAA promoted stem diameter growth, root system development and biomass accumulation in the needles, while a higher ratio of IBA contributed to height growth and biomass accumulation in the stem. Based on the auxin effect equations on the different growth indexes and surface response, the optimum concentrations and the (IAA:IBA) ratios can be obtained. The optimum concentrations of IAA and IBA were 167 and 186, 310 and 217, 193 and 159, 191 and 221, and 206 and 186 mg·L?1, with corresponding ratios of 1:1.11, 1:0.70, 1:0.82, 1:1.15 and 1:0.90, respectively, at the maximum seedling height and collar diameter growth as well as biomass accumulation at the root, stem and needle. The above growth indexes were 22.00%, 79.80%, 48.65%, 82.20% and 107.00% higher than the control treatment. PMID:22754380

Xu, Yulan; Zhang, Yuemin; Li, Yunfei; Li, Genqian; Liu, Daiyi; Zhao, Minchong; Cai, Nianhui

2012-01-01

217

Arsenite-Mediated Promotion of Anchorage-Independent Growth of HaCaT Cells through Placental Growth Factor.  

PubMed

Various cancers including skin cancer are increasing in 45 million people exposed to arsenic above the World Health Organization's guideline value of 10??g?l(-1). However, there is limited information on key molecules regulating arsenic-mediated carcinogenesis. Our fieldwork in Bangladesh demonstrated that levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) in urine samples from residents of cancer-prone areas with arsenic-polluted drinking water were higher than those in urine samples from residents of an area that was not polluted with arsenic. Our experimental study in human nontumorigenic HaCaT skin keratinocytes showed that arsenite promoted anchorage-independent growth with increased expression and secretion of PlGF, a ligand of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor1 (VEGFR1), and increased VEGFR1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activities. The arsenite-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth was strongly inhibited by PlGF depletion with decreased activities of the PlGF/VEGFR1/MEK/ERK pathway. Moreover, arsenite proteasome-dependently degrades metal-regulatory transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) protein, resulting in a decreased amount of MTF-1 protein binding to the PlGF promoter. MTF-1 negatively controlled PlGF transcription in HaCaT cells, resulting in increased PlGF transcription. These results suggest that arsenite-mediated MTF-1 degradation enhances the activity of PlGF/VEGFR1/MEK/ERK signaling, resulting in promotion of the malignant transformation of keratinocytes. Thus, this study proposed a molecular mechanism for arsenite-mediated development of skin cancer. PMID:25493652

Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Naito, Hisao; Shekhar, Hossain U; Omata, Yasuhiro; Kato, Masashi

2015-04-01

218

Allelic variations in the human growth hormone-1 gene promoter of growth hormone-deficient patients and normal controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) type IB is suggested to be more probably due to alterations in the genes directly involved in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and\\/or in the specific transcriptional regulation (cis-trans coupling) of the hGH-1 gene than to alterations in the gene itself. In this study we analyzed the hGH-1 gene promoter region for structural alterations and allelic

Johann K Wagner; Andree Eble; Joy D Cogan; Melissa A Prince; John A Phillips III; Primus E Mullis

1997-01-01

219

Effect of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas spp. on compatible solutes, antioxidant status and plant growth of maize under drought stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting yield of dryland crops. Rhizobacterial populations of stressed soils\\u000a are adapted and tolerant to stress and can be screened for isolation of efficient stress adaptive\\/tolerant, plant growth promoting\\u000a rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains that can be used as inoculants for crops grown in stressed ecosystems. The effect of inoculation\\u000a of five drought tolerant

V. Sandhya; Sk. Z. Ali; Minakshi Grover; Gopal Reddy; B. Venkateswarlu

2010-01-01

220

Beneficial effects of fluorescent pseudomonads on seed germination, growth promotion, and suppression of charcoal rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.).  

PubMed

Rhizobacteria are used as inoculants to enhance crop yield and for biological control of fungal pathogens. Fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from the rhizosphere of groundnut showed suppression of the phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina that causes charcoal rot of groundnut, an economically important agroproduct. Two strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, designated as PS1 and PS2, were selected as a result of in vitro antifungal activity. After 5 days of incubation at 28+/-1 degrees , both PS1 and PS2 caused clear inhibition zones in dual cultures, restricting the growth of M. phaseolina by 71% and 74%, respectively. Both the strains were capable of producing siderophores, indole acetic acid, and hydrocyanic acid, and causing phosphate solubilization under normal growth conditions. These strains, when used as inoculants in groundnut, enhanced germination up to 15% and 30% with subsequent increase in grain yield by 66% and 77%, respectively. Conversely, when the pathogen alone was testeds 57% decrease in yield was recorded. Thus the studies revealed the potential of the two pseudomonads not only as biocontrol agents against M. phaseolina, but also as a good growth promoter for groundnut. PMID:18852515

Shweta, Bhatia; Maheshwari, Dinesh Kumar; Dubey, Ramesh Chand; Arora, Daljit Singh; Bajpai, Vivek K; Kang, Sun Chul

2008-09-01

221

ACC deaminase and IAA producing growth promoting bacteria from the rhizosphere soil of tropical rice plants.  

PubMed

Beneficial plant-associated bacteria play a key role in supporting and/or promoting plant growth and health. Plant growth promoting bacteria present in the rhizosphere of crop plants can directly affect plant metabolism or modulate phytohormone production or degradation. We isolated 355 bacteria from the rhizosphere of rice plants grown in the farmers' fields in the coastal rice field soil from five different locations of the Ganjam district of Odisha, India. Six bacteria producing both ACC deaminase (ranging from 603.94 to 1350.02?nmol ?-ketobutyrate mg(-1) ?h(-1) ) and indole acetic acid (IAA; ranging from 10.54 to 37.65??M?ml(-1) ) in pure cultures were further identified using polyphasic taxonomy including BIOLOG((R)) , FAME analysis and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates resulted into five major clusters to include members of the genera Bacillus, Microbacterium, Methylophaga, Agromyces, and Paenibacillus. Seed inoculation of rice (cv. Naveen) by the six individual PGPR isolates had a considerable impact on different growth parameters including root elongation that was positively correlated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. The cultures also had other plant growth attributes including ammonia production and at least two isolates produced siderophores. Study indicates that presence of diverse rhizobacteria with effective growth-promoting traits, in the rice rhizosphere, may be exploited for a sustainable crop management under field conditions. PMID:23681643

Bal, Himadri Bhusan; Das, Subhasis; Dangar, Tushar K; Adhya, Tapan K

2013-12-01

222

Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.  

PubMed

Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

2008-08-01

223

Stimulation of the growth of Jatropha curcas by the plant growth promoting bacterium Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2.  

PubMed

A novel Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2 is a plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the rhizosphere of Jatropha cucas a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. Based on phenotypic, physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic studies, strain MSA2 could be classified as a member of E. cancerogenus. However, comparisons of characteristics with other known species of the genus Enterobacter suggested that strain MSA2 could be a novel PGPB strain. In vitro studies were carried for the plant growth promoting attribute of this culture. It tested positive for ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) deaminase production, phytase, phosphate solubilization, IAA (Indole acetic acid) production, siderophore, and ammonia production. The isolate was then used as a inoculant for the vegetative study of Jatropha curcas plant. Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2 supplemented with 1% carboxymethylcellulose showed overall plant growth promotion effect resulting in enhanced root length (124.14%), fresh root mass (81%), fresh shoot mass (120.02%), dry root mass (124%), dry shoot mass (105.54%), number of leaf (30.72%), chlorophyll content (50.41%), and biomass (87.20%) over control under the days of experimental observation. This study was designed for 120 days and was in triplicate and the data was collected at every 30 days. PMID:22805809

Jha, Chaitanya Kumar; Patel, Baldev; Saraf, Meenu

2012-03-01

224

Health-Promoting Changes with Children as Agents: Findings from a Multiple Case Study Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: With the aim of contributing to the evidence base on school-based health promotion, the authors discuss the outcomes and processes of a European intervention project aiming to prevent obesity among children (4-16 years) and promote their health and well-being, titled "Shape Up: a school-community approach to influencing determinants of…

Simovska, Venka; Carlsson, Monica

2012-01-01

225

Overexpression of the human insulinlike growth factor I receptor promotes ligand-dependent neoplastic transformation.  

PubMed Central

The human insulinlike growth factor I receptor was overexpressed in NIH 3T3 cells as well as human and rat primary fibroblast strains. The NIH 3T3 cells displayed a ligand-dependent, highly transformed phenotype. When exposed to insulinlike growth factor I or supraphysiologic levels of insulin, NIH 3T3 cells that expressed high levels of receptors formed aggregates in tissue culture dishes, colonies in soft agar, and tumors in nude mice. Expression of 1 million receptors per cell, a 40-fold increase above the base-line level, was required for anchorage-independent growth. Primary fibroblasts that expressed high levels of receptors displayed a ligand-dependent change in morphology and an increase in saturation density but did not acquire a fully transformed phenotype. The results demonstrate that when amplified, this ubiquitous growth factor receptor behaves like an oncogenic protein and is capable of promoting neoplastic growth in vivo. Images PMID:2153917

Kaleko, M; Rutter, W J; Miller, A D

1990-01-01

226

Effect of Growth Rate on Resistance of Candida albicans Biofilms to Antifungal Agents  

PubMed Central

A perfused biofilm fermentor, which allows growth-rate control of adherent microbial populations, was used to assess whether the susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to antifungal agents is dependent on growth rate. Biofilms were generated under conditions of glucose limitation and were perfused with drugs at a high concentration (20 times the MIC). Amphotericin B produced a greater reduction in the number of daughter cells in biofilm eluates than ketoconazole, fluconazole, or flucytosine. Similar decreases in daughter cell counts were observed when biofilms growing at three different rates were perfused with amphotericin B. In a separate series of experiments, intact biofilms, resuspended biofilm cells, and newly formed daughter cells were removed from the fermentor and were exposed to a lower concentration of amphotericin B for 1 h. The susceptibility profiles over a range of growth rates were then compared with those obtained for planktonic cells grown at the same rates under glucose limitation in a chemostat. Intact biofilms were resistant to amphotericin B at all growth rates tested, whereas planktonic cells were resistant only at low growth rates (?0.13 h?1). Cells resuspended from biofilms were less resistant than intact biofilm populations but more resistant than daughter cells; the susceptibilities of both these cell types were largely independent of growth rate. Our findings indicate that the amphotericin B resistance of C. albicans biofilms is not simply due to a low growth rate but depends on some other feature of the biofilm mode of growth. PMID:9687381

Baillie, George S.; Douglas, L. Julia

1998-01-01

227

Metal tolerating methylotrophic bacteria reduces nickel and cadmium toxicity and promotes plant growth of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculation of plants with microorganisms may reduce the toxicity of heavy metals to plants in contaminated soils. In this study, we have shown that the plant growth promoting bacteria Methylobacterium oryzae strain CBMB20 and Burkholderia sp. strain CBMB40 from rice reduce the toxicity of Ni and Cd in tomato and promote plant growth under gnotobiotic and pot culture experiments. The

M. Madhaiyan; S. Poonguzhali; Tongmin Sa

2007-01-01

228

Draft Genome Sequence of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Strain P23, a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Duckweed  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium, which was isolated from the surface of duckweed. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain P23. The genome data will serve as a valuable reference for understanding the molecular mechanism of plant growth promotion in aquatic plants. PMID:25720680

Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Morikawa, Masaaki

2015-01-01

229

Draft Genome Sequence of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Strain P23, a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Duckweed.  

PubMed

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium, which was isolated from the surface of duckweed. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain P23. The genome data will serve as a valuable reference for understanding the molecular mechanism of plant growth promotion in aquatic plants. PMID:25720680

Sugawara, Masayuki; Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Morikawa, Masaaki

2015-01-01

230

A Novel Growth-Promoting Pathway Formed by GDNF-Overexpressing Schwann Cells Promotes Propriospinal Axonal Regeneration, Synapse formation, and Partial Recovery of Function after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Descending propriospinal neurons (DPSN) are known to establish functional relays for supraspinal signals, and they display a greater growth response after injury than do the long projecting axons. However, their regenerative response is still deficient due to their failure to depart from growth supportive cellular transplants back into the host spinal cord, which contains numerous impediments to axon growth. Here we report the construction of a continuous growth-promoting pathway in adult rats, formed by grafted Schwann cells (SCs) overexpressing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We demonstrate that such a growth-promoting pathway, extending from the axonal cut ends to the site of innervation in the distal spinal cord, promoted regeneration of DPSN axons through and beyond the lesion gap of a spinal cord hemisection. Within the distal host spinal cord, regenerated DPSN axons formed synapses with host neurons leading to the restoration of action potentials and partial recovery of function. PMID:23536080

Deng, Lingxiao; Deng, Ping; Ruan, Yiwen; Xu, Zao Cheng; Liu, Naikui; Wen, Xuejun; Smith, George M.; Xu, Xiao-Ming

2013-01-01

231

Modulation of the anti-cancer efficacy of microtubule-targeting agents by cellular growth conditions.  

PubMed

Mitotic spindle-disrupting agents target and disrupt microtubule dynamics. These agents include clinically important chemotherapies, including taxanes (paclitaxel (Taxol), docetaxel (Taxotere)) and vinca alkaloids (vincristine (Oncovin), vinblastine). Taxanes are a standard component of treatment for many malignancies, often in conjunction with other cytotoxic agents. However, the optimal sequencing of these treatments and whether efficacy may be influenced by in vitro cellular growth conditions remain incompletely investigated. Yet such preclinical investigations may guide clinical decision making. We therefore studied the effect of cell density on rapid killing by paclitaxel and vincristine. Breast, ovarian and prostate cancer cells were sensitive to rapid killing by either agent when grown at low density, but were markedly resistant when grown at high density, i.e. nearly confluent. The resistance of densely growing cells to rapid killing by these drugs translated to increased clonogenic survival. Pretreatment of densely growing cancer cells with cisplatin followed by paclitaxel, partially reversed the treatment resistance. Gene ontology associations from microarray analyses of cells grown at low and high density, suggested roles for membrane signal transduction and adhesion, but potentially also DNA damage repair and metabolism. Taken together, the treatment resistance at higher cell density may be associated with a lower proportion of active cycling in cells growing at high density as well as transduction of survival signals induced by increased cell-cell adhesion. Collectively these findings suggest mechanisms by which growth conditions may contribute to resistance to rapid killing by microtubule-disrupting drugs. PMID:20234172

Dorsey, Jay F; Dowling, Melissa L; Kim, Mijin; Voong, Ranh; Solin, Lawrence J; Kao, Gary D

2010-05-15

232

Dietary isoflavone increases insulin-like growth factor-I production, thereby promoting hair growth in mice.  

PubMed

Sensory neurons release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) upon activation. We previously demonstrated that CGRP increases insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) production in various tissues of mice including the skin. We demonstrated that isoflavone increases the CGRP synthesis in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in rats. Since IGF-I plays a critical role in hair growth, we hypothesized that isoflavones may promote hair growth by increasing the IGF-I production in hair follicles. We examined this hypothesis using wild-type (WT) and CGRP-knockout (CGRP(-/-)) mice. Isoflavone significantly increased the CGRP mRNA levels in DRG neurons isolated from WT mice (P<.01). Administration of isoflavone for 3 weeks increased the dermal levels of CGRP, IGF-I and IGF-I mRNA in WT mice, but not in CGRP(-/-) mice. Isoflavone administration increased the immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I in hair follicle dermal papilla cells in WT mice. Significant enhancements of hair follicle morphogenesis, hair regrowth, and hair pigmentation were also observed in WT mice administered isoflavone. However, none of these effects in WT mice were observed in CGRP(-/-) mice. These observations strongly suggest that isoflavone might increase IGF-I production in the hair follicle dermal papilla cells in mice through increasing CGRP production in the sensory neurons, thereby promoting hair growth associated with melanogenesis in mice. PMID:20576422

Zhao, Juan; Harada, Naoaki; Kurihara, Hiroki; Nakagata, Naomi; Okajima, Kenji

2011-03-01

233

Promoter function and structure of the growth factor-inducible immediate early gene cyr61.  

PubMed Central

cyr61 is an immediate early gene that is transcriptionally activated in 3T3 fibroblasts by serum, platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and the tumor promoter TPA with kinetics similar to the induction of c-fos. cyr61 encodes a secreted protein that is associated with the cell surface and the extracellular matrix, and may play a role in cell-cell communication. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the mouse cyr61 gene, which contains four short introns. The transcription start site was mapped by S1 nuclease and primer extension analyses. A 2 kb 5' flanking DNA fragment functions as a serum-inducible promoter. This DNA fragment contains a poly(CA) sequence that can adopt the Z DNA form. In addition, it contains a sequence that resembles the serum response element (SRE) originally identified in the c-fos promoter. We show that deletion of the cry61 SRE-like sequence abrogates serum inducibility. Furthermore, this SRE-like sequence is sufficient to confer serum and growth factor inducibility when linked to a basal promoter, and binds the 67 kD serum response factor in vitro. We conclude that the cyr61 SRE functions as a serum response element and may account for the coordinate activation of cyr61 and c-fos. Images PMID:2062642

Latinkic, B V; O'Brien, T P; Lau, L F

1991-01-01

234

Understanding the molecular basis of plant growth promotional effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on rice through protein profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KH-1 was found to exhibit plant growth promotional activity in rice under both in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. But the mechanism underlying such promotional activity of P. fluorescens is not yet understood clearly. In this study, efforts were made to elucidate the molecular responses of rice plants to P. fluorescens treatment through

Saveetha Kandasamy; Karthiba Loganathan; Raveendran Muthuraj; Saravanakumar Duraisamy; Suresh Seetharaman; Raguchander Thiruvengadam; Balasubramanian Ponnusamy; Samiyappan Ramasamy

2009-01-01

235

Ethanol Promotes Mammary Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis: the Involvement of Chemoattractant Factor MCP-1  

PubMed Central

Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for breast cancer in humans. Experimental studies indicate that alcohol exposure promotes malignant progression of mammary tumors. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Alcohol induces a pro-inflammatory response by modulating the expression of cytokines and chemokines. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), also known as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), is a pro-inflammatory chemokine implicated in breast cancer development/malignancy. We investigated the role of MCP-1 in alcohol-promoted mammary tumor progression. Using a xenograft model, we demonstrated that alcohol increased tumor angiogenesis and promoted growth/metastasis of breast cancer cells in C57BL/6 mice. Alcohol up-regulated the expression of MCP-1 and its receptor CCR2 in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Using a three-dimensional (3-D) tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system, we demonstrated MCP-1 regulated tumor/endothelial cell interaction and promoted tumor angiogenesis. More importantly, MCP-1 mediated alcohol-promoted angiogenesis; an antagonist of the MCP-1 receptor CCR2 significantly inhibited alcohol-stimulated tumor angiogenesis. The CCR2 antagonist abolished ethanol-stimulated growth of mammary tumors in mice. We further demonstrated that MCP-1 enhanced the migration, but not the proliferation of endothelial cells as well as breast cancer cells. These results suggest that MCP-1 plays an important role in ethanol-stimulated tumor angiogenesis and tumor progression. PMID:22160640

Wang, Siying; Xu, Mei; Li, Feifei; Wang, Xin; Bower, Kimberly A.; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Lu, Yanmin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Ke, Zunji; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

2011-01-01

236

Stimulatory Effects of Arsenic-Tolerant Soil Fungi on Plant Growth Promotion and Soil Properties  

PubMed Central

Fifteen fungi were obtained from arsenic-contaminated agricultural fields in West Bengal, India and examined for their arsenic tolerance and removal ability in our previous study. Of these, the four best arsenic-remediating isolates were tested for plant growth promotion effects on rice and pea in the present study. A greenhouse-based pot experiment was conducted using soil inocula of individual fungi. The results indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant growth and improvement of soil properties in inoculated soils compared to the control. A significant increase in plant growth was recorded in treated soils and varied from 16–293%. Soil chemical and enzymatic properties varied from 20–222% and 34–760%, respectively, in inoculated soil. Plants inoculated with inocula of Westerdykella and Trichoderma showed better stimulatory effects on plant growth and soil nutrient availability than Rhizopus and Lasiodiplodia. These fungi improved soil nutrient content and enhanced plant growth. These fungi may be used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and improved soil properties in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:23047145

Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Gupta, Manjul; Vaish, Aradhana; Mannan, Shivee; Singh, Nandita; Tewari, Shri Krishna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

2012-01-01

237

Cancer and embryo expression protein 65 promotes cancer cell growth and metastasis  

PubMed Central

Cancer and embryo expression protein 65 (CEP65) is a centrosomal protein that is expressed at relatively high levels in embryonic tissue and different cancerous tissues, but its role in tumorigenesis remains unknown. In the present study, CEP65 was stably expressed in AGS gastric cancer cells. CEP65 was found to promote cell growth in the MTT assay and to enhance cell migration and invasion in Transwell chamber assays. To validate results from the in vitro experiments, CEP65 was stably expressed in BICR-H1 breast cancer cells through adenovirus-mediated transduction. By inoculating BICR-H1 cells on chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), it was found that CEP65 promotes cell growth on the CAM and increases cell metastasis to the lungs of the chicken. By utilizing a xenograft severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model, CEP65 was also found to accelerate BICR-H1 cell growth and metastasis to the lungs. Furthermore, it was shown that CEP65 increases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 activity in zymographic assays, however, microarray screening and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction validation revealed that CEP65 had no effect on the expression levels of MMP2 or MMP9, but decreased the expression levels of metastasis-associated genes, TIMP2, RAP and VTN. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated the oncogenic function of CEP65 in promoting cancer cell growth and metastasis. PMID:25789040

JIN, GENGLIN; PENG, LIRONG; ZHANG, JIANZHI; QU, LIKE; SHOU, CHENGCHAO

2015-01-01

238

Promotion of Ovarian Follicle Growth following mTOR Activation: Synergistic Effects of AKT Stimulators  

PubMed Central

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase and mTOR signaling is important in regulating cell growth and proliferation. Recent studies using oocyte- and granulosa cell-specific deletion of mTOR inhibitor genes TSC1 or TSC2 demonstrated the important role of mTOR signaling in the promotion of ovarian follicle development. We now report that treatment of ovaries from juvenile mice with an mTOR activator MHY1485 stimulated mTOR, S6K1 and rpS6 phosphorylation. Culturing ovaries for 4 days with MHY1485 increased ovarian explant weights and follicle development. In vivo studies further demonstrated that pre-incubation of these ovaries with MHY1485 for 2 days, followed by allo-grafting into kidney capsules of adult ovariectomized hosts for 5 days, led to marked increases in graft weights and promotion of follicle development. Mature oocytes derived from MHY1485-activated ovarian grafts could be successfully fertilized, leading the delivery of healthy pups. We further treated ovaries with the mTOR activator together with AKT activators (PTEN inhibitor and phosphoinositol-3-kinase stimulator) before grafting and found additive enhancement of follicle growth. Our studies demonstrate the ability of an mTOR activator in promoting follicle growth, leading to a potential strategy to stimulate preantral follicle growth in infertile patients. PMID:25710488

Cheng, Yuan; Kim, Jaehong; Li, Xiao Xiao; Hsueh, Aaron J.

2015-01-01

239

Efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sand dunes of Chennai coastal area.  

PubMed

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize the plant root and enhance the plant growth. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. In the present study, PGPR were isolated from 18 different rhizosphere soil samples of coastal sand dune plants, belonging to the genus Ipomoea sp. collected from the Chennai coastal area. For isolation of bacteria from soil samples, pour plate technique was followed. The rhizobacterial population was ranged from 4.4 x 10(6)-7.5 x 10(7) CFU g(-1). From that, 46 morphologically different bacterial strains were isolated. Among 46, 18 strains exhibited the production of Indole Acetic Acid. (IAA). When screened for phosphate solubilzing activity, six strains showed maximum activity. All these selected six strains were screened for seed germination among which these two strains (AMET1136 and AMET 1148) showed remarkable increase in the seed germination of black gram and green gram. For plant growth promotion, three types of treatments namely, seed bacterization, soil drenching and mixed (seed+soil) were carried out to check the potential of these two strains. Among that one strain which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. AMET1148 showed remarkable and significant increase in shoot length and root length of the tested plants. The study concluded that PGPR from coastal sand dund plants can be developed as plant growth promoters in agricultural crops. PMID:24175421

Muthezhilan, R; Sindhuja, B S; Hussain, A Jaffar; Jayaprakashvel, M

2012-08-15

240

Neurotensin, a novel target of Wnt/?-catenin pathway, promotes growth of neuroendocrine tumor cells.  

PubMed

Wnt/?-catenin signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating cell growth and differentiation by activation of the ?-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) complex and subsequent regulation of a set of target genes that have one or more TCF-binding elements (TBEs). Hyperactivation of this pathway has been implicated in numerous malignancies including human neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Neurotensin (NT), an intestinal hormone, induces proliferation of several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including cancers of the pancreas and colon. Here, we analyzed the human NT promoter in silico and found at least four consensus TBEs within the proximal promoter region. Using a combination of ChIP and luciferase reporter assays, we identified one TBE (located ?900 bp proximal from the transcription start site) that was immunoprecipitated efficiently by TCF4-targeting antibody; mutation of this site attenuated the responsiveness to ?-catenin. We also confirmed that the promoter activity and the mRNA and protein expression levels of NT were increased by various Wnt pathway activators and decreased by Wnt inhibitors in NET cell lines BON and QGP-1, which express and secrete NT. Similarly, the intracellular content and secretion of NT were induced by Wnt3a in these cells. Finally, inhibition of NT signaling suppressed cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth and decreased expression levels of growth-related proteins in NET cells. Our results indicate that NT is a direct target of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway and may be a mediator for NET cell growth. PMID:25098665

Kim, Ji Tae; Liu, Chunming; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y; Weiss, Heidi L; Townsend, Courtney M; Evers, B Mark

2015-03-15

241

Transforming growth factor-beta and breast cancer: Tumor promoting effects of transforming growth factor-?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transforming growth factor (TGF)-?s are potent growth inhibitors of normal epithelial cells. In established tumor cell systems, however, the preponderant experimental evidence suggests that TGF-?s can foster tumor-host interactions that indirectly support the viability and\\/or progression of cancer cells. The timing of this 'TGF-? switch' during the progressive transformation of epithelial cells is not clear. More recent evidence also

Nancy Dumont; Carlos L Arteaga

2000-01-01

242

Disruption of Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha Reveals the Growth Promoter Face of Retinoic Acid  

PubMed Central

Background Retinoic acid (RA), the bioactive derivative of Vitamin A, by epigenetically controlling transcription through the RA-receptors (RARs), exerts a potent antiproliferative effect on human cells. However, a number of studies show that RA can also promote cell survival and growth. In the course of one of our studies we observed that disruption of RA-receptor alpha, RAR?, abrogates the RA-mediated growth-inhibitory effects and unmasks the growth-promoting face of RA (Ren et al., Mol. Cell. Biol., 2005, 25:10591). The objective of this study was to investigate whether RA can differentially govern cell growth, in the presence and absence of RAR?, through differential regulation of the “rheostat” comprising ceramide (CER), the sphingolipid with growth-inhibitory activity, and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the sphingolipid with prosurvival activity. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that functional inhibition of endogenous RAR? in breast cancer cells by using either RAR? specific antagonists or a dominant negative RAR? mutant hampers on one hand the RA-induced upregulation of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase)-mediated CER synthesis, and on the other hand the RA-induced downregulation of sphingosine kinase 1, SK1, pivotal for S1P synthesis. In association with RA inability to regulate the sphingolipid rheostat, cells not only survive, but also grow more in response to RA both in vitro and in vivo. By combining genetic, pharmacological and biochemical approaches, we mechanistically demonstrated that RA-induced growth is, at least in part, due to non-RAR-mediated activation of the SK1-S1P signaling. Conclusions/Significance In the presence of functional RAR?, RA inhibits cell growth by concertedly, and inversely, modulating the CER and S1P synthetic pathways. In the absence of a functional RAR?, RA–in a non-RAR-mediated fashion–promotes cell growth by activating the prosurvival S1P signaling. These two distinct, yet integrated processes apparently concur to the growth-promoter effects of RA. PMID:17786207

Ren, MingQiang; Ghidoni, Riccardo; Sacchi, Nicoletta

2007-01-01

243

Clonal Growth of Bovine Vascular Endothelial Cells: Fibroblast Growth Factor as a Survival Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine vascular endothelial cells do not grow when cultured at low density unless fibroblast growth factor is included in the culture medium. When endothelial cells obtained from the intimal surface of fetal and adult aortas were seeded at low density (8 cells per cm2), they formed small colonies of large, irregular, vacuolated cells. At very low density (0.3 cells per

D. Gospodarowicz; J. Moran; D. Braun; C. Birdwell

1976-01-01

244

Influence of promoter/enhancer region haplotypes on MGMT transcriptional regulation: a potential biomarker for human sensitivity to alkylating agents  

PubMed Central

The O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) encodes the direct reversal DNA repair protein that removes alkyl adducts from the O 6 position of guanine. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exist in the MGMT promoter/enhancer (P/E) region. However, the haplotype structure encompassing these SNPs and their functional/biological significance are currently unknown. We hypothesized that MGMT P/E haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, alter MGMT transcription and can thus alter human sensitivity to alkylating agents. To identify the haplotype structure encompassing the MGMT P/E region SNPs, we sequenced 104 DNA samples from healthy individuals and inferred the haplotypes using the data generated. We identified eight SNPs in this region, namely T7C (rs180989103), T135G (rs1711646), G290A (rs61859810), C485A (rs1625649), C575A (rs113813075), G666A (rs34180180), C777A (rs34138162) and C1099T (rs16906252). Phylogenetics and Sequence Evolution analysis predicted 21 potential haplotypes that encompass these SNPs ranging in frequencies from 0.000048 to 0.39. Of these, 10 were identified in our study population as 20 paired haplotype combinations. To determine the functional significance of these haplotypes, luciferase reporter constructs representing these haplotypes were transfected into glioblastoma cells and their effect on MGMT promoter activity was determined. Compared with the most common (reference) haplotype 1, seven haplotypes significantly upregulated MGMT promoter activity (18–119% increase; P < 0.05), six significantly downregulated MGMT promoter activity (29–97% decrease; P < 0.05) and one haplotype had no effect. Mechanistic studies conducted support the conclusion that MGMT P/E haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, differentially regulate MGMT transcription and could thus play a significant role in human sensitivity to environmental and therapeutic alkylating agents. PMID:24163400

Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z.

2014-01-01

245

Responses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Hemoglobin Promoters to In Vitro and In Vivo Growth Conditions?  

PubMed Central

The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as one of the dreaded human pathogens lies in its ability to utilize different defense mechanisms in response to the varied environmental challenges during the course of its intracellular infection, latency, and reactivation cycle. Truncated hemoglobins trHbN and trHbO are thought to play pivotal roles in the cellular metabolism of this organism during stress and hypoxia. To delineate the genetic regulation of the M. tuberculosis hemoglobins, transcriptional fusions of the promoters of the glbN and glbO genes with green fluorescent protein were constructed, and their responses were monitored in Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis H37Ra exposed to environmental stresses in vitro and in M. tuberculosis H37Ra after in vivo growth inside macrophages. The glbN promoter activity increased substantially during stationary phase and was nearly 3- to 3.5-fold higher than the activity of the glbO promoter, which remained more or less constant during different growth phases in M. smegmatis, as well as in M. tuberculosis H37Ra. In both mycobacterial hosts, the glbN promoter activity was induced 1.5- to 2-fold by the general nitrosative stress inducer, nitrite, as well as the NO releaser, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The glbO promoter was more responsive to nitrite than to SNP, although the overall increase in its activity was much less than that of the glbN promoter. Additionally, the glbN promoter remained insensitive to the oxidative stress generated by H2O2, but the glbO promoter activity increased nearly 1.5-fold under similar conditions, suggesting that the trHb gene promoters are regulated differently under nitrosative and oxidative stress conditions. In contrast, transition metal-induced hypoxia enhanced the activity of both the glbN and glbO promoters at all growth phases; the glbO promoter was induced ?2.3-fold, which was found to be the highest value for this promoter under all the conditions evaluated. Addition of iron along with nickel reversed the induction in both cases. Interestingly, a concentration-dependent decrease in the activity of both trHb gene promoters was observed when the levels of iron in the growth media were depleted by addition of an iron chelator. These results suggested that an iron/heme-containing oxygen sensor is involved in the modulation of the trHb gene promoter activities directly or indirectly in conjunction with other cellular factors. The modes of promoter regulation under different physiological conditions were found to be similar for the trHbs in both M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis H37Ra, indicating that the promoters might be regulated by components that are common to the two systems. Confocal microscopy of THP-1 macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis carrying the trHb gene promoter fusions showed that there was a significant level of promoter activity during intracellular growth in macrophages. Time course evaluation of the promoter activity after various times up to 48 h by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of the intracellular M. tuberculosis cells indicated that the glbN promoter was active at all time points assessed, whereas the activity of the glbO promoter remained at a steady-state level up to 24 h postinfection and increased ?2-fold after 48 h of infection. Thus, the overall regulation pattern of the M. tuberculosis trHb gene promoters correlates not only with the stresses that the tubercle bacillus is likely to encounter once it is in the macrophage environment but also with our current knowledge of their functions. The in vivo studies that demonstrated for the first time expression of trHbs during macrophage infection of M. tuberculosis strongly indicate that the hemoglobins are required, and thus important, during the intracellular phase of the bacterial cycle. The present study of transcriptional regulation of M. tuberculosis hemoglobins in vitro under various stress conditions and in vivo after macrophage infection supports the hypothesis that biosynthesis of both trHbs (trHbN and trHbO) in the na

Pawaria, Sudesh; Lama, Amrita; Raje, Manoj; Dikshit, Kanak L.

2008-01-01

246

ATM regulates 3-Methylpurine-DNA glycosylase and promotes therapeutic resistance to alkylating agents  

PubMed Central

Alkylating agents are a frontline therapy for the treatment of several aggressive cancers including pediatric glioblastoma, a lethal tumor in children. Unfortunately, many tumors are resistant to this therapy. We sought to identify ways of sensitizing tumor cells to alkylating agents while leaving normal cells unharmed; increasing therapeutic response while minimizing toxicity. Using a siRNA screen targeting over 240 DNA damage response genes, we identified novel sensitizers to alkylating agents. In particular the base excision repair (BER) pathway, including 3-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG), as well as ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) were identified in our screen. Interestingly, we identified MPG as a direct novel substrate of ATM. ATM-mediated phosphorylation of MPG was required for enhanced MPG function. Importantly, combined inhibition or loss of MPG and ATM resulted in increased alkylating agent-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and prolonged survival in vivo. The discovery of the ATM-MPG axis will lead to improved treatment of alkylating agent-resistant tumors. PMID:25100205

Agnihotri, Sameer; Burrell, Kelly; Buczkowicz, Pawel; Remke, Marc; Golbourn, Brian; Chornenkyy, Yevgen; Gajadhar, Aaron; Fernandez, Nestor A.; Clarke, Ian D.; Barszczyk, Mark S.; Pajovic, Sanja; Ternamian, Christian; Head, Renee; Sabha, Nesrin; Sobol, Robert W.; Taylor, Michael D; Rutka, James T.; Jones, Chris; Dirks, Peter B.; Zadeh, Gelareh; Hawkins, Cynthia

2014-01-01

247

GC–MS SPME profiling of rhizobacterial volatiles reveals prospective inducers of growth promotion and induced systemic resistance in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and plant growth studies of Bacilli strains GB03 and IN937a revealed that the volatile components 2,3-butanediol and acetoin trigger plant growth promotion in Arabidopsis. Differences in growth promotion when cytokinin-signaling mutants are exposed to GB03 versus IN937a volatiles suggest a divergence in chemical signaling for these two bacterial strains. To provide a comprehensive chemical profile of bacterial volatiles emitted

Mohamed A. Farag; Choong-Min Ryu; Lloyd W. Sumner; Paul W. Pared

2006-01-01

248

Cladosporium sphaerospermum as a new plant growth-promoting endophyte from the roots of Glycine max (L.) Merr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi are plant symbionts that produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and protection against\\u000a herbivory and pathogens. Fourteen fungal samples were isolated from the roots of soybean cultivar Daemangkong and screened\\u000a on waito-c rice for their plant growth-promoting capacity. Twelve of the fungal isolates promoted plant growth, while two\\u000a inhibited it. The fungal isolate DK-1-1 induced

Muhammad Hamayun; Sumera Afzal Khan; Nadeem Ahmad; Dong-Sheng Tang; Sang-Mo Kang; Chae-In Na; Eun-Young Sohn; Young-Hyun Hwang; Dong-Hyun Shin; Byung-Hyun Lee; Jong-Guk Kim; In-Jung Lee

2009-01-01

249

Over-Expression of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-D Promotes Tumor Growth and Invasion in Endometrial Cancer  

PubMed Central

The platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) was demonstrated to be able to promote tumor growth and invasion in human malignancies. However, little is known about its roles in endometrial cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression and functions of PDGF-D in human endometrial cancer. Alterations of PDGF-D mRNA and protein were determined by real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Up-regulation of PDGF-D was achieved by stably transfecting the pcDNA3-PDGF-D plasmids into ECC-1 cells; and knockdown of PDGF-D was achieved by transient transfection with siRNA-PDGF-D into Ishikawa cells. The MTT assay, colony formation assay and Transwell assay were used to detect the effects of PDGF-D on cellular proliferation and invasion. The xenograft assay was used to investigate the functions of PDGF-D in vivo. Compared to normal endometrium, more than 50% cancer samples showed over-expression of PDGF-D (p < 0.001), and high level of PDGF-D was correlated with late stage (p = 0.003), deep myometrium invasion (p < 0.001) and lympha vascular space invasion (p = 0.006). In vitro, over-expressing PDGF-D in ECC-1 cells significantly accelerated tumor growth and promoted cellular invasion by increasing the level of MMP2 and MMP9; while silencing PDGF-D in Ishikawa cells impaired cell proliferation and inhibited the invasion, through suppressing the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Moreover, we also demonstrated that over-expressed PDGF-D could induce EMT and knockdown of PDGF-D blocked the EMT transition. Consistently, in xenografts assay, PDGF-D over-expression significantly promoted tumor growth and tumor weights. We demonstrated that PDGF-D was commonly over-expressed in endometrial cancer, which was associated with late stage deep myometrium invasion and lympha vascular space invasion. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed PDGF-D could promote tumor growth and invasion through up-regulating MMP2/9 and inducing EMT. Thus, we propose targeting PDGF-D to be a potent strategy for endometrial cancer treatment. PMID:24646915

Wang, Yuan; Qiu, Haifeng; Hu, Weixu; Li, Shaoru; Yu, Jinjin

2014-01-01

250

Over-expression of platelet-derived growth factor-D promotes tumor growth and invasion in endometrial cancer.  

PubMed

The platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) was demonstrated to be able to promote tumor growth and invasion in human malignancies. However, little is known about its roles in endometrial cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression and functions of PDGF-D in human endometrial cancer. Alterations of PDGF-D mRNA and protein were determined by real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Up-regulation of PDGF-D was achieved by stably transfecting the pcDNA3-PDGF-D plasmids into ECC-1 cells; and knockdown of PDGF-D was achieved by transient transfection with siRNA-PDGF-D into Ishikawa cells. The MTT assay, colony formation assay and Transwell assay were used to detect the effects of PDGF-D on cellular proliferation and invasion. The xenograft assay was used to investigate the functions of PDGF-D in vivo. Compared to normal endometrium, more than 50% cancer samples showed over-expression of PDGF-D (p < 0.001), and high level of PDGF-D was correlated with late stage (p = 0.003), deep myometrium invasion (p < 0.001) and lympha vascular space invasion (p = 0.006). In vitro, over-expressing PDGF-D in ECC-1 cells significantly accelerated tumor growth and promoted cellular invasion by increasing the level of MMP2 and MMP9; while silencing PDGF-D in Ishikawa cells impaired cell proliferation and inhibited the invasion, through suppressing the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Moreover, we also demonstrated that over-expressed PDGF-D could induce EMT and knockdown of PDGF-D blocked the EMT transition. Consistently, in xenografts assay, PDGF-D over-expression significantly promoted tumor growth and tumor weights. We demonstrated that PDGF-D was commonly over-expressed in endometrial cancer, which was associated with late stage deep myometrium invasion and lympha vascular space invasion. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed PDGF-D could promote tumor growth and invasion through up-regulating MMP2/9 and inducing EMT. Thus, we propose targeting PDGF-D to be a potent strategy for endometrial cancer treatment. PMID:24646915

Wang, Yuan; Qiu, Haifeng; Hu, Weixu; Li, Shaoru; Yu, Jinjin

2014-01-01

251

Effect of antimicrobial growth promoter administration on the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) are antimicrobial agents administered to livestock in feed for prolonged periods to enhance feed efficiency. Beef cattle are primarily finished in confined feeding operations in Canada and the USA, and the administration of AGPs such as chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (Aureo S-700 G) is the standard. The impacts of AGPs on the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are currently uncertain; it is documented that AGPs administered to beef cattle pass through the rumen and enter the intestine. To ascertain the impacts of Aureo S-700 G on the small and large intestinal microbiota of beef cattle (mucosa-associated and within digesta), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for total bacteria were applied. Beef cattle were maintained in an experimental feedlot (five replicate pens per treatment), and AGP treatment cattle were administered Aureo S-700 G in feed, whereas control cattle were administered no antimicrobials. As the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle has not been extensively examined, clone library analysis was applied to ascertain the primary bacterial constituents of the intestinal microbiota. Results Comparative T-RFLP and qPCR analysis (n?=?122 samples) revealed that bacterial community fingerprints and bacterial load within digesta differed from those associated with mucosa. However, the administration of Aureo S-700 G did not affect bacterial community fingerprints or bacterial load within the small and large intestine relative to control cattle. Analysis of >1500 near full length 16S rDNA clones revealed considerably greater bacterial diversity in the large relative to the small intestine of beef cattle. Mucosa-associated bacterial communities in the jejunum were dominated by Proteobacteria, and differed conspicuously from those in the ileum and large intestine. Although the ileum contained bacterial clones that were common to the jejunum as well as the cecum, Firmicutes clones associated with mucosa dominated in the ileum, cecum, and descending colon. In the descending colon, clone library analysis did not reveal a difference in the richness or diversity of bacterial communities within digesta relative to those associated with mucosa. However, T-RFLP analysis indicated a significant difference in T-RF relative abundance (i.e. difference in relative taxon abundance) between mucosa-associated and digesta communities attributed in part to the differential abundance of Bacteriodes, Alistipes, Oscillibacter, and unclassified Clostridiales. Conclusions These data demonstrate that there was no significant difference in the composition of the predominant intestinal bacteria constituents within animals administered Aureo S-700 G and those not administered AGPs after a 28 day withdrawal period. PMID:23578222

2013-01-01

252

TAF4 Inactivation Reveals the 3 Dimensional Growth Promoting Activities of Collagen 6A3  

PubMed Central

Collagen 6A3 (Col6a3), a component of extracellular matrix, is often up-regulated in tumours and is believed to play a pro-oncogenic role. However the mechanisms of its tumorigenic activity are poorly understood. We show here that Col6a3 is highly expressed in densely growing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In MEFs where the TAF4 subunit of general transcription factor IID (TFIID) has been inactivated, elevated Col6a3 expression prevents contact inhibition promoting their 3 dimensional growth as foci and fibrospheres. Analyses of gene expression in densely growing Taf4?/? MEFs revealed repression of the Hippo pathway and activation of Wnt signalling. The Hippo activator Kibra/Wwc1 is repressed under dense conditions in Taf4?/? MEFs, leading to nuclear accumulation of the proliferation factor YAP1 in the cells forming 3D foci. At the same time, Wnt9a is activated and the Sfrp2 antagonist of Wnt signalling is repressed. Surprisingly, treatment of Taf4?/? MEFs with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) restores contact inhibition suppressing 3D growth. ATRA represses Col6a3 expression independently of TAF4 expression and Col6a3 silencing is sufficient to restore contact inhibition in Taf4?/? MEFs and to suppress 3D growth by reactivating Kibra expression to induce Hippo signalling and by inducing Sfrp2 expression to antagonize Wnt signalling. All together, these results reveal a critical role for Col6a3 in regulating both Hippo and Wnt signalling to promote 3D growth, and show that the TFIID subunit TAF4 is essential to restrain the growth promoting properties of Col6a3. Our data provide new insight into the role of extra cellular matrix components in regulating cell growth. PMID:24498316

Duluc, Isabelle; Vicaire, Serge; Philipps, Muriel; Freund, Jean-Noel; Davidson, Irwin

2014-01-01

253

Stimulation of the Growth of Tomato, Pepper and Mung Bean Plants by the Plant Growth Promoting Bacterium Enterobacter cloacae CAL3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB), Enterobacter cloacae CAL3, on the growth of tomato, pepper and mung bean plants was evaluated. Seedlings were grown on vermiculite and supplied with Murashige and Skoog nutrient solutions. In parallel the plants were also inoculated with bacterial suspension. The present study highlights the potential for stimulating growth of plants by application of

S. Mayak; T. Tirosh; B. R. Glick

2001-01-01

254

Effect of inoculation with a thermotolerant plant growth promoting Pseudomonas putida strain AKMP7 on growth of wheat (Triticum spp.) under heat stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of plant growth promoting thermotolerant Pseudomonas putida strain AKMP7 on the growth of wheat plants to heat stress. The results indicated the superior performance by P. putida strain AKMP7 in improving survival and growth of wheat plants under heat stress. The bacterium significantly increased the root and shoot length, dry

Shaik. Zulfikar Ali; Vardharajula Sandhya; Minakshi Grover; Venkateswar Rao Linga; Venkateswarlu Bandi

2011-01-01

255

Autotrophic Growth of Thiobacillus acidophilus in the Presence of a Surface-Active Agent, Tween 80  

PubMed Central

Cellular protein, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, and static surface tension were measured during growth of Thiobacillus acidophilus on elemental sulfur in the absence and presence of up to 5,000 mg of Tween 80 per liter. The decrease in pH and the increase in sulfate production were observed to be less accurate measurements of growth when compared with the increase in cellular protein. The doubling time of the bacterium decreased approximately 50% with the addition of 500 mg of Tween 80 per liter. The bacteria did not appear to synthesize any wetting agents as demonstrated by the constant surface tension of the medium during growth. Morphological alterations in the presence of Tween 80 were also observed. PMID:16345459

Kingma, J. G.; Silver, Marvin

1979-01-01

256

Ski Promotes Tumor Growth Through Abrogation of Transforming Growth Factor-? Signaling in Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective: We hypothesized that human pancreatic cancer resists TGF-? signaling and cell death through increased Ski expression. Summary Background Data: Ski is an oncogenic protein that acts as a TGF-? repressor and prevents related gene transcription. Previous work suggests that Ski acts as an oncoprotein in melanoma and esophageal cancer. Ski expression and function have not been determined in human pancreatic cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and immunoblots assessed Ski expression in human pancreatic cancer. Panc-1 cells were treated with or without Ski siRNA, and Ski and Smad protein expression, transcriptional reporter activation, and growth assays were determined. Panc-1 cells were inoculated in the flank of nude mice and tumor volume and histology assessed after administration of Ski siRNA or control vector. Results: Ski was abundantly expressed in human pancreatic cancer specimens assessed by immunohistochemistry (91%) and immunoblot analysis (67%). Panc-1 cells exhibited nascent Ski expression that was maximally inhibited 48 hours after transfection with Ski siRNA. TGF-? transcriptional activity was increased 2.5-fold in Ski siRNA-treated cells compared with control (P < 0.05). Ski siRNA increased TGF-?-induced Smad2 phosphorylation and p21 expression. Panc-1 growth in culture was decreased 2-fold at 72 hours. A Ski siRNA expression vector injected into nude mice resulted in a 5-fold decrease in growth. Conclusion: Inhibition of Ski through RNA interference restored TGF-? signaling and growth inhibition in vitro, and decreased tumor growth in vivo. PMID:17592292

Heider, T Ryan; Lyman, Suzanne; Schoonhoven, Robert; Behrns, Kevin E.

2007-01-01

257

Optimize flue gas settings to promote microalgae growth in photobioreactors via computer simulations.  

PubMed

Flue gas from power plants can promote algal cultivation and reduce greenhouse gas emissions(1). Microalgae not only capture solar energy more efficiently than plants(3), but also synthesize advanced biofuels(2-4). Generally, atmospheric CO2 is not a sufficient source for supporting maximal algal growth(5). On the other hand, the high concentrations of CO2 in industrial exhaust gases have adverse effects on algal physiology. Consequently, both cultivation conditions (such as nutrients and light) and the control of the flue gas flow into the photo-bioreactors are important to develop an efficient "flue gas to algae" system. Researchers have proposed different photobioreactor configurations(4,6) and cultivation strategies(7,8) with flue gas. Here, we present a protocol that demonstrates how to use models to predict the microalgal growth in response to flue gas settings. We perform both experimental illustration and model simulations to determine the favorable conditions for algal growth with flue gas. We develop a Monod-based model coupled with mass transfer and light intensity equations to simulate the microalgal growth in a homogenous photo-bioreactor. The model simulation compares algal growth and flue gas consumptions under different flue-gas settings. The model illustrates: 1) how algal growth is influenced by different volumetric mass transfer coefficients of CO2; 2) how we can find optimal CO2 concentration for algal growth via the dynamic optimization approach (DOA); 3) how we can design a rectangular on-off flue gas pulse to promote algal biomass growth and to reduce the usage of flue gas. On the experimental side, we present a protocol for growing Chlorella under the flue gas (generated by natural gas combustion). The experimental results qualitatively validate the model predictions that the high frequency flue gas pulses can significantly improve algal cultivation. PMID:24121788

He, Lian; Chen, Amelia B; Yu, Yi; Kucera, Leah; Tang, Yinjie

2013-01-01

258

[Action mechanisms of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): a review].  

PubMed

Plants during their growth may suffer from many biotic and abiotic stresses, resulting in a decrease of biological production. They may also establish some mechanisms to resist or tolerate the stresses under the stimulation or induction by a variety of factors, among which, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is an important one. In this paper, the recently published papers related to this subject were reviewed, and two categories of the action mechanisms of PGPR, namely, induced systemic resistance (ISR) and induced systemic tolerance (IST), were elaborated. The diversity of the action mechanisms of PGPR implied that PGPR could be applied in more agro-ecosystems. PMID:20387449

Kang, Yi-Jun; Cheng, Jie; Mei, Li-Juan; Hu, Jian; Piao, Zhe; Yin, Shi-Xue

2010-01-01

259

Solid source growth of Si oxide nanowires promoted by carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a method to promote solid source growth of Si oxide nanowires (SiONWs) by using an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It starts with the fabrication of CNT array by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on Si wafers, followed by growth of SiONWs. Herein, CNTs serve as a scaffold, which helps the dispersion of catalysts for SiONWs and also provides space for hydrogen which boosts the diffusion of Si atoms and hence formation of SiONWs. As the result, a three dimensional (3D) hybrid network of densely packed SiONWs and CNTs can be produced rapidly.

Lu, Congxiang; Liu, Wen-wen; Wang, Xingli; Li, Xiaocheng; Tan, Chong Wei; Tay, Beng Kang; Coquet, Philippe

2014-09-01

260

Electrospun silk fibroin nanofibers promote Schwann cell adhesion, growth and proliferation  

PubMed Central

In this study, Schwann cells, at a density of 1 × 105 cells/well, were cultured on regenerated silk fibroin nanofibers (305 ± 84 nm) prepared using the electrospinning method. Schwann cells cultured on the silk fibroin nanofibers appeared more ordered, their processes extended further, and they formed more extensive and complex interconnections. In addition, the silk fibroin nanofibers had no impact on the proliferation of Schwann cells or on the secretion of ciliary neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor or nerve growth factor. These findings indicate that regenerated electrospun silk fibroin nanofibers can promote Schwann cell adhesion, growth and proliferation, and have excellent biocompatibility. PMID:25722711

Hu, Aijun; Zuo, Baoqi; Zhang, Feng; Lan, Qing; Zhang, Huanxiang

2012-01-01

261

Microtubule-Associated Protein Mdp3 Promotes Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide with a high mortality rate, and the identification of new biomarkers and targets for this disease is greatly needed. Here we present evidence that microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 7 domain-containing protein 3 (Mdp3) is highly expressed in clinical samples and cell lines of breast cancer. The expression of Mdp3 correlates with clinicopathological parameters indicating breast cancer malignancy. In addition, Mdp3 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and motility in vitro and stimulates breast cancer growth and metastasis in mice. Mechanistic studies reveal that ?-tubulin interacts with and recruits Mdp3 to the centrosome and that the centrosomal localization of Mdp3 is required for its activity to promote breast cancer cell proliferation and motility. These findings suggest a critical role for Mdp3 in the growth and metastasis of breast cancer and may have important implications for the management of this disease. PMID:25161703

Tala; Xie, Songbo; Sun, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoou; Ran, Jie; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Dengwen; Liu, Min; Bao, Gang; Zhou, Jun

2014-01-01

262

PVC-piping promotes growth of Ralstonia pickettii in dialysis water treatment facilities.  

PubMed

Biofilms forming inside dialysis water treatment systems are one of the main sources of microbiological contamination. Among the bacteria found in biofilms, Ralstonia pickettii is frequently encountered in dialysis water treatment systems and has been shown to develop extreme oligotrophic talents. In Austria, R. pickettii was exclusively detected in high numbers in dialysis water treatment facilities equipped with chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) piping. In this laboratory study it was shown that PVC-C effectively promotes growth of R. pickettii biofilms, while residual organic carbon in purified dialysis water is sufficient for promoting substantial growth of planktic R. pickettii. This provides evidence that PVC-C is an unsuitable material for piping in dialysis water treatment systems. PMID:23985526

Dombrowsky, Matthias; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina

2013-01-01

263

Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9  

SciTech Connect

Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).

Neupane, Saraswoti [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Hogberg, Nils [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Alstrom, Sadhna [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fiebig, Anne [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Finlay, Roger D. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

2012-01-01

264

Colonization by endophytic Ochrobactrum anthropi?Mn1 promotes growth of Jerusalem artichoke  

PubMed Central

The Ochrobactrum anthropi?Mn1 strain, taxonomically identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequence, was isolated from roots of Jerusalem artichoke. Its endophytic colonization was investigated microscopically using green fluorescent protein introduced by vector pHC60. The strain entered Jerusalem artichoke tissues through the root, and was localized in the roots and stems. The plant growth-promoting (PGP) effects of O. anthropi?Mn1 were assessed in greenhouse as well as field trials with different nitrogen supplies. Only under moderate to ample nitrogen supply, could O. anthropi?Mn1 promoted growth of host plant. The PGP effects of the strain were symbiotic nitrogen fixation, root morphological optimization and enhanced nutrient uptake. We hypothesize that the symbiotic interspecies interaction might be quorum sensing related. PMID:25073416

Meng, Xianfa; Yan, Dekai; Long, Xiaohua; Wang, Changhai; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

2014-01-01

265

Olfactory ensheathing cells promote migration of Schwann cells by secreted nerve growth factor.  

PubMed

Transplantation of Schwann cells (SCs) and olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have emerged as very promising therapies for spinal cord repair. The important features of interaction between SCs and OECs are beginning to be appreciated, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested the effects of OECs on SCs migration using a range of in vitro migration assays. We found that SCs migrated abundantly upon OECs monolayer, and the migration-promoting effects were identified to be due to the secreted diffusible factors in OEC-derived conditioned medium (OEC-CM). Furthermore, neutralizing nerve growth factor (NGF) in OEC-CM with NGF antibody could block this effect. Moreover, we found that NGF promotes SCs migration even on astrocyte monolayer. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that OECs can promote SCs migration in astrocytic environment by secreted NGF. PMID:17405147

Cao, Li; Zhu, Yan-Ling; Su, Zhida; Lv, Baolai; Huang, Zhihui; Mu, Lifang; He, Cheng

2007-07-01

266

Endogenous Abscisic Acid Promotes Hypocotyl Growth and Affects Endoreduplication during Dark-Induced Growth in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)  

PubMed Central

Dark-induced growth (skotomorphogenesis) is primarily characterized by rapid elongation of the hypocotyl. We have studied the role of abscisic acid (ABA) during the development of young tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings. We observed that ABA deficiency caused a reduction in hypocotyl growth at the level of cell elongation and that the growth in ABA-deficient plants could be improved by treatment with exogenous ABA, through which the plants show a concentration dependent response. In addition, ABA accumulated in dark-grown tomato seedlings that grew rapidly, whereas seedlings grown under blue light exhibited low growth rates and accumulated less ABA. We demonstrated that ABA promotes DNA endoreduplication by enhancing the expression of the genes encoding inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases SlKRP1 and SlKRP3 and by reducing cytokinin levels. These data were supported by the expression analysis of the genes which encode enzymes involved in ABA and CK metabolism. Our results show that ABA is essential for the process of hypocotyl elongation and that appropriate control of the endogenous level of ABA is required in order to drive the growth of etiolated seedlings. PMID:25695830

Humplík, Jan F.; Bergougnoux, Véronique; Jandová, Michaela; Šimura, Jan; P?n?ík, Aleš; Tomanec, Ond?ej; Rol?ík, Jakub; Novák, Ond?ej; Fellner, Martin

2015-01-01

267

Endophytic bacterial communities of field-grown potato plants and their plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic abilities.  

PubMed

To study the effect of plant growth on potato-associated bacteria, the composition and properties of bacteria colonizing the endosphere of field-grown potato were analyzed by a multiphasic approach. The occurrence and diversity of potato-associated bacteria were monitored by a cultivation-independent approach, using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rDNA. The patterns obtained revealed a high heterogeneity of community composition and suggested the existence of plant-specific communities. However, endophytic populations correlated to a certain extent with plant growth performance. Endophytes were also isolated from plants that grew well or grew poorly and were identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. A broad phylogenetic spectrum was found among isolates and differently growing plants hosted different bacterial populations. In an approach to investigate the plant-growth-promoting potential of potato-associated bacteria, a total of 35 bacteria were screened by dual testing for in vitro antagonism towards (i) the fungal pathogens Verticillium dahliae, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Phytophthora cactorum and (ii) the bacterial pathogens Erwinia carotovora, Streptomyces scabies, and Xanthomonas campestris. The proportion of isolates with antagonistic activity was highest against Streptomyces sp. (43%) followed by those against Xanthomonas sp. (29%). As all plants showed more or less severe disease symptoms of scab disease caused by Streptomyces scabies, we assume that the presence of the pathogen induced the colonization of antagonists. The antifungal activity of the isolates was generally low. The biotechnological potential of endophytic isolates assessed by their antagonistic activity and by in vitro production of enzymes, antibiotics, siderophores, and the plant growth hormone indole-1,3-acetic acid was generally high. Overall, seven endophytes were found to antagonize fungal as well as bacterial pathogens and showed a high production of active compounds and were therefore considered promising biological control agents. PMID:15213748

Sessitsch, Angela; Reiter, Birgit; Berg, Gabriele

2004-04-01

268

Retardation of shoot growth and promotion of tuber growth of potato plants by paclobutrazol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between shoot growth and tuber yield in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank) was studied under greenhouse conditions using paclobutrazol [(2R,3R + 2S,3S)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(l,2-4-triazol-l-yl)-pentan-3-ol),\\u000a PP333], a growth retardant. Concurrent with reduction of stem elongation by the application of paclobutrazol to base of the\\u000a main stem was a decrease in the dry weight of the shoot and an

V. Balamani; B. W. Poovaiah

1985-01-01

269

Isolation of micropropagated strawberry endophytic bacteria and assessment of their potential for plant growth promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty endophytic bacteria were isolated from the meristematic tissues of three varieties of strawberry cultivated in vitro,\\u000a and further identified, by FAME profile, into the genera Bacillus and Sphingopyxis. The strains were also characterized according to indole acetic acid production, phosphate solubilization and potential for\\u000a plant growth promotion. Results showed that 15 strains produced high levels of IAA and all

Armando C. F. Dias; Francisco E. C. Costa; Fernando D. Andreote; Paulo T. Lacava; Manoel A. Teixeira; Laura C. Assumpção; Welington L. Araújo; João L. Azevedo; Itamar S. Melo

2009-01-01

270

Growth ofActinobacillus pleuropneumoniaeIs Promoted by Exogenous Hydroxamate and Catechol Siderophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

while growth of 36% (8 of 22) was promoted by a synthetic hydroxamate, N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine tripeptide. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (strain FMV 87-682) and serotype 5 (strain 2245) exhibited a distinct yellow halo around colonies on Chrome Azurol S agar plates, suggesting that both strains can produce an iron chelator (siderophore) in response to iron stress. The siderophore was found to

MOUSSA S. DIARRA; JULIA A. DOLENCE; E. KURT DOLENCE; IHAB DARWISH; MARVIN J. MILLER; FRANCOIS MALOUIN; ANDMARIO JACQUES

1996-01-01

271

Involvement of growth promoting hormones in Rho1ps gene expression in garden pea shoot apexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the possible involvements of plant hormones in actin filament organization in a garden pea shoot apex,\\u000a the effect of growth promoting hormones such as IAA, GA3, brassinolide (BL), and zeatin (Zea) on the gene expression ofRho1ps was investigated by northern blot analyses. Compared with the level ofRho1ps transcripts in hormone-untreated segments of the apex, the application

Nam Sang-June; Myeong-Min Lee; Sun-Hi Lee; June-Seung Lee; Seong-Ki Kim

1998-01-01

272

Low Doses of L-Monosodium Glutamate Promote Neuronal Growth and Differentiation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monosodium glutamate given at a concentration of 5 x 10–6M to whole-brain dissociated cultures of 18-day-old rats promotes neuronal growth. Neurons are larger due to an increased size of both cytoplasm and nucleus. Rough endoplasmic reticulum is more developed and mitochondria are more abundant. Synaptic vesicles are significantly increased in number with respect to control cultures. Synapses are more abundant

C. Aruffo; R. Ferszt; A. G. Hildebrandt; J. Cérvos-Navarro

1987-01-01

273

Subcutaneous fatty acid composition of steers finished as weanlings or yearlings with and without growth promotants  

PubMed Central

Background The current study evaluated the subcutaneous fatty acid (FA) composition of calf- and yearling-fed steers with or without growth promoting implants. Crossbred steers (n?=?112; 267?±?5.0 kg) of the same contemporary group were allocated to one of four production system and implant strategy based treatments in a completely randomized design with a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Results There were no interactions (P?>?0.05) between production systems and growth promoting implants for the total and individual subcutaneous FA. Yearling as opposed to calf finishing reduced (P?growth promotants had higher (P?growth promotants led to only minor differences in subcutaneous FA composition of beef steers. PMID:24188642

2013-01-01

274

Sugarcane Growth Promotion by the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1  

PubMed Central

The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1::pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and aerial plant tissues. Microscopic analysis was performed at 5, 10, and 18 days after inoculation. Under greenhouse conditions, P. agglomerans 33.1-inoculated sugarcane plants presented more dry mass 30 days after inoculation. Cross-colonization was confirmed by reisolation of the GFP-tagged strain. These data demonstrate that 33.1::pNKGFP is a superior colonizer of sugarcane due to its ability to colonize a number of different plant parts. The growth promotion observed in colonized plants may be related to the ability of P. agglomerans 33.1 to synthesize indoleacetic acid and solubilize phosphate. Additionally, this strain may trigger chitinase and cellulase production by plant roots, suggesting the induction of a plant defense system. However, levels of indigenous bacterial colonization did not vary between inoculated and noninoculated sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions, suggesting that the presence of P. agglomerans 33.1 has no effect on these communities. In this study, different techniques were used to monitor 33.1::pNKGFP during sugarcane cross-colonization, and our results suggested that this plant growth promoter could be used with other crops. The interaction between sugarcane and P. agglomerans 33.1 has important benefits that promote the plant's growth and fitness. PMID:22865062

Rossetto, P. B.; Ferreira, A.; Tsui, S.; Lacava, P. T.; Mondin, M.; Azevedo, J. L.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A. A.

2012-01-01

275

Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on bacterial canker of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in managing bacterial canker disease of tomato was studied in the present work. Tomato seeds were treated with PGPR strains viz., Bacillus pumilus INR7, Bacillus pumilus SE34, Bacillus pumilus T4, Bacillus subtilis GBO3, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IN937a and Brevibacillus brevis IPC11 were subjected for seed germination and seedling vigor. Among the PGPR strains tested, only

N Girish; S Umesha

2005-01-01

276

Effects of inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on metal uptake by Brassica juncea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was carried out with Brassica juncea to critically evaluate effects of bacterial inoculation on the uptake of heavy metals from Pb–Zn mine tailings by plants. Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria and phosphate and potassium solubilizers, might play an important role in the further development of phytoremediation techniques. The presence of these beneficial bacteria stimulated

S. C. Wu; K. C. Cheung; Y. M. Luo; M. H. Wong

2006-01-01

277

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of

Safiyh Taghavi; Daniel van der Lelie; Adam Hoffman; Yian-Biao Zhang; Michael D. Walla; Jaco Vangronsveld; Lee Newman; Sébastien Monchy

2010-01-01

278

Can choice promote Education for All? Evidence from growth in private primary schooling in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether the recent growth in ‘low?fee private’ (LFP) schools is able to promote Education for All by being accessible to the poor. Based primarily on a 13?village survey of 250 households and visits to 26 private and government schools in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, this paper explores who ‘chooses’ private schooling, in the light of the well?documented

Joanna Härmä

2009-01-01

279

Siderophore mediated plant growth promotion at low temperature by mutant of fluorescent pseudomonad?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cold resistant mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 was developed, which could grow equally well at 25 and 10 C and its effect on plant growth promotion under in vitro and in situ conditions was observed. Siderophore estimation revealed it to be a siderophore-overproducing mutant (17-fold increase) when\\u000a compared to its wild type counterpart. A gnotobiotic root elongation assay

Vandana Katiyar; Reeta Goel

2004-01-01

280

Water stress amelioration and plant growth promotion in wheat plants by osmotic stress tolerant bacteria.  

PubMed

Soil microorganisms with potential for alleviation of abiotic stresses in combination with plant growth promotion would be extremely useful tools in sustainable agriculture. To this end, the present study was initiated where forty-five salt tolerant bacterial isolates with ability to grow in high salt medium were obtained from the rhizosphere of Triticum aestivum and Imperata cylindrica. These bacteria were tested for plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria traits in vitro such as phosphate solubilization, siderophore, ACC deaminase and IAA production. Of the forty-five isolates, W10 from wheat rhizosphere and IP8 from blady grass rhizosphere, which tested positive in all the tests were identified by morpholological, biochemical and 16SrDNA sequencing as Bacillus safensis and Ochrobactrum pseudogregnonense respectively and selected for in vivo studies. Both the bacteria could promote growth in six varieties of wheat tested in terms of increase in root and shoot biomass, height of plants, yield, as well as increase in chlorophyll content. Besides, the wheat plants could withstand water stress more efficiently in presence of the bacteria as indicated by delay in appearance of wilting symptoms increases in relative water content of treated water stressed plants in comparison to untreated stressed ones, and elevated antioxidant responses. Enhanced antioxidant responses were evident as elevated activities of enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase as well as increased accumulation of antioxidants such as carotenoids and ascorbate. Results clearly indicate that the ability of wheat plants to withstand water stress is enhanced by application of these bacteria which also function as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. PMID:23239372

Chakraborty, U; Chakraborty, B N; Chakraborty, A P; Dey, P L

2013-05-01

281

Molecular ecological analysis of porcine ileal microbiota responses to antimicrobial growth promoters1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation-independent microbial mo- lecular ecology approaches were used to examine the effects of antibiotic growth promoters on the pig ileal microbiota. Five-week-old barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. Three diets meet- ing or exceeding the minimum nutrient requirements were fed for 5 wk and supplemented as follows: 1) nega- tive control (no antibiotic; n =

C. T. Collier; M. R. Smiricky-Tjardes; D. M. Albin; J. E. Wubben; V. M. Gabert; B. Deplancke; D. Bane; D. B. Anderson; H. R. Gaskins

282

Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended

Safiyh Taghavi; Daniel van der Lelie; Adam Hoffman; Yian-Biao Zhang; Michael D. Walla; Jaco Vangronsveld; Lee Newman; Sébastien Monchy

2010-01-01

283

Induced Systemic Resistance and Promotion of Plant Growth by Bacillus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kloepper, J. W., Ryu, C.-M., and Zhang, S. 2004. Induced systemic resis- tance and promotion of plant growth by Bacillus spp. Phytopathology 94:1259-1266. Elicitation of induced systemic resistance (ISR) by plant-associated bacteria was initially demonstrated using Pseudomonas spp. and other gram-negative bacteria. Several reviews have summarized various aspects of the large volume of literature on Pseudomonas spp. as elicitors of

Joseph W. Kloepper; Choong-Min Ryu; Shouan Zhang

2004-01-01

284

Induction of resistance in tomato against cucumber mosaic cucumovirus by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were done to evaluate specific strains of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for induced resistance against\\u000a cucumber mosaic cucumovirus(CMV) in tomato. In greenhouse experiments where plants were challenged by mechanical inoculation\\u000a of CMV, the percentage of symptomatic plants in the most effective PGPR treatments ranged from 32 to 58%,compared with 88\\u000a to 98% in the nonbacterized, challenged disease control

Geoffrey W. Zehnder; Changbin Yao; John F. Murphy; Edward R. Sikora; Joseph W. Kloepper

2000-01-01

285

Connective Tissue Growth Factor Modulates Adult ?-Cell Maturity and Proliferation to Promote ?-Cell Regeneration in Mice.  

PubMed

Stimulation of endogenous ?-cell expansion could facilitate regeneration in patients with diabetes. In mice, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is expressed in embryonic ?-cells and in adult ?-cells during periods of expansion. We discovered that in embryos CTGF is necessary for ?-cell proliferation, and increased CTGF in ?-cells promotes proliferation of immature (MafA(-)) insulin-positive cells. CTGF overexpression, under nonstimulatory conditions, does not increase adult ?-cell proliferation. In this study, we tested the ability of CTGF to promote ?-cell proliferation and regeneration after partial ?-cell destruction. ?-Cell mass reaches 50% recovery after 4 weeks of CTGF treatment, primarily via increased ?-cell proliferation, which is enhanced as early as 2 days of treatment. CTGF treatment increases the number of immature ?-cells but promotes proliferation of both mature and immature ?-cells. A shortened ?-cell replication refractory period is also observed. CTGF treatment upregulates positive cell-cycle regulators and factors involved in ?-cell proliferation, including hepatocyte growth factor, serotonin synthesis, and integrin ?1. Ex vivo treatment of whole islets with recombinant human CTGF induces ?-cell replication and gene expression changes consistent with those observed in vivo, demonstrating that CTGF acts directly on islets to promote ?-cell replication. Thus, CTGF can induce replication of adult mouse ?-cells given a permissive microenvironment. PMID:25392241

Riley, Kimberly G; Pasek, Raymond C; Maulis, Matthew F; Peek, Jennifer; Thorel, Fabrizio; Brigstock, David R; Herrera, Pedro L; Gannon, Maureen

2015-04-01

286

Identification of agents that promote endoplasmic reticulum stress using an assay that monitors luciferase secretion  

PubMed Central

Disruption of protein processing in the secretory pathway is a measurable hallmark of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activation of ER stress-mediated pathways has been implicated in numerous diseases including cancer. To identify agents that induce ER stress, we established a screen for compounds that reduce secretion of the reporter protein Gaussia luciferase (GLUC). Given the clinically validated importance of targeting ER stress-mediated pathways in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), we used this hematological malignancy as a model for validating our screening system. From a screen of 2000 marketed drugs and natural compounds in KMS11 and ARP1 MM cells, we identified 97 agents that reduced GLUC secretion in both cell lines by at least 30%. In order to confirm inducers of ER stress, we applied a secondary screen that assessed splicing of the unfolded protein response (UPR) transcription factor XBP1. One agent, theaflavin-3,3?–digallate (TF-3), was chosen based on its history of safe human consumption and further validated through studies of ER stress-related pathways including the UPR and apoptosis. Given these promising results, this screen could be a useful tool to identify agents targeting ER stress-related mechanisms in other cellular systems wherein ER stress plays a role in disease etiology. PMID:24371212

Doudican, Nicole A.; Wen, Shih Ya; Mazumder, Amitabha; Orlow, Seth J.

2015-01-01

287

RAT TRACHEAL CELL CULTURE TRANSFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS AS CARCINOGENS AND PROMOTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A tracheal cell culture system which can be used for detection of hazardous environmental agents is described. The culture system makes use of primary tracheal cells that are isolated from rats by protease digestion of the tracheal epithelium. The epithelial cells are plated on a...

288

The Complete Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4  

PubMed Central

The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated “housekeeping” genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup. PMID:23516524

Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J.; Glick, Bernard R.

2013-01-01

289

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria associated with ancient clones of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata).  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are common components of the rhizosphere, but their role in adaptation of plants to extreme environments is not yet understood. Here, we examined rhizobacteria associated with ancient clones of Larrea tridentata in the Mohave desert, including the 11,700-year-old King Clone, which is oldest known specimen of this species. Analysis of unculturable and culturable bacterial community by PCR-DGGE revealed taxa that have previously been described on agricultural plants. These taxa included species of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes that commonly carry traits associated with plant growth promotion, including genes encoding aminocyclopropane carboxylate deaminase and ?-propeller phytase. The PGPR activities of three representative isolates from L. tridentata were further confirmed using cucumber plants to screen for plant growth promotion. This study provides an intriguing first view of the mutualistic bacteria that are associated with some of the world's oldest living plants and suggests that PGPR likely contribute to the adaptation of L. tridentata and other plant species to harsh environmental conditions in desert habitats. PMID:22639075

Jorquera, Milko A; Shaharoona, Baby; Nadeem, Sajid M; de la Luz Mora, María; Crowley, David E

2012-11-01

290

Penicillium menonorum: A Novel Fungus to Promote Growth and Nutrient Management in Cucumber Plants  

PubMed Central

The present study is the first report on the isolation of Penicillium menonorum from rhizosphere soil in Korea and its identification based on morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer gene sequence. The fungal isolate was named KNU-3 and was found to exhibit plant growth-promoting (PGP) activity through indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore production, as well as P solubilization. KNU-3 produced 9.7 mg/L IAA and solubilized 408 mg of Ca3PO4/L, and inoculation with the isolate significantly (p < 0.05) increased the dry biomass of cucumber roots (57%) and shoots (52%). Chlorophyll, starch, protein, and P contents were increased by 16%, 45%, 22%, and 14%, respectively, compared to plants grown in uninoculated soil. The fungus also increased soil dehydrogenase (30%) and acid phosphatase (19%) activities. These results demonstrate that the isolate KNU-3 has potential PGP attributes, and therefore it can be considered as a new fungus to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth. Moreover, the discovery of PGP ability and traits of this fungus will open new aspects of research and investigations. In this study, plant growth promotion by P. menonorum KNU-3 is reported for the first time in Korea after its original description.

Babu, Anam Giridhar; Kim, Sang Woo; Yadav, Dil Raj; Hyum, Umyong; Adhikari, Mahesh

2015-01-01

291

[Growth-promoting effect of inoculating klebsiella variicola DX120E on different sugarcane cultivars].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the growth promoting effect of inoculating Klebsiella variicola DX120E, a bacterial strain with high activity of associative nitrogen fixation, on sugarcane, the strain was inoculated through roots into the pathogen free micropropagated seedlings of two sugarcane cultivars B8 and GT21. The bacterial numbers colonized in sugarcane plants, the activities of the key enzymes for nitrogen metabolism, the nitrate concentration and nutrient uptake were analyzed. The results indicated that the DX120E strain could live, propagate and colonize in the roots and aerial parts of sugarcane seedlings. The DX120E inoculation could effectively promote the plant growth and nutrient uptake, significantly improve the nitrate reductase (NR) activities, and increase the glutamine synthetase (GS) activities and nitrate concentration in certain degree in the leaves, compared with the uninoculated seedlings. It was suggested that Klebsiella variicola DX120E possesses a significant growth promoting effect on sugarcane plants which has a great application potential in developing biological nitrogen fixation fertilizer for sugarcane. PMID:25345062

Wei, Chun-Yan; Xing, Yong-Xiu; Lin, Li; Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Yang-Rui; Hu, Chun-Jin

2014-07-01

292

Screening of Brazilian cacti rhizobacteria for plant growth promotion under drought.  

PubMed

Drought is one of the major problems worldwide. The search for new and efficient microorganisms, from unexplored environments, to be used in association with plants to alleviate the negative effects imposed by water stress, is an interesting alternative. Thus, cacti-associated bacteria from the Brazilian semi-arid region were isolated based on their ability to grow in medium with reduced water availability. Strains were tested for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS), as well as in vitro plant growth promotion traits. A great proportion of the isolates belong to the genus Bacillus. From a total of forty-eight bacteria, 65% were able to grow in medium with reduced water availability (0.919Aw), exopolysaccharide production was observed for 65% of the strains. The production of indole acetic acid (IAA) exceeding 51?gmL(-1) was observed for 4% and the high solubilization of Ca-P was verified for 6% of the isolates. No strain was able to produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN), 71% produced ammonia and 79% showed a halo of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) degradation. Zea mays L. growth promotion under water stress (30% of field capacity) was achieved by two strains of Bacillus spp. This is the first report to describe cacti-associated bacteria from Brazilian semi-arid with plant growth-promoting abilities. PMID:23279812

Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; Santos, Suikinai Nobre; Silva, João Luiz da; Parma, Márcia Maria; Avila, Luciana Aparecida; Visconti, Alexandre; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Melo, Itamar Soares de

2013-05-01

293

Penicillium menonorum: A Novel Fungus to Promote Growth and Nutrient Management in Cucumber Plants.  

PubMed

The present study is the first report on the isolation of Penicillium menonorum from rhizosphere soil in Korea and its identification based on morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer gene sequence. The fungal isolate was named KNU-3 and was found to exhibit plant growth-promoting (PGP) activity through indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore production, as well as P solubilization. KNU-3 produced 9.7 mg/L IAA and solubilized 408 mg of Ca3PO4/L, and inoculation with the isolate significantly (p < 0.05) increased the dry biomass of cucumber roots (57%) and shoots (52%). Chlorophyll, starch, protein, and P contents were increased by 16%, 45%, 22%, and 14%, respectively, compared to plants grown in uninoculated soil. The fungus also increased soil dehydrogenase (30%) and acid phosphatase (19%) activities. These results demonstrate that the isolate KNU-3 has potential PGP attributes, and therefore it can be considered as a new fungus to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth. Moreover, the discovery of PGP ability and traits of this fungus will open new aspects of research and investigations. In this study, plant growth promotion by P. menonorum KNU-3 is reported for the first time in Korea after its original description. PMID:25892915

Babu, Anam Giridhar; Kim, Sang Woo; Yadav, Dil Raj; Hyum, Umyong; Adhikari, Mahesh; Lee, Youn Su

2015-03-01

294

Two bacterial entophytes eliciting both plant growth promotion and plant defense on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have the potential to be used as microbial inoculants to reduce disease incidence and severity and to increase crop yield. Some of the PGPR have been reported to be able to enter plant tissues and establish endophytic populations. Here, we demonstrated an approach to screen bacterial endophytes that have the capacity to promote the growth of pepper seedlings and protect pepper plants against a bacterial pathogen. Initially, out of 150 bacterial isolates collected from healthy stems of peppers cultivated in the Chungcheong and Gyeongsang provinces of Korea, 23 putative endophytic isolates that were considered to be predominating and representative of each pepper sample were selected. By phenotypic characterization and partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolates were identified as species of Ochrobacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Janthinobacterium, Ralstonia, Arthrobacter, Clavibacter, Sporosarcina, Acidovorax, and Brevundimonas. Among them, two isolates, PS4 and PS27, were selected because they showed consistent colonizing capacity in pepper stems at the levels of 10(6)-10(7) CFU/g tissue, and were found to be most closely related to Pseudomonas rhodesiae and Pantoea ananatis, respectively, by additional analyses of their entire 16S rDNA sequences. Drenching application of the two strains on the pepper seedlings promoted significant growth of peppers, enhancing their root fresh weight by 73.9% and 41.5%, respectively. The two strains also elicited induced systemic resistance of plants against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria. PMID:18051359

Kang, Seung Hoon; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Cheong, Hoon; Ryu, Choong-Min; Kim, Jihyun F; Park, Seung-Hwan

2007-01-01

295

GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS OF PLANT-GROWTH PROMOTION IN ARABIDOPSIS TRIGGERED BY VOLATILE CHEMICALS FROM RHIZOBACTERIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) constitute a wide range of root-colonizing bacteria that can enhance plant growth by increasing seed germination, plant weight, and crop yields. Some PGPR strains regulate plant growth by mimicking synthesis of plant hormones including indole-3-acetic acid...

296

Prostaglandin E2 transactivates EGF receptor: A novel mechanism for promoting colon cancer growth and gastrointestinal hypertrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandins (PGs), bioactive lipid molecules produced by cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2), have diverse biological activities, including growth-promoting actions on gastrointestinal mucosa. They are also implicated in the growth of colonic polyps and cancers. However, the precise mechanisms of these trophic actions of PGs remain unclear. As activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) triggers mitogenic signaling in gastrointestinal

Rama Pai; Brian Soreghan; Imre L. Szabo; Meredith Pavelka; Dolgor Baatar; Andrzej S. Tarnawski

2002-01-01

297

Effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on bell pepper production and green peach aphid infestations in New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known in various cropping systems to increase plant growth and vigor, as well as induce resistance to pathogens and pests. A commercial soil amendment containing a mixture of two species of Bacillus PGPR (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) was evaluated for impact on germination and initial growth of bell pepper plants, efficacy against the green

M. A. B. Herman; B. A. Nault; C. D. Smart

2008-01-01

298

Computational Science Technical Note CSTN-204 Photo-Penetration Depth Growth Dependence in an Agent-Based  

E-print Network

in an Agent-Based Photobioreactor Model K. A. Hawick and A. V. Husselmann 2013 rowth of biological material cells in a photobioreactor where photosynthesis is a key driving factor; but where the growth material in an Agent-Based Photobioreactor Model}, booktitle = {Proc. 14th International Conference on Bioinformatics

Hawick, Ken

299

The promotion of angiogenesis by growth factors integrated with ECM proteins through coiled-coil structures.  

PubMed

An appropriate method to bind extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and growth factors using advanced protein engineering techniques has the potential to enhance cell proliferation and differentiation for tissue regeneration and repair. In this study we developed a method to co-immobilize non-covalently an ECM protein to three different types of growth factors: basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and single-chain vascular endothelial growth factor (scVEGF121) through a coiled-coil structure formed by helixA/helixB in order to promote angiogenesis. The designed ECM was established by fusing two repeats of elastin-derived unit (APGVGV)(12), cell-adhesive sequence (RGD), laminin-derived IKVAV sequence and collagen-binding domain (CBD) to obtain CBDEREI2. HelixA was fused to each growth factor and helixB to the engineered ECM. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured on engineered ECM and growth factors connected through the coiled-coil formation between helixA and helixB. Cell proliferation and capillary tube-like formation were monitored. Moreover, the differentiated cells with high expression of Ang-2 suggested the ECM remodeling. Our approach of non-covalent coupling method should provide a protein-release control system as a new contribution in biomaterial for tissue engineering field. PMID:23388150

Assal, Yasmine; Mie, Masayasu; Kobatake, Eiry

2013-04-01

300

Conjugated bile acids promote cholangiocarcinoma cell invasive growth through activation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2  

PubMed Central

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an often fatal primary malignancy of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tract that is commonly associated with chronic cholestasis and significantly elevated levels of primary and conjugated bile acids (CBAs), which are correlated with bile duct obstruction (BDO). BDO has also recently been shown to promote CCA progression. However, whereas there is increasing evidence linking chronic cholestasis and abnormal bile acid profiles to CCA development and progression, the specific mechanisms by which bile acids may be acting to promote cholangiocarcinogenesis and invasive biliary tumor growth have not been fully established. Recent studies have shown that CBAs, but not free bile acids, stimulate CCA cell growth, and that an imbalance in the ratio of free to CBAs may play an important role in the tumorigenesis of CCA. Also, CBAs are able to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2- and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (AKT)-signaling pathways through sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) in rodent hepatocytes. In the current study, we demonstrate S1PR2 to be highly expressed in rat and human CCA cells, as well as in human CCA tissues. We further show that CBAs activate the ERK1/2- and AKT-signaling pathways and significantly stimulate CCA cell growth and invasion in vitro. Taurocholate (TCA)-mediated CCA cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were significantly inhibited by JTE-013, a chemical antagonist of S1PR2, or by lentiviral short hairpin RNA silencing of S1PR2. In a novel organotypic rat CCA coculture model, TCA was further found to significantly increase the growth of CCA cell spheroidal/“duct-like” structures, which was blocked by treatment with JTE-013. Conclusion: Our collective data support the hypothesis that CBAs promote CCA cell-invasive growth through S1PR2. PMID:24700501

Liu, Runping; Zhao, Renping; Zhou, Xiqiao; Liang, Xiuyin; Campbell, Deanna JW; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Luyong; Shi, Ruihua; Wang, Guangji; Pandak, William M; Sirica, Alphonse E; Hylemon, Phillip B; Zhou, Huiping

2014-01-01

301

Involvement of hexokinase1 in plant growth promotion as mediated by Burkholderia phytofirmans.  

PubMed

Potato plantlets inoculated with strain PsJN of the bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans exhibit consistent and significant increases in plant growth under in vitro conditions, when compared with uninoculated plants. The greatest influence on the degree and type of growth enhancement that develops has been shown to be mediated by the sugar concentration in the agar media. Bacterial growth promotion has been suggested in other studies to be regulated by the sugar sensor enzyme hexokinase1, the role of which is activation of glucose phosphorylation. In this present study, we examined the co-relationship between root and stem development in potato plants treated with PsJN and the activity of hexokinase1. Plants grown in the presence of 1.5% and 3% sucrose showed increased levels of hexokinase1 activity only in the roots of inoculated plants, suggesting that the increased enzyme levels may be associated with root growth. Analysis for mRNA using reverse transcriptase did not reveal any significant differences in transcription levels of the gene between inoculated and uninoculated plants. When PsJN-inoculated plants were grown in 1.5% and 3% concentrations of glucose and fructose, stem height and mass, leaf number, root mass, and overall biomass increased. No growth promotion occurred when PsJN-inoculated plants were grown in 3% maltose. Subsequently, a hexokinase1 activity assay showed that PsJN-induced growth of potato plants was found to only occur when plants were grown in the presence of sugars that are recognized by the plant hexokinase1. The results suggest that PsJN may enhance sugar uptake in plants by direct or indirect stimulation of hexokinase1 activity in roots and this results in enhanced overall plant growth. PMID:24849083

Park, Jae Min; Lazarovits, George

2014-06-01

302

Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on rooting and root growth of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) stem cuttings.  

PubMed

The effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the rooting and root growth of semi-hardwood and hardwood kiwifruit stem cuttings were investigated. The PGPR used were Bacillus RC23, Paenibacillus polymyxa RC05, Bacillus subtilis OSU142, Bacillus RC03, Comamonas acidovorans RC41, Bacillus megaterium RC01 and Bacillus simplex RC19. All the bacteria showed indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing capacity. Among the PGPR used, the highest rooting ratios were obtained at 47.50% for semi-hardwood stem cuttings from Bacillus RC03 and Bacillus simplex RC19 treatments and 42.50% for hardwood stem cuttings from Bacillus RC03. As well, Comamonas acidovorans RC41 inoculations indicated higher value than control treatments. The results suggest that these PGPR can be used in organic nursery material production and point to the feasibility of synthetic auxin (IBA) replacement by organic management based on PGPR. PMID:21157636

Erturk, Yasar; Ercisli, Sezai; Haznedar, Ayhan; Cakmakci, Ramazan

2010-01-01

303

Effect of titanium (III) citrate as reducing agent on growth of rumen bacteria.  

PubMed Central

We compared the growth of 10 strains of rumen bacteria in an anaerobic medium reduced with cysteine hydrochloride, dithiothreitol, or titanium (III) citrate. The redox potential of medium reduced with cysteine hydrochloride was -167.8 mV; with dithiothreitol it was -175.8 mV; and with titanium(III) citrate it was -302.4 mV at a concentration of 5 X 10(-4) M titanium and -403.9 mV at 2 X 10(-3) M titanium. Maximum growth of the strains was generally lower with dithiothreitol or titanium(III) citrate than with cysteine hydrochloride, although growth was greater than in medium lacking an added reducing agent. Strains for which cysteine was required or markedly stimulatory grew only poorly with titanium(III) citrate. No strain grew in medium with sodium citrate as the energy source. Titanium(III) citrate could be used to reduce anaerobic media for some rumen bacteria if the exclusion of a sulfur-containing reducing agent is required. PMID:7406484

Jones, G A; Pickard, M D

1980-01-01

304

Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of multi-trait plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for their growth promoting and disease suppressing effects on ginger.  

PubMed

In this study, 100 PGPR strains isolated from different varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) were first characterized for their morphological, biochemical, and nutrient mobilization traits in vitro. The PGPR were also screened in vitro for inhibition of Pythium myriotylum causing soft rot in ginger. Results revealed that only five PGPR showed >70% suppression of P. myriotylum. These 5 PGPR viz., GRB (Ginger rhizobacteria) 25 - Burkholderia cepacia, GRB35 - Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; GRB58 - Serratia marcescens; GRB68 - S. marcescens; GRB91 - Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for further growth promotion and biocontrol studies in the green house and field. The green house study revealed that GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) and GRB68 (S. marcescens) registered markedly higher sprouting (96.3%) and lower disease incidence (48.1%) and greater rhizome yield (365.6gpot(-1) and 384.4gpot(-1), respectively), while control registered the lowest sprouting (66%), maximum soft rot incidence (100%) and lowest rhizome yield (134.4gpot(-1)). In the field experiments also, GRB68 (S. marcescens) and GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) registered the greatest sprouting (80% each), markedly lower soft rot incidence (5.2% and 7.3%, respectively) and higher yield (5.0 and 4.3kg(3)m(-2), respectively) compared to chemicals like Streptomycin sulphate (73.0%, 18.5% and 2.3kg(3)m(-2), respectively), Metalaxyl-Mancozeb (73.0%, 14.0% and 3.8kg(3)m(-2), respectively) and control (73.0%, 25.1% and 2.2kg 3m(-2), respectively). Overall, the results suggested that for growth promotion and management of soft rot disease in ginger, GRB35 B. amyloliquefaciens and GRB68 S. marcescens could be good alternatives to chemical measures. Since, the latter has been reported to be an opportunistic human pathogen, we recommend the use of B. amyloliquefaciens for integration into nutrient and disease management schedules for ginger cultivation. PMID:25801969

Dinesh, Raghavan; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy; Kumar, Aundy; Bini, Yogiyar Kundil; Subila, Kizhakke Purayil; Aravind, Ravindran

2015-04-01

305

HOXA9 promotes ovarian cancer growth by stimulating cancer-associated fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) often exhibit morphologic features of embryonic Müllerian duct–derived tissue lineages and colonize peritoneal surfaces that overlie connective and adipose tissues. However, the mechanisms that enable EOC cells to readily adapt to the peritoneal environment are poorly understood. In this study, we show that expression of HOXA9, a Müllerian-patterning gene, is strongly associated with poor outcomes in patients with EOC and in mouse xenograft models of EOC. Whereas HOXA9 promoted EOC growth in vivo, HOXA9 did not stimulate autonomous tumor cell growth in vitro. On the other hand, expression of HOXA9 in EOC cells induced normal peritoneal fibroblasts to express markers of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and to stimulate growth of EOC and endothelial cells. Similarly, expression of HOXA9 in EOC cells induced normal adipose- and bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to acquire features of CAFs. These effects of HOXA9 were due in substantial part to its transcriptional activation of the gene encoding TGF-?2 that acted in a paracrine manner on peritoneal fibroblasts and MSCs to induce CXCL12, IL-6, and VEGF-A expression. These results indicate that HOXA9 expression in EOC cells promotes a microenvironment that is permissive for tumor growth. PMID:22945634

Ko, Song Yi; Barengo, Nicolas; Ladanyi, Andras; Lee, Ju-Seog; Marini, Frank; Lengyel, Ernst; Naora, Honami

2012-01-01

306

Evaluating Government's Policies on Promoting Smart Metering in Retail Electricity Markets via Agent Based Simulation  

E-print Network

simulation method. The model targets the aforementioned two inter-related research questions in the paper, as an extension of our previous research [8], is an agent-based model developed based on psycho-behavioural theory. The model is a market game... market, an residential electricity consumer gains information about electricity suppliers and metering technologies from both its social network (e.g. neighbours, friends or colleagues) and energy suppliers (through advertising such as TV, the Internet...

Zhang, Tao; Nuttall, William J

307

Fatty Acids Identified in the Burmese Python Promote Beneficial Cardiac Growth  

PubMed Central

Burmese pythons display a dramatic increase in heart mass after a large meal. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of this physiological heart growth, with the goal of applying this knowledge to the mammalian heart. We found that heart growth in pythons is characterized by myocyte hypertrophy in the absence of cell proliferation and by activation of PI3K/Akt/mTor signaling pathways. Despite high levels of circulating lipids, the postprandial python heart does not accumulate triglycerides or fatty acids. Instead, there is robust activation of pathways of fatty acid transport and oxidation combined with increased expression and activity of the cardioprotective enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Finally, we identified a combination of fatty acids in python plasma that promotes physiological heart growth when injected into either pythons or mice. PMID:22034436

Riquelme, Cecilia A.; Magida, Jason A.; Harrison, Brooke C.; Wall, Christopher E.; Marr, Thomas G.; Secor, Stephen M.; Leinwand, Leslie A.

2012-01-01

308

Water soluble carbon nano-onions from wood wool as growth promoters for gram plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-soluble carbon nano-onions (wsCNOs) isolated from wood wool--a wood-based pyrolysis waste product of wood, can enhance the overall growth rate of gram (Cicer arietinum) plants. Treatment of plants with upto 30 ?g mL-1 of wsCNOs for an initial 10 day period in laboratory conditions led to an increase in the overall growth of the plant biomass. In order to examine the growth stimulating effects of wsCNOs under natural conditions, 10 day-old plants treated with and without wsCNOs were transplanted into soil of standard carbon and nitrogen composition. We observed an enhanced growth rate of the wsCNOs pre-treated plants in soil, which finally led to an increased productivity of plants in terms of a larger number of grams. On analyzing the carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) content for the shoot and fruit sections of the plants treated with and without wsCNOs, only a minor difference in the composition was noticed. However, a slight increase in the percentage of carbon and hydrogen in shoots reflects the synthesis of more organic biomass in the case of treated plants. This work shows that wsCNOs are non-toxic to plant cells and can act as efficient growth stimulants which can be used as benign growth promoters.

Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Roy, Manas; Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

2012-11-01

309

FGF8 promotes colorectal cancer growth and metastasis by activating YAP1  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The poor prognosis of CRC is mainly due to uncontrolled tumor growth and distant metastases. In this study, we found that the level of FGF8 was elevated in the great majority of CRC cases and high FGF8 expression was significantly correlated with lymph nodes metastasis and worse overall survival. Functional studies showed that FGF8 can induce a more aggressive phenotype displaying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhanced invasion and growth in CRC cells. Consistent with this, FGF8 can also promote tumor growth and metastasis in mouse models. Bioinformatics and pathological analysis suggested that YAP1 is a potential downstream target of FGF8 in CRC cells. Molecular validation demonstrated that FGF8 fully induced nuclear localization of YAP1 and enhanced transcriptional outcomes such as the expression of CTGF and CYR61, while decreasing YAP1 expression impeded FGF-8–induced cell growth, EMT, migration and invasion, revealing that YAP1 is required for FGF8-mediated CRC growth and metastasis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FGF8 contributes to the proliferative and metastatic capacity of CRC cells and may represent a novel candidate for intervention in tumor growth and metastasis formation. PMID:25473897

Wang, Kui; Liu, Bo; Nice, Edouard C.; Xiang, Rong; Xie, Ke; Li, Jingyi; Huang, Canhua

2015-01-01

310

A method of promoting single crystal yield during melt growth of semiconductors by directional solidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For certain semiconductors with important applications, the existing unseeded bulk directional solidification crystal growth technique from the melt usually results in poor quality multi-crystalline ingots which causes the low yield of the commercial growth process. The multi-grained crystal growth is mainly caused by the large supercool of the melt, which not only results in a large section of ingot solidifying uncontrollably under spontaneous nucleation but also prohibits the ideal growth condition that small single crystal nuclei form at the very tip of the ampoule and grow into large single grains. To promote nucleation under the condition of small supercooling, a method was employed to induce nucleation by mechanical perturbation at a critical time during growth. The technique was applied to the bulk crystal growth process of Cd1-xZnxTe ingots. The comparison between the crystalline quality of the crystals grown with and without the mechanically induced nucleation shows that the yield of single crystalline can been vastly improved with the application of the technique.

Su, Ching-Hua

2015-01-01

311

Promoter trapping in microalgae using the antibiotic paromomycin as selective agent.  

PubMed

The lack of highly active endogenous promoters to drive the expression of transgenes is one of the main drawbacks to achieving efficient transformation of many microalgal species. Using the model chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the paromomycin resistance APHVIII gene from Streptomyces rimosus as a marker, we have demonstrated that random insertion of the promoterless marker gene and subsequent isolation of the most robust transformants allows for the identification of novel strong promoter sequences in microalgae. Digestion of the genomic DNA with an enzyme that has a unique restriction site inside the marker gene and a high number of target sites in the genome of the microalga, followed by inverse PCR, allows for easy determination of the genomic region, which precedes the APHVIII marker gene. In most of the transformants analyzed, the marker gene is inserted in intragenic regions and its expression relies on its adequate insertion in frame with native genes. As an example, one of the new promoters identified was used to direct the expression of the APHVIII marker gene in C. reinhardtii, showing high transformation efficiencies. PMID:23211713

Vila, Marta; Díaz-Santos, Encarnación; de la Vega, Marta; Rodríguez, Herminia; Vargas, Angeles; León, Rosa

2012-12-01

312

Selective growth promotion and growth inhibition of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria by synthetic siderophore-?-lactam conjugates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugates of a carbacephalosporin with hydroxamate, spermexatol, N,N-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-lysine, mixed catecholate\\/hydroxamate and cyanuric acid-based siderophores were investigated for their potential to promote growth of siderophore indicator strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria under iron depleted conditions, for their antibacterial activity and for their ability to use iron transport path-ways to penetrate the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane. The selective growth promotion of

Ute Möllmann; Arun Ghosh; Eric K. Dolence; Julia A. Dolence; Manuka Ghosh; Marvin J. Miller; R. Reissbrodt

1998-01-01

313

Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on growth and nutrient uptake of cotton and pea in a semi-arid region of Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from soil of the root zone of different agricultural crops were analysed for plant growth-promoting effects and improvement of nutrient uptake on cotton and pea in a semi-arid region of Uzbekistan. The investigations were carried out in pot experiments with Calcisol soil. After inoculation with effective bacterial strains Pseudomonas alcaligenes PsA15, P. denitrificans PsD6, Bacillus polymyxa

Dilfuza Egamberdiyeva; Gisela Höflich

2004-01-01

314

URG11 promotes gastric cancer growth and invasion by activation of ?-catenin signalling pathway  

PubMed Central

Abstract Upregulated gene 11 (URG11), a new gene upregulated by Heptatitis B Virus X protein (HBx), was previously shown to activate ?-catenin and promote hepatocellular growth and tumourigenesis. Although the oncogenic role of URG11 in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma has been well documented, its relevance to other human malignancies and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we reported a novel function of URG11 to promote gastric cancer growth and metastasis. URG11 was found to be highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues compared with adjacent nontumourous ones by immunohistochemical staining and western blot. Knockdown of URG11 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) effectively attenuated the proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, invasiveness and metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells. URG11 inhibition led to decreased expression of ?-catenin and its nuclear accumulation in gastric cancer cells and extensive costaining between URG11 and ?-catenin was observed in gastric cancer tissues. Transient transfection assays with the ?-catenin promoter showed that it was inhibited by URG11-specific small inhibitory RNA. Moreover, suppression of endogenous URG11 expression results in decreased activation of ?-catenin/TCF and its downstream effector genes, cyclinD1 and membrane type 1 matrix metallopeptidase (MT1-MMP), which are known to be involved in cell proliferation and invasion, respectively. Taken together, our data suggest that URG11 contributes to gastric cancer growth and metastasis at least partially through activation of ?-catenin signalling pathway. These findings also propose a promising target for gene therapy in gastric cancer. PMID:19413886

Du, Rui; Xia, Lin; Sun, Shiren; Lian, Zhaorui; Zou, Xue; Gao, Juan; Xie, Huahong; Fan, Rui; Song, Jiugang; Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Jie; Fan, Daiming

2010-01-01

315

Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-Monophosphate-Elevating Agents Inhibit Transforming Growth Factor--Induced SMAD3/4-Dependent  

E-print Network

Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-Monophosphate-Elevating Agents Inhibit Transforming Growth Factor--Induced SMAD3/4-Dependent Transcription Via a Protein Kinase A-Dependent Mechanism Meinhard Schiller, Frank activator inhibitor-1; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; PKA: protein kinase A; TGF-, transforming growth factor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

miR-5100 promotes tumor growth in lung cancer by targeting Rab6.  

PubMed

Our previous study demonstrated that microRNA 5100 (miR-5100) is overexpressed in lung cancer tissues; however, the function of miR-5100 remained elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that miR-5100 is highly expressed in a wide variety of lung cancer tissues and lung cancer cell lines. Exogenous expression of miR-5100 in A549 and H1299 lung cancer cells enhanced proliferation and colony formation, and conversely, suppression of miR-5100 exhibited inhibitory effects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-5100 promotes tumor growth in nude mice. These effects may result from the ability of miR-5100 to promote G1/S transition and downregulate cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinases 2 (CDK2) expressions in lung cancer stable cells. Using a bioinformatics target prediction tool, we identified Rab6 as a potential target of miR-5100. Consistently, overexpression of miR-5100 specifically reduced the expression of a luciferase reporter containing the predicted binding site from the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of Rab6 and decreased the accumulation of endogenous Rab6 in A549 and H1299 cells. Moreover, exogenous expression of Rab6 compromised the effects of miR-5100 on cell proliferation and colony formation. Our data suggest that miR-5100 promotes tumor growth by facilitating the G1/S transition and targeting Rab6. PMID:25754817

Huang, Haili; Jiang, Yun; Wang, Yahong; Chen, Ting; Yang, Lawei; He, Huijuan; Lin, Ziying; Liu, Tie; Yang, Teng; Kamp, David W; Wu, Bin; Liu, Gang

2015-06-28

317

Extravascular red blood cells and hemoglobin promote tumor growth and therapeutic resistance as endogenous danger signals.  

PubMed

Hemorrhage is a common clinical manifestation in patients with cancer. Intratumor hemorrhage has been demonstrated to be a poor prognostic factor for cancer patients. In this study, we investigated the role of RBCs and hemoglobin (Hb) in the process of tumor progression and therapeutical response. RBCs and Hb potently promoted tumor cell proliferation and syngenic tumor growth. RBCs and Hb activated the reactive oxygen species-NF-?B pathway in both tumor cells and macrophages. RBCs and Hb also induced chemoresistance mediated, in part, by upregulating ABCB1 gene expression. Tumor growth induced by RBCs was accompanied by an inflammatory signature, increased tumor vasculature, and influx of M2 macrophages. In both the peritoneal cavity and tumor microenvironment, extravascular RBCs rapidly recruited monocyte-macrophages into the lesion sites. In addition, RBCs and Hb increased several nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors' expression and induced IL-1? release. Our results provide novel insights into the protumor function of RBCs and Hb as endogenous danger signals, which can promote tumor cell proliferation, macrophage recruitment, and polarization. Hemorrhage may represent a useful prognostic factor for cancer patients because of its role in tumor promotion and chemoresistance. PMID:25429070

Yin, Tao; He, Sisi; Liu, Xiaoling; Jiang, Wei; Ye, Tinghong; Lin, Ziqiang; Sang, Yaxiong; Su, Chao; Wan, Yang; Shen, Guobo; Ma, Xuelei; Yu, Min; Guo, Fuchun; Liu, Yanyang; Li, Ling; Hu, Qiancheng; Wang, Yongsheng; Wei, Yuquan

2015-01-01

318

NIH study finds low-dose nicotine does not promote tumor growth in mouse models of lung cancer:  

Cancer.gov

Experiments in mice show that low levels of exposure to nicotine, equivalent to those in humans who use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to help them quit smoking, did not promote lung tumor growth.

319

Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1 associated with Dendrobium officinale through phytohormone production and nitrogen fixation.  

PubMed

Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1, associated with Dendrobium officinale, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, was characterized. At 90 days post-inoculation, strain ZJSH1 significantly promoted the growth of D.?officinale seedlings, with increases of stems by 8.6% and fresh weight by 7.5%. Interestingly, the polysaccharide content extracted from the inoculated seedlings was 0.6% higher than that of the control. Similar growth promotion was observed with the transplants inoculated with strain ZJSH1. The mechanism of growth promotion was attributed to a combination of phytohormones and nitrogen fixation. Strain ZJSH1 was found using the Kjeldahl method to have a nitrogen fixation activity of 1.15?mg?l(-1) , which was confirmed by sequencing of the nifH gene. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, strain ZJSH1 was found to produce various phytohormones, including salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Zeatin and abscisic acid (ABA). The growth curve showed that strain ZJSH1 grew well in the seedlings, especially in the roots. Accordingly, much higher contents of SA, ABA, IAA and c-ZR were detected in the inoculated seedlings, which may play roles as both phytohormones and 'Systemic Acquired Resistance' drivers. Nitrogen fixation and secretion of plant growth regulators (SA, IAA, Zeatin and ABA) endow S.?paucimobilis?ZJSH1 with growth-promoting properties, which provides a potential for application in the commercial growth of D.?officinale. PMID:25142808

Yang, Suijuan; Zhang, Xinghai; Cao, Zhaoyun; Zhao, Kaipeng; Wang, Sai; Chen, Mingxue; Hu, Xiufang

2014-11-01

320

Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1 associated with Dendrobium officinale through phytohormone production and nitrogen fixation  

PubMed Central

Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1, associated with Dendrobium officinale, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, was characterized. At 90 days post-inoculation, strain ZJSH1 significantly promoted the growth of D. officinale seedlings, with increases of stems by 8.6% and fresh weight by 7.5%. Interestingly, the polysaccharide content extracted from the inoculated seedlings was 0.6% higher than that of the control. Similar growth promotion was observed with the transplants inoculated with strain ZJSH1. The mechanism of growth promotion was attributed to a combination of phytohormones and nitrogen fixation. Strain ZJSH1 was found using the Kjeldahl method to have a nitrogen fixation activity of 1.15 mg l?1, which was confirmed by sequencing of the nifH gene. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, strain ZJSH1 was found to produce various phytohormones, including salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Zeatin and abscisic acid (ABA). The growth curve showed that strain ZJSH1 grew well in the seedlings, especially in the roots. Accordingly, much higher contents of SA, ABA, IAA and c-ZR were detected in the inoculated seedlings, which may play roles as both phytohormones and ‘Systemic Acquired Resistance’ drivers. Nitrogen fixation and secretion of plant growth regulators (SA, IAA, Zeatin and ABA) endow S. paucimobilis?ZJSH1 with growth-promoting properties, which provides a potential for application in the commercial growth of D. officinale. PMID:25142808

Yang, Suijuan; Zhang, Xinghai; Cao, Zhaoyun; Zhao, Kaipeng; Wang, Sai; Chen, Mingxue; Hu, Xiufang

2014-01-01

321

Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ? CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ? The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have been studied in vitro and in vivo. ? CYP4Z1 regulates expression and production of VEGF-A and TIMP-2. ? CYP4Z1-induced angiogenesis is associated with PI3K and ERK1/2 activation. ? CYP4Z1 may be an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy.

Yu, Wei [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Guifang [Department of Pathology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Pathology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cai, Xiaojun [Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Falck, John R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China) [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

2012-10-01

322

Inflammatory cytokines promote growth of intestinal smooth muscle cells by induced expression of PDGF-R?  

PubMed Central

Thickening of the inflamed intestinal wall involves growth of smooth muscle cells (SMC), which contributes to stricture formation. Earlier, the growth factor platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB was identified as a key mitogen for SMC from the rat colon (CSMC), and CSMC growth in colitis was associated with both appearance of its receptor, PDGF-R? and modulation of phenotype. Here, we examined the role of inflammatory cytokines in inducing and modulating the growth response to PDGF-BB. CSMC were enzymatically isolated from Sprague–Dawley rats, and the effect of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, transforming growth factor (TGF), IL-17A and IL-2 on CSMC growth and responsiveness to PDGF-BB were assessed using proliferation assays, PCR and western blotting. Conditioned medium (CM) was obtained at 48 hrs of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis. Neither CM alone nor cytokines caused proliferation of early-passage CSMC. However, CM from inflamed, but not control colon significantly promoted the effect of PDGF-BB. IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-17A, but not other cytokines, increased the effect of PDGF-BB because of up-regulation of mRNA and protein for PDGF-R? without change in receptor phosphorylation. PDGF-BB was identified in adult rat serum (RS) and RS-induced CSMC proliferation was inhibited by imatinib, suggesting that blood-derived PDGF-BB is a local mitogen in vivo. In freshly isolated CSMC, CM from the inflamed colon as well as IL-1? and TNF-? induced the early expression of PDGF-R?, while imatinib blocked subsequent RS-induced cell proliferation. Thus, pro-inflammatory cytokines both initiate and maintain a growth response in CSMC via PDGF-R? and serum-derived PDGF-BB, and control of PDGF-R? expression may be beneficial in chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:24417820

Nair, Dileep G; Miller, Kurtis G; Lourenssen, Sandra R; Blennerhassett, Michael G

2014-01-01

323

Bacteria able to control foot and root rot and to promote growth of cucumber in salinated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to test known bacterial plant growth-promoting strains for their ability to promote cucumber\\u000a plant growth in salinated soil and to improve cucumber fruit yield by protecting these plants against soil-borne pathogens.\\u000a Fifty-two plant-beneficial bacterial strains were evaluated for their ability to protect plants against cucumber foot and\\u000a root rot after bacterization of the

Dilfuza Egamberdieva; Zulfiya Kucharova; Kakhramon Davranov; Gabriele Berg; Natasha Makarova; Tatyana Azarova; Vladimir Chebotar; Igor Tikhonovich; Faina Kamilova; Shamil Z. Validov; Ben Lugtenberg

2011-01-01

324

Growth promotion of red pepper plug seedlings and the production of gibberellins by Bacillus cereus , Bacillus macroides and Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of red pepper plug seedlings was promoted by Bacillus cereus MJ-1, B. macroides CJ-29, and B. pumilus CJ-69 isolated from the rhizosphere. Gibberellins (GAs), a well-known plant growth-promoting hormone, were detected in the culture broth of their rhizobacteria. Among the GAs, the contents of GA1, GA3, GA4, and GA7, physiologically active GAs, were comparatively higher than those of

Gil-Jae Joo; Young-Mog Kim; In-Jung Lee; Kyung-Sik Song; In-Koo Rhee

2004-01-01

325

Impact of zinc-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on lentil grown in zinc-amended soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though zinc is a plant nutrient at low levels, Zn ions can be highly phytotoxic at higher concentrations found in contaminated\\u000a soils. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to decrease this toxicity. Indeed, in addition to their role in plant-growth\\u000a promotion, rhizobacteria also reduce the toxicity of heavy metals. In turn, they can be effective for crops grown in metal-contaminated

Parvaze Ahmad Wani; Almas Zaidi

2008-01-01

326

Amelioration of Salt Stress on Annual Ryegrass by ACC Deaminase-Containing Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were isolated from the rhizosphere of salty plants, based on the ability to utilize the compound 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) as a sole nitrogen source. These four bacterial isolates, especially Pseudomonas sp. S1, alleviated greatly salt stress and promoted significantly the seedling growth of annual ryegrass under either 5 or 10 g\\/kg NaCl stress

Yun-xiu Ji; Xiao-dong Huang

2008-01-01

327

Inoculation of plant growth promoting bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain Ax10 for the improvement of copper phytoextraction by Brassica juncea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a copper-resistant plant growth promoting bacterial (PGPB) strain Ax10 was isolated from a Cu mine soil to assess its plant growth promotion and copper uptake in Brassica juncea. The strain Ax10 tolerated concentrations up to 600mg CuL?1 on a Luria–Bertani (LB) agar medium and utilized 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) as a sole N source in DF salts minimal

Ying Ma; Mani Rajkumar; Helena Freitas

2009-01-01

328

?-Galactoside ?2,6-sialyltranferase 1 promotes transforming growth factor-?-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition.  

PubMed

?-Galactoside ?2,6-sialyltranferase 1 (ST6GAL1) catalyzes the addition of terminal ?2,6-sialylation to N-glycans. Increased expression of ST6GAL1 has been reported in diverse carcinomas and highly correlates with tumor progression. Here, we report that St6gal1 transcription and ?2,6-sialylated N-glycans are up-regulated during TGF-?-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in GE11 cells, requiring the Sp1 element within the St6gal1 promoter. Knockdown of St6gal1 strongly suppressed TGF-?-induced EMT with a concomitant increase in E-cadherin expression, a major determinant of epithelial cell adherens junctions. Conversely, overexpression of ST6GAL1 increased the turnover of cell surface E-cadherin and promoted TGF-?-induced EMT. Overexpressing ?-galactoside ?2,3-sialyltranferase 4 had little influence on EMT, indicating specificity for ?2,6-sialylation. The basal mesenchymal phenotype of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells was partially reversed by ST6GAL1 silencing. Moreover, ST6GAL1 knockdown inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, but not Smad2, suggesting that ST6GAL1 contributes to EMT through a non-Smad signaling pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that ST6GAL1 promotes TGF-?-dependent EMT as well as maintenance of the mesenchymal state by growth signaling, providing a plausible mechanism whereby up-regulated ST6GAL1 may promote malignant progression. PMID:25344606

Lu, Jishun; Isaji, Tomoya; Im, Sanghun; Fukuda, Tomohiko; Hashii, Noritaka; Takakura, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Nana; Gu, Jianguo

2014-12-12

329

Bronchoalveolar Sublineage Specification of Pluripotent Stem Cells: Effect of Dexamethasone Plus cAMP-Elevating Agents and Keratinocyte Growth Factor.  

PubMed

Respiratory progenitors can be efficiently generated from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). However, further targeted differentiation into bronchoalveolar sublineages is still in its infancy, and distinct specifying effects of key differentiation factors are not well explored. Focusing on airway epithelial Clara cell generation, we analyzed the effect of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone plus cAMP-elevating agents (DCI) on the differentiation of murine embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into bronchoalveolar epithelial lineages, and whether keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) might further influence lineage decisions. We demonstrate that DCI strongly induce expression of the Clara cell marker Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP). While KGF synergistically supports the inducing effect of DCI on alveolar markers with increased expression of surfactant protein (SP)-C and SP-B, an inhibitory effect on CCSP expression was shown. In contrast, neither KGF nor DCI seem to have an inducing effect on ciliated cell markers. Furthermore, the use of iPSCs from transgenic mice with CCSP promoter-dependent lacZ expression or a knockin of a YFP reporter cassette in the CCSP locus enabled detection of derivatives with Clara cell typical features. Collectively, DCI was shown to support bronchoalveolar specification of mouse PSCs, in particular Clara-like cells, and KGF to inhibit bronchial epithelial differentiation. The targeted in vitro generation of Clara cells with their important function in airway protection and regeneration will enable the evaluation of innovative cellular therapies in animal models of lung diseases. PMID:25316003

Katsirntaki, Katherina; Mauritz, Christina; Olmer, Ruth; Schmeckebier, Sabrina; Sgodda, Malte; Puppe, Verena; Eggenschwiler, Reto; Duerr, Julia; Schubert, Susanne C; Schmiedl, Andreas; Ochs, Matthias; Cantz, Tobias; Salwig, Isabelle; Szibor, Marten; Braun, Thomas; Rathert, Christian; Martens, Andreas; Mall, Marcus A; Martin, Ulrich

2015-02-01

330

Expansion of the growth fraction in multiple myeloma with alkylating agents.  

PubMed

Patients with IgG multiple myeloma underwent serial studies of tumor cell kinetics including (1) estimation of the total body myeloma cell number (TBMC), (2) measurement of the myeloma cell tritiated thymidine labeling index (LI), and (3) calculation of the total number of myeloma cells undergoing DNA synthesis. Intermittent courses of chemotherapy with cycle-non-specific agents such as melphalan resulted in a marked increase in the LI of myeloma cells in patients who had a 75% reduction in TBMC. The long "plateau" phase of partial remission of myeloma in these patients was associated with a continued high LI: this suggests that the plateau resulted from a balance between the cytoreductive effects of chemotherapy and expansion of the growth fraction (GF) of the tumor. Preliminary attempts to capitalize therapeutically on this expansion of the GF in several patients included administration of the cycle-active agents vincristine and cytosine arabinoside. Vincristine appeared to induce a further reduction in tumor in several patients, although cytosine arabinoside appeared to be ineffective despite clear evidence of its inhibition of DNA synthesis in myeloma cells in vivo. Further clinical studies of the effects of cycle-active drugs on myeloma appear to be warranted; however, successful exploitation of the dynamic change in myeloma cell kinetics with chemotherapy will require the use of cycle-active agents with marked selective toxicity for myeloma cells. PMID:803104

Salmon, S E

1975-01-01

331

Diversity, Biocontrol, and Plant Growth Promoting Abilities of Xylem Residing Bacteria from Solanaceous Crops  

PubMed Central

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the solanaceous crops of economic and cultural importance and is widely cultivated in the state of Goa, India. Eggplant cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that colonizes the xylem tissue. In this study, 167 bacteria were isolated from the xylem of healthy eggplant, chilli, and Solanum torvum Sw. by vacuum infiltration and maceration. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) grouped these xylem residing bacteria (XRB) into 38 haplotypes. Twenty-eight strains inhibited growth of R. solanacearum and produced volatile and diffusible antagonistic compounds and plant growth promoting substances in vitro. Antagonistic strains XB86, XB169, XB177, and XB200 recorded a biocontrol efficacy greater than 85% against BW and exhibited 12%–22 % increase in shoot length in eggplant in the greenhouse screening. 16S rRNA based identification revealed the presence of 23 different bacterial genera. XRB with high biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities were identified as strains of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptomyces sp., Enterobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp. This study is the first report on identity of bacteria from the xylem of solanaceous crops having traits useful in cultivation of eggplant. PMID:24963298

Achari, Gauri A.

2014-01-01

332

A mechanistic study of colon cancer growth promoted by cigarette smoke extract.  

PubMed

Substantial evidence indicates that significant exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with an elevated risk for colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the causal relationship between cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer remain to be investigated. Our previous study showed that cigarette smoke promotes the formation of inflammation-associated colonic adenoma in mice through an angiogenic pathway. Therefore, in the present study, we used the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, SW1116, and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to elucidate the possible mechanisms in vitro. Results showed that cigarette smoke extract enhanced cell proliferation and the expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 in SW1116 cells. Inhibition of 5-LOX decreased cell proliferation and expressions of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 induced by cigarette smoke extract. In addition, cigarette smoke extract indirectly stimulated HUVEC proliferation, a biological activity closely related to angiogenesis during tumor growth. This was again blocked by the 5-LOX inhibitor. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate the central role of 5-LOX and its relationship with angiogenic mediators in the actions of cigarette smoke in the promotion of angiogenesis during colon cancer growth. PMID:16125168

Ye, Yi N; Wu, William K K; Shin, Vivian Y; Cho, Chi H

2005-09-01

333

Hair Growth Promoting Potential of Phospholipids Purified from Porcine Lung Tissues  

PubMed Central

BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products. PMID:25767686

Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-Il; Lim, Chang-Jin

2015-01-01

334

A new species of Burkholderia isolated from sugarcane roots promotes plant growth  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane is a globally important food, biofuel and biomaterials crop. High nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates aimed at increasing yield often result in environmental damage because of excess and inefficient application. Inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria is an attractive option for reducing N fertilizer needs. However, the efficacy of bacterial inoculants is variable, and their effective formulation remains a knowledge frontier. Here, we take a new approach to investigating diazotrophic bacteria associated with roots using culture-independent microbial community profiling of a commercial sugarcane variety (Q208A) in a field setting. We first identified bacteria that were markedly enriched in the rhizosphere to guide isolation and then tested putative diazotrophs for the ability to colonize axenic sugarcane plantlets (Q208A) and promote growth in suboptimal N supply. One isolate readily colonized roots, fixed N2 and stimulated growth of plantlets, and was classified as a new species, Burkholderia australis sp. nov. Draft genome sequencing of the isolate confirmed the presence of nitrogen fixation. We propose that culture-independent identification and isolation of bacteria that are enriched in rhizosphere and roots, followed by systematic testing and confirming their growth-promoting capacity, is a necessary step towards designing effective microbial inoculants. PMID:24350979

Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Lonhienne, Thierry G A; Yeoh, Yun Kit; Webb, Richard I; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chan, Cheong Xin; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Ragan, Mark A; Schmidt, Susanne; Hugenholtz, Philip

2014-01-01

335

Elicitors from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma atroviride promote Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root growth and tanshinone biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Biotic elicitors can be used to stimulate the production of secondary metabolites in plants. However, limited information is available on the effects of biotic elicitors from endophytic fungi on their host plant. Trichoderma atroviride D16 is an endophytic fungus isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza and previously reported to produce tanshinone I (T-I) and tanshinone IIA (T-IIA). Here, the effects of extract of mycelium (EM) and the polysaccharide fraction (PSF), produced by T. atroviride D16, on the growth and secondary metabolism of S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots are reported. The results indicated that both EM and PSF promoted hairy root growth and stimulated the biosynthesis of tanshinones in hairy roots. EM slightly suppressed the accumulation of phenolic acids, while PSF had no significant influence on the accumulation of these compounds. When comparing the effects of EM versus PSF, it was concluded that PSF is one of the main active constituents responsible for promoting hairy root growth, as well as stimulating biosynthesis of tanshinones in the hairy root cultures. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of genes involved in the tanshinone biosynthetic pathway increased significantly with PSF treatment. Thus, PSF from endophytic T. atroviride D16 affected the chemical composition of the host plant by influencing the expression of genes related to the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, treatment with PSF can be effectively utilized for large-scale production of tanshinones in the S. miltiorrhiza hairy root culture system. PMID:24127517

Ming, Qianliang; Su, Chunyan; Zheng, Chengjian; Jia, Min; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Zhang, Hong; Rahman, Khalid; Han, Ting; Qin, Luping

2013-12-01

336

Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils  

PubMed Central

Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands. PMID:23781499

Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

2013-01-01

337

Potential for plant growth promotion of rhizobacteria associated with Salicornia growing in Tunisian hypersaline soils.  

PubMed

Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands. PMID:23781499

Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

2013-01-01

338

17?-Estradiol and Lipopolysaccharide Additively Promote Pelvic Inflammation and Growth of Endometriosis.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age. An additive effect between inflammation and stress reaction on the growth of endometriosis has been demonstrated. Here we investigated the combined effect between 17?-estradiol (E2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on pelvic inflammation and growth of endometriotic cells. Peritoneal fluid was collected from 46 women with endometriosis and 30 control women during laparoscopy. Peritoneal macrophages (M?) and stromal cells from eutopic/ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) were isolated from 10 women each with and without endometriosis in primary culture. Changes in cytokine secretion (interleukin 6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor ? [TNF-?]) by M? and proliferation of ESCs in response to single and combined treatment with E2 and LPS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay, respectively. A significantly increased secretion of IL-6 and TNF-? in M? culture media was found in response to E2 (10(-8) mol/L) compared to nontreated M?. This effect of E2 was abrogated after pretreatment of cells with ICI 182720 (10(-6) mol/L; an estrogen receptor [ER] antagonist). Combined treatment with E2 and LPS (10 ng/mL) additively promoted IL-6 and TNF-? secretion by peritoneal M? and growth of eutopic/ectopic ESCs. The additive effects of E2 + LPS on cytokine secretion and growth of ESCs were effectively suppressed after combined blocking of ER and Toll-like receptor 4. An additive effect was observed between E2 and LPS on promoting proinflammatory response in pelvis and growth of endometriosis. PMID:25355803

Khan, Khaleque Newaz; Kitajima, Michio; Inoue, Tsuneo; Fujishita, Akira; Nakashima, Masahiro; Masuzaki, Hideaki

2014-10-29

339

Critical effective methods to detect genotoxic carcinogens and neoplasm-promoting agents  

SciTech Connect

Neoplasia in fish can result from contamination of waters with carcinogens and promoters. Cancer in fish, therefore, is a possible indicator of cancer risk to man and serves as a guide to the need for preventative approaches involving improved means of waste disposal and environmental hygiene. Moreover, cancer in fish indicates that this important food source may be contaminated. Detection of genotoxic carcinogens to which fish are exposed can be achieved quickly and efficiently by carefully selected batteries of complementary in vitro and in vivo bioassays. One such battery consists of the Ames test, a reverse mutation assay in prokaryotic Salmonella typhimurium, and the Williams test, involving DNA repair in freshly explanted metabolically highly competent liver cells from diverse species, including humans. Determination of DNA-carcinogen adducts by varied techniques, including {sup 32}P-postlabeling, as well as DNA breakage, mammalian cell mutagenicity, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, or cell transformation represent additional approaches, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. More research is needed on systems to apprehend neoplasm promoters, but tests to determine interruption of intercellular communications through gap junctions appear promising. Other approaches rely on measurement of enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase and protein kinase C. Approaches to the definition of risk to fish or humans require characterization of the genotoxic or nongenotoxic properties of a chemical, relative potency data obtained in select, limited rodent bioassays, and knowledge of prevailing environmental concentrations of specific carcinogens.

Weisburger, J.H.; Williams, G.M. (American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY (United States))

1991-01-01

340

Critical effective methods to detect genotoxic carcinogens and neoplasm-promoting agents.  

PubMed Central

Neoplasia in fish can result from contamination of waters with carcinogens and promoters. Cancer in fish, therefore, is a possible indicator of cancer risk to man and serves as a guide to the need for preventive approaches involving improved means of waste disposal and environmental hygiene. Moreover, cancer in fish indicates that this important food source may be contaminated. Detection of genotoxic carcinogens to which fish are exposed can be achieved quickly and efficiently by carefully selected batteries of complementary in vitro and in vivo bioassays. One such battery consists of the Ames test, a reverse mutation assay in prokaryotic Salmonella typhimurium, and the Williams test, involving DNA repair in freshly explanted metabolically highly competent liver cells from diverse species, including humans. Determination of DNA-carcinogen adducts by varied techniques, including 32P-postlabeling, as well as DNA breakage, mammalian cell mutagenicity, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, or cell transformation represent additional approaches, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. More research is needed on systems to apprehend neoplasm promoters, but tests to determine interruption of intercellular communications through gap junctions appear promising. Other approaches rely on measurement of enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase and protein kinase C. Approaches to the definition of risk to fish or humans require characterization of the genotoxic or nongenotoxic properties of a chemical, relative potency data obtained in select, limited rodent bioassays, and knowledge of prevailing environmental concentrations of specific carcinogens. PMID:2050049

Weisburger, J H; Williams, G M

1991-01-01

341

B-RAF kinase drives developmental axon growth and promotes axon regeneration in the injured mature CNS  

PubMed Central

Activation of intrinsic growth programs that promote developmental axon growth may also facilitate axon regeneration in injured adult neurons. Here, we demonstrate that conditional activation of B-RAF kinase alone in mouse embryonic neurons is sufficient to drive the growth of long-range peripheral sensory axon projections in vivo in the absence of upstream neurotrophin signaling. We further show that activated B-RAF signaling enables robust regenerative growth of sensory axons into the spinal cord after a dorsal root crush as well as substantial axon regrowth in the crush-lesioned optic nerve. Finally, the combination of B-RAF gain-of-function and PTEN loss-of-function promotes optic nerve axon extension beyond what would be predicted for a simple additive effect. We conclude that cell-intrinsic RAF signaling is a crucial pathway promoting developmental and regenerative axon growth in the peripheral and central nervous systems. PMID:24733831

O’Donovan, Kevin J.; Ma, Kaijie; Guo, Hengchang; Wang, Chen; Sun, Fang; Han, Seung Baek; Kim, Hyukmin; Wong, Jamie K.; Charron, Jean; Zou, Hongyan; Son, Young-Jin; He, Zhigang

2014-01-01

342

Spermidine Promotes Human Hair Growth and Is a Novel Modulator of Human Epithelial Stem Cell Functions  

PubMed Central

Background Rapidly regenerating tissues need sufficient polyamine synthesis. Since the hair follicle (HF) is a highly proliferative mini-organ, polyamines may also be important for normal hair growth. However, the role of polyamines in human HF biology and their effect on HF epithelial stem cells in situ remains largely unknown. Methods and Findings We have studied the effects of the prototypic polyamine, spermidine (0.1–1 µM), on human scalp HFs and human HF epithelial stem cells in serum-free organ culture. Under these conditions, spermidine promoted hair shaft elongation and prolonged hair growth (anagen). Spermidine also upregulated expression of the epithelial stem cell-associated keratins K15 and K19, and dose-dependently modulated K15 promoter activity in situ and the colony forming efficiency, proliferation and K15 expression of isolated human K15-GFP+ cells in vitro. Inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, ornithine decarboyxlase (ODC), downregulated intrafollicular K15 expression. In primary human epidermal keratinocytes, spermidine slightly promoted entry into the S/G2-M phases of the cell cycle. By microarray analysis of human HF mRNA extracts, spermidine upregulated several key target genes implicated e.g. in the control of cell adherence and migration (POP3), or endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial functions (SYVN1, NACA and SLC25A3). Excess spermidine may restrict further intrafollicular polyamine synthesis by inhibiting ODC gene and protein expression in the HF's companion layer in situ. Conclusions These physiologically and clinically relevant data provide the first direct evidence that spermidine is a potent stimulator of human hair growth and a previously unknown modulator of human epithelial stem cell biology. PMID:21818338

Bíró, Tamás; Abu Bakar, Mohd Hilmi; Sugawara, Koji; Philpott, Michael P.; Harrison, Wesley; Pietilä, Marko; Paus, Ralf

2011-01-01

343

Acute Dosing and p53-Deficiency Promote Cellular Sensitivity to DNA Methylating Agents.  

PubMed

Risk assessment of human exposure to chemicals is crucial for understanding whether such agents can cause cancer. The current emphasis on avoidance of animal testing has placed greater importance on in vitro tests for the identification of genotoxicants. Selection of an appropriate in vitro dosing regime is imperative in determining the genotoxic effects of test chemicals. Here, the issue of dosing approaches was addressed by comparing acute and chronic dosing, uniquely using low-dose experiments. Acute 24?h exposures were compared with equivalent dosing every 24?h over 5-day, fractionated treatment periods. The in vitro micronucleus assay was used to measure clastogenicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in human lymphoblastoid cell line, TK6. Quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR was used to measure mRNA level induction of DNA repair enzymes. Lowest observed genotoxic effect levels (LOGELs) for MMS were obtained at 0.7?µg/ml for the acute study and 1.0?µg/ml for the chronic study. For acute MNU dosing, a LOGEL was observed at 0.46?µg/ml, yet genotoxicity was completely removed following the chronic study. Interestingly, acute MNU dosing demonstrated a statistically significant decrease at 0.009?µg/ml. Levels of selected DNA repair enzymes did not change significantly following doses tested. However, p53 deficiency (using the TK6-isogenic cell line, NH32) increased sensitivity to MMS during chronic dosing, causing this LOGEL to equate to the acute treatment LOGEL. In the context of the present data for 2 alkylating agents, chronic dosing could be a valuable in vitro supplement to acute dosing and could contribute to reduction of unnecessary in vivo follow-up tests. PMID:25595616

Chapman, Katherine E; Doak, Shareen H; Jenkins, Gareth J S

2015-04-01

344

Tailoring of growth and properties: a benign approach to synthesise ZnO nanostructures without growth-directing agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Achieving rational control over the growth of nanostructures without employing growth-directing agents has received considerable attention. Such approaches are a key to obtaining nanomaterials pure enough for desired applications. We report on the novel synthesis of nearly monodisperse zinc oxide nanocrystals, randomly oriented nanocrystals in spherical aggregates, and flower-like aggregates of oriented nanocrystals through a benign, ultrasonic assisted approach. It is shown that crystals of defined dimensions and morphology can be obtained by controlling the temperature of the sonicated solution of a well-chosen precursor. The powder samples resulting from sonochemical synthesis are thoroughly characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and by Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies. The results are explained by invoking the phenomena of randomly oriented aggregation, oriented attachment, and ripening, as amply supported by electron microscopy. Photoluminescence spectra of these various ZnO nanostructures reveal a strong dependence on the dimensions and morphology of the nanostructures, indicating that such luminescence can be tailored suitably.

Dar, M. Ibrahim; Sampath, S.; Shivashankar, S. A.

2014-03-01

345

Synergistic effects of antagonistic fungi and a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, or composted cow manure on populations of Meloidogyne incognita and growth of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of four antagonistic fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Trichoderma harzianum and Gliocladium virens) alone and together with a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices or with composted cow manure (CCM) were assessed on the growth of tomato and on the reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in glasshouse experiments. Application of all antagonistic fungi (except

Zaki A. Siddiqui; M. Sayeed Akhtar

2008-01-01

346

Effects of antagonistic fungi, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alone and in combination on the reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita and growth of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antagonistic fungi (Aspergillus niger CA and Penicillium chrysogenum CA1), plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) (Burkholderia cepacia 4684 and Bacillus subtilis 7612) and AM fungi (Glomus intraradices KA and Gigaspora margarita AA) were assessed alone and in combination for their effects on the growth of tomato and on the reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in glasshouse experiments. Application of antagonistic fungus, PGPR, or

Zaki A. Siddiqui; M. Sayeed Akhtar

2009-01-01

347

Increased Growth of the Microalga Chlorella vulgaris when Coimmobilized and Cocultured in Alginate Beads with the Plant-Growth-Promoting Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coimmobilization of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the plant-growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense in small alginate beads resulted in a significantly increased growth of the microalga. Dry and fresh weight, total number of cells, size of the microalgal clusters (colonies) within the bead, number of microalgal cells per cluster, and the levels of microalgal pigments significantly increased. Light microscopy revealed

LUZ E. GONZALEZ; YOAV BASHAN

2000-01-01

348

Ameliorative effects of inoculation with the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas sp. DW1 on growth of eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.) seedlings under salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of inoculation with the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas sp. DW1 on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) growth, mineral uptake and activities of the antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) of plant leaves under salinity stress. The study was conducted in pot experiments using eggplant (S. melongena

Qinglin Fu; Chen Liu; Nengfei Ding; Yicheng Lin; Bin Guo

2010-01-01

349

Identification of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Using Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis-Assisted Photoacoustic Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of titanium dioxide photocatalysis against bacteria that are dangerous for human health has been investigated in the past, suggesting the possibility of using a specific behavior for each microorganism during this process for its discrimination. In this study, the behavior of some plants’ growth promoting bacteria ( Burkholderia unamae (Strain MTI 641), Acetobacter diazotrophicus (Strain PAl 5T), A. diazotrophicus (Strain CFN-Cf 52), and B. unamae (Strain TATl-371)) interacting with light and bactericidal titanium dioxide films have been analyzed using the photoacoustic technique. The monitoring of these interactions shows particular characteristics that could serve for identifying these species.

Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Marín, E.; Calderón, A.

2013-09-01

350

Tools for genetic manipulation of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum amazonense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Azospirillum amazonense has potential to be used as agricultural inoculant since it promotes plant growth without causing pollution, unlike industrial\\u000a fertilizers. Owing to this fact, the study of this species has gained interest. However, a detailed understanding of its genetics\\u000a and physiology is limited by the absence of appropriate genetic tools for the study of this species.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Conjugation and

Fernando H Sant’Anna; Dieime S Andrade; Débora B Trentini; Shana S Weber; Irene S Schrank

2011-01-01

351

Regioselective hydrogenation of conjugated dienes catalyzed by hydridopentacyanocobaltate anion using. beta. -cyclodextrin as the phase-transfer agent and lanthanide halides as promoters  

Microsoft Academic Search

β-Cyclodextrin is a useful phase-transfer agent for the hydrogenation of conjugated dienes to monoolefins catalyzed by the in situ generated hydridopentacyanocobaltate anion. This reaction, which usually proceeds by 1,2-addition to the diene, is promoted by cerium or lanthanum chloride. Polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), with or without added lanthanide, can also be used as the phase-transfer agent for the reduction process.

Jongtae Lee; Howard Alper

1990-01-01

352

Regioselective hydrogenation of conjugated dienes catalyzed by hydridopentacyanocobaltate anion using. beta. -cyclodextrin as the phase-transfer agent and lanthanide halides as promoters  

SciTech Connect

{beta}-Cyclodextrin is a useful phase-transfer agent for the hydrogenation of conjugated dienes to monoolefins catalyzed by the in situ generated hydridopentacyanocobaltate anion. This reaction, which usually proceeds by 1,2-addition to the diene, is promoted by cerium or lanthanum chloride. Polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), with or without added lanthanide, can also be used as the phase-transfer agent for the reduction process.

Lee, Jongtae; Alper, H. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1990-03-16

353

Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth  

SciTech Connect

Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Nishiofuku, Mariko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

2008-03-07

354

Anatomical, Morphological, and Phytochemical Effects of Inoculation with Plant Growth- Promoting Rhizobacteria on Peppermint (Mentha piperita).  

PubMed

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) generally exert their effects through enhancement of plant nutrient status and/or phytohormone production. The effects of PGPR on aromatic plant species are poorly known. We measured plant growth parameters, chlorophyll content, trichome density, stomatal density, and levels of secondary metabolites in peppermint (Mentha piperita) seedlings inoculated with PGPR strains Bacillus subtilis GB03, Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r, P. putida SJ04, or a combination of WCS417r?+?SJ04. The treated plants, in comparison with controls, showed increases in shoot biomass, root biomass, leaf area, node number, trichome density, and stomatal density, and marked qualitative and quantitative changes in monoterpene content. Improved knowledge of the factors that control or affect biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and monoterpene accumulation will lead to strategies for improved cultivation and productivity of aromatic plants and other agricultural crops without the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides. PMID:25655927

Del Rosario Cappellari, Lorena; Santoro, Maricel Valeria; Reinoso, Herminda; Travaglia, Claudia; Giordano, Walter; Banchio, Erika

2015-02-01

355

Strain-promoted growth of Mn silicide nanowires on Si(001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have discovered a method to promote the growth of Mn silicide nanowires on the Si(001) at 450^oC. Deposition of sub-monolayer quantities of Mn onto a Si(001) surface with a high density of Bi nanolines results in the formation of nanowires, 5-10 nm wide, and up to 600 nm long. These nanowires are never formed if the same growth procedure is followed in the absence of the Bi nanolines. The Haiku core of the Bi nanoline is known to induce short-range stress in the surrounding silicon surface, straining neighbouring dimers, and repelling step edges [1]. We discuss the possible mechanisms for this effect, including the effect of the Bi nanolines on the surface stress tensor and alteration of the available diffusion channels on the surface. [4pt] [1] J. H. G. Owen, K. Miki, and D. R. Bowler J. Mat. Sci. 41 4568-4603 (2006)

Miki, Kazushi; Liu, Hongjun; Owen, James H. G.; Renner, Christoph

2011-03-01

356

Tumor associated osteoclast-like giant cells promote tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis by secreting vascular endothelial growth factor-C.  

PubMed

Tumors with osteoclast-like giant cells (OGCs) have been reported in a variety of organs and exert an invasive and prometastatic phenotype, but the functional role of OGCs in the tumor environment has not been fully clarified. We established tumors containing OGCs to clarify the role of OGCs in tumor phenotype. A mixture of HeLa cells expressing macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, HeLa-M) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL, HeLa-R) effectively supported the differentiation of osteoclast-like cells from bone marrow macrophages in vitro. Moreover, a xenograft study showed OGC formation in a tumor composed of HeLa-M and HeLa-R. Surprisingly, the tumors containing OGCs were significantly larger than the tumors without OGCs, although the growth rates were not different in vitro. Histological analysis showed that lymphangiogenesis and macrophage infiltration in the tumor containing OGCs, but not in other tumors were accelerated. According to quantitative PCR analysis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C mRNA expression increased with differentiation of osteoclast-like cells. To investigate whether VEGF-C expression is responsible for tumor growth and macrophage infiltration, HeLa cells overexpressing VEGF-C (HeLa-VC) were established and transplanted into mice. Tumors composed of HeLa-VC mimicked the phenotype of the tumors containing OGCs. Furthermore, the vascular permeability of tumor microvessels also increased in tumors containing OGCs and to some extent in VEGF-C-expressing tumors. These results suggest that macrophage infiltration and vascular permeability are possible mediators in these tumors. These findings revealed that OGCs in the tumor environment promoted tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis, at least in part, by secreting VEGF-C. PMID:24607909

Hatano, Yu; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Morita, Ikuo

2014-03-28

357

THE TUMOR-PROMOTER PHORBOL ESTER (12-0-TETRADECANOYL-PHORBOL-13ACETATE), A POTENT AGGREGATING AGENT FOR BLOOD PLATELETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate, a potent tumor-promoting agent, caused irreversible platelet aggregation when more than 0 .02µM was stirred with human citrated or heparinized platelet-rich plasma (PRP) . With washed platelets, 1 nM was effective . The alcohol phorbol, which has little tumor-promoting activity, failed to cause platelet aggregation . With all but low concentrations of phorbol ester, aggregation was

MARJORIE B. ZUCKER; WALTER TROLL; SIDNEY BELMAN

1974-01-01

358

The RGD Domain of Human Osteopontin Promotes Tumor Growth and Metastasis through Activation of Survival Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Human osteopontin (OPN), a known tumor associated protein, exists in different isoforms, whose function is unclear. It also possesses a RGD domain, which has been implicated in diverse function. Here, we use genetic approaches to systematically investigate the function of the RGD domain in different OPN isoforms on tumor progression and metastasis for 2 different solid tumor models. Methodology/Principal Findings Using isoform-specific qRT-PCR, we found that OPN-A and B were the main isoforms overexpressed in evaluated human tumors, which included 4 soft tissue sarcomas, 24 lung and 30 head and neck carcinomas. Overexpression of either OPN-A or B in two different cell types promoted local tumor growth and lung metastasis in SCID mouse xenografts. However, expression of either isoform with the RGD domain either mutated or deleted decreased tumor growth and metastasis, and resulted in increased apoptosis by TUNEL staining. In vitro, whereas mutation of the RGD domain did not affect cell-cell adhesion, soft agar growth or cell migration, it increased apoptosis under hypoxia and serum starvation. This effect could be mitigated when the RGD mutant cells were treated with condition media containing WT OPN. Mechanistically, the RGD region of OPN inhibited apoptosis by inducing NF-?B activation and FAK phosphorylation. Inhibition of NF-?B (by siRNA to the p65 subunit) or FAK activation (by a inhibitor) significantly increased apoptosis under hypoxia in WT OPN cells, but not in RGD mutant cells. Conclusion/Significance Unlike prior reports, our data suggest that the RGD domain of both OPN-A and B promote tumor growth and metastasis mainly by protecting cells against apoptosis under stressed conditions and not via migration or invasion. Future inhibitors directed against OPN should target multiple isoforms and should inhibit cell survival mechanisms that involve the RGD domain, FAK phosphorylation and NF-?B activation. PMID:20224789

Kwok, Shirley; Kong, Christina; Banh, Alice; Kuo, Peiwen; Bouley, Donna M.; Vice, Carmen; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Denko, Nicholas C.; Koong, Albert C.; Giaccia, Amato; Le, Quynh-Thu

2010-01-01

359

Growth promotion of rice seedlings by allelopathic polysaccharide from Welsh onion.  

PubMed

The underground portion of the Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum) was extracted and separated into seven fractions to purify allelopathic compounds that were found to promote the growth of rice seedlings (Oryza sativa). The 80% (v/v) ethanol-insoluble fraction of the hot water extract showed the highest growth-promoting effect. Purification by DEAE-cellulose chromatography gave four fractions, AD-1, 2, 3 and 4. AD-3 at 1000 ppm stimulated root and shoot growth by about 2.4 and 1.5 times over the respective water and sucrose-treated controls. The molecular weight of AD-3 was roughly estimated as 630 kDa by gel permeation chromatography. Seventy two percent (by wt.) of AD-3 was a carbohydrate and no proteins were detected. A GC analysis of the neutral sugar composition revealed the presence of Gal (50.1%), Man (17.9%), Ara (10.4%), Rha (8.8%), Glc (7.2%) and Xyl (5.6%). About 3% (by wt.) of the total carbohydrate was uronic acid, which was identified as GalU by a GC analysis. The remainder of AD-3 was extracted in ethyl acetate after its hydrolysis with 2 M HCl. The major component of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction was identified as unsaturated linear primary alcohols, 1-tetradecanol and 1-octadecanol (16% and 84% by peak areas from GC, respectively) by means of NMR and GC-MS. Sole or combined treatment of these alcohols did not affect the growth of rice seedlings. After partial hydrolysis with 0.2 M trifluoroacetic acid or by a sodium periodate treatment, the activity of AD-3 had completely disappeared, suggesting that the sugar moiety and/or molecular size were important for the activity. PMID:11471727

Goo, G C; Choi, S T; Ahn, H G; Song, K S

2001-06-01

360

Hypoxia shifts activity of neuropeptide Y in Ewing sarcoma from growth-inhibitory to growth-promoting effects  

PubMed Central

Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive malignancy driven by an oncogenic fusion protein, EWS-FLI1. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), and two of its receptors, Y1R and Y5R are up-regulated by EWS-FLI1 and abundantly expressed in ES cells. Paradoxically, NPY acting via Y1R and Y5R stimulates ES cell death. Here, we demonstrate that these growth-inhibitory actions of NPY are counteracted by hypoxia, which converts the peptide to a growth-promoting factor. In ES cells, hypoxia induces another NPY receptor, Y2R, and increases expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme that cleaves NPY to a shorter form, NPY3-36. This truncated peptide no longer binds to Y1R and, therefore, does not stimulate ES cell death. Instead, NPY3-36 acts as a selective Y2R/Y5R agonist. The hypoxia-induced increase in DPPIV activity is most evident in a population of ES cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, rich in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Consequently, NPY, acting via Y2R/Y5Rs, preferentially stimulates proliferation and migration of hypoxic ALDHhigh cells. Hypoxia also enhances the angiogenic potential of ES by inducing Y2Rs in endothelial cells and increasing the release of its ligand, NPY3-36, from ES cells. In summary, hypoxia acts as a molecular switch shifting NPY activity away from Y1R/Y5R-mediated cell death and activating the Y2R/Y5R/DPPIV/NPY3-36 axis, which stimulates ES CSCs and promotes angiogenesis. Hypoxia-driven actions of the peptide such as these may contribute to ES progression. Due to the receptor-specific and multifaceted nature of NPY actions, these findings may inform novel therapeutic approaches to ES. PMID:24318733

Galli, Susana; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; Earnest, Joshua Patrick; Shabbir, Asim; Everhart, Lindsay M.; Wang, Shuo; Martin, Samantha; Horton, Meredith; Mahajan, Akanksha; Christian, David; O'Neill, Alison; Wang, Hongkun; Zhuang, Tingting; Czarnecka, Magdalena; Johnson, Michael D.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Kitlinska, Joanna

2013-01-01

361

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria modulate root-system architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana through volatile organic compound emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive communication occurs between plants and microorganisms during different stages of plant development in which signaling molecules from the two partners play an important role. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission by certain plant-growth promoting rhizo- bacteria (PGPR) has been found to be involved in plant growth. However, little is known about the role of bacterial VOCs in plant developmental processes.

Francisca M. Gutiérrez-Luna; José López-Bucio; Josué Altamirano-Hernández; Eduardo Valencia-Cantero; Homero Reyes de la Cruz; Lourdes Macías-Rodríguez

2010-01-01

362

K-Ras Promotes Growth Transformation and Invasion of Immortalized Human Pancreatic Cells by Raf and Phosphatidylinositol 3Kinase Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutational activation of the K-Ras oncogene is well estab- lished as a key genetic step in the development and growth of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. However, the mechanism by which aberrant Ras signaling promotes uncontrolled pancre- atic tumor cell growth remains to be fully elucidated. The recent use of primary human cells to study Ras-mediated oncogenesis provides important model cell systems to

Paul M. Campbell; Angela L. Groehler; Kwang M. Lee; Michel M. Ouellette; Vladimir Khazak

2007-01-01

363

ATG5 is induced by DNA-damaging agents and promotes mitotic catastrophe independent of autophagy  

PubMed Central

Anticancer drug therapy activates both molecular cell death and autophagy pathways. Here we show that even sublethal concentrations of DNA-damaging drugs, such as etoposide and cisplatin, induce the expression of autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5), which is both necessary and sufficient for the subsequent induction of mitotic catastrophe. We demonstrate that ATG5 translocates to the nucleus, where it physically interacts with survivin in response to DNA-damaging agents both in vitro and in carcinoma tissues obtained from patients who had undergone radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. As a consequence, elements of the chromosomal passenger complex are displaced during mitosis, resulting in chromosome misalignment and segregation defects. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy does not prevent ATG5-dependent mitotic catastrophe, but shifts the balance to an early caspase-dependent cell death. Our data suggest a dual role for ATG5 in response to drug-induced DNA damage, where it acts in two signalling pathways in two distinct cellular compartments, the cytosol and the nucleus. PMID:23945651

Maskey, Dipak; Yousefi, Shida; Schmid, Inès; Zlobec, Inti; Perren, Aurel; Friis, Robert; Simon, Hans-Uwe

2013-01-01

364

ATG5 is induced by DNA-damaging agents and promotes mitotic catastrophe independent of autophagy.  

PubMed

Anticancer drug therapy activates both molecular cell death and autophagy pathways. Here we show that even sublethal concentrations of DNA-damaging drugs, such as etoposide and cisplatin, induce the expression of autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5), which is both necessary and sufficient for the subsequent induction of mitotic catastrophe. We demonstrate that ATG5 translocates to the nucleus, where it physically interacts with survivin in response to DNA-damaging agents both in vitro and in carcinoma tissues obtained from patients who had undergone radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. As a consequence, elements of the chromosomal passenger complex are displaced during mitosis, resulting in chromosome misalignment and segregation defects. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy does not prevent ATG5-dependent mitotic catastrophe, but shifts the balance to an early caspase-dependent cell death. Our data suggest a dual role for ATG5 in response to drug-induced DNA damage, where it acts in two signalling pathways in two distinct cellular compartments, the cytosol and the nucleus. PMID:23945651

Maskey, Dipak; Yousefi, Shida; Schmid, Inès; Zlobec, Inti; Perren, Aurel; Friis, Robert; Simon, Hans-Uwe

2013-01-01

365

Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activity controls plant growth by promoting leaf cell number.  

PubMed

A changing global environment, rising population and increasing demand for biofuels are challenging agriculture and creating a need for technologies to increase biomass production. Here we demonstrate that the inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity is a promising technology to achieve this under non-stress conditions. Furthermore, we investigate the basis of this growth enhancement via leaf series and kinematic cell analysis as well as single leaf transcriptomics and plant metabolomics under non-stress conditions. These data indicate a regulatory function of PARP within cell growth and potentially development. PARP inhibition enhances growth of Arabidopsis thaliana by enhancing the cell number. Time course single leaf transcriptomics shows that PARP inhibition regulates a small subset of genes which are related to growth promotion, cell cycle and the control of metabolism. This is supported by metabolite analysis showing overall changes in primary and particularly secondary metabolism. Taken together the results indicate a versatile function of PARP beyond its previously reported roles in controlling plant stress tolerance and thus can be a useful target for enhancing biomass production. PMID:24587323

Schulz, Philipp; Jansseune, Karel; Degenkolbe, Thomas; Méret, Michaël; Claeys, Hannes; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Teige, Markus; Willmitzer, Lothar; Hannah, Matthew A

2014-01-01

366

Eliminating aluminum toxicity in an Acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using plant growth promoting bacteria.  

PubMed

Aluminum toxicity is widely considered as the most important limiting factor for plants growing in acid sulfate soils. A study was conducted in laboratory and in field to ameliorate Al toxicity using plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), ground magnesium limestone (GML) and ground basalt. Five-day-old rice seedlings were inoculated by Bacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia seminalis and grown for 21 days in Hoagland solution (pH 4.0) at various Al concentrations (0, 50 and 100 ?M). Toxicity symptoms in root and leaf were studied using scanning electron microscope. In the field, biofertilizer (PGPB), GML and basalt were applied (4 t·ha-1 each). Results showed that Al severely affected the growth of rice. At high concentrations, the root surface was ruptured, leading to cell collapse; however, no damages were observed in the PGPB inoculated seedlings. After 21 days of inoculation, solution pH increased to >6.0, while the control treatment remained same. Field study showed that the highest rice growth and yield were obtained in the bio-fertilizer and GML treatments. This study showed that Al toxicity was reduced by PGPB via production of organic acids that were able to chelate the Al and the production of polysaccharides that increased solution pH. The release of phytohormones further enhanced rice growth that resulted in yield increase. PMID:25710843

Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Radziah, Othman; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Razi, Ismail Mohd

2015-01-01

367

Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase Activity Controls Plant Growth by Promoting Leaf Cell Number  

PubMed Central

A changing global environment, rising population and increasing demand for biofuels are challenging agriculture and creating a need for technologies to increase biomass production. Here we demonstrate that the inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity is a promising technology to achieve this under non-stress conditions. Furthermore, we investigate the basis of this growth enhancement via leaf series and kinematic cell analysis as well as single leaf transcriptomics and plant metabolomics under non-stress conditions. These data indicate a regulatory function of PARP within cell growth and potentially development. PARP inhibition enhances growth of Arabidopsis thaliana by enhancing the cell number. Time course single leaf transcriptomics shows that PARP inhibition regulates a small subset of genes which are related to growth promotion, cell cycle and the control of metabolism. This is supported by metabolite analysis showing overall changes in primary and particularly secondary metabolism. Taken together the results indicate a versatile function of PARP beyond its previously reported roles in controlling plant stress tolerance and thus can be a useful target for enhancing biomass production. PMID:24587323

Schulz, Philipp; Jansseune, Karel; Degenkolbe, Thomas; Méret, Michaël; Claeys, Hannes; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Teige, Markus; Willmitzer, Lothar; Hannah, Matthew A.

2014-01-01

368

Adaptive growth factor delivery from a polyelectrolyte coating promotes synergistic bone tissue repair and reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Traumatic wounds and congenital defects that require large-scale bone tissue repair have few successful clinical therapies, particularly for craniomaxillofacial defects. Although bioactive materials have demonstrated alternative approaches to tissue repair, an optimized materials system for reproducible, safe, and targeted repair remains elusive. We hypothesized that controlled, rapid bone formation in large, critical-size defects could be induced by simultaneously delivering multiple biological growth factors to the site of the wound. Here, we report an approach for bone repair using a polyelectrolye multilayer coating carrying as little as 200 ng of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB that were eluted over readily adapted time scales to induce rapid bone repair. Based on electrostatic interactions between the polymer multilayers and growth factors alone, we sustained mitogenic and osteogenic signals with these growth factors in an easily tunable and controlled manner to direct endogenous cell function. To prove the role of this adaptive release system, we applied the polyelectrolyte coating on a well-studied biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) support membrane. The released growth factors directed cellular processes to induce bone repair in a critical-size rat calvaria model. The released growth factors promoted local bone formation that bridged a critical-size defect in the calvaria as early as 2 wk after implantation. Mature, mechanically competent bone regenerated the native calvaria form. Such an approach could be clinically useful and has significant benefits as a synthetic, off-the-shelf, cell-free option for bone tissue repair and restoration. PMID:25136093

Shah, Nisarg J.; Hyder, Md. Nasim; Quadir, Mohiuddin A.; Dorval Courchesne, Noémie-Manuelle; Seeherman, Howard J.; Nevins, Myron; Spector, Myron; Hammond, Paula T.

2014-01-01

369

Adaptive growth factor delivery from a polyelectrolyte coating promotes synergistic bone tissue repair and reconstruction.  

PubMed

Traumatic wounds and congenital defects that require large-scale bone tissue repair have few successful clinical therapies, particularly for craniomaxillofacial defects. Although bioactive materials have demonstrated alternative approaches to tissue repair, an optimized materials system for reproducible, safe, and targeted repair remains elusive. We hypothesized that controlled, rapid bone formation in large, critical-size defects could be induced by simultaneously delivering multiple biological growth factors to the site of the wound. Here, we report an approach for bone repair using a polyelectrolye multilayer coating carrying as little as 200 ng of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB that were eluted over readily adapted time scales to induce rapid bone repair. Based on electrostatic interactions between the polymer multilayers and growth factors alone, we sustained mitogenic and osteogenic signals with these growth factors in an easily tunable and controlled manner to direct endogenous cell function. To prove the role of this adaptive release system, we applied the polyelectrolyte coating on a well-studied biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) support membrane. The released growth factors directed cellular processes to induce bone repair in a critical-size rat calvaria model. The released growth factors promoted local bone formation that bridged a critical-size defect in the calvaria as early as 2 wk after implantation. Mature, mechanically competent bone regenerated the native calvaria form. Such an approach could be clinically useful and has significant benefits as a synthetic, off-the-shelf, cell-free option for bone tissue repair and restoration. PMID:25136093

Shah, Nisarg J; Hyder, Md Nasim; Quadir, Mohiuddin A; Dorval Courchesne, Noémie-Manuelle; Seeherman, Howard J; Nevins, Myron; Spector, Myron; Hammond, Paula T

2014-09-01

370

DNA Promoter Methylation-dependent Transcription of the Double C2-like Domain ? (DOC2B) Gene Regulates Tumor Growth in Human Cervical Cancer*  

PubMed Central

Double C2-like domain ? (DOC2B) gene encodes for a calcium-binding protein, which is involved in neurotransmitter release, sorting, and exocytosis. We have identified the promoter region of the DOC2B gene as hypermethylated in pre-malignant, malignant cervical tissues, and cervical cancer cell lines by methylation-sensitive dimethyl sulfoxide-polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite genome sequencing; whereas, it was unmethylated in normal cervical tissues (p < 0.05). The promoter hypermethylation was inversely associated with mRNA expression in SiHa, CaSki, and HeLa cells and treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine restored DOC2B expression. The region ?630 to +25 bp of the DOC2B gene showed robust promoter activity by a luciferase reporter assay and was inhibited by in vitro artificial methylation with Sss1 methylase prior to transient transfections. Overexpression of the DOC2B gene in SiHa cells when compared with controls showed significantly reduced colony formation, cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest, and repressed cell migration and invasion (p < 0.05). Ectopic expression of DOC2B resulted in anoikis-mediated cell death and repressed tumor growth in a nude mice xenograft model (p < 0.05). DOC2B expressing cells showed a significant increase in intracellular calcium level (p < 0.05), impaired AKT1 and ERK1/2 signaling, and induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Our results show that promoter hypermethylation and silencing of the DOC2B gene is an early and frequent event during cervical carcinogenesis and whose reduced expression due to DNA promoter methylation may lead to selective cervical tumor growth. PMID:24570007

Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Bhat, Samatha; Radhakrishnan, Raghu; Aithal, Abhijit; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Pandey, Deeksha; Rai, Lavanya; Kushtagi, Pralhad; Mundyat, Gopinath Puthiya; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

2014-01-01

371

Inhibition of Hsp90 activates osteoclast c-Src signaling and promotes growth of prostate carcinoma cells in bone.  

PubMed

Hsp90 inhibitors are being evaluated extensively in patients with advanced cancers. However, the impact of Hsp90 inhibition on signaling pathways in normal tissues and the effect that this may have on the antitumor activity of these molecularly targeted drugs have not been rigorously examined. Breast and prostate carcinomas are among those cancers that respond to Hsp90 inhibitors in animal xenograft models and in early studies in patients. Because these cancers frequently metastasize to bone, it is important to determine the impact of Hsp90 inhibitors in the bone environment. In the current study, we show that, in contrast to its activity against prostate cancer cells in vitro and its inhibition of s.c. prostate cancer xenografts, the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG stimulates the intraosseous growth of PC-3M prostate carcinoma cells. This activity is mediated not by a direct effect on the tumor but by Hsp90-dependent stimulation of osteoclast maturation. Hsp90 inhibition transiently activates osteoclast Src kinase and promotes Src-dependent Akt activation. Both kinases are key drivers of osteoclast maturation, and three agents that block osteoclastogenesis, the Src inhibitor dasatinib, the bisphosphonate alendronate, and the osteoclast-specific apoptosis-inducer reveromycin A, markedly reduced 17-AAG-stimulated tumor growth in bone. These data emphasize the importance of understanding the complex role played by Hsp90 in regulating signal transduction pathways in normal tissues as well as in cancer cells, and they demonstrate that drug-dependent modulation of the local tumor environment may profoundly affect the antitumor efficacy of Hsp90-directed therapy. PMID:18840695

Yano, Akihiro; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Soga, Shiro; Lee, Min-Jung; Trepel, Jane; Osada, Hiroyuki; Neckers, Len

2008-10-01

372

Biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity of rhizobacteria from Chinese fields with contaminated soils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to inventory the types of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) present in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soils contaminated with heavy metals, recalcitrant organics, petroleum sewage or salinity in China. We screened 1223 isolates for antifungal activity and about 24% inhibited Rhizoctonia solani or Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Twenty-four strains inhibitory to R.?solani, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and/or S.?sclerotiorum and representing the dominant morphotypes were assayed for PGPR activity. Seven strains contained phlD, prnD, pltC or phzF genes and produced the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin and phenazines respectively. Six strains contained acdS, which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA and phlD, phzF and acdS genes demonstrated that some strains identified as Pseudomonas were similar to model PGPR strains Pseudomonas protegens?Pf-5, Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens 30-84 and P.?brassicacearum?Q8r1-96. Pseudomonas protegens- and P.?chlororaphis-like strains had the greatest biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia root rot and take-all of wheat. Pseudomonas protegens and P.?brassicacearum-like strains showed the greatest promotion of canola growth. Our results indicate that strains from contaminated soils are similar to well-described PGPR found in agricultural soils worldwide. PMID:25219642

Wang, Xuefei; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Ke, Linfeng; Mavrodi, Olga V; Yang, Mingming; Thomashow, Linda S; Zheng, Na; Weller, David M; Zhang, Jibin

2015-05-01

373

Axotomy-induced miR-21 promotes axon growth in adult dorsal root ganglion neurons.  

PubMed

Following injury, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons undergo transcriptional changes so as to adopt phenotypic changes that promote cell survival and axonal regeneration. Here we used a microarray approach to profile changes in a population of small noncoding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) in the L4 and L5 DRG following sciatic nerve transection. Results showed that 20 miRNA transcripts displayed a significant change in expression levels, with 8 miRNAs transcripts being altered by more than 1.5-fold. Using quantitative reverse transcription PCR, we demonstrated that one of these miRNAs, miR-21, was upregulated by 7-fold in the DRG at 7 days post-axotomy. In dissociated adult rat DRG neurons lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of miR-21 promoted neurite outgrowth on a reduced laminin substrate. miR-21 directly downregulated expression of Sprouty2 protein, as confirmed by Western blot analysis and 3' untranslated region (UTR) luciferase assays. Our data show that miR-21 is an axotomy-induced miRNA that enhances axon growth, and suggest that miRNAs are important players in regulating growth pathways following peripheral nerve injury. PMID:21853131

Strickland, Iain T; Richards, Louise; Holmes, Fiona E; Wynick, David; Uney, James B; Wong, Liang-Fong

2011-01-01

374

Recombinant Keratinocyte Growth Factor 1 in Tobacco Potentially Promotes Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Keratinocyte growth factor 1 (KGF1) is a growth factor that promotes epidermal cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and wound repair. It is expressed at low levels in a form of inclusion body in E. coli. In order to increase its expression and activity, we produced tobacco plants expressing KGF1 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using a potato virus X (PVX)-based vector (pgR107). The vector contained the sequence encoding the KGF1 gene fused with a green florescence protein. The recombinant plasmid was introduced into leaf cells of Nicotiana benthamiana (a wild Australian tobacco) via Agrobacterium-mediated agroinfiltration. As determined by fluorescence and Western blot of leaf extracts, the KGF1 gene was correctly translated into the tobacco plants. The recombinant KGF1 was purified from plant tissues by heparin affinity chromatography, and cell proliferation in NIH/3T3 cells was stimulated by the purified KGF1. The purified KGF1 was also applied to the wounds of type-II diabetic rats. KGF1 had accumulated to levels as high as 530??g/g fresh weight in the leaves of agroinfected plants. We show that plant-derived KGF1 can promote the proliferation of NIH/3T3 cells and have significant effects on the type-II diabetic rat. The present findings indicated that KGF1 from tobacco maintains its biological activity, implying prospective industrial production in a plant bioreactor. PMID:24783215

Feng, Zhi-Guo; Pang, Shi-Feng; Guo, Ding-Jiong; Yang, Yue-Tao; Liu, Bin; Wang, Ji-Wei; Zheng, Ke-Qin; Lin, Yi

2014-01-01

375

Genomic insights into the versatility of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum amazonense  

PubMed Central

Background The species Azospirillum amazonense belongs to a well-known genus of plant growth-promoting bacteria. This bacterium is found in association with several crops of economic importance; however, there is a lack of information on its physiology. In this work, we present a comprehensive analysis of the genomic features of this species. Results Genes of A. amazonense related to nitrogen/carbon metabolism, energy production, phytohormone production, transport, quorum sensing, antibiotic resistance, chemotaxis/motility and bacteriophytochrome biosynthesis were identified. Noteworthy genes were the nitrogen fixation genes and the nitrilase gene, which could be directly implicated in plant growth promotion, and the carbon fixation genes, which had previously been poorly investigated in this genus. One important finding was that some A. amazonense genes, like the nitrogenase genes and RubisCO genes, were closer phylogenetically to Rhizobiales members than to species of its own order. Conclusion The species A. amazonense presents a versatile repertoire of genes crucial for its plant-associated lifestyle. PMID:21838888

2011-01-01

376

A Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium That Decreases Nickel Toxicity in Seedlings  

PubMed Central

A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and CrO4?, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel. PMID:9758782

Burd, Genrich I.; Dixon, D. George; Glick, Bernard R.

1998-01-01

377

Pericytes in the myovascular niche promote post-natal myofiber growth and satellite cell quiescence.  

PubMed

The satellite cells, which serve as adult muscle stem cells, are both located beneath myofiber basement membranes and closely associated with capillary endothelial cells. We observed that 90% of capillaries were associated with pericytes in adult mouse and human muscle. During post-natal growth, newly formed vessels with their neuroglial 2 proteoglycan (NG2)-positive pericytes became progressively associated with the post-natal muscle stem cells, as myofibers increased in size and satellite cells entered into quiescence. In vitro, human muscle-derived pericytes promoted myogenic cell differentiation through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and myogenic cell quiescence through angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1). Diphtheria toxin-induced ablation of muscle pericytes in growing mice led both to myofiber hypotrophy and to impaired establishment of stem cells quiescence. Similar effects were observed following conditional in vivo deletion of pericyte Igf1 and Angpt1 genes, respectively. Our data therefore demonstrate that, by promoting post-natal myogenesis and stem cell quiescence, pericytes play a key role in the microvascular niche of satellite cells. PMID:25742797

Kostallari, Enis; Baba-Amer, Yasmine; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Ngoh, Pamela; Relaix, Frederic; Lafuste, Peggy; Gherardi, Romain K

2015-04-01

378

Characterization of plant-growth-promoting traits of Acinetobacter species isolated from rhizosphere of Pennisetum glaucum.  

PubMed

A total of 31 Acinetobacter isolates were obtained from the rhizosphere of Pennisetum glaucum and evaluated for their plant-growth-promoting traits. Two isolates, namely Acinetobacter sp. PUCM1007 and A. baumannii PUCM1029, produced indole acetic acid (10-13 microgram/ml). A total of 26 and 27 isolates solubilized phosphates and zinc oxide, respectively. Among the mineral-solubilizing strains, A. calcoaceticus PUCM1006 solubilized phosphate most efficiently (84 mg/ml), whereas zinc oxide was solubilized by A. calcoaceticus PUCM1025 at the highest solubilization efficiency of 918%. All the Acinetobacter isolates, except PUCM1010, produced siderophores. The highest siderophore production (85.0 siderophore units) was exhibited by A. calcoaceticus PUCM1016. Strains PUCM1001 and PUCM1019 (both A. calcoaceticus) and PUCM1022 (Acinetobacter sp.) produced both hydroxamate- and catechol-type siderophores, whereas all the other strains only produced catechol-type siderophores. In vitro inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum under iron-limited conditions was demonstrated by the siderophore-producing Acinetobacter strains, where PUCM1018 was the most potent inhibitor of the fungal phytopathogen. Acinetobacter sp. PUCM1022 significantly enhanced the shoot height, root length, and root dry weights of pearl millet seedlings in pot experiments when compared with controls, underscoring the plant-growth-promoting potential of these isolates. PMID:21715961

Rokhbakhsh-Zamin, Farokh; Sachdev, Dhara; Kazemi-Pour, Nadia; Engineer, Anupama; Pardesi, Karishma R; Zinjarde, Smita; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Chopade, Balu A

2011-06-01

379

Comparison of prominent Azospirillum strains in Azospirillum-Pseudomonas-Glomus consortia for promotion of maize growth.  

PubMed

Azospirillum are prominent plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) extensively used as phytostimulatory crop inoculants, but only few studies are dealing with Azospirillum-containing mixed inocula involving more than two microorganisms. We compared here three prominent Azospirillum strains as part of three-component consortia including also the PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 and a mycorrhizal inoculant mix composed of three Glomus strains. Inoculant colonization of maize was assessed by quantitative PCR, transcription of auxin synthesis gene ipdC (involved in phytostimulation) in Azospirillum by RT-PCR, and effects on maize by secondary metabolic profiling and shoot biomass measurements. Results showed that phytostimulation by all the three-component consortia was comparable, despite contrasted survival of the Azospirillum strains and different secondary metabolic responses of maize to inoculation. Unexpectedly, the presence of Azospirillum in the inoculum resulted in lower phytostimulation in comparison with the Pseudomonas-Glomus two-component consortium, but this effect was transient. Azospirillum's ipdC gene was transcribed in all treatments, especially with three-component consortia, but not with all plants and samplings. Inoculation had no negative impact on the prevalence of mycorrhizal taxa in roots. In conclusion, this study brought new insights in the functioning of microbial consortia and showed that Azospirillum-Pseudomonas-Glomus three-component inoculants may be useful in environmental biotechnology for maize growth promotion. PMID:22805783

Couillerot, Olivier; Ramírez-Trujillo, Augusto; Walker, Vincent; von Felten, Andreas; Jansa, Jan; Maurhofer, Monika; Défago, Geneviève; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Comte, Gilles; Caballero-Mellado, Jesus; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

2013-05-01

380

Rhamnolipids production by multi-metal-resistant and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

The biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa A11, with plant-growth-promoting (PGP) and multi-metal-resistant (MMR) features was isolated from the rhizosphere of a wild plant Parthenium hysterophorus. The strain A11 was able to utilize glycerol as a carbon source and produce 4,436.9 mg/L of biosurfactant after 120 h of incubation. The biosurfactants was characterized as rhamnolipids (RLs) by thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Eight different RLs congeners were detected with RhaRhaC??C?? being most abundant. The purified rhamnolipid, dirhamnolipid, and monorhamnolipid reduced the surface tension of water to 29, 36, and 42 mN/m with critical micelle concentration of 83, 125, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The strain A11 demonstrated resistance against all the metals detected in rhizosphere except Hg and Ni. The strain A11 also possessed plant-growth-promoting features like siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, catalase, ammonia production, and phosphate solubilization. The dirhamnolipids formed crystals upon incubation at 4 °C, thus making separation of dirhamnolipids easy. Biosurfactant-producing ability along with MMR and PGP traits of the strain A11 makes it a potential candidate for application in the bacterial assisted enhancement of phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated sites. PMID:23640260

Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

2013-07-01

381

Multitrait plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea rhizosphere  

PubMed Central

Plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, a beneficial microbe colonizing plant roots, enhanced crop productivity and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. The keratinous waste which comprises feathers, hairs, nails, skin and wool creates problem of solid waste management due to presence of highly recalcitrant keratin. The multi traits rhizobacteria effective to remove both keratine from the environment by producing keratinase enzyme and to eradicate the chemical fertilizer by providing different PGP activity is novel achievement. In the present study, the effective PM2 strain of PGPR was isolated from rhizospheric soil of mustard (Brassica juncea) field, Pantnagar and they were identified on the basis of different biochemical tests as belonging to Bacillus genera. Different plant growth promoting activity, feather degradation and keratinolytic activity was performed and found very effective toward all the parameters. Furthermore, the efficient strain PM2 was identified on the basis of 16s rRNA sequencing and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The strain PM2 might be used efficiently for keratinous waste management and PGP activity. Therefore, the present study suggests that Bacillus cereus have multi traits activity which extremely useful for different PGP activity and biotechnological process involving keratin hydrolysis, feather biodegradation or in the leather industry. PMID:24778758

Anwar, Mohmmad Shahbaz; Siddique, Mohammad Tahir; Verma, Amit; Rao, Yalaga Rama; Nailwal, Tapan; Ansari, Mohammad; Pande, Veena

2014-01-01

382

Apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase 1 inhibits growth and migration and promotes apoptosis in melanoma.  

PubMed

Apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase 1 (AATK1) was initially identified as a protein that was dramatically overexpressed during growth arrest and apoptosis of 32Dcl myeloblastic leukemia cells. AATK is expressed in different regions of the brain and may have a role in normal nervous system development by its dual functions of enhancing apoptosis of mature granule cells and promoting terminal neuronal differentiation of developing neurons. However, its function in cancer has never been studied. Melanoma is a tumor composed of transformed cells within the melanocyte lineage deriving from the embryonic neural crest. It has been shown that developmental pathways in neural crest cells have a direct bearing on melanoma formation and human metastatic melanoma cells express a dedifferentiated phenotype. We found that the expression levels of AATK are lower in metastatic melanoma cell lines compared with primary melanoma cell lines and normal human melanocytes. We found that depletion of AATK mRNA in metastatic melanoma cell lines enhanced cell migration in cell line derived from metastatic melanomas. Overexpression of AATK inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, and promoted apoptosis in melanoma cell lines derived from primary and metastatic melanomas. Signal transduction pathway analysis revealed that Src is involved in regulating AATK. Our results demonstrate for the first time that AATK inhibits cell proliferation, colony formation, and migration, and also promotes apoptosis in melanoma cells. PMID:24589855

Ma, Shuang; Rubin, Brian P

2014-04-01

383

Biomimetic scaffold combined with electrical stimulation and growth factor promotes tissue engineered cardiac development  

PubMed Central

Toward developing biologically sound models for the study of heart regeneration and disease, we cultured heart cells on a biodegradable, microfabricated poly(glycerol sebacate)(PGS) scaffold designed with micro-structural features and anisotropic mechanical properties to promote cardiac-like tissue architecture. Using this biomimetic system, we studied individual and combined effects of supplemental insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and electrical stimulation (ES). On culture day 8, all tissue constructs could be paced and expressed the cardiac protein troponin-T. IGF-1 reduced apoptosis, promoted cell-to-cell connectivity, and lowered excitation threshold, an index of electrophysiological activity. ES promoted formation of tissue-like bundles oriented in parallel to the electrical field and a more than tenfold increase in matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) gene expression. The combination of IGF-1 and ES increased 2D projection length, an index of overall contraction strength, and enhanced expression of the gap junction protein connexin-43 and sarcomere development. This culture environment, designed to combine cardiac-like scaffold architecture and biomechanics with molecular and biophysical signals, enabled functional assembly of engineered heart muscle from dissociated cells and could serve as a template for future studies on the hierarchy of various signaling domains relative to cardiac tissue development. PMID:24240126

Park, Hyoungshin; Larson, Benjamin L.; Kolewe, Martin E.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Freed, Lisa E.

2013-01-01

384

Transgenic Studies with a Keratin Promoter-Driven Growth Hormone Transgene: Prospects for Gene Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keratinocytes are potentially appealing vehicles for the delivery of secreted gene products because they can be transferred to human skin by the relatively simple procedure of grafting. Adult human keratinocytes can be efficiently propagated in culture with sufficient proliferative capacity to produce enough epidermis to cover the body surface of an average adult. However, the feasibility of delivering secreted proteins through skin grafting rests upon (i) the strength of the promoter in keratinocytes and (ii) the efficiency of protein transport through the basement membrane of the stratified epithelium and into the bloodstream. In this paper, we use transgenic technology to demonstrate that the activity of the human keratin 14 promoter remains high in adult skin and that keratinocyte-derived human growth hormone (hGH) can be produced, secreted, and transported to the bloodstream of mice with efficiency that is sufficient to exceed by an order of magnitude the circulating hGH concentration in growing children. Transgenic skin grafts from these adults continue to produce and secrete hGH stably, at ? 1/10 physiological levels in the bloodstream of nontransgenic recipient mice. These studies underscore the utility of the keratin 14 promoter for expressing foreign transgenes in keratinocytes and demonstrate that keratinocytes can be used as effective vehicles for transporting factors to the bloodstream and for eliciting metabolic changes. These findings have important implications for considering the keratinocyte as a possible vehicle for gene therapy.

Wang, Xiaoming; Zinkel, Sandra; Polonsky, Kenneth; Fuchs, Elaine

1997-01-01

385

Overexpression of deubiquitinating enzyme USP28 promoted non-small cell lung cancer growth  

PubMed Central

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for most lung cancer. To develop new therapy required the elucidation of NSCLC pathogenesis. The deubiquitinating enzymes USP 28 has been identified and studied in colon and breast carcinomas. However, the role of USP28 in NSCLC is unknown. The level mRNA or protein level of USP28 were measured by qRT-PCR or immunohistochemistry (IHC). The role of USP28 in patient survival was revealed by Kaplan–Meier plot of overall survival in NSCLC patients. USP28 was up or down regulated by overexpression plasmid or siRNA transfection. Cell proliferation and apoptosis was assayed by MTT and FACS separately. Potential microRNAs, which targeted USP28, were predicated by bioinformatic algorithm and confirmed by Dual Luciferase reporter assay system. High mRNA and protein level of USP28 in NSCLC were both correlated with low patient survival rate. Overexpression of USP28 promoted NSCLC cells growth and vice versa. Down-regulation of USP28 induced cell apoptosis. USP28 was targeted by miR-4295. Overexpression of USP28 promoted NSCLC cells proliferation, and was associated with poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. The expression of USP28 may be regulated by miR-4295. Our data suggested that USP28 was a tumour-promoting factor and a promising therapeutic target for NSCLC. PMID:25656529

Zhang, Lei; Xu, Biao; Qiang, Yong; Huang, Hairong; Wang, Changtian; Li, Demin; Qian, Jianjun

2015-01-01

386

Efficiency of plant growth-promoting P-solubilizing Bacillus circulans CB7 for enhancement of tomato growth under net house conditions.  

PubMed

P-solubilizing bacterial isolate CB7 isolated from apple rhizosphere soil of Himachal Pradesh, India was identified as Bacillus circulans on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, biochemical tests, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolate exhibited plant growth-promoting traits of P-solubilization, auxin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, siderophore, nitrogenase activity, and antagonistic activity against Dematophora necatrix. In vitro studies revealed that P-solubilization and other plant growth-promoting traits were dependent on the presence of glucose in PVK medium and removal of yeast extract had no significant effect on plant growth-promoting traits. Plant growth-promoting traits of isolate CB7 were repressed in the presence of KH2 PO4 . P-solubilization activity was associated with the release of organic acids and a drop in the pH of the Pikovskaya's medium. HPLC analysis detected gluconic and citric acid as major organic acids in the course of P-solubilization. Remarkable increase was observed in seed germination (22.32%), shoot length (15.91%), root length (25.10%), shoot dry weight (52.92%) and root dry weight (31.4%), nitrogen (18.75%), potassium (57.69%), and phosphorus (22.22%) content of shoot biomass over control. These results demonstrate that isolate CB7 has the promising PGPR attributes to be developed as a biofertilizer to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth. PMID:24464353

Mehta, Preeti; Walia, Abhishek; Kulshrestha, Saurabh; Chauhan, Anjali; Shirkot, Chand Karan

2015-01-01

387

In vivo hair growth-promoting effect of rice bran extract prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid.  

PubMed

The potential hair growth-promoting activity of rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) and major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid, policosanol, ?-oryzanol, and ?-tocotrienol, were evaluated with the histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in C57BL/6 mice. RB-SCE showed hair growth-promoting potential to a similar extent as 3% minoxidil, showing that the hair follicles were induced to be in the anagen stage. The numbers of the hair follicles were significantly increased. In addition, mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) were also significantly increased and that of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) decreased in RB-SCE-treated groups. Among the major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid and ?-oryzanol induced the formation of hair follicles according to examination of histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that RB-SCE, particularly linoleic acid and ?-oryzanol, promotes hair growth and suggests RB-SCE can be applied as hair loss treatment. PMID:24389480

Choi, Jae-Suk; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Woi-Sook; Moon, Jin-Nam; Cheon, Eun Jin; Kim, Joo-Wan; Jung, Sung Kyu; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

2014-01-01

388

Growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits as affected by different growth promoters.  

PubMed

The aim of the article was to study the effect of different growth promoters on growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits. A total number of 105 male growing NZW rabbits during 35-91 days of age were randomly distributed among 7 groups fed the same basal diet and submitted to different dietary treatments: the first group was unsupplemented and used as control; the other groups were supplemented respectively with bee pollen and/or propolis at 200 mg/kg BW of each and inulin and/or mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) at 35 mg/kg BW of each. Body weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), biochemical and haematological blood parameters, carcass characteristics, histological studies of ileum and spleen and economical efficiency were measured. Bee pollen administered alone or with propolis significantly (p < 0.01) the body weight gain and improved FCR in respect of the control group. Inulin with MOS significantly improved just FCR than the control group. Bee pollen with propolis and MOS supplemented-groups resulted in significantly higher (7.96 and 8.41% respectively) white blood cells compared to the control group. Plasma total cholesterol was significantly higher for the MOS group in respect of the control, bee pollen, inulin and inulin with MOS supplemented-groups. Propolis resulted in significantly higher dressed carcass percentage than the control group and higher carcass index than only bee pollen with propolis supplemented-group. Bee pollen, in particular if in combination with propolis, could be used as a supplement in the growing rabbits during days 35-91 of age with positive effects on growth rate and feed conversion ratio. PMID:23419029

Attia, Y A; El-Hanoun, A M; Bovera, F; Monastra, G; El-Tahawy, W S; Habiba, H I

2014-02-01

389

Influence of inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on tomato plant growth and nematode reproduction under greenhouse conditions  

PubMed Central

Numerous species of soil bacteria which flourish in the rhizosphere of plants or around plant tissues stimulate plant growth and reduce nematode population by antagonistic behavior. These bacteria are collectively known as PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria). The effects of six isolates of PGPR Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, were studied on tomato plant growth and root knot nematode reproduction after 45 days from nematode infection. The highest number of shoot dry weight/g (43.00 g) was detected in the plant treated with S. marcescens; then P. putida (34.33 g), B. amyloliquefaciens (31.66 g), P. fluorescens (30.0 g), B. subtilis (29.0 g), B. cereus (27.0 g) and nematode alone (untreated) 20 g/plant. While the highest number of plant height was observed when plant was treated with S. marcescens, P. fluorescens, P. putida, B. amyloliquefaciens and P. putida 52.66, 50.66, 48 and 48 cm respectively. No significant differences were seen between previous treatments but only had significant differences compared with untreated plant. The highest number of fruit/plant was observed when plants were treated with S. marcescens (10.66), then B. amyloliquefaciens (8.66), P. putida (8), P. fluorescens (8) and B. cereus (7.66). No significant differences between the last 4 treatments, but all had significant differences compared with untreated plants. The highest weight of plant yield (g) was observed with S. marcescens (319.6 g/plant) and the lowest weight of plant yield was observed in plants treated with nematode alone (untreated). On the other hand, the lowest numbers of J2/10 g of soil (78), galls/root, (24.33) galls/root, egg masses/root (12.66) and egg/egg masses were observed in the plants treated with S. marcescens. PMID:23961220

Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Massoud, Samia I.; Abdelmoneim, Tamer S.

2012-01-01

390

NeuroD1 promotes neuroblastoma cell growth by inducing the expression of ALK.  

PubMed

Neuroblastoma is derived from the sympathetic neuronal lineage of neural crest cells, and is the most frequently observed of the extracranial pediatric solid tumors. The neuronal differentiation factor, NeuroD1, has previously been shown to promote cell motility in neuroblastoma by suppressing the expression of Slit2. Here we report that NeuroD1 is also involved in the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells, including human cell lines and primary tumorspheres cultured from the tumor tissues of model mice. Interestingly, the growth inhibition of neuroblastoma cells induced by knockdown of NeuroD1 was accompanied by a reduction of ALK expression. ALK is known to be one of the important predisposition genes for neuroblastoma. The phenotype resulting from knockdown of NeuroD1 was suppressed by forced expression of ALK and, therefore, NeuroD1 appears to act mainly through ALK to promote the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, we showed that NeuroD1 directly bound to the promoter region of ALK gene. In addition, the particular E-box in the promoter was responsible for NeuroD1-mediated ALK expression. These results indicate that ALK should be a direct target gene of NeuroD1. Finally, the expressions of NeuroD1 and ALK in the early tumor lesions of neuroblastoma model mice coincided in vivo. We conclude that the novel mechanism would regulate the expression of ALK in neuroblastoma and that NeuroD1 should be significantly involved in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis. PMID:25652313

Lu, Fangjin; Kishida, Satoshi; Mu, Ping; Huang, Peng; Cao, Dongliang; Tsubota, Shoma; Kadomatsu, Kenji

2015-04-01

391

Modeling hairy root tissue growth in in vitro environments using an agent-based, structured growth model.  

PubMed

An agent-based model for simulating the in vitro growth of Beta vulgaris hairy root cultures is described. The model fitting is based on experimental results and can be used as a virtual experimentator for root networks. It is implemented in the JAVA language and is designed to be easily modified to describe the growth of diverse biological root networks. The basic principles of the model are outlined, with descriptions of all of the relevant algorithms using the ODD protocol, and a case study is presented in which it is used to simulate the development of hairy root cultures of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) in a Petri dish. The model can predict various properties of the developing network, including the total root length, branching point distribution, segment distribution and secondary metabolite accumulation. It thus provides valuable information that can be used when optimizing cultivation parameters (e.g., medium composition) and the cultivation environment (e.g., the cultivation temperature) as well as how constructional parameters change the morphology of the root network. An image recognition solution was used to acquire experimental data that were used when fitting the model and to evaluate the agreement between the simulated results and practical experiments. Overall, the case study simulation closely reproduced experimental results for the cultures grown under equivalent conditions to those assumed in the simulation. A 3D-visualization solution was created to display the simulated results relating to the state of the root network and its environment (e.g., oxygen and nutrient levels). PMID:24218303

Lenk, Felix; Sürmann, Almuth; Oberthür, Patrick; Schneider, Mandy; Steingroewer, Juliane; Bley, Thomas

2014-06-01

392

Growth of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is promoted by exogenous hydroxamate and catechol siderophores.  

PubMed

Siderophores bind ferric ions and are involved in receptor-specific iron transport into bacteria. Six types of siderophores were tested against strains representing the 12 different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Ferrichrome and bis-catechol-based siderophores showed strong growth-promoting activities for A. pleuropneumoniae in a disk diffusion assay. Most strains of A. pleuropneumoniae tested were able to use ferrichrome (21 of 22 or 95%), ferrichrome A (20 of 22 or 90%), and lysine-based bis-catechol (20 of 22 or 90%), while growth of 36% (8 of 22) was promoted by a synthetic hydroxamate, N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine tripeptide. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (strain FMV 87-682) and serotype 5 (strain 2245) exhibited a distinct yellow halo around colonies on Chrome Azurol S agar plates, suggesting that both strains can produce an iron chelator (siderophore) in response to iron stress. The siderophore was found to be neither a phenolate nor a hydroxamate by the chemical tests of Arnow and Csaky, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the production of an iron chelator and the use of exogenous siderophores by A. pleuropneumoniae. A spermidine-based bis-catechol siderophore conjugated to a carbacephalosporin was shown to inhibit growth of A. pleuropneumoniae. A siderophore-antibiotic-resistant strain was isolated and shown to have lost the ability to use ferrichrome, synthetic hydroxamate, or catechol-based siderophores when grown under conditions of iron restriction. This observation indicated that a common iron uptake pathway, or a common intermediate, for hydroxamate- and catechol-based siderophores may exist in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:8975614

Diarra, M S; Dolence, J A; Dolence, E K; Darwish, I; Miller, M J; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

1996-03-01

393

Rice LGD1 containing RNA binding activity affects growth and development through alternative promoters.  

PubMed

Tiller initiation and panicle development are important agronomical traits for grain production in Oryza sativa L. (rice), but their regulatory mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, T-DNA mutant and RNAi transgenic approaches were used to functionally characterize a unique rice gene, LAGGING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 1 (LGD1). The lgd1 mutant showed slow growth, reduced tiller number and plant height, altered panicle architecture and reduced grain yield. The fewer unelongated internodes and cells in lgd1 led to respective reductions in tiller number and to semi-dwarfism. Several independent LGD1-RNAi lines exhibited defective phenotypes similar to those observed in lgd1. Interestingly, LGD1 encodes multiple transcripts with different transcription start sites (TSSs), which were validated by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' and 3' cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). Additionally, GUS assays and a luciferase promoter assay confirmed the promoter activities of LGD1.1 and LGD1.5. LGD1 encoding a von Willebrand factor type A (vWA) domain containing protein is a single gene in rice that is seemingly specific to grasses. GFP-tagged LGD1 isoforms were predominantly detected in the nucleus, and weakly in the cytoplasm. In vitro northwestern analysis showed the RNA-binding activity of the recombinant C-terminal LGD1 protein. Our results demonstrated that LGD1 pleiotropically regulated rice vegetative growth and development through both the distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns of its multiple transcripts and RNA binding activity. Hence, the study of LGD1 will strengthen our understanding of the molecular basis of the multiple transcripts, and their corresponding polypeptides with RNA binding activity, that regulate pleiotropic effects in rice. PMID:22409537

Thangasamy, Saminathan; Chen, Pei-Wei; Lai, Ming-Hsing; Chen, Jychian; Jauh, Guang-Yuh

2012-07-01

394

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 18 signals through FGF receptor 3 to promote chondrogenesis.  

PubMed

Signaling by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 18 and FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) have been shown to regulate proliferation, differentiation, and matrix production of articular and growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Notably, the congenital absence of either FGF18 or FGFR3 resulted in similar expansion of the growth plates of fetal mice and the addition of FGF18 to human articular chondrocytes in culture enhanced proliferation and matrix production. Based on these and other experiments it has been proposed that FGF18 signals through FGFR3 to promote cartilage production by chondrocytes. Its role in chondrogenesis remains to be defined. In the current work we used the limb buds of FGFR3(+/+) and FGFR3(-/-) embryonic mice as a source of mesenchymal cells to determine how FGF18 signaling affects chondrogenesis. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy demonstrated impaired cartilage nodule formation in the FGFR3(-/-) cultures. Potential contributing factors to the phenotype were identified as impaired mitogenic response to FGF18, decreased production of type II collagen and proteoglycan in response to FGF18 stimulation, impaired interactions with the extracellular matrix resulting from altered integrin receptor expression, and altered expression of FGFR1 and FGFR2. The data identified FGF18 as a selective ligand for FGFR3 in limb bud mesenchymal cells, which suppressed proliferation and promoted their differentiation and production of cartilage matrix. This work, thus, identifies FGF18 and FGFR3 as potential molecular targets for intervention in tissue engineering aimed at cartilage repair and regeneration of damaged cartilage. PMID:15781473

Davidson, David; Blanc, Antoine; Filion, Dominic; Wang, Huifen; Plut, Paul; Pfeffer, Gerald; Buschmann, Michael D; Henderson, Janet E

2005-05-27

395

Rhizobacteria-Mediated Growth Promotion of Tomato Leads to Protection Against Cucumber mosaic virus.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT We evaluated combinations of two strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) formulated with the carrier chitosan for the ability to induce growth promotion of tomato plants and resistance to infection by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Each PGPR combination included GB03 (Bacillus subtilis) and one of the following PGPR strains: SE34 (B. pumilus), IN937a (B. amyloliquefaciens), IN937b (B. subtilis), INR7 (B. pumilus), or T4 (B. pumilus). The PGPR combinations formulated with chitosan are referred to as biopreparations. Tomato plants treated with each of the biopreparations appeared phenotypically and developmentally similar to nonbacterized control plants that were 10 days older (referred to as the older control). When plants were challenged with CMV, all plants in the biopreparation treatments and the older control treatment had significantly greater height, fresh weight, and flower and fruit numbers than that of plants in the CMV-inoculated same age control treatment. CMV disease severity ratings were significantly lower for biopreparation-treated and older control tomato plants than for that of same age control plants at 14 and 28 days postinoculation (dpi). CMV accumulation in young noninoculated leaves was significantly less for all biopreparation-treated plants and those in the older control than for the same age control plants at 14 dpi and for four of the five biopreparation treatments at 28 dpi. In those tomato plants shown to be infected, the amount of CMV in noninoculated leaves was significantly lower for three of the biopreparation treatments and the older control treatment at 14 dpi and biopreparation G/INR7 treatment at 28 dpi when compared with the control treatment. These data show that treatment of tomato plants with biopreparations results in significant enhancement of growth and protection against infection by CMV. PMID:18944330

Murphy, John F; Reddy, M S; Ryu, Choong-Min; Kloepper, Joseph W; Li, Ruhui

2003-10-01

396

Silencing DACH1 promotes esophageal cancer growth by inhibiting TGF-? signaling.  

PubMed

Human Dachshund homologue 1 (DACH1) is a major component of the Retinal Determination Gene Network. Loss of DACH1 expression was found in breast, prostate, lung, endometrial, colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma. To explore the expression, regulation and function of DACH1 in human esophageal cancer, 11 esophageal cancer cell lines, 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa, 51 cases of different grades of dysplasia and 104 cases of primary esophageal squamous cancer were employed. Methylation specific PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot, flow cytometry, small interfering RNAs, colony formation techniques and xenograft mice model were used. We found that DACH1 expression was regulated by promoter region hypermethylation in esophageal cancer cell lines. 18.8% (6 of 32) of grade 1, 42.1% (8 of 19) of grade 2 and grade 3 dysplasia (ED2,3), and 61.5% (64 of 104) of esophageal cancer were methylated, but no methylation was found in 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa. The methylation was increased in progression tendency during esophageal carcinogenesis (P<0.01). DACH1 methylation was associated with poor differentiation (P<0.05) and late tumor stage (P<0.05). Restoration of DACH1 expression inhibited cell growth and activated TGF-? signaling in KYSE150 and KYSE510 cells. DACH1 suppressed human esophageal cancer cell tumor growth in xenograft mice. In conclusion, DACH1 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer and methylation of DACH1 is involved in the early stage of esophageal carcinogenesis. DACH1 expression is regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. DACH1 suppresses esophageal cancer growth by activating TGF-? signaling. PMID:24743895

Wu, Liang; Herman, James G; Brock, Malcolm V; Wu, Kongming; Mao, Gaoping; Yan, Wenji; Nie, Yan; Liang, Hao; Zhan, Qimin; Li, Wen; Guo, Mingzhou

2014-01-01

397

Silencing DACH1 Promotes Esophageal Cancer Growth by Inhibiting TGF-? Signaling  

PubMed Central

Human Dachshund homologue 1 (DACH1) is a major component of the Retinal Determination Gene Network. Loss of DACH1 expression was found in breast, prostate, lung, endometrial, colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma. To explore the expression, regulation and function of DACH1 in human esophageal cancer, 11 esophageal cancer cell lines, 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa, 51 cases of different grades of dysplasia and 104 cases of primary esophageal squamous cancer were employed. Methylation specific PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot, flow cytometry, small interfering RNAs, colony formation techniques and xenograft mice model were used. We found that DACH1 expression was regulated by promoter region hypermethylation in esophageal cancer cell lines. 18.8% (6 of 32) of grade 1, 42.1% (8 of 19) of grade 2 and grade 3 dysplasia (ED2,3), and 61.5% (64 of 104) of esophageal cancer were methylated, but no methylation was found in 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa. The methylation was increased in progression tendency during esophageal carcinogenesis (P<0.01). DACH1 methylation was associated with poor differentiation (P<0.05) and late tumor stage (P<0.05). Restoration of DACH1 expression inhibited cell growth and activated TGF-? signaling in KYSE150 and KYSE510 cells. DACH1 suppressed human esophageal cancer cell tumor growth in xenograft mice. In conclusion, DACH1 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer and methylation of DACH1 is involved in the early stage of esophageal carcinogenesis. DACH1 expression is regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. DACH1 suppresses esophageal cancer growth by activating TGF-? signaling. PMID:24743895

Wu, Liang; Herman, James G.; Brock, Malcolm V.; Wu, Kongming; Mao, Gaoping; Yan, Wenji; Nie, Yan; Liang, Hao; Zhan, Qimin; Li, Wen; Guo, Mingzhou

2014-01-01

398

Promoting blood vessel growth in ischemic diseases: challenges in translating preclinical potential into clinical success  

PubMed Central

Angiogenic therapy, which involves the use of an exogenous stimulus to promote blood vessel growth, is an attractive approach for the treatment of ischemic diseases. It has been shown in animal models that the stimulation of blood vessel growth leads to the growth of the whole vascular tree, improvement of ischemic tissue perfusion and improved muscle aerobic energy metabolism. However, very few positive results have been gained from Phase 2 and 3 clinical angiogenesis trials. Many reasons have been given for the failures of clinical trials, including poor transgene expression (in gene-therapy trials) and instability of the vessels induced by therapy. In this Review, we discuss the selection of preclinical models as one of the main reasons why clinical translation has been unsuccessful thus far. This issue has received little attention, but could have had dramatic implications on the expectations of clinical trials. We highlight crucial differences between human patients and animal models with regards to blood flow and pressure, as well as issues concerning the chronic nature of ischemic diseases in humans. We use these as examples to demonstrate why the results from preclinical trials might have overestimated the efficacy of angiogenic therapies developed to date. We also suggest ways in which currently available animal models of ischemic disease could be improved to better mimic human disease conditions, and offer advice on how to work with existing models to avoid overestimating the efficacy of new angiogenic therapies. PMID:23471910

Dragneva, Galina; Korpisalo, Petra; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

2013-01-01

399

N2-fixation and seedling growth promotion of lodgepole pine by endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa.  

PubMed

We inoculated lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia (Dougl.) Engelm.) with Paenibacillus polymyxa P2b-2R, a diazotrophic bacterium previously isolated from internal stem tissue of a naturally regenerating pine seedling to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation and seedling growth promotion by this microorganism. Seedlings generated from pine seed inoculated with strain P2b-2R were grown for up to 13 months in a N-limited soil mix containing 0.7 mM available N labeled as Ca((15)NO3)2 to facilitate detection of N2-fixation. Strain P2b-2R developed a persistent endophytic population comprising 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1) plant tissue inside pine roots, stems, and needles during the experiment. At the end of the growth period, P2b-2R had reduced seedling mortality by 14 % and (15)N foliar N abundance 79 % and doubled foliar N concentration and seedling biomass compared to controls. Our results suggest that N2-fixation by P. polymyxa enhanced growth of pine seedlings and support the hypothesis that plant-associated diazotrophs capable of endophytic colonization can satisfy a significant proportion of the N required by tree seedlings growing under N-limited conditions. PMID:23420205

Anand, Richa; Grayston, Susan; Chanway, Christopher

2013-08-01

400

Pttg1 inhibits TGF? signaling in breast cancer cells to promote their growth.  

PubMed

Increased expression of Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 (Pttg1) has been shown in various tumor cells, including breast cancer (BC). However, the precise role of Pttg1 in the tumorigenesis is not clarified yet. Here, we examined BC from the patients and detected significant increases and correlation in Pttg1 and phosphorylated SMAD3 (pSMAD3), a key effector of activated transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) receptor signaling pathway. Pttg1 levels were then modulated by transgene or small hairpin RNA (shRNA) in a human BC cell line, BT474, respectively. We found that Pttg1 overexpression increased the proliferation of BC cells in vitro and in vivo, while Pttg1 inhibition decreased proliferation of BC cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, phosphorylation of SMAD3 by TGF?1 was significantly inhibited by Pttg1 overexpression, suggesting that Pttg1 may promote growth of BC cells by inhibiting pSMAD3-mediated cell-growth inhibition. Thus, Pttg1 appears to be a novel therapeutic target for controlling the tumorigenesis of BC. PMID:25227666

Zhang, Guofeng; Zhao, Qicheng; Yu, Songlin; Lin, Rui; Yi, Xianghua

2015-01-01

401

The Role of NELL-1, a Growth Factor Associated with Craniosynostosis, in Promoting Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Efforts to enhance bone regeneration in orthopedic and dental cases have grown steadily for the past decade, in line with increasingly sophisticated regenerative medicine. To meet the unprecedented demand for novel osteospecific growth factors with fewer adverse effects compared with those of existing adjuncts such as BMPs, our group has identified a craniosynostosis-associated secreted molecule, NELL-1, which is a potent growth factor that is highly specific to the osteochondral lineage, and has demonstrated robust induction of bone in multiple in vivo models from rodents to pre-clinical large animals. NELL-1 is preferentially expressed in osteoblasts under direct transcriptional control of Runx2, and is well-regulated during skeletal development. NELL-1/Nell-1 can promote orthotopic bone regeneration via either intramembranous or endochondral ossification, both within and outside of the craniofacial complex. Unlike BMP-2, Nell-1 cannot initiate ectopic bone formation in muscle, but can induce bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to form bone in a mouse muscle pouch model, exhibiting specificity that BMPs lack. In addition, synergistic osteogenic effects of Nell-1 and BMP combotherapy have been observed, and are likely due to distinct differences in their signaling pathways. NELL-1's unique role as a novel osteoinductive growth factor makes it an attractive alternative with promise for future clinical applications. [Note: NELL-1 and NELL-1 indicate the human gene and protein, respectively; Nell-1 and Nell-1 indicate the mouse gene and protein, respectively.] PMID:20647499

Zhang, X.; Zara, J.; Siu, R.K.; Ting, K.; Soo, C.

2010-01-01

402

Multiple Roles of Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 2 in Promoting Prostate Cancer Growth  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer continues to be the most common nonskin cancer diagnosed and the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States. Prostate cancer that has metastasized to bone remains incurable. The interactions between prostate cancer cells and the various cells of the host microenvironment result in enhanced growth of tumor cells and activation of host cells that together culminate in osteoblastic bone metastases. These dynamic tumor–host interactions are mediated by cancer and host-produced cytokines and chemokines. Among them, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) has been identified as a prominent modulator of metastatic growth in the bone microenvironment. CCL2 is produced by bone marrow osteoblasts, endothelial cells, stromal cells, and prostate cancer cells. It has been demonstrated to modulate tumor-associated macrophage migration and promote osteoclast maturation. In addition, CCL2 functions through binding to its receptor CCR2 to induce prostate cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in both autocrine and paracrine manners. CCL2 protects prostate cancer cells from autophagic death by activating survivin through a PI3K/AKT (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B)–dependent mechanism. Inhibition of CCL2 substantially decreases macrophage infiltration, decreases osteoclast function, and inhibits prostate cancer growth in bone in preclinical animal models. The multiple roles of CCL2 in the tumor microenvironment make it an attractive therapeutic target in metastatic prostate cancer as well as in other cancers. PMID:20233997

Zhang, Jian; Lu, Yi

2010-01-01

403

Tumor fibroblast-derived epiregulin promotes growth of colitis-associated neoplasms through ERK.  

PubMed

Molecular mechanisms specific to colitis-associated cancers have been poorly characterized. Using comparative whole-genome expression profiling, we observed differential expression of epiregulin (EREG) in mouse models of colitis-associated, but not sporadic, colorectal cancer. Similarly, EREG expression was significantly upregulated in cohorts of patients with colitis-associated cancer. Furthermore, tumor-associated fibroblasts were identified as a major source of EREG in colitis-associated neoplasms. Functional studies showed that Ereg-deficient mice, although more prone to colitis, were strongly protected from colitis-associated tumors. Serial endoscopic studies revealed that EREG promoted tumor growth rather than initiation. Additionally, we demonstrated that fibroblast-derived EREG requires ERK activation to induce proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and tumor development in vivo. To demonstrate the functional relevance of EREG-producing tumor-associated fibroblasts, we developed a novel system for adoptive transfer of these cells via mini-endoscopic local injection. It was found that transfer of EREG-producing, but not Ereg-deficient, fibroblasts from tumors significantly augmented growth of colitis-associated neoplasms in vivo. In conclusion, our data indicate that EREG and tumor-associated fibroblasts play a crucial role in controlling tumor growth in colitis-associated neoplasms. PMID:23549083

Neufert, Clemens; Becker, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Waldner, Maximilian J; Backert, Ingo; Floh, Katharina; Atreya, Imke; Leppkes, Moritz; Jefremow, Andre; Vieth, Michael; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Klinger, Patricia; Greten, Florian R; Threadgill, David W; Sahin, Ugur; Neurath, Markus F

2013-04-01

404

Bone marrow adipocytes promote tumor growth in bone via FABP4-dependent mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Incidence of skeletal metastases and death from prostate cancer greatly increases with age and obesity, conditions which increase marrow adiposity. Bone marrow adipocytes are metabolically active components of bone metastatic niche that modulate the function of neighboring cells; yet the mechanisms of their involvement in tumor behavior in bone have not been explored. In this study, using experimental models of intraosseous tumor growth and diet-induced obesity, we demonstrate the promoting effects of marrow fat on growth and progression of skeletal prostate tumors. We reveal that exposure to lipids supplied by marrow adipocytes induces expression of lipid chaperone FABP4, pro-inflammatory interleukin IL-1?, and oxidative stress protein HMOX-1 in metastatic tumor cells and stimulates their growth and invasiveness. We show that FABP4 is highly overexpressed in prostate skeletal tumors from obese mice and in bone metastasis samples from prostate cancer patients. In addition, we provide results suggestive of bi-directional interaction between FABP4 and PPAR? pathways that may be driving aggressive tumor cell behavior in bone. Together, our data provide evidence for functional relationship between bone marrow adiposity and metastatic prostate cancers and unravel the FABP4/IL-1? axis as a potential therapeutic target for this presently incurable disease. PMID:24240026

Herroon, Mackenzie K.; Rajagurubandara, Erandi; Hardaway, Aimalie L.; Powell, Katelyn; Turchick, Audrey; Feldmann, Daniel; Podgorski, Izabela

2013-01-01

405

Pharmacodynamics of curcumin as DNA hypomethylation agent in restoring the expression of Nrf2 via promoter CpGs demethylation.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most deadly malignancies among men in the United States. Although localized prostate cancer can be effectively treated via surgery or radiation, metastatic disease is usually lethal. Recent evidence suggests that the development and progression of human prostate cancer involves complex interplay between epigenetic alterations and genetic defects. We have recently demonstrated that Nrf2, a master regulator of cellular antioxidant defense systems, was epigenetically silenced during the progression of prostate tumorigenesis in TRAMP mice. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of curcumin (CUR), a dietary compound that we have reported to be able to prevent the development of prostate cancer in TRAMP mice, as a DNA hypomethylation agent. Using bisulfite genomic sequencing (BGS), treatment of TRAMP C1 cells we showed that CUR reversed the methylation status of the first 5 CpGs in the promoter region of the Nrf2 gene. Methylation DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) analysis revealed that CUR significantly reduced the anti-mecyt antibody binding to the first 5 CpGs of the Nrf2 promoter, corroborated the BGS results. Demethylation of Nrf2 was found to be associated with the re-expression of Nrf2 and one of its downstream target gene, NQO-1, one of the major anti-oxidative stress enzymes, both at the mRNA and protein levels. Taken together, our current study suggests that CUR can elicit its prostate cancer chemopreventive effect, potentially at least in part, through epigenetic modification of the Nrf2 gene with its subsequent induction of the Nrf2-mediated anti-oxidative stress cellular defense pathway. PMID:21787756

Khor, Tin Oo; Huang, Ying; Wu, Tien-Yuan; Shu, Limin; Lee, Jonghun; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

2011-11-01

406

Developing microbe-plant interactions for applications in plant-growth promotion and disease control, production of useful compounds, remediation, and carbon sequestration  

E-print Network

the growth and endogenous hormone content of lettuce plants.Plant-Growth Promotion and Disease Control, Production of Useful Compounds, Remediation, and Carbon Sequestration hormonesPlant-Growth Promotion and Disease Control, Production of Useful Compounds, Remediation, and Carbon Sequestration Cytokinins constitute a group of plant hormones

Bernard, S.

2009-01-01

407

Effect of metal tolerant plant growth promoting bacteria on growth and metal accumulation in Zea mays plants grown in fly ash amended soil.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of the application of fly ash (FA) into Garden soil (GS), with and without inoculation of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), on the growth and metal uptake by Zea mays plants. Three FA tolerant PGPB strains, Pseudomonas sp. PS5, PS14, and Bacillus sp. BC29 were isolated from FA contaminated soils and assessed for their plant growth promoting features on the Z. mays plants. All three strains were also examined for their ability to solubilize phosphate and to produce Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), siderophores, and hydrogencynide acid (HCN) production. Although inoculation of all strains significantly enhanced the growth of plants at both the concentration of FA but maximum growth was observed in plants inoculated with BC29 and PS14 at low level (25%) of FA concentration. The experimental results explored the plant growth promoting features of selected strains which not only enhanced growth and biomass of plants but also protected them from toxicity of FA. PMID:23819272

Kumar, Kalpna V; Patra, D D

2013-01-01

408

Sequential Platelet-Derived Growth Factor–Simvastatin Release Promotes Dentoalveolar Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Timely augmentation of the physiological events of dentoalveolar repair is a prerequisite for the optimization of the outcome of regeneration. This study aimed to develop a treatment strategy to promote dentoalveolar regeneration by the combined delivery of the early mitogenic factor platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and the late osteogenic differentiation factor simvastatin. Materials and Methods: By using the coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomization technique, PDGF and simvastatin were encapsulated in a double-walled poly(d,l-lactide) and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLLA–PLGA) microspheres in five different modes: microspheres encapsulating bovine serum albumin (BB), PDGF alone (XP), simvastatin alone (SB), PDGF-in-core and simvastatin-in-shell (PS), and simvastatin-in-core and PDGF-in-shell (SP). The microspheres were characterized using scanning electronic microscopy, and the in vitro release profile was evaluated. Microspheres were delivered to fill large osteotomy sites on rat maxillae for 14 and 28 days, and the outcome of regeneration was evaluated by microcomputed tomography and histological assessments. Results: Uniform 20-?m controlled release microspheres were successfully fabricated. Parallel PDGF–simvastatin release was noted in the PS group, and the fast release of PDGF followed by the slow release of simvastatin was noted in the SP group. The promotion of osteogenesis was observed in XP, PS, and SP groups at day 14, whereas the SP group demonstrated the greatest bone fill, trabecular numbers, and thickest trabeculae. Bone bridging was evident in the PS and SP group, with significantly increased osteoblasts in the SP group, and osteoclastic cell recruitment was promoted in all bioactive molecule-treated groups. At day 28, osteogenesis was promoted in all bioactive molecule-treated groups. Initial corticalization was noted in the XP, PS, and SP groups. Osteoblasts appeared to be decreased in all groups, and significantly, a greater osteoclastic cell recruitment was noted in the SB and SP groups. Conclusions: Both PDGF and simvastatin facilitate dentoalveolar regeneration, and sequential PDGF–simvastatin release (SP group) further accelerated the regeneration process through the enhancement of osteoblastogenesis and the promotion of bone maturation. PMID:23980713

Chong, Li Yen; Dovban, Alex S.M.; Lim, Lum Peng; Lim, Jason C.; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping; Wang, Chi-Hwa

2014-01-01

409

Developing microbe-plant interactions for applications in plant-growth promotion and disease control, production of useful compounds, remediation, and carbon sequestration  

E-print Network

constitute a group of plant hormones that promote celland endogenous hormone content of lettuce plants. Plant SoilPlant-Growth Promotion and Disease Control, Production of Useful Compounds, Remediation, and Carbon Sequestration hormones

Bernard, S.

2009-01-01

410

Secreted Pyomelanin of Legionella pneumophila Promotes Bacterial Iron Uptake and Growth under Iron-Limiting Conditions  

PubMed Central

Iron acquisition is critical to the growth and virulence of Legionella pneumophila. Previously, we found that L. pneumophila uses both a ferrisiderophore pathway and ferrous iron transport to obtain iron. We now report that two molecules secreted by L. pneumophila, homogentisic acid (HGA) and its polymerized variant (HGA-melanin, a pyomelanin), are able to directly mediate the reduction of various ferric iron salts. Furthermore, HGA, synthetic HGA-melanin, and HGA-melanin derived from bacterial supernatants enhanced the ability of L. pneumophila and other species of Legionella to take up radiolabeled iron. Enhanced iron uptake was not observed with a ferrous iron transport mutant. Thus, HGA and HGA-melanin mediate ferric iron reduction, with the resulting ferrous iron being available to the bacterium for uptake. Upon further testing of L. pneumophila culture supernatants, we found that significant amounts of ferric and ferrous iron were associated with secreted HGA-melanin. Importantly, a pyomelanin-containing fraction obtained from a wild-type culture supernatant was able to stimulate the growth of iron-starved legionellae. That the corresponding supernatant fraction obtained from a nonpigmented mutant culture did not stimulate growth demonstrated that HGA-melanin is able to both promote iron uptake and enhance growth under iron-limiting conditions. Indicative of a complementary role in iron acquisition, HGA-melanin levels were inversely related to the levels of siderophore activity. Compatible with a role in the ecology and pathogenesis of L. pneumophila, HGA and HGA-melanin were effective at reducing and releasing iron from both insoluble ferric hydroxide and the mammalian iron chelates ferritin and transferrin. PMID:23980114

Zheng, Huaixin; Chatfield, Christa H.; Liles, Mark R.

2013-01-01

411

Effect of pesticides on plant growth promoting traits of greengram-symbiont, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain MRM6.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of herbicides (metribuzin and glyphosate), insecticides (imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) and fungicides (hexaconazole, metalaxyl and kitazin) at the recommended and the higher dose rates on plant growth promoting activities of Bradyrhizobium sp. under in vitro conditions. The Bradyrhizobium sp. strain MRM6 was isolated from nodules of greengram plants. Pesticide-concentration dependent progressive-decline was observed in plant growth promoting traits of the strain MRM6 apart from exo-polysaccharides which increased consistently on increasing pesticide concentrations. Generally, the highest toxicity to plant growth promoting characteristics of the Bradyrhizobium sp. strain MRM6 was observed when the strain MRM6 was grown with three times the recommended field rates of glyphosate, imidacloprid and hexaconazole. PMID:21359648

Ahemad, Munees; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

2011-04-01

412

Expression of SATB1 promotes the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (SATB1) has been identified as a genome organizer that reprograms chromatin organization and transcription profiles. SATB1 promotes tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis in