Sample records for growth promoting agents

  1. Endophytic Actinomycetes: Biocontrol Agents and Growth Promoters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masafumi Shimizu

    \\u000a Diverse endophytic microbes construct complex interactions with their living hosts. Some are mutually supportive and others\\u000a parasitic, giving a large influence to plant health. Endophytic actinomycetes have attracted interest of microbiologists,\\u000a agrochemists and pharmacologists as the promising producers of novel antibiotics, growth promoters, and lead compounds to\\u000a develop new medicines and agrochemicals. Although the fruits of basic research concerning these

  2. Hormonal growth promoting agents in food producing animals.

    PubMed

    Stephany, Rainer W

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the use of hormonal doping agents in sports to enhance the performance of athletes, in the livestock industry hormonal growth promoters ("anabolics") are used to increase the production of muscle meat. This leads to international disputes about the safety of meat originating from animals treated with such anabolics.As a consequence of the total ban in the EU of all hormonal active growth promoters ("hormones") in livestock production, in contrast to their legal use [e.g. of five such hormones (17beta-estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, trenbolone and zeranol) as small solid ear implants and two hormones as feed additives for feedlot heifers (melengestrol acetate) and for swine (ractopamine) in the USA], the regulatory controls also differ sharply between the EU and the USA.In the EU the treatment of slaughter animals is the regulatory offence that has to be controlled in inspection programs. In the USA testing for compliance of a regulatory maximum residue level in the edible product (muscle, fat, liver or kidney) is the purpose of the inspection program (if any).The EU inspection programs focus on sample materials that are more suitable for testing for banned substances, especially if the animals are still on the farm, such as urine and feces or hair. In the case of slaughtered animals, the more favored sample materials are bile, blood, eyes and sometimes liver. Only in rare occasions is muscle meat sampled. This happens only in the case of import controls or in monitoring programs of meat sampled in butcher shops or supermarkets.As a result, data on hormone concentrations in muscle meat samples from the EU market are very rare and are obtained in most cases from small programs on an ad hoc basis. EU data for natural hormones in meat are even rarer because of the absence of "legal natural levels" for these hormones in compliance testing. With the exception of samples from the application sites - in the EU the site of injection of liquid hormone preparations or the site of application of "pour on" preparations - the hormone concentrations observed in meat samples of illegally treated animals are typically in the range of a few micrograms per kilogram (ppb) down to a few tenths of a microgram per kilogram. In the EU dozens of illegal hormones are used and the number of active compounds is still expanding. Besides estrogenic, androgenic and progestagenic compounds also thyreostatic, corticosteroidal and beta-adrenergic compounds are used alone or in "smart" combinations.An overview is given of the compounds identified on the EU black market. An estimate is also given of the probability of consumption in the EU of "highly" contaminated meat from the application sites in cattle. Finally some data are presented on the concentration of estradiol in bovine meat from animals treated and not treated with hormone implants. These data are compared with the recent findings for estradiol concentrations in hen's eggs. From this comparison, the preliminary conclusion is that hen's eggs are the major source of 17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol in the consumer's daily "normal" diet. PMID:20020373

  3. Characterization of the bioactive metabolites from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and their exploitation as antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting agents.

    PubMed

    George, Emrin; Kumar, S Nishanth; Jacob, Jubi; Bommasani, Bhaskara; Lankalapalli, Ravi S; Morang, P; Kumar, B S Dileep

    2015-05-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterial strain, PM 105, isolated from a tea plantation soil from the North Eastern region of India was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa through classical and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. Further studies with this strain confirmed broad spectrum antifungal activity against ten human and plant pathogenic fungal pathogens viz. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Candida albicans, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Pencillium expansum, Rhizoctonia solani, Trichophyton rubrum besides growth-promoting property in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). However, no antibacterial property was exhibited by this strain against the four test bacterial pathogens tested in agar overlay method. The crude bioactive metabolites produced by this strain were isolated with three different solvents that exhibited significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Chloroform extract recorded significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Three major compounds viz. 1-hydroxyphenazine, pyocyanin, and phenazine-1-carboxamide were purified and characterized from crude extracts of this strain by various spectral data. The purified compounds recorded prominent antimicrobial activity but failed to establish the plant growth promotion activity in test crop plants under gnotobiotic conditions. Pyocyanin recorded significant antimicrobial activity, and best activity was recorded against T. rubrum (29 mm), followed by P. expansum (28 mm). These results suggest the use of PM 105 as plant growth-promoting agent in crop plants after successful field trials. PMID:25832181

  4. Analytical strategies for residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents in food-producing animals—a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. M. Stolker; U. A. Th. Brinkman

    2005-01-01

    After a brief introduction into the field of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents, the most important EU regulations and directives for the inspection of food-producing animals and animal products regarding the residue control of these substances are presented and discussed. Main attention in the review is on the methods of analysis in use today for the most important classes of

  5. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production trait, a useful screening to select endophytic and rhizosphere competent bacteria for rice growth promoting agents

    PubMed Central

    Etesami, Hassan; Alikhani, Hossein Ali; Hosseini, Hossein Mirseyed

    2015-01-01

    Plants select plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that are competitively fit to occupy compatible niches without causing pathological stress on them. However, when screening bacteria for plant growth promoting (PGP) agents, it is better to select bacteria for achieving the most promising isolates having suitable colonization and PGP traits. In most researches, it has been seen that following incubation, bacterial flora are taken at random from petri dishes for further study. However, this type of selection may remove some superior bacteria in terms of PGP traits and high colonization ability. Therefore, it is essential to study all the isolated bacteria in an economic way and select the best bacteria in terms of PGP traits and high colonization rate. A simple screening method to detect endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria, isolated from the plants in rotation with rice, for rice PGP agents based on a root colonization bioassay and a PGP trait is characterized. • Selected bacterial isolates based on their IAA producing trait have the potential for more PGP and colonization of rice plant. • IAA may be the first PGP trait for screening bacteria isolated from plant rotated with rice for rice PGP agents. • The screening procedure appears to be very effective and less time consuming. PMID:26150974

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of a Natural Root Isolate, Bacillus subtilis UD1022, a Potential Plant Growth-Promoting Biocontrol Agent

    PubMed Central

    Bishnoi, Usha; Polson, Shawn W.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis, which belongs to the phylum Firmicutes, is the most widely studied Gram-positive model organism. It is found in a wide variety of environments and is particularly abundant in soils and in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants and humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the newly described B. subtilis strain UD1022. The UD1022 genome consists of a 4.025-Mbp chromosome, and other major findings from our analysis will provide insights into the genomic basis of it being a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with biocontrol potential. PMID:26159522

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of a Natural Root Isolate, Bacillus subtilis UD1022, a Potential Plant Growth-Promoting Biocontrol Agent.

    PubMed

    Bishnoi, Usha; Polson, Shawn W; Sherrier, D Janine; Bais, Harsh P

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis, which belongs to the phylum Firmicutes, is the most widely studied Gram-positive model organism. It is found in a wide variety of environments and is particularly abundant in soils and in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants and humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the newly described B. subtilis strain UD1022. The UD1022 genome consists of a 4.025-Mbp chromosome, and other major findings from our analysis will provide insights into the genomic basis of it being a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with biocontrol potential. PMID:26159522

  8. Engineered collagen hydrogels for the sustained release of biomolecules and imaging agents: promoting the growth of human gingival cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jonghoon; Park, Hoyoung; Kim, Taeho; Jeong, Yoon; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Gilad, Assaf A; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2014-01-01

    We present here the in vitro release profiles of either fluorescently labeled biomolecules or computed tomography contrast nanoagents from engineered collagen hydrogels under physiological conditions. The collagen constructs were designed as potential biocompatible inserts into wounded human gingiva. The collagen hydrogels were fabricated under a variety of conditions in order to optimize the release profile of biomolecules and nanoparticles for the desired duration and amount. The collagen constructs containing biomolecules/nanoconstructs were incubated under physiological conditions (ie, 37°C and 5% CO2) for 24 hours, and the release profile was tuned from 20% to 70% of initially loaded materials by varying the gelation conditions of the collagen constructs. The amounts of released biomolecules and nanoparticles were quantified respectively by measuring the intensity of fluorescence and X-ray scattering. The collagen hydrogel we fabricated may serve as an efficient platform for the controlled release of biomolecules and imaging agents in human gingiva to facilitate the regeneration of oral tissues. PMID:25429215

  9. Characterization of a novel plant growth-promoting bacteria strain Delftia tsuruhatensis HR4 both as a diazotroph and a potential biocontrol agent against various plant pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jigang Han; Lei Sun; Xiuzhu Dong; Zhengqiu Cai; Xiaolu Sun; Hailian Yang; Yunshan Wang; Wei Song

    2005-01-01

    A novel, plant growth-promoting bacterium Delftia tsuruhatensis, strain HR4, was isolated from the rhizoplane of rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Yueguang) in North China. In vitro antagonistic assay showed this strain could suppress the growth of various plant pathogens effectively, especially the three main rice pathogens (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani and Pyricularia oryzae Cavara). Treated with strain HR4

  10. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Lugtenberg, Ben; Kamilova, Faina

    2009-01-01

    Several microbes promote plant growth, and many microbial products that stimulate plant growth have been marketed. In this review we restrict ourselves to bacteria that are derived from and exert this effect on the root. Such bacteria are generally designated as PGPR (plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria). The beneficial effects of these rhizobacteria on plant growth can be direct or indirect. This review begins with describing the conditions under which bacteria live in the rhizosphere. To exert their beneficial effects, bacteria usually must colonize the root surface efficiently. Therefore, bacterial traits required for root colonization are subsequently described. Finally, several mechanisms by which microbes can act beneficially on plant growth are described. Examples of direct plant growth promotion that are discussed include (a) biofertilization, (b) stimulation of root growth, (c) rhizoremediation, and (d) plant stress control. Mechanisms of biological control by which rhizobacteria can promote plant growth indirectly, i.e., by reducing the level of disease, include antibiosis, induction of systemic resistance, and competition for nutrients and niches. PMID:19575558

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains SF39a and SF4c, Potential Plant Growth Promotion and Biocontrol Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Lindsey K.; Underwood, Grace E.; McCully, Lucy M.; Bitzer, Adam S.; Godino, Agustina; Bucci, Vanni; Brigham, Christopher J.; Príncipe, Analía; Fischer, Sonia E.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens SF4c and SF39a, strains isolated from wheat rhizosphere, have potential applications in plant growth promotion and biocontrol of fungal diseases of crop plants. We report the draft genome sequences of SF4c and SF39a with estimated sizes of 6.5 Mb and 5.9 Mb, respectively. PMID:25814613

  12. INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE ADHERENCE WITH ORAL AGENTS

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Susan M.; Hess, Kimberly; Gosselin, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The advent of oral therapies has dramatically changed the landscape of cancer therapy. Yet the degree to which patients actually take the prescribed agents as ordered remains unknown. This article outlines the challenges that oral chemotherapy agents present to both patients and providers and suggests interventions for promoting adherence. Data Sources Published articles and web resources. Conclusion Barriers and facilitators to medication adherence are reviewed and interventions to promote medication adherence are presented. Strategies that include patient education and symptom management can promote adherence. Implications for Nursing Practice Maximizing adherence to oral chemotherapy agents can have many positive outcomes, but most important is improvement in overall survival and life expectancy. Other outcomes include improved safety and quality of life. Patients risk improper dosing and an increase in disease recurrence when there is nonadherence with medications. Correct dosing, education, and symptom management are all critical to ensuring adherence. Nursing interventions that incorporate education, early symptom identification, and reminder prompts can improve outcomes. PMID:21514482

  13. Diversity and characterization of culturable bacterial endophytes from Zea mays and their potential as plant growth-promoting agents in metal-degraded soils.

    PubMed

    Pereira, S I A; Castro, P M L

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the phylogenetic diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of Zea mays plants growing in an agricultural soil contaminated with Zn and Cd. Endophytic bacterial counts were determined in roots and shoots, and isolates were grouped by random amplified polymorphic DNA and identified by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. Endophytes were further characterized for the production of plant growth-promoting (PGP) substances, such as NH3, siderophores, indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), hydrogen cyanide and extracellular enzymes, and for the capacity to solubilize phosphate. The endophytes producing higher amounts of IAA were screened for their tolerance to Zn and Cd and used as bioinoculants for maize seedlings grown in the Zn/Cd-contaminated soil. The counts of endophytes varied between plant tissues, being higher in roots (6.48 log10 g(-1) fresh weight) when compared to shoots (5.77 log10 g(-1) fresh weight). Phylogenetic analysis showed that endophytes belong to three major groups: ?-Proteobacteria (31 %), ?-Proteobacteria (26 %) and Actinobacteria (26 %). Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, Variovorax and Curtobacterium were among the most represented genera. Endophytes were well-adapted to high Zn/Cd concentrations (up to 300 mg Cd l(-1) and 1,000 mg Zn l(-1)) and showed ability to produce several PGP traits. Strains Ochrobactrum haematophilum ZR 3-5, Acidovorax oryzae ZS 1-7, Frigoribacterium faeni ZS 3-5 and Pantoea allii ZS 3-6 increased root elongation and biomass of maize seedlings grown in soil contaminated with Cd and Zn. The endophytes isolated in this study have potential to be used in bioremediation/phytoremediation strategies. PMID:25053283

  14. Hair growth-promoting effect of Carthamus tinctorius floret extract.

    PubMed

    Junlatat, Jintana; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2014-07-01

    The florets of Carthamus tinctorius L. have traditionally been used for hair growth promotion. This study aimed to examine the potential of hydroxysafflor yellow A-rich C.?tinctorius extract (CTE) on hair growth both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of CTE on cell proliferation and hair growth-associated gene expression in dermal papilla cells and keratinocytes (HaCaT) was determined. In addition, hair follicles from mouse neonates were isolated and cultured in media supplemented with CTE. Moreover, CTE was applied topically on the hair-shaved skin of female C57BL/6 mice, and the histological profile of the skin was investigated. C.?tinctorius floret ethanolic extract promoted the proliferation of both dermal papilla cells and HaCaT and significantly stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor and keratinocyte growth factor. In contrast, CTE suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-?1 that is the hair loss-related gene. Furthermore, CTE treatment resulted in a significant increase in the length of cultured hair follicles and stimulated the growth of hair with local effects in mice. The results provided the preclinical data to support the potential use of CTE as a hair growth-promoting agent. PMID:24338940

  15. Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. III. Alternatives to antibiotic growth promotants

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. III. Alternatives to antibiotic growth) Abstract - On the basis of improving effects of antibiotic growth promoters in pigs and poultry being / antibiotic / pig / poultry / alternatives to antibiotics Résumé - Les promoteurs de croissance dans l

  16. Using Community Health Workers in Community-Based Growth Promotion: What Stakeholders Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afulani, Patience A.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Opoku, Ernest C.; Asunka, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Nutrition and Malaria Control for Child Survival Project is a community-based growth promotion project that utilizes Community Health Workers (CHWs), referred to as Community Child Growth Promoters (CCGPs), as the principal change agents. The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of key stakeholders about the project and the role…

  17. Growth monitoring and the promotion of breastfeeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Behague

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating the efficacy of growth monitoring programs have scrutinized their educational and preventive capabilities. Advocates claim that growth monitoring can be effective if communities and mothers are more actively involved in the process of weighing and measuring, and if the technology is understood by all as an aid for disease prevention and health promotion rather than as a

  18. Growth Promotion of Maize (Zea mays L.) by Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria under Field Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Gholami; Atena Biyari; Manoochehr Gholipoor; Hadi Asadi Rahmani

    2012-01-01

    Plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play an important role in plant health and soil fertility. The experiment was conducted as factorial experiment with two factors of Azospirillum and Azotobacter. The bacterial strains were Azospirillum lipoferum s-21, A. brasilense DSM 1690, A. lipoferum DSM 1691, Azotobacter chroococcum s-5, and A. chroococcum DSM 2286. The results indicated that growth promotion by PGPR appears

  19. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria: Fundamentals and Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Márcia Figueiredo; Lucy Seldin; Fabio Fernando de Araujo; Rosa Mariano

    \\u000a Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have gained worldwide importance and acceptance for agricultural benefits. This\\u000a is due to the emerging demand for dependence diminishing of synthetic chemical products, to the growing necessity of sustainable\\u000a agriculture within a holistic vision of development and to focalize environmental protection. Scientific researches involve\\u000a multidisciplinary approaches to understand adaptation of PGPR, effects on plant physiology

  20. Microbial growth promotion studies of exochelin MN and analogues thereof

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Dong; Marvin J. Miller; Ute Möllmann

    2004-01-01

    The ability of exochelin MN and three synthetic analogues to promote the growth of various strains of mycobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria was investigated. The results indicated that growth promotion ability of these compounds depends either on ligand exchange with mycobactin or on the exochelin permease. Despite stronger iron complexing capacity, the structural analogues showed weaker growth promotion ability than exochelin

  1. Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sumera Afzal; Hamayun, Muhammad; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kim, Ho-Youn; Suh, Seok-Jong; Hwang, Seon-Kap; Kim, Jong-Myeong; Lee, In-Jung; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kong, Won-Sik; Lee, Byung-Moo; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2008-01-01

    Background Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake and producing growth-promoting metabolites such as gibberellins and auxins. We screened roots of Ixeris repenes (L.) A. Gray, a common dune plant, for the isolation of gibberellin secreting endophytic fungi. Results We isolated 15 endophytic fungi from the roots of Ixeris repenes and screened them for growth promoting secondary metabolites. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 gave maximum plant growth when applied to waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii seedlings. Analysis of the culture filtrate of IR-3-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 (1.95 ng/ml, 3.83 ng/ml, 6.03 ng/ml and 2.35 ng/ml, respectively) along with other physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA12, GA15, GA19, GA20 and, GA24. The plant growth promotion and gibberellin producing capacity of IR-3-3 was much higher than the wild type Gibberella fujikuroi, which was taken as control during present study. GA5, a precursor of bioactive GA3 was reported for the first time in fungi. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 was identified as a new strain of Penicillium citrinum (named as P. citrinum KACC43900) through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Conclusion Isolation of new strain of Penicillium citrinum from the sand dune flora is interesting as information on the presence of Pencillium species in coastal sand dunes is limited. The plant growth promoting ability of this fungal strain may help in conservation and revegetation of the rapidly eroding sand dune flora. Penicillium citrinum is already known for producing mycotoxin citrinin and cellulose digesting enzymes like cellulase and endoglucanase, as well as xylulase. Gibberellins producing ability of this fungus and the discovery about the presence of GA5 will open new aspects of research and investigations. PMID:19099608

  2. Promotion of Plant Growth by Bacterial ACC Deaminase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard R. Glick; Biljana Todorovic; Jennifer Czarny; Zhenyu Cheng; Jin Duan; Brendan McConkey

    2007-01-01

    To date, there has been only limited commercial use of plant growth-promoting bacteria in agriculture, horticulture, and silviculture. However, with recent progress toward understanding the mechanisms that these organisms utilize to facilitate plant growth, the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria is expected to continue to increase worldwide. One of the key mechanisms employed by plant growth-promoting bacteria to facilitate plant

  3. Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. I. Growth and feed efficiency responses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. I. Growth and feed efficiency responses growth promoters of antibiotic type authorised in the Euro- pean Union as additives for pig and poultry) growth promoter / antibiotic / pig / poultry Résumé - Les promoteurs de croissance dans l

  4. Promoted growth of murine hair follicles through controlled release of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Makoto; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether or not the controlled release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is effective in promoting the hair follicle growth of mice in second anagen of hair cycle. VEGF was incorporated into a biodegradable collagen hydrogel for its controlled release. Following implantation of the collagen hydrogel incorporating 0 or 2 microg of VEGF and injection of 0 or 2 microg of VEGF in the solution form into the back subcutis of mice, the hair follicle growth was evaluated photometrically and histologically in terms of the skin color of reverse side of the implanted or injected site, the skin thickness, and the area occupied by hair follicle tissue. Ten days later, the skin color of mice implanted with the collagen hydrogel incorporating 2 microg of VEGF was significantly darker than that injected with 2 pg of VEGF. The collagen hydrogel incorporating VEGF increased the hair follicle area at the implanted site to a significantly greater extent than other agents while significant angiogenetic effect in the skin tissue was observed. VEGF-free, empty collagen hydrogels did not affect the skin darkness, hair follicle growth, and the angiogenesis. Moreover, the hair shaft length was significantly elongated by the collagen hydrogel incorporating VEGF, in marked contrast to other agents. Immunohistolchemicalstaining with proliferating cell nuclear antigen revealed that the collagen hydrogel incorporating VEGF promoted the proliferation of cells around the hair follicle more frequently than free VEGF. We concluded that the controlled release of VEGF more positively acted on the hair growth cycle of mice for hair growth than the injection of free VEGF. PMID:12013184

  5. Ethylene Promotes Elongation Growth and Auxin Promotes Radial Growth in Ranunculus sceleratus Petioles.

    PubMed

    Smulders, M J; Horton, R F

    1991-07-01

    Submergence induces elongation in the petioles of Ranunculus sceleratus L., after a rise in endogenous ethylene levels in the tissue. Petioles of isolated leaves also elongate 100% in 24 hours when treated with ethylene gas, without a change in the radius. Application of silver thiosulfate, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), abscisic acid (ABA), or methyl jasmonate inhibits this elongation response. Gibberellic acid treatment promotes ethylene-induced elongation, without an effect on the radius. Indoelastic acid (IAA) induces radial growth in the petioles, irrespective of the presence or absence of added ethylene. High concentrations of IAA will also induce elongation growth, but this is largely due to auxin-induced ethylene synthesis; treatment with silver thiosulfate, AVG, ABA, or methyl jasmonate inhibit this auxin-promoted elongation growth. However, the radial growth induced by IAA is not affected by gibberellic acid, and not specifically inhibited by ABA, methyl jasmonate, silver thiosulfate, or AVG. These results support the idea that petiole cell elongation during "accommodation growth" can be separated from radial expansion. The radial expansion may well be regulated by IAA. However, effects of high levels of IAA are probably anomalous, since they do not mimic normal developmental patterns. PMID:16668257

  6. Ethylene Promotes Elongation Growth and Auxin Promotes Radial Growth in Ranunculus sceleratus Petioles 1

    PubMed Central

    Smulders, Marinus J. M.; Horton, Roger F.

    1991-01-01

    Submergence induces elongation in the petioles of Ranunculus sceleratus L., after a rise in endogenous ethylene levels in the tissue. Petioles of isolated leaves also elongate 100% in 24 hours when treated with ethylene gas, without a change in the radius. Application of silver thiosulfate, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), abscisic acid (ABA), or methyl jasmonate inhibits this elongation response. Gibberellic acid treatment promotes ethylene-induced elongation, without an effect on the radius. Indoelastic acid (IAA) induces radial growth in the petioles, irrespective of the presence or absence of added ethylene. High concentrations of IAA will also induce elongation growth, but this is largely due to auxin-induced ethylene synthesis; treatment with silver thiosulfate, AVG, ABA, or methyl jasmonate inhibit this auxin-promoted elongation growth. However, the radial growth induced by IAA is not affected by gibberellic acid, and not specifically inhibited by ABA, methyl jasmonate, silver thiosulfate, or AVG. These results support the idea that petiole cell elongation during “accommodation growth” can be separated from radial expansion. The radial expansion may well be regulated by IAA. However, effects of high levels of IAA are probably anomalous, since they do not mimic normal developmental patterns. PMID:16668257

  7. A natural plant growth promoter calliterpenone from a plant Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl improves the plant growth promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs).

    PubMed

    Maji, Deepamala; Barnawal, Deepti; Gupta, Aakansha; King, Shikha; Singh, A K; Kalra, A

    2013-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calliterpenone, a natural plant growth promoter from a shrub Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl., in enhancing the growth and yield promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), in menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L).This study is based on our previous results indicating the microbial growth promotion by calliterpenone and assumption that application of calliterpenone along with PGPRs will improve the population of PGPRs resulting in higher impacts on plant growth and yield. Of the 15 PGPRs (identified as potent ones in our laboratory), 25 ?l of 0.01 mM calliterpenone (8.0 ?g/100 ml) was found to be useful in improving the population of nine PGPRs in culture media. The five selected strains of PGPRs exhibiting synergy with calliterpenone in enhancing growth of maize compared to PGPR or calliterpenone alone were selected and tested on two cultivars (cvs. Kosi and Kushal) of M. arvensis. Of the five strains, Bacillus subtilis P-20 (16S rDNA sequence homologous to Accession No NR027552) and B. subtilis Daz-26 (16SrDNA sequence homologuos to Accession No GU998816) were found to be highly effective in improving the herb and essential oil yield in the cultivars Kushal and Kosi respectively when co-treated with calliterpenone. The results open up the possibilities of using a natural growth promoter along with PGPRs as a bio-agri input for sustainable and organic agriculture. PMID:23271460

  8. PROMOTING OPTIMAL MONITORING OF CHILD GROWTH IN CANADA: USING THE NEW WHO GROWTH CHARTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2010-01-01

    Growth monitoring and promotion of optimal growth are essential components of primary health care for infants and children. Serial measurements of weight, height\\/length for all children, and head circumference for infants and toddlers, compared with the growth of a large sample population of children depicted on a selected growth chart help to confirm a child's healthy growth and development. It

  9. Plant perceptions of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas.

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Gail M

    2004-01-01

    Plant-associated Pseudomonas live as saprophytes and parasites on plant surfaces and inside plant tissues. Many plant-associated Pseudomonas promote plant growth by suppressing pathogenic micro-organisms, synthesizing growth-stimulating plant hormones and promoting increased plant disease resistance. Others inhibit plant growth and cause disease symptoms ranging from rot and necrosis through to developmental dystrophies such as galls. It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between pathogenic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas. They colonize the same ecological niches and possess similar mechanisms for plant colonization. Pathogenic, saprophytic and plant growth-promoting strains are often found within the same species, and the incidence and severity of Pseudomonas diseases are affected by environmental factors and host-specific interactions. Plants are faced with the challenge of how to recognize and exclude pathogens that pose a genuine threat, while tolerating more benign organisms. This review examines Pseudomonas from a plant perspective, focusing in particular on the question of how plants perceive and are affected by saprophytic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas (PGPP), in contrast to their interactions with plant pathogenic Pseudomonas. A better understanding of the molecular basis of plant-PGPP interactions and of the key differences between pathogens and PGPP will enable researchers to make more informed decisions in designing integrated disease-control strategies and in selecting, modifying and using PGPP for plant growth promotion, bioremediation and biocontrol. PMID:15306406

  10. Piriformospora indica, a Cultivable Plant-Growth-Promoting Root Endophyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AJIT VARMA; SAVITA VERMA; NIRMAL SAHAY; BRITTA BUTEHORN; PHILIPP FRANKEN

    1999-01-01

    Fungi interact with plants as pathogens or benefactors and may influence yields in agroforestry and floriculture. Knowl- edge concerning plant-growth-promoting cultivable root endo- phytes is low (7), and most studies have been conducted with mycorrhizal fungi. These mutualists improve the growth of crops on poor soils with lower inputs of chemical fertilizers and pesticides (2, 9). Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi,

  11. Applications of free living plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lucy; E. Reed; Bernard R. Glick

    2004-01-01

    Free-living plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can be used in a variety of ways when plant growth enhancements are required. The most intensively researched use of PGPR has been in agriculture and horticulture. Several PGPR formulations are currently available as commercial products for agricultural production. Recently developing areas of PGPR usage include forest regeneration and phytoremediation of contaminated soils. As the

  12. Actin polymerization-enhancing drugs promote ovarian follicle growth mediated by the Hippo signaling effector YAP.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuan; Feng, Yi; Jansson, Lina; Sato, Yorino; Deguchi, Masashi; Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Hsueh, Aaron J

    2015-06-01

    Hippo signaling pathway consists of conserved serine/threonine kinases to maintain optimal organ sizes. Studies have demonstrated that fragmentation of murine ovaries increases actin polymerization and disrupts Hippo signaling, leading to nuclear translocation of Hippo signaling effector Yes-associated protein (YAP) in ovarian follicles and follicle growth. For patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome showing follicle arrest, ovarian wedge resection and laser drilling promote follicle growth. Because these damaging procedures likely involve actin polymerization, we tested whether actin polymerization-promoting drugs could promote YAP translocation and stimulate follicle growth. Treatment of murine ovaries with ?M Jasplakinolide (JASP), an actin polymerization-promoting cyclic peptide, or sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a follicular fluid constituent known to promote actin polymerization, increased the conversion of globular actin to the filamentous form, followed by increased nuclear YAP and expression of downstream connective tissue growth factor (CCN2). After short-term treatments with JASP or S1P, in vitro cultured and in vivo grafted ovaries showed follicle growth. Furthermore, induction of constitutively active YAP in ovarian grafts of transgenic mice enhanced follicle development, whereas treatment of human ovarian cortices with JASP or S1P increased CCN2 expression. Thus, JASP and S1P stimulate follicle growth and are potential therapeutic agents for treating polycystic ovarian syndrome and other ovarian disorders.-Cheng, Y., Feng, Y., Jansson, L., Sato, Y., Deguchi, M., Kawamura, K., Hsueh, A. J. Actin polymerization-enhancing drugs promote ovarian follicle growth mediated by the Hippo signaling effector YAP. PMID:25690654

  13. Instructive role of the vascular niche in promoting tumour growth and tissue repair by angiocrine factors

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Jason M.; Kobayashi, Hideki; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-01-01

    The precise mechanisms whereby anti-angiogenesis therapy blocks tumour growth or causes vascular toxicity are unknown. We propose that endothelial cells establish a vascular niche that promotes tumour growth and tissue repair not only by delivering nutrients and O2 but also through an ‘angiocrine’ mechanism by producing stem and progenitor cell-active trophogens. Identification of endothelial-derived instructive angiocrine factors will allow direct tumour targeting, while diminishing the unwanted side effects associated with the use of anti-angiogenic agents. PMID:20094048

  14. The Role of Institutional Agents in Promoting Transfer Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Alicia C.; Pak, Jenny H.; Bensimon, Estela Mara

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research points to the important role played by "institutional agents" in facilitating college access and success for students from non-dominant racial-ethnic and low socioeconomic status groups. Applying attachment theory, this study adds to that literature by demonstrating how institutional agents can provide a secure…

  15. Autocrine Hepatocyte Growth Factor Provides a Local Mechanism for Promoting Axonal Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-Ming Yang; Jean G. Toma; Shernaz X. Bamji; Daniel J. Belliveau; Judi Kohn; Morag Park; Freda D. Miller

    1998-01-01

    In this report, we describe a novel local mechanism necessary for optimal axonal growth that involves hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion coexpress bioactive HGF and its receptor, the Met tyrosine kinase, both in vivo and in vitro. Exogenous HGF selectively promotes the growth but not survival of cultured sympathetic neurons; the magnitude of this

  16. [Characterization of growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Eucalyptus nitens seedlings].

    PubMed

    Angulo, Violeta C; Sanfuentes, Eugenio A; Rodríguez, Francisco; Sossa, Katherine E

    2014-01-01

    Rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rizosphere and root tissue of Eucalyptus nitens. The objective of this work was to evaluate their capacity to promote growth in seedlings of the same species under greenhouse conditions. The isolates that improved seedling growth were identified and characterized by their capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphates and increase 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. One hundred and five morphologically different strains were isolated, 15 of which promoted E. nitens seedling growth, significantly increasing the height (50%), root length (45%) as well as the aerial and root dry weight (142% and 135% respectively) of the plants. Bacteria belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, Lysinibacillus, Rahnella and Bacillus. Isolates A. phenanthrenivorans 21 and B. cereus 113 improved 3.15 times the emergence of E. nitens after 12 days, compared to control samples. Among isolated R. aquatilis, 78 showed the highest production of IAA (97.5±2.87 ?g/ml) in the presence of tryptophan and the highest solubilizer index (2.4) for phosphorus, while B. amyloliquefaciens 60 isolate was positive for ACC deaminase activity. Our results reveal the potential of the studied rhizobacteria as promoters of emergence and seedling growth of E. nitens, and their possible use as PGPR inoculants, since they have more than one mechanism associated with plant growth promotion. PMID:25576419

  17. Growth promotion and gut microbiota: insights from antibiotic use.

    PubMed

    Brüssow, Harald

    2015-07-01

    Antibiotics have been proposed as supplements in re-feeding programmes for malnourished children. A review of paediatric literature showed that growth promotion by antibiotics, when it was observed, was mostly mediated by its anti-infective properties. Despite the widespread use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal rearing, the available evidence again points to the suppression of infections as the underlying mechanism. Under controlled hygienic conditions, growth promotion was frequently not observed. Models for 'sub-inhibitory' antibiotic effects on gut bacteria have been proposed, and direct antibiotic effects on host physiology are accumulating. Human gut microbiota analyses in malnourished children (restricted to stool as convenience samples) displayed developmental immaturity of the gut microbiota and growth deficits that were only transiently ameliorated by nutritional interventions. These studies need to be complemented by microbiota analysis in the upper small intestine where bacterial overgrowth, frequently reported in people of the developing world, may directly compete with nutrient absorption by the human host. So far, however, the available medical and veterinary literature suggests that the growth promoting effect of antibiotics mostly works through prevention of infection and a concomitant decrease of the caloric burden of an inflammatory response. PMID:25627910

  18. Growth-Promoting Relationships with Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Renée; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    At the heart of afterschool programs are the relationships that form between the children and youth who participate in these programs and the adults who lead them. To be effective, adults working in afterschool settings must be able to engage youth in growth-promoting relationships. This article identifies and describes four foundational ways of…

  19. [Antibiotic growth promoters for the view of animal nutrition].

    PubMed

    Kamphues, J

    1999-01-01

    From 01. 07./09. 1999 on six further antibiotic growth promoters have been banned--with only four substances remaining in this group of feed additives. Therefore, the discussion on a possible induction of bacterial resistance by antibiotic growth promoters, especially in potentially pathogenic bacteria, will sooner or later come to an end which is not least in the interest of the reputation of animal husbandry and food of animal origin. Unfortunately, no short-term solution for health problems by legislation--especially in the gastrointestinal tract--during rearing and the beginning of the fattening period is possible as experiences in Sweden have distinctively shown. Anyway, growth promoting feed additives were not a cure-all of rearing problems, in spite of their use considerable amounts of antibiotics were prescribed during this period. But growth promoters (especially chinoxalines) were most suitable for the prophylaxis of a microbial imbalance in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, after the ban of these effective representatives of feed additives the amount of prescribed antimicrobial drugs for metaphylaxis and therapy should be critically observed. The questions of practicable alternatives will be primarily addressed to the fields of animal nutrition, veterinary medicine and feed industry. To answer these questions and to evolve new solutions (as well as to check their suitability in practice) is considerably more intricate than simply to ban these substances which is more attractive for the media, however. It is no progressive solution to give up antimicrobial growth promoters as feed additives and to use the same substances (for example olaquindox) as therapeutics now (prescribed by veterinarians) or to switch to zincoxide or copper (in a dosage high above all nutrient requirements) in order to prevent postweaning problems due to E. coli. But one has to take into consideration the reasons for the use of antibiotics (growth promoters and therapeutics) or other "aids" (e.g. ZnO, Cu) in food producing animals (especially in beef-cattle, pigs and poultry) in "modern" production systems. The matter for conflict is the contrast between a minimised use of antimicrobial substances, as science as well as general public demand, and the requirements of "modern" livestock industry (rationalisation, increase in performance, specialisation, concentration) and general economy (save of resources, lowering of production costs). These well-known and expected problems arise in an almost exemplary manner in the case of antibiotic growth promoting feed additives. Therefore it is most difficult to impart suggestions to the persons involved as well as to the public. PMID:10598354

  20. Influence of plant growth promoting bacteria and Cr 6+ on the growth of Indian mustard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rajkumar; R. Nagendran; Kui Jae Lee; Wang Hyu Lee; Sung Zoo Kim

    2006-01-01

    The Cr6+ resistant plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), Pseudomonas sp. PsA4 and Bacillus sp. Ba32 were isolated from heavy metal contaminated soils and their plant growth promoting activity on the Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were assessed with different concentrations of Cr6+ in soil. Production of siderophores and the solubilization of phosphate were observed in both strains, PsA4 and Ba32. Production

  1. Influence of growth-promoting bacteria on the growth of wheat in different soils and temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilfuza Egamberdiyeva; Gisela Höflich

    2003-01-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere, phyllosphere and soil of the root zone in different climatic regions of Germany and Uzbekistan were analysed for plant-growth-promoting effects and nutrient uptake on winter wheat on different soils and under different temperature regimes. The investigations were carried out in pot experiments using loamy sand and sandy loam soils from Müncheberg, Germany and Calcisol

  2. Growth Enhancement of Chickpea in Saline Soils Using Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhara Patel; Chaitanya Kumar Jha; Neelam Tank; Meenu Saraf

    Bacterial isolates with the ability to tolerate salinity and plant growth-promoting features were isolated from the saline\\u000a areas of Gujarat, India, that is, Bhavnagar and Khambat. A total of 176 strains of rhizobacteria were isolated out of which\\u000a 62 bacterial strains were able to tolerate 1 M NaCl. These were then further studied for their potential plant growth-promoting\\u000a rhizobacteria characteristics like

  3. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Hoffman, Adam; Zhang, Yian-Biao; Walla, Michael D.; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Newman, Lee; Monchy, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT–PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar as an energy feedstock on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria as growth promoting agents. PMID:20485560

  4. Efficiency of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the enhancement of rice growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ashrafuzzaman; Farid Akhtar Hossen; M. Razi Ismail; M. Zahurul Islam; S. M. Shahidullah; Sariah Meon

    2009-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize plant roots and enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. Here, we have isolated and characterized the PGPR from the rhizosphere soil of rice field for the enhancement

  5. Siderophores from Neighboring Organisms Promote the Growth of Uncultured Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    D’Onofrio, Anthony; Crawford, Jason M.; Stewart, Eric J.; Witt, Kathrin; Gavrish, Ekaterina; Epstein, Slava; Clardy, Jon; Lewis, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Summary The majority of bacterial species do not grow on synthetic media. Many non-growers require growth factors from other bacteria, but the nature of these compounds is largely unknown. We show here that previously uncultured isolates from marine sediment biofilm grow on a Petri dish in the presence of cultured organisms from the same environment. The growth factors produced by one cultured helper strain were identified as new acyl-desferrioxamine siderophores. A panel of previously uncultured isolates exhibited a range of siderophore promiscuity for growth promotion. This siderophore-based approach has enabled the culturing of organisms only distantly related to previously cultured microbes. The lack of growth in the lab for many strains from this habitat stems from an inability to autonomously produce siderophores, and the resulting chemical dependence on other microorganisms regulates community establishment in the environment. PMID:20338517

  6. Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Howard I. (128 Indian La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

    1984-01-01

    A material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10.degree. to about 60.degree. C. until the dissolved oxygen is removed.

  7. Screening of plant growth promoting traits of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noura Raddadi; Ameur Cherif; Abdellatif Boudabous; Daniele Daffonchio

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential ofBacillus thuringiensis. In this context, several genetic determinants of factors implicated in PGP potential were investigated by polymerase chain\\u000a reaction (PCR) in 16B. thuringiensis strains of different origin and belonging to different subspecies. PCR screening was performed on acid phosphatase, phytase,\\u000a siderophore biosynthesis protein, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and indolpyruvate

  8. Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Adler, H.I.

    1984-10-09

    A material and method is disclosed for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10 to about 60 C until the dissolved oxygen is removed. No Drawings

  9. Promotion of plant growth by polymers of lactic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan M. Kinnersley; Taylor C. Scott; John H. Yopp; George H. Whitten

    1990-01-01

    Polymers of L-lactic acid are shown to promote plant growth. Dry weight of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and corn (Zea mays L) was more than doubled when plants were grown in media containing the dimer of L-lactic acid, L-lactoyllactic acid. Higher polymers were equally effective at increasing plant biomass. Monomeric lactic acid and polymers of D-lactic acid showed no biological

  10. Molecular basis of plant growth promotion and biocontrol by rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bloemberg, G V; Lugtenberg, B J

    2001-08-01

    Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) are used as inoculants for biofertilization, phytostimulation and biocontrol. The interactions of PGPRs with their biotic environment, for example with plants and microorganisms, are often complex. Substantial advances in elucidating the genetic basis of the beneficial effects of PGPRs on plants have been made, some from whole-genome sequencing projects. This progress will lead to a more efficient use of these strains and possibly to their improvement by genetic modification. PMID:11418345

  11. Neuronal Activity Promotes Glioma Growth through Neuroligin-3 Secretion.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Humsa S; Johung, Tessa B; Caretti, Viola; Noll, Alyssa; Tang, Yujie; Nagaraja, Surya; Gibson, Erin M; Mount, Christopher W; Polepalli, Jai; Mitra, Siddhartha S; Woo, Pamelyn J; Malenka, Robert C; Vogel, Hannes; Bredel, Markus; Mallick, Parag; Monje, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Active neurons exert a mitogenic effect on normal neural precursor and oligodendroglial precursor cells, the putative cellular origins of high-grade glioma (HGG). By using optogenetic control of cortical neuronal activity in a patient-derived pediatric glioblastoma xenograft model, we demonstrate that active neurons similarly promote HGG proliferation and growth in vivo. Conditioned medium from optogenetically stimulated cortical slices promoted proliferation of pediatric and adult patient-derived HGG cultures, indicating secretion of activity-regulated mitogen(s). The synaptic protein neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) was identified as the leading candidate mitogen, and soluble NLGN3 was sufficient and necessary to promote robust HGG cell proliferation. NLGN3 induced PI3K-mTOR pathway activity and feedforward expression of NLGN3 in glioma cells. NLGN3 expression levels in human HGG negatively correlated with patient overall survival. These findings indicate the important role of active neurons in the brain tumor microenvironment and identify secreted NLGN3 as an unexpected mechanism promoting neuronal activity-regulated cancer growth. PMID:25913192

  12. Trans fatty acids promote the growth of some Lactobacillus strains.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yasushi; Kamisada, Shusuke; Fujimoto, Kenshiro; Saito, Tadao

    2006-02-01

    Five Lactobacillus strains (2 L. gasseri, 2 L. plantarum and 1 L. reuteri) were cultured in modified MRS medium containing fatty acids (FAs) instead of Tween 80 for 24 h at 37 degrees C, to learn the effect of saturated and unsaturated FAs on the Lactobacillus growth. Free FAs included palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (c9-16:1), stearic (18:0), oleic (c9-18:1), elaidic (t9-18:1), cis-vaccenic (c11-18:1), vaccenic (t11-18:1), linoleic (c9, c12-18:2), conjugated linoleic (c9, t11- and t10, c12-18:2), alpha-linolenic (c9, c12, c15-18:3), alpha-eleostearic (c9, t11, t13-18:3), eicosapentaenoic (20:5), and docosahexaenoic (22:6) acids. Among free FAs, oleic acid stimulated the growth of all Lactobacillus strains, whereas palmitoleic acid had almost no affect on the Lactobacillus growth. Saturated FAs such as stearic and palmitic acids inhibited or did not affect the Lactobacillus growth. Polyunsaturated FAs such as alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids strongly inhibited the Lactobacillus growth at 7.6 x 10(-4) m. Octadecenoic acids such as oleic, elaidic, cis-vaccenic and vaccenic acids remarkably promoted the growth of L. gasseri, regardless of the different double bond positions and configurations. When oleic or cis-vaccenic acid was incubated with L. gasseri, the FAs was transformed to cyclopropane FAs (methyleneoctadecanoic acids) after incorporation into the cells. On the other hand, trans FAs such as elaidic and vaccenic acids incorporated into the cells were not converted to another FAs. Conjugated linoleic and alpha-eleostearic acids having a trans double bond promoted the Lactobacillus growth. The growth of L. gasseri was also stimulated by trans-rich free FAs from hydrogenated canola and fish oils. These results showed that octadecenoic acid and trans FAs had strong promotion activities for the Lactobacillus growth due to their incorporation into membrane lipids. PMID:16598156

  13. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning

    PubMed Central

    Vacheron, Jordan; Desbrosses, Guilhem; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Touraine, Bruno; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Muller, Daniel; Legendre, Laurent; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The rhizosphere supports the development and activity of a huge and diversified microbial community, including microorganisms capable to promote plant growth. Among the latter, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize roots of monocots and dicots, and enhance plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Modification of root system architecture by PGPR implicates the production of phytohormones and other signals that lead, mostly, to enhanced lateral root branching and development of root hairs. PGPR also modify root functioning, improve plant nutrition and influence the physiology of the whole plant. Recent results provided first clues as to how PGPR signals could trigger these plant responses. Whether local and/or systemic, the plant molecular pathways involved remain often unknown. From an ecological point of view, it emerged that PGPR form coherent functional groups, whose rhizosphere ecology is influenced by a myriad of abiotic and biotic factors in natural and agricultural soils, and these factors can in turn modulate PGPR effects on roots. In this paper, we address novel knowledge and gaps on PGPR modes of action and signals, and highlight recent progress on the links between plant morphological and physiological effects induced by PGPR. We also show the importance of taking into account the size, diversity, and gene expression patterns of PGPR assemblages in the rhizosphere to better understand their impact on plant growth and functioning. Integrating mechanistic and ecological knowledge on PGPR populations in soil will be a prerequisite to develop novel management strategies for sustainable agriculture. PMID:24062756

  14. The insulin superfamily of growth-promoting proteins

    E-print Network

    Razvan Tudor Radulescu

    2007-07-29

    Recently, structural analysis of the human transferrin and growth hormone (GH) amino acid sequences has unravelled that they harbor a motif identical to a pattern found in viral oncoproteins known to bind the primarily nuclear tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein (RB). Since related signatures had previously been identified also in insulin and the two insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), the aim of the current study has been to investigate whether further hints substantiating these reported homologies can be found in silico. Here, additional similarities are presented supporting the notion of an insulin superfamily of growth-promoting proteins with dual localization in the extracellular environment and the intracellular space, particularly in the nucleus, as well as characterized by a tropism for RB.

  15. Should We Promote Catch-Up Growth or Growth Acceleration in Low-Birthweight Infants?

    PubMed

    Singhal, Atul

    2015-01-01

    The idea that catch-up growth or growth acceleration has adverse effects on long-term health has generated much debate. This pattern of growth is most commonly seen after birth in infants of low birthweight; a global problem affecting over 20 million newborns a year. Faster postnatal growth may have short-term benefits but increases the long-term risk of aging, obesity and metabolic disease. Consequently, the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unclear and is likely to differ in different populations. In infants born prematurely, faster postnatal growth improves long-term cognitive function but is associated with later risk factors for cardiovascular disease. So, on balance, the current policy is to promote faster growth by increasing nutrient intake (e.g. using higher-nutrient preterm formulas). Whether the same policy should apply to larger preterm infants is not known. Similarly, in infants from impoverished environments, the short-term benefits of faster postnatal growth may outweigh long-term disadvantages. However, whether similar considerations apply to infants from countries in transition is uncertain. For term infants from developed countries, promoting catch-up growth by nutritional supplementation has few advantages for short- or long-term health. Overall therefore, a 'one size fits all' solution for the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unlikely. © 2015 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:26111563

  16. Simulating cancer growth with multiscale agent-based modeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihui; Butner, Joseph D; Kerketta, Romica; Cristini, Vittorio; Deisboeck, Thomas S

    2015-02-01

    There have been many techniques developed in recent years to in silico model a variety of cancer behaviors. Agent-based modeling is a specific discrete-based hybrid modeling approach that allows simulating the role of diversity in cell populations as well as within each individual cell; it has therefore become a powerful modeling method widely used by computational cancer researchers. Many aspects of tumor morphology including phenotype-changing mutations, the adaptation to microenvironment, the process of angiogenesis, the influence of extracellular matrix, reactions to chemotherapy or surgical intervention, the effects of oxygen and nutrient availability, and metastasis and invasion of healthy tissues have been incorporated and investigated in agent-based models. In this review, we introduce some of the most recent agent-based models that have provided insight into the understanding of cancer growth and invasion, spanning multiple biological scales in time and space, and we further describe several experimentally testable hypotheses generated by those models. We also discuss some of the current challenges of multiscale agent-based cancer models. PMID:24793698

  17. Y-P30 promotes axonal growth by stabilizing growth cones.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Janine R; Dash-Wagh, Suvarna; Jüngling, Kay; Tsai, Teresa; Meschkat, Martin; Räk, Andrea; Schönfelder, Sabine; Riedel, Christian; Hamad, Mohammad I K; Wiese, Stefan; Pape, Hans-Christian; Gottmann, Kurt; Kreutz, Michael R; Wahle, Petra

    2015-07-01

    The 30-amino acid peptide Y-P30, generated from the N-terminus of the human dermcidin precursor protein, has been found to promote neuronal survival, cell migration and neurite outgrowth by enhancing the interaction of pleiotrophin and syndecan-3. We now show that Y-P30 activates Src kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Y-P30 promotes axonal growth of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neurons, embryonic mouse spinal cord motoneurons, perinatal rat retinal neurons, and rat cortical neurons. Y-P30-mediated axon growth was dependent on heparan sulfate chains. Y-P30 decreased the proportion of collapsing/degenerating growth cones of cortical axons in an Src and ERK-dependent manner. Y-P30 increased for 90 min in axonal growth cones the level of Tyr418-phosphorylated Src kinase and the amount of F-actin, and transiently the level of Tyr-phosphorylated ERK. Levels of total Src kinase, actin, GAP-43, cortactin and the glutamate receptor subunit GluN2B were not altered. When exposed to semaphorin-3a, Y-P30 protected a significant fraction of growth cones of cortical neurons from collapse. These results suggest that Y-P30 promotes axonal growth via Src- and ERK-dependent mechanisms which stabilize growth cones and confer resistance to collapsing factors. PMID:24728870

  18. Modulations of the Chicken Cecal Microbiome and Metagenome in Response to Anticoccidial and Growth Promoter Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Danzeisen, Jessica L.; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Isaacson, Richard E.; Tu, Zheng Jin; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing pressures to reduce or eliminate the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion purposes in production animals, there is a growing need to better understand the effects elicited by these agents in order to identify alternative approaches that might be used to maintain animal health. Antibiotic usage at subtherapeutic levels is postulated to confer a number of modulations in the microbes within the gut that ultimately result in growth promotion and reduced occurrence of disease. This study examined the effects of the coccidiostat monensin and the growth promoters virginiamycin and tylosin on the broiler chicken cecal microbiome and metagenome. Using a longitudinal design, cecal contents of commercial chickens were extracted and examined using 16S rRNA and total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. A number of genus-level enrichments and depletions were observed in response to monensin alone, or monensin in combination with virginiamycin or tylosin. Of note, monensin effects included depletions of Roseburia, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus, and enrichments in Coprococcus and Anaerofilum. The most notable effect observed in the monensin/virginiamycin and monensin/tylosin treatments, but not in the monensin-alone treatments, was enrichments in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the metagenomic dataset identified enrichments in transport system genes, type I fimbrial genes, and type IV conjugative secretion system genes. No significant differences were observed with regard to antimicrobial resistance gene counts. Overall, this study provides a more comprehensive glimpse of the chicken cecum microbial community, the modulations of this community in response to growth promoters, and targets for future efforts to mimic these effects using alternative approaches. PMID:22114729

  19. Fusarial wilt control and growth promotion of pigeon pea through bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S; Morang, P; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S

    2014-03-01

    The bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRLJ 04 and a Bacillus cereus strain BS 03, which showed growth promotion and disease control in pigeon pea against Fusarium udum, were isolated and screened for their efficacy to control fusarial wilt of pigeon pea under gnotobiotic and nursery condition. Bioactive metabolites viz., BM 1 and BM 2 from RRLJ 04 and BM 3 from BS 03 also showed in vitro antibiosis against F. udum. Seeds treated with 50 ?l seed?¹ of BM 1, 30 ?l seed?¹ of BM 2 and 70 ?l seed?¹ of BM 3 and grown in pathogen infested soil showed suppression of wilt disease besides growth enhancement. Per cent disease control was 90 % with BM 2 application as compared to 87 and 83 %, respectively in BM 1 and BM 3 after 90 days of growth. BM 2 treated plants were more resistant to the pathogen as compared to the other fractions tested. Mycelial dry weight was found to be reduced on treatment with the bioactive metabolites. Formation of chlamydospore-like structures was observed in the pathogen mycelium treated with BM 3. The analytical studies confirmed that two of these metabolites are phenazine derivatives. PMID:24154979

  20. Effect of Inoculation with Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria on Growth and Copper Uptake by Sunflowers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Fernando Rojas-Tapias; Ruth Rebeca Bonilla; Jenny Dussán

    The effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria inoculation on Helianthus annuus growth and copper (Cu) uptake was investigated. For this, the strains CC22, CC24, CC30, and CC33 previously isolated from\\u000a heavy metal- and hydrocarbon-polluted soil were selected for study. These strains were characterized on the basis of their\\u000a 16S rDNA sequences and identified as Pseudomonas putida CC22, Enterobacter sakazakii CC24, Acinetobacter

  1. BRE over-expression promotes growth of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chui, Yiu-Loon; Ching, Arthur Ka-Keung; Chen, Shuyan; Yip, Fung-Ping; Rowlands, Dewi Kenneth; James, Anthony Edward; Lee, Kenneth Ka-Ho; Chan, John Yuek-Hon

    2010-01-15

    BRE, also known as TNFRSF1A modulator and BRCC45, is an evolutionarily highly conserved protein. It is a death receptor-associated protein in cytoplasm and a component of BRCA1/2-containing DNA repair complex in nucleus. BRE was found to have anti-apoptotic activity. Over-expression of BRE by transfection promoted survival of cell lines against apoptotic induction; whereas depletion of the protein by siRNA resulted in the opposite. In vivo anti-apoptotic activity of BRE was demonstrated by significant attenuation of Fas-induced acute fulminant hepatitis in transgenic mice expressing the human protein specifically in the liver. BRE was also implicated in tumor promotion by the accelerated tumor growth of Lewis Lung carcinoma transfected with human BRE; and by high expression of BRE specifically in the tumoral regions of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study was to test directly if transgenic expression of BRE in livers could promote HCC development in neonatal diethylnitrosamine model. By 8months after tumor induction, the maximal sizes of tumor nodules of transgenic mice were significantly larger than those of the non-transgenic controls, although the numbers of tumor nodules between the two groups did not significantly differ. Importantly, as in human HCC, the mouse endogenous BRE level was up-regulated in mouse HCC nodules. These results show that BRE over-expression can indeed promote growth, though not initiation, of liver tumors. Furthermore, the common occurrence of BRE over-expression in human and mouse HCC suggests that up-regulation of BRE is functionally important in liver tumor development. PMID:20035718

  2. Growth-promoting relationships with children and youth.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Renée; Rhodes, Jean E

    2014-12-01

    At the heart of afterschool programs are the relationships that form between the children and youth who participate in these programs and the adults who lead them. To be effective, adults working in afterschool settings must be able to engage youth in growth-promoting relationships. This article identifies and describes four foundational ways of interacting with youth that foster the development of such relationships-engaging in warm and emotionally supportive connections, providing developmentally appropriate structure and support, cultivating and responding to youth initiative, and scaffolding and propelling youth learning and skill development. PMID:25537350

  3. Decreased ferroportin promotes myeloma cell growth and osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhimin; Wang, He; Xia, Jiliang; Yang, Ye; Jin, Zhendong; Xu, Hongwei; Shi, Jumei; De Domenico, Ivana; Tricot, Guido; Zhan, Fenghuang

    2015-06-01

    Iron homeostasis is disrupted in multiple myeloma, a difficult-to-cure plasma cell malignancy with lytic bone lesions. Here, we systematically analyzed iron gene expression signature and demonstrated that mRNA expression of iron exporter ferroportin (FPN1) is significantly downregulated in myeloma cells and correlates negatively with clinic outcome. Restoring expression of FPN1 reduces intracellular liable iron pool, inhibits STAT3-MCL-1 signaling, and suppresses myeloma cells growth. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mRNA of FPN1 is also downregulated at the initial stages of osteoclast differentiation and suppresses myeloma cell-induced osteoclast differentiation through regulating iron regulator TFRC, NF-?B, and JNK pathways. Altogether, we demonstrated that downregulation of FPN1 plays critical roles in promoting myeloma cell growth and bone resorption in multiple myeloma. Cancer Res; 75(11); 2211-21. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25855377

  4. A biosensor for organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Sun, Samio; Li, Chen-Zhong; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    The toxic metalloid arsenic is widely distributed in food, water, and soil. While inorganic arsenic enters the environment primarily from geochemical sources, methylarsenicals either result from microbial biotransformation of inorganic arsenic or are introduced anthropogenically. Methylarsenicals such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA) have been extensively utilized as herbicides, and aromatic arsenicals such as roxarsone (Rox) are used as growth promoters for poultry and swine. Organoarsenicals are degraded to inorganic arsenic. The toxicological effects of arsenicals depend on their oxidation state, chemical composition, and bioavailability. Here we report that the active forms are the trivalent arsenic-containing species. We constructed a whole-cell biosensor utilizing a modified ArsR repressor that is highly selective toward trivalent methyl and aromatic arsenicals, with essentially no response to inorganic arsenic. The biosensor was adapted for in vitro detection of organoarsenicals using fluorescence anisotropy of ArsR-DNA interactions. It detects bacterial biomethylation of inorganic arsenite both in vivo and in vitro with detection limits of 10?7 M and linearity to 10?6 M for phenylarsenite and 5×10?6 M for methylarsenite. The biosensor detects reduced forms of MSMA and roxarsone and offers a practical, low cost method for detecting activate forms and breakdown products of organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters. PMID:24359149

  5. Promotion effect of constituents from the root of Polygonum multiflorum on hair growth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya Nan; Cui, Long; Li, Wei; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kang, Jung Il; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-09-01

    Two new compounds, gallic acid ester of torachrysone-8-O-?-D-glucoside (1) and (E)-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-xyloside (4), along with eight known compounds (2, 3, 5-10) were isolated from a 70% ethanol extract of Polygonum multiflorum roots. The structures were determined by (1)H and (13)C NMR, HMQC, and HMBC spectrometry. Extracts of P. multiflorum have been reported to promote hair growth in vivo. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of isolated compounds from P. multiflorum on promoting hair growth using dermal papilla cells (DPCs), which play an important role in hair growth. When DPCs were treated with compounds (1-10) from P. multiflorum, compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 10 increased the proliferation of DPCs compared with the control. Specifically, compound 2 (10 and 20 ?M) induced a greater increase in the proliferation of DPCs than minoxidil (10 ?M). Additionally, treatment of vibrissa follicles with compound 2 for 21 days increased hair-fiber length significantly. On the basis of this result, further investigation and optimization of these derivatives might help in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of alopecia. PMID:23896496

  6. The biosurfactant viscosin produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 aids spreading motility and plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Alsohim, Abdullah S; Taylor, Tiffany B; Barrett, Glyn A; Gallie, Jenna; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Altamirano-Junqueira, Astrid E; Johnson, Louise J; Rainey, Paul B; Jackson, Robert W

    2014-07-01

    Food security depends on enhancing production and reducing loss to pests and pathogens. A promising alternative to agrochemicals is the use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which are commonly associated with many, if not all, plant species. However, exploiting the benefits of PGPRs requires knowledge of bacterial function and an in-depth understanding of plant-bacteria associations. Motility is important for colonization efficiency and microbial fitness in the plant environment, but the mechanisms employed by bacteria on and around plants are not well understood. We describe and investigate an atypical mode of motility in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 that was revealed only after flagellum production was eliminated by deletion of the master regulator fleQ. Our results suggest that this 'spidery spreading' is a type of surface motility. Transposon mutagenesis of SBW25?fleQ (SBW25Q) produced mutants, defective in viscosin production, and surface spreading was also abolished. Genetic analysis indicated growth-dependency, production of viscosin, and several potential regulatory and secretory systems involved in the spidery spreading phenotype. Moreover, viscosin both increases efficiency of surface spreading over the plant root and protects germinating seedlings in soil infected with the plant pathogen Pythium. Thus, viscosin could be a useful target for biotechnological development of plant growth promotion agents. PMID:24684210

  7. Comparative genomic analysis of four representative plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Some Pseudomonas strains function as predominant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Within this group, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens are non-pathogenic biocontrol agents, and some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains are PGPR. P. chlororaphis GP72 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with a fully sequenced genome. We conducted a genomic analysis comparing GP72 with three other pseudomonad PGPR: P. fluorescens Pf-5, P. aeruginosa M18, and the nitrogen-fixing strain P. stutzeri A1501. Our aim was to identify the similarities and differences among these strains using a comparative genomic approach to clarify the mechanisms of plant growth-promoting activity. Results The genome sizes of GP72, Pf-5, M18, and A1501 ranged from 4.6 to 7.1 M, and the number of protein-coding genes varied among the four species. Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) analysis assigned functions to predicted proteins. The COGs distributions were similar among the four species. However, the percentage of genes encoding transposases and their inactivated derivatives (COG L) was 1.33% of the total genes with COGs classifications in A1501, 0.21% in GP72, 0.02% in Pf-5, and 0.11% in M18. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that GP72 and Pf-5 were the most closely related strains, consistent with the genome alignment results. Comparisons of predicted coding sequences (CDSs) between GP72 and Pf-5 revealed 3544 conserved genes. There were fewer conserved genes when GP72 CDSs were compared with those of A1501 and M18. Comparisons among the four Pseudomonas species revealed 603 conserved genes in GP72, illustrating common plant growth-promoting traits shared among these PGPR. Conserved genes were related to catabolism, transport of plant-derived compounds, stress resistance, and rhizosphere colonization. Some strain-specific CDSs were related to different kinds of biocontrol activities or plant growth promotion. The GP72 genome contained the cus operon (related to heavy metal resistance) and a gene cluster involved in type IV pilus biosynthesis, which confers adhesion ability. Conclusions Comparative genomic analysis of four representative PGPR revealed some conserved regions, indicating common characteristics (metabolism of plant-derived compounds, heavy metal resistance, and rhizosphere colonization) among these pseudomonad PGPR. Genomic regions specific to each strain provide clues to its lifestyle, ecological adaptation, and physiological role in the rhizosphere. PMID:23607266

  8. Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Afshan; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the native plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and root-endosphere in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. Nine bacterial isolates were purified, screened in vitro for PGP characteristics and evaluated for their beneficial effects on the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Among nine bacterial isolates, seven were able to produce indole-3- acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium; seven were nitrogen fixer, and four were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate in vitro. Four different morphotypes were genotypically identified based on IGS-RFLP fingerprinting and representative of each morphotype was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis except Gram-positive putative Bacillus sp. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, bacterial isolates AJK-3 and AJK-9 showing multiple PGP-traits were identified as Stenotrophomonas spp. while AJK-7 showed equal homologies to Acetobacter pasteurianus and Stenotrophomonas specie. Plant inoculation studies indicated that these Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains provided a significant increase in shoot and root length, and shoot and root biomass. A significant increase in shoot N contents (up to 76%) and root N contents (up to 32%) was observed over the un-inoculated control. The study indicates the potential of these PGPR for inoculums production or biofertilizers for enhancing growth and nutrient content of wheat and other crops under field conditions. The study is the first report of wheat associated bacterial diversity in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, AJK. PMID:25852661

  9. Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Afshan; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the native plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and root-endosphere in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. Nine bacterial isolates were purified, screened in vitro for PGP characteristics and evaluated for their beneficial effects on the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Among nine bacterial isolates, seven were able to produce indole-3- acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium; seven were nitrogen fixer, and four were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate in vitro. Four different morphotypes were genotypically identified based on IGS-RFLP fingerprinting and representative of each morphotype was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis except Gram-positive putative Bacillus sp. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, bacterial isolates AJK-3 and AJK-9 showing multiple PGP-traits were identified as Stenotrophomonas spp. while AJK-7 showed equal homologies to Acetobacter pasteurianus and Stenotrophomonas specie. Plant inoculation studies indicated that these Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains provided a significant increase in shoot and root length, and shoot and root biomass. A significant increase in shoot N contents (up to 76%) and root N contents (up to 32%) was observed over the un-inoculated control. The study indicates the potential of these PGPR for inoculums production or biofertilizers for enhancing growth and nutrient content of wheat and other crops under field conditions. The study is the first report of wheat associated bacterial diversity in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, AJK. PMID:25852661

  10. Basic fibroblast growth factor promotes macaque follicle development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lu, C L; Yan, J; Zhi, X; Xia, X; Wang, T R; Yan, L Y; Yu, Y; Ding, T; Gao, J M; Li, R; Qiao, J

    2015-05-01

    Fertility preservation is an important type of frontier scientific research in the field of reproductive health. The culture of ovarian cortices to i) initiate primordial follicle growth and ii) procure developing follicles for later oocyte maturation is a promising fertility preservation strategy, especially for older women or cancer patients. At present, this goal remains largely unsubstantiated in primates because of the difficulty in attaining relatively large follicles via ovarian cortex culture. To overcome this hurdle, we cultured macaque monkey ovarian cortices with FSH, kit ligand (KL), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF). The various factors and factor combinations promoted primordial follicle development to different extents. Notably, both bFF (bFGF, 100 ng/ml and FSH, 50 ng/ml) and KF (KL, 100 ng/ml and FSH, 50 ng/ml) contributed to the activation of primordial follicles at day 12 (D12) of culture, whereas at D18, the proportions of developing follicles were significantly higher in the bFF and KF groups relative to the other treatment groups, particularly in the bFF group. Estradiol and progesterone production were also highest in the bFF group, and primary follicle diameters were the largest. Up until D24, the bFF group still exhibited the highest proportion of developing follicles. In conclusion, the bFGF-FSH combination promotes nonhuman primate primordial follicle development in vitro, with the optimal experimental window within 18 days. These results provide evidence for the future success of human ovarian cortex culture and the eventual acquisition of mature human follicles or oocytes for fertility restoration. PMID:25687412

  11. Extracellular vimentin interacts with insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor to promote axonal growth

    PubMed Central

    Shigyo, Michiko; Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Sawai, Yusuke; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Tohda, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein, is generally recognised as an intracellular protein. Previously, we reported that vimentin was secreted from astrocytes and promoted axonal growth. The effect of extracellular vimentin in neurons was a new finding, but its signalling pathway was unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the signalling mechanism of extracellular vimentin that facilitates axonal growth. We first identified insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) as a receptor that is highly phosphorylated by vimentin stimulation. IGF1R blockades diminished vimentin- or IGF1-induced axonal growth in cultured cortical neurons. IGF1, IGF2 and insulin were not detected in the neuron culture medium after vimentin treatment. The combined drug affinity responsive target stability method and western blotting analysis showed that vimentin and IGF1 interacted with IGF1R directly. In addition, immunoprecipitation and western blotting analyses confirmed that recombinant IGF1R bound to vimentin. The results of a molecular dynamics simulation revealed that C-terminal residues (residue number 330-407) in vimentin are the most appropriate binding sites with IGF1R. Thus, extracellular vimentin may be a novel ligand of IGF1R that promotes axonal growth in a similar manner to IGF1. Our results provide novel findings regarding the role of extracellular vimentin and IGF1R in axonal growth. PMID:26170015

  12. Plexin-B2 promotes invasive growth of malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Pingle, Sandeep C.; Kesari, Santosh; Wang, Huaien; Yong, Raymund L.; Zou, Hongyan; Friedel, Roland H.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive growth is a major determinant of the high lethality of malignant gliomas. Plexin-B2, an axon guidance receptor important for mediating neural progenitor cell migration during development, is upregulated in gliomas, but its function therein remains poorly understood. Combining bioinformatic analyses, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry of patient samples, we demonstrate that Plexin-B2 is consistently upregulated in all types of human gliomas and that its expression levels correlate with glioma grade and poor survival. Activation of Plexin-B2 by Sema4C ligand in glioblastoma cells induced actin-based cytoskeletal dynamics and invasive migration in vitro. This proinvasive effect was associated with activation of the cell motility mediators RhoA and Rac1. Furthermore, costimulation of Plexin-B2 and the receptor tyrosine kinase Met led to synergistic Met phosphorylation. In intracranial glioblastoma transplants, Plexin-B2 knockdown hindered invasive growth and perivascular spreading, and resulted in decreased tumor vascularity. Our results demonstrate that Plexin-B2 promotes glioma invasion and vascularization, and they identify Plexin-B2 as a potential novel prognostic marker for glioma malignancy. Targeting the Plexin-B2 pathway may represent a novel therapeutic approach to curtail invasive growth of glioblastoma. PMID:25762646

  13. Endocrine fibroblast growth factor FGF19 promotes prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shu; Dakhova, Olga; Creighton, Chad J.; Ittmann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common visceral malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in US men. There is broad evidence that FGF receptors are important in PCa initiation and progression, but the contribution of particular FGFs in this disease is not fully understood. The FGF family members FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23 comprise a distinct subfamily that circulate in serum and act in an endocrine manner. These endocrine FGFs require ?-Klotho (KL) and/or ?-Klotho (KLB), two related single-pass transmembrane proteins restricted in their tissue distribution, to act as co-receptors along with classic FGFRs to mediate potent biological activity. Here we show that FGF19 is expressed in primary and metastatic PCa tissues where it functions as an autocrine growth factor. Exogenous FGF19 promoted the growth, invasion, adhesion and colony formation of PCa cells at low ligand concentrations. FGF19 silencing in PCa cells expressing autocrine FGF19 decreased invasion and proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Consistent with these observations, KL and/or KLB were expressed in PCa cells in vitro and in vivo, raising the possibility that additional endocrine FGFs may also exert biological effects in PCa. Our findings support the concept that therapies targeting FGFR signaling these therapies may have efficacy in PCa and they highlight FGF19 as a relevant endocrine FGF in this setting. PMID:23440425

  14. Hedgehog signaling in myofibroblasts directly promotes prostate tumor cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Domenech, Maribella; Bjerregaard, Robert; Bushman, Wade; Beebe, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite strong evidence for the involvement of the stroma in Hedgehog signaling, little is known about the identity of the stromal cells and the signaling mechanisms that mediate the growth promoting effect of Hh signaling. We developed an in vitro co-culture model using microchannel technology to examine the effect of paracrine Hh signaling on proliferation of prostate cancer cells. We show here that activation of Hh signaling in myofibroblasts is sufficient to accelerate tumor cell growth. This effect was independent of any direct effect of Hh ligand on tumor cells or other cellular components of the tumor stroma. Further, the trophic effect of Hh pathway activation in myofibroblasts does not require collaboration of other elements of the stroma or direct physical interaction with the cancer cells. By isolating the tropic effect of Hh pathway activation in prostate stroma, we have taken the first step toward identifying cell-specific mechanisms that mediate the effect of paracrine Hh signaling on tumor growth. PMID:22234342

  15. Inoculation with nitrogen turnover bacterial agent appropriately increasing nitrogen and promoting maturity in pig manure composting.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jishao; Liu, Xueling; Huang, Yimei; Huang, Hua

    2015-05-01

    The nitrogen turnover bacterial (NTB) agent, which is closely related to nitrogen turnover, was comprised of a bacterial consortium of ammonifiers, nitrobacteria and Azotobacter in this study. The three constituents of the bacterial consortium were added to pig manure and wheat straw mixtures in different doses and at different times, and subsequently composted to investigate their effects on nitrogen transformation and maturity. Throughout the period, the total N loss was 35-56%, 10.7-22.7% of which consisted of NH3, and 18-35% of the initial organic carbon was degraded. Adding the NTB agent prolonged the thermophilic stage by one to six days compared to the control. The lowest N loss (35%), the highest degradation rate of organic carbon (35%) and the greatest increase in total nitrogen content (36.1%) occurred in the inoculation with 1% NTB agent at the beginning of composting. However, adding 1% NTB agent after the thermophilic stage and 3% NTB agent at the beginning of composting had no positive effect with respect to retaining nitrogen or accelerating the maturation process. Therefore, the inoculation with 1% NTB agent at the beginning of composting was effective for reducing N loss and promoting maturity. PMID:25769536

  16. Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Plant Growth-Promoting Fungus Phoma sp. GS8-3 for Growth Promotion Effects on Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Naznin, Hushna Ara; Kimura, Minako; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2013-01-01

    We extracted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by a plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF) Phoma sp. GS8-3 by gas chromatography and identified them by mass spectrometry. All of the identified compounds belonged to C4-C8 hydrocarbons. Volatiles varied in number and quantity by the culture period of the fungus (in days). 2-Methyl-propanol and 3-methyl-butanol formed the main components of the volatile blends for all the culture periods of fungus. Growth-promoting effects of the identified synthetic compounds were analyzed individually and in blends using tobacco plants. We found that the mixture of volatiles extracted from 3-day-old culture showed significant growth promotion in tobacco in vitro. The volatile blend showed better growth promotion at lower than higher concentrations. Our results confirm the potential role of volatile organic compounds in the mechanism of growth enhancement by GS8-3. PMID:23080408

  17. Effect of Trichoderma on plant growth: A balance between inhibition and growth promotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Ousley; J. M. Lynch; J. M. Whipps

    1993-01-01

    The effect of lettuce (Latuca sativa L.) germination and growth in nonsterilized potting compost of 0.1% and 1.0% w\\/w incorporation of fermenter biomass inocula of six strains of Trichoderma was investigated. Except for strains WT and T35 at 0.1 % w\\/w, all inocula inhibited germination. Biomass of strains WT, T35, 20, and 47 at 1.0% promoted shoot fresh weight, whereas

  18. Transforming Growth Factor B Subverts the Immune System into Directly Promoting Tumor Growth through Interleukin17

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-Seok Nam; Masaki Terabe; Mi-Jin Kang; Helen Chae; Nga Voong; Yu-an Yang; Arian Laurence; Aleksandra Michalowska; Mizuko Mamura; Scott Lonning; Jay A. Berzofsky; Lalage M. Wakefield

    2008-01-01

    Overexpression of the immunosuppressive cytokine trans- forming growth factor B (TGF-B) is one strategy that tumors have developed to evade effective immunesurveillance. Using transplantable models of breast and colon cancer, we made the unexpected finding that CD8+ cells in tumor-bearing animals can directly promote tumorigenesis, by a mechanism that is dependent on TGF-B. We showed that CD8+ splenocytes from tumor-bearing

  19. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor promotes lymphangiogenesis in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Daniela; Angehrn, Yvonne; Klein, Sarah; Riccardi, Sabrina; Baenziger-Tobler, Nadja; Otto, Vivianne I.; Pittelkow, Mark; Detmar, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background The lymphatic vascular system regulates tissue fluid homeostasis and plays important roles in immune surveillance, inflammation and cancer metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lymphangiogenesis remain incompletely characterized. Objective: We aimed to identify new pathways involved in the promotion of skin lymphangiogenesis. Methods We used a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid body vascular differentiation assay to investigate the effects of a selection of pharmacological agents with the potential to inhibit blood and/or lymphatic vessel formation. We also used a subcutaneous Matrigel assay to study candidate lymphangiogenesis factors as well as skin-specific transgenic mice. Results We found that compounds inhibiting the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) led to an impaired formation of lymphatic vessel-like structures. In vitro studies with human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), that were found to express EGFR, revealed that EGF promotes lymphatic vessel formation. This effect was inhibited by an EGFR-blocking antibody and by low molecular weight inhibitors of either the EGFR or its associated tyrosine kinase. Incorporation of EGF into a mouse matrigel plug assay showed that EGF promotes enlargement of lymphatic vessels in the skin in vivo. Moreover, transgenic mice with skin-specific overexpression of amphiregulin, another agonistic ligand of the EGFR, displayed an enhanced size and density of lymphatic vessels in the skin. Conclusion These findings reveal that EGFR activation is involved in lymphatic remodeling and suggest that specific EGFR antagonists might be used to inhibit pathological lymphangiogenesis. PMID:23706492

  20. SNAI2/Slug promotes growth and invasion in human gliomas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Numerous factors that contribute to malignant glioma invasion have been identified, but the upstream genes coordinating this process are poorly known. Methods To identify genes controlling glioma invasion, we used genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of primary human glioblastomas to develop an expression-based rank ordering of 30 transcription factors that have previously been implicated in the regulation of invasion and metastasis in cancer. Results Using this approach, we identified the oncogenic transcriptional repressor, SNAI2/Slug, among the upper tenth percentile of invasion-related transcription factors overexpressed in glioblastomas. SNAI2 mRNA expression correlated with histologic grade and invasive phenotype in primary human glioma specimens, and was induced by EGF receptor activation in human glioblastoma cells. Overexpression of SNAI2/Slug increased glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and promoted angiogenesis and glioblastoma growth in vivo. Importantly, knockdown of endogenous SNAI2/Slug in glioblastoma cells decreased invasion and increased survival in a mouse intracranial human glioblastoma transplantation model. Conclusion This genome-scale approach has thus identified SNAI2/Slug as a regulator of growth and invasion in human gliomas. PMID:20565806

  1. HE4 (WFDC2) gene overexpression promotes ovarian tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Moore, Richard G; Hill, Emily K; Horan, Timothy; Yano, Naohiro; Kim, KyuKwang; MacLaughlan, Shannon; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Tseng, YiTang Don; Padbury, James F; Miller, M Craig; Lange, Thilo S; Singh, Rakesh K

    2014-01-01

    Selective overexpression of Human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4) points to a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis but little is known about the role the HE4 gene or the gene product plays. Here we show that elevated HE4 serum levels correlate with chemoresistance and decreased survival rates in EOC patients. HE4 overexpression promoted xenograft tumor growth and chemoresistance against cisplatin in an animal model resulting in reduced survival rates. HE4 displayed responses to tumor microenvironment constituents and presented increased expression as well as nuclear translocation upon EGF, VEGF and Insulin treatment and nucleolar localization with Insulin treatment. HE4 interacts with EGFR, IGF1R, and transcription factor HIF1?. Constructs of antisense phosphorothio-oligonucleotides targeting HE4 arrested tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively these findings implicate increased HE4 expression as a molecular factor in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. Selective targeting directed towards the HE4 protein demonstrates therapeutic benefits for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:24389815

  2. HE4 (WFDC2) gene overexpression promotes ovarian tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Richard G.; Hill, Emily K.; Horan, Timothy; Yano, Naohiro; Kim, KyuKwang; MacLaughlan, Shannon; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Tseng, YiTang Don; Padbury, James F.; Miller, M. Craig; Lange, Thilo S.; Singh, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Selective overexpression of Human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4) points to a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis but little is known about the role the HE4 gene or the gene product plays. Here we show that elevated HE4 serum levels correlate with chemoresistance and decreased survival rates in EOC patients. HE4 overexpression promoted xenograft tumor growth and chemoresistance against cisplatin in an animal model resulting in reduced survival rates. HE4 displayed responses to tumor microenvironment constituents and presented increased expression as well as nuclear translocation upon EGF, VEGF and Insulin treatment and nucleolar localization with Insulin treatment. HE4 interacts with EGFR, IGF1R, and transcription factor HIF1?. Constructs of antisense phosphorothio-oligonucleotides targeting HE4 arrested tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively these findings implicate increased HE4 expression as a molecular factor in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. Selective targeting directed towards the HE4 protein demonstrates therapeutic benefits for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:24389815

  3. Solubilization of zinc compounds by the diazotrophic, plant growth promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, V S; Madhaiyan, M; Thangaraju, M

    2007-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus an endophytic diazotroph also encountered as rhizosphere bacterium is reported to possess different plant growth promoting characteristics. In this study, we assessed the zinc solubilizing potential of G. diazotrophicus under in vitro conditions with different Zn compounds using glucose or sucrose as carbon sources. G. diazotrophicus showed variations in their solubilization potential with the strains used and the Zn compounds tested. G. diazotrophicus PAl5 efficiently solubilized the Zn compounds tested and ZnO was effectively solubilized than ZnCO(3) or Zn(3)(PO(4))(2). The soluble Zn concentration was determined in the culture supernatant through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Gas chromatography coupled Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed 5-ketogluconic acid, a derivative of gluconic acid as the major organic acid produced by G. diazotrophicus PAl5 cultured with glucose as carbon source. This organic anion may be an important agent that helped in the solubilization of insoluble Zn compounds. PMID:16956644

  4. Monoclonal Antibodies to Ferric Pseudobactin, the Siderophore of Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonas putida B10

    PubMed Central

    Buyer, Jeffrey S.; Sikora, Lawrence J.; Kratzke, Marian G.

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to ferric pseudobactin, the siderophore (microbial iron transport agent) of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida B10, have been developed. Three immunoglobulin G subclass 1-type monoclonal antibodies have been characterized. Each antibody appears to be unique on the basis of their reactions with ferric pseudobactin and with culture supernatants from other pseudomonads. None of the three cross-reacts with ferric pseudobactin-type siderophores produced by seven other pseudomonads. However, P. aeruginosa ATCC 15692 and P. fluorescens ATCC 17400 produced relatively high-molecular-mass compounds (mass greater than approximately 30,000 daltons) that did react with the antibodies. The compound from P. aeruginosa was not iron regulated, while the compound from P. fluorescens was produced only under iron-limiting conditions. A competitive assay using these antibodies has a detection limit of 5 × 10?12 mol of ferric pseudobactin. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of monoclonal antibodies reactive with siderophores. PMID:16348116

  5. Role of allelochemicals in plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for biocontrol of phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Meenu; Pandya, Urja; Thakkar, Aarti

    2014-01-20

    Soil borne fungal diseases pose serious constraints on agro-productivity. Biological control is non-hazardous strategy to control plant pathogens and improve crop productivity. PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) have long been used as plant disease control agents. PGPR produced a wide range of secondary compounds that may act as signals--that is, allelochemicals that include metabolites, siderophores, antibiotics, volatile metabolites, enzymes and others. Their mode of action and molecular mechanisms provide a great awareness for their application for crop disease management. The present review highlights the role of PGPR strains, specifically referring to allelochemicals produced and molecular mechanisms. Further research to fine tune combinations of allelochemicals, plant-microbe-pathogen interaction will ultimately lead to better disease control. PMID:24176815

  6. Promotion of lung tumor growth by interleukin-17.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beibei; Guenther, James F; Pociask, Derek A; Wang, Yu; Kolls, Jay K; You, Zongbing; Chandrasekar, Bysani; Shan, Bin; Sullivan, Deborah E; Morris, Gilbert F

    2014-09-15

    Recent findings demonstrate that inhaled cigarette smoke, the predominant lung carcinogen, elicits a T helper 17 (Th17) inflammatory phenotype. Interleukin-17A (IL-17), the hallmark cytokine of Th17 inflammation, displays pro- and antitumorigenic properties in a manner that varies according to tumor type and assay system. To investigate the role of IL-17 in lung tumor growth, we used an autochthonous tumor model (K-Ras(LA1) mice) with lung delivery of a recombinant adenovirus that expresses IL-17A. Virus-mediated expression of IL-17A in K-Ras(LA1) mice at 8-10 wk of age doubled lung tumor growth in 3 wk relative to littermates that received a green fluorescent protein-expressing control adenovirus. IL-17 induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in vivo and in vitro. In accord with this finding, selective and specific inhibitors of MMP-9 repressed the increased motility and invasiveness of IL-17-treated lung tumor cells in culture. Knockdown or mutation of p53 promoted the motility of murine lung tumor cells and abrogated the promigratory role of IL-17. Coexpression of siRNA-resistant wild-type, but not mutant, human p53 rescued both IL-17-mediated migration and MMP-9 mRNA induction in p53 knockdown lung tumor cells. IL-17 increased MMP-9 mRNA stability by reducing interaction with the mRNA destabilizing serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1). Taken together, our results indicate that IL-17 stimulates lung tumor growth and regulates MMP-9 mRNA levels in a p53- and SRSF1-dependent manner. PMID:25038189

  7. ANKHD1 represses p21 (WAF1/CIP1) promoter and promotes multiple myeloma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Dhyani, Anamika; Machado-Neto, João A; Favaro, Patricia; Saad, Sara T Olalla

    2015-01-01

    ANKHD1 (Ankyrin repeat and KH domain-containing protein 1) is highly expressed and plays an important role in the proliferation and cell cycle progression of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. ANKHD1 downregulation modulates cell cycle gene expression and upregulates p21 irrespective of the TP53 mutational status of MM cell lines. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of ANKHD1 in MM in vitro clonogenicity and in vivo tumourigenicity, as well as the role of ANKHD1 in p21 transcriptional regulation. ANKHD1 silencing in MM cells resulted in significantly low no. of colonies formed and in slow migration as compared to control cells (p < 0.05). Furthermore, in xenograft MM mice models, tumour growth was visibly suppressed in mice injected with ANKHD1 silenced cells compared to the control group. There was a significant decrease in tumour volume (p = 0.006) as well as in weight (p = 0.02) in the group injected with silenced cells compared to those of the control group. Co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the interaction between p21 and ANKHD1. Moreover, overexpression of ANKHD1 downregulated the activity of a p21 promoter in luciferase assays. Decrease in luciferase activity suggests a direct role of ANKHD1 in p21 transcriptional regulation. In addition confocal analysis after U266 cells were treated with Leptomycin B (LMB) for 24 h showed accumulation of ANKHD1 inside the nucleus as compared to untreated cells where ANKHD1 was found to be predominantly in cytoplasm. This suggests ANKHD1 might be shuttling between cytoplasm and nucleus. In conclusion, ANKHD1 promotes MM growth by repressing p21 a potent cell cycle regulator. PMID:25483783

  8. Pharmacologic Agents That Promote Airway Clearance in Hospitalized Subjects: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Nila A; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; Andrews, Jeff; Ficzere, Cathy; McPheeters, Melissa L

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacologic agents to promote mucus clearance may reduce the sequelae of obstructive secretions. We systematically reviewed comparative studies of pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in hospitalized or postoperative subjects without cystic fibrosis and over 12 months of age. We searched MEDLINE and other databases from January 1970 to July 2014 to identify relevant literature. Two reviewers independently assessed each study against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two reviewers also independently extracted data regarding subject and intervention characteristics and outcomes and assigned overall quality ratings. The 9 studies meeting review criteria included 5 randomized controlled trials, 3 crossover randomized controlled trials, and one retrospective cohort study. Studies were small and together included a total of 379 subjects (mean of 42 subjects per study). N-acetylcysteine, heparin plus N-acetylcysteine, albuterol, ipratropium bromide, and saline were assessed. Studies reported no benefit of studied agents on expectoration, pulmonary function, and atelectasis and little effect on changes in sputum volume, weight, or viscosity. Adverse effects of agents were not consistently reported. Nausea was reported in 2 studies of N-acetylcysteine (one paper reported 2 experiments and did not clearly identify in which experiment adverse effects occurred), 3 studies reported that there were no adverse events, and 3 studies did not address adverse effects at all. Further research with clearly characterized populations and interventions is needed to understand the potential benefits and adverse effects of mucoactive agents. PMID:25944943

  9. Isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Ayson, F G; de Jesus, E G; Amemiya, Y; Moriyama, S; Hirano, T; Kawauchi, H

    2000-02-01

    We report the isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus; Teleostei; Perciformes; Siganidae) growth hormone (GH). Rabbitfish GH was extracted from pituitary glands under alkaline conditions, fractionated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions containing GH were identified by immunoblotting with bonito GH antiserum. Under nonreducing conditions, the molecular weight of rabbitfish GH is about 19 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The purified hormone was potent in promoting growth in rabbitfish fry. Weekly intraperitoneal injections of the hormone significantly accelerated growth. This was evident 3 weeks after the start of the treatment, and its effect was still significant 2 weeks after the treatment was terminated. Rabbitfish GH cDNA was cloned to determine its nucleotide sequence. Excluding the poly (A) tail, rabbitfish GH cDNA is 860 base pairs (bp) long. It contained untranslated regions of 94 and 175 bp in the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. It has an open reading frame of 588 bp coding for a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature protein of 178 amino acid residues. Rabbitfish GH has 4 cysteine residues. On the amino acid level, rabbitfish GH shows high identity (71-74%) with GHs of other perciforms, such as tuna, sea bass, yellow tail, bonito, and tilapia, and less (47-49%) identity with salmonid and carp GHs. PMID:10642447

  10. Perceptions of Growth Monitoring and Promotion among an International Panel of District Medical Officers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Roberfroid; Pierre Lefèvre; Tom Hoerée; Patrick Kolsteren

    The growth chart has been proposed as an educational tool to make the child's growth visible to both health workers and caregivers and to enhance communication between them. In the case of growth faltering, this would trigger timely corrective measures. Although the relevance of growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) has often been questioned in the literature, opinions of District Medical

  11. ROCK inhibition promotes adult retinal ganglion cell neurite outgrowth only in the presence of growth promoting factors.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zubair; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann

    2009-10-01

    Lesioned central nervous system (CNS) axons fail to regenerate because of limited availability of neurotrophic factors (NTF) to promote neuron survival and drive axon regeneration through an environment rich in multiple myelin- and non myelin-derived axon growth inhibitory ligands that initiate growth cone collapse through the Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK) signalling pathway. However, pharmacological inhibition of Rho and ROCK promotes neurite outgrowth in PC12, Ntera-2 cells and embryonic/early postnatal neurons in culture. We have used our well-characterised CNS myelin-inhibited adult rat retinal culture model to show that Y27632 only promotes disinhibited neurite outgrowth if RGC are co-stimulated with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Y27632 in CNTF-stimulated retinal cultures promotes optimal RGC neurite outgrowth at 10 muM concentrations, while higher concentrations negatively correlate with RGC neurite outgrowth and survival. Raising the levels of cAMP in Y27632-treated retinal cultures also promotes significant RGC neurite outgrowth, an effect that is potentiated by the further inclusion of CNTF. Our results suggest that Y27632-induced ROCK inhibition promotes robust disinhibited axon regeneration of adult neurons only when growth promoting factors are added and/or cAMP levels are raised. PMID:19524675

  12. History of the Use of Antibiotic as Growth Promoters in European Poultry Feeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. R. Castanon

    2007-01-01

    Use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feeds has been permitted in the member states of the European Union during the last 50 yr. However, concerns about development of antimicrobial resistance and about transference of antibiotic resistance genes from animal to human microbiota, led to withdraw approval for antibiotics as growth promoters in the European Union since January 1,

  13. Plant growth promoting bacteria from cow dung based biodynamic preparations.

    PubMed

    Radha, T K; Rao, D L N

    2014-12-01

    Indigenous formulations based on cow dung fermentation are commonly used in organic farming. Three biodynamic preparations viz., Panchagavya (PG), BD500 and 'Cow pat pit' (CPP) showed high counts of lactobacilli (10(9) ml(-1)) and yeasts (10(4) ml(-1)). Actinomycetes were present only in CPP (10(4) ml(-1)) and absent in the other two. Seven bacterial isolates from these ferments were identified by a polyphasic approach: Bacillus safensis (PG1), Bacillus cereus (PG2, PG4 PG5), Bacillus subtilis (BD2) Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (BD3) and Bacillus licheniformis (CPP1). This is the first report of L. xylanilyticus and B. licheniformis in biodynamic preparations. Only three carbon sources-dextrose, sucrose and trehalose out of 21 tested were utilized by all the bacteria. None could utilize arabinose, dulcitol, galactose, inositol, inulin, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose and sorbitol. All the strains produced indole acetic acid (1.8-3.7 ?g ml(-1) culture filtrate) and ammonia. None could fix nitrogen; but all except B. safensis and B. licheniformis could solubilize phosphorous from insoluble tri-calcium phosphate. All the strains except L. xylaniliticus exhibited antagonism to the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia bataticola whereas none could inhibit Sclerotium rolfsi. In green house experiment in soil microcosms, bacterial inoculation significantly promoted growth of maize; plant dry weight increased by ~21 % due to inoculation with B. cereus (PG2). Results provide a basis for understanding the beneficial effects of biodynamic preparations and industrial deployment of the strains. PMID:25320439

  14. Social complementation and growth advantages promote socially defective bacterial isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Susanne A.; Velicer, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions among diverse individuals that encounter one another in nature have often been studied among animals but rarely among microbes. For example, the evolutionary forces that determine natural frequencies of bacteria that express cooperative behaviours at low levels remain poorly understood. Natural isolates of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus sampled from the same fruiting body often vary in social phenotypes, such as group swarming and multicellular development. Here, we tested whether genotypes highly proficient at swarming or development might promote the persistence of less socially proficient genotypes from the same fruiting body. Fast-swarming strains complemented slower isolates, allowing the latter to keep pace with faster strains in mixed groups. During development, one low-sporulating strain was antagonized by high sporulators, whereas others with severe developmental defects had those defects partially complemented by high-sporulating strains. Despite declining in frequency overall during competition experiments spanning multiple cycles of development, developmentally defective strains exhibited advantages during the growth phases of competitions. These results suggest that microbes with low-sociality phenotypes often benefit from interacting with more socially proficient strains. Such complementation may combine with advantages at other traits to increase equilibrium frequencies of low-sociality genotypes in natural populations. PMID:24573856

  15. ROBO3 promotes growth and metastasis of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Han, Shilong; Cao, Chuanwu; Tang, Tao; Lu, Chenhui; Xu, Jichong; Wang, Shi; Xue, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoping; Li, Maoquan

    2015-09-28

    Pancreatic carcinoma is a highly lethal malignancy with an extremely poor prognosis. Recent genome-wide studies have implicated axon guidance pathways, including the SLIT/ROBO pathway, in pancreatic tumor development and progression. Here we showed that ROBO3 expression is up-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissue samples and cell lines. Over-expression of ROBO3 promotes pancreatic cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis in vitro and in mouse xenograft tumor models. We identified miR-383 as a suppressor of ROBO3, and revealed its expression to be inversely correlated with ROBO3. Over-expression of ROBO3 activates Wnt pathway components, ?-catenin and GSK-3, and the expression of markers indicating an EMT. By means of immunoprecipitation, we revealed an interaction between Wnt inhibitor SFRP and ROBO3 in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Our work suggests that ROBO3 may contribute to the progression of pancreatic cancer by sequestering Wnt inhibitor SFRP, which in turn leads to increased Wnt/?-catenin pathway activity. We also confirmed that ROBO3 increases with clinical grade and miR-383 expression is inversely correlated to that of ROBO3. PMID:26070964

  16. Screening of reducing agents for anaerobic growth of Candida albicans SC5314.

    PubMed

    Rymovicz, A U M; Souza, R D; Gursky, L C; Rosa, R T; Trevilatto, P C; Groppo, F C; Rosa, E A R

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different redox potentials (Eh) on cell growth, whole-cell protein profile and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of Candida albicans SC5314. The yeast was grown in YNB broth enriched with reducing (158mM sodium sulfite, 4mM sodium sulfite, 2.5mM sodium metabisulfite, 1.3mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 5.5mM thioglycolic acid, and 3.2mM l-cysteine hydrochloride) and oxidizing agents (15mM ammonium persulfate and 80mM potassium ferricyanide) and incubated in normoxic and anoxic atmospheres at 37°C, for 48h. Pre- and post-incubation Eh values were determined and cytoplasm proteins were extracted. Proteins were parted by SDS-PAGE and their profiles were compared. 3.2mM l-cysteine and 1.3mM 2-mercaptoethanol promoted and maintained negative Eh values during incubation. No differences were detected among SDS-PAGE profiles. CSH differences only were observed with 4mM sodium sulfite and 3.2mM l-cysteine. Results showed that 3.2mM l-cysteine is a reducing agent that allows maintenance of negative Eh in both anoxic and normoxic conditions and it seems not to interfere in the global expression of plasmatic proteins. PMID:21256882

  17. Role of metal resistant plant growth promoting bacteria in ameliorating fly ash to the growth of Brassica juncea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kalpna V. Kumar; Shubhi Srivastava; N. Singh; H. M. Behl

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we have shown that the plant growth promoting bacterial strain NBRI K24 and strain NBRI K3 from fly ash (FA) contaminated soil reduce the toxicity of Ni and Cr in Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and promote plant growth under pot culture experiments. Isolated strains NBRI K24 and NBRI K3 were characterized based on the 16S rDNA sequencing

  18. Efficacy of growth factor in promoting early osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Nevins, Myron; Kim, Soo-Woo; Fateh, Ardavan; Kim, David M

    2014-10-01

    A preclinical study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of 2 different topical formulations of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) to promote early osseointegration and enhanced bone-to-implant contact (BIC) for dental implants placed in an edentulous ridge. Six female beagle dogs were divided into 3 groups. The control group included 4 implants with no coating; test group A included 10 implants with commercially available rhPDGF-BB formulation coating; and second test group B included 10 implants with prototype viscous rhPDGF-BB coating. Three dogs were sacrificed at 3 weeks (12 implants) and the remaining 3 dogs at 6 weeks after implant placement (12 implants). The specimens were retrieved for histological evaluation, and revealed an uneventful healing of all implants without any sign of an inflammatory response at the different time intervals. Furthermore, the bone was in very close contact with the implants' surfaces with no evidence of intervening fibrous tissue layers. At 3 weeks, new bone formation between most implant threads on rhPDGF-BB coated implants was evident, whereas in the control group only a thin and sparse amount of new bone was noted. At 6 weeks, the commercially available rhPDGF-BB formulation coated implant group (Group A) showed more trabecular bone and higher BIC compared to the other 2 groups. Histologically, the results in this study showed that use of conventionally available rhPDGF-BB formulation as the implant surface treatment may accelerate the process of osseointegration and enhance BIC. PMID:24946082

  19. Evaluation of insect associated and plant growth promoting fungi in the control of cabbage root flies.

    PubMed

    Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg

    2014-08-01

    Delia radicum L. or cabbage maggot is an important pest for Brassicaceous crops. There are currently no registered chemical control agents for its control in Slovenia. Fungal control agents for cabbage maggot were therefore sought among nine rhizosphere-compatible and plant growth-promoting, soil-adapted, and entomopathogenic species to cabbage maggots and were assayed in in vitro and soil laboratory bioassays. In the in vitro tests, the conidial suspensions were applied directly to cabbage maggot eggs. The soil tests mimicked pathways of natural exposure of various insect life stages to the fungal strains. Conidial concentrations used in soil tests were comparable to economic rates for in-furrow application. The following fungi were tested: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst. (2 isolates), Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans (1), Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin. (3), Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo) Petch (1), Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (2), Metarhizium robertsii J.F. Bisch., Rehner & Humber (1), Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin (4), Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel-Jones & Samson (2), and Clonostachys solani f. nigrovirens (J.F.H. Beyma) Schroers (2). Abbott's corrected mortality in the in vitro tests ranged from 0.0 +/- 18.9 to 47.6 +/- 9.0% and in the soil test from 2.4 +/- 13.0 to 68.2 +/- 21.5%. Seven isolates (B. bassiana [isolate 1174], C. solani [1828], M. anisopliae [1154 and 1868], T. atroviride [1872], T. koningiopsis [1874], and T. gamsii [1876]) caused significant cabbage maggot mortality in either in vitro or soil tests. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion during the screening of potential biological control agents is discussed. PMID:25195421

  20. Evaluation of a Topical Herbal Agent for the Promotion of Bone Healing

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Wing-Sum; Ko, Chun-Hay; Lam, Ka-Wing; Shum, Wai-Ting; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Ko, Kam-Ming; Hung, Leung-Kim; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2015-01-01

    A topically used Chinese herbal paste, namely, CDNR, was designed to facilitate fracture healing which is usually not addressed in general hospital care. From our in vitro studies, CDNR significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide from RAW264.7 cells by 51 to 77%. This indicated its anti-inflammatory effect. CDNR also promoted the growth of bone cells by stimulating the proliferation of UMR106 cells up to 18%. It also increased the biomechanical strength of the healing bone in a drill-hole defect rat model by 16.5% significantly. This result revealed its in vivo efficacy on facilitation of bone healing. Furthermore, the detection of the chemical markers of CDNR in the skin and muscle of the treatment area demonstrated its transdermal properties. However, CDNR did not affect the bone turnover markers in serum of the rats. With its anti-inflammatory and bone formation properties, CDNR is found effective in promoting bone healing. PMID:25810746

  1. Class-IIa Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Promotes the Growth of Neural Processes and Protects Them Against Neurotoxic Insult.

    PubMed

    Collins, Louise M; Adriaanse, Luc J; Theratile, Surabhi D; Hegarty, Shane V; Sullivan, Aideen M; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2015-06-01

    Small molecule histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) hold much promise as pharmacological modifiers of the epigenetic status of the central nervous system (CNS), given their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. This is particularly relevant given the lack of disease-modifying therapies for many neurodegenerative diseases and that epigenetic perturbations are increasingly recognised as playing a key role in their pathophysiology. In particular, emerging evidence in recent years has shown that epigenetic dysregulation may contribute to dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease. As a result, a number of pan-HDIs have been explored as potential neuroprotective agents for dopaminergic neurons. However, it is not known if the neuroprotective effects of pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition are a general phenomenon or if these effects require inhibition of specific classes of HDACs. Here, we examine the ability of class-specific HDIs to promote neurite growth in a variety of cellular contexts. We find that MC1568, a class IIa-specific HDI, promotes neurite growth and arbourisation and protects neurite arbours against neurotoxic insult. Furthermore, we show that class IIa-specific HDAC inhibition results in activation of the canonical Smad signalling pathway, which is known to promote the survival and growth of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. These results demonstrate the potential of class IIa-specific HDIs as regulators of neuronal structure and suggest they should be examined in animal models of Parkinson's disease as the next stage in rationalising their use as a potential therapy for this disorder. PMID:25065734

  2. Maize rhizosphere in Sichuan, China, hosts plant growth promoting Burkholderia cepacia with phosphate solubilizing and antifungal abilities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke; Penttinen, Petri; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ao, Xiaoling; Liu, Maoke; Yu, Xiumei; Chen, Qiang

    2014-01-20

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria promote plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. We isolated twelve bacterial strains showing different degrees of phosphate solubilizing activity from maize rhizosphere. Four isolates solubilized over 300 ?g mL?¹ phosphate from insoluble Ca?(PO?)?, with isolate SCAUK0330 solubilizing over 450 ?g mL?¹. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis SCAUK0330 was identified as Burkholderia cepacia. SCAUK0330 grew at 10-40 °C and pH 4.0-10.0, tolerated up to 5% NaCl, and showed antagonism against nine pathogenic fungi. SCAUK0330 promoted the growth of both healthy and Helminthosporium maydis infected maize plants, indicating that the isolate was a good candidate to be applied as a biofertilizer and a biocontrol agent under a wide range of environmental conditions.The expression of a single SCAUK0330 gene gave E. coli a pH decrease linked ability to solubilize phosphate. The nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences of this phosphate solubilization linked gene showed high degree of sequence identity with B. cepacia E37gabY. The production of gluconic acid is considered as the principle mechanism for phosphate solubilization. In agreement with the proposed periplasmic location of the gluconic acid production, the predicted signal peptide and transmembrane regions implied that GabY is membrane bound. PMID:23932330

  3. Effects of Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Yield, Growth, and Some Physiological Characteristics of Wheat and Barley Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Metin Turan; Medine Gulluce; Fikrettin ?ahin

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 a greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effects of boron (B) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments, applied either alone or in combination, on yield, plant growth, leaf total chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, membrane leakage, and leaf relative water content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Bezostiya) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Tokak) plants. Results showed

  4. The effect of plant growth promoting bacteria on growth and nutrient uptake of maize in two different soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilfuza Egamberdiyeva

    2007-01-01

    An understanding of ecological conditions effecting on bacterial inoculants is important when introducing microbes for increasing plant growth and productivity. In this study the influence of two different soil types on the stimulatory effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for maize was investigated. The investigations were carried out in pot experiments with calcareous calcisol soil taken from Sirdarya, Uzbekistan and

  5. Metal-Complexing Agents as Metal Buffers in Media for the Growth of Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Qadeer Choudhary; S. J. Pirt

    1965-01-01

    SUMMARY The influence of metal-complexing agents on the mycelial growth rate, conidial germination and morphology of Aspergillus niger in shake-flask cultures was studied. The agents tested were : ethylenediaminetetra- acetic acid (EDTA), diaminocyclohexane-N,N-tetra-acetic acid (CDTA), diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), which form soluble complexes, and ferrocyanide, which forms insoluble complexes. The agents were added singly to culture media

  6. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-04-24

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

  7. Evaluation of Phytase Producing Bacteria for Their Plant Growth Promoting Activities

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prashant; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076–0.174?U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal activity. All isolates were positive for the above characteristics except for HCN production. The solubilization index for phosphorus on Pikovskaya agar plates was in the range of 2–4. Significant amount of IAA (7.19 to 35.03??g/mL) production and solubilized phosphate (189.53 to 746.84??g/mL) was noticed by these isolates at different time intervals. Besides that, a greenhouse study was also conducted with Indian mustard to evaluate the potential of these isolates to promote plant growth. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters and P uptake by plant were used as indicators. The plant growth promoting ability of bacterial isolates in pot experiments was correlated to IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and other in vitro tests. On the basis of present findings, isolate PB-06 was most promising in plant growth promotion with multiple growth promoting characteristics. PMID:24669222

  8. Two-signal requirement for growth-promoting function of Yap in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Su, Tian; Bondar, Tanya; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Cuiling; He, Hang; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptional coactivator Yes-associated protein (Yap) promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, suggesting that Yap functions as an oncogene. Most oncogenes, however, require a combination of at least two signals to promote proliferation. In this study, we present evidence that Yap activation is insufficient to promote growth in the otherwise normal tissue. Using a mosaic mouse model, we demonstrate that Yap overexpression in a fraction of hepatocytes does not lead to their clonal expansion, as proliferation is counterbalanced by increased apoptosis. To shift the activity of Yap towards growth, a second signal provided by tissue damage or inflammation is required. In response to liver injury, Yap drives clonal expansion, suppresses hepatocyte differentiation, and promotes a progenitor phenotype. These results suggest that Yap activation is insufficient to promote growth in the absence of a second signal thus coordinating tissue homeostasis and repair. PMID:25667983

  9. Interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and plant growth promoting fungus Phoma sp. on their root colonization and growth promotion of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Chandanie; Mayumi Kubota; Mitsuro Hyakumachi

    2005-01-01

    Interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and plant growth promoting fungus Phoma sp. was studied for its effect on their root colonization and plant growth of cucumber. Two isolates of Phoma sp. (GS8-2 and GS8-3) were tested with G. mosseae. The percent root length colonized by G. mosseae was not adversely affected by the presence of Phoma isolates. In

  10. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and kinetin as ways to promote corn growth and yield in a short-growing-season area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Pan; Y. M. Bai; S. Leibovitch; D. L. Smith

    1999-01-01

    The base temperature for germination of corn is approximately 10°C, which results in slow germination and emergence of corn crops sown into cool soils. The effects of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and kinetin on grain and sweet corn emergence, plant growth and yield were studied under short season conditions in 1996 and 1997. Two PGPR strains (Serratia proteamaculans 1-102 and Serratia

  11. Effects of inoculation of plant-growth promoting bacteria on Ni uptake by Indian mustard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mani Rajkumar; Helena Freitas

    2008-01-01

    In this study, among a collection of Ni resistant bacterial strains isolated from serpentine soil, two plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), Ps29C and Bm4C were selected based on their ability to utilize ACC as the sole N source and promote seedling growth in roll towel assay. The Ni resistant PGPB, Ps29C and Bm4C were characterized as Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus

  12. Plant growth-promoting activities of fluorescent pseudomonads, isolated from the Iranian soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Abbas-Zadeh; N. Saleh-Rastin; H. Asadi-Rahmani; K. Khavazi; A. Soltani; A. R. Shoary-Nejati; Mohammad Miransari

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescent pseudomonads are among the most influencing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in plants rhizosphere. In this\\u000a research work the plant growth-promoting activities of 40 different strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas\\u000a putida, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) and maintained in the microbial collection of Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran, Iran,

  13. Complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca strain JD37.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiuyue; Xiao, Jing; Zhou, Chenhao; Mu, Yonglin; Xu, Bin; He, Qingling; Xiao, Ming

    2014-12-20

    Pseudomonas aurantiaca Strain JD37, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from potato rhizosphere soil (Shanghai, China), is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. The JD37 genome consists of only one chromosome with no plasmids. Its genome contains genes involved plant growth promoting, biological control, and other function. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P. aurantiaca JD37. As far as we know, this is the first whole-genome of this species. PMID:25456057

  14. Making Just Tenure and Promotion Decisions Using the Objective Knowledge Growth Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitpin, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to utilize the Objective Knowledge Growth Framework (OKGF) to promote a better understanding of the evaluating tenure and promotion processes. Design/Methodology/Approach: A scenario is created to illustrate the concept of using OKGF. Findings: The framework aims to support decision makers in identifying the…

  15. . Author manuscript Insulin Injections Promote the Growth of Aberrant Crypt Foci in the Colon

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    . Author manuscript Page /1 7 Insulin Injections Promote the Growth of Aberrant Crypt Foci the hypothesis that exogenous insulin would enhance colon carcinogenesis. Thirty-six female F344 rats, fed ad, and experimental rats were given ultralente bovine insulin, 20 U/kg. The promoting effect of insulin injections

  16. Do Natural Disasters Promote Long-Run Growth?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Skidmore; Hideki Toya

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the long-run relationships among disasters, capital accumulation, total factor productivity, and economic growth. The cross-country empirical analysis demonstrates that higher frequencies of climatic disasters are correlated with higher rates of human capital accumulation, increases in total factor productivity, and economic growth. Though disaster risk reduces the expected rate of return to physical capital, risk also

  17. Promotion of plant growth by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 via novel volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Dutta, Swarnalee; Ann, Mina; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Park, Kyungseok

    2015-05-29

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play key roles in modulating plant growth and induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens. Despite their significance, the physiological functions of the specific VOCs produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 (Pf.SS101) have not been precisely elucidated. The effects of Pf.SS101 and its VOCs on augmentation of plant growth promotion were investigated in vitro and in planta. A significant growth promotion was observed in plants exposed Pf.SS101 under both conditions, suggesting that its VOCs play a key role in promoting plant growth. Solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and a gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) system were used to characterize the VOCs emitted by Pf.SS101 and 11 different compounds were detected in samples inoculated this bacterium, including 13-Tetradecadien-1-ol, 2-butanone and 2-Methyl-n-1-tridecene. Application of these compounds resulted in enhanced plant growth. This study suggests that Pf.SS101 promotes the growth of plants via the release of VOCs including 13-Tetradecadien-1-ol, 2-butanone and 2-Methyl-n-1-tridecene, thus increasing understanding of the role of VOCs in plant-bacterial inter-communication. PMID:25892516

  18. Twist promotes invasion and cisplatin resistance in pancreatic cancer cells through growth differentiation factor 15.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hong; Lu, Hong-Wei; Li, Yi-Ming; Lu, Le; Wang, Jin-Long; Zhang, Ya-Fei; Shang, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is an aggressive and devastating disease with a poor prognosis. Cisplatin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for solid tumors, is effective as a single agent or in combination with other drugs for the treatment of PC. Previous studies have suggested that Twist and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) are involved in the progression of PC. However, the role of Twist and GDF15 in PC remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the individual effect of and interaction between Twist and GDF15 in PC cell invasion and chemoresistance to cisplatin was examined. Twist and/or GDF15 were stably overexpressed or knocked down in ASPC?1 and BXPC?3 human PC cells. Overexpression of Twist in the two cell lines markedly increased GDF15 expression, cell invasion, matrix metalloproteinase?2 expression/activity and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of cisplatin, which was eradicated by GDF15 knockdown or the selective p38 mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580 (10 µM). By contrast, Twist knockdown significantly decreased GDF15 expression, cell invasion, matrix metalloproteinase?2 expression/activity and the IC50 values of cisplatin, which was completely reversed by overexpression of GDF15. In addition, while overexpression and knockdown of Twist increased and decreased p38 MAPK activity, respectively, GDF15 demonstrated no significant effect on p38 MAPK activity in PC cells. In conclusion, the present study, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, demonstrated that Twist promotes PC cell invasion and cisplatin chemoresistance through inducing GDF15 expression via a p38 MAPK?dependent mechanism. The present study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying PC progression and chemoresistance. PMID:26018318

  19. Urban Growth in Latin American Cities Exploring urban dynamicsthrough agent-basedsimulation

    E-print Network

    Guillas, Serge

    Urban Growth in Latin American Cities Exploring urban dynamicsthrough agent-basedsimulation Joana The high rates of urban growth in Latin America during the 1960sand 1970s produced rapid urbanisationand staticproblem rather than asa spatial form that emergesfrom the urban developmentprocessand that is part

  20. Effect of Growth Rate on Resistance of Candida albicans Biofilms to Antifungal Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORGE S. BAILLIE; L. JULIA DOUGLAS

    1998-01-01

    A perfused biofilm fermentor, which allows growth-rate control of adherent microbial populations, was used to assess whether the susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to antifungal agents is dependent on growth rate. Biofilms were generated under conditions of glucose limitation and were perfused with drugs at a high concentration (20 times the MIC). Amphotericin B produced a greater reduction in the

  1. Antifungal, insecticidal, and plant growth promoting potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Talwinder; Manhas, Rajesh Kumari

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, an actinobacterium strain, possessing antagonistic activity against different fungal phytopathogens viz. Colletotrichum acutatum, Cladosporium herbarum, Alternaria brassicicola, Exserohilum sp., Alternaria mali, Colletotrichum gleospoiroides, Alternaria alternata, Cercospora sp., Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and Fusarium moniliformae, was isolated from soil and identified as Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16. Application of culture supernatant (5%)/cells (10(7) ?cfu?ml(-1) ), 2?h post inoculation with A. brassicicola (10(5) ?spores?ml(-1) ), resulted in 85.95 and 93.75% suppression of black leaf spot of Raphanus sativus, respectively on detached leaves. Whereas cells/culture supernatant (above 5%) completely suppressed the disease incidence when co inoculated with fungal pathogen. The crude extract containing antifungal components was completely stable at 70?°C for 1?h retaining 90 and 67.67% activity after boiling (for 1?h) and autoclaving (121?°C for 30?min), respectively. No loss in activity was observed when treated with proteinase K and on exposure to sun and UV light and found to be active over a wide range of pH (2 to 14). Bioautography of the solvent extract against test phytopathogens revealed the presence of three active components. Ethyl acetate extract of DH16 also demonstrated insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura, causing 40% larval mortality and extension of larval period. In addition, it produced 30?µg?ml(-1) of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) in a medium containing tryptophan which promoted lateral root formation in Vigna radiata (green gram). These results indicate that Streptomyces hydrogenans holds the potential to be used as antifungal, insecticidal, and plant growth promoting agent. PMID:23765423

  2. Role of metal resistant plant growth promoting bacteria in ameliorating fly ash to the growth of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kalpna V; Srivastava, Shubhi; Singh, N; Behl, H M

    2009-10-15

    In this study, we have shown that the plant growth promoting bacterial strain NBRI K24 and strain NBRI K3 from fly ash (FA) contaminated soil reduce the toxicity of Ni and Cr in Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and promote plant growth under pot culture experiments. Isolated strains NBRI K24 and NBRI K3 were characterized based on the 16S rDNA sequencing and identified as Enterobacter aerogenes and Rahnella aquatilis respectively. Both the strains were siderophore producing and found capable of stimulating plant biomass and enhance phytoextraction of metals (Ni and Cr) from FA by metal accumulating plant i.e. B. juncea. Concurrent production of siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA) and phosphate solubilization revealed their plant growth promotion potential. PMID:19487076

  3. Comparison of the Schwann cell surface and Schwann cell extracellular matrix as promoters of neurite growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    March D. Ard; Richard P. Bunge; Mary B. Bunge

    1987-01-01

    Summary The ability of Schwann cells to influence the direction and rate of neurite growth was investigated in a tissue culture model of the bands of Büngner of injured peripheral nerve. The arrangement of this culture system allowed testing of the growth-promoting properties of the Schwann cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) assembled by Schwann cells rather than soluble substances

  4. Genetics of phosphate solubilization and its potential applications for improving plant growth-promoting bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Rodríguez; R. Fraga; T. Gonzalez; Y. Bashan

    2006-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are soil and rhizosphere bacteria that can benefit plant growth by different mechanisms. The ability of some microorganisms to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form, like orthophosphate, is an important trait in a PGPB for increasing plant yields. In this mini-review, the isolation and characterization of genes involved in mineralization of organic P sources

  5. Optimization of plant growth-promoting bacteria-assisted phytostabilization of mine tailings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Grandlic; Michael W. Palmer; Raina M. Maier

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can improve revegetation of arid mine tailings as measured by increased biomass production. The goals of the present study were first to evaluate how mode of application of known PGPB affects plant growth, and second to evaluate the effect of this inoculation on rhizosphere microbial community structure. PGPB application strategies investigated

  6. Flt1 Signaling in Macrophages Promotes Glioma Growth In vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Kerber; Yvonne Reiss; Anke Wickersheim; Manfred Jugold; Fabian Kiessling; Matthias Heil; Vadim Tchaikovski; Johannes Waltenberger; Masabumi Shibuya; Karl H. Plate; Marcia Regina Machein

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that Flt-1, a fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor, which binds to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-B, and PlGF, is a positive regulator of angiogenesis in the context of tumor growth and metastasis. However, the molecular basis of its action is still not clear. Besides endothelial cells, Flt-1 is also expressed by other different cell types,

  7. Effects of inoculation of plant-growth promoting bacteria on Ni uptake by Indian mustard.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Mani; Freitas, Helena

    2008-06-01

    In this study, among a collection of Ni resistant bacterial strains isolated from serpentine soil, two plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), Ps29C and Bm4C were selected based on their ability to utilize ACC as the sole N source and promote seedling growth in roll towel assay. The Ni resistant PGPB, Ps29C and Bm4C were characterized as Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus megaterium, respectively, on the basis of their 16s rDNA sequences. Assessment of the parameters of plant growth promotion revealed the intrinsic ability of the strains for the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of insoluble phosphate. Further, the plant growth promoting activity of Ps29C and Bm4C on the Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were assessed with different concentrations of Ni in soil. Inoculation of Ps29C or Bm4C promoted plant growth and protected the plant from Ni toxicity. However, the maximum growth was observed in the plants inoculated with strain Bm4C. Inoculation with Ps29C or Bm4C had little influence on the accumulation of Ni in root and shoot system, but produced a much larger aboveground biomass. The present observations showed that the strains Ps29C and Bm4C protect the plants against the inhibitory effects of nickel, probably due to the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of phosphate. The above results provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of Ni contaminated soil. PMID:17826991

  8. Pyrroloquinoline quinone is a plant growth promotion factor produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens B16.

    PubMed

    Choi, Okhee; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Jung-Gun; Jeong, Yeonhwa; Moon, Jae Sun; Park, Chang Seuk; Hwang, Ingyu

    2008-02-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens B16 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. To determine the factors involved in plant growth promotion by this organism, we mutagenized wild-type strain B16 using OmegaKm elements and isolated one mutant, K818, which is defective in plant growth promotion, in a rockwool culture system. A cosmid clone, pOK40, which complements the mutant K818, was isolated from a genomic library of the parent strain. Tn3-gusA mutagenesis of pOK40 revealed that the genes responsible for plant growth promotion reside in a 13.3-kb BamHI fragment. Analysis of the DNA sequence of the fragment identified 11 putative open reading frames, consisting of seven known and four previously unidentified pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) biosynthetic genes. All of the pqq genes showed expression only in nutrient-limiting conditions in a PqqH-dependent manner. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis of culture filtrates confirmed that wild-type B16 produces PQQ, whereas mutants defective in plant growth promotion do not. Application of wild-type B16 on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants cultivated in a hydroponic culture system significantly increased the height, flower number, fruit number, and total fruit weight, whereas none of the strains that did not produce PQQ promoted tomato growth. Furthermore, 5 to 1,000 nm of synthetic PQQ conferred a significant increase in the fresh weight of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings, confirming that PQQ is a plant growth promotion factor. Treatment of cucumber leaf discs with PQQ and wild-type B16 resulted in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that PQQ acts as an antioxidant in plants. PMID:18055583

  9. Colonization and persistence of a plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CS85, on roots of cotton seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxia; Wang, Daoben; Zhou, Qi

    2004-07-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens CS85, which was previously isolated from the rhizosphere of cotton seedlings, acts as both a plant growth-promoting bacterium and a biocontrol agent against cotton pathogens, including Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum gossypii, Fusarium oxysporum f sp. vasinfectum, and Verticillium dahliae. Strain CS85 was labeled separately with luxAB and gusA. The labeled strains were stably maintained and had high levels of expression of the marker genes, luxAB and gusA, after successive transfers on nonselective medium, long-term preservation, and after recovery from soil. The labeled strains displayed similar biocontrol characteristics (e.g., antibiosis, effects of growth-promotion and disease-control) to the original strain. The labeled strains colonized all surfaces of the young plant root zones, such as roots hairs and lateral roots, although the distribution of the labeled strains on the root surfaces was not uniform. Moreover, the population densities of the labeled strains on the root surface were stably maintained at high levels during the first 2 weeks of plant growth in the native soil, so that about 10(7)-10(8) CFU/g root were detected, then decreased gradually. Nevertheless, approximately 10(6) CFU/g root of the labeled strains were observed on the root surfaces 35 d after planting. PMID:15381971

  10. Rhizonin A from Burkholderia sp. KCTC11096 and its growth promoting role in lettuce seed germination.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Abdul Latif; Hussain, Javid; Ali, Liaqat; Kamran, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2012-01-01

    We isolated and identified a gibberellin-producing Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096 from agricultural field soils. The culture filtrate of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) significantly increased the germination and growth of lettuce and Chinese cabbage seeds. The ethyl acetate extract of the PGPR culture showed significantly higher rate of lettuce seed germination and growth as compared to the distilled water treated control. The ethyl acetate fraction of the Burkholderia sp. was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation and we obtained for the first time from a Burkholderia sp. the plant growth promoting compound rhizonin A (1), which was characterized through NMR and MS techniques. Application of various concentrations of 1 significantly promoted the lettuce seed germination as compared to control. PMID:22759911

  11. A constitutive promoter directs expression of the nerve growth factor receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, A; Patil, N; Chao, M

    1988-01-01

    Expression of nerve growth factor receptor is normally restricted to cells derived from the neural crest in a developmentally regulated manner. We analyzed promoter sequences for the human nerve growth factor receptor gene and found that the receptor promoter resembles others which are associated with constitutively expressed genes that have housekeeping and growth-related functions. Unlike these other genes, the initiation of transcription occurred at one major site rather than at multiple sites. The constitutive nature of the nerve growth factor receptor promoter may account for the ability of this gene to be transcribed in a diverse number of heterologous cells after gene transfer. The intron-exon structure of the receptor gene indicated that structural features are precisely divided into discrete domains. Images PMID:2850481

  12. IGF1 Promoter Polymorphism and Cranial Growth in Individuals Born Very Preterm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. Euser; Martijn J. J. Finken; Aan V. Kharagjitsingh; Behrooz Z. Alizadeh; Bart O. Roep; Ingrid Meulenbelt; Friedo W. Dekker; Jan M. Wit

    2011-01-01

    Background: Major defects in the IGF1 gene are associated with severely reduced cranial and linear growth. The association between IGF1 promoter polymorphisms and growth is uncertain. Aims: To test the effect of the IGF1 192-bp allele on cranial and linear growth and body mass index (BMI) from birth until age 5 years, and on IQ and serum IGF-1 at age

  13. What Is Expected from the Genus Azospirillum as a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronica Massena Reis; Kátia Regina dos Santos Teixeira; Raúl Osvaldo Pedraza

    \\u000a Bacteria capable of stimulating plant growth are generally known as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). Among them are\\u000a Azospirillum species that influence plant growth through different mechanisms. Azospirillum is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the alphaproteobacteria phylum. On the basis of the newly discovered species\\u000a (at present 15), it is present not only in a wide diversity of plants, including

  14. The hair growth promoting effect of Sophora flavescens extract and its molecular regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seok-Seon Roh; Chang Deok Kim; Min-Ho Lee; Seong-Lok Hwang; Moon-Jeong Rang; Yeo-Kyeong Yoon

    2002-01-01

    In search of natural extracts for hair growth, we found that the extract of dried root of Sophora flavescens has outstanding hair growth promoting effect. After topical application of Sophora flavescens extract onto the back of C57BL\\/6 mice, the earlier conversion of telogen-to-anagen was induced. The growth of dermal papilla cells cultured in vitro, however, was not affected by Sophora

  15. The VASE exon downregulates the neurite growth-promoting activity of NCAM 140

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Doherty; C. E. C. Kitty Moolenaar; Ashton; Rob J. A. M. Michalides; Frank S. Walsh

    1992-01-01

    AXONAL growth, guidance and synapse formation are controlled by receptors on neuronal growth cones that can recognize positive and inhibitory cues in the local microenvironment1-3. Four well characterized receptor systems are known that recognize the growth-promoting activities associated with the extracellular matrix and the membranes of cells such as astrocytes, muscle cells and Schwann cells; these are the integrins4 and

  16. Inhibitory effect of endophyte bacteria on Botrytis cinerea and its influence to promote the grapevine growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Essaid Ait Barka; Sabine Gognies; Jerzy Nowak; Jean-Claude Audran; Abdel Belarbi

    2002-01-01

    A grapevine pathogen, Botrytis cinerea, produces characteristic gray mold symptoms on leaves and\\/or stems within 7 days following the inoculation. In this study we used a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain PsJN, which demonstrates an induction of plant growth in parallel with an antagonistic effect on in vitro growth and development of B. cinerea. The simultaneous in vitro co-culture

  17. Myc suppresses induction of the growth arrest genes gadd34, gadd45, and gadd153 by DNA-damaging agents.

    PubMed

    Amundson, S A; Zhan, Q; Penn, L Z; Fornace, A J

    1998-10-29

    The growth arrest and DNA damage inducible (gadd) genes are induced by various genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses such as serum starvation, ultraviolet irradiation and treatment with alkylating agents. Their coordinate induction is a growth arrest signal which may play an important role in the response of cells to DNA damage. Conversely, c-myc is a strong proliferative signal, and overexpression of Myc is frequently observed in cancer cells. We have found that ectopic expression of v-myc in RAT-1 cells results in an attenuated induction of the three major gadd transcripts by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and almost completely blocks the response to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Myc acts in part by reducing the stress-responsiveness of the gadd45 promoter, as a c-myc expression vector strongly suppressed activation of gadd45-reporter constructs. This activity of Myc localizes to a recently described GC-rich binding site within the gadd45 promoter. These results indicate that a coordinate down-regulation of the gadd gene response is one mechanism by which Myc can circumvent growth arrest and contribute to the neoplastic phenotype. PMID:9811446

  18. Mechanisms behind bacteria induced plant growth promotion and Zn accumulation in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Adediran, Gbotemi A; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Heal, Kate V; Harvie, Barbra A

    2015-02-11

    The growth and metal-extraction efficiency of plants exposed to toxic metals has been reported to be enhanced by inoculating plants with certain bacteria but the mechanisms behind this process remain unclear. We report results from glasshouse experiments on Brassica juncea plants exposed to 400mgZnkg(-1) that investigated the abilities of Pseudomonas brassicacearum and Rhizobium leguminosarum to promote growth, coupled with synchrotron based ?XANES analysis to probe Zn speciation in the plant roots. P. brassicacearum exhibited the poorest plant growth promoting ability, while R. leguminosarum alone and in combination with P. brassicacearum enhanced plant growth and Zn phytoextraction. Reduced growth in un-inoculated plants was attributed to accumulation of Zn oxalate and Zn sulfate in roots. In plants inoculated with P. brassicacearum the high concentration of Zn polygalacturonic acid in the root may be responsible for the stunted growth and reduced Zn phytoextraction. The improved growth and increased metal accumulation observed in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum and in combination with P. brassicacearum was attributed to the storage of Zn in the form of Zn phytate and Zn cysteine in the root. When combined with the observation that both bacteria do not statistically improve B. juncea growth in the absence of Zn, this work suggests that bacteria-induced metal chelation is the key mechanism of plant growth promoting bacteria in toxicity attenuation and microbial-assisted phytoremediation. PMID:25464287

  19. A nonionic amphiphile agent promotes gene delivery in vivo to skeletal and cardiac muscles.

    PubMed

    Pitard, Bruno; Pollard, Hélène; Agbulut, Onnik; Lambert, Olivier; Vilquin, Jean-Thomas; Cherel, Yan; Abadie, Jérôme; Samuel, Jane-Lise; Rigaud, Jean-Louis; Menoret, Severine; Anegon, Ignacio; Escande, Denis

    2002-09-20

    Direct injection of naked DNA into skeletal or cardiac muscle induces detectable gene expression. Although this provides a practical system for transgene expression, the reported efficacy is too low to confer a therapeutic benefit. By following a rational strategy based on the supramolecular structures adopted by active complexes, we have discovered a novel nonionic amphiphile synthetic agent [poly(ethyleneoxide)(13)-poly(propyleneoxide)(30)-poly(ethyleneoxide)(13) block copolymer; PE6400] that enables gene expression in up to 35% of muscle fibers from mouse tibial cranial muscle. PE6400 abolishes the ceiling effect on transgene expression of increasing amounts of naked DNA and permits long-term expression of the beta-galactosidase reporter gene in immunologically tolerant transgenic rats. This improvement in gene expression over naked DNA was observed irrespective of the reporter gene, ranging from 0.7 to 3.4 kb, and of the animal model used. In skeletal muscle, the PE6400 formulation led to a level of transfection efficiency similar to that obtained by electrotransfer. PE6400 also promotes high transgene expression in cardiac muscle. In contrast, PE6400-DNA formulations were inefficient in vitro in established cell lines and in isolated cardiomyocytes. When microinjected into the cell cytoplasm, PE6400 promotes DNA trafficking into the nucleus and induces gene expression. PE6400 provides a simple gene delivery system for skeletal and myocardial gene transfer. We propose that the PE6400 formulation could serve for the treatment of diseases primarily affecting muscle or for the expression of therapeutic proteins for local or systemic benefit. PMID:12396628

  20. P-selectin-mediated platelet adhesion promotes tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Li, Bin; Guo, Simei; Li, Jialin; Ye, Jie; Li, Jiangchao; Zhang, Qianqian; Lan, Tian; He, Xiaodong; Cao, Liu; Zhou, Jia; Geng, Jianguo; Wang, Lijing

    2015-01-01

    Blood platelets foster carcinogenesis. We found that platelets are accumulated in human tumors. P-selectin deficiency and soluble P-selectin abolish platelet deposition within tumors, decreasing secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis, thereby suppressing tumor growth. Binding of the P-selectin cytoplasmic tail to talin1 triggers the talin1 N-terminal head to interact with the ?3 cytoplasmic tail. This activates ?IIb?3 and recruits platelets into tumors. Platelet infiltration into solid tumors occurs through a P-selectin-dependent mechanism. PMID:25762641

  1. Evaluation of Promalin to promote growth of young mangosteen seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major impediment to the development of a mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) industry is the long pre-bearing stage that seedlings take to produce fruits. A field study was conducted to determine the effect of Promalin on the growth of mangosteen seedlings. Promalin was applied as a foliar spray...

  2. Polluted dust promotes new particle formation and growth.

    PubMed

    Nie, Wei; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; George, Christian; Xue, Likun; Wang, Wenxing; Zhang, Qingzhu; Petäjä, Tuukka; Qi, Ximeng; Gao, Xiaomei; Wang, Xinfeng; Yang, Xiuqun; Fu, Congbin; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Understanding new particle formation and their subsequent growth in the troposphere has a critical impact on our ability to predict atmospheric composition and global climate change. High pre-existing particle loadings have been thought to suppress the formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles due to high condensation and coagulation sinks. Here, based on field measurements at a mountain site in South China, we report, for the first time, in situ observational evidence on new particle formation and growth in remote ambient atmosphere during heavy dust episodes mixed with anthropogenic pollution. Both the formation and growth rates of particles in the diameter range 15-50 nm were enhanced during the dust episodes, indicating the influence of photo-induced, dust surface-mediated reactions and resulting condensable vapor production. This study provides unique in situ observations of heterogeneous photochemical processes inducing new particle formation and growth in the real atmosphere, and suggests an unexpected impact of mineral dust on climate and atmospheric chemistry. PMID:25319109

  3. An Education Strategy to Promote Opportunity, Prosperity, and Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendor, Joshua; Bordoff, Jason; Furman, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses a framework for education policy, from early childhood through post-secondary education, along with major reform ideas consistent with that framework. We present evidence showing that education is critical to broad-based economic growth. Investments in education yield large returns to both society and the individual.…

  4. Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in Mexico (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

    2013-11-01

    Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, with rapid growth occurring in the industrial and services sectors. A forward-thinking country on climate change, the nation recognizes that the threat of higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent weather-related disasters could pose a substantial risk to its expanding economy.

  5. Polluted dust promotes new particle formation and growth

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Wei; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; George, Christian; Xue, Likun; Wang, Wenxing; Zhang, Qingzhu; Petäjä, Tuukka; Qi, Ximeng; Gao, Xiaomei; Wang, Xinfeng; Yang, Xiuqun; Fu, Congbin; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Understanding new particle formation and their subsequent growth in the troposphere has a critical impact on our ability to predict atmospheric composition and global climate change. High pre-existing particle loadings have been thought to suppress the formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles due to high condensation and coagulation sinks. Here, based on field measurements at a mountain site in South China, we report, for the first time, in situ observational evidence on new particle formation and growth in remote ambient atmosphere during heavy dust episodes mixed with anthropogenic pollution. Both the formation and growth rates of particles in the diameter range 15–50?nm were enhanced during the dust episodes, indicating the influence of photo-induced, dust surface-mediated reactions and resulting condensable vapor production. This study provides unique in situ observations of heterogeneous photochemical processes inducing new particle formation and growth in the real atmosphere, and suggests an unexpected impact of mineral dust on climate and atmospheric chemistry. PMID:25319109

  6. Plant growth promotion by spermidine-producing Bacillus subtilis OKB105.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shan-Shan; Wu, Hui-Jun; Zang, Hao-Yu; Wu, Li-Ming; Zhu, Qing-Qing; Gao, Xue-Wen

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between plants and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is a complex, reciprocal process. On the one hand, plant compounds such as carbohydrates and amino acids serve as energy sources for PGPR. On the other hand, PGPR promote plant growth by synthesizing plant hormones and increasing mineral availability in the soil. Here, we evaluated the growth-promoting activity of Bacillus subtilis OKB105 and identified genes associated with this activity. The genes yecA (encoding a putative amino acid/polyamine permease) and speB (encoding agmatinase) are involved in the secretion or synthesis of polyamine in B. subtilis OKB105. Disruption of either gene abolished the growth-promoting activity of the bacterium, which was restored when polyamine synthesis was complemented. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of culture filtrates of OKB105 and its derivatives demonstrated that spermidine, a common polyamine, is the pivotal plant-growth-promoting compound. In addition, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that treatment with B. subtilis OKB105 induced expansin gene (Nt-EXPA1 and Nt-EXPA2) expression and inhibited the expression of the ethylene biosynthesis gene ACO1. Furthermore, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis showed that the ethylene content in plant root cells decreased in response to spermidine produced by OKB105. Therefore, during plant interactions, OKB105 may produce and secrete spermidine, which induces expansin production and lowers ethylene levels. PMID:24678831

  7. Promotion of growth by elevated carbon dioxide is coordinated through a flexible transcriptional network in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Dimas M; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Schippers, Jos H M

    2013-03-01

    Although gibberellins (GAs) promote many developmental responses in plants, little is known about how the hormone interacts with environmental signals at the molecular level for regulating plant growth. Recently, we have demonstrated that inhibition of growth by the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) at ambient [CO?] (350 µmol CO? mol(-1)) is reverted by elevated [CO?] (750 ?mol CO? mol(-1)). Our finding points to an important role of elevated [CO?] as a signal allowing higher growth rates of low-GA plants. GA promotes plant growth via a complex transcriptional network that integrates multiple signaling pathways. Herein, we discuss how elevated [CO?] stimulates biomass accumulation in a GA-independent manner by regulating the expression of growth-related genes. PMID:23333969

  8. Effects of disintegration-promoting agent, lubricants and moisture treatment on optimized fast disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Late, Sameer G; Yu, Yi-Ying; Banga, Ajay K

    2009-01-01

    Effects of calcium silicate (disintegration-promoting agent) and various lubricants on an optimized beta-cyclodextrin-based fast-disintegrating tablet formulation were investigated. Effects of moisture treatment were also evaluated at 75, 85 and 95% relative humidities. A two factor, three levels (3(2)) full factorial design was used to optimize concentrations of calcium silicate and lubricant. Magnesium stearate, being commonly used lubricant, was used to optimize lubricant concentration in optimization study. Other lubricants were evaluated at an obtained optimum concentration. Desiccator with saturated salt solutions was used to analyze effects of moisture treatments. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that concentration of calcium silicate had no effect; however concentration of lubricant was found to be important for tablet disintegration and hardness. An optimized value of 1.5% of magnesium stearate gave disintegration time of 23.4 s and hardness of 1.42 kg. At an optimized concentration, glycerol dibehenate and L-leucine significantly affected disintegration time, while talc and stearic acid had no significant effect. Tablet hardness was significantly affected with L-leucine, while other lubricants had no significant effect. Hardness was not affected at 75% moisture treatment. Moisture treatment at 85 and 95% increased hardness of the tablets; however at the same time it negatively affected the disintegration time. PMID:18778759

  9. Gene Expression of Axon Growth Promoting Factors in the Deer Antler

    PubMed Central

    Pita-Thomas, Wolfgang; Fernández-Martos, Carmen; Yunta, Mónica; Maza, Rodrigo M.; Navarro-Ruiz, Rosa; Lopez-Rodríguez, Marcos Javier; Reigada, David; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Nieto-Diaz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The annual regeneration cycle of deer (Cervidae, Artiodactyla) antlers represents a unique model of epimorphic regeneration and rapid growth in adult mammals. Regenerating antlers are innervated by trigeminal sensory axons growing through the velvet, the modified form of skin that envelopes the antler, at elongation velocities that reach one centimetre per day in the common deer (Cervus elaphus). Several axon growth promoters like NT-3, NGF or IGF-1 have been described in the antler. To increase the knowledge on the axon growth environment, we have combined different gene-expression techniques to identify and characterize the expression of promoting molecules not previously described in the antler velvet. Cross-species microarray analyses of deer samples on human arrays allowed us to build up a list of 90 extracellular or membrane molecules involved in axon growth that were potentially being expressed in the antler. Fifteen of these genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing techniques to confirm their expression in the velvet and to compare it with the expression in other antler and skin samples. Expression of 8 axon growth promoters was confirmed in the velvet, 5 of them not previously described in the antler. In conclusion, our work shows that antler velvet provides growing axons with a variety of promoters of axon growth, sharing many of them with deer's normal and pedicle skin. PMID:21187928

  10. Biocontrol of Plant Pathogens and Plant Growth Promotion by Bacillus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian B. McSpadden Gardener

    \\u000a Numerous Bacillus strains have been investigated for their capacities to protect plants from pathogens and stimulate plant growth. Studying\\u000a the diversity of these bacteria provides clues to the distinctiveness of beneficial strains and raises questions regarding\\u000a the scale and evolutionary forces that led to the development of biocontrol activities. Soils harbor vast spore banks of Bacillus, subsets of which germinate,

  11. Microbial phytases in phosphorus acquisition and plant growth promotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bijender Singh; T. Satyanarayana

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the major constituents in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of nucleic acids and cell membranes\\u000a with an important role in regulation of a number of enzymes. Soil phosphorous is an important macronutrient for plant growth.\\u000a Phosphorus deficiency in soil is a major problem for agricultural production. Total soil P occurs in either organic or in\\u000a organic

  12. Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. PMID:24144612

  13. Growth promoting effects of human placental lactogen during early organogenesis: a link to insulin-like growth factors

    PubMed Central

    KAGAN KARABULUT, AHMET; LAYFIELD, ROBERT; PRATTEN, MARGARET K.

    2001-01-01

    Many maternally derived factors may be involved in the regulation of embryonic growth but the control mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Human placental lactogen (hPL) has been implicated in playing a role in the control of embryonic growth. Several investigators suggested that there may be a possible link between the effects of this hormone and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). In order to determine the growth promoting potential of hPL and involvement of IGFs in the mechanism of action of the hormone, 9.5 d rat embryos were cultured in vitro for 48 h in depleted serum in the presence and absence of hPL with additional IGF antisera. The growth supporting capacity of the serum was reduced by removal of low molecular weight molecules by prolonged filtration of the serum using filters with a molecular weight exclusion of 30 kDa. Addition of hPL (3.2–25.6 ng/ml) to depleted serum significantly improved embryonic growth and development, suggesting that the developing embryo may utilise hPL. The presence of antisera against hPL, IGF-I and -II abolished the hPL-induced increase in the development in all parameters suggesting that there may be a possible link between the IGFs and the effects of hPL on rat embryonic development and this hormone may achieve its growth promoting effects via IGFs. PMID:11465858

  14. Axon growth-promoting properties of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Führmann; Katrin Montzka; Lisa M. Hillen; Dorothee Hodde; Agnieszka Dreier; Ahmet Bozkurt; Michael Wöltje; Gary A. Brook

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells are promising candidate donor cells for promoting functional tissue repair following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), however, the mechanism(s) of action remain poorly defined. Here, we describe an in vitro study of the axon growth-promoting properties of highly enriched populations of adult human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC). A random, non-oriented pattern of neuritic outgrowth was observed from

  15. CEACAM1 promotes melanoma cell growth through Sox-2.

    PubMed

    Ortenberg, Rona; Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Greenberg, Ilanit; Zamlin, Bella; Sapoznik, Sivan; Greenberg, Eyal; Barshack, Iris; Avivi, Camila; Feiler, Yulia; Zan-Bar, Israel; Besser, Michal J; Azizi, Ester; Eitan, Friedman; Schachter, Jacob; Markel, Gal

    2014-05-01

    The prognostic value of the carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in melanoma was demonstrated more than a decade ago as superior to Breslow score. We have previously shown that intercellular homophilic CEACAM1 interactions protect melanoma cells from lymphocyte-mediated elimination. Here, we study the direct effects of CEACAM1 on melanoma cell biology. By employing tissue microarrays and low-passage primary cultures of metastatic melanoma, we show that CEACAM1 expression gradually increases from nevi to metastatic specimens, with a strong dominance of the CEACAM1-Long tail splice variant. Using experimental systems of CEACAM1 knockdown and overexpression of selective variants or truncation mutants, we prove that only the full-length long tail variant enhances melanoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. This effect is not reversed with a CEACAM1-blocking antibody, suggesting that it is not mediated by intercellular homophilic interactions. Downstream, CEACAM1-Long increases the expression of Sox-2, which we show to be responsible for the CEACAM1-mediated enhanced proliferation. Furthermore, analysis of the CEACAM1 promoter reveals two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly enhance the promoter's activity compared with the consensus nucleotides. Importantly, case-control genetic SNP analysis of 134 patients with melanoma and matched healthy donors show that patients with melanoma do not exhibit the Hardy-Weinberg balance and that homozygous SNP genotype enhances the hazard ratio to develop melanoma by 35%. These observations shed new mechanistic light on the role of CEACAM1 in melanoma, forming the basis for development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic technologies. PMID:24931667

  16. Ku80 cooperates with CBP to promote COX-2 expression and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Xuan, Yang; Jia, Yunlu; Hu, Wenxian; Yu, Wendan; Dai, Meng; Li, Zhenglin; Yi, Canhui; Zhao, Shilei; Li, Mei; Du, Sha; Cheng, Wei; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Chen, Yiming; Wu, Taihua; Meng, Songshu; Yuan, Yuhui; Liu, Quentin; Huang, Wenlin; Guo, Wei; Wang, Shusen; Deng, Wuguo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in lung cancer development and progression. Using streptavidin-agarose pulldown and proteomics assay, we identified and validated Ku80, a dimer of Ku participating in the repair of broken DNA double strands, as a new binding protein of the COX-2 gene promoter. Overexpression of Ku80 up-regulated COX-2 promoter activation and COX-2 expression in lung cancer cells. Silencing of Ku80 by siRNA down-regulated COX-2 expression and inhibited tumor cell growth in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. Ku80 knockdown suppressed phosphorylation of ERK, resulting in an inactivation of the MAPK pathway. Moreover, CBP, a transcription co-activator, interacted with and acetylated Ku80 to co-regulate the activation of COX-2 promoter. Overexpression of CBP increased Ku80 acetylation, thereby promoting COX-2 expression and cell growth. Suppression of CBP by a CBP-specific inhibitor or siRNA inhibited COX-2 expression as well as tumor cell growth. Tissue microarray immunohistochemical analysis of lung adenocarcinomas revealed a strong positive correlation between levels of Ku80 and COX-2 and clinicopathologic variables. Overexpression of Ku80 was associated with poor prognosis in patients with lung cancers. We conclude that Ku80 promotes COX-2 expression and tumor growth and is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer. PMID:25797267

  17. STAT6 expression in glioblastoma promotes invasive growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara C Merk; Jennifer L Owens; Maria-Beatriz S Lopes; Corinne M Silva; Isa M Hussaini

    2011-01-01

    Background  Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive malignant primary brain tumor, characterized by rapid growth, diffuse infiltration\\u000a of cells into both adjacent and remote brain regions, and a generalized resistance to currently available treatment modalities.\\u000a Recent reports in the literature suggest that Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) play important roles\\u000a in the regulation of GBM pathophysiology.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  STAT6 protein expression

  18. The promotion of endothelial progenitor cells recruitment by nerve growth factors in tissue-engineered blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen; Yuan, Wei; Li, Li; Mi, Jianhong; Xu, Shangcheng; Wen, Can; Zhou, Zhenhua; Xiong, Jiaqiang; Sun, Jiansen; Ying, Dajun; Yang, Mingcan; Li, Xiaosong; Zhu, Chuhong

    2010-03-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) mobilization and homing are critical to the development of an anti-thrombosis and anti-stenosis tissue-engineered blood vessel. The growth and activation of blood vessels are supported by nerves. We investigated whether nerve growth factors (NGF) can promote EPCs mobilization and endothelialization of tissue-engineered blood vessels. In vitro, NGF promoted EPCs to form more colonies, stimulated human EPCs to differentiate into endothelial cells, and significantly enhanced EPCs migration. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that NGF treatment increased the number of EPCs in the peripheral circulation of C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, the treatment of human EPCs with NGF facilitated their homing into wire-injured carotid arteries after injection into mice. Decellularized rat blood vessel matrix was incubated with EDC cross-linked collagen and bound to NGF protein using the bifunctional coupling agent N-succinmidyl3-(2-pyridyldit-hio) propionate (SPDP). The NGF-bound tissue-engineered blood vessel was implanted into rat carotid artery for 1 week and 1 month. NGF-bound blood vessels possessed significantly higher levels of endothelialization and patency than controls did. These results demonstrated that NGF can markedly increase EPCs mobilization and homing to vascular grafts. Neurotrophic factors such as NGF have a therapeutic potential for the construction of tissue-engineered blood vessels in vivo. PMID:20006381

  19. Bacteria with ACC deaminase can promote plant growth and help to feed the world.

    PubMed

    Glick, Bernard R

    2014-01-20

    To feed all of the world's people, it is necessary to sustainably increase agricultural productivity. One way to do this is through the increased use of plant growth-promoting bacteria; recently, scientists have developed a more profound understanding of the mechanisms employed by these bacteria to facilitate plant growth. Here, it is argued that the ability of plant growth-promoting bacteria that produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase to lower plant ethylene levels, often a result of various stresses, is a key component in the efficacious functioning of these bacteria. The optimal functioning of these bacteria includes the synergistic interaction between ACC deaminase and both plant and bacterial auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). These bacteria not only directly promote plant growth, they also protect plants against flooding, drought, salt, flower wilting, metals, organic contaminants, and both bacterial and fungal pathogens. While a considerable amount of both basic and applied work remains to be done before ACC deaminase-producing plant growth-promoting bacteria become a mainstay of plant agriculture, the evidence indicates that with the expected shift from chemicals to soil bacteria, the world is on the verge of a major paradigm shift in plant agriculture. PMID:24095256

  20. Use of impact fees to incentivize low-impact development and promote compact growth.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhongming; Noonan, Douglas; Crittenden, John; Jeong, Hyunju; Wang, Dali

    2013-10-01

    Low-impact development (LID) is an innovative stormwater management strategy that restores the predevelopment hydrology to prevent increased stormwater runoff from land development. Integrating LID into residential subdivisions and increasing population density by building more compact living spaces (e.g., apartment homes) can result in a more sustainable city by reducing stormwater runoff, saving infrastructural cost, increasing the number of affordable homes, and supporting public transportation. We develop an agent-based model (ABM) that describes the interactions between several decision-makers (i.e., local government, a developer, and homebuyers) and fiscal drivers (e.g., property taxes, impact fees). The model simulates the development of nine square miles of greenfield land. A more sustainable development (MSD) scenario introduces an impact fee that developers must pay if they choose not to use LID to build houses or apartment homes. Model simulations show homeowners selecting apartment homes 60% or 35% of the time after 30 years of development in MSD or business as usual (BAU) scenarios, respectively. The increased adoption of apartment homes results from the lower cost of using LID and improved quality of life for apartment homes relative to single-family homes. The MSD scenario generates more tax revenue and water savings than does BAU. A time-dependent global sensitivity analysis quantifies the importance of socioeconomic variables on the adoption rate of apartment homes. The top influential factors are the annual pay rates (or capital recovery factor) for single-family houses and apartment homes. The ABM can be used by city managers and policymakers for scenario exploration in accordance with local conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of impact fees and other policies in promoting LID and compact growth. PMID:23815440

  1. Residues from veterinary medicinal products, growth promoters and performance enhancers in food-producing animals: a European Union perspective.

    PubMed

    Serratosa, J; Blass, A; Rigau, B; Mongrell, B; Rigau, T; Tortadès, M; Tolosa, E; Aguilar, C; Ribó, O; Balagué, J

    2006-08-01

    The authors present an overview of the presence of residues from veterinary medicinal products, growth-promoting agents and performance enhancers in food-producing animals, as a result of administering these substances--legally or illegally--on farms. The current situation in the European Union (EU) is represented by an analysis of the 2004 results from the national residue monitoring plans of EU Member States. Aspects of ante-mortem and postmortem inspection are also considered, as well as the practical challenges facing veterinary inspectors attempting to uncover illegal uses and prevent public health risks. Substances which are considered illegal because their risks have not yet been assessed, such as those employed in minority species or for minor uses, are also discussed. PMID:17094703

  2. Promotion of the Growth of Boron-Carbide Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranov, Yanko; Zhang, Daqing; McIlroy, David; Norton, Grant

    2000-03-01

    Boron carbide, is a wide bandgap semiconductor (2.1eV) with a high melting temperature in excess of 2400^circC. Initial studies indicate that nanowires of boron carbide approximately 25 ~30 ?m in length and less than 100 nm in diameter can be grown by the technique of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition by a mode of the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism [1] at relatively low temperatures ( ~1150^circC). Through the use of boron based eutectics such as FeB, NiB and PtB nanowire growth at temperatures below 1150^circC. These metal borides have successively lower melting temperatures, respectively. In this paper we will discuss a simple technique for making submicron metal boride particles, as well as a simple means of depositing them onto a surface. In addition, the effect of droplet size on nanowire diameter and the stability of the size of the metal boride droplet during growth will be discussed. These studies demonstrate that the surface can be selectively seeded thereby controlling the location of the nanowires, i.e. select area deposition. Lastly, the techniques and materials used to grow boron carbide nanowires can easily be used to grow other types of nanowires, as well as carbon nanotubes. [1]. D. N. McIlroy, Daqing Zhang, Robert M. Cohen, J. Wharton, Yongjun Geng, M. Grant Norton, G. De Stasio, B.Gilbert, L.Perfetti, J.H.Streiff, B.Broocks and J.L. McHale, Phys. Rev. B 60 (1999) 4874

  3. Familial polyposis coli: growth characteristics of karyotypically variable cultured fibroblasts, response to epidermal growth factor and the tumour promoter 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate.

    PubMed Central

    Rider, S H; Mazzullo, H A; Davis, M B; Delhanty, J D

    1986-01-01

    Growth in low serum and cell saturation density was investigated in 20 skin fibroblast cultures from 17 patients with the autosomal dominant cancer prone condition, familial polyposis coli (FPC). Compared with non-fetal control cultures, the grouped FPC cultures showed significantly better growth in low serum and approximately 30% increase in saturation density. Neither of these properties was correlated with high tetraploidy or clonal rearrangement of the chromosomes. No difference in response to epidermal growth factor was demonstrable between cultures from normal and affected subjects. The tumour promoter, 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), had no differential effect on growth in high and low density cultures of FPC and normal cells in short term experiments; both cell types displayed a biphasic response to the agent at low cell density. However, in long term experiments FPC skin cultures showed growth stimulation and greater resistance to the toxic effects of TPA than normal cells. Cells from both fetal and non-fetal controls as well as from FPC subjects displayed anchorage independent growth after treatment with TPA, but in general FPC cultures from skin and colon responded to a greater extent than non-fetal controls. Marked change in tetraploidy after treatment was evident only in those FPC and control cultures which were highly chromosomally abnormal. Both groups showed a slight increase in stable and unstable chromosome rearrangements with treatment but one FPC culture became totally chromosomally abnormal and cloned in agar with high efficiency, as did one of the treated fetal controls which, however, had normal chromosomes. PMID:3486977

  4. Genetics of phosphate solubilization and its potential applications for improving plant growth-promoting bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Rodríguez; R. Fraga; T. Gonzalez; Y. Bashan

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are soil and rhizosphere bacteria that can benefit plant growth by different mechanisms.\\u000a The ability of some microorganisms to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form, like orthophosphate, is an important\\u000a trait in a PGPB for increasing plant yields. In this mini-review, the isolation and characterization of genes involved in\\u000a mineralization of organic P sources

  5. Screening of endophytic fungi that promote the growth of Euphorbia pekinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuan-chao Dai; Bo-yang Yu; Xia Li

    2008-01-01

    This study explored a strategy to use endophytic fungi for promoting the growth of the medicinal plant, Euphorbia pekinensis. The growth of E. pekinensis was examined in pot culture following inoculation of E. pekinensis with endophytic fungal strains (Fusarium spp.) from E. pekinensis (E4 and E5) and those not from E. pekinensis (B3, B6 and S12). The results showed that

  6. Physiological characterization of opine-utilizing rhizobacteria for traits related to plant growth-promoting activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chantal J. Beauchamp; Patrice Dion; Joseph W. Kloepper; Hani Antoun

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-two strains of opine-utilizing rhizobacteria were evaluated for physiological traits which have been related to plant\\u000a growth-promoting activity. Tests included antibiosis against two bacterial and eight fungal pathogens of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), production of hydrogen cyanide and fluorescent pigment production. On average, 71 and 12% of the bacteria inhibited\\u000a the growth of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Agrobacterium tumefaciens,

  7. Role of Hormonal System in the Manifestation of Growth Promoting and Antistress Action of Salicylic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Shakirova

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an endogenous plant growth regulator. When applied to wheat plants in concentration similar to that\\u000a used in case of exogenous hormones (0.05 mM), SA causes growth promoting and protective effects against an abiotic stresses.\\u000a SA was shown to cause changes in hormonal system associated with transitory parallel accumulation of IAA and ABA with no change\\u000a in

  8. Insulin Receptor Substrate2 Deficiency Impairs Brain Growth and Promotes Tau Phosphorylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Schubert; Derek P. Brazil; Deborah J. Burks; Jake A. Kushner; Jing Ye; Carrie L. Flint; Janet Farhang-Fallah; Pieter Dikkes; Xavier M. Warot; Carlos Rio; Gabriel Corfas; Morris F. White

    2003-01-01

    Insulin resistance and diabetes might promote neurodegenerative disease, but a molecular link between these disorders is unknown. Many factors are responsible for brain growth, patterning, and survival, including the insulin-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-signaling cascades that are mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins. Irs2 signaling mediates peripheral insulin action and pancreatic-cell function, and its failure causes diabetes

  9. Colonization of Morus alba L. by the plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum dematium, is a serious threat to the production and quality of mulberry leaves in susceptible varieties. Control of the disease has been a major problem in mulberry cultivation. Some strains of Burkholderia cepacia were reported to be useful antagonists of plant pests and could increase the yields of several crop plants. Although B. cepacia Lu10-1 is an endophytic bacterium obtained from mulberry leaves, it has not been deployed to control C. dematium infection in mulberry nor its colonization patterns in mulberry have been studied using GFP reporter or other reporters. The present study sought to evaluate the antifungal and plant-growth-promoting properties of strain Lu10-1, to clarify its specific localization within a mulberry plant, and to better understand its potential as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. Results Lu10-1 inhibited conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. dematium in vitro; when applied on leaves or to the soil, Lu10-1 also inhibited the development of anthracnose in a greenhouse, but the effectiveness varied with the length of the interval between the strain treatment and inoculation with the pathogen. Strain Lu10-1 could survive in both sterile and non-sterile soils for more than 60 days. The strain produced auxins, contributed to P solubilization and nitrogenase activity, and significantly promoted the growth of mulberry seedlings. The bacteria infected mulberry seedlings through cracks formed at junctions of lateral roots with the main root and in the zone of differentiation and elongation, and the cells were able to multiply and spread, mainly to the intercellular spaces of different tissues. The growth in all the tissues was around 1-5 × 105 CFU per gram of fresh plant tissue. Conclusions Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1 is an endophyte that can multiply and spread in mulberry seedlings rapidly and efficiently. The strain is antagonistic to C. dematium and acts as an efficient plant-growth-promoting agent on mulberry seedlings and is therefore a promising candidate as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. PMID:20854669

  10. Saprotrophic competitiveness and biocontrol fitness of a genetically modified strain of the plant-growth-promoting fungus Trichoderma hamatum GD12.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Lauren S; Harris, Beverley D; Soanes, Darren M; Kershaw, Michael J; Talbot, Nicholas J; Thornton, Christopher R

    2012-01-01

    Trichoderma species are ubiquitous soil fungi that hold enormous potential for the development of credible alternatives to agrochemicals and synthetic fertilizers in sustainable crop production. In this paper, we show that substantial improvements in plant productivity can be met by genetic modification of a plant-growth-promoting and biocontrol strain of Trichoderma hamatum, but that these improvements are obtained in the absence of disease pressure only. Using a quantitative monoclonal antibody-based ELISA, we show that an N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase-deficient mutant of T. hamatum, generated by insertional mutagenesis of the corresponding gene, has impaired saprotrophic competitiveness during antagonistic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani in soil. Furthermore, its fitness as a biocontrol agent of the pre-emergence damping-off pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is significantly reduced, and its ability to promote plant growth is constrained by the presence of both pathogens. This work shows that while gains in T. hamatum-mediated plant-growth-promotion can be met through genetic manipulation of a single beneficial trait, such a modification has negative impacts on other aspects of its biology and ecology that contribute to its success as a saprotrophic competitor and antagonist of soil-borne pathogens. The work has important implications for fungal morphogenesis, demonstrating a clear link between hyphal architecture and secretory potential. Furthermore, it highlights the need for a holistic approach to the development of genetically modified Trichoderma strains for use as crop stimulants and biocontrol agents in plant agriculture. PMID:21835878

  11. miR-125b inhibits Connexin43 and promotes glioma growth.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zheng; Xu, Songbai; Yu, Hongquan; Yang, Boyu; Zhao, Hongguang; Zhao, Gang

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNA is strongly associated with tumor growth and development. This study examined the potential roles of miR-125b in glioma growth. We found that miR-125b promotes glioma cell line growth and clone formation, and protects the glioma cells from apoptosis in vitro. The miR-125b-transfected glioma cells also demonstrated increased growth after in vivo transplantation. We further identified that miR-125b inhibits Connexin43 expression, and the overexpression of Connexin43 antagonizes the effects of miR-125b in cell growth and anti-apoptosis. We conclude that miR-125b regulates glioma growth partly through Connexin43 protein. PMID:24046143

  12. An Agent-Based Model of Lifetime Attendance and Self-Help Program Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle Hiance; Nathan Doogan; Keith Warren; Ian M. Hamilton; Marilyn Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Research on Alcoholics Anonymous and other self-help programs has shown mixed results regarding lifetime participation at the individual level. No one has systematically studied whether lifetime membership contributes to the success of the program as a whole. This project analyzes the relationship of lifetime membership and program growth using a series of agent-based models. Results demonstrate that programs encouraging lifetime

  13. Molecular ultrasound imaging using contrast agents targeting endoglin, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and integrin.

    PubMed

    Leguerney, Ingrid; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Gadot, Nicolas; Robin, Nina; Pénault-Llorca, Frédérique; Victorin, Steeve; Lassau, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Expression levels of endoglin, ?v integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were investigated using targeted, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in murine melanoma tumor models. Microvasculature and expression levels of biomarkers were investigated using specific contrast agents conjugated with biotinylated monoclonal antibodies. Ultrasound signal intensity from bound contrast agents was evaluated in two groups of mice: control mice and mice treated with sorafenib. Expression levels were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Endoglin biomarkers were more highly expressed than ?v integrin and VEGFR2. Endoglin decreased in the sorafenib group, whereas it tended to increase with time in the control group. Targeted ultrasound contrast agents may be used for non-invasive longitudinal evaluation of tumor angiogenesis during tumor growth or therapeutic treatment in preclinical studies. Endoglin protein, which plays an important role in angiogenesis, seems to be a target of interest for detection of cancer and for prediction of therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25308938

  14. Synthetic polyamines promote rapid lamellipodial growth by regulating actin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nedeva, Iliana; Koripelly, Girish; Caballero, David; Chièze, Lionel; Guichard, Bérangère; Romain, Benoît; Pencreach, Erwan; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Carlier, Marie-France; Riveline, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Cellular protrusions involved in motile processes are driven by site-directed assembly of actin filaments in response to Rho-GTPase signalling. So far, only chemical compounds depolymerizing actin or stabilizing filaments, inhibiting N-WASP, Arp2/3 or formins, have been used to eliminate the formation of protrusions, while Rho-GTPase-dominant positive strategies have been designed to stimulate protrusions. Here we describe the design of four polyamines (macrocyclic and branched acyclic), and show that they enter the cell and induce specific growth of actin-enriched lamellipodia within minutes. The largest increase in cell area is obtained with micromolar amounts of a branched polyamine harbouring an 8-carbon chain. These polyamines specifically target actin both in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of their effects on filament assembly dynamics and its regulation indicates that the polyamines act by slowing down filament dynamics and by enhancing actin nucleation. These compounds provide new opportunities to study the actin cytoskeleton in motile and morphogenetic processes. PMID:23893126

  15. PTEN loss mediated Akt activation promotes prostate tumor growth and metastasis via CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The chemokine CXCL12, also known as SDF-1, and its receptor, CXCR4, are overexpressed in prostate cancers and in animal models of prostate-specific PTEN deletion, but their regulation is poorly understood. Loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) is frequently observed in cancer, resulting in the deregulation of cell survival, growth, and proliferation. We hypothesize that loss of PTEN and subsequent activation of Akt, frequent occurrences in prostate cancer, regulate the CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling axis in tumor growth and bone metastasis. Methods Murine prostate epithelial cells from PTEN+/+, PTEN+/?, and PTEN?/? (prostate specific knockdown) mice as well as human prostate cancer cell lines C4-2B, PC3, and DU145 were used in gene expression and invasion studies with Akt inhibition. Additionally, HA-tagged Akt1 was overexpressed in DU145, and tumor growth in subcutaneous and intra-tibia bone metastasis models were analyzed. Results Loss of PTEN resulted in increased expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12 and Akt inhibition reversed expression and cellular invasion. These results suggest that loss of PTEN may play a key role in the regulation of this chemokine activity in prostate cancer. Overexpression of Akt1 in DU145 resulted in increased CXCR4 expression, as well as increased proliferation and cell cycle progression. Subcutaneous injection of these cells also resulted in increased tumor growth as compared to neo controls. Akt1 overexpression reversed the osteosclerotic phenotype associated with DU145 cells to an osteolytic phenotype and enhanced intra-osseous tumor growth. Conclusions These results suggest the basis for activation of CXCL12 signaling through CXCR4 in prostate cancer driven by the loss of PTEN and subsequent activation of Akt. Akt1-associated CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling promotes tumor growth, suggesting that Akt inhibitors may potentially be employed as anticancer agents to target expansion of PC bone metastases. PMID:23902739

  16. Isolation, selection and characterization of root-associated growth promoting bacteria in Brazil Pine ( Araucaria angustifolia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Marcelo Ribeiro; Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso

    Araucaria angustifolia, a unique species of this genus that occurs naturally in Brazil, has a high socio-economic and environmental value and is critically endangered of extinction, since it has been submitted to intense predatory exploitation during the last century. Root-associated bacteria from A. angustifolia were isolated, selected and characterized for their biotechnological potential of growth promotion and biocontrol of plant

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium

    E-print Network

    Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Wai activity in root colonization and plant and crop protection. Its draft genome sequence comprises 21 contigs of 4.11 Mb, harboring 4,167 coding sequences (CDS). The genome carries several genes encoding

  18. Endophytic Bacteria Induce Growth Promotion and Wilt Disease Suppression in Oilseed Rape and Tomato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pajand Nejad; Paul A Johnson

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether bacteria isolated from within plant tissue can have plant growth-promotion potential and provide biological control against soilborne diseases, seeds and young plants of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Casino) and tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum L. cv. Dansk export) were inoculated with individual bacterial isolates or mixtures of bacteria that originated from symptomless oilseed rape, wild and cultivated.

  19. New ?-adrenergic agonists used illicitly as growth promoters in animal breeding: chemical and pharmacodynamic studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Mazzanti; Claudia Daniele; Gianpiero Boatto; Giuliana Manca; Gianfranco Brambilla; Alberto Loizzo

    2003-01-01

    Clenbuterol and ?-adrenergic receptor agonist drugs are illegally used as growth promoters in animal production. Pharmacologically active residues in edible tissues led to intoxication outbreaks in several countries. Pressure of official controls pulsed synthesis of new compounds to escape analytical procedures. We report two new compounds named ‘A’ and ‘G4’, found in feeding stuffs. Chemical structure was studied through nuclear

  20. Developing microbeplant interactions for applications in plant-growth promotion and disease control,

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wilfred

    and disease control, production of useful compounds, remediation and carbon sequestration Cindy H. Wu,1-growth promotion, biocontrol, bioactive compound and biomaterial production, remediation and carbon sequestration economical (Anderson et al., 1993). Carbon sequestration through plant­rhizosphere processes is a potentially

  1. GIBBERELLIC ACID AND BENZYLADENINE PROMOTE EARLY FLOWERING AND VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF MILTONIOPSIS ORCHID HYBRIDS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering of Miltoniopsis orchids is influenced by a combination of cool temperatures and short photoperiod. To determine if application of plant growth regulators could promote flowering without the need for costly structural modification to control photoperiod or temperature, we utilized drenches ...

  2. Effect of single application of Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth promotion in cotton plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Shanmugaiah; N. Balasubramanian; S. Gomathinayagam; P. T. Manoharan

    2009-01-01

    The most important and economically cultivated cotton plant was selected to test the growth promotion by Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluroescens with and without pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Of these, T. viride was found to be more effective than P. fluroescens on shoot and root length elongation. Seed germination percentage, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight

  3. Promotion of Sorghum Callus Growth by the s-Triazine Herbicides 1

    PubMed Central

    Nadar, Hassan M.; Clegg, Max D.; Maranville, Jerry W.

    1975-01-01

    Growth-promoting action of simazine and other s-triazine herbicides was detected by the use of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L]. Moench) callus tissue and the chlorophyll retention test. Soil application of simazine [2-chloro-4, 6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine] at sublethal levels nearly doubled the growth-promoting action of sorghum root exudates. Treated plants yielded up to 26% more total protein than untreated plants. This indicated that the level of callus growth-promoting action in the root exudate of the plant has a positive effect on its final total protein yield and confirms a positive effect of simazine on total protein content in certain instances. The results may provide a new understanding of the mode of action of s-triazines applied at sublethal levels in increasing protein content and certain enzymic activities of treated plants. It is speculated that the growth-promoting action of these herbicides is hormonal in nature and most likely kinetin-like. PMID:16659386

  4. The European ban on growth-promoting antibiotics and emerging consequences for human and animal health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Casewell; Christian Friis; Enric Marco; Paul McMullin; Ian Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Following the ban of all food animal growth-promoting antibiotics by Sweden in 1986, the European Union banned avoparcin in 1997 and bacitracin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin in 1999. Three years later, the only attributable effect in humans has been a diminution in acquired resistance in enterococci isolated from human faecal carriers. There has been an increase in human infection from

  5. Effects of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Loblolly and Slash Pine Seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Enebak; G. Wei; J. W. Kloepper

    Loblolly and slash pine seed were inoculated at sowing with 1 of 12 different strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the greenhouse. Time to germination and seedling densities were determined at 21 days, and seedling biomass was measured at 12 wk after sowing. All bacterial strains significantly increased the speed of seedling emergence over nontreated pine seed. By 12

  6. Alginate microbeads as inoculant carriers for plant growth-promoting bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoav Bashan; Juan-Pablo Hernandez; Luis A. Leyva; Macario Bacilio

    2002-01-01

    A method of inoculating wet and dry seeds with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) using alginate microbeads as a substrate and Azospirillum brasilense as the model PGPB was developed. The microbeads were produced by low pressure spraying of an alginate solution mixed with liquid bacterial culture suspended in a very rich medium through a small nozzle resulting in small-diameter droplets. These

  7. Adsorption kinetics of Pb and Cd by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Wu; X. L. Peng; K. C. Cheung; S. L. Liu; M. H. Wong

    2009-01-01

    A bench study was carried out to characterize the kinetics of two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) Azotobacter chroococcum and Bacillus megaterium to adsorb heavy metals from solution. Adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ by bacterial cells was processed quickly with an equilibration achieved within 5min. The adsorptions were fitted well with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The comparison of isotherm

  8. Algal Research1 Screening and selection of growth-promoting bacteria for Dunaliella cultures2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Algal Research1 Screening and selection of growth-promoting bacteria for Dunaliella cultures2 3 M industrial algal cultivation. In the present study, 48 cultivable bacteria were isolated from marine26 of bacteria-microalgae interactions in applied46 algal cultivation [4,5]. Bacteria can compete with microalgae

  9. Short Communication Effect of Probiotic and Growth Promoters on Chemical Composition of Broiler Carcass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TARIQ MAHMOOD; MUHAMMAD SAFDAR ANJUM; IMTIAZ HUSSAIN; RASHIDA PERVEEN

    Experiment was performed to study the effect of probiotics and growth promoters (Protexin, Albac & Dried Curd) on the chemical composition of broiler carcass. Birds were reared under similar environmental and managemental conditions up to 42 days of age except treatments. Chemical composition of all four treatment groups (Randomly divided in to 12 experimental units) was done in the Laboratory

  10. Antibiotic growth promoters enhance animal production by targeting intestinal bile salt hydrolase and its producers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The growth-promoting effect of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) was correlated with the decreased activity of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization. Consistent with this finding, independent chicken studies have demonstrated that AGP usage significantly reduced population of Lactobacillus species, the major BSH-producers in the intestine. Recent finding also demonstrated that some AGPs, such as tetracycline and roxarsone, display direct inhibitory effect on BSH activity. Therefore, BSH is a promising microbiome target for developing novel alternatives to AGPs. Specifically, dietary supplementation of BSH inhibitor may promote host lipid metabolism and energy harvest, consequently enhancing feed efficiency and body weight gain in food animals. PMID:24575079

  11. Effect of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas spp. on compatible solutes, antioxidant status and plant growth of maize under drought stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Sandhya; Sk. Z. Ali; Minakshi Grover; Gopal Reddy; B. Venkateswarlu

    2010-01-01

    Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting yield of dryland crops. Rhizobacterial populations of stressed soils\\u000a are adapted and tolerant to stress and can be screened for isolation of efficient stress adaptive\\/tolerant, plant growth promoting\\u000a rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains that can be used as inoculants for crops grown in stressed ecosystems. The effect of inoculation\\u000a of five drought tolerant

  12. Porcine skin gelatin hydrolysate promotes longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Leem, Kang-Hyun; Lee, Sena; Jang, Aera; Kim, Hye Kyung

    2013-05-01

    Collagen hydrolysates (CHs) are mixtures of peptides obtained by partial hydrolysis of gelatin that are receiving scientific attention as potential oral supplements for the restoration of osteoarticular tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CHs for promoting longitudinal bone growth in growing rats. An in vitro study was carried out in osteoblast-like MG63 cells and the most effective CH on bone formation was selected among 36 various CHs. An in vivo study confirmed the functional effects of a selected CH with molecular weight of <3?kDa on longitudinal bone growth. CHs dose-dependently promoted the longitudinal bone growth and height of the growth plate in adolescent male rats, whereas gelatin failed to affect longitudinal bone growth. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the CH treated group were highly expressed in the growth plate. These results suggest that CHs isolated in this study may provide beneficial effects on bone metabolism of growing animals and humans. PMID:23631489

  13. Partner switching promotes cooperation among myopic agents on a geographical plane.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixiao; Min, Yong; Zhu, Xiaodong; Cao, Jie

    2013-02-01

    We study the coupling dynamics between the evolution of cooperation and the evolution of partnership network on a geographical plane. While agents play networked prisoner's dilemma games, they can dynamically adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputation. We incorporate geographical features into the process of the agent's partner switching and investigate the corresponding effects. At each time step of the coevolution, a random agent can either update his strategy by imitation or adjust his partnership by switching from the lowest reputation partner to the highest reputation one among his neighbors. We differentiate two types of neighbors: geographical neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in terms of geographical distance) and connectivity neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in the partnership network in terms of geodesic distance). We find that switching to either geographical neighbors or connectivity neighbors enhances cooperation greatly in a wide parameter range. Cooperation can be favored in a much stricter condition when agents switch to connectivity neighbors more frequently. However, an increasing tendency of reconnecting to geographical neighbors shortens the geographical distance between a pair of partners on average. When agents consider the cost of geographical distance in adjusting the partnership, they are prone to reconnect to geographical neighbors. PMID:23496584

  14. Stimulation of the growth of Jatropha curcas by the plant growth promoting bacterium Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2.

    PubMed

    Jha, Chaitanya Kumar; Patel, Baldev; Saraf, Meenu

    2012-03-01

    A novel Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2 is a plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the rhizosphere of Jatropha cucas a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. Based on phenotypic, physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic studies, strain MSA2 could be classified as a member of E. cancerogenus. However, comparisons of characteristics with other known species of the genus Enterobacter suggested that strain MSA2 could be a novel PGPB strain. In vitro studies were carried for the plant growth promoting attribute of this culture. It tested positive for ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) deaminase production, phytase, phosphate solubilization, IAA (Indole acetic acid) production, siderophore, and ammonia production. The isolate was then used as a inoculant for the vegetative study of Jatropha curcas plant. Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2 supplemented with 1% carboxymethylcellulose showed overall plant growth promotion effect resulting in enhanced root length (124.14%), fresh root mass (81%), fresh shoot mass (120.02%), dry root mass (124%), dry shoot mass (105.54%), number of leaf (30.72%), chlorophyll content (50.41%), and biomass (87.20%) over control under the days of experimental observation. This study was designed for 120 days and was in triplicate and the data was collected at every 30 days. PMID:22805809

  15. Identification and functional characteristics of chlorpyrifos-degrading and plant growth promoting bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Jiao

    2014-05-01

    A bacterial strain D10 with strong ability of degrading chlorpyrifos was isolated from rhizosphere of chives contaminated with pesticide. It was found that it's capable of utilizing chlorpyrifos as the sole source of carbon for growth, and within the first 4 days the extent of degradation at initial concentration of 100?mg?L(-1) was 60.0%. It also showed a high ability of degrading chlorpyrifos in sterilized soil, and the degradation reached up to 60.2% after 18 days. In addition, the strain D10 also showed multiple plant growth-promoting traits of phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore production. The results indicate that the strain D10 has potential in the application of pesticide-degrading and plant growth promotion. Strain D10 was identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus based on its morphological, physiological-biochemical properties and the 16S rRNA sequence analysis. PMID:23712768

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Strain P23, a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Duckweed.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Masayuki; Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium, which was isolated from the surface of duckweed. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain P23. The genome data will serve as a valuable reference for understanding the molecular mechanism of plant growth promotion in aquatic plants. PMID:25720680

  17. Learning To Listen to Mothers: A Trainers' Manual To Strengthen Communication Skills for Nutrition and Growth Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Jane; Uccellani, Valerie

    Counseling mothers of small children in effective growth monitoring and promotion is both an art and a science. Virtually all primary health care programs contain a Growth Monitoring and Promotion component (GMP). It is vital that supervisors and community health workers of GMP programs have a clear understanding of why communication skills are…

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Strain P23, a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Duckweed

    PubMed Central

    Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium, which was isolated from the surface of duckweed. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain P23. The genome data will serve as a valuable reference for understanding the molecular mechanism of plant growth promotion in aquatic plants. PMID:25720680

  19. Genome Sequence of Arthrobacter koreensis 5J12A, a Plant Growth-Promoting and Desiccation-Tolerant Strain

    PubMed Central

    Narváez-Reinaldo, Juan Jesús; García-Fontana, Cristina; Vílchez, Juan Ignacio; González-López, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Arthrobacter koreensis 5J12A is a desiccation-tolerant organism isolated from the Nerium oleander rhizosphere. Here, we report its genome sequence, which may shed light on its role in plant growth promotion. This is believed to be the first published genome of a desiccation-tolerant plant growth promoter from the genus Arthrobacter. PMID:26067978

  20. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

  1. Delphinidin is a novel inhibitor of lymphangiogenesis but promotes mammary tumor growth and metastasis formation in syngeneic experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Wilko; Rothley, Melanie; Teller, Nicole; Jung, Nicole; Bulat, Bekir; Plaumann, Diana; Vanderheiden, Sylvia; Schmaus, Anja; Cremers, Natascha; Göppert, Bettina; Dimmler, Arno; Eschbach, Verena; Quagliata, Luca; Thaler, Sonja; Marko, Doris; Bräse, Stefan; Sleeman, Jonathan P

    2013-12-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the anthocyanidin delphinidin (DEL), one of the most abundant dietary flavonoids, inhibits activation of ErbB and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor family members. These receptors play crucial roles in the context of tumor progression and the outgrowth of blood and lymphatic vessels. Here, we have developed an improved chemical synthesis for DEL in order to study the effects of the aglycon and its degradation product gallic acid (GA) on endothelial and tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that DEL blocked the proliferation in vitro of primary human blood and lymphatic endothelial cells as well as human HT29 colon and rat MT-450 mammary carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, its degradation product GA had little effect. At higher concentrations, DEL induced apoptosis of endothelial and tumor cells. Furthermore, DEL potently blocked the outgrowth of lymphatic capillaries in ex vivo lymphangiogenesis assays. In the MT-450 rat syngeneic breast tumor model, it also significantly reduced angiogenesis and tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis when administered in vivo. These data reveal DEL to be a novel antilymphangiogenesis reagent. Surprisingly, however, the application of DEL unexpectedly promoted tumor growth and metastasis in the MT-450 tumor model, suggesting that the antiproliferative effect of DEL on cultured cells does not necessarily reflect the response of tumors to this anthocyanidin in vivo. Furthermore, while DEL may have utility as a cancer chemopreventative agent, its ability to promote tumor growth once a neoplasm develops also needs to be taken into consideration. PMID:23975834

  2. A Product-Line Approach to Promote Asset Reuse in Multi-Agent Systems

    E-print Network

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    lifecycle so that software assets can be reused in the development lifecycle and during system evolution. We, distributed systems [5]. Yet, the realization of agent-oriented software development partially depends upon whether agent-based software systems can achieve reductions in development time and cost similar to other

  3. Effects of spill-treating agents on growth kinetics of marine microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Murado, Miguel A; Menduiña, Araceli; Fuciños, Pablo; González, Pilar; Mirón, Jesús; Vázquez, José A

    2013-12-15

    The effects of four spill-treating agents (STAs) (CytoSol, Finasol(®) OSR 51, Agma OSD 569 and OD4000) on the growth kinetics of three marine microalgae (Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) were studied. Chlorophyll a concentration and optical density at 700 nm were assessed to describe the logistic growth of algae in batch cultures. The optical density data were initially analyzed as described for standard algal growth inhibition tests and subsequently modelled by a bivariate model, as a function of time and dose, to assess the toxic effects on growth parameters. Increasing trends in EC50 and EC10 values with time were found with the standard approach. In 8 of the 11 tests, the lag phase (?) or the time required to achieve half the maximum biomass (?) was significantly dependent on the STA concentration. A global parameter (EC50,?) was calculated to summarize the effects of STAs on growth parameters in the bivariate model. The ranking of sensitivity as EC50,? values was I. galbana>C. gracilis>P. tricornutum. For all species tested, the least toxic agent was Agma OSD 569, followed by CytoSol. The mathematical model allowed successful ecotoxicological evaluation of chemicals on microalgal growth. PMID:23911058

  4. Activating enhancer-binding protein-2? induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression and promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lijun; Xie, Fangyun; Sun, Rui; Wang, Jingshu; Li, Wenbin; Liu, Tianze; Xiao, Yao; Yu, Wendan; Guo, Wei; Xiong, Yuqing; Qiu, Huijuan; Kang, Tiebang; Huang, Wenlin; Zhao, Chong; Deng, Wuguo

    2015-01-01

    Activating enhancer-binding protein-2? (AP-2?) regulates the expression of many cancer-related genes. Here, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which AP-2? up-regulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression to promote the growth of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs). High expression of AP-2? in NPC cell lines and tumor tissues from NPC patients was detected and significantly correlated with COX-2 expression. Overexpression of AP-2? and COX-2 in tumor tissues was associated with advanced tumor stage, clinical progression, and short survival of patients with NPCs. Knockdown of AP-2? by siRNA markedly inhibited COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in NPC cells. Exogenous expression of AP-2? up-regulated the COX-2 and PGE2. Knockdown of AP-2? also significantly suppressed cell proliferation in NPC cells in vitro and tumor growth in a NPC xenograft mouse model. Moreover, we found that p300 played an important role in the AP-2?/COX-2 pathway. AP-2? could co-localize and interact with p300 in NPC cells. Overexpression of the p300, but not its histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain deletion mutant, promoted the acetylation of AP-2? and its binding on the COX-2 promoter, thereby up-regulated COX-2 expression. Our results indicate that AP-2? activates COX-2 expression to promote NPC growth and suggest that the AP-2?/COX-2 signaling is a potential therapeutic target for NPC treatment. PMID:25669978

  5. Stimulatory Effects of Arsenic-Tolerant Soil Fungi on Plant Growth Promotion and Soil Properties

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Gupta, Manjul; Vaish, Aradhana; Mannan, Shivee; Singh, Nandita; Tewari, Shri Krishna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen fungi were obtained from arsenic-contaminated agricultural fields in West Bengal, India and examined for their arsenic tolerance and removal ability in our previous study. Of these, the four best arsenic-remediating isolates were tested for plant growth promotion effects on rice and pea in the present study. A greenhouse-based pot experiment was conducted using soil inocula of individual fungi. The results indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant growth and improvement of soil properties in inoculated soils compared to the control. A significant increase in plant growth was recorded in treated soils and varied from 16–293%. Soil chemical and enzymatic properties varied from 20–222% and 34–760%, respectively, in inoculated soil. Plants inoculated with inocula of Westerdykella and Trichoderma showed better stimulatory effects on plant growth and soil nutrient availability than Rhizopus and Lasiodiplodia. These fungi improved soil nutrient content and enhanced plant growth. These fungi may be used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and improved soil properties in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:23047145

  6. Health-Promoting Changes with Children as Agents: Findings from a Multiple Case Study Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simovska, Venka; Carlsson, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the aim of contributing to the evidence base on school-based health promotion, the authors discuss the outcomes and processes of a European intervention project aiming to prevent obesity among children (4-16 years) and promote their health and well-being, titled "Shape Up: a school-community approach to influencing determinants of…

  7. Promoting collective motion of self-propelled agents by distance-based influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Liang

    2014-03-01

    We propose a dynamic model for a system consisting of self-propelled agents in which the influence of an agent on another agent is weighted by geographical distance. A parameter ? is introduced to adjust the influence: The smaller value of ? means that the closer neighbors have a stronger influence on the moving direction. We find that there exists an optimal value of ? leading to the highest degree of direction consensus. The value of optimal ? increases as the system size increases, while it decreases as the absolute velocity, the sensing radius, and the noise amplitude increase.

  8. Disruption of Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha Reveals the Growth Promoter Face of Retinoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Ren, MingQiang; Ghidoni, Riccardo; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2007-01-01

    Background Retinoic acid (RA), the bioactive derivative of Vitamin A, by epigenetically controlling transcription through the RA-receptors (RARs), exerts a potent antiproliferative effect on human cells. However, a number of studies show that RA can also promote cell survival and growth. In the course of one of our studies we observed that disruption of RA-receptor alpha, RAR?, abrogates the RA-mediated growth-inhibitory effects and unmasks the growth-promoting face of RA (Ren et al., Mol. Cell. Biol., 2005, 25:10591). The objective of this study was to investigate whether RA can differentially govern cell growth, in the presence and absence of RAR?, through differential regulation of the “rheostat” comprising ceramide (CER), the sphingolipid with growth-inhibitory activity, and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the sphingolipid with prosurvival activity. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that functional inhibition of endogenous RAR? in breast cancer cells by using either RAR? specific antagonists or a dominant negative RAR? mutant hampers on one hand the RA-induced upregulation of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase)-mediated CER synthesis, and on the other hand the RA-induced downregulation of sphingosine kinase 1, SK1, pivotal for S1P synthesis. In association with RA inability to regulate the sphingolipid rheostat, cells not only survive, but also grow more in response to RA both in vitro and in vivo. By combining genetic, pharmacological and biochemical approaches, we mechanistically demonstrated that RA-induced growth is, at least in part, due to non-RAR-mediated activation of the SK1-S1P signaling. Conclusions/Significance In the presence of functional RAR?, RA inhibits cell growth by concertedly, and inversely, modulating the CER and S1P synthetic pathways. In the absence of a functional RAR?, RA–in a non-RAR-mediated fashion–promotes cell growth by activating the prosurvival S1P signaling. These two distinct, yet integrated processes apparently concur to the growth-promoter effects of RA. PMID:17786207

  9. Cladosporium sphaerospermum as a new plant growth-promoting endophyte from the roots of Glycine max (L.) Merr

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Hamayun; Sumera Afzal Khan; Nadeem Ahmad; Dong-Sheng Tang; Sang-Mo Kang; Chae-In Na; Eun-Young Sohn; Young-Hyun Hwang; Dong-Hyun Shin; Byung-Hyun Lee; Jong-Guk Kim; In-Jung Lee

    2009-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are plant symbionts that produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and protection against\\u000a herbivory and pathogens. Fourteen fungal samples were isolated from the roots of soybean cultivar Daemangkong and screened\\u000a on waito-c rice for their plant growth-promoting capacity. Twelve of the fungal isolates promoted plant growth, while two\\u000a inhibited it. The fungal isolate DK-1-1 induced

  10. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Downregulates Transforming Growth Factor ?2 To Promote Enhanced Stability of Capillary-Like Tube Formation

    PubMed Central

    DiMaio, Terri A.; Gutierrez, Kimberley D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the most common tumor of AIDS patients worldwide. A key characteristic of KS tumors is extremely high levels of vascular slits and extravasated red blood cells, making neoangiogenesis a key component of the tumor. The main KS tumor cell is the spindle cell, a cell of endothelial origin that maintains KSHV predominantly in the latent state. In cultured endothelial cells, latent KSHV infection induces angiogenic phenotypes, including longer-term stabilization of capillary-like tube formation in Matrigel, a basement membrane matrix. The present studies show that KSHV infection of endothelial cells strongly downregulates transforming growth factor ?2 (TGF-?2). This downregulation allows the stabilization of capillary-like tube formation during latent infection, as the addition of exogenous TGF-?2 inhibits the KSHV-induced stability of these structures. While two KSHV microRNAs are sufficient to downregulate TGF-?2 in endothelial cells, they are not required during KSHV infection. However, activation of the gp130 cell surface receptor is both necessary and sufficient for downregulation of TGF-?2 in KSHV-infected cells. IMPORTANCE Kaposi's sarcoma is a highly vascularized, endothelial cell-based tumor supporting large amounts of angiogenesis. There is evidence that KSHV, the etiologic agent of KS, induces aberrant angiogenesis. For example, KSHV induces stabilization of capillary-like tube formation in cultured endothelial cells. A clearer understanding of how KSHV regulates angiogenesis could provide potential therapeutic targets for KS. We found that KSHV downregulates TGF-?2, a cytokine related to TGF-?1 that is known to inhibit angiogenesis. The downregulation of this inhibitor promotes the stability of capillary-like tube formation insofar as adding back TGF-?2 to infected cells blocks KSHV-induced long-term tubule stability. Therefore, KSHV downregulation of TGF-?2 may increase aberrant vascularization in KS tumors through increased capillary formation and thereby aid in KS tumor promotion. PMID:25275137

  11. Review of Growth Inhibitory Peptide as a Biotherapeutic agent for tumor growth, adhesion, and metastasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Muehlemann; K. D. Miller; M. Dauphinee; G. J. Mizejewski

    2005-01-01

    This review surveys the biological activities of an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived peptide termed the Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP), which is a synthetic 34 amino acid segment produced from the full length 590 amino acid AFP molecule. The GIP has been shown to be growth-suppressive in both fetal and tumor cells but not in adult terminally-differentiated cells. The mechanism of action

  12. TAF4 inactivation reveals the 3 dimensional growth promoting activities of collagen 6A3.

    PubMed

    Martianov, Igor; Cler, Emilie; Duluc, Isabelle; Vicaire, Serge; Philipps, Muriel; Freund, Jean-Noel; Davidson, Irwin

    2014-01-01

    Collagen 6A3 (Col6a3), a component of extracellular matrix, is often up-regulated in tumours and is believed to play a pro-oncogenic role. However the mechanisms of its tumorigenic activity are poorly understood. We show here that Col6a3 is highly expressed in densely growing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In MEFs where the TAF4 subunit of general transcription factor IID (TFIID) has been inactivated, elevated Col6a3 expression prevents contact inhibition promoting their 3 dimensional growth as foci and fibrospheres. Analyses of gene expression in densely growing Taf4(-/-) MEFs revealed repression of the Hippo pathway and activation of Wnt signalling. The Hippo activator Kibra/Wwc1 is repressed under dense conditions in Taf4(-/-) MEFs, leading to nuclear accumulation of the proliferation factor YAP1 in the cells forming 3D foci. At the same time, Wnt9a is activated and the Sfrp2 antagonist of Wnt signalling is repressed. Surprisingly, treatment of Taf4(-/-) MEFs with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) restores contact inhibition suppressing 3D growth. ATRA represses Col6a3 expression independently of TAF4 expression and Col6a3 silencing is sufficient to restore contact inhibition in Taf4(-/-) MEFs and to suppress 3D growth by reactivating Kibra expression to induce Hippo signalling and by inducing Sfrp2 expression to antagonize Wnt signalling. All together, these results reveal a critical role for Col6a3 in regulating both Hippo and Wnt signalling to promote 3D growth, and show that the TFIID subunit TAF4 is essential to restrain the growth promoting properties of Col6a3. Our data provide new insight into the role of extra cellular matrix components in regulating cell growth. PMID:24498316

  13. Integrin ?v?6 sustains and promotes tumor invasive growth in colon cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang-Yun; Guo, Sen; Dong, Cong-Ying; Wang, Xian-Qiang; Hu, Bing-Yang; Liu, Yang-Feng; Chen, Yong-Wei; Niu, Jun; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To detect the mechanism by which colon tumor escapes the growth constraints imposed on normal cells by cell crowding and dense pericellular matrices. METHODS: An immunohistochemical study of integrin ?v?6 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was performed on tissue microarrays of 200 spots, including 100 cases of colon tumors. RESULTS: High immunoreactivity for ?v?6 (73.7%; 28/38) and MMP-9 (76.5%; 52/68) was observed in invasive tumor portions. Furthermore, the effects of integrin ?v?6 on tumor invasive growth in nude mice were detected. Tumor invasive growth and high expression of both ?v?6 and MMP-9 were only seen in tumors resulting from WiDr cells expressing ?v?6 in the tumorigenicity assay. Flow cytometry was applied to analyze ?v?6 expression in colon cancer WiDr and SW480 cells. The effects of cell density on ?v?6 expression and MMP-9 secretion were also detected by Biotrak MMP-9 activity assay and gelatin zymography assay. High cell density evidently enhanced ?v?6 expression and promoted MMP-9 secretion compared with low density. CONCLUSION: Integrin ?v?6 sustains and promotes tumor invasive growth in tumor progression via a self-perpetuating mechanism. Integrin ???6-mediated MMP-9 secretion facilitates pericellular matrix degradation at high cell density, which provides the basis of invasive growth.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Serratia sp. SY5.

    PubMed

    Koo, So-Yeon; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2009-11-01

    The role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils is important in overcoming its limitations for field application. A plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Serratia sp. SY5, was isolated from the rhizoplane of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) grown in petroleum and heavy-metal-contaminated soil. This isolate has shown capacities for indole acetic acid production and siderophores synthesis. Compared with a non-inoculated control, the radicular root growth of Zea mays seedlings inoculated with SY5 can be increased by 27- or 15.4-fold in the presence of 15 mg-Cd/l or 15 mg-Cu/l, respectively. The results from hydroponic cultures showed that inoculation of Serratia sp. SY5 had a favorable influence on the initial shoot growth and biomass of Zea mays under noncontaminated conditions. However, under Cd-contaminated conditions, the inoculation of SY5 significantly increased the root biomass of Zea mays. These results indicate that Serratia sp. SY5 can serve as a promising microbial inoculant for increased plant growth in heavy-metal-contaminated soils to improve the phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:19996698

  15. Mitochondrial biogenesis in epithelial cancer cells promotes breast cancer tumor growth and confers autophagy resistance.

    PubMed

    Salem, Ahmed F; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2012-11-15

    Here, we set out to test the novel hypothesis that increased mitochondrial biogenesis in epithelial cancer cells would "fuel" enhanced tumor growth. For this purpose, we generated MDA-MB-231 cells (a triple-negative human breast cancer cell line) overexpressing PGC-1? and MitoNEET, which are established molecules that drive mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Interestingly, both PGC-1? and MitoNEET increased the abundance of OXPHOS protein complexes, conferred autophagy resistance under conditions of starvation and increased tumor growth by up to ~3-fold. However, this increase in tumor growth was independent of neo-angiogenesis, as assessed by immunostaining and quantitation of vessel density using CD31 antibodies. Quantitatively similar increases in tumor growth were also observed by overexpression of PGC-1? and POLRMT in MDA-MB-231 cells, which are also responsible for mediating increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, we propose that increased mitochondrial "power" in epithelial cancer cells oncogenically promotes tumor growth by conferring autophagy resistance. As such, PGC-1?, PGC-1?, mitoNEET and POLRMT should all be considered as tumor promoters or "metabolic oncogenes." Our results are consistent with numerous previous clinical studies showing that metformin (a weak mitochondrial "poison") prevents the onset of nearly all types of human cancers in diabetic patients. Therefore, metformin (a complex I inhibitor) and other mitochondrial inhibitors should be developed as novel anticancer therapies, targeting mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells. PMID:23070475

  16. The OXI1 Kinase Pathway Mediates Piriformospora indica-Induced Growth Promotion in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Camehl, Iris; Drzewiecki, Corinna; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Shahollari, Bationa; Sherameti, Irena; Forzani, Celine; Munnik, Teun; Hirt, Heribert; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes roots of many plant species and promotes growth and resistance to certain plant pathogens. Despite its potential use in agriculture, little is known on the molecular basis of this beneficial plant-fungal interaction. In a genetic screen for plants, which do not show a P. indica- induced growth response, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant in the OXI1 (Oxidative Signal Inducible1) gene. OXI1 has been characterized as a protein kinase which plays a role in pathogen response and is regulated by H2O2 and PDK1 (3-PHOSPHOINOSITIDE-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE1). A genetic analysis showed that double mutants of the two closely related PDK1.1 and PDK1.2 genes are defective in the growth response to P. indica. While OXI1 and PDK1 gene expression is upregulated in P. indica-colonized roots, defense genes are downregulated, indicating that the fungus suppresses plant defense reactions. PDK1 is activated by phosphatidic acid (PA) and P. indica triggers PA synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Under beneficial co-cultivation conditions, H2O2 formation is even reduced by the fungus. Importantly, phospholipase D (PLD)?1 or PLD? mutants, which are impaired in PA synthesis do not show growth promotion in response to fungal infection. These data establish that the P. indica-stimulated growth response is mediated by a pathway consisting of the PLD-PDK1-OXI1 cascade. PMID:21625539

  17. Electrospun silk fibroin nanofibers promote Schwann cell adhesion, growth and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Aijun; Zuo, Baoqi; Zhang, Feng; Lan, Qing; Zhang, Huanxiang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Schwann cells, at a density of 1 × 105 cells/well, were cultured on regenerated silk fibroin nanofibers (305 ± 84 nm) prepared using the electrospinning method. Schwann cells cultured on the silk fibroin nanofibers appeared more ordered, their processes extended further, and they formed more extensive and complex interconnections. In addition, the silk fibroin nanofibers had no impact on the proliferation of Schwann cells or on the secretion of ciliary neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor or nerve growth factor. These findings indicate that regenerated electrospun silk fibroin nanofibers can promote Schwann cell adhesion, growth and proliferation, and have excellent biocompatibility. PMID:25722711

  18. Biosynthetic Precursors of Vitamin K as Growth Promoters for Bacteroides melaninogenicus

    PubMed Central

    Robins, D. J.; Yee, R. B.; Bentley, Ronald

    1973-01-01

    The growth of a vitamin K-requiring strain of Bacteroides melaninogenicus was promoted by some postulated and proven biosynthetic precursors of bacterial menaquinones, 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, shikimic acid, chorismic acid, and 4(2?-carboxyphenyl)-4-oxobutyric acid. Growth of the organism with [2?,4-14C2]-4(2?-carboxy phenyl)-4-oxobutyric acid as the vitamin K replacement gave rise to a mixture of radioactive menaquinone-9 and menaquinone-10; the dilution factor for this incorporation was 1.8. PMID:4745437

  19. Rhizoremediation of Cadmium Soil Using a Cadmium-Resistant Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizopseudomonad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Velmurugan Ganesan

    2008-01-01

    Three pseudomonad strains (MKRh1, MKRh3, and MKRh4) isolated from rhizospheres showed a high growth potential in the presence\\u000a of cadmium, with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 mM for cadmium chloride (CdCl2). Among them, isolate MKRh3 was specifically chosen as the most favorable cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium\\u000a based on its higher 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid deaminase activity, siderophore production, phosphate solubilization,\\u000a and

  20. Screening of multiple metal and antibiotic resistant isolates and their plant growth promoting activity.

    PubMed

    Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2014-01-15

    Heavy metal contamination has accelerated due to the rapid industrialization world wide. Accumulation of metals in excess can modify the structure of essential protein or can replace an essential element. Bradyrhizobium strains showed tolerance to cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc and copper. All the isolates showed maximum tolerance towards lead and zinc which was followed by nickel and chromium. These strains also showed tolerance towards most of the antibiotics. Bradyrhizobium strains were also tested for their Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) substances, all isolates produced good amount of indole acetic acid and were positive for ammonia but only three strains were positive for HCN and siderophore (RM1, RM2 and RM8), the rest isolates showed negative result. Based on the above intrinsic abilities of Bradyrhizobium species, these strains can be used for the growth promotion, as well for the detoxification of the heavy metals in metal polluted soils. PMID:24783803

  1. Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9

    SciTech Connect

    Neupane, Saraswoti [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Hogberg, Nils [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Alstrom, Sadhna [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fiebig, Anne [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Finlay, Roger D. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).

  2. PVC-piping promotes growth of Ralstonia pickettii in dialysis water treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Dombrowsky, Matthias; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms forming inside dialysis water treatment systems are one of the main sources of microbiological contamination. Among the bacteria found in biofilms, Ralstonia pickettii is frequently encountered in dialysis water treatment systems and has been shown to develop extreme oligotrophic talents. In Austria, R. pickettii was exclusively detected in high numbers in dialysis water treatment facilities equipped with chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) piping. In this laboratory study it was shown that PVC-C effectively promotes growth of R. pickettii biofilms, while residual organic carbon in purified dialysis water is sufficient for promoting substantial growth of planktic R. pickettii. This provides evidence that PVC-C is an unsuitable material for piping in dialysis water treatment systems. PMID:23985526

  3. TGF-? promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression through Smad and ERK1/2 pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jing [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China)] [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China); Liu, Su-zhi [Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Taizhou 317000, Zhejiang (China)] [Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Taizhou 317000, Zhejiang (China); Lin, Yan; Cao, Xiao-pan [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China)] [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China); Liu, Jia-ming, E-mail: wzljm@126.com [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China)] [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •TGF-? promoted Nodal expression in glioma cells. •TGF-? promoted Nodal expression via activating Smad and ERK1/2 pathways. •TGF-? promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression. -- Abstract: While there were certain studies focusing on the mechanism of TGF-? promoting the growth of glioma cells, the present work revealed another novel mechanism that TGF-? may promote glioma cell growth via enhancing Nodal expression. Our results showed that Nodal expression was significantly upregulated in glioma cells when TGF-? was added, whereas the TGF-?-induced Nodal expression was evidently inhibited by transfection Smad2 or Smad3 siRNAs, and the suppression was especially significant when the Smad3 was downregulated. Another, the attenuation of TGF-?-induced Nodal expression was observed with blockade of the ERK1/2 pathway also. Further detection of the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of glioma cells indicated that Nodal overexpression promoted the proliferation and invasion of tumor cells and inhibited their apoptosis, resembling the effect of TGF-? addition. Downregulation of Nodal expression via transfection Nodal-specific siRNA in the presence of TGF-? weakened the promoting effect of the latter on glioma cells growth, and transfecting Nodal siRNA alone in the absence of exogenous TGF-? more profoundly inhibited the growth of glioma cells. These results demonstrated that while both TGF-? and Nodal promoted glioma cells growth, the former might exert such effect by enhancing Nodal expression, which may form a new target for glioma therapy.

  4. Endophytic bacterial communities of field-grown potato plants and their plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic abilities.

    PubMed

    Sessitsch, Angela; Reiter, Birgit; Berg, Gabriele

    2004-04-01

    To study the effect of plant growth on potato-associated bacteria, the composition and properties of bacteria colonizing the endosphere of field-grown potato were analyzed by a multiphasic approach. The occurrence and diversity of potato-associated bacteria were monitored by a cultivation-independent approach, using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rDNA. The patterns obtained revealed a high heterogeneity of community composition and suggested the existence of plant-specific communities. However, endophytic populations correlated to a certain extent with plant growth performance. Endophytes were also isolated from plants that grew well or grew poorly and were identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. A broad phylogenetic spectrum was found among isolates and differently growing plants hosted different bacterial populations. In an approach to investigate the plant-growth-promoting potential of potato-associated bacteria, a total of 35 bacteria were screened by dual testing for in vitro antagonism towards (i) the fungal pathogens Verticillium dahliae, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Phytophthora cactorum and (ii) the bacterial pathogens Erwinia carotovora, Streptomyces scabies, and Xanthomonas campestris. The proportion of isolates with antagonistic activity was highest against Streptomyces sp. (43%) followed by those against Xanthomonas sp. (29%). As all plants showed more or less severe disease symptoms of scab disease caused by Streptomyces scabies, we assume that the presence of the pathogen induced the colonization of antagonists. The antifungal activity of the isolates was generally low. The biotechnological potential of endophytic isolates assessed by their antagonistic activity and by in vitro production of enzymes, antibiotics, siderophores, and the plant growth hormone indole-1,3-acetic acid was generally high. Overall, seven endophytes were found to antagonize fungal as well as bacterial pathogens and showed a high production of active compounds and were therefore considered promising biological control agents. PMID:15213748

  5. Determination of Novel Plant Growth Promoting Diterpenes in Callicarpa macrophylla by HPLC and HPTLC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram Kishor Verma; Anil Kumar Singh; Pooja Srivastava; Karuna Shanker; Alok Kalra; Madan Mohan Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Methods based on HPTLC and RP-HPLC with UV detection for rapid quantitative determination of two major plant growth promoters in Callicarpa macrophylla, calliterpenone (1) and calliterpenone monoacetate (2) are described. The recoveries of the two compounds were between 97.5–100.8% by HPTLC method and 99.3–100.9% by HPLC assay. The relative standard deviations of the two compounds ranged between 1.26–1.68 (Intra-day) and

  6. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Safiyh Taghavi; Daniel van der Lelie; Adam Hoffman; Yian-Biao Zhang; Michael D. Walla; Jaco Vangronsveld; Lee Newman; Sébastien Monchy

    2010-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of

  7. HDAC4 Promotes Growth of Colon Cancer Cells via Repression of p21

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew J.; Byun, Do-Sun; Nasser, Shannon; Murray, Lucas B.; Ayyanar, Kanyalakshmi; Arango, Diego; Figueroa, Maria; Melnick, Ari; Kao, Gary D.; Augenlicht, Leonard H.

    2008-01-01

    The class II Histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, is expressed in a tissue-specific manner, and it represses differentiation of specific cell types. We demonstrate here that HDAC4 is expressed in the proliferative zone in small intestine and colon and that its expression is down-regulated during intestinal differentiation in vivo and in vitro. Subcellular localization studies demonstrated HDAC4 expression was predominantly nuclear in proliferating HCT116 cells and relocalized to the cytoplasm after cell cycle arrest. Down-regulating HDAC4 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in HCT116 cells induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in vitro, reduced xenograft tumor growth, and increased p21 transcription. Conversely, overexpression of HDAC4 repressed p21 promoter activity. p21 was likely a direct target of HDAC4, because HDAC4 down-regulation increased p21 mRNA when protein synthesis was inhibited by cycloheximide. The importance of p21 repression in HDAC4-mediated growth promotion was demonstrated by the failure of HDAC4 down-regulation to induce growth arrest in HCT116 p21-null cells. HDAC4 down-regulation failed to induce p21 when Sp1 was functionally inhibited by mithramycin or siRNA-mediated down-regulation. HDAC4 expression overlapped with that of Sp1, and a physical interaction was demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and sequential ChIP analyses demonstrated Sp1-dependent binding of HDAC4 to the proximal p21 promoter, likely directed through the HDAC4–HDAC3–N-CoR/SMRT corepressor complex. Consistent with increased transcription, HDAC4 or SMRT down-regulation resulted in increased histone H3 acetylation at the proximal p21 promoter locus. These studies identify HDAC4 as a novel regulator of colon cell proliferation through repression of p21. PMID:18632985

  8. Molecular characterization and PCR detection of a nitrogen-fixing Pseudomonas strain promoting rice growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sajjad Mirza; Samina Mehnaz; Philippe Normand; Claire Prigent-Combaret; Yvan Moënne-Loccoz; René Bally; Kauser A. Malik

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) from the genus Pseudomonas have received little attention so far. In the present study, a nitrogen-fixing phytohormone-producing bacterial isolate from kallar grass (strain K1) was identified as Pseudomonas sp. by rrs (16S ribosomal RNA gene) sequence analysis. rrs identity level was high with an uncharacterized marine bacterium (99%), Pseudomonas sp. PCP2 (98%), uncultured bacteria (98%),

  9. Antifungal activity of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria isolates against Rhizoctonia solani in wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zarrin Fatima; M. Saleemi; Muhammad Zia; T. Sultan; M. Aslam; M. Fayyaz Chaudhary

    2009-01-01

    Seven plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains were isolated from the rhizoplane and rhizosphere of wheat from four different sites of Pakistan. These strains were analyzed for production of indole acetic acid (IAA), phosphorous solublization capability and inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani on rye agar medium. Strains WPR-51, WPR-42 and WM-30 were selected to test in planta antagonistic activity on two wheat

  10. Can choice promote Education for All? Evidence from growth in private primary schooling in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Härmä

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines whether the recent growth in ‘low?fee private’ (LFP) schools is able to promote Education for All by being accessible to the poor. Based primarily on a 13?village survey of 250 households and visits to 26 private and government schools in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, this paper explores who ‘chooses’ private schooling, in the light of the well?documented

  11. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria as transplant amendments and their effects on indigenous rhizosphere microorganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kokalis-Burelle; J. W. Kloepper; M. S. Reddy

    2006-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in Florida on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) to monitor the population dynamics of two plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains (Bacillus subtilis strain GBO3 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain IN937a) applied in the potting media at seeding and at various times after transplanting to the field during the growing season. In-field drenches of an aqueous bacterial formulation were

  12. Forest soil community responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and spruce seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Shishido; C. P. Chanway

    1998-01-01

    The influence of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and spruce seedlings on the composition and activity of forest\\u000a soil microbial communities was studied in a microcosm experiment in which sterile, sand-filled 25mm×150mm glass tubes were\\u000a treated with a forest soil suspension containing Bacillus or Pseudomonas PGPR and 2-week-old spruce seedlings. Eighteen weeks after treatments were established, bacterial, actinomycete and fungal\\u000a population sizes

  13. Induced Systemic Resistance and Promotion of Plant Growth by Bacillus spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph W. Kloepper; Choong-Min Ryu; Shouan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Kloepper, J. W., Ryu, C.-M., and Zhang, S. 2004. Induced systemic resis- tance and promotion of plant growth by Bacillus spp. Phytopathology 94:1259-1266. Elicitation of induced systemic resistance (ISR) by plant-associated bacteria was initially demonstrated using Pseudomonas spp. and other gram-negative bacteria. Several reviews have summarized various aspects of the large volume of literature on Pseudomonas spp. as elicitors of

  14. Growth ofActinobacillus pleuropneumoniaeIs Promoted by Exogenous Hydroxamate and Catechol Siderophores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MOUSSA S. DIARRA; JULIA A. DOLENCE; E. KURT DOLENCE; IHAB DARWISH; MARVIN J. MILLER; FRANCOIS MALOUIN; ANDMARIO JACQUES

    1996-01-01

    while growth of 36% (8 of 22) was promoted by a synthetic hydroxamate, N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine tripeptide. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (strain FMV 87-682) and serotype 5 (strain 2245) exhibited a distinct yellow halo around colonies on Chrome Azurol S agar plates, suggesting that both strains can produce an iron chelator (siderophore) in response to iron stress. The siderophore was found to

  15. Growth promoting effects of corn ( Zea mays) bacterial isolates under greenhouse and field conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samina Mehnaz; Tom Kowalik; Bruce Reynolds; George Lazarovits

    2010-01-01

    Fertilizer costs are a major component of corn production. The use of biofertilizers may be one way of reducing production costs. In this study we present isolation and identification of three plant growth promoting bacteria that were identified as Enterobacter cloacae (CR1), Pseudomonas putida (CR7) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (CR3). All bacterial strains produced IAA in the presence of 100mgl?1 of

  16. Effects of inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on metal uptake by Brassica juncea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Wu; K. C. Cheung; Y. M. Luo; M. H. Wong

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse study was carried out with Brassica juncea to critically evaluate effects of bacterial inoculation on the uptake of heavy metals from Pb–Zn mine tailings by plants. Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria and phosphate and potassium solubilizers, might play an important role in the further development of phytoremediation techniques. The presence of these beneficial bacteria stimulated

  17. Metabolic preconditioning of mammalian cells: mimetic agents for hypoxia lack fidelity in promoting phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Borcar, Apurva; Menze, Michael A; Toner, Mehmet; Hand, Steven C

    2013-01-01

    Induction of HIF-1? by oxygen limitation promotes increased phosphorylation and catalytic depression of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and an enhanced glycolytic poise in cells. Cobalt chloride and desferrioxamine are widely used as mimics for hypoxia because they increase the levels of HIF-1?. We evaluated the ability of these agents to elicit selected physiological responses to hypoxia as a means to metabolically precondition mammalian cells, but without the detrimental effects of hypoxia. We show that, while CoCl(2) does increase HIF-1? in a dose-dependent manner, it unexpectedly and strikingly decreases PDH phosphorylation at E1? sites 1, 2, and 3 (Ser(293), Ser(300), and Ser(232), respectively) in HepG2 cells. This same effect is also observed for site 1 in mouse NIH/3T3 fibroblasts and J774 macrophages. CoCl(2) unexpectedly decreases the mRNA expression for PDH kinase-2 in HepG2 cells, which likely explains the dephosphorylation of PDH observed. And nor does desferrioxamine promote the expected increase in PDH phosphorylation. Dimethyloxaloylglycine (a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor) performs better in this regard, but failed to promote the stronger effects seen with hypoxia. Consequently, CoCl(2) and desferrioxamine are unreliable mimics of hypoxia for physiological events downstream of HIF-1? stabilization. Our study demonstrates that mimetic chemicals must be chosen with caution and evaluated thoroughly if bona fide cellular outcomes are to be promoted with fidelity. PMID:23138570

  18. Connective tissue growth factor modulates adult ?-cell maturity and proliferation to promote ?-cell regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kimberly G; Pasek, Raymond C; Maulis, Matthew F; Peek, Jennifer; Thorel, Fabrizio; Brigstock, David R; Herrera, Pedro L; Gannon, Maureen

    2015-04-01

    Stimulation of endogenous ?-cell expansion could facilitate regeneration in patients with diabetes. In mice, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is expressed in embryonic ?-cells and in adult ?-cells during periods of expansion. We discovered that in embryos CTGF is necessary for ?-cell proliferation, and increased CTGF in ?-cells promotes proliferation of immature (MafA(-)) insulin-positive cells. CTGF overexpression, under nonstimulatory conditions, does not increase adult ?-cell proliferation. In this study, we tested the ability of CTGF to promote ?-cell proliferation and regeneration after partial ?-cell destruction. ?-Cell mass reaches 50% recovery after 4 weeks of CTGF treatment, primarily via increased ?-cell proliferation, which is enhanced as early as 2 days of treatment. CTGF treatment increases the number of immature ?-cells but promotes proliferation of both mature and immature ?-cells. A shortened ?-cell replication refractory period is also observed. CTGF treatment upregulates positive cell-cycle regulators and factors involved in ?-cell proliferation, including hepatocyte growth factor, serotonin synthesis, and integrin ?1. Ex vivo treatment of whole islets with recombinant human CTGF induces ?-cell replication and gene expression changes consistent with those observed in vivo, demonstrating that CTGF acts directly on islets to promote ?-cell replication. Thus, CTGF can induce replication of adult mouse ?-cells given a permissive microenvironment. PMID:25392241

  19. Preparation of oligoalginate plant growth promoter by ? irradiation of alginate solution containing hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Luan, Le Quang; Ha, Vo Thi Thu; Uyen, Nguyen Huynh Phuong; Trang, Le Thi Thuy; Hien, Nguyen Quoc

    2012-02-22

    Degraded alginate compounds with molecular weights of 7-26, 40-77, or 11-26 kDa were obtained by ? irradiation, hydrogen peroxide (5% H(2)O(2)) treatment, or a combination treatment involving ionizing radiation and H(2)O(2), respectively. The 14 kDa oligoalginate, prepared by the combined method, promoted the growth of mustard greens and lettuce at an optimal concentration of 75 mg/L. The growth promotion effects of the oligoalginate prepared by ? irradiation in the presence of H(2)O(2) were statistically equivalent to those of the oligoalginate prepared by ? irradiation only. The combination of ? irradiation and H(2)O(2) reduced the required irradiation dosage by a factor of 9 relative to the oligoalginate produced by ? irradiation only. The combination treatment (? irradiation/H(2)O(2)) may be carried out on a large scale at low cost to produce oligoalginate for use as a plant growth promoter in agricultural industries. PMID:22296105

  20. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated “housekeeping” genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup. PMID:23516524

  1. Regulatory B cells preferentially accumulate in tumor-draining lymph nodes and promote tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Ganti, Sheila N.; Albershardt, Tina C.; Iritani, Brian M.; Ruddell, Alanna

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies found that B16-F10 melanoma growth in the rear footpad of immunocompetent mice induces marked B cell accumulation within tumor-draining popliteal lymph nodes (TDLN). This B cell accumulation drives TDLN remodeling that precedes and promotes metastasis, indicating a tumor-promoting role for TDLN B cells. Here we show that phenotypic characterization of lymphocytes in mice bearing B16-F10 melanomas identifies preferential accumulation of T2-MZP B cells in the TDLN. Comparison of non-draining LNs and spleens of tumor-bearing mice with LNs and spleens from naïve mice determined that this pattern of B cell accumulation was restricted to the TDLN. B cell-deficient and immunocompetent mice reconstituted with T2-MZP B cells but not with other B cell subsets displayed accelerated tumor growth, demonstrating that T2-MZP B cells possess regulatory activity in tumor-bearing mice. Unlike splenic regulatory B cells, however, these TDLN B cells did not exhibit increased IL-10 production, nor did they promote Treg generation in the TDLN. These findings demonstrate that tumors initially signal via the lymphatic drainage to stimulate the preferential accumulation of T2-MZP regulatory B cells. This local response may be an early and critical step in generating an immunosuppressive environment to permit tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:26193241

  2. Veterinary Drugs and Growth Promoters Residues in Meat and Processed Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, Milagro; Toldrá, Fidel

    Veterinary drugs, which comprise a large number of different types of substances, are generally intended for therapeutic (to control infectious diseases) and prophylactic (to prevent against infections) purposes in farm animals. Other substances with growth promoting effect may exert antimicrobial effect against the microbial flora in the gut to take maximum profit of nutrients in the feed or by affecting the animal’s metabolism. Most of these substances are orally active and can be administered either in the feed or in the drinking water. Other active hormones are applied in the form of small implants into the subcutaneous tissue of the ears. These are slow release (several weeks or months) devices and the ears are discarded at the slaughter. Growth promoters allow a better efficiency in the feed conversion rate. The net effect is an increased protein deposition, partly due to muscle proteases inhibition (Fiems, Buts, Boucque, Demeyer, & Cottyn, 1990), usually linked to fat utilization (Brockman & Laarveld, 1986). The result is a leaner meat (Lone, 1997) with some toughness derived from the production of connective tissue and collagen crosslinking (Miller, Judge, Diekman, Hudgens, & Aberle, 1989; Miller, Judge, & Schanbacher, 1990). Some recent fraudulent practices, consisting of the use of a kind of “cocktails” or mixtures of several substances like ?-agonists and corticosteroids at very low amounts (Monsón et al., 2007), are difficult to detect with modern analytical instrumentation. They try to obtain a synergistic effect for a similar growth promotion with lower probability of detection by official control laboratories (Reig & Toldrá, 2007).

  3. Occurrence and Characterization of Steroid Growth Promoters Associated with Particulate Matter Originating from Beef Cattle Feedyards.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Brett R; Wooten, Kimberly J; Buser, Michael D; Johnson, Bradley J; Cobb, George P; Smith, Philip N

    2015-07-21

    Studies of steroid growth promoters from beef cattle feedyards have previously focused on effluent or surface runoff as the primary route of transport from animal feeding operations. There is potential for steroid transport via fugitive airborne particulate matter (PM) from cattle feedyards; therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence and concentration of steroid growth promoters in PM from feedyards. Air sampling was conducted at commercial feedyards (n = 5) across the Southern Great Plains from 2010 to 2012. Total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 were collected for particle size analysis and steroid growth promoter analysis. Particle size distributions were generated from TSP samples only, while steroid analysis was conducted on extracts of PM samples using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Of seven targeted steroids, 17?-estradiol and estrone were the most commonly detected, identified in over 94% of samples at median concentrations of 20.6 and 10.8 ng/g, respectively. Melengestrol acetate and 17?-trenbolone were detected in 31% and 39% of all PM samples at median concentrations of 1.3 and 1.9 ng/g, respectively. Results demonstrate PM is a viable route of steroid transportation and may be a significant contributor to environmental steroid hormone loading from cattle feedyards. PMID:26098147

  4. Hyperbaric oxygen promotes malignant glioma cell growth and inhibits cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YONG-GANG; ZHAN, YI-PING; PAN, SHU-YI; WANG, HAI-DONG; ZHANG, DUN-XIAO; GAO, KAI; QI, XUE-LING; YU, CHUN-JIANG

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequently diagnosed intracranial malignant tumor in adults. Clinical studies have indicated that hyperbaric oxygen may improve the prognosis and reduce complications in glioma patients; however, the specific mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. The present study investigated the direct effects of hyperbaric oxygen stimulation on glioma by constructing an intracranial transplanted glioma model in congenic C57BL/6J mice. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was used to assess the growth of intracranial transplanted GL261-Luc glioma cells in vivo, while flow cytometric and immunohistochemical assays were used to detect and compare the expression of the biomarkers, Ki-67, CD34 and TUNEL, reflecting the cell cycle, apoptosis and angiogenesis. BLI demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen promoted the growth of intracranially transplanted GL261-Luc glioma cells in vivo. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that hyperbaric oxygen promoted GL261-Luc glioma cell proliferation and also prevented cell cycle arrest. In addition, hyperbaric oxygen inhibited the apoptosis of the transplanted glioma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis also indicated that hyperbaric oxygen increased positive staining for Ki-67 and CD34, while reducing staining for TUNEL (a marker of apoptosis). The microvessel density was significantly increased in the hyperbaric oxygen treatment group compared with the control group. In conclusion, hyperbaric oxygen treatment promoted the growth of transplanted malignant glioma cells in vivo and also inhibited the apoptosis of these cells.

  5. Up-regulation of C1GALT1 promotes breast cancer cell growth through MUC1-C signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chih-Hsing; Huang, Miao-Juei; Chen, Chi-Hau; Shyu, Ming-Kwang; Huang, John; Hung, Ji-Shiang; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is frequently observed in cancers. Core 1 ?1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) is an exclusive enzyme in humans that catalyzes the biosynthesis of core 1 O-glycan structure, Gal-GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr, whose expression is commonly up-regulated during tumorigenesis. Little is known about the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer. This study aims to determine the correlation between C1GALT1 expression and breast cancer clinicopathological features and roles of C1GALT1 in breast cancer malignant phenotypes. Public databases and our data showed that C1GALT1 mRNA and C1GALT1 protein are frequently up-regulated in breast cancer; and increased C1GALT1 expression correlates with higher histological grade and advanced tumor stage. Overexpression of C1GALT1 enhanced breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion in vitro as well as tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, C1GALT1 knockdown suppressed these malignant phenotypes. Furthermore, C1GALT1 modulates O-glycan structures on Mucin (MUC) 1 and promotes MUC1-C/?-catenin signaling in breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that C1GALT1 enhances breast cancer malignant progression through promoting MUC1-C/?-catenin signaling pathway. Unveiling the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer opens new insights to the roles of C1GALT1 and O-glycosylation in tumorigenesis and renders the potential of C1GALT1 as a target of novel therapeutic agent development. PMID:25762620

  6. RAT TRACHEAL CELL CULTURE TRANSFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS AS CARCINOGENS AND PROMOTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A tracheal cell culture system which can be used for detection of hazardous environmental agents is described. The culture system makes use of primary tracheal cells that are isolated from rats by protease digestion of the tracheal epithelium. The epithelial cells are plated on a...

  7. CD43 Promotes Cells Transformation by Preventing Merlin-Mediated Contact Inhibition of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Concha, Nohemi; Olivos-Ortiz, Amiel; Nuñez-Rivera, Alfredo; Pedroza-Saavedra, Adolfo; Gutierrez-Xicotencatl, Lourdes; Rosenstein, Yvonne; Pedraza-Alva, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    In normal tissues, strict control of tissue size is achieved by regulating cell numbers. The mechanism that controls total cell number is known as contact inhibition of growth and it depends on the NF2/Merlin pathway. Negative regulation of this pathway by deleterious mutations or by oncogenes results in cell transformation and tumor progression. Here we provide evidence that the CD43 sialomucin cooperates with oncogenic signals to promote cell transformation by abrogating the contact inhibition of growth through a molecular mechanism that involves AKT-dependent Merlin phosphorylation and degradation. Accordingly, inhibition of endogenous CD43 expression by RNA interference in lung, cervix and colon human cancer cells impaired tumor growth in vivo. These data underscore a previously unidentified role for CD43 in non-hematopoietic tumor progression. PMID:24260485

  8. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of plant-growth promoting Serratia proteamaculans S4

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Lynne A.; Högberg, Nils; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Alström, Sadhna; Bruce, David; Quintana, Beverly; Munk, Christine; Daligault, Hajnalka; Teshima, Hazuki; Davenport, Karen; Reitenga, Krista; Green, Lance; Chain, Patrick; Erkkila, Tracy; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Xu, Yan; Kunde, Yulia; Chertkov, Olga; Han, James; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Szeto, Ernest; Mavromatis, Kostas; Huntemann, Marcel; Nolan, Matt; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Markowitz, Victor; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Serratia proteamaculans S4 (previously Serratia sp. S4), isolated from the rhizosphere of wild Equisetum sp., has the ability to stimulate plant growth and to suppress the growth of several soil-borne fungal pathogens of economically important crops. Here we present the non-contiguous, finished genome sequence of S. proteamaculans S4, which consists of a 5,324,944 bp circular chromosome and a 129,797 bp circular plasmid. The chromosome contains 5,008 predicted genes while the plasmid comprises 134 predicted genes. In total, 4,993 genes are assigned as protein-coding genes. The genome consists of 22 rRNA genes, 82 tRNA genes and 58 pseudogenes. This genome is a part of the project “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth-promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens” awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI’s Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24501629

  9. Biological management of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in pea using plant growth promoting microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Jain, Akansha; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Surendra; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial plant-microbe interactions play crucial roles in protection against large number of plant pathogens causing disease. The present study aims to investigate the growth promoting traits induced by beneficial microbes namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa PJHU15, Trichoderma harzianum TNHU27, and Bacillus subtilis BHHU100 treated singly and in combinations under greenhouse and field conditions to control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plants treated with three microbe consortium enhanced plant growth maximally both in the presence and absence of the pathogen. Increase in plant length, total biomass, number of leaves, nodules and secondary roots, total chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and yield were recorded in plants treated with microbial consortia. Also, a decrease in plant mortality was observed in plants treated with microbial consortia in comparison to untreated control plants challenged with S. sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the decrease in disease of all the treatments can be associated with differential improvement of growth induced in pea. PMID:25727183

  10. Histone acetylation inhibitors promote axon growth in adult dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shen; Nazif, Kutaiba; Smith, Alexander; Baas, Peter W; Smith, George M

    2015-08-01

    Intrinsic mechanisms that guide damaged axons to regenerate following spinal cord injury remain poorly understood. Manipulation of posttranslational modifications of key proteins in mature neurons could reinvigorate growth machinery after injury. One such modification is acetylation, a reversible process controlled by two enzyme families, the histone deacetylases (HDACs) and the histone acetyl transferases (HATs), acting in opposition. Whereas acetylated histones in the nucleus are associated with upregulation of growth-promoting genes, deacetylated tubulin in the axoplasm is associated with more labile microtubules, conducive to axon growth. This study investigates the effects of HAT and HDAC inhibitors on cultured adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and shows that inhibition of HATs by anacardic acid or CPTH2 improves axon outgrowth, whereas inhibition of HDACs by TSA or tubacin inhibits axon growth. Anacardic acid increased the number of axons able to cross an inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan border. Histone acetylation but not tubulin acetylation level was affected by HAT inhibitors, whereas tubulin acetylation levels were increased in the presence of the HDAC inhibitor tubacin. Although the microtubule-stabilizing drug taxol did not have an effect on the lengths of DRG axons, nocodazole decreased axon lengths. Determining the mechanistic basis will require future studies, but this study shows that inhibitors of HAT can augment axon growth in adult DRG neurons, with the potential of aiding axon growth over inhibitory substrates produced by the glial scar. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25702820

  11. Perceptions of growth monitoring and promotion among an international panel of district medical officers.

    PubMed

    Roberfroid, Dominique; Lefèvre, Pierre; Hoerée, Tom; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    The growth chart has been proposed as an educational tool to make the child's growth visible to both health workers and caregivers and to enhance communication between them. In the case of growth faltering, this would trigger timely corrective measures. Although the relevance of growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) has often been questioned in the literature, opinions of District Medical Officers responsible for local implementation of GMP are unknown. The aim of this qualitative research was to explore the perceptions and difficulties of an international panel of District Medical Officers regarding GMP. As an exploratory study, in-depth interviews of an international panel of District Medical Officers (n=19) were conducted. Data were coded using the QSR Nudist 5.0 software. A discrepancy between intended purposes and practice of GMP was detected at two levels. First, lack of participation of care-givers was reported. Second, the District Medical Officers expressed a restrictive interpretation of the concept of growth monitoring. The communication with parents was never reported as a means or a result of GMP, neither as an evaluation criterion of programme efficiency. The growth chart was mainly considered a tool intended to be used by health services for the purpose of diagnosis. This two-fold discrepancy between the intention of international policy-planners and practice of local programme implementers could be a crucial factor affecting the performance of GMP. More emphasis should be put on social communication and involvement of caregivers. PMID:16262016

  12. Does health promote economic growth? Portuguese case study: from dictatorship to full democracy.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Sónia Maria Aniceto

    2014-07-01

    This paper revisits the debate on health and economic growth (Deaton in J Econ Lit 51:113-158, 2003) focusing on the Portuguese case by testing the relationship between growth and health. We test Portuguese insights, using time series data from 1960 to 2005, taking into account different variables (life expectancy, labour, capital, infant mortality) and considering the years that included major events on the political scene, such as the dictatorship and a closed economy (1960-1974), a revolution (1974) and full democracy and an open economy (1975-2005), factors that influence major economic, cultural, social and politic indicators. Therefore the analysis is carried out adopting Lucas' (J Monet Econ 22(1):3-42, 1988) endogenous growth model that considers human capital as one factor of production, it adopts a VAR (vector autoregressive) model to test the causality between growth and health. Estimates based on the VAR seem to confirm that economic growth influences the health process, but health does not promote growth, during the period under study. PMID:23807534

  13. FGF8 promotes colorectal cancer growth and metastasis by activating YAP1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Huang, Shan; Lei, Yunlong; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Kui; Liu, Bo; Nice, Edouard C; Xiang, Rong; Xie, Ke; Li, Jingyi; Huang, Canhua

    2015-01-20

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The poor prognosis of CRC is mainly due to uncontrolled tumor growth and distant metastases. In this study, we found that the level of FGF8 was elevated in the great majority of CRC cases and high FGF8 expression was significantly correlated with lymph nodes metastasis and worse overall survival. Functional studies showed that FGF8 can induce a more aggressive phenotype displaying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhanced invasion and growth in CRC cells. Consistent with this, FGF8 can also promote tumor growth and metastasis in mouse models. Bioinformatics and pathological analysis suggested that YAP1 is a potential downstream target of FGF8 in CRC cells. Molecular validation demonstrated that FGF8 fully induced nuclear localization of YAP1 and enhanced transcriptional outcomes such as the expression of CTGF and CYR61, while decreasing YAP1 expression impeded FGF-8-induced cell growth, EMT, migration and invasion, revealing that YAP1 is required for FGF8-mediated CRC growth and metastasis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FGF8 contributes to the proliferative and metastatic capacity of CRC cells and may represent a novel candidate for intervention in tumor growth and metastasis formation. PMID:25473897

  14. A method of promoting single crystal yield during melt growth of semiconductors by directional solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2015-01-01

    For certain semiconductors with important applications, the existing unseeded bulk directional solidification crystal growth technique from the melt usually results in poor quality multi-crystalline ingots which causes the low yield of the commercial growth process. The multi-grained crystal growth is mainly caused by the large supercool of the melt, which not only results in a large section of ingot solidifying uncontrollably under spontaneous nucleation but also prohibits the ideal growth condition that small single crystal nuclei form at the very tip of the ampoule and grow into large single grains. To promote nucleation under the condition of small supercooling, a method was employed to induce nucleation by mechanical perturbation at a critical time during growth. The technique was applied to the bulk crystal growth process of Cd1-xZnxTe ingots. The comparison between the crystalline quality of the crystals grown with and without the mechanically induced nucleation shows that the yield of single crystalline can been vastly improved with the application of the technique.

  15. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on growth and nutrient uptake of cotton and pea in a semi-arid region of Uzbekistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilfuza Egamberdiyeva; Gisela Höflich

    2004-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from soil of the root zone of different agricultural crops were analysed for plant growth-promoting effects and improvement of nutrient uptake on cotton and pea in a semi-arid region of Uzbekistan. The investigations were carried out in pot experiments with Calcisol soil. After inoculation with effective bacterial strains Pseudomonas alcaligenes PsA15, P. denitrificans PsD6, Bacillus polymyxa

  16. NIH study finds low-dose nicotine does not promote tumor growth in mouse models of lung cancer:

    Cancer.gov

    Experiments in mice show that low levels of exposure to nicotine, equivalent to those in humans who use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to help them quit smoking, did not promote lung tumor growth.

  17. Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1 associated with Dendrobium officinale through phytohormone production and nitrogen fixation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Suijuan; Zhang, Xinghai; Cao, Zhaoyun; Zhao, Kaipeng; Wang, Sai; Chen, Mingxue; Hu, Xiufang

    2014-01-01

    Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1, associated with Dendrobium officinale, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, was characterized. At 90 days post-inoculation, strain ZJSH1 significantly promoted the growth of D. officinale seedlings, with increases of stems by 8.6% and fresh weight by 7.5%. Interestingly, the polysaccharide content extracted from the inoculated seedlings was 0.6% higher than that of the control. Similar growth promotion was observed with the transplants inoculated with strain ZJSH1. The mechanism of growth promotion was attributed to a combination of phytohormones and nitrogen fixation. Strain ZJSH1 was found using the Kjeldahl method to have a nitrogen fixation activity of 1.15 mg l?1, which was confirmed by sequencing of the nifH gene. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, strain ZJSH1 was found to produce various phytohormones, including salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Zeatin and abscisic acid (ABA). The growth curve showed that strain ZJSH1 grew well in the seedlings, especially in the roots. Accordingly, much higher contents of SA, ABA, IAA and c-ZR were detected in the inoculated seedlings, which may play roles as both phytohormones and ‘Systemic Acquired Resistance’ drivers. Nitrogen fixation and secretion of plant growth regulators (SA, IAA, Zeatin and ABA) endow S. paucimobilis?ZJSH1 with growth-promoting properties, which provides a potential for application in the commercial growth of D. officinale. PMID:25142808

  18. Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1 associated with Dendrobium officinale through phytohormone production and nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Suijuan; Zhang, Xinghai; Cao, Zhaoyun; Zhao, Kaipeng; Wang, Sai; Chen, Mingxue; Hu, Xiufang

    2014-11-01

    Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis?ZJSH1, associated with Dendrobium officinale, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, was characterized. At 90 days post-inoculation, strain ZJSH1 significantly promoted the growth of D.?officinale seedlings, with increases of stems by 8.6% and fresh weight by 7.5%. Interestingly, the polysaccharide content extracted from the inoculated seedlings was 0.6% higher than that of the control. Similar growth promotion was observed with the transplants inoculated with strain ZJSH1. The mechanism of growth promotion was attributed to a combination of phytohormones and nitrogen fixation. Strain ZJSH1 was found using the Kjeldahl method to have a nitrogen fixation activity of 1.15?mg?l(-1) , which was confirmed by sequencing of the nifH gene. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, strain ZJSH1 was found to produce various phytohormones, including salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Zeatin and abscisic acid (ABA). The growth curve showed that strain ZJSH1 grew well in the seedlings, especially in the roots. Accordingly, much higher contents of SA, ABA, IAA and c-ZR were detected in the inoculated seedlings, which may play roles as both phytohormones and 'Systemic Acquired Resistance' drivers. Nitrogen fixation and secretion of plant growth regulators (SA, IAA, Zeatin and ABA) endow S.?paucimobilis?ZJSH1 with growth-promoting properties, which provides a potential for application in the commercial growth of D.?officinale. PMID:25142808

  19. Role of humic substances in promoting autotrophic growth in nitrate-dependent iron-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kanaparthi, Dheeraj; Conrad, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Nitrate-dependent iron oxidation was discovered in 1996 and has been reported from various environments ever since. To date, despite the widespread nature of this process, all attempts to cultivate chemolithoautotrophic nitrate-dependent iron oxidizers have been unsuccessful. The present study was focused on understanding the influence of natural chelating agents of iron, like humic substances, on the culturability, activity, and enumeration, of these microorganisms. Pure culture studies conducted with Thiobacillus denitrificans showed a constant increase in cell mass with a corresponding nitrate-dependent iron oxidation activity only when Fe(II) was provided together with humic substances, compared to no growth in control incubations without humic substances. The presence of a relatively strong chelating agent, such as EDTA, inhibited the growth of Thiobacillus denitrificans. It was concluded that complex formation between humic substances and iron was required for chemolithoautotrophic nitrate-dependent iron oxidation. Most probable number enumerations showed that numbers of chemolithoautotrophic nitrate-dependent iron-oxidizing bacteria were one to three orders of magnitude higher in the presence of humic substances compared to media without. Similar results were obtained when potential nitrate-dependent iron oxidation activity was determined in soil samples. In summary, this study showed that humic substances significantly enhanced the growth and activity of autotrophic nitrate-dependent iron-oxidizing microorganisms, probably by chelation of iron. PMID:25864167

  20. Tumor-promoting functions of transforming growth factor-? in progression of cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) elicits both tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting functions during cancer progression. Here, we describe the tumor-promoting functions of TGF-? and how these functions play a role in cancer progression. Normal epithelial cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the action of TGF-?, while treatment with TGF-? and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 results in transdifferentiation into activated fibroblastic cells that are highly migratory, thereby facilitating cancer invasion and metastasis. TGF-? also induces EMT in tumor cells, which can be regulated by oncogenic and anti-oncogenic signals. In addition to EMT promotion, invasion and metastasis of cancer are facilitated by TGF-? through other mechanisms, such as regulation of cell survival, angiogenesis, and vascular integrity, and interaction with the tumor microenvironment. TGF-? also plays a critical role in regulating the cancer-initiating properties of certain types of cells, including glioma-initiating cells. These findings thus may be useful for establishing treatment strategies for advanced cancer by inhibiting TGF-? signaling. PMID:22111550

  1. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Wei [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Guifang [Department of Pathology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Pathology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cai, Xiaojun [Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Falck, John R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China) [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ? CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ? The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have been studied in vitro and in vivo. ? CYP4Z1 regulates expression and production of VEGF-A and TIMP-2. ? CYP4Z1-induced angiogenesis is associated with PI3K and ERK1/2 activation. ? CYP4Z1 may be an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy.

  2. Inflammatory cytokines promote growth of intestinal smooth muscle cells by induced expression of PDGF-R?

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Dileep G; Miller, Kurtis G; Lourenssen, Sandra R; Blennerhassett, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Thickening of the inflamed intestinal wall involves growth of smooth muscle cells (SMC), which contributes to stricture formation. Earlier, the growth factor platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB was identified as a key mitogen for SMC from the rat colon (CSMC), and CSMC growth in colitis was associated with both appearance of its receptor, PDGF-R? and modulation of phenotype. Here, we examined the role of inflammatory cytokines in inducing and modulating the growth response to PDGF-BB. CSMC were enzymatically isolated from Sprague–Dawley rats, and the effect of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, transforming growth factor (TGF), IL-17A and IL-2 on CSMC growth and responsiveness to PDGF-BB were assessed using proliferation assays, PCR and western blotting. Conditioned medium (CM) was obtained at 48 hrs of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis. Neither CM alone nor cytokines caused proliferation of early-passage CSMC. However, CM from inflamed, but not control colon significantly promoted the effect of PDGF-BB. IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-17A, but not other cytokines, increased the effect of PDGF-BB because of up-regulation of mRNA and protein for PDGF-R? without change in receptor phosphorylation. PDGF-BB was identified in adult rat serum (RS) and RS-induced CSMC proliferation was inhibited by imatinib, suggesting that blood-derived PDGF-BB is a local mitogen in vivo. In freshly isolated CSMC, CM from the inflamed colon as well as IL-1? and TNF-? induced the early expression of PDGF-R?, while imatinib blocked subsequent RS-induced cell proliferation. Thus, pro-inflammatory cytokines both initiate and maintain a growth response in CSMC via PDGF-R? and serum-derived PDGF-BB, and control of PDGF-R? expression may be beneficial in chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:24417820

  3. Growth promotion of Vigna mungo (L.) by Pseudomonas spp. exhibiting auxin production and ACC-deaminase activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahzadi Noreen; Basharat Ali; Shahida Hasnain

    Auxin production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase of rhizobacteria are very important plant growth promoting\\u000a attributes. In the present study, Pseudomonas strains exhibiting these traits were evaluated for their growth promoting effects on Vigna mungo (L.). Colorimetric analysis revealed that Pseudomonas alcaliphila AvR-2, Pseudomonas sp. AvH-4 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa As-17, respectively, produced 40.30, 32.90 and 36.50 ?g auxin ml?1 in the presence

  4. The promotion of endothelial progenitor cells recruitment by nerve growth factors in tissue-engineered blood vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Zeng; Wei Yuan; Li Li; Jianhong Mi; Shangcheng Xu; Can Wen; Zhenhua Zhou; Jiaqiang xiong; Jiansen Sun; Dajun Ying; Mingcan Yang; Xiaosong Li; Chuhong Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) mobilization and homing are critical to the development of an anti-thrombosis and anti-stenosis tissue-engineered blood vessel. The growth and activation of blood vessels are supported by nerves. We investigated whether nerve growth factors (NGF) can promote EPCs mobilization and endothelialization of tissue-engineered blood vessels. In vitro, NGF promoted EPCs to form more colonies, stimulated human EPCs

  5. Production of indole-3-acetic acid, aromatic amino acid aminotransferase activities and plant growth promotion by Pantoea agglomerans rhizosphere isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Sergeeva; Danielle L. M. Hirkala; Louise M. Nelson

    2007-01-01

    The production of auxins, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), by rhizobacteria has been associated with plant growth promotion,\\u000a especially root initiation and elongation. Six indole-producing bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of legumes grown in\\u000a Saskatchewan soils and identified as Pantoea agglomerans spp. were examined for their ability to promote the growth of canola, lentil and pea under gnotobiotic conditions and

  6. Endophytic colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia reveals plant growth promotion and a general defense and stress transcriptomic response.

    PubMed

    Larriba, Eduardo; Jaime, María D L A; Nislow, Corey; Martín-Nieto, José; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2015-07-01

    Plant crop yields are negatively conditioned by a large set of biotic and abiotic factors. An alternative to mitigate these adverse effects is the use of fungal biological control agents and endophytes. The egg-parasitic fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia has been traditionally studied because of its potential as a biological control agent of plant-parasitic nematodes. This fungus can also act as an endophyte in monocot and dicot plants, and has been shown to promote plant growth in different agronomic crops. An Affymetrix 22K Barley GeneChip was used in this work to analyze the barley root transcriptomic response to P. chlamydosporia root colonization. Functional gene ontology (GO) and gene set enrichment analyses showed that genes involved in stress response were enriched in the barley transcriptome under endophytism. An 87.5 % of the probesets identified within the abiotic stress response group encoded heat shock proteins. Additionally, we found in our transcriptomic analysis an up-regulation of genes implicated in the biosynthesis of plant hormones, such as auxin, ethylene and jasmonic acid. Along with these, we detected induction of brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BR1) and other genes related to effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Our study supports at the molecular level the growth-promoting effect observed in plants endophytically colonized by P. chlamydosporia, which opens the door to further studies addressing the capacity of this fungus to mitigate the negative effects of biotic and abiotic factors on plant crops. PMID:25982739

  7. Growth hormone promoted tyrosyl phosphorylation of growth hormone receptors in murine 3T3-F442A fibroblasts and adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, C.M.; Shafer, J.A.; Rozsa, F.W.; Wang, X.; Lewis, S.D.; Renken, D.A.; Natale, J.E.; Schwartz, J.; Carter-Su, C.

    1988-01-12

    Because many growth factor receptors are ligand-activated tyrosine protein kinases, the possibility that growth hormone (GH), a hormone implicated in human growth, promotes tyrosyl phosphorylation of its receptor was investigated. /sup 125/I-Labeled human GH was covalently cross-linked to receptors in intact 3T3-F442A fibroblasts, a cell line which differentiates into adipocytes in response to GH. The cross-linked cells were solubilized and passed over a column of phosphotyrosyl binding antibody immobilized on protein A-Sepharose. Immunoadsorbed proteins were eluted with a hapten (p-nitrophenyl phosphate) and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The eluate from the antibody column contained in M/sub r/ 134,000 /sup 125/I-GH-receptor complex. A similar result was obtained when the adipocyte form of 3T3-F442A cells was used in place of fibroblast form. O-Phosphotyrosine prevented /sup 125/I-GH-receptor complexes from binding to the antibody column, whereas O-phosphoserine and O-phosphothreonine did not. In studies of GH-promoted phosphorylation in 3T3-F442A fibroblasts labeled metabolically with (/sup 32/P)P/sub i/, GH was shown to stimulate formation of a /sup 32/P-labeled protein which bound to immobilized phosphotyrosyl binding antibodies. The molecular weight of 114,000 obtained for this protein is similar to that expected for non-cross-linked GH receptor. These observations provide strong evidence that binding of GH to its receptor stimulates phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in the GH receptor.

  8. AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Darrion L. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)] [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States); DiMario, Joseph X., E-mail: joseph.dimario@rosalindfranklin.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

  9. In-vitro growth inhibition of chemotherapy and molecular targeted agents in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alex Y; Wang, Miao

    2013-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and challenging malignant disease. The prognosis is poor in patients with advanced disease. Although sorafenib prolongs survival in these patients, improvement remains modest. We used doxorubicin and sorafenib as controls and screened eight new agents including ixabepilone, gefitinib, cetuximab, brivanib, dasatinib, sunitinib, BMS-690514, and BMS-536924 against nine HCC cell lines and evaluated their interactions. We studied growth inhibition of 10 drugs against nine HCC cell lines. Single-agent activity was tested using an MTS assay. Combination studies were carried out in both resistant and sensitive cells to determine the combination index. The IC50 of each agent varied widely among nine cell lines. Ixabepilone was more potent than doxorubicin. HT-17 cells were more sensitive to gefitinib and cetuximab than the other eight cell lines. BMS-536924 showed good efficacy (IC50 ? 1 µmol/l) on all three ?-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, Huh-7). Three cell lines showed moderate sensitivity to dasatinib (IC50 ? 1 µmol/l). Dasatinib showed the most frequent and strongest synergism with ixabepilone, gefitinib, brivanib, BMS-690514, or BMS-536924. Ixabepilone, sorafenib, brivanib, dasatinib, and BMS-536924 are active against HCC cell lines. The heterogeneity of the sensitivity of each cell line emphasizes the need for individualized treatment. The sensitivity to BMS-536924 is closely associated with the production of AFP. AFP may be a biomarker predicting response to the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibitor in HCC patients. Additional studies are warranted. The synergism between dasatinib and other agents also provides future research directions to understand drug resistance and improve outcome. PMID:23187461

  10. A new species of Burkholderia isolated from sugarcane roots promotes plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Lonhienne, Thierry G A; Yeoh, Yun Kit; Webb, Richard I; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chan, Cheong Xin; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Ragan, Mark A; Schmidt, Susanne; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is a globally important food, biofuel and biomaterials crop. High nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates aimed at increasing yield often result in environmental damage because of excess and inefficient application. Inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria is an attractive option for reducing N fertilizer needs. However, the efficacy of bacterial inoculants is variable, and their effective formulation remains a knowledge frontier. Here, we take a new approach to investigating diazotrophic bacteria associated with roots using culture-independent microbial community profiling of a commercial sugarcane variety (Q208A) in a field setting. We first identified bacteria that were markedly enriched in the rhizosphere to guide isolation and then tested putative diazotrophs for the ability to colonize axenic sugarcane plantlets (Q208A) and promote growth in suboptimal N supply. One isolate readily colonized roots, fixed N2 and stimulated growth of plantlets, and was classified as a new species, Burkholderia australis sp. nov. Draft genome sequencing of the isolate confirmed the presence of nitrogen fixation. We propose that culture-independent identification and isolation of bacteria that are enriched in rhizosphere and roots, followed by systematic testing and confirming their growth-promoting capacity, is a necessary step towards designing effective microbial inoculants. PMID:24350979

  11. Osteogenic BMPs promote tumor growth of human osteosarcomas that harbor differentiation defects.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoji; Chen, Jin; Song, Wen-Xin; Tang, Ni; Luo, Jinyong; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Sharff, Katie A; He, Gary; Bi, Yang; He, Bai-Cheng; Bennett, Erwin; Huang, Jiayi; Kang, Quan; Jiang, Wei; Su, Yuxi; Zhu, Gao-Hui; Yin, Hong; He, Yun; Wang, Yi; Souris, Jeffrey S; Chen, Liang; Zuo, Guo-Wei; Montag, Anthony G; Reid, Russell R; Haydon, Rex C; Luu, Hue H; He, Tong-Chuan

    2008-12-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone. Here, we investigated a possible role of defective osteoblast differentiation in OS tumorigenesis. We found that basal levels of the early osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were low in OS lines. Osteogenic regulators Runx2 and OSX, and the late marker osteopontin (OPN) expressed at low levels in most OS lines, indicating that most OS cells fail to undergo terminal differentiation. Furthermore, OS cells were refractory to osteogenic BMP-induced increases in ALP activity. Osteogenic BMPs were shown to upregulate early target genes, but not late osteogenic markers OPN and osteocalcin (OC). Furthermore, osteogenic BMPs failed to induce bone formation from human OS cells, rather effectively promoted OS tumor growth in an orthotopic OS model. Exogenous expression of early target genes enhanced BMP-stimulated OS tumor growth, whereas osteogenic BMP-promoted OS tumor growth was inhibited by exogenous Runx2 expression. These results suggest that alterations in osteoprogenitors may disrupt osteogenic differentiation pathway. Thus, identifying potential differentiation defects in OS tumors would allow us to reconstruct the tumorigenic events in osteoprogenitors and to develop rational differentiation therapies for clinical OS management. PMID:18838962

  12. Progesterone and HMOX-1 promote fetal growth by CD8+ T cell modulation

    PubMed Central

    Solano, María Emilia; Kowal, Mirka Katharina; O’Rourke, Greta Eugenia; Horst, Andrea Kristina; Modest, Kathrin; Plösch, Torsten; Barikbin, Roja; Remus, Chressen Catharina; Berger, Robert G.; Jago, Caitlin; Ho, Hoang; Sass, Gabriele; Parker, Victoria J.; Lydon, John P.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Hecher, Kurt; Karimi, Khalil; Arck, Petra Clara

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects up to 10% of pregnancies in Western societies. IUGR is a strong predictor of reduced short-term neonatal survival and impairs long-term health in children. Placental insufficiency is often associated with IUGR; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of placental insufficiency and IUGR are largely unknown. Here, we developed a mouse model of fetal-growth restriction and placental insufficiency that is induced by a midgestational stress challenge. Compared with control animals, pregnant dams subjected to gestational stress exhibited reduced progesterone levels and placental heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) expression and increased methylation at distinct regions of the placental Hmox1 promoter. These stress-triggered changes were accompanied by an altered CD8+ T cell response, as evidenced by a reduction of tolerogenic CD8+CD122+ T cells and an increase of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Using progesterone receptor– or Hmox1-deficient mice, we identified progesterone as an upstream modulator of placental Hmox1 expression. Supplementation of progesterone or depletion of CD8+ T cells revealed that progesterone suppresses CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity, whereas the generation of CD8+CD122+ T cells is supported by Hmox1 and ameliorates fetal-growth restriction in Hmox1 deficiency. These observations in mice could promote the identification of pregnancies at risk for IUGR and the generation of clinical interventional strategies. PMID:25774501

  13. Coexisting Curtobacterium bacterium promotes growth of white-rot fungus Stereum sp.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Ichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Enami, Daisuke; Meguro, Sadatoshi

    2012-02-01

    White-rot basidiomycetes are the main decomposers of woody biomass in forest ecosystems. Little is known, however, about the interactions between white-rot fungi and other microorganisms in decayed wood. A wood-rotting fungus, Stereum sp. strain TN4F, was isolated from a fruit body, and its coexisting cultivable bacteria were isolated from its substrate; natural white-rot decayed wood. The effects of bacteria on fungal growth were examined by confrontational assay in vitro. A growth-promoting bacterium for this Stereum strain was identified as Curtobacterium sp. TN4W-19, using 16SrRNA sequencing. A confrontational assay revealed that Curtobacterium sp. TN4W-19 significantly promoted the mycelial growth of Stereum sp. TN4F in the direction of the bacterial colony, without direct contact between the mycelium and bacterial cells. This is the first report of a positive interaction between a white-rot fungus and a coexisting bacterial strain in vitro. PMID:22101455

  14. Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils

    PubMed Central

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands. PMID:23781499

  15. Trichoderma gamsii (NFCCI 2177): a newly isolated endophytic, psychrotolerant, plant growth promoting, and antagonistic fungal strain.

    PubMed

    Rinu, K; Sati, Priyanka; Pandey, Anita

    2014-05-01

    An endophytic fungus has been isolated from the lateral roots of lentil (Lens esculenta Moench), growing under mountain ecosystem of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). While the fungus was observed as fast growing with white scanty mycelium turning to turmeric brown in 5 days of incubation at 25?°C, it also produced a unique odor. The fungus exhibited growth between 4 and 30?°C (optimum 25?°C) and tolerated pH between 2.0 and 13.5 (optimum 4-6). Based on phenotypic (colony morphology and microscopy) and genotypic (18S rRNA analysis) characters, the fungus was identified as Trichoderma gamsii (99% similarity). The fungus was evaluated for its plant growth promotion and biocontrol properties. The fungus was found to be positive for phosphate solubilization, chitinase activity, and production of ammonia and salicylic acid, while the results for production of IAA, HCN, and siderophores were negative. Out of the seven phytopathogenic fungi tested, it showed antagonism against six. Bioassays conducted under green house using four test crops (two cereals and two legumes) showed its potential in plant growth promotion. The fungus has potential to be developed as a bioformulation for application under mountain ecosystem. PMID:23564225

  16. Type I TARPs promote dendritic growth of early postnatal neocortical pyramidal cells in organotypic cultures.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Mohammad I K; Jack, Alexander; Klatt, Oliver; Lorkowski, Markus; Strasdeit, Tobias; Kott, Sabine; Sager, Charlotte; Hollmann, Michael; Wahle, Petra

    2014-04-01

    The ionotropic ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate glutamate receptors (AMPARs) have been implicated in the establishment of dendritic architecture. The transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) regulate AMPAR function and trafficking into synaptic membranes. In the current study, we employ type I and type II TARPs to modulate expression levels and function of endogenous AMPARs and investigate in organotypic cultures (OTCs) of rat occipital cortex whether this influences neuronal differentiation. Our results show that in early development [5-10 days in vitro (DIV)] only the type I TARP ?-8 promotes pyramidal cell dendritic growth by increasing spontaneous calcium amplitude and GluA2/3 expression in soma and dendrites. Later in development (10-15 DIV), the type I TARPs ?-2, ?-3 and ?-8 promote dendritic growth, whereas ?-4 reduced dendritic growth. The type II TARPs failed to alter dendritic morphology. The TARP-induced dendritic growth was restricted to the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells and it did not affect interneurons. Moreover, we studied the effects of short hairpin RNA-induced knockdown of endogenous ?-8 and showed a reduction of dendritic complexity and amplitudes of spontaneous calcium transients. In addition, the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of ?-8 was required for dendritic growth. Single-cell calcium imaging showed that the ?-8 CT domain increases amplitude but not frequency of calcium transients, suggesting a regulatory mechanism involving the ?-8 CT domain in the postsynaptic compartment. Indeed, the effect of ?-8 overexpression was reversed by APV, indicating a contribution of NMDA receptors. Our results suggest that selected type I TARPs influence activity-dependent dendritogenesis of immature pyramidal neurons. PMID:24667327

  17. 17?-estradiol and lipopolysaccharide additively promote pelvic inflammation and growth of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khaleque Newaz; Kitajima, Michio; Inoue, Tsuneo; Fujishita, Akira; Nakashima, Masahiro; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2015-05-01

    Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age. An additive effect between inflammation and stress reaction on the growth of endometriosis has been demonstrated. Here we investigated the combined effect between 17?-estradiol (E2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on pelvic inflammation and growth of endometriotic cells. Peritoneal fluid was collected from 46 women with endometriosis and 30 control women during laparoscopy. Peritoneal macrophages (M?) and stromal cells from eutopic/ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) were isolated from 10 women each with and without endometriosis in primary culture. Changes in cytokine secretion (interleukin 6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor ? [TNF-?]) by M? and proliferation of ESCs in response to single and combined treatment with E2 and LPS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay, respectively. A significantly increased secretion of IL-6 and TNF-? in M? culture media was found in response to E2 (10(-8) mol/L) compared to nontreated M?. This effect of E2 was abrogated after pretreatment of cells with ICI 182720 (10(-6) mol/L; an estrogen receptor [ER] antagonist). Combined treatment with E2 and LPS (10 ng/mL) additively promoted IL-6 and TNF-? secretion by peritoneal M? and growth of eutopic/ectopic ESCs. The additive effects of E2 + LPS on cytokine secretion and growth of ESCs were effectively suppressed after combined blocking of ER and Toll-like receptor 4. An additive effect was observed between E2 and LPS on promoting proinflammatory response in pelvis and growth of endometriosis. PMID:25355803

  18. Promoter Trapping in Microalgae Using the Antibiotic Paromomycin as Selective Agent

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Marta; Díaz-Santos, Encarnación; de la, Marta; Rodríguez, Herminia; Vargas, Ángeles; León, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    The lack of highly active endogenous promoters to drive the expression of transgenes is one of the main drawbacks to achieving efficient transformation of many microalgal species. Using the model chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the paromomycin resistance APHVIII gene from Streptomyces rimosus as a marker, we have demonstrated that random insertion of the promoterless marker gene and subsequent isolation of the most robust transformants allows for the identification of novel strong promoter sequences in microalgae. Digestion of the genomic DNA with an enzyme that has a unique restriction site inside the marker gene and a high number of target sites in the genome of the microalga, followed by inverse PCR, allows for easy determination of the genomic region, which precedes the APHVIII marker gene. In most of the transformants analyzed, the marker gene is inserted in intragenic regions and its expression relies on its adequate insertion in frame with native genes. As an example, one of the new promoters identified was used to direct the expression of the APHVIII marker gene in C. reinhardtii, showing high transformation efficiencies. PMID:23211713

  19. Phytohormonal basis for the plant growth promoting action of naturally occurring biostimulators.

    PubMed

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Zaman, Mohammad; Pharis, Richard P

    2014-07-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of naturally occurring 'biostimulators' for enhancing the growth of agricultural and horticultural crops. Bacteria, fungi and protozoa, as well as marine algae-based seaweed extracts, can produce or contain biostimulators. The activity of biostimulators to promote plant growth is often attributed to their ability to directly or indirectly provide mineral nutrients (mostly N, but also P, S and other macro- and micro-nutrients) to plants. Alternatively, biostimulators are postulated to increase the plant's ability to assimilate these mineral nutrients, often in return for photo-assimilates (as occurs with certain bacteria and fungi associations). Although optimal growth of plants depends on the availability of adequate mineral nutritients, that growth (and also development, including reproduction) is also regulated by plant hormones (phytohormones), including gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins. This review describes and discusses the evidence that the presence or application of biostimulators also increases plant growth directly via phytohormone action and also influences the plant's ability to control its own hormone biosynthesis and homeostasis. Finally, it discusses the need for a better understanding of the role(s) that are played by the naturally occurring biostimulators associated with the plant in the crop field. It is suggested that better understanding will allow for optimal crop yield returns, since disruptions of phytohormone homeostasis in plant organs and tissues can yield either beneficial or sub-optimal outcomes. PMID:24375470

  20. The effect of a nucleating agent on lamellar growth in melt-crystallizing polyethylene oxide

    E-print Network

    F. Aliotta; G. Di Marco; R. Ober; M. Pieruccini

    2002-12-13

    The effects of a (non co-crystallizing) nucleating agent on secondary nucleation rate and final lamellar thickness in isothermally melt-crystallizing polyethylene oxide are considered. SAXS reveals that lamellae formed in nucleated samples are thinner than in the pure samples crystallized at the same undercoolings. These results are in quantitative agreement with growth rate data obtained by calorimetry, and are interpreted as the effect of a local decrease of the basal surface tension, determined mainly by the nucleant molecules diffused out of the regions being about to crystallize. Quantitative agreement with a simple lattice model allows for some interpretation of the mechanism.

  1. Cell growth-promoting activity of fluid from eye sacs of the bubble-eye goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Sawatari, Etsuko; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Matsumura, Takaharu; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yokoyama, Yoshihiro; Wakamatsu, Yuko

    2009-04-01

    The growth-promoting effects of fish body fluids, such as serum and embryonic extract, on fish cell cultures have been widely demonstrated. The bubble-eye variety of aquarium goldfish is characterized as having a large sac filled with fluid (sac fluid) under each eye. These sacs are believed to contain lymph, which is similar in composition to serum or blood plasma. In order to test whether the sac fluid can be used as an additive for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in growth factor supplements, we compared cell growth in media containing FBS together with different concentrations of sac fluid. A dose-dependent growth-promotion effect was observed in early passage caudal fin cells from both medaka and zebrafish. Cell-growth promotion was also confirmed in early passage medaka blastula cells and in a zebrafish embryonic cell line (ZF4). Replacement of the fluid in the eye sacs of bubble-eyes occurs within a couple of months after the sac fluid has been harvested, and the cell-growth promoting activity of the new fluid is similar to that of the fluid that was tapped initially. These findings suggest that sac fluid can be used as a growth-promoting supplement for fish cell culture. Importantly, the ability of the goldfish to replace the fluid combined with the fact that equipotent fluid can be repeatedly harvested from the eye sacs means that a sustainable source of the fluid can be obtained without needing to sacrifice the fish. PMID:19798918

  2. Increased Growth of the Microalga Chlorella vulgaris when Coimmobilized and Cocultured in Alginate Beads with the Plant-Growth-Promoting Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LUZ E. GONZALEZ; YOAV BASHAN

    2000-01-01

    Coimmobilization of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the plant-growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense in small alginate beads resulted in a significantly increased growth of the microalga. Dry and fresh weight, total number of cells, size of the microalgal clusters (colonies) within the bead, number of microalgal cells per cluster, and the levels of microalgal pigments significantly increased. Light microscopy revealed

  3. Ameliorative effects of inoculation with the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas sp. DW1 on growth of eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.) seedlings under salt stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qinglin Fu; Chen Liu; Nengfei Ding; Yicheng Lin; Bin Guo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of inoculation with the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas sp. DW1 on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) growth, mineral uptake and activities of the antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) of plant leaves under salinity stress. The study was conducted in pot experiments using eggplant (S. melongena

  4. Growth Regulated Oncogene-? expression by murine squamous cell carcinoma promotes tumor growth, metastasis, leukocyte infiltration and angiogenesis by a host CXC Receptor2 dependent mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Loukinova; Gang Dong; Ileana Enamorado-Ayalya; Giovana R Thomas; Zhong Chen; Hans Schreiber; Carter Van Waes

    2000-01-01

    Growth Regulated Oncogene-? (GRO-?) is an autocrine growth factor in melanoma and is a member of the C-X-C family of chemokines which promote chemotaxis of granulocytes and endothelia through binding to CXC Receptor 2. We found previously that variants of murine squamous cell carcinoma PAM 212 which grow and metastasize more rapidly in vivo constitutively express increased levels of murine

  5. Three branches of phospholipase C signaling pathway promote hepatocyte growth in rat liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xu, G G; Geng, Z; Zhou, X C; He, Y G; He, T T; Mei, J X; Yang, Y J; Liu, Y Q; Xu, C S

    2015-01-01

    In general, the phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathway is involved in many physiological activities, including cell growth. However, little is known regarding how the PLC signaling pathway participates in regulating hepatocyte (HC) growth during liver regeneration (LR). To further explore the influence of the PLC signaling pathway on HCs at the cellular level, HCs of high purity and vitality were isolated using Percoll density-gradient centrifugation after partial hepatectomy. The genes of the PLC signaling pathway and target genes of transcription factors in the pathway were obtained by searching the pathways and transcription factor databases, and changes in gene expression of isolated HCs were examined using the Rat Genome 230 2.0 Microarray. The results suggested that various genes involved in the pathway (including 151 known genes and 39 homologous genes) and cell growth (including 262 known genes and 37 homologous genes) were associated with LR. Subsequently, the synergetic effect of these genes in LR was analyzed using a mathematical model (Et) according to their expression profiles. The results showed that the Et values of G protein-coupled receptor/PLC, integrin/PLC, and growth factor receptor/PLC branches of the PLC pathway were all significantly strengthened during the progression and termination phases of LR. The synergetic effect of target genes, in parallel with target gene-related cell growth, was also enhanced during whole rat LR, suggesting the potential positive effect of PLC on HC growth. The present data indicate that the PLC signaling pathway may promote HC growth through 3 mechanisms during rat LR after partial hepatectomy. PMID:26125770

  6. Targeting tumor micro-environment for design and development of novel anti-angiogenic agents arresting tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Gacche, Rajesh N; Meshram, Rohan J

    2013-11-01

    Angiogenesis: a process of generation of new blood vessels has been proved to be necessary for sustained tumor growth and cancer progression. Inhibiting angiogenesis pathway has long been remained a significant hope for the development of novel, effective and target orientated antitumor agents arresting the tumor proliferation and metastasis. The process of neoangiogenesis as a biological process is regulated by several pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, especially vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, hypoxia inducible factor 1 and transforming growth factor. Every endothelial cell destined for vessel formation is equipped with receptors for these angiogenic peptides. Moreover, numerous other angiogenic cytokines such as platelet derived growth factor (PGDF), placenta growth factor (PGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), stem-cell factor (SCF), and interleukins-2, 4, 6 etc. These molecular players performs critical role in regulating the angiogenic switch. Couple of decade's research in molecular aspects of tumor biology has unraveled numerous structural and functional mysteries of these angiogenic peptides. In present article, a detailed update on the functional and structural peculiarities of the various angiogenic peptides is described focusing on structural opportunities made available that has potential to be used to modulate function of these angiogenic peptides in developing therapeutic agents targeting neoplastic angiogenesis. The data may be useful in the mainstream of developing novel anticancer agents targeting tumor angiogenesis. We also discuss major therapeutic agents that are currently used in angiogenesis associated therapies as well as those are subject of active research or are in clinical trials. PMID:24139944

  7. Synthesis of brassinosteroids analogues from laxogenin and their plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Xu, Jing; Liu, XiaoLi; Gong, WenXiu; Zhang, CunLi

    2015-01-01

    Four steroid saponins (2-5) and three derivatives (6-8) were synthesised from laxogenin. Four of them were new compounds: (25R)-3?-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-?-D-galactopyranosyloxy)-5?-spirostan-6-one (3), (25R)-3?-(?-D-galactopyranosyloxy)-5?-spirostan-6-one (5), 3?,16-diacetyl-26-hydroxy-5?-cholestan-6,22-dione (6) and 16-acetyl-3?,26-dihydroxy-5?-cholestan-6,22-dione (7). All the compounds showed plant growth-promoting activity in the radish hypocotyl elongation and cotyledon expansion bioassay. Above all, 2 and 6 were found to be more active. PMID:25311045

  8. Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables.

    PubMed

    Adesemoye, A O; Obini, M; Ugoji, E O

    2008-07-01

    Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spinach respectively over the non-bacterized control. Considering all the parameters tested, there were similarities but no significant difference at P < 0.05 between the overall performances of the two organisms. PMID:24031240

  9. Prosaposin, a regulator of estrogen receptor alpha, promotes breast cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yihong; Sun, Linlin; Zou, Weiying; Xu, Jiejie; Liu, Haiou; Wang, Wenzhong; Yun, Xiaojing; Gu, Jianxin

    2012-10-01

    Prosaposin, a secreted protein, is a well-known pleiotropic growth factor. Although a previous report has indicated that prosaposin is overexpressed in breast cancer cell lines, the role of prosaposin in the development of breast cancer remains to be identified. Here, we first revealed that prosaposin upregulated estrogen receptor alpha expression, nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity by western blot, immunofluorescence assay and dual luciferase reporter gene assay, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated prosaposin upregulated estrogen receptor alpha expression through MAPK-signaling pathway using MAPK inhibitor. Proliferation assay and tumor xenograft experiments in nude mice (n = 6 per group) further confirmed prosaposin could promote breast cancer growth significantly in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggested that prosaposin might enhance estrogen receptor alpha-mediated signaling axis and play a role in breast cancer development and progression. PMID:22738294

  10. Regulatory elements in the promoter region of vgf, a nerve growth factor-inducible gene.

    PubMed Central

    Possenti, R; Di Rocco, G; Nasi, S; Levi, A

    1992-01-01

    vgf, a gene coding for a protein secreted through the regulated pathway, is rapidly up-modulated by nerve growth factor in PC12 cells and is expressed in vivo only in cell subpopulations of neuronal and endocrine origin. Here we demonstrate the following: (i) the nerve growth factor-dependent induction of vgf mRNA occurs at the transcriptional level and requires ongoing protein synthesis, (ii) lack of vgf expression in the nonneuronal cell line HTC is in part mediated by the presence of a repressor, (iii) a 110-base-pair sequence in the vgf promoter region contains positive and negative regulatory elements that partially account for its regulated expression, and (iv) a 47-base-pair oligonucleotide within this sequence specifically binds nuclear proteins that differ between vgf-expressing and non-expressing cells. Images PMID:1570299

  11. Acetylation of Beclin 1 inhibits autophagosome maturation and promotes tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ting; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Wen-Dan; Zhang, Hai-liang; Li, Dan-Dan; Deng, Rong; Qian, Xiao-Jun; Jiao, Lin; Ji, Jiao; Li, Yun-Tian; Wu, Rui-Yan; Yu, Yan; Feng, Gong-Kan; Zhu, Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Beclin 1, a protein essential for autophagy, regulates autophagy by interacting with Vps34 and other cofactors to form the Beclin 1 complex. Modifications of Beclin 1 may lead to the induction, inhibition or fine-tuning of the autophagic response under a variety of conditions. Here we show that Beclin 1 is acetylated by p300 and deacetylated by SIRT1 at lysine residues 430 and 437. In addition, the phosphorylation of Beclin 1 at S409 by CK1 is required for the subsequent p300 binding and Beclin 1 acetylation. Beclin 1 acetylation inhibits autophagosome maturation and endocytic trafficking by promoting the recruitment of Rubicon. In tumour xenografts, the expression of 2KR mutant Beclin 1 (substitution of K430 and K437 to arginines) leads to enhanced autophagosome maturation and tumour growth suppression. Therefore, our study identifies an acetylation-dependent regulatory mechanism governing Beclin 1 function in autophagosome maturation and tumour growth. PMID:26008601

  12. Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Nishiofuku, Mariko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2008-03-07

    Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle.

  13. Anatomical, morphological, and phytochemical effects of inoculation with plant growth- promoting rhizobacteria on peppermint (Mentha piperita).

    PubMed

    del Rosario Cappellari, Lorena; Santoro, Maricel Valeria; Reinoso, Herminda; Travaglia, Claudia; Giordano, Walter; Banchio, Erika

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) generally exert their effects through enhancement of plant nutrient status and/or phytohormone production. The effects of PGPR on aromatic plant species are poorly known. We measured plant growth parameters, chlorophyll content, trichome density, stomatal density, and levels of secondary metabolites in peppermint (Mentha piperita) seedlings inoculated with PGPR strains Bacillus subtilis GB03, Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r, P. putida SJ04, or a combination of WCS417r?+?SJ04. The treated plants, in comparison with controls, showed increases in shoot biomass, root biomass, leaf area, node number, trichome density, and stomatal density, and marked qualitative and quantitative changes in monoterpene content. Improved knowledge of the factors that control or affect biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and monoterpene accumulation will lead to strategies for improved cultivation and productivity of aromatic plants and other agricultural crops without the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides. PMID:25655927

  14. Bronchoalveolar sublineage specification of pluripotent stem cells: effect of dexamethasone plus cAMP-elevating agents and keratinocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Katsirntaki, Katherina; Mauritz, Christina; Olmer, Ruth; Schmeckebier, Sabrina; Sgodda, Malte; Puppe, Verena; Eggenschwiler, Reto; Duerr, Julia; Schubert, Susanne C; Schmiedl, Andreas; Ochs, Matthias; Cantz, Tobias; Salwig, Isabelle; Szibor, Marten; Braun, Thomas; Rathert, Christian; Martens, Andreas; Mall, Marcus A; Martin, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory progenitors can be efficiently generated from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). However, further targeted differentiation into bronchoalveolar sublineages is still in its infancy, and distinct specifying effects of key differentiation factors are not well explored. Focusing on airway epithelial Clara cell generation, we analyzed the effect of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone plus cAMP-elevating agents (DCI) on the differentiation of murine embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into bronchoalveolar epithelial lineages, and whether keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) might further influence lineage decisions. We demonstrate that DCI strongly induce expression of the Clara cell marker Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP). While KGF synergistically supports the inducing effect of DCI on alveolar markers with increased expression of surfactant protein (SP)-C and SP-B, an inhibitory effect on CCSP expression was shown. In contrast, neither KGF nor DCI seem to have an inducing effect on ciliated cell markers. Furthermore, the use of iPSCs from transgenic mice with CCSP promoter-dependent lacZ expression or a knockin of a YFP reporter cassette in the CCSP locus enabled detection of derivatives with Clara cell typical features. Collectively, DCI was shown to support bronchoalveolar specification of mouse PSCs, in particular Clara-like cells, and KGF to inhibit bronchial epithelial differentiation. The targeted in vitro generation of Clara cells with their important function in airway protection and regeneration will enable the evaluation of innovative cellular therapies in animal models of lung diseases. PMID:25316003

  15. Intermittent parathyroid hormone treatment can promote linear growth in the ovariectomized growing rat.

    PubMed

    Lim, S K; Won, Y J; Park, D H; Shin, D H; Yook, J I; Lee, H C; Huh, K B

    1999-04-01

    To compare the effect of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment with that of estrogen treatment on epiphyseal growth in ovariectomized rats, 46 Sprague-Dawley female rats aged 9-10 weeks (about 200-220 g) were either ovariectomized or sham operated. From 6 weeks after ovariectomy (ovx), rats were daily injected with subcutaneous human recombinant PTH (1-84)-dosed 30 micrograms/kg (the low dose PTH-treated group) or 300 micrograms/kg (the high dose PTH-treated group), 17 beta-estradiol (the 17 beta-estradiol-treated group, 30 micrograms/kg) or vehicle (the ovx-alone group), 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The decalcified sections of the distal femoral epiphyseal plate were analyzed on light microscopy after H&E stain, and the lengths of the zones of proliferation, maturing and hypertrophic chondrocytes were measured. The length of the growth plate, the zone of proliferation and the zone of hypertrophic chondrocyte in the ovx-alone group were significantly shorter than those of the sham-operated group. The treatment of 17 beta-estradiol speeded up the differentiation of cells from proliferating chondrocytes to maturing and hypertrophic chondrocytes even though the length of the growth plate was comparable to that of the sham-operated group. Both low and high dose PTH treatments increased the length of the growth plate, and those lengths were comparable to that of the sham-operated group. The fractions of proliferating, maturing and hypertrophic zone in the low dose PTH-treated group were also comparable to those of the sham-operated group. However, high dose PTH treatment slowed down the differentiation of cells from proliferating chondrocytes to maturing and hypertrophic chondrocytes to a greater extent, and therefore the fraction of proliferating chondrocytes of the high dose PTH-treated group was larger than that of the low dose PTH-treated group (73.8 +/- 1.8 Vs 63.3 +/- 1.3%, p < 0.005). From these results, we showed that intermittent PTH treatment could promote linear growth in the ovariectomized growing rat. We propose that PTH may be an alternative drug candidate for promoting linear growth of long bones without the risk for early closure of the growth plate. PMID:10333721

  16. Critical effective methods to detect genotoxic carcinogens and neoplasm-promoting agents

    SciTech Connect

    Weisburger, J.H.; Williams, G.M. (American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Neoplasia in fish can result from contamination of waters with carcinogens and promoters. Cancer in fish, therefore, is a possible indicator of cancer risk to man and serves as a guide to the need for preventative approaches involving improved means of waste disposal and environmental hygiene. Moreover, cancer in fish indicates that this important food source may be contaminated. Detection of genotoxic carcinogens to which fish are exposed can be achieved quickly and efficiently by carefully selected batteries of complementary in vitro and in vivo bioassays. One such battery consists of the Ames test, a reverse mutation assay in prokaryotic Salmonella typhimurium, and the Williams test, involving DNA repair in freshly explanted metabolically highly competent liver cells from diverse species, including humans. Determination of DNA-carcinogen adducts by varied techniques, including {sup 32}P-postlabeling, as well as DNA breakage, mammalian cell mutagenicity, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, or cell transformation represent additional approaches, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. More research is needed on systems to apprehend neoplasm promoters, but tests to determine interruption of intercellular communications through gap junctions appear promising. Other approaches rely on measurement of enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase and protein kinase C. Approaches to the definition of risk to fish or humans require characterization of the genotoxic or nongenotoxic properties of a chemical, relative potency data obtained in select, limited rodent bioassays, and knowledge of prevailing environmental concentrations of specific carcinogens.

  17. Human Serum Promotes Candida albicans Biofilm Growth and Virulence Gene Expression on Silicone Biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Samaranayake, Yuthika Hemamala; Cheung, Becky P. K.; Yau, Joyce Y. Y.; Yeung, Shadow K. W.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Systemic candidal infections are a common problem in hospitalized patients due to central venous catheters fabricated using silicone biomaterial (SB). We therefore evaluated the effect of human serum on C. albicans biofilm morphology, growth, and the expression of virulence-related genes on SB in vitro. Methods We cultivated C. albicans SC5314 (wild-type strain, WT) and its derivative HLC54 (hyphal mutant, HM) for 48 h in various conditions, including the presence or absence of SB discs, and human serum. The growth of planktonic and biofilm cells of both strains was monitored at three time points by a tetrazolium salt reduction assay and by scanning electron microscopy. We also analyzed by RT-PCR its expression of the virulence-related genes ALS3, HWP1, EAP1, ECE1, SAP1 - SAP10, PLB1, PLB2, PLC and PLD. Results At each time point, planktonic cells of WT strain cultured in yeast nitrogen base displayed a much higher expression of EAP1 and HWP1, and a moderately higher ALS3 expression, than HM cells. In planktonic cells, expression of the ten SAP genes was higher in the WT strain initially, but were highly expressed in the HM strain by 48 h. Biofilm growth of both strains on SB was promoted in the presence of human serum than in its absence. Significant upregulation of ALS3, HWP1, EAP1, ECE1, SAP1, SAP4, SAP6 - SAP10, PLB1, PLB2 and PLC was observed for WT biofilms grown on serum-treated SB discs for at least one time point, compared with biofilms on serum-free SB discs. Conclusions Human serum stimulates C. albicans biofilm growth on SB discs and upregulates the expression of virulence genes, particularly adhesion genes ALS3 and HWP1, and hydrolase-encoding genes SAP, PLB1 and PLB2. This response is likely to promote the colonization of this versatile pathogen within the human host. PMID:23704884

  18. Dysregulation of clathrin promotes thyroid cell growth and contributes to multinodular goiter pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lau, Sin-Ting; Zhou, Tingwen; Liu, Jessica Ai-Jia; Fung, Eva Yi-Man; Che, Chi-Ming; Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Ngan, Elly Sau-Wai

    2015-08-01

    A germline mutation (A339V) in thyroid transcription factor-1 (TITF1/NKX2.1) was shown to be associated with multinodular goiter (MNG) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) pathogenesis. The overexpression of A339V TTF1 significantly promoted hormone-independent growth of the normal thyroid cells, representing a cause of MNG and/or PTC. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism still remains unclear. In this study, we used liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based shotgun proteomics comparing the global protein expression profiles of normal thyroid cells (PCCL3) that overexpressed the wild-type or A339V TTF1 to identify key proteins implicated in this process. Proteomic pathway analysis revealed that the aberrant activation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling is significantly associated with the overexpression of A339V TTF1 in PCCL3, and clathrin heavy chain (Chc) is the most significantly up-regulated protein of the pathway. Intriguingly, dysregulated Chc expression facilitated a nuclear accumulation of pStat3, leading to an enhanced cell proliferation of the A339V clones. Down-regulation and abrogation of Chc-mediated cellular trafficking, respectively, by knocking-down Chc and ectopic expression of a dominant-negative (DN) form of Chc could significantly reduce the nuclear pStat3 and rescue the aberrant cell proliferation of the A339V clones. Subsequent expression analysis further revealed that CHC and pSTAT3 are co-overexpressed in 66.7% (10/15) MNG. Taken together, our results suggest that the A339V TTF1 mutant protein up-regulates the cellular expression of Chc, resulting in a constitutive activation of Stat3 pathway, and prompting the aberrant growth of thyroid cells. This extensive growth signal may promote the development of MNG. PMID:25981745

  19. Promotion of the growth of Crocus sativus cells and the production of crocin by rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-an; Zhao, Bing; Wang, Xiaodong; Yuan, Xiaofan; Wang, Yuchun

    2004-01-01

    La3+ and Ce3+, either singly or a mixture, promoted crocin production of Crocus sativus callus but Nd3+ had little effect and all metal ions were toxic above 100 microM. La3+ (60 microM) promoted growth of callus significantly but increased crocin only slightly. Ce3+ (40 microM) significantly promoted crocin production but had little effect on cell growth. La3+ (60 microM) and Ce3+ (20 microM) together gave the highest dry weight biomass (20.4 g l(-1)), crocin content (4.4 mg g(-1)) and crocin production (90 mg l(-1)) which were, respectively, 1.7-fold, 4.2-fold and 7.1-fold of those without additions. Nd3+ (40 microM) only slightly promoted cell growth and crocin production. PMID:15005147

  20. Bioinformatics based structural characterization of glucose dehydrogenase (gdh) gene and growth promoting activity of Leclercia sp. QAU-66

    PubMed Central

    Naveed, Muhammad; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad

    2014-01-01

    Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.1. 5.2) is the member of quinoproteins group that use the redox cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinoine, calcium ions and glucose as substrate for its activity. In present study, Leclercia sp. QAU-66, isolated from rhizosphere of Vigna mungo, was characterized for phosphate solubilization and the role of GDH in plant growth promotion of Phaseolus vulgaris. The strain QAU-66 had ability to solubilize phosphorus and significantly (p ? 0.05) promoted the shoot and root lengths of Phaseolus vulgaris. The structural determination of GDH protein was carried out using bioinformatics tools like Pfam, InterProScan, I-TASSER and COFACTOR. These tools predicted the structural based functional homology of pyrroloquinoline quinone domains in GDH. GDH of Leclercia sp. QAU-66 is one of the main factor that involved in plant growth promotion and provides a solid background for further research in plant growth promoting activities. PMID:25242947

  1. Candida parapsilosis as a Potent Biocontrol Agent against Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Niknejad, F; Zaini, F; Faramarzi, MA; Amini, M; Kordbacheh, P; Mahmoudi, M; Safara, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed stuff is a serious health problem and significant economic concerns. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of Candida parapsilosis IP1698 on mycelial growth and aflatoxin production in aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus species was investigated. Methods: Mycelial growth inhibitions of nine strains of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species in the presence of C. parapsilosis investigated by pour plate technique at different pH, temperature and time of incubation. Reduction of aflatoxin was evaluated in co-cultured fungi in yeast extract sucrose broth after seven days of incubation using HPLC method. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Results: The presence of the C. parapsilosis at different pH did not affect significantly the growth rate of Aspergillus isolates. On the other hand, temperature and time of incubation showed to be significantly effective when compared to controls without C. parapsilosis (P?0.05). In aflatoxigenic strains, minimum percentage of reductions in total aflatoxin and B1, B2, G1, G2 fractions were 92.98, 92.54, 77.48, 54.54 and 72.22 and maximum percentage of reductions were 99.59, not detectable, 94.42, and not detectable in both G1 and G2, respectively. Conclusion: C. parapsilosis might employ as a good biocontrol agent against growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species PMID:23308351

  2. Disulfiram Is a DNA Demethylating Agent and Inhibits Prostate Cancer Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianqing; Haffner, Michael C.; Zhang, Yonggang; Lee, Byron H.; Brennen, W. Nathaniel; Britton, Justin; Kachhap, Sushant K.; Shim, Joong Sup; Liu, Jun O.; Nelson, William G.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Carducci, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The clinical success of the nucleoside analogs 5-aza-cytidine (5-azaC) and 5-aza-2?deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) as DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors has spurred interest in the development of non-nucleoside inhibitors with improved pharmacologic and safety profiles. Because DNMT catalysis features attack of cytosine bases by an enzyme thiol group, we tested whether disulfiram (DSF), a thiol-reactive compound with known clinical safety, demonstrated DNMT inhibitory activity. METHODS Inhibition of DNMT1 activity by DSF was assessed using methyltransferase activity assays with recombinant DNMT1. Next, prostate cancer cell lines were exposed to DSF and assessed for: i) reduction of global 5-methyl cytosine (5meC) content using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); ii) gene-specific promoter demethylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP); and iii) gene-reactivation by real-time RT-PCR. DSF was also tested for growth inhibition using prostate cancer cell lines propagated in vitro in cell culture and in vivo as xenografts in nude mice. RESULTS Disulfiram showed a dose-dependent inhibition of DNMT1 activity on a hemimethylated DNA substrate. In prostate cancer cells in culture, DSF exposure led to reduction of global genomic 5meC content, increase in unmethylated APC and RARB gene promoters, and associated re-expression of these genes, but did not significantly alter prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression. DSF significantly inhibited growth and clonogenic survival of prostate cancer cell lines in culture and showed a trend for reduced growth of prostate cancer xenografts. CONCLUSIONS Disulfiram is a non-nucleoside DNMT1 inhibitor that can reduce global 5meC content, reactivate epigenetically silenced genes, and significantly inhibit growth in prostate cancer cell lines. PMID:20809552

  3. Hypoxia shifts activity of neuropeptide Y in Ewing sarcoma from growth-inhibitory to growth-promoting effects.

    PubMed

    Tilan, Jason U; Lu, Congyi; Galli, Susana; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; Earnest, Joshua Patrick; Shabbir, Asim; Everhart, Lindsay M; Wang, Shuo; Martin, Samantha; Horton, Meredith; Mahajan, Akanksha; Christian, David; O'Neill, Alison; Wang, Hongkun; Zhuang, Tingting; Czarnecka, Magdalena; Johnson, Michael D; Toretsky, Jeffrey A; Kitlinska, Joanna

    2013-12-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive malignancy driven by an oncogenic fusion protein, EWS-FLI1. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), and two of its receptors, Y1R and Y5R are up-regulated by EWS-FLI1 and abundantly expressed in ES cells. Paradoxically, NPY acting via Y1R and Y5R stimulates ES cell death. Here, we demonstrate that these growth-inhibitory actions of NPY are counteracted by hypoxia, which converts the peptide to a growth-promoting factor. In ES cells, hypoxia induces another NPY receptor, Y2R, and increases expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme that cleaves NPY to a shorter form, NPY3-36. This truncated peptide no longer binds to Y1R and, therefore, does not stimulate ES cell death. Instead, NPY3-36 acts as a selective Y2R/Y5R agonist. The hypoxia-induced increase in DPPIV activity is most evident in a population of ES cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, rich in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Consequently, NPY, acting via Y2R/Y5Rs, preferentially stimulates proliferation and migration of hypoxic ALDHhigh cells. Hypoxia also enhances the angiogenic potential of ES by inducing Y2Rs in endothelial cells and increasing the release of its ligand, NPY3-36, from ES cells. In summary, hypoxia acts as a molecular switch shifting NPY activity away from Y1R/Y5R-mediated cell death and activating the Y2R/Y5R/DPPIV/NPY3-36 axis, which stimulates ES CSCs and promotes angiogenesis. Hypoxia-driven actions of the peptide such as these may contribute to ES progression. Due to the receptor-specific and multifaceted nature of NPY actions, these findings may inform novel therapeutic approaches to ES. PMID:24318733

  4. Hypoxia shifts activity of neuropeptide Y in Ewing sarcoma from growth-inhibitory to growth-promoting effects

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Susana; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; Earnest, Joshua Patrick; Shabbir, Asim; Everhart, Lindsay M.; Wang, Shuo; Martin, Samantha; Horton, Meredith; Mahajan, Akanksha; Christian, David; O'Neill, Alison; Wang, Hongkun; Zhuang, Tingting; Czarnecka, Magdalena; Johnson, Michael D.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Kitlinska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive malignancy driven by an oncogenic fusion protein, EWS-FLI1. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), and two of its receptors, Y1R and Y5R are up-regulated by EWS-FLI1 and abundantly expressed in ES cells. Paradoxically, NPY acting via Y1R and Y5R stimulates ES cell death. Here, we demonstrate that these growth-inhibitory actions of NPY are counteracted by hypoxia, which converts the peptide to a growth-promoting factor. In ES cells, hypoxia induces another NPY receptor, Y2R, and increases expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme that cleaves NPY to a shorter form, NPY3-36. This truncated peptide no longer binds to Y1R and, therefore, does not stimulate ES cell death. Instead, NPY3-36 acts as a selective Y2R/Y5R agonist. The hypoxia-induced increase in DPPIV activity is most evident in a population of ES cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, rich in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Consequently, NPY, acting via Y2R/Y5Rs, preferentially stimulates proliferation and migration of hypoxic ALDHhigh cells. Hypoxia also enhances the angiogenic potential of ES by inducing Y2Rs in endothelial cells and increasing the release of its ligand, NPY3-36, from ES cells. In summary, hypoxia acts as a molecular switch shifting NPY activity away from Y1R/Y5R-mediated cell death and activating the Y2R/Y5R/DPPIV/NPY3-36 axis, which stimulates ES CSCs and promotes angiogenesis. Hypoxia-driven actions of the peptide such as these may contribute to ES progression. Due to the receptor-specific and multifaceted nature of NPY actions, these findings may inform novel therapeutic approaches to ES. PMID:24318733

  5. Inhibition of Prostate Tumor Growth and Bone Remodeling by the Vascular Targeting Agent VEGF121\\/rGel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid A. Mohamedali; Ann T. Poblenz; Charles R. Sikes; Nora M. Navone; Philip E. Thorpe; Bryant G. Darnay; Michael G. Rosenblum

    2006-01-01

    The pathophysiology of tumor growth following skeletal metastases and the poor response of this type of lesion to therapeutic intervention remains incompletely understood. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and its receptors play a role in both osteoclastogenesis and tumor growth. Systemic (i.v.) treatment of nude mice bearing intrafemoral prostate (PC-3) tumors with the vascular ablative agent VEGF121\\/recombinant gelonin (rGel) strongly

  6. Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Agents for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zampros, Ilias; Praidou, Anna; Brazitikos, Periklis; Ekonomidis, Panagiotis; Androudi, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe visual loss and blindness over the age of 50 in developed countries. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered as a critical molecule in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), which characterizes the neovascular AMD. Anti-VEGF agents are considered the most promising way of effectively inhibition of the neovascular AMD process. VEGF is a heparin-binding glycoprotein with potent angiogenic, mitogenic and vascular permeability-enhancing activities specific for endothelial cells. Two anti-VEGF agents have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of neovascular AMD. Pegaptanib sodium, which is an aptamer and ranibizumab, which is a monoclonal antibody fragment. Another humanized monoclonal antibody is currently off-label used, bevacizumab. This paper aims to discuss in details the effectiveness, the efficacy and safety of these three anti-VEGF agents. New anti-VEGF compounds which are recently investigated for their clinical usage (VEGF-trap, small interfering RNA) are also discussed for their promising outcomes. PMID:22174998

  7. Global Map of Growth-Regulated Gene Expression in Burkholderia pseudomallei, the Causative Agent of Melioidosis?

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Fiona; Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Harding, Sarah V.; Sim, Siew Hoon; Chua, Hui Hoon; Lin, Chi Ho; Han, Xu; Karuturi, R. Krishna M.; Sung, Ken; Yu, Kun; Chen, Wei; Atkins, Timothy P.; Titball, Richard W.; Tan, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Many microbial pathogens express specific virulence traits at distinct growth phases. To understand the molecular pathways linking bacterial growth to pathogenicity, we have characterized the growth transcriptome of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis. Using a fine-scale sampling approach, we found approximately 17% of all B. pseudomallei genes displaying regulated expression during growth in rich medium, occurring as broad waves of functionally coherent gene expression tightly associated with distinct growth phases and transition points. We observed regulation of virulence genes across all growth phases and identified serC as a potentially new virulence factor by virtue of its coexpression with other early-phase virulence genes. serC-disrupted B. pseudomallei strains were serine auxotrophs and in mouse infection assays exhibited a dramatic attenuation of virulence compared to wild-type B. pseudomallei. Immunization of mice with serC-disrupted B. pseudomallei also conferred protection against subsequent challenges with different wild-type B. pseudomallei strains. At a genomic level, early-phase genes were preferentially localized on chromosome 1, while stationary-phase genes were significantly biased towards chromosome 2. We detected a significant level of chromosomally clustered gene expression, allowing us to predict ?100 potential operons in the B. pseudomallei genome. We computationally and experimentally validated these operons by showing that genes in these regions are preferentially transcribed in the same 5??3? direction, possess significantly shorter intergenic lengths than the overall genome, and are expressed as a common mRNA transcript. The availability of this transcriptome map provides an important resource for understanding the transcriptional architecture of B. pseudomallei. PMID:16997946

  8. Regioselective hydrogenation of conjugated dienes catalyzed by hydridopentacyanocobaltate anion using. beta. -cyclodextrin as the phase-transfer agent and lanthanide halides as promoters

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongtae; Alper, H. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-03-16

    {beta}-Cyclodextrin is a useful phase-transfer agent for the hydrogenation of conjugated dienes to monoolefins catalyzed by the in situ generated hydridopentacyanocobaltate anion. This reaction, which usually proceeds by 1,2-addition to the diene, is promoted by cerium or lanthanum chloride. Polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), with or without added lanthanide, can also be used as the phase-transfer agent for the reduction process.

  9. Eliminating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using plant growth promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Radziah, Othman; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Razi, Ismail Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum toxicity is widely considered as the most important limiting factor for plants growing in acid sulfate soils. A study was conducted in laboratory and in field to ameliorate Al toxicity using plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), ground magnesium limestone (GML) and ground basalt. Five-day-old rice seedlings were inoculated by Bacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia seminalis and grown for 21 days in Hoagland solution (pH 4.0) at various Al concentrations (0, 50 and 100 ?M). Toxicity symptoms in root and leaf were studied using scanning electron microscope. In the field, biofertilizer (PGPB), GML and basalt were applied (4 t·ha-1 each). Results showed that Al severely affected the growth of rice. At high concentrations, the root surface was ruptured, leading to cell collapse; however, no damages were observed in the PGPB inoculated seedlings. After 21 days of inoculation, solution pH increased to >6.0, while the control treatment remained same. Field study showed that the highest rice growth and yield were obtained in the bio-fertilizer and GML treatments. This study showed that Al toxicity was reduced by PGPB via production of organic acids that were able to chelate the Al and the production of polysaccharides that increased solution pH. The release of phytohormones further enhanced rice growth that resulted in yield increase. PMID:25710843

  10. Mesotrypsin promotes malignant growth of breast cancer cells through shedding of CD109

    PubMed Central

    Hockla, Alexandra; Radisky, Derek C.

    2010-01-01

    Serine proteases have been implicated in many stages of cancer development, facilitating tumor cell growth, invasion, and metastasis, and naturally occurring serine protease inhibitors have shown promise as potential anticancer therapeutics. Optimal design of inhibitors as potential therapeutics requires the identification of the specific serine proteases involved in disease progression and the functional targets responsible for the tumor-promoting properties. Here, we use the HMT-3522 breast cancer progression series grown in 3D organotypic culture conditions to find that serine protease inhibitors cause morphological reversion of the malignant T4-2 cells, assessed by inhibition of proliferation and formation of acinar structures with polarization of basal markers, implicating serine protease activity in their malignant growth behavior. We identify PRSS3/mesotrypsin upregulation in T4-2 cells as compared to their nonmalignant progenitors, and show that knockdown of PRSS3 attenuates, and treatment with recombinant purified mesotrypsin enhances, the malignant growth phenotype. Using proteomic methods, we identify CD109 as the functional proteolytic target of mesotrypsin. Our study identifies a new mediator and effector of breast cancer growth and progression. PMID:20035377

  11. Adaptive growth factor delivery from a polyelectrolyte coating promotes synergistic bone tissue repair and reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nisarg J.; Hyder, Md. Nasim; Quadir, Mohiuddin A.; Dorval Courchesne, Noémie-Manuelle; Seeherman, Howard J.; Nevins, Myron; Spector, Myron; Hammond, Paula T.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic wounds and congenital defects that require large-scale bone tissue repair have few successful clinical therapies, particularly for craniomaxillofacial defects. Although bioactive materials have demonstrated alternative approaches to tissue repair, an optimized materials system for reproducible, safe, and targeted repair remains elusive. We hypothesized that controlled, rapid bone formation in large, critical-size defects could be induced by simultaneously delivering multiple biological growth factors to the site of the wound. Here, we report an approach for bone repair using a polyelectrolye multilayer coating carrying as little as 200 ng of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB that were eluted over readily adapted time scales to induce rapid bone repair. Based on electrostatic interactions between the polymer multilayers and growth factors alone, we sustained mitogenic and osteogenic signals with these growth factors in an easily tunable and controlled manner to direct endogenous cell function. To prove the role of this adaptive release system, we applied the polyelectrolyte coating on a well-studied biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) support membrane. The released growth factors directed cellular processes to induce bone repair in a critical-size rat calvaria model. The released growth factors promoted local bone formation that bridged a critical-size defect in the calvaria as early as 2 wk after implantation. Mature, mechanically competent bone regenerated the native calvaria form. Such an approach could be clinically useful and has significant benefits as a synthetic, off-the-shelf, cell-free option for bone tissue repair and restoration. PMID:25136093

  12. Acute dosing and p53-deficiency promote cellular sensitivity to DNA methylating agents.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Katherine E; Doak, Shareen H; Jenkins, Gareth J S

    2015-04-01

    Risk assessment of human exposure to chemicals is crucial for understanding whether such agents can cause cancer. The current emphasis on avoidance of animal testing has placed greater importance on in vitro tests for the identification of genotoxicants. Selection of an appropriate in vitro dosing regime is imperative in determining the genotoxic effects of test chemicals. Here, the issue of dosing approaches was addressed by comparing acute and chronic dosing, uniquely using low-dose experiments. Acute 24?h exposures were compared with equivalent dosing every 24?h over 5-day, fractionated treatment periods. The in vitro micronucleus assay was used to measure clastogenicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in human lymphoblastoid cell line, TK6. Quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR was used to measure mRNA level induction of DNA repair enzymes. Lowest observed genotoxic effect levels (LOGELs) for MMS were obtained at 0.7?µg/ml for the acute study and 1.0?µg/ml for the chronic study. For acute MNU dosing, a LOGEL was observed at 0.46?µg/ml, yet genotoxicity was completely removed following the chronic study. Interestingly, acute MNU dosing demonstrated a statistically significant decrease at 0.009?µg/ml. Levels of selected DNA repair enzymes did not change significantly following doses tested. However, p53 deficiency (using the TK6-isogenic cell line, NH32) increased sensitivity to MMS during chronic dosing, causing this LOGEL to equate to the acute treatment LOGEL. In the context of the present data for 2 alkylating agents, chronic dosing could be a valuable in vitro supplement to acute dosing and could contribute to reduction of unnecessary in vivo follow-up tests. PMID:25595616

  13. Pericytes in the myovascular niche promote post-natal myofiber growth and satellite cell quiescence.

    PubMed

    Kostallari, Enis; Baba-Amer, Yasmine; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Ngoh, Pamela; Relaix, Frederic; Lafuste, Peggy; Gherardi, Romain K

    2015-04-01

    The satellite cells, which serve as adult muscle stem cells, are both located beneath myofiber basement membranes and closely associated with capillary endothelial cells. We observed that 90% of capillaries were associated with pericytes in adult mouse and human muscle. During post-natal growth, newly formed vessels with their neuroglial 2 proteoglycan (NG2)-positive pericytes became progressively associated with the post-natal muscle stem cells, as myofibers increased in size and satellite cells entered into quiescence. In vitro, human muscle-derived pericytes promoted myogenic cell differentiation through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and myogenic cell quiescence through angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1). Diphtheria toxin-induced ablation of muscle pericytes in growing mice led both to myofiber hypotrophy and to impaired establishment of stem cells quiescence. Similar effects were observed following conditional in vivo deletion of pericyte Igf1 and Angpt1 genes, respectively. Our data therefore demonstrate that, by promoting post-natal myogenesis and stem cell quiescence, pericytes play a key role in the microvascular niche of satellite cells. PMID:25742797

  14. Rhamnolipids production by multi-metal-resistant and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-07-01

    The biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa A11, with plant-growth-promoting (PGP) and multi-metal-resistant (MMR) features was isolated from the rhizosphere of a wild plant Parthenium hysterophorus. The strain A11 was able to utilize glycerol as a carbon source and produce 4,436.9 mg/L of biosurfactant after 120 h of incubation. The biosurfactants was characterized as rhamnolipids (RLs) by thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Eight different RLs congeners were detected with RhaRhaC??C?? being most abundant. The purified rhamnolipid, dirhamnolipid, and monorhamnolipid reduced the surface tension of water to 29, 36, and 42 mN/m with critical micelle concentration of 83, 125, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The strain A11 demonstrated resistance against all the metals detected in rhizosphere except Hg and Ni. The strain A11 also possessed plant-growth-promoting features like siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, catalase, ammonia production, and phosphate solubilization. The dirhamnolipids formed crystals upon incubation at 4 °C, thus making separation of dirhamnolipids easy. Biosurfactant-producing ability along with MMR and PGP traits of the strain A11 makes it a potential candidate for application in the bacterial assisted enhancement of phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated sites. PMID:23640260

  15. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Zhou, Xia; Fan, Lucy X; Yao, Ying; Swenson-Fields, Katherine I; Gadjeva, Mihaela; Wallace, Darren P; Peters, Dorien J M; Yu, Alan; Grantham, Jared J; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-06-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by renal cyst formation, inflammation, and fibrosis. Macrophages infiltrate cystic kidneys, but the role of these and other inflammatory factors in disease progression are poorly understood. Here, we identified macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as an important regulator of cyst growth in ADPKD. MIF was upregulated in cyst-lining epithelial cells in polycystin-1-deficient murine kidneys and accumulated in cyst fluid of human ADPKD kidneys. MIF promoted cystic epithelial cell proliferation by activating ERK, mTOR, and Rb/E2F pathways and by increasing glucose uptake and ATP production, which inhibited AMP-activated protein kinase signaling. MIF also regulated cystic renal epithelial cell apoptosis through p53-dependent signaling. In polycystin-1-deficient mice, MIF was required for recruitment and retention of renal macrophages, which promoted cyst expansion, and Mif deletion or pharmacologic inhibition delayed cyst growth in multiple murine ADPKD models. MIF-dependent macrophage recruitment was associated with upregulation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and inflammatory cytokine TNF-?. TNF-? induced MIF expression, and MIF subsequently exacerbated TNF-? expression in renal epithelial cells, suggesting a positive feedback loop between TNF-? and MIF during cyst development. Our study indicates MIF is a central and upstream regulator of ADPKD pathogenesis and provides a rationale for further exploration of MIF as a therapeutic target for ADPKD. PMID:25961459

  16. Mixtures of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria enhance biological control of multiple cucumber pathogens.

    PubMed

    Raupach, G S; Kloepper, J W

    1998-11-01

    ABSTRACT Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains INR7 (Bacillus pumilus), GB03 (Bacillus subtilis), and ME1 (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens) were tested singly and in combinations for biological control against multiple cucumber pathogens. Investigations under greenhouse conditions were conducted with three cucumber pathogens-Colletotrichum orbiculare (causing anthracnose), Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans (causing angular leaf spot), and Erwinia tracheiphila(causing cucurbit wilt disease)-inoculated singly and in all possible combinations. There was a general trend across all experiments toward greater suppression and enhanced consistency against multiple cucumber pathogens using strain mixtures. The same three PGPR strains were evaluated as seed treatments in two field trials over two seasons, and two strains, IN26 (Burkholderia gladioli) and INR7 also were tested as foliar sprays in one of the trials. In the field trials, the efficacy of induced systemic resistance activity was determined against introduced cucumber pathogens naturally spread within plots through placement of infected plants into the field to provide the pathogen inoculum. PGPR-mediated disease suppression was observed against angular leaf spot in 1996 and against a mixed infection of angular leaf spot and anthracnose in 1997. The three-way mixture of PGPR strains (INR7 plus ME1 plus GB03) as a seed treatment showed intensive plant growth promotion and disease reduction to a level statistically equivalent to the synthetic elicitor Actigard applied as a spray. PMID:18944848

  17. Potential of plant growth promoting traits by bacteria isolated from heavy metal contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Simranjeet; Singh, Joginder; Upadhyay, Niraj

    2015-06-01

    Rhizobacteria can enhance biomass production and heavy metal tolerance of plants under the stress environment. The aim of this study was to collect soil samples from different industrial sites followed by their heavy metal analysis. After performing the ICP-AES analysis of soil samples from seven different sites, bacterial strains were isolated from the soil samples of most polluted (heavy metal) site. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolates belonged to four species: Bacillus thuringiensis, Azotobacter chroococcum, Paenibacillus ehimensis and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes. Plant growth promoting activities; siderophore production, indole acetic acid production, HCN production, and phosphate solubilisation were assayed in vitro, and statistically analysis done by using ANOVA analysis and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference test (p ? 0.05). Plant growth-promoting characteristics of isolated strains were higher compared to the control Pseudomonas fluorescens (NICM 5096). In vitro study was performed to check resistance against two heavy metals of isolates. It was observed that isolated bacterial strains have higher heavy metal resistance as compared to control E. coli (NICM 2563). These isolates may cause pathogenic effects, so to avoid this risk, their antibacterial susceptibility was checked against eight antibiotics. Among the eight antibiotics, Ciprofloxacin-1 has shown higher inhibition against all the isolated bacterial strains. PMID:25782590

  18. Hypermethylated Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promoter is associated with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Hong; Ye, Junyi; Kan, Mengyuan; Liu, Fatao; Wang, Ting; Deng, Jiaying; Tan, Yanfang; He, Lin; Liu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinases ErbB family and it is found to be overexpressed in gastric cancer. However, the mechanism of the regulation of the EGFR expression is still unknown. We used the Sequenom EpiTYPER assay to detect the methylation status of the EGFR promoter in normal and tumour tissues of 30 patients with gastric cancer. We also carried out quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) to detect the expression level of EGFR in our 30 patients. Notably, increased methylation level at EGFR promoter was found in tumour tissues than the corresponding adjacent noncancerous. In both Region I DMR and Region II DMR detected in our study, tumor tissues were significantly hypermethylated (P?=?2.7743E?10 and 2.1703E?05, respectively). Region I_?CpG_2 was also found to be associated with the presence of distant metastasis (P?=?0.0323). Furthermore, the results showed a strongly significant association between the relative EGFR expression and the EGFR methylation changes in both Region I and Region II (P?=?0.0004 and 0.0001, respectively). Our findings help to indicate the hypermethylation at EGFR promoter in gastric cancer and it could be a potential epigenetic biomarker for gastric cancer status and progression. PMID:25959250

  19. Overexpression of deubiquitinating enzyme USP28 promoted non-small cell lung cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Xu, Biao; Qiang, Yong; Huang, Hairong; Wang, Changtian; Li, Demin; Qian, Jianjun

    2015-04-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for most lung cancer. To develop new therapy required the elucidation of NSCLC pathogenesis. The deubiquitinating enzymes USP 28 has been identified and studied in colon and breast carcinomas. However, the role of USP28 in NSCLC is unknown. The level mRNA or protein level of USP28 were measured by qRT-PCR or immunohistochemistry (IHC). The role of USP28 in patient survival was revealed by Kaplan-Meier plot of overall survival in NSCLC patients. USP28 was up or down regulated by overexpression plasmid or siRNA transfection. Cell proliferation and apoptosis was assayed by MTT and FACS separately. Potential microRNAs, which targeted USP28, were predicated by bioinformatic algorithm and confirmed by Dual Luciferase reporter assay system. High mRNA and protein level of USP28 in NSCLC were both correlated with low patient survival rate. Overexpression of USP28 promoted NSCLC cells growth and vice versa. Down-regulation of USP28 induced cell apoptosis. USP28 was targeted by miR-4295. Overexpression of USP28 promoted NSCLC cells proliferation, and was associated with poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. The expression of USP28 may be regulated by miR-4295. Our data suggested that USP28 was a tumour-promoting factor and a promising therapeutic target for NSCLC. PMID:25656529

  20. Biomimetic scaffold combined with electrical stimulation and growth factor promotes tissue engineered cardiac development

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyoungshin; Larson, Benjamin L.; Kolewe, Martin E.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Freed, Lisa E.

    2013-01-01

    Toward developing biologically sound models for the study of heart regeneration and disease, we cultured heart cells on a biodegradable, microfabricated poly(glycerol sebacate)(PGS) scaffold designed with micro-structural features and anisotropic mechanical properties to promote cardiac-like tissue architecture. Using this biomimetic system, we studied individual and combined effects of supplemental insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and electrical stimulation (ES). On culture day 8, all tissue constructs could be paced and expressed the cardiac protein troponin-T. IGF-1 reduced apoptosis, promoted cell-to-cell connectivity, and lowered excitation threshold, an index of electrophysiological activity. ES promoted formation of tissue-like bundles oriented in parallel to the electrical field and a more than tenfold increase in matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) gene expression. The combination of IGF-1 and ES increased 2D projection length, an index of overall contraction strength, and enhanced expression of the gap junction protein connexin-43 and sarcomere development. This culture environment, designed to combine cardiac-like scaffold architecture and biomechanics with molecular and biophysical signals, enabled functional assembly of engineered heart muscle from dissociated cells and could serve as a template for future studies on the hierarchy of various signaling domains relative to cardiac tissue development. PMID:24240126

  1. Drosophila casein kinase 2 (CK2) promotes warts protein to suppress Yorkie protein activity for growth control.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianxin; Huang, Hongling; Li, Jinhui; Yin, Meng-Xin; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wenqing; Zeng, Rong; Jiang, Jin; Zhao, Yun; Zhang, Lei

    2014-11-28

    Drosophila Hippo signaling regulates Wts activity to phosphorylate and inhibit Yki in order to control tissue growth. CK2 is widely expressed and involved in a variety of signaling pathways. In this study we report that Drosophila CK2 promotes Wts activity to phosphorylate and inhibit Yki activity, which is independent of Hpo-induced Wts promotion. In vivo, CK2 overexpression suppresses hpo mutant-induced expanded (Ex) up-regulation and overgrowth phenotype, whereas it cannot affect wts mutant. Consistent with this, knockdown of CK2 up-regulates Hpo pathway target expression. We also found that Drosophila CK2 is essential for tissue growth as a cell death inhibitor as knockdown of CK2 in the developing disc induces severe growth defects as well as caspase3 signals. Taken together, our results uncover a dual role of CK2; although its major role is promoting cell survive, it may potentially be a growth inhibitor as well. PMID:25320084

  2. Brassinosteroids promote photosynthesis and growth by enhancing activation of Rubisco and expression of photosynthetic genes in Cucumis sativus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Jian Xia; Li-Feng Huang; Yan-Hong Zhou; Wei-Hua Mao; Kai Shi; Jian-Xiang Wu; Tadao Asami; Zhixiang Chen; Jing-Quan Yu

    2009-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a new group of plant growth substances that promote plant growth and productivity. We showed in\\u000a this study that improved growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants after treatment with 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), an active BR, was associated with increased CO2 assimilation and quantum yield of PSII (?PSII). Treatment of brassinazole (Brz), a specific inhibitor for BR biosynthesis, reduced

  3. A Trypanosoma brucei Kinesin Heavy Chain Promotes Parasite Growth by Triggering Host Arginase Activity

    PubMed Central

    De Muylder, Géraldine; Daulouède, Sylvie; Lecordier, Laurence; Uzureau, Pierrick; Morias, Yannick; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Caljon, Guy; Hérin, Michel; Holzmuller, Philippe; Semballa, Silla; Courtois, Pierrette; Vanhamme, Luc; Stijlemans, Benoît; De Baetselier, Patrick; Barrett, Michael P.; Barlow, Jillian L.; McKenzie, Andrew N. J.; Barron, Luke; Wynn, Thomas A.; Beschin, Alain; Vincendeau, Philippe; Pays, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to promote infection, the blood-borne parasite Trypanosoma brucei releases factors that upregulate arginase expression and activity in myeloid cells. Methodology/Principal findings By screening a cDNA library of T. brucei with an antibody neutralizing the arginase-inducing activity of parasite released factors, we identified a Kinesin Heavy Chain isoform, termed TbKHC1, as responsible for this effect. Following interaction with mouse myeloid cells, natural or recombinant TbKHC1 triggered SIGN-R1 receptor-dependent induction of IL-10 production, resulting in arginase-1 activation concomitant with reduction of nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity. This TbKHC1 activity was IL-4R?-independent and did not mirror M2 activation of myeloid cells. As compared to wild-type T. brucei, infection by TbKHC1 KO parasites was characterized by strongly reduced parasitaemia and prolonged host survival time. By treating infected mice with ornithine or with NO synthase inhibitor, we observed that during the first wave of parasitaemia the parasite growth-promoting effect of TbKHC1-mediated arginase activation resulted more from increased polyamine production than from reduction of NO synthesis. In late stage infection, TbKHC1-mediated reduction of NO synthesis appeared to contribute to liver damage linked to shortening of host survival time. Conclusion A kinesin heavy chain released by T. brucei induces IL-10 and arginase-1 through SIGN-R1 signaling in myeloid cells, which promotes early trypanosome growth and favors parasite settlement in the host. Moreover, in the late stage of infection, the inhibition of NO synthesis by TbKHC1 contributes to liver pathogenicity. PMID:24204274

  4. Iron and iron chelating agents modulate Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth and monocyte-macrophage viability and effector functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Edmondson; Kathleen D. Eisenach; Liza Bornman

    2005-01-01

    Excess of iron promotes Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, its replication and progression to clinical disease and death from tuberculosis. Chelation of iron may reduce M. tuberculosis replication, restore host defence mechanisms and it could constitute an application in the prevention and treatment strategies where both iron overload and tuberculosis are prevalent. We investigated the effect of iron and iron chelating agents,

  5. Efficiency of plant growth-promoting P-solubilizing Bacillus circulans CB7 for enhancement of tomato growth under net house conditions.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Preeti; Walia, Abhishek; Kulshrestha, Saurabh; Chauhan, Anjali; Shirkot, Chand Karan

    2015-01-01

    P-solubilizing bacterial isolate CB7 isolated from apple rhizosphere soil of Himachal Pradesh, India was identified as Bacillus circulans on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, biochemical tests, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolate exhibited plant growth-promoting traits of P-solubilization, auxin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, siderophore, nitrogenase activity, and antagonistic activity against Dematophora necatrix. In vitro studies revealed that P-solubilization and other plant growth-promoting traits were dependent on the presence of glucose in PVK medium and removal of yeast extract had no significant effect on plant growth-promoting traits. Plant growth-promoting traits of isolate CB7 were repressed in the presence of KH2 PO4 . P-solubilization activity was associated with the release of organic acids and a drop in the pH of the Pikovskaya's medium. HPLC analysis detected gluconic and citric acid as major organic acids in the course of P-solubilization. Remarkable increase was observed in seed germination (22.32%), shoot length (15.91%), root length (25.10%), shoot dry weight (52.92%) and root dry weight (31.4%), nitrogen (18.75%), potassium (57.69%), and phosphorus (22.22%) content of shoot biomass over control. These results demonstrate that isolate CB7 has the promising PGPR attributes to be developed as a biofertilizer to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth. PMID:24464353

  6. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Moon; Kim, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. Interestingly, we found that extraction with n-butanol is most efficient in producing the hair promoting activity. In addition, the soluble fraction of the n-butanol extract was further separated by silica gel chromatography and thin layer chromatography (TLC) resulting in isolating four single fractions which have hair growth regeneration potential. Furthermore, administration of ATRES extracts to dorsal skin area increased the number of hair follicles compared with control mouse group. Interestingly, administration of ATRES extract stimulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) but not of keratin growth factor (KGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Taken together, these results suggest that ATRES possesses strong hair growth promoting potential which controls the expression of IGF-1. PMID:26078771

  7. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Moon; Kim, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. Interestingly, we found that extraction with n-butanol is most efficient in producing the hair promoting activity. In addition, the soluble fraction of the n-butanol extract was further separated by silica gel chromatography and thin layer chromatography (TLC) resulting in isolating four single fractions which have hair growth regeneration potential. Furthermore, administration of ATRES extracts to dorsal skin area increased the number of hair follicles compared with control mouse group. Interestingly, administration of ATRES extract stimulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) but not of keratin growth factor (KGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Taken together, these results suggest that ATRES possesses strong hair growth promoting potential which controls the expression of IGF-1. PMID:26078771

  8. ATG5 is induced by DNA-damaging agents and promotes mitotic catastrophe independent of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Maskey, Dipak; Yousefi, Shida; Schmid, Inès; Zlobec, Inti; Perren, Aurel; Friis, Robert; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer drug therapy activates both molecular cell death and autophagy pathways. Here we show that even sublethal concentrations of DNA-damaging drugs, such as etoposide and cisplatin, induce the expression of autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5), which is both necessary and sufficient for the subsequent induction of mitotic catastrophe. We demonstrate that ATG5 translocates to the nucleus, where it physically interacts with survivin in response to DNA-damaging agents both in vitro and in carcinoma tissues obtained from patients who had undergone radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. As a consequence, elements of the chromosomal passenger complex are displaced during mitosis, resulting in chromosome misalignment and segregation defects. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy does not prevent ATG5-dependent mitotic catastrophe, but shifts the balance to an early caspase-dependent cell death. Our data suggest a dual role for ATG5 in response to drug-induced DNA damage, where it acts in two signalling pathways in two distinct cellular compartments, the cytosol and the nucleus. PMID:23945651

  9. Growth of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is promoted by exogenous hydroxamate and catechol siderophores.

    PubMed

    Diarra, M S; Dolence, J A; Dolence, E K; Darwish, I; Miller, M J; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

    1996-03-01

    Siderophores bind ferric ions and are involved in receptor-specific iron transport into bacteria. Six types of siderophores were tested against strains representing the 12 different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Ferrichrome and bis-catechol-based siderophores showed strong growth-promoting activities for A. pleuropneumoniae in a disk diffusion assay. Most strains of A. pleuropneumoniae tested were able to use ferrichrome (21 of 22 or 95%), ferrichrome A (20 of 22 or 90%), and lysine-based bis-catechol (20 of 22 or 90%), while growth of 36% (8 of 22) was promoted by a synthetic hydroxamate, N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine tripeptide. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (strain FMV 87-682) and serotype 5 (strain 2245) exhibited a distinct yellow halo around colonies on Chrome Azurol S agar plates, suggesting that both strains can produce an iron chelator (siderophore) in response to iron stress. The siderophore was found to be neither a phenolate nor a hydroxamate by the chemical tests of Arnow and Csaky, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the production of an iron chelator and the use of exogenous siderophores by A. pleuropneumoniae. A spermidine-based bis-catechol siderophore conjugated to a carbacephalosporin was shown to inhibit growth of A. pleuropneumoniae. A siderophore-antibiotic-resistant strain was isolated and shown to have lost the ability to use ferrichrome, synthetic hydroxamate, or catechol-based siderophores when grown under conditions of iron restriction. This observation indicated that a common iron uptake pathway, or a common intermediate, for hydroxamate- and catechol-based siderophores may exist in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:8975614

  10. Pim Kinases Promote Migration and Metastatic Growth of Prostate Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Santio, Niina M.; Eerola, Sini K.; Paatero, Ilkka; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Anizon, Fabrice; Moreau, Pascale; Tuomela, Johanna; Härkönen, Pirkko; Koskinen, Päivi J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and methods Pim family proteins are oncogenic kinases implicated in several types of cancer and involved in regulation of cell proliferation, survival as well as motility. Here we have investigated the ability of Pim kinases to promote metastatic growth of prostate cancer cells in two xenograft models for human prostate cancer. We have also evaluated the efficacy of Pim-selective inhibitors to antagonize these effects. Results We show here that tumorigenic growth of both subcutaneously and orthotopically inoculated prostate cancer xenografts is enhanced by stable overexpression of either Pim-1 or Pim-3. Moreover, Pim-overexpressing orthotopic prostate tumors are highly invasive and able to migrate not only to the nearby prostate-draining lymph nodes, but also into the lungs to form metastases. When the xenografted mice are daily treated with the Pim-selective inhibitor DHPCC-9, both the volumes as well as the metastatic capacity of the tumors are drastically decreased. Interestingly, the Pim-promoted metastatic growth of the orthotopic xenografts is associated with enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, forced Pim expression also increases phosphorylation of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, which may enable the tumor cells to migrate towards tissues such as the lungs that express the CXCL12 chemokine ligand. Conclusions Our results indicate that Pim overexpression enhances the invasive properties of prostate cancer cells in vivo. These effects can be reduced by the Pim-selective inhibitor DHPCC-9, which can reach tumor tissues without serious side effects. Thus, Pim-targeting therapies with DHPCC-9-like compounds may help to prevent progression of local prostate carcinomas to fatally metastatic malignancies. PMID:26075720

  11. Isolation and characterization of the hamster gadd153 gene. Activation of promoter activity by agents that damage DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Luethy, J.D.; Fargnoli, J.; Park, J.S.; Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Holbrook, N.J. (National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-09-25

    A group of five cDNA clones, representing the gadd genes, were recently isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as genes induced upon growth arrest and after DNA damage. We have isolated and characterized one of these genes, gadd153. The gene spans five kilobases and contains four exons. The 5'-flanking region of the gene, within 420 base pairs of the transcription initiation site, contains a number of cis elements associated with transcriptional regulation in other genes. These include a Hogness box, ATAAAA, an inverted GCCAAT box; seven SP1 transcription factor binding sites, and an AP-1 site. This region is rich in G + C content (greater than 70%) and contains an unusually long stretch of alternating CpG residues. The 800-base pair region immediately upstream of the transcription start site can drive expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, but only in its endogenous orientation, in three different cell lines: HeLa, CHO, and Jurkat. The gadd153 promoter is strongly activated by methyl methanesulfonate, hydrogen peroxide, and UV irradiation, but not by growth arrest signals. This suggests that separate and very different regulatory pathways are involved in the induction of the gadd153 gene by growth cessation and DNA damage.

  12. Chemokines and chemokine receptors as promoters of prostate cancer growth and progression.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Nicole; Castellan, Miguel; Shirodkar, Samir S; Lokeshwar, Bal L

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is estimated to be first in incidence among cancers, with more than 240,000 new cases in 2012 in the United States. Chemokines and their receptors provide survival, proliferation, and invasion characteristics to CaP cells in both primary sites of cancer and metastatic locations. The emerging data demonstrate that many chemokines and their receptors are involved in the multistep process of CaP, leading to metastasis, and, further, that these factors act cooperatively to enhance other mechanisms of tumor cell survival, growth, and metastasis. Changes of chemokine receptor cohorts may be necessary to activate tumor-promoting signals. Chemokine receptors can activate downstream effectors, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases, by complex mechanisms of ligand-dependent activation of cryptic growth factors; guanosine triphosphate-binding, protein-coupled activation of survival kinases; or transactivation of other receptors such as ErbB family members. We describe vanguard research in which more than the classic view of chemokine receptor biology was clarified. Control of chemokines and inhibition of their receptor activation may add critical tools to reduce tumor growth, especially in chemo-hormonal refractory CaP that is both currently incurable and the most aggressive form of the disease, accounting for most of the more than 28,000 annual deaths. PMID:23557339

  13. Exposure to low concentrations of dissolved ammonia promotes growth rate in walleye Sander vitreus.

    PubMed

    Madison, B N; Dhillon, R S; Tufts, B L; Wang, Y S

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether sublethal (moderate) levels of dissolved ammonia may be beneficial to growth in juvenile walleye Sander vitreus (recent evidence in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss has shown significant increases in protein synthesis in the presence of moderately elevated concentrations of dissolved ammonia). Moderately elevated dissolved ammonia concentrations between 100 and 300 micromol l(-1) suppressed routine aerobic metabolic activity by 20% during acute trials (2 h), while promoting specific growth rate (>50%) and elevating whole body soluble protein content by 20% in the early stages (14-42 days) in chronic ammonia exposure experiments. Juvenile S. vitreus held at ammonia concentrations between 107.6 +/- 5.5 and 225.5 +/- 4.7 micromol l(-1) (mean +/-s.e.) grew significantly faster than control fish and significantly reduced plasma cortisol levels (<3 microg dl(-1)). Results from this study suggest that chronic exposure to moderate amounts of dissolved ammonia significantly increase growth rates in juvenile S. vitreus by increasing nitrogen accessible for supplementary protein deposition leading to somatic development. PMID:20735605

  14. Pttg1 inhibits TGF? signaling in breast cancer cells to promote their growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guofeng; Zhao, Qicheng; Yu, Songlin; Lin, Rui; Yi, Xianghua

    2015-01-01

    Increased expression of Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 (Pttg1) has been shown in various tumor cells, including breast cancer (BC). However, the precise role of Pttg1 in the tumorigenesis is not clarified yet. Here, we examined BC from the patients and detected significant increases and correlation in Pttg1 and phosphorylated SMAD3 (pSMAD3), a key effector of activated transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) receptor signaling pathway. Pttg1 levels were then modulated by transgene or small hairpin RNA (shRNA) in a human BC cell line, BT474, respectively. We found that Pttg1 overexpression increased the proliferation of BC cells in vitro and in vivo, while Pttg1 inhibition decreased proliferation of BC cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, phosphorylation of SMAD3 by TGF?1 was significantly inhibited by Pttg1 overexpression, suggesting that Pttg1 may promote growth of BC cells by inhibiting pSMAD3-mediated cell-growth inhibition. Thus, Pttg1 appears to be a novel therapeutic target for controlling the tumorigenesis of BC. PMID:25227666

  15. Dual-stage growth factor release within 3D protein-engineered hydrogel niches promotes adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Greenwood-Goodwin, Midori; Teasley, Eric S; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2014-11-01

    Engineered biomimetic microenvironments from hydrogels are an emerging strategy to achieve lineage-specific differentiation in vitro. In addition to recapitulating critical matrix cues found in the native three-dimensional (3D) niche, the hydrogel can also be designed to deliver soluble factors that are present within the native inductive microenvironment. We demonstrate a versatile materials approach for the dual-stage delivery of multiple soluble factors within a 3D hydrogel to induce adipogenesis. We use a Mixing-Induced Two-Component Hydrogel (MITCH) embedded with alginate microgels to deliver two pro-adipogenic soluble factors, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) with two distinct delivery profiles. We show that dual-stage delivery of FGF-1 and BMP-4 to human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs) significantly increases lipid accumulation compared with the simultaneous delivery of both growth factors together. Furthermore, dual-stage growth factor delivery within a 3D hydrogel resulted in substantially more lipid accumulation compared to identical delivery profiles in 2D cultures. Gene expression analysis shows upregulation of key adipogenic markers indicative of brown-like adipocytes. These data suggest that dual-stage release of FGF-1 and BMP-4 within 3D microenvironments can promote the in vitro development of mature adipocytes. PMID:25309741

  16. N2-fixation and seedling growth promotion of lodgepole pine by endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa.

    PubMed

    Anand, Richa; Grayston, Susan; Chanway, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    We inoculated lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia (Dougl.) Engelm.) with Paenibacillus polymyxa P2b-2R, a diazotrophic bacterium previously isolated from internal stem tissue of a naturally regenerating pine seedling to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation and seedling growth promotion by this microorganism. Seedlings generated from pine seed inoculated with strain P2b-2R were grown for up to 13 months in a N-limited soil mix containing 0.7 mM available N labeled as Ca((15)NO3)2 to facilitate detection of N2-fixation. Strain P2b-2R developed a persistent endophytic population comprising 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1) plant tissue inside pine roots, stems, and needles during the experiment. At the end of the growth period, P2b-2R had reduced seedling mortality by 14 % and (15)N foliar N abundance 79 % and doubled foliar N concentration and seedling biomass compared to controls. Our results suggest that N2-fixation by P. polymyxa enhanced growth of pine seedlings and support the hypothesis that plant-associated diazotrophs capable of endophytic colonization can satisfy a significant proportion of the N required by tree seedlings growing under N-limited conditions. PMID:23420205

  17. Tyrosine Phosphorylation Inhibits PKM2 to Promote the Warburg Effect and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hitosugi, Taro; Kang, Sumin; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Chung, Tae-Wook; Elf, Shannon; Lythgoe, Katherine; Dong, Shaozhong; Lonial, Sagar; Wang, Xu; Chen, Georgia Z.; Xie, Jianxin; Gu, Ting-Lei; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Roesel, Johannes L.; Boggon, Titus J.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Gilliland, D. Gary; Cantley, Lewis C.; Kaufman, Jonathan; Chen, Jing

    2010-01-01

    The Warburg effect describes a pro-oncogenic metabolism switch such that cancer cells take up more glucose than normal tissue and favor incomplete oxidation of glucose even in the presence of oxygen. To better understand how tyrosine kinase signaling, which is commonly increased in tumors, regulates the Warburg effect, we performed phosphoproteomic studies. We found that oncogenic forms of fibroblast growth factor receptor type 1 inhibit the pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform by direct phosphorylation of PKM2 tyrosine residue 105 (Y105). This inhibits the formation of active, tetrameric PKM2 by disrupting binding of the PKM2 cofactor fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Furthermore, we found that phosphorylation of PKM2 Y105 is common in human cancers. The presence of a PKM2 mutant in which phenylalanine is substituted for Y105 (Y105F) in cancer cells leads to decreased cell proliferation under hypoxic conditions, increased oxidative phosphorylation with reduced lactate production, and reduced tumor growth in xenografts in nude mice. Our findings suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation regulates PKM2 to provide a metabolic advantage to tumor cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. PMID:19920251

  18. Bone marrow adipocytes promote tumor growth in bone via FABP4-dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Herroon, Mackenzie K.; Rajagurubandara, Erandi; Hardaway, Aimalie L.; Powell, Katelyn; Turchick, Audrey; Feldmann, Daniel; Podgorski, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of skeletal metastases and death from prostate cancer greatly increases with age and obesity, conditions which increase marrow adiposity. Bone marrow adipocytes are metabolically active components of bone metastatic niche that modulate the function of neighboring cells; yet the mechanisms of their involvement in tumor behavior in bone have not been explored. In this study, using experimental models of intraosseous tumor growth and diet-induced obesity, we demonstrate the promoting effects of marrow fat on growth and progression of skeletal prostate tumors. We reveal that exposure to lipids supplied by marrow adipocytes induces expression of lipid chaperone FABP4, pro-inflammatory interleukin IL-1?, and oxidative stress protein HMOX-1 in metastatic tumor cells and stimulates their growth and invasiveness. We show that FABP4 is highly overexpressed in prostate skeletal tumors from obese mice and in bone metastasis samples from prostate cancer patients. In addition, we provide results suggestive of bi-directional interaction between FABP4 and PPAR? pathways that may be driving aggressive tumor cell behavior in bone. Together, our data provide evidence for functional relationship between bone marrow adiposity and metastatic prostate cancers and unravel the FABP4/IL-1? axis as a potential therapeutic target for this presently incurable disease. PMID:24240026

  19. Sequential Platelet-Derived Growth Factor–Simvastatin Release Promotes Dentoalveolar Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Li Yen; Dovban, Alex S.M.; Lim, Lum Peng; Lim, Jason C.; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Timely augmentation of the physiological events of dentoalveolar repair is a prerequisite for the optimization of the outcome of regeneration. This study aimed to develop a treatment strategy to promote dentoalveolar regeneration by the combined delivery of the early mitogenic factor platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and the late osteogenic differentiation factor simvastatin. Materials and Methods: By using the coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomization technique, PDGF and simvastatin were encapsulated in a double-walled poly(d,l-lactide) and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLLA–PLGA) microspheres in five different modes: microspheres encapsulating bovine serum albumin (BB), PDGF alone (XP), simvastatin alone (SB), PDGF-in-core and simvastatin-in-shell (PS), and simvastatin-in-core and PDGF-in-shell (SP). The microspheres were characterized using scanning electronic microscopy, and the in vitro release profile was evaluated. Microspheres were delivered to fill large osteotomy sites on rat maxillae for 14 and 28 days, and the outcome of regeneration was evaluated by microcomputed tomography and histological assessments. Results: Uniform 20-?m controlled release microspheres were successfully fabricated. Parallel PDGF–simvastatin release was noted in the PS group, and the fast release of PDGF followed by the slow release of simvastatin was noted in the SP group. The promotion of osteogenesis was observed in XP, PS, and SP groups at day 14, whereas the SP group demonstrated the greatest bone fill, trabecular numbers, and thickest trabeculae. Bone bridging was evident in the PS and SP group, with significantly increased osteoblasts in the SP group, and osteoclastic cell recruitment was promoted in all bioactive molecule-treated groups. At day 28, osteogenesis was promoted in all bioactive molecule-treated groups. Initial corticalization was noted in the XP, PS, and SP groups. Osteoblasts appeared to be decreased in all groups, and significantly, a greater osteoclastic cell recruitment was noted in the SB and SP groups. Conclusions: Both PDGF and simvastatin facilitate dentoalveolar regeneration, and sequential PDGF–simvastatin release (SP group) further accelerated the regeneration process through the enhancement of osteoblastogenesis and the promotion of bone maturation. PMID:23980713

  20. Secreted Pyomelanin of Legionella pneumophila Promotes Bacterial Iron Uptake and Growth under Iron-Limiting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huaixin; Chatfield, Christa H.; Liles, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Iron acquisition is critical to the growth and virulence of Legionella pneumophila. Previously, we found that L. pneumophila uses both a ferrisiderophore pathway and ferrous iron transport to obtain iron. We now report that two molecules secreted by L. pneumophila, homogentisic acid (HGA) and its polymerized variant (HGA-melanin, a pyomelanin), are able to directly mediate the reduction of various ferric iron salts. Furthermore, HGA, synthetic HGA-melanin, and HGA-melanin derived from bacterial supernatants enhanced the ability of L. pneumophila and other species of Legionella to take up radiolabeled iron. Enhanced iron uptake was not observed with a ferrous iron transport mutant. Thus, HGA and HGA-melanin mediate ferric iron reduction, with the resulting ferrous iron being available to the bacterium for uptake. Upon further testing of L. pneumophila culture supernatants, we found that significant amounts of ferric and ferrous iron were associated with secreted HGA-melanin. Importantly, a pyomelanin-containing fraction obtained from a wild-type culture supernatant was able to stimulate the growth of iron-starved legionellae. That the corresponding supernatant fraction obtained from a nonpigmented mutant culture did not stimulate growth demonstrated that HGA-melanin is able to both promote iron uptake and enhance growth under iron-limiting conditions. Indicative of a complementary role in iron acquisition, HGA-melanin levels were inversely related to the levels of siderophore activity. Compatible with a role in the ecology and pathogenesis of L. pneumophila, HGA and HGA-melanin were effective at reducing and releasing iron from both insoluble ferric hydroxide and the mammalian iron chelates ferritin and transferrin. PMID:23980114

  1. USP39 promotes the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xianwen; Sun, Xitai; Shi, Xiaolei; Jiang, Chunping; Yu, Decai; Zhang, Weiwei; Guan, Wenxian; Zhou, Jianxin; Wu, Yafu; Qiu, Yudong; Ding, Yitao

    2015-08-01

    Ubiquitin specific protease 39 (USP39) plays an important role in mRNA splicing. In the present study, we investigated the role of USP39 in regulating the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We detected USP39 expression in more than 100 HCC clinical samples. The USP39 expression was significantly higher in the tumor tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues, and was strongly associated with the pathological grade of HCC. USP39 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro in the HepG2 cells, while upregulation of USP39 promoted tumor cell growth. FCM assay showed that USP39 knockdown led to G2/M arrest and induced apoptosis in the HepG2 cells. USP39 knockdown by shRNA inhibited xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, USP39 knockdown led to the upregulation of p-Cdc2 and downregulation of p-Cdc25c and p-myt1, while the expression of total Cdc2, Cdc25c and myt1 was not changed in the USP39-knockdown cells. We also found that p-Cdc2 was decreased in the USP39-overexpressing cells and was upregulated in the xenografted tumors derived from the HepG2/KD cells from nude mice. Meanwhile, the expression levels of FoxM1 and its target genes PLK1 and cyclin B1 were decreased in the USP39-knockdown cells. These results suggest that USP39 may contribute to FoxM1 splicing in HCC tumor cells. Our data indicate that USP39 knockdown inhibited the growth of HCC both in vitro and in vivo through G2/M arrest, which was partly achieved via the inhibition of FoxM1 splicing. PMID:26081192

  2. Rol genes alter hormonal requirements for protoplast growth and modify the expression of an auxin responsive promoter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Walden; Inge Czaja; Thomas Schmiilling; Jeff Schell

    1993-01-01

    Growth characteristics of tobacco protoplasts containing rolA linked to its own promoter, or the rolB, or rolC genes of Agrobacterium rhizogenes linked to the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S RNA promoter were compared with those from untransformed plants. RolA protoplasts require auxin and cytokinin for callus formation. Protoplasts overexpressing rolB and C form callus in the absence of exogenously applied auxin

  3. Overexpression of the Arabidopsis anaphase promoting complex subunit CDC27a increases growth rate and organ size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristian Antonio Rojas; Nubia Barbosa Eloy; Marcelo de Freitas Lima; Roberta Lopes Rodrigues; Luciana Ozório Franco; Kristiina Himanen; Gerrit T. S. Beemster; Adriana Silva Hemerly; Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    The Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC) controls CDK activity by targeting the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of S-phase and\\u000a mitosis-promoting cyclins. Here, we report that the ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis CDC27a, an APC subunit, accelerates plant growth and results in plants with increased biomass production. CDC27a overexpression\\u000a was associated to apical meristem restructuration, protoplasts with higher 3H-thimidine incorporation and altered cell-cycle marker

  4. NMR analysis of fractionated irradiated ?-carrageenan oligomers as plant growth promoter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, L. V.; Saiki, S.; Nagasawa, N.; Kudo, H.; Katsumura, Y.; De La Rosa, A. M.

    2011-09-01

    The optimum plant growth promoting effect in irradiated ?-carrageenan is known to be of Mw<10,000. This is obtained by irradiating ?-carrageenan at a dose of 100 kGy in solid and at 2 kGy in 1% aqueous solution. Kappa carrageenan irradiated at these doses was fractionated at different Mw ranges. The isolated fraction with a Mw of 3-10 kDa was analyzed by NMR. The chemical shifts of 13C and 1H spectra indicated that the basic functional structure of ?-carrageenan (alternating D-galactose-4-sulfate and 3,6-anhydro- D-galactose dimer) remains intact at a Mw of 3-10 kDa. No radiolytic products were detected at this range.

  5. Pharmacodynamics of curcumin as DNA hypomethylation agent in restoring the expression of Nrf2 via promoter CpGs demethylation.

    PubMed

    Khor, Tin Oo; Huang, Ying; Wu, Tien-Yuan; Shu, Limin; Lee, Jonghun; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2011-11-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most deadly malignancies among men in the United States. Although localized prostate cancer can be effectively treated via surgery or radiation, metastatic disease is usually lethal. Recent evidence suggests that the development and progression of human prostate cancer involves complex interplay between epigenetic alterations and genetic defects. We have recently demonstrated that Nrf2, a master regulator of cellular antioxidant defense systems, was epigenetically silenced during the progression of prostate tumorigenesis in TRAMP mice. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of curcumin (CUR), a dietary compound that we have reported to be able to prevent the development of prostate cancer in TRAMP mice, as a DNA hypomethylation agent. Using bisulfite genomic sequencing (BGS), treatment of TRAMP C1 cells we showed that CUR reversed the methylation status of the first 5 CpGs in the promoter region of the Nrf2 gene. Methylation DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) analysis revealed that CUR significantly reduced the anti-mecyt antibody binding to the first 5 CpGs of the Nrf2 promoter, corroborated the BGS results. Demethylation of Nrf2 was found to be associated with the re-expression of Nrf2 and one of its downstream target gene, NQO-1, one of the major anti-oxidative stress enzymes, both at the mRNA and protein levels. Taken together, our current study suggests that CUR can elicit its prostate cancer chemopreventive effect, potentially at least in part, through epigenetic modification of the Nrf2 gene with its subsequent induction of the Nrf2-mediated anti-oxidative stress cellular defense pathway. PMID:21787756

  6. RPRD1B promotes tumor growth by accelerating the cell cycle in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Qiu, Haifeng; Hu, Weixu; Li, Shaoru; Yu, Jinjin

    2014-03-01

    RPRD1B, the regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain containing 1B gene, functions as a cell cycle manipulator and has been found overexpressed in a small panel of endometrial cancer types. In the present study, we investigated the roles of RPRD1B in endometrial cancer using various in vitro and in vivo experiments. According to our results, RPRD1B mRNA was significantly upregulated in endometrial cancer tissues (P=0.0012). RPRD1B overexpression was correlated with tumor stage (P=0.0004), histology type (P=0.0146) and depth of myometrial invasion (P=0.024). In vitro, RPRD1B promoted cellular proliferation (P=0.032 for MTT assay and P=0.018 for colony formation assay), and accelerated the cell cycle (P=0.007) by upregulating cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6, while knockdown of RPRD1B suppressed cellular proliferation (P=0.02 for MTT assay and P=0.031 for colony formation assay), and led to G1 phase arrest (P=0.025) through downregulating cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6. Consistently, in the nude mice model, RPRD1B overexpression significantly accelerated the tumor xenograft growth (P=0.0012), accompanied by elevated Ki-67 and cyclin D1. In addition, we demonstrated that downregulating RPRD1B could sensitize Ishikawa cells to Raloxifene (P=0.01). In summary, we demonstrated that RPRD1B was frequently overexpressed in human endometrial cancer. Both in vitro and in vivo, over-abundant RPRD1B could promote tumor growth and accelerate cellular cell cycle. In addition, knockdown of RPRD1B also increased cell sensitivity to Raloxifene, making RPRD1B a potent therapeutic target for endometrial cancer, particularly in patients with resistance to the selective ER modulators. PMID:24452636

  7. Subcutaneous adipocytes promote melanoma cell growth by activating the Akt signaling pathway: role of palmitic acid.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Bin; Chao, Xiaojuan; Chan, Chi Leung; Cao, Huihui; Su, Tao; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2014-10-31

    Tumorigenesis involves constant communication between tumor cells and neighboring normal cells such as adipocytes. The canonical function of adipocytes is to store triglyceride and release fatty acids for other tissues. This study was aimed to find out if adipocytes promoted melanoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Here we isolated adipocytes from inguinal adipose tissue in mice and co-cultured with melanoma cells. We found that the co-cultured melanoma had higher lipid accumulation compared with mono-cultured melanoma. In addition, fluorescently labeled fatty acid BODIPY® FLC16 signal was detected in melanoma co-cultured with the adipocytes that had been loaded with the fluorescent dye, suggesting that the adipocytes provide fatty acids to melanoma cells. Compared with mono-cultured melanoma, co-cultured melanoma cells had a higher proliferation and phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) expression. Overexpression of Akt mutants in melanoma cells reduced the co-culture-enhanced proliferation. A lipidomic study showed that the co-cultured melanoma had an elevated palmitic acid level. Interestingly, we found that palmitic acid stimulated melanoma cell proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution, and increased phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) and PI3K but not phospho-PTEN (phosphophosphatase and tensin homolog) expressions. More importantly, the palmitic acid-stimulated proliferation was further enhanced in the Akt-overexpressed melanoma cells and was reduced by LY294002 or knockdown of endogenous Akt or overexpression of Akt mutants. We also found that palmitic acid-pretreated B16F10 cells were grown to a significantly larger tumor in mice compared with control cells. Taken together, we suggest that adipocytes may serve as an exogenous source of palmitic acid that promotes melanoma cell growth by activating Akt. PMID:25228694

  8. Getting the ecology into interactions between plants and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Hol, W. H. Gera; Bezemer, T. Martijn; Biere, Arjen

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are increasingly appreciated for their contributions to primary productivity through promotion of growth and triggering of induced systemic resistance in plants. Here we focus on the beneficial effects of one particular species of PGPR (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on plants through induced plant defense. This model organism has provided much understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of PGPR-induced plant defense. However, this knowledge can only be appreciated at full value once we know to what extent these mechanisms also occur under more realistic, species-diverse conditions as are occurring in the plant rhizosphere. To provide the necessary ecological context, we review the literature to compare the effect of P. fluorescens on induced plant defense when it is present as a single species or in combination with other soil dwelling species. Specifically, we discuss combinations with other plant mutualists (bacterial or fungal), plant pathogens (bacterial or fungal), bacterivores (nematode or protozoa), and decomposers. Synergistic interactions between P. fluorescens and other plant mutualists are much more commonly reported than antagonistic interactions. Recent developments have enabled screenings of P. fluorescens genomes for defense traits and this could help with selection of strains with likely positive interactions on biocontrol. However, studies that examine the effects of multiple herbivores, pathogens, or herbivores and pathogens together on the effectiveness of PGPR to induce plant defenses are underrepresented and we are not aware of any study that has examined interactions between P. fluorescens and bacterivores or decomposers. As co-occurring soil organisms can enhance but also reduce the effectiveness of PGPR, a better understanding of the biotic factors modulating P. fluorescens–plant interactions will improve the effectiveness of introducing P. fluorescens to enhance plant production and defense. PMID:23596447

  9. Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Promotes Functional Recovery in Primates after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2011-01-01

    Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI. PMID:22140459

  10. Human hepatocyte growth factor promotes functional recovery in primates after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-Ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2011-01-01

    Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI. PMID:22140459

  11. Differential Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors by Promoter-targeted shRNAs.

    PubMed

    Laham-Karam, Nihay; Lalli, Marianne; Leinonen, Nastasia; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGF-R) are central regulators of vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis. They contribute to many vascular-related pathologies, and hence VEGF-targeted therapies have been widely sought after. In this study, the authors investigated the ability of promoter-targeted small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to regulate VEGF-A, VEGF-C and VEGF-R1 in different cell lines. The authors identified shRNAs that can upregulate hVEGF-C at both the mRNA and protein levels, and differentially regulate hVEGF-A depending on the cell type. Likewise, the authors identified shRNA that downregulated VEGF-R1 gene expression. Hence, promoter-targeted shRNAs can affect endogenous gene expression not only bimodally, but also differentially in a cell-type specific manner. Importantly, all three genes tested were regulated by at least one shRNA, supporting the idea that nuclear RNA interference is a widespread phenomenon. The level of regulation across the panel of shRNAs varied maximally from a 2.2-fold increase to a 4-fold decrease. This level of change should be useful in fine-tuning and modulating target gene expression, which for potent molecules, such as VEGF-A and VEGF-C, can be very beneficial. These promoter-targeted shRNAs may facilitate the design and development of targeted, context-dependent strategies for both pro- and antiangiogenic therapies for the treatment of vascular-related pathologies. PMID:25988242

  12. A PIK3C3–Ankyrin-B–Dynactin pathway promotes axonal growth and multiorganelle transport

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Damaris Nadia; Badea, Alexandra; Davis, Jonathan; Hostettler, Janell; He, Jiang; Zhong, Guisheng; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    Axon growth requires long-range transport of organelles, but how these cargoes recruit their motors and how their traffic is regulated are not fully resolved. In this paper, we identify a new pathway based on the class III PI3-kinase (PIK3C3), ankyrin-B (AnkB), and dynactin, which promotes fast axonal transport of synaptic vesicles, mitochondria, endosomes, and lysosomes. We show that dynactin associates with cargo through AnkB interactions with both the dynactin subunit p62 and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) lipids generated by PIK3C3. AnkB knockout resulted in shortened axon tracts and marked reduction in membrane association of dynactin and dynein, whereas it did not affect the organization of spectrin–actin axonal rings imaged by 3D-STORM. Loss of AnkB or of its linkages to either p62 or PtdIns(3)P or loss of PIK3C3 all impaired organelle transport and particularly retrograde transport in hippocampal neurons. Our results establish new functional relationships between PIK3C3, dynactin, and AnkB that together promote axonal transport of organelles and are required for normal axon length. PMID:25533844

  13. A Novel Pyrimidin-Like Plant Activator Stimulates Plant Disease Resistance and Promotes Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tie-Jun; Lu, Yun; Narusaka, Mari; Shi, Chao; Yang, Yu-Bing; Wu, Jian-Xin; Zeng, Hong-Yun; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Yao, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Plant activators are chemicals that induce plant defense responses to a broad spectrum of pathogens. Here, we identified a new potential plant activator, 5-(cyclopropylmethyl)-6-methyl-2-(2-pyridyl)pyrimidin-4-ol, named PPA (pyrimidin-type plant activator). Compared with benzothiadiazole S-methyl ester (BTH), a functional analog of salicylic acid (SA), PPA was fully soluble in water and increased fresh weight of rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis plants at low concentrations. In addition, PPA also promoted lateral root development. Microarray data and real-time PCR revealed that PPA-treated leaves not challenged with pathogen showed up-regulation of genes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS), defenses and SA. During bacterial infection, Arabidopsis plants pretreated with PPA showed dramatically decreased disease symptoms and an earlier and stronger ROS burst, compared with plants pretreated with BTH. Microscopy revealed that H2O2 accumulated in the cytosol, plasma membrane and cell wall around intracellular bacteria, and also on the bacterial cell wall, indicating that H2O2 was directly involved in killing bacteria. The increase in ROS-related gene expression also supported this observation. Our results indicate that PPA enhances plant defenses against pathogen invasion through the plant redox system, and as a water-soluble compound that can promote plant growth, has broad potential applications in agriculture. PMID:25849038

  14. BMP promotes motility and represses growth of smooth muscle cells by activation of tandem Wnt pathways

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Perez, Vinicio A.; Ali, Ziad; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Sawada, Hirofumi; Lai, Ying-Ju; Kleisli, Thomas; Spiekerkoetter, Edda; Qu, Xiumei; Rubinos, Laura H.; Ashley, Euan; Amieva, Manuel; Dedhar, Shoukat

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel cell-signaling paradigm in which bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) consecutively and interdependently activates the wingless (Wnt)–?-catenin (?C) and Wnt–planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathways to facilitate vascular smooth muscle motility while simultaneously suppressing growth. We show that BMP-2, in a phospho-Akt–dependent manner, induces ?C transcriptional activity to produce fibronectin, which then activates integrin-linked kinase 1 (ILK-1) via ?4-integrins. ILK-1 then induces the Wnt–PCP pathway by binding a proline-rich motif in disheveled (Dvl) and consequently activating RhoA-Rac1–mediated motility. Transfection of a Dvl mutant that binds ?C without activating RhoA-Rac1 not only prevents BMP-2–mediated vascular smooth muscle cell motility but promotes proliferation in association with persistent ?C activity. Interfering with the Dvl-dependent Wnt–PCP activation in a murine stented aortic graft injury model promotes extensive neointima formation, as shown by optical coherence tomography and histopathology. We speculate that, in response to injury, factors that subvert BMP-2–mediated tandem activation of Wnt–?C and Wnt–PCP pathways contribute to obliterative vascular disease in both the systemic and pulmonary circulations. PMID:21220513

  15. Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor Promotes Endothelial Progenitor Cells Function via Akt/FOXO3a Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuqiang; Cao, Qing; Sang, Tiantian; Liu, Fang; Chen, Shuyan

    2015-01-01

    Acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF1) has been suggested to enhance the functional activities of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The Forkhead homeobox type O transcription factors (FOXOs), a key substrate of the survival kinase Akt, play important roles in regulation of various cellular processes. We previously have shown that FOXO3a is the main subtype of FOXOs expressed in EPCs. Here, we aim to determine whether FGF1 promotes EPC function through Akt/FOXO3a pathway. Human peripheral blood derived EPCs were transduced with adenoviral vectors either expressing a non-phosphorylable, constitutively active triple mutant of FOXO3a (Ad-TM-FOXO3a) or a GFP control (Ad-GFP). FGF1 treatment improved functional activities of Ad-GFP transduced EPCs, including cell viability, proliferation, antiapoptosis, migration and tube formation, whereas these beneficial effects disappeared by Akt inhibitor pretreatment. Moreover, EPC function was declined by Ad-TM-FOXO3a transduction and failed to be attenuated even with FGF1 treatment. FGF1 upregulated phosphorylation levels of Akt and FOXO3a in Ad-GFP transduced EPCs, which were repressed by Akt inhibitor pretreatment. However, FGF1 failed to recover Ad-TM-FOXO3a transduced EPCs from dysfunction. These data indicate that FGF1 promoting EPC function is at least in part mediated through Akt/FOXO3a pathway. Our study may provide novel ideas for enhancing EPC angiogenic ability and optimizing EPC transplantation therapy in the future. PMID:26061278

  16. The role of mycorrhizae and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in improving crop productivity under stressful environments.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Javaid, Arshad; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Both biotic and abiotic stresses are major constrains to agricultural production. Under stress conditions, plant growth is affected by a number of factors such as hormonal and nutritional imbalance, ion toxicity, physiological disorders, susceptibility to diseases, etc. Plant growth under stress conditions may be enhanced by the application of microbial inoculation including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and mycorrhizal fungi. These microbes can promote plant growth by regulating nutritional and hormonal balance, producing plant growth regulators, solubilizing nutrients and inducing resistance against plant pathogens. In addition to their interactions with plants, these microbes also show synergistic as well as antagonistic interactions with other microbes in the soil environment. These interactions may be vital for sustainable agriculture because they mainly depend on biological processes rather than on agrochemicals to maintain plant growth and development as well as proper soil health under stress conditions. A number of research articles can be deciphered from the literature, which shows the role of rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae alone and/or in combination in enhancing plant growth under stress conditions. However, in contrast, a few review papers are available which discuss the synergistic interactions between rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae for enhancing plant growth under normal (non-stress) or stressful environments. Biological interactions between PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi are believed to cause a cumulative effect on all rhizosphere components, and these interactions are also affected by environmental factors such as soil type, nutrition, moisture and temperature. The present review comprehensively discusses recent developments on the effectiveness of PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi for enhancing plant growth under stressful environments. The key mechanisms involved in plant stress tolerance and the effectiveness of microbial inoculation for enhancing plant growth under stress conditions have been discussed at length in this review. Growth promotion by single and dual inoculation of PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi under stress conditions have also been discussed and reviewed comprehensively. PMID:24380797

  17. Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting bacteria from non-rhizospheric soil and their effect on cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seedling growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Deepa; Syed G. Dastager; Ashok Pandey

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of four potential phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter isolated from non-rhizospheric soil in Western ghat forest in India. Plant growth promoting ability of these isolates was evaluated in cowpea. All are gram negative, rod shaped,\\u000a 0.8–1.6 mm in size, and psychrotrophic in nature, grow from 5 to 40°C (optimum temp. 28 ± 2°C). All isolates exhibits growth\\u000a at a wide range of pH

  18. Hydrocarbon extraction agents and microbiological processes for their production

    SciTech Connect

    Zajic, J.E.; Gerson, D.F.

    1987-02-03

    A process is described for producing extraction agents useful in the separation of hydrocarbon values from mineral deposits. It comprises cultivating by an aerobic fermentation, in a growth promoting medium and under growth promoting conditions, and on a liquid hydrocarbon substrate, a selected microbial strain of a species of microorganism selected from the group consisting of Arthrobacter terregens, Arthrobacter xerosis, Bacillus megaterium, Corynebacterium lepus, Corynebacterium xerosis, Nocardia petroleophila, and Vibrio ficheri. This is done to produce an extraction agent of microbiological origin in the fermentation medium, subsequently recovering the extraction agent from the fermentation medium and drying the agent to powdered form.

  19. A Model to Explain Plant Growth Promotion Traits: A Multivariate Analysis of 2,211 Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Pedro Beschoren; Granada, Camille E.; Ambrosini, Adriana; Moreira, Fernanda; de Souza, Rocheli; dos Passos, João Frederico M.; Arruda, Letícia; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria can greatly assist sustainable farming by improving plant health and biomass while reducing fertilizer use. The plant-microorganism-environment interaction is an open and complex system, and despite the active research in the area, patterns in root ecology are elusive. Here, we simultaneously analyzed the plant growth-promoting bacteria datasets from seven independent studies that shared a methodology for bioprospection and phenotype screening. The soil richness of the isolate's origin was classified by a Principal Component Analysis. A Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the soil richness according to isolate's indolic compound production, siderophores production and phosphate solubilization abilities, and bacterial genera composition. Multiple patterns and relationships were found and verified with nonparametric hypothesis testing. Including niche colonization in the analysis, we proposed a model to explain the expression of bacterial plant growth-promoting traits according to the soil nutritional status. Our model shows that plants favor interaction with growth hormone producers under rich nutrient conditions but favor nutrient solubilizers under poor conditions. We also performed several comparisons among the different genera, highlighting interesting ecological interactions and limitations. Our model could be used to direct plant growth-promoting bacteria bioprospection and metagenomic sampling. PMID:25542031

  20. Cutaneous reactions to anticancer agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor: a dermatology-oncology perspective.

    PubMed

    Lacouture, M E; Melosky, B L

    2007-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often overexpressed or dysregulated in solid tumors. Targeting the EGFR-mediated signaling pathway has become routine practice in the treatment of lung, pancreatic, head and neck, and colon carcinomas. Available agents with selected activity towards the EGFR include low molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors, e.g., erlotinib (Tarceva, Genentech BioOncology/ OSI Pharmaceuticals/ F. Hoffmann-La Roche) and monoclonal antibodies, such as cetuximab (Erbitux, Bristol-Myers Squibb/ ImClone Systems/ Merck) and panitumumab (Vectibix, Amgen). Their use is anticipated to increase for treating other solid tumors that are dependent on this pathway for growth and proliferation. Health Canada and the US FDA have approved erlotinib for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). It has also been approved in the US for use against pancreatic cancer in combination with gemcitabine (Gemzar, Eli Lilly). Cetuximab and most recently panitumumab (Vectibix, Amgen/ Abgenix) were approved by the US FDA for metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Cetuximab is also approved in the US for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The safety profile for this class of drugs is unique, with virtually no hematological toxicity, but frequent cutaneous and gastrointestinal side-effects. Although there is a dearth of randomized trials addressing treatment of the dermatological side-effects, some basic principles of management have been agreed upon and can likely improve patient compliance and decrease inappropriate dose reduction, which may negatively influence the antitumor effect. PMID:17762902

  1. Isolation and identification of indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from Himalayan region of Kashmir and their effect on improving growth and nutrient contents of maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, Mahwish; Abbasi, M. Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agro-ecosystems enhance plant–microbes interactions that may affect ecosystems sustainability, agricultural productivity, and environmental quality. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify PGPRs associated with maize (Zea mays L.) from twenty sites of Himalayan region of Hajira-Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. A total of 100 isolates were isolated from these sites, out of which eight (HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, HJR4, HJR5, MR6, HJR7, HJR8) were selected in vitro for their plant growth promoting ability (PGPA) including phosphorus solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and N2 fixation. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used for molecular identity and authentication. Isolates were then further tested for their effects on growth and nutrient contents of maize (Z. mays L.) under pouch and pot conditions. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified these isolates belong to Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. The isolates promoted plant growth by solubilizing soil P which ranged between 19.2 and 35.6 ?g mL-1. The isolates HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, and HJR5 showed positive activity in acetylene reduction assay showing their N2-fixation potential. All eight isolates showed the potential to produce IAA in the range of 0.9–5.39 ?g mL-1 and promote plant growth. Results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated PGPRs distinctly increased maize shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, root surface area, leaf surface area, shoot and root N and P contents. Among the eight isolates, HR3 showed a marked P-solubilizing activity, plant growth-promoting attributes, and the potential to be developed as a biofertilizers for integrated nutrient management strategies. PMID:25852667

  2. Isolation and identification of indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from Himalayan region of Kashmir and their effect on improving growth and nutrient contents of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Zahid, Mahwish; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agro-ecosystems enhance plant-microbes interactions that may affect ecosystems sustainability, agricultural productivity, and environmental quality. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify PGPRs associated with maize (Zea mays L.) from twenty sites of Himalayan region of Hajira-Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. A total of 100 isolates were isolated from these sites, out of which eight (HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, HJR4, HJR5, MR6, HJR7, HJR8) were selected in vitro for their plant growth promoting ability (PGPA) including phosphorus solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and N2 fixation. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used for molecular identity and authentication. Isolates were then further tested for their effects on growth and nutrient contents of maize (Z. mays L.) under pouch and pot conditions. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified these isolates belong to Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. The isolates promoted plant growth by solubilizing soil P which ranged between 19.2 and 35.6 ?g mL(-1). The isolates HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, and HJR5 showed positive activity in acetylene reduction assay showing their N2-fixation potential. All eight isolates showed the potential to produce IAA in the range of 0.9-5.39 ?g mL(-1) and promote plant growth. Results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated PGPRs distinctly increased maize shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, root surface area, leaf surface area, shoot and root N and P contents. Among the eight isolates, HR3 showed a marked P-solubilizing activity, plant growth-promoting attributes, and the potential to be developed as a biofertilizers for integrated nutrient management strategies. PMID:25852667

  3. Plant growth promotion abilities and formulation of Bacillus megaterium strain B 388 (MTCC6521) isolated from a temperate Himalayan location.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Pandey, Anita

    2008-09-01

    Bacillus megaterium strain B388, isolated from rhizosphere soil of pine belonging to a temperate Himalayan location has been characterized. The plant growth promotion and biocontrol properties of the bacterium have been evaluated through petridish and broth based assays. The isolate solubilized tricalcium phosphate under in vitro conditions; maximum activity (166 ?g/ml) was recorded at 28°C after 15 days of incubation. Production of indole acetic acid demonstrated in broth assays was another important plant growth promoting character. The bacterium produced diffusible and volatile compounds that inhibited the growth of two phytopathogens viz. Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum. The carrier based formulations of the bacterium resulted in increased plant growth in bioassays. The rhizosphere colonization and the viability of the cells entrapped in alginate beads were greater in comparison to coal or broth based formulations. The bacterium showed maximum similarity with Bacillus megaterium by 16S rRNA analysis. PMID:23100732

  4. Biocontrol of fusarium crown and root rot and promotion of growth of tomato by paenibacillus strains isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng Jun; Kim, Byung Sup

    2014-06-01

    In this study, bacterial strains were isolated from soils from 30 locations of Samcheok, Gangwon province. Of the isolated strains, seven showed potential plant growth promoting and antagonistic activities. Based on cultural and morphological characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these strains were identified as Paenibacillus species. All seven strains produced ammonia, cellulase, hydrocyanic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, protease, phosphatase, and siderophores. They also inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in vitro. The seven Paenibacillus strains enhanced a range of growth parameters in tomato plants under greenhouse conditions, in comparison with non-inoculated control plants. Notably, treatment of tomato plants with one identified strain, P. polymyxa SC09-21, resulted in 80.0% suppression of fusarium crown and root rot under greenhouse conditions. The plant growth promoting and antifungal activity of P. polymyxa SC09-21 identified in this study highlight its potential suitability as a bioinoculant. PMID:25071385

  5. Psychostimulant-like discriminative stimulus and locomotor sensitization properties of the wake-promoting agent modafinil in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Neil E.; Fedolak, Allison; Olivier, Berend; Hanania, Taleen; Ghavami, Afshin; Caldarone, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The present studies assessed the potential abuse liability and likely mechanism(s) of action of the wake-promoting agent modafinil. Methods Experiments assessed the locomotor sensitization (LS) and discriminative stimulus (DS) properties of modafinil in mouse and rat, respectively. Comparative data were generated with a range of psychostimulants and monoamine reuptake inhibitors. Results Repeated administration of d-amphetamine and cocaine, psychostimulants with high abuse liability, resulted in the induction and expression of LS in mice. Bupropion and caffeine, two psychostimulants not abused in humans, were not associated with LS. GBR12909 induced LS during repeated exposure, but there was no evidence of expression of LS after acute challenge following withdrawal. In contrast, repeated administration of modafinil resulted in the expression, but not induction, of LS. d-amphetamine, but not the ?-opioid agonist morphine or the nAChR agonist nicotine, fully substituted for the cocaine DS in rats. The selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor GBR12909 fully substituted, the preferential norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor desipramine partially substituted, and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram failed to substitute for cocaine. Modafinil fully substituted for cocaine, similar to the mixed DAT/NET inhibitor bupropion. Conclusions Two preclinical assays indicated potential abuse liability of modafinil; drug discrimination studies suggest DAT blockade by modafinil is a likely mechanism of action in vivo. PMID:20346966

  6. Histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the testes of rabbits after injection with the growth promoter boldenone.

    PubMed

    Tousson, Ehab; El-Moghazy, Mostafa; Massoud, Ahmed; Akel, Amani

    2012-03-01

    Recently, boldenone (androgenic steroid) is used in improvement of the growth and food conversion in food-producing animals. In addition, it is used by bodybuilders during both off-season and precontest, where it is well known for increasing vascularity while preparing for a bodybuilding contest. The present study was designed to investigate the possible effect of growth promoter boldenone undecylenate on the structure and functions of rabbit testes. A total of 32 adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into 4 groups. The first group in the control group includes animals that were intramuscularly injected with olive oil and dissected after 3 weeks. Three experimental groups include animals that receive 1, 2, and 3 intramuscular injections of 5 mg/kg body weight boldenone, and dissected after 3, 6, and 9 weeks, respectively. Treating rabbits with boldenone increased the testosterone levels compared to the control group. Seminiferous tubules of the rabbit testis treated with boldenone showed reduced development and degeneration of the germinal epithelium, leading to debris and syncytial cell formation in the lumina of seminiferous tubules. Our immunohistochemical results indicated severe reduction in proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive spermatogonia in boldenone-treated animals as compared to the control group. These findings explain the common phenomena among athletics and bodybuilders who suffer from infertility as they were injected with some drugs such as steroids (boldenone) to build muscles. PMID:22383777

  7. CRH promotes S. pneumoniae growth in vitro and increases lung carriage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ndjom, Colette G. Ngo; Jones, Harlan P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), a commensal across the nasal passages, is responsible for the majority of infectious pneumonia cases worldwide. Previous studies have shown that hormonal factors may be influential in regulating S. pneumoniae’s transition from a non-pathogen to a pathogenic state. The current study investigated the effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a peptide hormone involved in stress, on the pathogenicity of S. pneumoniae. Mice were infected with CRH-treated S. pneumoniae via intranasal route, showing an increase in pulmonary bacterial burden. We also quantified S. pneumoniae’s response to CRH through limited serial dilutions and growth curve analysis. We demonstrated that CRH promotes S. pneumoniae titer-dependent proliferation, as well as accelerates log-phase growth. Results also showed an increase in pneumococcal-associated virulence protein A virulence gene expression in response to CRH. These results demonstrate a role for CRH in S. pneumoniae pathogenicity, thus implicating CRH in mediating the transition of S. pneumoniae into a pathogenic state. PMID:25904910

  8. PsANT, the adenine nucleotide translocase of Puccinia striiformis, promotes cell death and fungal growth.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chunlei; Wei, Jinping; Han, Qingmei; Liu, Rui; Duan, Xiaoyuan; Fu, Yanping; Huang, Xueling; Wang, Xiaojie; Kang, Zhensheng

    2015-01-01

    Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is a constitutive mitochondrial component that is involved in ADP/ATP exchange and mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis in yeast and mammals. However, little is known about the function of ANT in pathogenic fungi. In this study, we identified an ANT gene of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), designated PsANT. The PsANT protein contains three typical conserved mitochondrion-carrier-protein (mito-carr) domains and shares more than 70% identity with its orthologs from other fungi, suggesting that ANT is conserved in fungi. Immuno-cytochemical localization confirmed the mitochondrial localization of PsANT in normal Pst hyphal cells or collapsed cells. Over-expression of PsANT indicated that PsANT promotes cell death in tobacco, wheat and fission yeast cells. Further study showed that the three mito-carr domains are all needed to induce cell death. qRT-PCR analyses revealed an in-planta induced expression of PsANT during infection. Knockdown of PsANT using a host-induced gene silencing system (HIGS) attenuated the growth and development of virulent Pst at the early infection stage but not enough to alter its pathogenicity. These results provide new insight into the function of PsANT in fungal cell death and growth and might be useful in the search for and design of novel disease control strategies. PMID:26058921

  9. Acetylation Stabilizes ATP-Citrate Lyase to Promote Lipid Biosynthesis and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xue; Li, Tingting; Zhou, Xin; Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue; Lei, Qun-Ying

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Increased fatty acid synthesis is required to meet the demand for membrane expansion of rapidly growing cells. ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) is upregulated or activated in several types of cancer, and inhibition of ACLY arrests proliferation of cancer cells. Here we show that ACLY is acetylated at lysine residues 540, 546, and 554 (3K). Acetylation at these three lysine residues is stimulated by P300/calcium-binding protein (CBP)-associated factor (PCAF) acetyltransferase under high glucose and increases ACLY stability by blocking its ubiquitylation and degradation. Conversely, the protein deacetylase sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) deacetylates and destabilizes ACLY. Substitution of 3K abolishes ACLY ubiquitylation and promotes de novo lipid synthesis, cell proliferation, and tumor growth. Importantly, 3K acetylation of ACLY is increased in human lung cancers. Our study reveals a crosstalk between acetylation and ubiquitylation by competing for the same lysine residues in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis and cell growth in response to glucose. PMID:23932781

  10. Transforming growth factor-? superfamily ligand trap ACE-536 corrects anemia by promoting late-stage erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Suragani, Rajasekhar N V S; Cadena, Samuel M; Cawley, Sharon M; Sako, Dianne; Mitchell, Dianne; Li, Robert; Davies, Monique V; Alexander, Mark J; Devine, Matthew; Loveday, Kenneth S; Underwood, Kathryn W; Grinberg, Asya V; Quisel, John D; Chopra, Rajesh; Pearsall, R Scott; Seehra, Jasbir; Kumar, Ravindra

    2014-04-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates proliferation of early-stage erythrocyte precursors and is widely used for the treatment of chronic anemia. However, several types of EPO-resistant anemia are characterized by defects in late-stage erythropoiesis, which is EPO independent. Here we investigated regulation of erythropoiesis using a ligand-trapping fusion protein (ACE-536) containing the extracellular domain of human activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) modified to reduce activin binding. ACE-536, or its mouse version RAP-536, produced rapid and robust increases in erythrocyte numbers in multiple species under basal conditions and reduced or prevented anemia in murine models. Unlike EPO, RAP-536 promoted maturation of late-stage erythroid precursors in vivo. Cotreatment with ACE-536 and EPO produced a synergistic erythropoietic response. ACE-536 bound growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) and potently inhibited GDF11-mediated Smad2/3 signaling. GDF11 inhibited erythroid maturation in mice in vivo and ex vivo. Expression of GDF11 and ActRIIB in erythroid precursors decreased progressively with maturation, suggesting an inhibitory role for GDF11 in late-stage erythroid differentiation. RAP-536 treatment also reduced Smad2/3 activation, anemia, erythroid hyperplasia and ineffective erythropoiesis in a mouse model of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). These findings implicate transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily signaling in erythroid maturation and identify ACE-536 as a new potential treatment for anemia, including that caused by ineffective erythropoiesis. PMID:24658078

  11. Fasudil hydrochloride could promote axonal growth through inhibiting the activity of ROCK

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wei-Dong; Yu, Ai-Xi; Liu, Dan-Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil hydrochloride in ischemia/reperfusion injury N2a neuron. Methods: In vitro, N2a cells induced by ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion were treated with fasudil hydrochloride, cell damage was analyzed by MTT. On the other hand, the cytoskeleton of N2a cells was scanned through immunofluorescence techniques by Confocal Laser Microscopy which stained with FITC-phalloidin for F-actin visualization. Results: The activation of ROCK-II increased significantly in the damaged local during the following phase of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Ischemia induced a striking reorganization of actin cytoskeleton with a weakening of fluorescent intensity of the peripheral filament actin bands and formation of the long and thick stress fibers, but pretreatment of Fasudil hydrochloride could reversed the changes of ultra-structure on the cellular surface. MTT assay showed that Fasudil hydrochloride could prolong the survival time of the N2a cells after mimic ischemia-reperfusion for 24 h. Conclusions: The activation of ROCK-II has an exceptional hoist after ischemia/reperfusion injury, it is likely to induce the collapse of the growth cone through MLC-P. Fasudil hydrochloride could promote axonal growth on inhibitory of ROCK activity. PMID:25337198

  12. Crosstalk between KIT and FGFR3 Promotes Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Cell Growth and Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Javidi-Sharifi, Nathalie; Traer, Elie; Martinez, Jacqueline; Gupta, Anu; Taguchi, Takehiro; Dunlap, Jennifer; Heinrich, Michael C; Corless, Christopher L; Rubin, Brian P; Druker, Brian J; Tyner, Jeffrey W

    2015-03-01

    Kinase inhibitors such as imatinib have dramatically improved outcomes for patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), but many patients develop resistance to these treatments. Although in some patients this event corresponds with mutations in the GIST driver oncogenic kinase KIT, other patients develop resistance without KIT mutations. In this study, we address this patient subset in reporting a functional dependence of GIST on the FGF receptor FGFR3 and its crosstalk with KIT in GIST cells. Addition of the FGFR3 ligand FGF2 to GIST cells restored KIT phosphorylation during imatinib treatment, allowing sensitive cells to proliferate in the presence of the drug. FGF2 expression was increased in imatinib-resistant GIST cells, the growth of which was blocked by RNAi-mediated silencing of FGFR3. Moreover, combining KIT and FGFR3 inhibitors synergized to block the growth of imatinib-resistant cells. Signaling crosstalk between KIT and FGFR3 activated the MAPK pathway to promote resistance to imatinib. Clinically, an IHC analysis of tumor specimens from imatinib-resistant GIST patients revealed a relative increase in FGF2 levels, with a trend toward increased expression in imatinib-naïve samples consistent with possible involvement in drug resistance. Our findings provide a mechanistic rationale to evaluate existing FGFR inhibitors and multikinase inhibitors that target FGFR3 as promising strategies to improve treatment of patients with GIST with de novo or acquired resistance to imatinib. PMID:25432174

  13. Growth promoting effect of recombinant interleukin I and tumor necrosis factor for human astrocytoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Giulian, D.; Dinarello, C.A.; Brown, D.C.; Lachman, L.B.

    1986-03-01

    Human IL I has been demonstrated to stimulate the growth of rat astrocytes in vitro. To determine if IL I has a similar growth promoting effect upon human brain cells, two astrocytoma cell lines were tested for their ability to incorporate /sup 3/H-thymidine in response to various types of IL I and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The U373 astrocytoma was found to respond mitogenically to human native IL I, human recombinant IL I, rat IL I and murine recombinant IL I. The cell line failed to respond to recombinant IL 2 and recombinant ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. interferon. The sensitivity of the U373 cells paralleled the murine thymocyte assay for IL I. Interestingly, the U373 responded mitogenically to recombinant TNF prepared by two different companies, thus indicating that TNF stimulates proliferation of this cell line and does not lead to cell death. In the murine thymocyte assay for IL I, TNF was not active. The results indicate that 1) both IL I and TNF are mitogenic for a human astrocytoma cell line and 2) the U373 cells may be used to assay both IL I and TNF in a highly sensitive mitogenic assay.

  14. Blocking IL1? Pathway Following Paclitaxel Chemotherapy Slightly Inhibits Primary Tumor Growth but Promotes Spontaneous Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Voloshin, Tali; Alishekevitz, Dror; Kaneti, Limor; Miller, Valeria; Isakov, Elina; Kaplanov, Irena; Voronov, Elena; Fremder, Ella; Benhar, Moran; Machluf, Marcelle; Apte, Ron N; Shaked, Yuval

    2015-06-01

    Acquired resistance to therapy is a major obstacle in clinical oncology, and little is known about the contributing mechanisms of the host response to therapy. Here, we show that the proinflammatory cytokine IL1? is overexpressed in response to paclitaxel chemotherapy in macrophages, subsequently promoting the invasive properties of malignant cells. In accordance, blocking IL1?, or its receptor, using either genetic or pharmacologic approach, results in slight retardation of primary tumor growth; however, it accelerates metastasis spread. Tumors from mice treated with combined therapy of paclitaxel and the IL1 receptor antagonist anakinra exhibit increased number of M2 macrophages and vessel leakiness when compared with paclitaxel monotherapy-treated mice, indicating a prometastatic role of M2 macrophages in the IL1?-deprived microenvironment. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the dual effects of blocking the IL1 pathway on tumor growth. Accordingly, treatments using "add-on" drugs to conventional therapy should be investigated in appropriate tumor models consisting of primary tumors and their metastases. Mol Cancer Ther; 14(6); 1385-94. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25887886

  15. Mechanisms of plant growth promotion and disease suppression by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 2apa.

    PubMed

    Hariprasad, P; Chandrashekar, S; Singh, S Brijesh; Niranjana, S R

    2014-08-01

    A new Pseudomonas strain, designated as 2apa was isolated from tomato rhizosphere and identified as a member of species Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on its morphology, conventional, biochemical, cell wall fatty acid methyl ester analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain 2apa was positive for root colonization, indole acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid and siderophore production and inhibited the growth of wide range of microorganisms. Antimicrobial substances produced by this strain with further purification and structure elucidation proved to be phenazine. Under laboratory and greenhouse conditions the strain promoted plant growth and suppressed a wide range of foliar and root pathogens in tomato. The protection offered by strain 2apa to foliar pathogens is considered as induced systemic resistance and was further confirmed by enhanced accumulation of phenolics, elicitation of lipoxygenas activity, and jasmonic acid levels. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial and induced systemic resistance exhibiting strain P. aeruginosa 2apa can be used as an effective biological control candidate against devastating fungal and bacterial pathogens, which attack both root and foliar portions of tomato plant. Production of other functional traits such as IAA and siderophore may enhance its potential as biofertilizer. PMID:23681707

  16. Physiological and biochemical characterization of Azospirillum brasilense strains commonly used as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Di Salvo, Luciana P; Silva, Esdras; Teixeira, Kátia R S; Cote, Rosalba Esquivel; Pereyra, M Alejandra; García de Salamone, Inés E

    2014-12-01

    Azospirillum is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) genus vastly studied and utilized as agriculture inoculants. Isolation of new strains under different environmental conditions allows the access to the genetic diversity and improves the success of inoculation procedures. Historically, the isolation of this genus has been performed by the use of some traditional culture media. In this work we characterized the physiology and biochemistry of five different A. brasilense strains, commonly used as cereal inoculants. The aim of this work is to contribute to pose into revision some concepts concerning the most used protocols to isolate and characterize this bacterium. We characterized their growth in different traditional and non-traditional culture media, evaluated some PGPR mechanisms and characterized their profiles of fatty acid methyl esters and carbon-source utilization. This work shows, for the first time, differences in both profiles, and ACC deaminase activity of A. brasilense strains. Also, we show unexpected results obtained in some of the evaluated culture media. Results obtained here and an exhaustive knowledge revision revealed that it is not appropriate to conclude about bacterial species without analyzing several strains. Also, it is necessary to continue developing studies and laboratory techniques to improve the isolation and characterization protocols. PMID:25138314

  17. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C; De la Mora-Amutio, Marcela; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost. PMID:25763038

  18. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C.; la Mora-Amutio, Marcela De; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A.; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R.; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J.; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. ‘Azul’ is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost. PMID:25763038

  19. PsANT, the adenine nucleotide translocase of Puccinia striiformis, promotes cell death and fungal growth

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chunlei; Wei, Jinping; Han, Qingmei; Liu, Rui; Duan, Xiaoyuan; Fu, Yanping; Huang, Xueling; Wang, Xiaojie; Kang, Zhensheng

    2015-01-01

    Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is a constitutive mitochondrial component that is involved in ADP/ATP exchange and mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis in yeast and mammals. However, little is known about the function of ANT in pathogenic fungi. In this study, we identified an ANT gene of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), designated PsANT. The PsANT protein contains three typical conserved mitochondrion-carrier-protein (mito-carr) domains and shares more than 70% identity with its orthologs from other fungi, suggesting that ANT is conserved in fungi. Immuno-cytochemical localization confirmed the mitochondrial localization of PsANT in normal Pst hyphal cells or collapsed cells. Over-expression of PsANT indicated that PsANT promotes cell death in tobacco, wheat and fission yeast cells. Further study showed that the three mito-carr domains are all needed to induce cell death. qRT-PCR analyses revealed an in-planta induced expression of PsANT during infection. Knockdown of PsANT using a host-induced gene silencing system (HIGS) attenuated the growth and development of virulent Pst at the early infection stage but not enough to alter its pathogenicity. These results provide new insight into the function of PsANT in fungal cell death and growth and might be useful in the search for and design of novel disease control strategies. PMID:26058921

  20. Characterization of Plant Growth–Promoting Traits of Bacteria Isolated from Larval Guts of Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Indiragandhi; R. Anandham; M. Madhaiyan; T. M. Sa

    2008-01-01

    Eight bacterial isolates from the larval guts of Diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella) were tested for their plant growth–promoting (PGP) traits and effects on early plant growth. All of the strains tested positive\\u000a for nitrogen fixation and indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid production but negative for hydrogen cyanide and pectinase\\u000a production. In addition, five of the isolates exhibited significant

  1. Characterization of plant-growth promoting diazotrophic bacteria isolated from field grown Chinese cabbage under different fertilization conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woo-Jong Yim; Selvaraj Poonguzhali; Munusamy Madhaiyan; Pitchai Palaniappan; M. A. Siddikee; Tongmin Sa

    2009-01-01

    Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Chinese cabbage were assessed for other plant growth promoting characteristics\\u000a viz., production of IAA, ethylene, ACC deaminase, phosphate solubilization, and gnotobiotic root elongation. Their effect on inoculation\\u000a to Chinese cabbage was also observed under growth chamber conditions. A total of 19 strains that showed higher nitrogenase\\u000a activity identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence

  2. A Functional Common Polymorphism in a Sp1 Recognition Site of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Promoter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanqing Liu; Federico Innocenti; Michael H. Wu; Apurva A. Desai; M. Eileen Dolan; Edwin H. Cook; Mark J. Ratain

    2005-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a prom- inent role in cell growth and development. Its regulation in humans is complex and incompletely understood. In this study, 12 new polymorphisms were discovered in the 5V-regulatory region of EGFR gene and 2 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (216G\\/T and 191C\\/A) were found in the essential promoter area, one of which is

  3. Mst3b promotes spinal cord neuronal regeneration by promoting growth cone branching out in spinal cord injury rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqiang; Hu, Huaiqiang; Tian, Ting; Zhang, Luping; Zhao, Dongmei; Wu, Qianqian; Chang, Yingwei; Wang, Qingbo; Zhou, Shuai; Feng, Guoying; Huang, Fei

    2015-06-01

    Spinal cord injury is a severe clinical problem, and research searching activity molecular that can promote spinal cord injury repairing is very prevalent. Mst3b can promote repair of damaged peripheral nerves and the optic nerve, but has been rarely reported in spinal cord injury research. Through detecting its expression in different periods of injured spinal cord, we found that the expression of Mst3b was significantly upregulated in injured spinal cord neurons. Increasing Mst3b expression using adenovirus in vivo and in vitro promoted axonal regeneration of spinal cord neurons, which led to behavioral and electrophysiological improvement. Downregulation of Mst3b level had the adverse effects. Increasing Mst3b expression in PC12 cells resulted in an elevation of P42/44(MAPK) and LIMK/Cofilin activation. These results identified Mst3b as a powerful regulator for promoting spinal cord injury recovery through the P42/44(MAPK) and LIMK/Cofilin signaling pathways. PMID:24990316

  4. SPARC promotes leukemic cell growth and predicts acute myeloid leukemia outcome

    PubMed Central

    Alachkar, Houda; Santhanam, Ramasamy; Maharry, Kati; Metzeler, Klaus H.; Huang, Xiaomeng; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Mendler, Jason H.; Benito, Juliana M.; Hickey, Christopher; Neviani, Paolo; Dorrance, Adrienne M.; Anghelina, Mirela; Khalife, Jihane; Tarighat, Somayeh S.; Volinia, Stefano; Whitman, Susan P.; Paschka, Peter; Hoellerbauer, Pia; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Han, Lina; Bolon, Brad N.; Blum, William; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Carroll, Andrew J.; Perrotti, Danilo; Andreeff, Michael; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Konopleva, Marina; Garzon, Ramiro; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Marcucci, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant expression of the secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin) (SPARC) gene, which encodes a matricellular protein that participates in normal tissue remodeling, is associated with a variety of diseases including cancer, but the contribution of SPARC to malignant growth remains controversial. We previously reported that SPARC was among the most upregulated genes in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) patients with gene-expression profiles predictive of unfavorable outcome, such as mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2-R172) and overexpression of the oncogenes brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic (BAALC) and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG). In contrast, SPARC was downregulated in CN-AML patients harboring mutations in nucleophosmin (NPM1) that are associated with favorable prognosis. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that SPARC expression is clinically relevant in AML. Here, we found that SPARC overexpression is associated with adverse outcome in CN-AML patients and promotes aggressive leukemia growth in murine models of AML. In leukemia cells, SPARC expression was mediated by the SP1/NF-?B transactivation complex. Furthermore, secreted SPARC activated the integrin-linked kinase/AKT (ILK/AKT) pathway, likely via integrin interaction, and subsequent ?-catenin signaling, which is involved in leukemia cell self-renewal. Pharmacologic inhibition of the SP1/NF-?B complex resulted in SPARC downregulation and leukemia growth inhibition. Together, our data indicate that evaluation of SPARC expression has prognosticative value and SPARC is a potential therapeutic target for AML. PMID:24590286

  5. SPARC promotes leukemic cell growth and predicts acute myeloid leukemia outcome.

    PubMed

    Alachkar, Houda; Santhanam, Ramasamy; Maharry, Kati; Metzeler, Klaus H; Huang, Xiaomeng; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Mendler, Jason H; Benito, Juliana M; Hickey, Christopher; Neviani, Paolo; Dorrance, Adrienne M; Anghelina, Mirela; Khalife, Jihane; Tarighat, Somayeh S; Volinia, Stefano; Whitman, Susan P; Paschka, Peter; Hoellerbauer, Pia; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Han, Lina; Bolon, Brad N; Blum, William; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Carroll, Andrew J; Perrotti, Danilo; Andreeff, Michael; Caligiuri, Michael A; Konopleva, Marina; Garzon, Ramiro; Bloomfield, Clara D; Marcucci, Guido

    2014-04-01

    Aberrant expression of the secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin) (SPARC) gene, which encodes a matricellular protein that participates in normal tissue remodeling, is associated with a variety of diseases including cancer, but the contribution of SPARC to malignant growth remains controversial. We previously reported that SPARC was among the most upregulated genes in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) patients with gene-expression profiles predictive of unfavorable outcome, such as mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2-R172) and overexpression of the oncogenes brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic (BAALC) and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG). In contrast, SPARC was downregulated in CN-AML patients harboring mutations in nucleophosmin (NPM1) that are associated with favorable prognosis. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that SPARC expression is clinically relevant in AML. Here, we found that SPARC overexpression is associated with adverse outcome in CN-AML patients and promotes aggressive leukemia growth in murine models of AML. In leukemia cells, SPARC expression was mediated by the SP1/NF-?B transactivation complex. Furthermore, secreted SPARC activated the integrin-linked kinase/AKT (ILK/AKT) pathway, likely via integrin interaction, and subsequent ?-catenin signaling, which is involved in leukemia cell self-renewal. Pharmacologic inhibition of the SP1/NF-?B complex resulted in SPARC downregulation and leukemia growth inhibition. Together, our data indicate that evaluation of SPARC expression has prognosticative value and SPARC is a potential therapeutic target for AML. PMID:24590286

  6. Genetic and phenotypic diversity of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sugarcane plants growing in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mehnaz, Samina; Baig, Deeba Noreen; Lazarovits, George

    2010-12-01

    Bacteria were isolated from roots of sugarcane varieties grown in the fields of Punjab. They were identified by using API20E/NE bacterial identification kits and from sequences of 16S rRNA and amplicons of the cpn60 gene. The majority of bacteria were found to belong to the genera of Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella, but members of genera Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Rahnella, Delftia, Caulobacter, Pannonibacter, Xanthomonas, and Stenotrophomonas were also found. The community, however, was dominated by members of the Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, as representatives of these genera were found in samples from every variety and location examined. All isolates were tested for the presence of five enzymes and seven factors known to be associated with plant growth promotion. Ten isolates showed lipase activity and eight were positive for protease activity. Cellulase, chitinase, and pectinase were not detected in any strain. Nine strains showed nitrogen fixing ability (acetylene reduction assay) and 26 were capable of solubilizing phosphate. In the presence of 100 mg/l tryptophan, all strains except one produced indole acetic acid in the growth medium. All isolates were positive for ACC deaminase activity. Six strains produced homoserine lactones and three produced HCN and hexamate type siderophores. One isolate was capable of inhibiting the growth of 24 pathogenic fungal strains of Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Pythium, and Rhizoctonia spp. In tests of their abilities to grow under a range of temperature, pH, and NaCl concentrations, all isolates grew well on plates with 3% NaCl and most of them grew well at 4 to 41degrees C and at pH 11. PMID:21193815

  7. Optimization of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria-Assisted Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings

    PubMed Central

    Grandlic, Christopher J.; Palmer, Michael W.; Maier, Raina M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can improve revegetation of arid mine tailings as measured by increased biomass production. The goals of the present study were first to evaluate how mode of application of known PGPB affects plant growth, and second to evaluate the effect of this inoculation on rhizosphere microbial community structure. PGPB application strategies investigated include preliminary surface sterilization of seeds (a common practice in phytoremediation trials) followed by a comparison of two application methods; immersion and alginate encapsulation. Results with two native desert plant species, Atriplex lentiformis and Buchloe dactyloides, suggest that seed surface sterilization prior to inoculation is not necessary to achieve beneficial effects of introduced PGPB. Both PGPB application techniques generally enhanced plant growth although results were both plant and PGPB specific. These results demonstrate that alginate encapsulation, which allows for long-term storage and easier application to seeds, is an effective way to inoculate PGPB. In addition, the influence of PGPB application on B. dactyloides rhizosphere community structure was evaluated using PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis of bacterial DNA extracted from rhizosphere samples collected 75 d following planting. A comparative analysis of DGGE profiles was performed using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). DGGE-CCA showed that rhizosphere community profiles from PGPB-inoculated treatments are significantly different from both uninoculated tailings rhizosphere profiles and profiles from the compost used to amend the tailings. Further, community profiles from B. dactyloides inoculated with the best performing PGPB (Arthro mix) were significantly different from two other PGPB tested. These results suggest that introduced PGPB have the potential to influence the development of the rhizosphere community structure found in plants grown in mine tailings. PMID:20161141

  8. Optimization of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria-Assisted Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings.

    PubMed

    Grandlic, Christopher J; Palmer, Michael W; Maier, Raina M

    2009-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can improve revegetation of arid mine tailings as measured by increased biomass production. The goals of the present study were first to evaluate how mode of application of known PGPB affects plant growth, and second to evaluate the effect of this inoculation on rhizosphere microbial community structure. PGPB application strategies investigated include preliminary surface sterilization of seeds (a common practice in phytoremediation trials) followed by a comparison of two application methods; immersion and alginate encapsulation. Results with two native desert plant species, Atriplex lentiformis and Buchloe dactyloides, suggest that seed surface sterilization prior to inoculation is not necessary to achieve beneficial effects of introduced PGPB. Both PGPB application techniques generally enhanced plant growth although results were both plant and PGPB specific. These results demonstrate that alginate encapsulation, which allows for long-term storage and easier application to seeds, is an effective way to inoculate PGPB. In addition, the influence of PGPB application on B. dactyloides rhizosphere community structure was evaluated using PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis of bacterial DNA extracted from rhizosphere samples collected 75 d following planting. A comparative analysis of DGGE profiles was performed using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). DGGE-CCA showed that rhizosphere community profiles from PGPB-inoculated treatments are significantly different from both uninoculated tailings rhizosphere profiles and profiles from the compost used to amend the tailings. Further, community profiles from B. dactyloides inoculated with the best performing PGPB (Arthro mix) were significantly different from two other PGPB tested. These results suggest that introduced PGPB have the potential to influence the development of the rhizosphere community structure found in plants grown in mine tailings. PMID:20161141

  9. Fresh-weight measurements of roots provide inaccurate estimates of the effects of plant growth-promoting bacteria on root growth: a critical examination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoav Bashan; Luz E. de-Bashan

    2005-01-01

    Four strains of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), including three strains of Azospirillum and Pseudomonas fluorescens 313 were used to inoculate seeds of wheat, tomato, pepper, and cotton. Inoculated seedlings were grown to the two or three-leaf stage. After harvest, seven different environmental and technical conditions were evaluated to determine the effect of these conditions on the reproducibility of fresh and

  10. Nardilysin and ADAM proteases promote gastric cancer cell growth by activating intrinsic cytokine signalling via enhanced ectodomain shedding of TNF-?

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Keitaro; Komekado, Hideyuki; Sawabu, Tateo; Ishizu, Shoko; Nakanishi, Yuki; Nakatsuji, Masato; Akitake-Kawano, Reiko; Ohno, Mikiko; Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Kawada, Mayumi; Kawada, Kenji; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Matsumoto, Kyoichi; Kunichika, Makoto; Kimura, Takeshi; Seno, Hiroshi; Nishi, Eiichiro; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Nardilysin (NRDc), a metalloendopeptidase of the M16 family, promotes ectodomain shedding of the precursor forms of various growth factors and cytokines by enhancing the protease activities of ADAM proteins. Here, we show the growth-promoting role of NRDc in gastric cancer cells. Analyses of clinical samples demonstrated that NRDc protein expression was frequently elevated both in the serum and cancer epithelium of gastric cancer patients. After NRDc knockdown, tumour cell growth was suppressed both in vitro and in xenograft experiments. In gastric cancer cells, NRDc promotes shedding of pro-tumour necrosis factor-alpha (pro-TNF-?), which stimulates expression of NF-?B-regulated multiple cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6. In turn, IL-6 activates STAT3, leading to transcriptional upregulation of downstream growth-related genes. Gene silencing of ADAM17 or ADAM10, representative ADAM proteases, phenocopied the changes in cytokine expression and cell growth induced by NRDc knockdown. Our results demonstrate that gastric cancer cell growth is maintained by autonomous TNF-?–NF-?B and IL-6–STAT3 signalling, and that NRDc and ADAM proteases turn on these signalling cascades by stimulating ectodomain shedding of TNF-?. PMID:22351606

  11. The Pollen Receptor Kinase LePRK2 Mediates Growth-Promoting Signals and Positively Regulates Pollen Germination and Tube Growth1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Wengier, Diego; Shuai, Bin; Gui, Cai-Ping; Muschietti, Jorge; McCormick, Sheila; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2008-01-01

    In flowering plants, the process of pollen germination and tube growth is required for successful fertilization. A pollen receptor kinase from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), LePRK2, has been implicated in signaling during pollen germination and tube growth as well as in mediating pollen (tube)-pistil communication. Here we show that reduced expression of LePRK2 affects four aspects of pollen germination and tube growth. First, the percentage of pollen that germinates is reduced, and the time window for competence to germinate is also shorter. Second, the pollen tube growth rate is reduced both in vitro and in the pistil. Third, tip-localized superoxide production by pollen tubes cannot be increased by exogenous calcium ions. Fourth, pollen tubes have defects in responses to style extract component (STIL), an extracellular growth-promoting signal from the pistil. Pollen tubes transiently overexpressing LePRK2-fluorescent protein fusions had slightly wider tips, whereas pollen tubes coexpressing LePRK2 and its cytoplasmic partner protein KPP (a Rop-GEF) had much wider tips. Together these results show that LePRK2 positively regulates pollen germination and tube growth and is involved in transducing responses to extracellular growth-promoting signals. PMID:18799662

  12. Role of dietary phytochemicals in modulating local innate immunity and as alternatives to growth promoting antibiotics to reduce inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global animal industry needs to address the increasing regulatory restrictions on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in animal production. Many AGPs have already been restricted by animal farms in the EU and soon other countries are expected to be under increasing scrutiny as consumer...

  13. TRAIL-R4 Promotes Tumor Growth and Resistance to Apoptosis in Cervical Carcinoma HeLa Cells through AKT

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    TRAIL-R4 Promotes Tumor Growth and Resistance to Apoptosis in Cervical Carcinoma HeLa Cells through, in a ligand independent manner, signaling properties in the cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa, through Akt Carcinoma HeLa Cells through AKT. PLoS ONE 6(5): e19679. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019679 Editor: Frederic

  14. Draft genome sequence of plant growth-promoting rhizobium Mesorhizobium amorphae, isolated from zinc-lead mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiuli; Lin, Yanbing; Johnstone, Laurel; Baltrus, David A; Miller, Susan J; Wei, Gehong; Rensing, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Mesorhizobium amorphae strain CCNWGS0123, isolated from nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia growing on zinc-lead mine tailings. A large number of metal(loid) resistance genes, as well as genes reported to promote plant growth, were identified, presenting a great future potential for aiding phytoremediation in metal(loid)-contaminated soil. PMID:22247533

  15. Myc and YY1 mediate activation of the Surf-1 promoter in response to serum growth factors

    E-print Network

    Gaston, Kevin

    Myc and YY1 mediate activation of the Surf-1 promoter in response to serum growth factors Ellen G; accepted 26 April 2000 Abstract The human Surf-1 and Surf-2 genes are divergently transcribed and share transcription in the Surf-1 direction, but has no effect on transcription in the Surf-2 direction. Mutations

  16. Integration of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and chemical elicitors for induction of systemic resistance in mulberry against multiple diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Gupta; Sidhartha Mishra; N. B. Chowdary; G. S. Vindhya; R. K. Rajan

    2008-01-01

    In mulberry (Morus alba L.), various individual strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and synthetic analogs of naturally occurring plant activators have demonstrated their potential to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) against either brown leaf spot (Cercospora moricola) or leaf rust (Cerotelium fici) diseases. However, these biological and chemical elicitors have not been evaluated so far against multiple infections of

  17. EFFECTS OF THE ANDROGENIC GROWTH PROMOTER 17-β TRENBOLONE ON FECUNDITY AND REPRODUCTIVE ENDROCRINOLOGY OF THE FATHEAD MINNOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic steroid which is extensively used in the U.S. as a growth promoter in beef cattle. The acetate is administered to livestock via slow release implants; some is converted by the animal to 17-? trenbolone, a relatively potent androgen receptor ...

  18. Characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates from turkeys in commercial processing plants for resistance to antibiotics, disinfectants, and a growth promoter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from turkeys in commercial processing plants were characterized for susceptibility to antibiotics, disinfectants, disinfectant components, and the organoarsenical growth promotant 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid (3-NHPAA) and its metabolites NaAsO2 (As[III])...

  19. Genome Sequence of Rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens Strain 90-166, Which Triggers Induced Systemic Resistance and Plant Growth Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Kloepper, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    The rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens strain 90-166 elicits induced systemic resistance against plant pathogens and herbivores and promotes plant growth under greenhouse and field conditions. Strain 90-166 secretes volatile compounds, siderophores, salicylic acid, and quorum-sensing autoinducers as bacterial determinants toward plant health. Herein, we present its draft genome sequence.

  20. Genome Sequence of Rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens Strain 90-166, Which Triggers Induced Systemic Resistance and Plant Growth Promotion.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens strain 90-166 elicits induced systemic resistance against plant pathogens and herbivores and promotes plant growth under greenhouse and field conditions. Strain 90-166 secretes volatile compounds, siderophores, salicylic acid, and quorum-sensing autoinducers as bacterial determinants toward plant health. Herein, we present its draft genome sequence. PMID:26089427

  1. Phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-07-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum. PMID:25023078

  2. Rol genes alter hormonal requirements for protoplast growth and modify the expression of an auxin responsive promoter.

    PubMed

    Walden, R; Czaja, I; Schmülling, T; Schell, J

    1993-08-01

    Growth characteristics of tobacco protoplasts containing rolA linked to its own promoter, or the rolB, or rolC genes of Agrobacterium rhizogenes linked to the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S RNA promoter were compared with those from untransformed plants. RolA protoplasts require auxin and cytokinin for callus formation. Protoplasts overexpressing rolB and C form callus in the absence of exogenously applied auxin and cytokinin, respectively. Long term callus growth requires auxin, but the requirement for cytokinin is not critical. Optimal transient expression of an auxin responsive promoter element occurred at lower external levels of auxin in rolB and rolC protoplasts compared with untransformed protoplasts. Addition of putrescine was required for auxin responsive transient gene expression in rolA protoplasts suggesting that polyamines, or their products affect gene expression in rolA plants. PMID:24201783

  3. Nitrophenols isolated from diesel exhaust particles promote the growth of MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Furuta, Chie [Department of Basic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Suzuki, Akira K. [Environmental Nanotoxicology Section, Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Gen [Department of Basic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Li, ChunMei; Taneda, Shinji [Environmental Nanotoxicology Section, Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, 305-8506 (Japan); Taya, Kazuyoshi [Department of Basic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)], E-mail: taya@cc.tuat.ac.jp

    2008-08-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) cause many adverse health problems, and reports indicate increased risk of breast cancer in men and women through exposure to gasoline and vehicle exhaust. However, DEPs include vast numbers of compounds, and the specific compound(s) responsible for these actions are not clear. We recently isolated two nitrophenols from DEPs-3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (4-nitro-m-cresol; PNMC) and 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol (PNMPP)-and showed that they had estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities. Here, we tried to clarify the involvement of these two nitrophenols in promoting the growth of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. First, comet assay was used to detect the genotoxicity of PNMC and PNMPP in a CHO cell line. At all doses tested, PNMC and PNMPP showed negative genotoxicity, indicating that they had no tumor initiating activity. Next, the estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was used to assess cell proliferation. Proliferation of MCF-7 cells was stimulated by PNMC, PNMPP, and estradiol-17{beta} and the anti-estrogens 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 182,780 inhibited the proliferation. To further investigate transcriptional activity through the estrogen receptor, MCF-7 cells were transfected with a receptor gene that allowed expression of luciferase enzyme under the control of the estrogen regulatory element. PNMC and PNMPP induced luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner at submicromolar concentrations. ICI 182,780 inhibited the luciferase activity induced by PNMC and PNMPP. These results clearly indicate that PNMC and PNMPP do not show genotoxicity but act as tumor promoters in an estrogen receptor {alpha}-predominant breast cancer cell line.

  4. Early growth response-1 attenuates liver injury and promotes hepatoprotection after carbon tetrachloride exposure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Michele T.; Cohen, Jessica I.; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; Pratt, Brian T.; Nagy, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Inflammatory gene expression plays a pathological role in acute and chronic hepatic inflammation, yet, inflammation also promotes liver repair by inducing protective mechanisms to limit collateral tissue damage by priming hepatocytes for proliferation. Early growth response (Egr)-1, a transcription factor that regulates inflammatory gene expression, plays a pathological role in many animal models of acute and chronic inflammatory disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that Egr-1 is beneficial after toxic liver injury. Methods Acute liver injury was induced in wild-type and egr-1?/? mice by a single injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Liver injury, inflammatory, and hepatoprotective gene expression and signaling events were measured 18, 48, and 72h after CCl4 administration. Results Peak liver injury was greater in egr-1?/? mice compared to wild-type mice. Enhanced injury in egr-1?/? mice was associated with reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)? mRNA and protein expression, reduced Akt phosphorylation and nuclear localization of NF?B-p65 in nuclei of cells in the hepatic sinusoid. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, TNF?-regulated genes that have hepatoprotective function, was attenuated in egr-1?/? mice compared to wild-type mice. Although plasma interleukin (IL)-6 protein and hepatic accumulation of IL-6, glycoprotein 130, and IL-6 receptor ? mRNA in wild-type and egr-1?/? mice were equivalent, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation was attenuated in egr-1?/? mice and associated with reduced oncostatin M expression. Conclusions In contrast to its role in inflammation-mediated tissue injury in other models, Egr-1 expression promotes protection in the liver after CCl4 exposure. PMID:20615570

  5. Influenza promotes collagen deposition via ?v?6 integrin-mediated transforming growth factor ? activation.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Lisa; Stavrou, Anastasios; Vanderstoken, Gilles; Meliopoulos, Victoria A; Habgood, Anthony; Tatler, Amanda L; Porte, Joanne; Knox, Alan; Weinreb, Paul; Violette, Shelia; Hussell, Tracy; Kolb, Martin; Stampfli, Martin R; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Jenkins, Gisli

    2014-12-19

    Influenza infection exacerbates chronic pulmonary diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A central pathway in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is epithelial injury leading to activation of transforming growth factor ? (TGF?). The mechanism and functional consequences of influenza-induced activation of epithelial TGF? are unclear. Influenza stimulates toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which can increase RhoA activity, a key event prior to activation of TGF? by the ?v?6 integrin. We hypothesized that influenza would stimulate TLR3 leading to activation of latent TGF? via ?v?6 integrin in epithelial cells. Using H1152 (IC50 6.1 ?m) to inhibit Rho kinase and 6.3G9 to inhibit ?v?6 integrins, we demonstrate their involvement in influenza (A/PR/8/34 H1N1) and poly(I:C)-induced TGF? activation. We confirm the involvement of TLR3 in this process using chloroquine (IC50 11.9 ?m) and a dominant negative TLR3 construct (pZERO-hTLR3). Examination of lungs from influenza-infected mice revealed augmented levels of collagen deposition, phosphorylated Smad2/3, ?v?6 integrin, and apoptotic cells. Finally, we demonstrate that ?v?6 integrin-mediated TGF? activity following influenza infection promotes epithelial cell death in vitro and enhanced collagen deposition in vivo and that this response is diminished in Smad3 knock-out mice. These data show that H1N1 and poly(I:C) can induce ?v?6 integrin-dependent TGF? activity in epithelial cells via stimulation of TLR3 and suggest a novel mechanism by which influenza infection may promote collagen deposition in fibrotic lung disease. PMID:25339175

  6. RELEASE OF GENETIC TRANSFORMING AGENT FROM PNEUMOCOCCAL CULTURES DURING GROWTH AND DISINTEGRATION

    PubMed Central

    Ottolenghi, Elena; Hotchkiss, Rollin D.

    1962-01-01

    Genetic transformations of pneumococcus mediated by streptomycin-induced lysates were studied to gain some insight into the nature of freshly released transforming principle, and the influence of the physiologic state of the donor population on the transformation process. It was found that streptomycin could make the DNA of sensitive cells available for transformation of other cells. Living cultures of pneumococcus growing exponentially in ordinary media were also found to discharge significant quantities of genetically active DNA. Such cultures, not treated with any drug, showed no evidence of concomitant cell disintegration or death. Both single markers and small linkage groups could be transferred in transformations mediated by drug-induced lysates and by filtrates of living cultures. The quantity of DNA liberated is small (less than 0.1 µg per ml), but these transformations are at least as efficient as transformations mediated by purified DNA, when compared on the basis of total DNA available. Up to 1 per cent of the cells in an average recipient culture can be transformed by a small quantity of culture fluid. Both in drug-treated and in untreated cultures the amount of transforming activity increased and then decreased during growth of the culture. Although the source of transforming DNA in growing cultures could not be established, the decline in the transforming activity of aging drug-treated or untreated cultures was attributed to the presence of deoxyribonuclease. The release of this nuclease by pneumococcal cultures midway in exponential growth is sufficient to result in a mild degradation of the low concentration of freshly released transforming agent present. Maximal release of active transforming agent by a living culture coincided in time with the development of maximal receptivity to exogenous DNA by that culture. As a result, recombinants could be recovered from appropriately genetically marked strains growing in each other's presence. In view of these results, it seems possible that DNA-mediated transformations might provide, or might have provided, a mechanism of genetic recombination in nature for some bacterial species in which sexual mechanisms may not be available. PMID:13940741

  7. Oxygen and Air Nanobubble Water Solution Promote the Growth of Plants, Fishes, and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ebina, Kosuke; Shi, Kenrin; Hirao, Makoto; Hashimoto, Jun; Kawato, Yoshitaka; Kaneshiro, Shoichi; Morimoto, Tokimitsu; Koizumi, Kota; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Nanobubbles (<200 nm in diameter) have several unique properties such as long lifetime in liquid owing to its negatively charged surface, and its high gas solubility into the liquid owing to its high internal pressure. They are used in variety of fields including diagnostic aids and drug delivery, while there are no reports assessing their effects on the growth of lives. Nanobubbles of air or oxygen gas were generated using a nanobubble aerator (BUVITAS; Ligaric Company Limited, Osaka, Japan). Brassica campestris were cultured hydroponically for 4 weeks within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Sweetfish (for 3 weeks) and rainbow trout (for 6 weeks) were kept either within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Finally, 5 week-old male DBA1/J mice were bred with normal free-chaw and free-drinking either of oxygen-nanobubble water or of normal water for 12 weeks. Oxygen-nanobubble significantly increased the dissolved oxygen concentration of water as well as concentration/size of nanobubbles which were relatively stable for 70 days. Air-nanobubble water significantly promoted the height (19.1 vs. 16.7 cm; P<0.05), length of leaves (24.4 vs. 22.4 cm; P<0.01), and aerial fresh weight (27.3 vs. 20.3 g; P<0.01) of Brassica campestris compared to normal water. Total weight of sweetfish increased from 3.0 to 6.4 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 3.0 to 10.2 kg in air-nanobubble water. In addition, total weight of rainbow trout increased from 50.0 to 129.5 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 50.0 to 148.0 kg in air-nanobubble water. Free oral intake of oxygen-nanobubble water significantly promoted the weight (23.5 vs. 21.8 g; P<0.01) and the length (17.0 vs. 16.1 cm; P<0.001) of mice compared to that of normal water. We have demonstrated for the first time that oxygen and air-nanobubble water may be potentially effective tools for the growth of lives. PMID:23755221

  8. A Scabies Mite Serpin Interferes with Complement-Mediated Neutrophil Functions and Promotes Staphylococcal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Swe, Pearl M.; Fischer, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background Scabies is a contagious skin disease caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The disease is highly prevalent worldwide and known to predispose to secondary bacterial infections, in particular by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Reports of scabies patients co-infected with methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pose a major concern for serious down-stream complications. We previously reported that a range of complement inhibitors secreted by the mites promoted the growth of S. pyogenes. Here, we show that a recently characterized mite serine protease inhibitor (SMSB4) inhibits the complement-mediated blood killing of S. aureus. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood killing of S. aureus was measured in whole blood bactericidal assays, counting viable bacteria recovered after treatment in fresh blood containing active complement and phagocytes, treated with recombinant SMSB4. SMSB4 inhibited the blood killing of various strains of S. aureus including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive isolates. Staphylococcal growth was promoted in a dose-dependent manner. We investigated the effect of SMSB4 on the complement-mediated neutrophil functions, namely phagocytosis, opsonization and anaphylatoxin release, by flow cytometry and in enzyme linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISA). SMSB4 reduced phagocytosis of S. aureus by neutrophils. It inhibited the deposition of C3b, C4b and properdin on the bacteria surface, but did not affect the depositions of C1q and MBL. SMSB4 also inhibited C5 cleavage as indicated by a reduced C5b-9 deposition. Conclusions/Significance We postulate that SMSB4 interferes with the activation of all three complement pathways by reducing the amount of C3 convertase formed. We conclude that SMSB4 interferes with the complement-dependent killing function of neutrophils, thereby reducing opsonization, phagocytosis and further recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. As a consequence secreted scabies mites complement inhibitors, such as SMSB4, provide favorable conditions for the onset of S. aureus co-infection in the scabies-infected microenvironment by suppressing the immediate host immune response. PMID:24945501

  9. Identification of a Peripheral Nerve Neurite Growth-Promoting Activity by Development and Use of an in vitro Bioassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrock, Alfred W.; Matthew, William D.

    1987-10-01

    The effective regeneration of severed neuronal axons in the peripheral nerves of adult mammals may be explained by the presence of molecules in situ that promote the effective elongation of neurites. The absence of such molecules in the central nervous system of these animals may underlie the relative inability of axons to regenerate in this tissue after injury. In an effort to identify neurite growth-promoting molecules in tissues that support effective axonal regeneration, we have developed an in vitro bioassay that is sensitive to substrate-bound factors of peripheral nerve that influence the growth of neurites. In this assay, neonatal rat superior cervical ganglion explants are placed on longitudinal cryostat sections of fresh-frozen sciatic nerve, and the regrowing axons are visualized by catecholamine histofluorescence. Axons are found to regenerate effectively over sciatic nerve tissue sections. When ganglia are similarly explanted onto cryostat sections of adult rat central nervous system tissue, however, axonal regeneration is virtually absent. We have begun to identify the molecules in peripheral nerve that promote effective axonal regeneration by examining the effect of antibodies that interfere with the activity of previously described neurite growth-promoting factors. Axonal elongation over sciatic nerve tissue was found to be sensitive to the inhibitory effects of INO (for inhibitor of neurite outgrowth), a monoclonal antibody that recognizes and inhibits a neurite growth-promoting activity from PC-12 cell-conditioned medium. The INO antigen appears to be a molecular complex of laminin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan. In contrast, a rabbit antiserum that recognizes laminin purified from mouse Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) sarcoma, stains the Schwann cell basal lamina of peripheral nerve, and inhibits neurite growth over purified laminin substrata has no detectable effect on the rate of axonal regeneration in our assay.

  10. Purification of growth-promoting peptides and proteins, and of histones, by high pressure silica gel chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pickart, L R; Thaler, M M

    1975-01-01

    A rapid method for the purification of histones and a variety of growth-promoting proteins and peptides by chromatography on silica gel has been developed. The isolation of the growth-promoting components of serum has been hampered by excessive losses associated with the use of water-based purification mens in acidic methanol-H2O solutions (eg. insulin, albumin, the somatomedins) provides a basis for purification on high-pressure silica gel columns, while peptides and histones can be purified in similar solvents. After column chromatography, the solvent is removed by flash-evaporation, or the protein may be precipitated directly from the solvent by neutralization of the pH and the addition of ethanol. The retention of biological activity (eg. somatomedin-C binding to insulin receptors and cell-growth stimulation) and recovery are excellent. PMID:1215337

  11. Nitrogenous Nutrients Promote the Growth and Toxicity of Dinophysis acuminata during Estuarine Bloom Events.

    PubMed

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Marcoval, Maria A; Mittlesdorf, Heidi; Goleski, Jennifer A; Wang, Zhihong; Haynes, Bennie; Morton, Steve L; Gobler, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) is a globally significant human health syndrome most commonly caused by dinoflagellates within the genus Dinophysis. While blooms of harmful algae have frequently been linked to excessive nutrient loading, Dinophysis is a mixotrophic alga whose growth is typically associated with prey availability. Consequently, field studies of Dinophysis and nutrients have been rare. Here, the temporal dynamics of Dinophysis acuminata blooms, DSP toxins, and nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, silicate, organic compounds) were examined over four years within two New York estuaries (Meetinghouse Creek and Northport Bay). Further, changes in the abundance and toxicity of D. acuminata were assessed during a series of nutrient amendment experiments performed over a three year period. During the study, Dinophysis acuminata blooms exceeding one million cells L-1 were observed in both estuaries. Highly significant (p<0.001) forward stepwise multivariate regression models of ecosystem observations demonstrated that D. acuminata abundances were positively dependent on multiple environmental parameters including ammonium (p = 0.007) while cellular toxin content was positively dependent on ammonium (p = 0.002) but negatively dependent on nitrate (p<0.001). Nitrogen- (N) and phosphorus- (P) containing inorganic and organic nutrients significantly enhanced D. acuminata densities in nearly all (13 of 14) experiments performed. Ammonium significantly increased cell densities in 10 of 11 experiments, while glutamine significantly enhanced cellular DSP content in 4 of 5 experiments examining this compound. Nutrients may have directly or indirectly enhanced D. acuminata abundances as densities of this mixotroph during experiments were significantly correlated with multiple members of the planktonic community (phytoflagellates and Mesodinium). Collectively, this study demonstrates that nutrient loading and more specifically N-loading promotes the growth and toxicity of D. acuminata populations in coastal zones. PMID:25894567

  12. Draft genome sequence of Rahnella aquatilis strain HX2, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium isolated from vineyard soil in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanbin; Jiao, Ziwei; Li, Lei; Wu, Di; Crowley, David E; Wang, Yongjun; Wu, Wenliang

    2012-12-01

    Rahnella aquatilis strain HX2 is a plant growth-promoting, disease-suppressive rhizobacterium that was isolated from a vineyard soil in Beijing, China. Here, we report the genome sequence of this strain, which provides a valuable resource for future research examining the mechanisms of traits associated with plant growth promotion and biocontrol. PMID:23144397

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Rahnella aquatilis Strain HX2, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Isolated from Vineyard Soil in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanbin; Jiao, Ziwei; Li, Lei; Wu, Di; Crowley, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Rahnella aquatilis strain HX2 is a plant growth-promoting, disease-suppressive rhizobacterium that was isolated from a vineyard soil in Beijing, China. Here, we report the genome sequence of this strain, which provides a valuable resource for future research examining the mechanisms of traits associated with plant growth promotion and biocontrol. PMID:23144397

  14. Infection of clover by plant growth promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 267 and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii studied by mTn5- gus A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Marek-Kozaczuk; Joanna Kopci?ska; Barbara ?otocka; W?adys?aw Golinowski; Anna Skorupska

    2000-01-01

    Plant growth promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 267, isolated from soil, produced pseudobactin A, 7-sulfonic acid derivatives of pseudobactin A and several B group vitamins. In coinoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain 24.1, strain 267 promoted clover growth and enhanced symbiotic nitrogen fixation under controlled conditions. To better understand the beneficial effect of P. fluorescens 267 on clover inoculated with

  15. Cancer and Pregnancy: Parallels in Growth, Invasion, and Immune Modulation and Implications for Cancer Therapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Holtan, Shernan G.; Creedon, Douglas J.; Haluska, Paul; Markovic, Svetomir N.

    2009-01-01

    Many proliferative, invasive, and immune tolerance mechanisms that support normal human pregnancy are also exploited by malignancies to establish a nutrient supply and evade or edit the host immune response. In addition to the shared capacity for invading through normal tissues, both cancer cells and cells of the developing placenta create a microenvironment supportive of both immunologic privilege and angiogenesis. Systemic alterations in immunity are also detectable, particularly with respect to a helper T cell type 2 polarization evident in advanced cancers and midtrimester pregnancy. This review summarizes the similarities between growth and immune privilege in cancer and pregnancy and identifies areas for further investigation. Our PubMed search strategy included combinations of terms such as immune tolerance, pregnancy, cancer, cytokines, angiogenesis, and invasion. We did not place any restrictions on publication dates. The knowledge gained from analyzing similarities and differences between the physiologic state of pregnancy and the pathologic state of cancer could lead to identification of new potential targets for cancer therapeutic agents. PMID:19880689

  16. Effect of complexing agent on hydrothermal growth of ZnO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiLeo, Liliane; Romano, Dana; Schaeffer, Luther; Gersten, Bonnie; Foster, Catherine; Gelabert, Maria C.

    2004-10-01

    In this study, three multidentate ligands—diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and tetraethylenepentamine (tetren)—were investigated in the hydrothermal growth of crystals of zinc oxide (ZnO). Aqueous solutions containing zinc-ligand complexes and KOH were hydrothermally reacted and the products examined. Reactants were placed in teflon-lined stainless steel autoclaves and heated to a temperature of 200 °C, generating pressures of approximately 15 atm. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on the resulting products revealed crystals with needle and plate habits, with needle lengths up to approximately 1 mm for EDTA and plate dimensions up to 100 ?m for DTPA. When only complexing agent was varied at high pH, needles were observed for all samples, with EDTA yielding the longest (300 ?m) and tetren yielding the shortest (20 ?m); results were analyzed by considering complex formation constants, qualitative ligand polarity and complex strain. A variable pH study with 2 aminocarboxylic ligands, EDTA and DTPA, yielded mostly needles and dendritic formations for EDTA over the studied pH range (6-14), and plates or needles for DTPA. Results of variable pH products were analyzed by considering concentrations of all zinc-ligand and zinc-hydroxy species as a function of pH.

  17. Genome Sequencing of a Mung Bean Plant Growth Promoting Strain of P. aeruginosa with Biocontrol Ability

    PubMed Central

    Illakkiam, Devaraj; Shankar, Manoharan; Ponraj, Paramasivan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 is a mung bean rhizosphere strain that produces secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes contributing to excellent antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, one of the prevalent fungal pathogens of mung bean. Genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine generating 1,354,732 reads (6,772,433 sequenced bases) achieving ~25-fold coverage of the genome. Reference genome assembly using MIRA 3.4.0 yielded 198 contigs. The draft genome of PGPR2 encoded 6803 open reading frames, of which 5314 were genes with predicted functions, 1489 were genes of known functions, and 80 were RNA-coding genes. Strain specific and core genes of P. aeruginosa PGPR2 that are relevant to rhizospheric habitat were identified by pangenome analysis. Genes involved in plant growth promoting function such as synthesis of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, trehalose, mineral scavenging siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, chitinases, acyl homoserine lactones, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and phytases were identified. In addition, niche-specific genes such as phosphate solubilising 3-phytase, adhesins, pathway-specific transcriptional regulators, a diguanylate cyclase involved in cellulose synthesis, a receptor for ferrienterochelin, a DEAD/DEAH-box helicase involved in stress tolerance, chemotaxis/motility determinants, an HtpX protease, and enzymes involved in the production of a chromanone derivative with potent antifungal activity were identified. PMID:25184130

  18. Practices and Challenges of Growth Monitoring and Promotion in Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Albine; Blanco, Roman; Spigt, Mark; Dinant, Geert Jan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) has become widespread. It is a potential contributor towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals of halving hunger and reducing child mortality by two-thirds within 2015. Yet, GMP appears to be a prerequisite for good child health but several studies have shown that there is a discrepancy between the purpose and the practice of GMP. The high prevalence of malnutrition in many developing countries seems to confirm this fact. A descriptive qualitative study was carried out from April to September 2011. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted amongst mothers and health workers. Data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis technique, with the support of ATLAS.ti 5.0 software. The results suggest that most mothers were aware of the need for regular weight monitoring while health workers also seemed to be well-aware and to practise GMP according to the international guidelines. However, there was a deficit in maternal knowledge with regard to child-feeding and a lack of basic resources to keep and/or to buy healthful and nutritionally-rich food. Furthermore, the role of the husband was not always supportive of proper child-feeding. In general, GMP is unlikely to succeed if mothers lack awareness of proper child-feeding practices, and if they are not supported by their husbands. PMID:25395907

  19. Plant growth-promoting trait of rhizobacteria isolated from soil contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Koo, So-Yeon; Hong, Sun Hwa; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-suk

    2010-03-01

    Three hundred and seventy-four rhizobacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere soil (RS) or rhizoplane (RP) of Echinochloa crus-galli, Carex leiorhyncha, Commelina communis, Persicaria lapathifolia, Carex kobomugi, and Equisetum arvense, grown in contaminated soil with petroleum and heavy metals. The isolates were screened for plant growth-promoting potential (PGPP), including indole acetic acid (IAA) productivity, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, and siderophore(s) synthesis ability. IAA production was detected in 86 isolates (23.0%), ACC deaminase activity in 168 isolates (44.9%), and siderophore(s) synthesis in 213 isolates (57.0%). Among the rhizobateria showing PGPP, 162 rhizobacteria had multiple traits showing more than two types of PGPP. The PGPP-having rhizobateria were more abundant in the RP (82%) samples than the RS (75%). There was a negative correlation (-0.656, p < 0.05) between the IAA-producers and the ACC deaminase producers. Clustering analysis by principal component analysis showed that RP was the most important factor influencing ecological distribution and physiological characterization of PGPP-possesing rhizobateria. PMID:20372032

  20. Non-therapeutic administration of a model antimicrobial growth promoter modulates intestinal immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The development of efficacious alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP) in livestock production is an urgent issue, but is hampered by a lack of knowledge regarding the mode of action of AGP. The belief that AGP modulate the intestinal microbiota has become prominent in the literature; however, there is a lack of experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. Using a chlortetracycline-murine-Citrobacter rodentium model, the ability of AGP to modulate the intestinal immune system in mammals was investigated. Results C. rodentium was transformed with the tetracycline resistance gene, tetO, and continuous oral administration of a non-therapeutic dose of chlortetracycline to mice did not affect densities of C. rodentium CFU in feces throughout the experiment or associated with mucosal surfaces in the colon (i.e. at peak and late infection). However, chlortetracycline regulated transcription levels of Th1 and Th17 inflammatory cytokines in a temporal manner in C. rodentium-inoculated mice, and ameliorated weight loss associated with infection. In mice inoculated with C. rodentium, those that received chlortetracycline had less pathologic changes in the distal colon than mice not administered CTC (i.e. relative to untreated mice). Furthermore, chlortetracycline administration at a non-therapeutic dose did not impart either prominent or consistent effects on the colonic microbiota. Conclusion Data support the hypothesis that AGP function by modulating the intestinal immune system in mammals. This finding may facilitate the development of biorationale-based and efficacious alternatives to AGP. PMID:21943280

  1. Hexavalent chromium reduction and plant growth promotion by Staphylococcusarlettae strain Cr11.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Sadhana; Dwivedi, Abhishek; Yadav, Suneel; Tripathi, Manishi; Kaistha, Shilpa Deshpande

    2012-02-01

    Cr(VI), a mutagenic and carcinogenic pollutant in industrial effluents, was effectively reduced by an indigenous tannery effluent isolate Staphylococcus arlettae strain Cr11 under aerobic conditions. The isolate could tolerate Cr(VI) up to 2000 and 5000 mg L(-1) in liquid and solid media respectively. S. arlettae Cr11 effectively reduced 98% of 100 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) in 24h. Reduction for initial Cr(VI) concentrations of 500 and 1000 mg L(-1) was 98% and 75%, respectively in 120 h. The isolate was also positive for siderophore, indole acetic acid, ammonia and catalase production, phosphate solubilization and biofilm formation in the presence and absence of Cr(VI). The isolate showed halotolerance (10% NaCl) and cross tolerance to other toxic heavy metals such as Hg(2+), Ni(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+). Bacterial inoculation of Triticum aestivum in controlled petri dish and soil environment showed significant increase in percent germination, root and shoot length as well as dry and wet weight in Cr(VI) treated and untreated samples. This is the first report of simultaneous Cr(VI) reduction and plant growth promotion for a S. arlettae strain. PMID:22169713

  2. Autologous platelet-rich plasma promotes endometrial growth and improves pregnancy outcome during in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yajie; Li, Jingjie; Chen, Yuqing; Wei, Lina; Yang, Xing; Shi, Yanan; Liang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP in the therapy of infertile women with thin endometrium (? 7 mm). Material and methods: Five women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with poor endometrial response still had thin endometrium (< 7 mm) after standard hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and had to cancel embryo transfer cycle. In addition to HRT, intrauterine infusion of PRP was performed. PRP was prepared from autologous blood by centrifugation, and 0.5-1 ml of PRP was infused into the uterine cavity on the 10th day of HRT cycle. If endometrial thickness failed to increase 72 h later, PRP infusion was done 1-2 times in each cycle. Embryos were transferred when the endometrium thickness reached > 7 mm. Results: Successful endometrial expansion and pregnancy were observed in all the patients after PRP infusion. Intrauterine PRP infusion represent a new method for the thin endometrium with poor response. Conclusion: This article reported that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was able to promote the endometrial growth and improve pregnancy outcome of patients with thin endometrium. PMID:25785127

  3. Transcriptional response machineries of Bacillus subtilis conducive to plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Kazutake

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis collectively inhabits the rhizosphere, where it contributes to the promotion of plant growth, although it does not have a direct symbiotic relationship to plants as observed in the case of rhizobia between leguminous plants. As rhizobia sense the flavonoids released from their host roots through the NodD transcriptional factor, which triggers transcription of the nod genes involved in the symbiotic processes, we supposed that B. subtilis utilizes certain flavonoids as signaling molecules to perceive and adapt to the rhizospheric environment that it is in. Our approaches to identify the flavonoid-responsive transcriptional regulatory system from B. subtilis resulted in the findings that three transcriptional factors (LmrA/QdoR, YetL, and Fur) are responsive to flavonoids, with the modes of action being different from each other. We also revealed a unique regulatory system by two transcriptional factors, YcnK and CsoR, for copper homeostasis in B. subtilis. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms of these regulatory systems with the relevant information and discuss their physiological significances in the mutually beneficial interaction between B. subtilis and plants, considering the possibility of their application for plant cultivation. PMID:25209494

  4. Utilization of rocks and ectomycorrhizal fungi to promote growth of eucalypt.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Alves; Vetúria L, Oliveira; Germano N, Silva Filho

    2010-07-01

    The utilization of rocks as fertilizers is limited by their low solubility. However, solubilization may be achieved by some micro-organisms, such as ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMf). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of seven isolates of ECMf to solubilize two rocks, alkaline breccia and granite, and to liberate potassium and phosphorus for Eucalyptus dunnii seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Fungal inoculants were produced in a peat-vermiculite-liquid medium mixture and added to the planting substrate at 10 %. Rocks were ground up and added at 0.500 mg and 16.0 mg per plant, as a source of phosphorus and potassium, respectively. Other nutrients were added and E. dunnii seeds were sown. Control plants, non-inoculated, were fertilized with the same amount of phosphorus and potassium using soluble forms. After 90 days, the plant height, shoot dry weight, root length, phosphorus and potassium contents, and mycorrhizal colonization were evaluated. Alkaline breccia was more efficient than granite as a source of phosphorus and potassium for the plants, and may be an alternative to conventional fertilizers. Isolates UFSC-Pt22 (Pisolithus sp.) and UFSC-Pt186 (Pisolithus microcarpus) were the most efficient in promoting plant growth, mainly when combined with alkaline breccia to replace potassium and phosphorus fertilizers, respectively. PMID:24031543

  5. Effect of gamma irradiated sodium alginate on red amaranth ( Amaranthus cruentus L.) as growth promoter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollah, M. Z. I.; Khan, Mubarak A.; Khan, Ruhul A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the growth promotion behavior of sodium alginate (SA) on vegetable (red amaranth, Amaranthus cruentus L.), 3% aqueous solution of SA was irradiated by ?-radiation (Co-60) of various total doses (12.5-50.0 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h. Viscosity of the irradiated SA was found to decrease with increase in the radiation dose. The average molecular weight was also decreased from 10 4 to 10 3 orders. Red amaranth was cultivated in 18 different individual plots and SA solution (150 ppm) was applied on red amaranth after 10 days of seedlings at every 6 days interval. The morphological characters of vegetables were studied randomly in different unit plots. The irradiated SA of 37.5 kGy at 150 ppm solution showed the best performance. Dry matter of red amaranth significantly increased at 37.5 kGy of irradiated alginate treatment which was about 50% higher than that of the untreated samples. The effect of SA on red amaranth was found significant increase; i.e. plant height (17.8%), root length (12.7%), number of leaf (5.4%) and maximum leaf area (2%) compared to that of the control vegetative plant production.

  6. Copper promotion of angiogenesis in isolated rat aortic ring: role of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi-feng; Ding, Xue-qin; Kang, Y James

    2014-01-01

    Copper stimulation of angiogenesis at the organ system level is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) dependent, but copper stimulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation in cultures is VEGF independent. The present study was undertaken to use isolated rat aortic rings to understand the seemly controversial observations between in vivo and in vitro studies. The thoracic aorta was isolated from Sprague Dawley rats (8-10 weeks) and sectioned into 1.0-mm thick vascular rings for culturing. Copper sulfide at a final concentration of 5, 25, 50 or 100 ?M was added to the cultures and maintained for 8 days. A copper chelator, tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) at a final concentration of 25 ?M, was added to some cultures to block the effect of copper. An anti-VEGF antibody was used to determine the role of VEGF in copper promotion of angiogenesis. The data obtained showed that copper at 5 ?M in cultures stimulated the vascular formation; an effect was blocked by TEPA. Copper at concentrations above 50 ?M lost the proangiogenesis effect. However, copper at 5 ?M did not enhance the production of VEGF, and concentrations above 50 ?M significantly increased VEGF production. On the other hand, the treatment with anti-VEGF antibody completely blocked the proangiogenesis effect of 5-?M copper. This study thus demonstrates that VEGF is essential for angiogenesis but the proangiogenesis effect of copper does not act through enhanced production of VEGF. PMID:24314864

  7. Role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in modulating the efficiency of poultry litter composting with rock phosphate and its effect on growth and yield of wheat.

    PubMed

    Billah, Motsim; Bano, Asghari

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in P solubilisation from rock phosphate through composting with poultry litter, and further to study the effects of prepared enriched composts on growth, yield, and phosphorus uptake of wheat crop. Various phosphorus-enriched composts were prepared from rock phosphate and poultry litter (1:10) with and without inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacterias (Pseudomonas sp. and Proteus sp.). Results showed that the rock-phosphate-added poultry litter had higher total phosphorus, available (Mehlic-3 extracted) phosphorus, microbial biomass (carbon and phosphorus), and lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon/nitrogen ratio over poultry litter alone. Inoculation of Pseudomonas sp. with rock phosphate-added poultry litter showed maximum increase in available phosphorus (41% of total phosphorus) followed by Proteus sp. inoculation (30% of total phosphorus) over uninoculated treatment (23% of total phosphorus) on the 120th day of composting. Microbial biomass (carbon and phosphorus) increased up to Day 45 and tended to decrease till the 120th day of composting, irrespective of the treatments. However, in pot experiments, wheat seeds receiving inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacterias, subsequently treated with rock phosphate-enriched compost proved highly stimulatory to plant height, phosphorus uptake, grain yield, and seed phosphorus content over uninoculated untreated control. The plant growth promoting rhizobacterias inoculation can be a sustainable source releasing phosphorus from low grade rock phosphate through composting and application of rock phosphate-enriched compost can be an alternative to chemical fertilisers for better crop production. PMID:25423956

  8. NOVEL MECHANISMS TO PROMOTE GROWTH IN A COMMERCIALLY-IMPORTANT TELEOST, THE RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pituitary hormone, growth hormone (GH), and its intermediary, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), have fundamental roles in the regulation of growth in teleosts. Growth hormone secretion is principally controlled by the two neuroendocrine factors, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and s...

  9. A simple analogue of tumor-promoting aplysiatoxin is an antineoplastic agent rather than a tumor promoter: development of a synthetically accessible protein kinase C activator with bryostatin-like activity.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yu; Yanagita, Ryo C; Hamada, Naoko; Murakami, Akira; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Saito, Naoaki; Nagai, Hiroshi; Irie, Kazuhiro

    2009-06-10

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is widely recognized as a therapeutic target in intractable diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). While inhibition of PKC is a general therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer, PKC activators are potential therapeutic agents for AD and AIDS. However, concerns have been raised about their therapeutic use since PKC activators such as phorbol esters exhibit potent tumor-promoting activities. Naturally occurring bryostatin 1 (bryo-1), prostratin, and 12-deoxyphorbol 13-phenylacetate (DPP) are fascinating PKC activators without tumor-promoting activities. Bryo-1 is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer and is also effective against AD. Prostratin and DPP are attractive candidates for the adjunctive treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, their limited availability from natural sources and synthetic complexity have hampered further development as therapeutic agents. We report here easy access (22 steps) to a simple analogue (1) of the tumor-promoting aplysiatoxin (ATX) as a novel PKC activator with anticancer and anti-tumor-promoting activities. Anticancer activities of 1 against several human cancer cell lines were comparable to those of bryo-1. Moreover, 1 as well as bryo-1 significantly inhibited the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) induction by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), whereas ATX strongly induced EBV-EA. This inhibitory effect is characteristic of antitumor promoters. Compound 1 as well as bryo-1 displayed significant binding and activation of PKCdelta and induced its translocation to the nuclear membrane in CHO-K1 cells. This study provides a synthetically accessible PKC activator with bryo-1-like activities, which could be another therapeutic lead for cancer, AD, and AIDS. PMID:19449873

  10. Characterization of the P4 promoter region of the human insulin-like growth factor II gene.

    PubMed

    Hyun, S W; Kim, S J; Park, K; Rho, H M; Lee, Y I

    1993-10-11

    The human insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) gene contains four promoters (P1, P2, P3 and P4). In order to determine the mechanism by which the P4 promoter is controlled, the human IGF-II P4 promoter was analyzed in cell lines. DNA sequence analysis of the human IGF-II P4 promoter gene showed that the P4 promoter region contains a TATA-like sequence and several G+C rich regions which are essential for transcription. Analysis of the transcription initiation site by S1 nuclease mapping revealed two transcription start sites; both are located immediately behind TATA-like sequence. To determine the location of sites that may be important for the function of the human IGF-II P4 promoter, we constructed chimeric genes of the human IGF-II P4 promoter fused to the coding region for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). These constructs were transfected into HepG2, PLC/PRF/5, G401 and A549 cells, and were examined for CAT activity. All transfected cells showed a similar profile of CAT activity. Sequences responsible for putative enhancer and silencer regions were identified and the 5' flanking sequences of the human IGF-II P4 promoter contain negative regulatory regions (-213 to -174). The 53-base pair fragment located between 111 and 59 base pairs upstream of the start site contains positive regulatory activity. Gel mobility shift assay showed that Sp1 and another proteins might be involved in positive regulation of the human IGF-II P4 promoter. PMID:8405433

  11. Intrinsic characteristics of Cr??-resistant bacteria isolated from an electroplating industry polluted soils for plant growth-promoting activities.

    PubMed

    Hemambika, B; Kannan, V Rajesh

    2012-07-01

    The Cr(6+)-resistant plant growth-promoting bacteria was isolated from soil samples that were collected from an electroplating industry at Coimbatore, India, that had tolerated chromium concentrations up to 500 mg Cr(6+)/L in Luria-Bertani medium. Based on morphology, physiology, and biochemical characteristics, the strain was identified as Bacillus sp. following the Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. Evaluation of plant growth-promoting parameters has revealed the intrinsic ability of the strain for the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, and solubilization of insoluble phosphate. Bacillus sp. have utilized tryptophan as a precursor for their growth and produced IAA (122 ?g/mL). Bacillus sp. also exhibited the production of siderophore that was tested qualitatively using Chrome Azurol S (CAS) assay solution and utilized the insoluble tricalcium phosphate as the sole source of phosphate exhibiting higher rate of phosphate solubilization after 72 h of incubation (1.45 ?g/mL). Extent of Cr(6+) uptake and accumulation of Cr(6+) in the cell wall of Bacillus sp. was investigated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. The congenital capability of this Cr(6+)-resistant plant growth-promoting Bacillus sp. could be employed as bacterial inoculum for the improvement of phytoremediation in heavy metal contaminated soils. PMID:22371065

  12. The influence of oxalate-promoted growth of saponite and talc crystals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, Dirk; Hartman, Hyman; Eberl, Dennis D.; Sears, S. Kelly; Hesse, Reinhard; Vali, Hojatollah

    2013-01-01

    The intercalating growth of new silicate layers or metal hydroxide layers in the interlayer space of other clay minerals is known from various mixed-layer clay minerals such as illite-smectite (I-S), chlorite-vermiculite, and mica-vermiculite. In a recent study, the present authors proposed that smectite-group minerals can be synthesized from solution as new 2:1 silicate layers within the low-charge interlayers of rectorite. That study showed how oxalate catalyzes the crystallization of saponite from a silicate gel at low temperatures (60ºC) and ambient pressure. As an extension of this work the aim of the present study was to test the claim that new 2:1 silicate layers can be synthesized as new intercalating layers in the low-charge interlayers of rectorite and whether oxalate could promote such an intercalation synthesis. Two experiments were conducted at 60ºC and atmospheric pressure. First, disodium oxalate solution was added to a suspension of rectorite in order to investigate the effects that oxalate anions have on the structure of rectorite. In a second experiment, silicate gel of saponitic composition (calculated interlayer charge ?0.33 eq/O10(OH)2) was mixed with a suspension of rectorite and incubated in disodium oxalate solution. The synthesis products were extracted after 3 months and analyzed by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The treatment of ultrathin sections with octadecylammonium (nC = 18) cations revealed the presence of 2:1 layer silicates with different interlayer charges that grew from the silicate gel. The oxalate-promoted nucleation of saponite and talc crystallites on the rectorite led to the alteration and ultimately to the destruction of the rectorite structure. The change was documented in HRTEM lattice-fringe images. The crystallization of new 2:1 layer silicates also occurred within the expandable interlayers of rectorite but not as new 2:1 silicate layers parallel to the previous 2:1 silicate layers. Instead, they grew independently of any orientation predetermined by the rectorite crystal substrate and their crystallization was responsible for the destruction of the rectorite structure.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Nonrhizobial Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria from Nodules of Kudzu ( Pueraria thunbergiana ) and Their Effect on Wheat Seedling Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Selvakumar; S. Kundu; Anand D. Gupta; Yogesh S. Shouche; Hari S. Gupta

    2008-01-01

    The leguminous vine Kudzu (Pueraria thunbergiana) is an introduction into the N. W. Himalayan region of India. Despite its value as a fodder and cover crop, little is known\\u000a about the nature of the nodule microflora. In an attempt to study the nodule bacteria, we isolated and characterized three\\u000a nonrhizobial plant growth promoting bacteria from surface sterilized nodules of Kudzu.

  14. Transcriptional repression of the APC/C activator CCS52A1 promotes active termination of cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Christian; Morohashi, Kengo; Kawamura, Ayako; Takahashi, Naoki; Ishida, Takashi; Umeda, Masaaki; Grotewold, Erich; Sugimoto, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and temporal control of cell growth is central for the morphogenesis of multicellular organisms. For some cell types that undergo extensive post-mitotic cell growth, such as neurons and hair cells, orchestrating the extent of post-mitotic cell growth with development is vital for their physiology and function. Previous studies suggested that the extent of cell growth is linked with an increase in ploidy by endoreduplication but how developmental signals control endocycling and cell growth is not understood in both animals and plants. In this study we show that a trihelix transcription factor, GT2-LIKE 1 (GTL1), actively terminates ploidy-dependent cell growth and its developmentally regulated expression is one of the key determinants of cell size in Arabidopsis leaf hair cells (trichomes). Through genome-wide chromatin-binding studies (ChIP-chip) coupled with transcriptional profiling, we further demonstrate that GTL1 directly represses the transcription of CDH1/FZR/CCS52, an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), to stop the endocycle progression and ploidy-dependent cell growth. Thus, our findings uncover a previously uncharacterised key molecular link between developmental programming and cell-size control, highlighting the central role of APC/C in post-mitotic cell growth. PMID:23143274

  15. Slit2 promotes tumor growth and invasion in chemically induced skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cuiling; Lan, Haimei; Ye, Jie; Li, Weidong; Wei, Ping; Yang, Yang; Guo, Simei; Lan, Tian; Li, Jiangchao; Zhang, Qianqian; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Lijing

    2014-07-01

    Slit, a neuronal guidance cue, binds to Roundabout (Robo) receptors to modulate neuronal, leukocytic, and endothelial migration. Slit has been reported to have an important effect on tumor growth and metastasis. In the current study, we evaluated the role of Slit2 in skin tumor growth and invasion in mice using a two-step chemical carcinogenesis protocol. We found that Slit2 expression correlated with the loss of basement membrane in the samples of human skin squamous cell carcinoma at different stages of disease progression. Slit2-Tg mice developed significantly more skin tumors than wild-type mice. Furthermore, the skin tumors that occurred in Slit2-Tg mice were significantly larger than those in the wild-type mice 10 weeks after 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene initiation until the end of the experiment. We also found that pathological development of the wild-type mice was delayed compared with that of Slit2-Tg mice. To further investigate the mechanism of increasing tumors in Slit2-Tg mice, we analyzed the expression of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in mouse skin lesions and found that the number of BrdU-positive cells and microvessel density in skin lesions were significantly higher in Slit2-Tg mice than in wild-type mice. Histological staining of PAS and type IV collagen and the colocalization of Slit2 and type IV collagen demonstrated varying degrees of loss of the basement membrane in the skin lesions from Slit2-Tg mice that were at the stage of carcinoma in situ. However, the basement membrane was well defined in the wild-type mice. In addition, MMP2, but not MMP9, was upregulated in the skin tissue of Slit2-Tg mice. Interruption of Slit2-Robo1 signaling by the antibody R5 significantly repressed the invasive capability of the squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431. Taken together, our findings reveal that Slit2 promotes DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis by increasing cell proliferation, microvessel density, and invasive behavior of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, along with loss of basement membrane, by upregulation of MMP2 expression. PMID:24840330

  16. Effects of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent Gd-DTPA on Plant Growth and Root Imaging in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Binmei; Wang, Qi; Ni, Xiaoyu; Dong, Yaling; Zhong, Kai; Wu, Yuejin

    2014-01-01

    Although paramagnetic contrast agents have a wide range of applications in medical studies involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), these agents are seldom used to enhance MRI images of plant root systems. To extend the application of MRI contrast agents to plant research and to develop related techniques to study root systems, we examined the applicability of the MRI contrast agent Gd-DTPA to the imaging of rice roots. Specifically, we examined the biological effects of various concentrations of Gd-DTPA on rice growth and MRI images. Analysis of electrical conductivity and plant height demonstrated that 5 mmol Gd-DTPA had little impact on rice in the short-term. The results of signal intensity and spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) analysis suggested that 5 mmol Gd-DTPA was the appropriate concentration for enhancing MRI signals. In addition, examination of the long-term effects of Gd-DTPA on plant height showed that levels of this compound up to 5 mmol had little impact on rice growth and (to some extent) increased the biomass of rice. PMID:24945975

  17. Optimized N-phenyl- N?-(2-chloroethyl)ureas as potential antineoplastic agents: Synthesis and growth inhibition activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Moreau; Sébastien Fortin; Michel Desjardins; Jean L. C. Rousseau; Éric Petitclerc; René C.-Gaudreault

    2005-01-01

    In our ongoing research program aimed at the optimization of microtubule-self-assembly disrupting agents, we have prepared three series of phenylurea analogues (CEU), derived from N-(3-?-hydroxyalkyl or 4-?-hydroxyalkyl or 3-?-hydroxyalkynyl)-phenyl-N?-(2-chloroethyl)ureas. Most compounds exhibit potent growth inhibitory activity on human colon carcinoma HT-29, human skin melanoma M21, and human breast carcinoma MCF-7 tumor cell lines, with a GI50 ranging from 250nM to

  18. Effects of a chelated copper as growth promoter on performance and carcass traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Allee, G; Gerlemann, G; Ma, L; Gracia, M I; Parker, D; Vazquez-Anon, M; Harrell, R J

    2014-07-01

    Three studies were conducted to investigate whether a chelated Cu can replace CuSO4 as a growth promoter in pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 240 piglets (Large White×Landrace, 7.36±0.10 kg) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments with 8 replicates and 10 piglets per pen. Treatments included a NRC control (CuSO4, 6 mg/kg), two Cu supplementations from either CuSO4 or Cu(HMTBa)2 at 170 mg/kg. Pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 were 6.0% heavier than pigs fed either the NRC control or 170 mg/kg CuSO4 (p = 0.03) at the end of the experiment. During the 42 days of experimental period, pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 gained 9.0% more (p = 0.01), tended to eat more feed (p = 0.09), and had better feed efficiency (p = 0.06) than those fed CuSO4. Compared with the 6 mg/kg CuSO4 NRC control, liver Cu was increased 2.7 times with 170 mg/kg CuSO4 supplementation, and was further increased with Cu(HMTBa)2 (4.5 times, p<0.05). In Exp. 2, a total of 616 crossbred piglets (PIC, 5.01±0.25 kg) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments with 7 replicates and 22 piglets per pen. Treatments included a NRC control (from CuSO4), and three pharmaceutical levels of Cu (150 mg/kg) supplemented either from CuSO4, tri-basic copper chloride (Cu2[OH]3Cl), or Cu(HMTBa)2. Pigs fed CuSO4 or Cu(HMTBa)2 had better feed efficiency (p = 0.01) and tended to gain more (p = 0.08) compared with those fed the NRC control. Pigs fed Cu2(OH)3Cl were intermediate. Pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 had the highest liver Cu, which was significantly higher than those fed (Cu2[OH]3Cl) or the negative control (p = 0.01). In Exp. 3, a total of 1,048 pigs (PIC, 32.36±0.29 kg) were allotted to 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 20 to 22 pigs per pen. The treatments included a NRC control with 4 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4, a positive control with 160 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4, and incremental levels of Cu(HMTBa)2 at 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg. During the overall experimental period of 100 days, no benefit from 160 mg/kg CuSO4 was observed. Pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 had increased ADG (linear and quadratic, p?0.05) and feed efficiency (linear and quadratic, p?0.05) up to 80 mg/kg and no further improvement was observed at 160 mg/kg for the whole experimental period. Pigs fed 80 mg/kg Cu(HMTBa)2 weighed 1.8 kg more (p = 0.07) and were 2.3 kg heavier in carcass (p<0.01) compared with pigs fed 160 mg/kg CuSO4. In addition, loin depth was increased with increased Cu(HMTBa)2 supplementation with pigs fed 80 mg/kg Cu(HMTBa)2 had the greatest loin depth (p<0.05). In summary, Cu(HMTBa)2 can be used to replace high CuSO4 as a growth promoter in nursery and grower-finisher pigs. PMID:25050038

  19. Effects of a Chelated Copper as Growth Promoter on Performance and Carcass Traits in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J.; Allee, G.; Gerlemann, G.; Ma, L.; Gracia, M. I.; Parker, D.; Vazquez-Anon, M.; Harrell, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to investigate whether a chelated Cu can replace CuSO4 as a growth promoter in pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 240 piglets (Large White×Landrace, 7.36±0.10 kg) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments with 8 replicates and 10 piglets per pen. Treatments included a NRC control (CuSO4, 6 mg/kg), two Cu supplementations from either CuSO4 or Cu(HMTBa)2 at 170 mg/kg. Pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 were 6.0% heavier than pigs fed either the NRC control or 170 mg/kg CuSO4 (p = 0.03) at the end of the experiment. During the 42 days of experimental period, pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 gained 9.0% more (p = 0.01), tended to eat more feed (p = 0.09), and had better feed efficiency (p = 0.06) than those fed CuSO4. Compared with the 6 mg/kg CuSO4 NRC control, liver Cu was increased 2.7 times with 170 mg/kg CuSO4 supplementation, and was further increased with Cu(HMTBa)2 (4.5 times, p<0.05). In Exp. 2, a total of 616 crossbred piglets (PIC, 5.01±0.25 kg) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments with 7 replicates and 22 piglets per pen. Treatments included a NRC control (from CuSO4), and three pharmaceutical levels of Cu (150 mg/kg) supplemented either from CuSO4, tri-basic copper chloride (Cu2[OH]3Cl), or Cu(HMTBa)2. Pigs fed CuSO4 or Cu(HMTBa)2 had better feed efficiency (p = 0.01) and tended to gain more (p = 0.08) compared with those fed the NRC control. Pigs fed Cu2(OH)3Cl were intermediate. Pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 had the highest liver Cu, which was significantly higher than those fed (Cu2[OH]3Cl) or the negative control (p = 0.01). In Exp. 3, a total of 1,048 pigs (PIC, 32.36±0.29 kg) were allotted to 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 20 to 22 pigs per pen. The treatments included a NRC control with 4 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4, a positive control with 160 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4, and incremental levels of Cu(HMTBa)2 at 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg. During the overall experimental period of 100 days, no benefit from 160 mg/kg CuSO4 was observed. Pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 had increased ADG (linear and quadratic, p?0.05) and feed efficiency (linear and quadratic, p?0.05) up to 80 mg/kg and no further improvement was observed at 160 mg/kg for the whole experimental period. Pigs fed 80 mg/kg Cu(HMTBa)2 weighed 1.8 kg more (p = 0.07) and were 2.3 kg heavier in carcass (p<0.01) compared with pigs fed 160 mg/kg CuSO4. In addition, loin depth was increased with increased Cu(HMTBa)2 supplementation with pigs fed 80 mg/kg Cu(HMTBa)2 had the greatest loin depth (p<0.05). In summary, Cu(HMTBa)2 can be used to replace high CuSO4 as a growth promoter in nursery and grower-finisher pigs. PMID:25050038

  20. Adipocyte ATP-binding cassette G1 promotes triglyceride storage, fat mass growth, and human obesity.

    PubMed

    Frisdal, Eric; Le Lay, Soazig; Hooton, Henri; Poupel, Lucie; Olivier, Maryline; Alili, Rohia; Plengpanich, Wanee; Villard, Elise F; Gilibert, Sophie; Lhomme, Marie; Superville, Alexandre; Miftah-Alkhair, Lobna; Chapman, M John; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Venteclef, Nicolas; Poitou, Christine; Tordjman, Joan; Lesnik, Philippe; Kontush, Anatol; Huby, Thierry; Dugail, Isabelle; Clement, Karine; Guerin, Maryse; Le Goff, Wilfried

    2015-03-01

    The role of the ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) transporter in human pathophysiology is still largely unknown. Indeed, beyond its role in mediating free cholesterol efflux to HDL, the ABCG1 transporter equally promotes lipid accumulation in a triglyceride (TG)-rich environment through regulation of the bioavailability of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Because both ABCG1 and LPL are expressed in adipose tissue, we hypothesized that ABCG1 is implicated in adipocyte TG storage and therefore could be a major actor in adipose tissue fat accumulation. Silencing of Abcg1 expression by RNA interference in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes compromised LPL-dependent TG accumulation during the initial phase of differentiation. Generation of stable Abcg1 knockdown 3T3-L1 adipocytes revealed that Abcg1 deficiency reduces TG storage and diminishes lipid droplet size through inhibition of Ppar? expression. Strikingly, local inhibition of adipocyte Abcg1 in adipose tissue from mice fed a high-fat diet led to a rapid decrease of adiposity and weight gain. Analysis of two frequent ABCG1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1893590 [A/C] and rs1378577 [T/G]) in morbidly obese individuals indicated that elevated ABCG1 expression in adipose tissue was associated with increased PPAR? expression and adiposity concomitant to increased fat mass and BMI (haplotype AT>GC). The critical role of ABCG1 in obesity was further confirmed in independent populations of severe obese and diabetic obese individuals. This study identifies for the first time a major role of adipocyte ABCG1 in adiposity and fat mass growth and suggests that adipose ABCG1 might represent a potential therapeutic target in obesity. PMID:25249572

  1. Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion Characterization of Bacillus Species Isolated from Calendula officinalis Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Ait Kaki, Asma; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine; Dehimat, Laid; Milet, Asma; Youcef-Ali, Mounia; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the plant growth promoting Bacillus genus have been widely investigated in the rhizosphere of various agricultural crops. However, to our knowledge this is the first report on the Bacillus species isolated from the rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. 15 % of the isolated bacteria were screened for their important antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cucumerinium and Alternaria alternata. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A genes analysis, revealed strains closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, B. subtilis sub sp spizezenii and Paenibacillus polymyxa species. The electro-spray mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC MS) analysis showed that most of the Bacillus isolates produced the three lipopeptides families. However, the P. polymyxa (18SRTS) didn't produce any type of lipopeptides. All the tested Bacillus isolates produced cellulase but the protease activity was observed only in the B. amyloliquefaciens species (9SRTS). The Salkowsky colorimetric test showed that the screened bacteria synthesized 6-52 ?g/ml of indole 3 acetic acid. These bacteria produced siderophores with more than 10 mm wide orange zones on chromazurol S. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the pre-germination of the chickpea seeds. However, it increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P < 0.05).These results suggested that the Bacillus strains isolated in this work may be further used as bioinoculants to improve the production of C. officinalis and other crop systems. PMID:24426149

  2. Dying dangerously: Necrotic cell death and chronic inflammation promote tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Lotze, Michael T; Demarco, Richard A

    2004-12-01

    Extract: We all shudder about untimely deaths or those that we were not prepared for. As such we perceive such "unscheduled" deaths as dangerous. Similarly, apoptotic death (literally falling leaves) or the programmed cell death of cells in multicellular organisms ranging from slime mold and simple worms through to mammals, has a level of tidiness and well-orchestrated activities with literally hundreds if not thousands of gene products employed with either the primary or secondary purpose of coordinating the orderly death of cells throughout life. During inflammation of any sort, driven by tissue damage or injury or infection by pathogens (virus, bacteria, and parasites), apoptotic death similarly serves to quickly rid the host of damaged cells, promote removal and digestion of the infected cell, and prepare the way for tissue remodeling and repair. When this goes awry, for example during periods of chronic inflammation, tissues are subjected to the contrasting needs of driving apoptotic death whilst maintaining the barrier function of the epithelia (such as skin cells) as well as the selective permeability of mucosal sites (i.e., areas where mucus is secreted to protect the cells from their surroundings, such as gut cells protecting themselves from the gastric acids). Prudently, they need to limit and husband local resources sufficiently for the maintenance of tissue integrity and renewal. It is our provocative and novel contention that cancer in adults (and not children) most often arises in a setting of chronic inflammation and disordered cell death rather than one associated primarily with disordered cell growth as it is popularly imagined by scientists, clinicians, and the general public. PMID:20704947

  3. Cold-adapted and rhizosphere-competent strain of Rahnella sp. with broad-spectrum plant growth-promotion potential.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Pratibha; Joshi, Robin; Sharma, K C; Rahi, Praveen; Gulati, Ashu; Gulati, Arvind

    2010-12-01

    A phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strain isolated from Hippophae rhamnoides rhizosphere was identified as Rahnella sp. based on its phenotypic features and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The bacterial strain showed the growth characteristics of a cold-adapted psychrotroph, with the multiple plant growth-promoting traits of inorganic and organic phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylate-deaminase activity, ammonia generation, and siderophore production. The strain also produced indole- 3-acetic acid, indole-3-acetaldehyde, indole-3-acetamide, indole-3-acetonitrile, indole-3-lactic acid, and indole-3- pyruvic acid in tryptophan-supplemented nutrient broth. Gluconic, citric and isocitric acids were the major organic acids detected during tricalcium phosphate solubilization. A rifampicin-resistant mutant of the strain exhibited high rhizosphere competence without disturbance to the resident microbial populations in pea rhizosphere. Seed bacterization with a charcoal-based inoculum significantly increased growth in barley, chickpea, pea, and maize under the controlled environment. Microplot testing of the inoculum at two different locations in pea also showed significant increase in growth and yield. The attributes of coldtolerance, high rhizosphere competence, and broad-spectrum plant growth-promoting activity exhibited the potential of Rahnella sp. BIHB 783 for increasing agriculture productivity. PMID:21193830

  4. SHP-2 activates signaling of the nuclear factor of activated T cells to promote skeletal muscle growth

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Mara; Burch, Peter M.; Yang, Wentian; Zhang, Lei; Hamilton, Claire E.; Kim, Jung H.; Neel, Benjamin G.; Bennett, Anton M.

    2006-01-01

    The formation of multinucleated myofibers is essential for the growth of skeletal muscle. The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) promotes skeletal muscle growth. How NFAT responds to changes in extracellular cues to regulate skeletal muscle growth remains to be fully defined. In this study, we demonstrate that mice containing a skeletal muscle–specific deletion of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 (muscle creatine kinase [MCK]–SHP-2 null) exhibited a reduction in both myofiber size and type I slow myofiber number. We found that interleukin-4, an NFAT-regulated cytokine known to stimulate myofiber growth, was reduced in its expression in skeletal muscles of MCK–SHP-2–null mice. When SHP-2 was deleted during the differentiation of primary myoblasts, NFAT transcriptional activity and myotube multinucleation were impaired. Finally, SHP-2 coupled myotube multinucleation to an integrin-dependent pathway and activated NFAT by stimulating c-Src. Thus, SHP-2 transduces extracellular matrix stimuli to intracellular signaling pathways to promote skeletal muscle growth. PMID:17015617

  5. Early growth promotion and leaf level physiology changes in Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN inoculated switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingxue; Mei, Chuansheng; Seiler, John R

    2015-01-01

    Switchgrass (SG) is one of the most promising next generation biofuel crops in North America. Inoculation with bacterial endophytes has improved growth of several plant species. Our study demonstrated that Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, a well-studied plant growth promoting rhizo-bacterium (PGPR) significantly increased both aboveground and belowground biomass (DW) and promoted elongation of root, stem and leaf within 17 days following inoculation. Furthermore, the enhanced root growth in PsJN inoculated plants lagged behind the shoot response, resulting in greater allocation to aboveground growth (p = 0.0041). Lower specific root length (SRL, p = 0.0158) and higher specific leaf weight (SLW, p = 0.0029) were also observed in PsJN inoculated seedlings, indicating changes in development. Photosynthetic rates (Ps) were also significantly higher in PsJN inoculated seedlings after 17 days (54%, p = 0.0016), and this occurred initially without increases in stomatal conductance resulting in significantly greater water use efficiency (WUE, 37.7%, p = 0.0467) and lower non-stomatal limitation (LNS, 29.6%, p = 0.0222). These rapid changes in leaf level physiology are at least partially responsible for the growth enhancement due to PsJN. PMID:25461696

  6. PreImplantation factor (PIF*) promotes embryotrophic and neuroprotective decidual genes: effect negated by epidermal growth factor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate embryo-maternal interaction is paramount for pregnancy success post-implantation. The embryo follows a specific developmental timeline starting with neural system, dependent on endogenous and decidual factors. Beyond altered genetics/epigenetics, post-natal diseases may initiate at prenatal/neonatal, post-natal period, or through a continuum. Preimplantation factor (PIF) secreted by viable embryos promotes implantation and trophoblast invasion. Synthetic PIF reverses neuroinflammation in non-pregnant models. PIF targets embryo proteins that protect against oxidative stress and protein misfolding. We report of PIF’s embryotrophic role and potential to prevent developmental disorders by regulating uterine milieu at implantation and first trimester. Methods PIF’s effect on human implantation (human endometrial stromal cells (HESC)) and first-trimester decidua cultures (FTDC) was examined, by global gene expression (Affymetrix), disease-biomarkers ranking (GeneGo), neuro-specific genes (Ingenuity) and proteins (mass-spectrometry). PIF co-cultured epidermal growth factor (EGF) in both HESC and FTDC (Affymetrix) was evaluated. Results In HESC, PIF promotes neural differentiation and transmission genes (TLX2, EPHA10) while inhibiting retinoic acid receptor gene, which arrests growth. PIF promotes axon guidance and downregulates EGF-dependent neuroregulin signaling. In FTDC, PIF promotes bone morphogenetic protein pathway (SMAD1, 53-fold) and axonal guidance genes (EPH5) while inhibiting PPP2R2C, negative cell-growth regulator, involved in Alzheimer’s and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In HESC, PIF affects angiotensin via beta-arrestin, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?), notch, BMP, and wingless-int (WNT) signaling pathways that promote neurogenesis involved in childhood neurodevelopmental diseases—autism and also affected epithelial-mesenchymal transition involved in neuromuscular disorders. In FTDC, PIF upregulates neural development and hormone signaling, while downregulating genes protecting against xenobiotic response leading to connective tissue disorders. In both HESC and FTDC, PIF affects neural development and transmission pathways. In HESC interactome, PIF promotes FUS gene, which controls genome integrity, while in FTDC, PIF upregulates STAT3 critical transcription signal. EGF abolished PIF’s effect on HESC, decreasing metalloproteinase and prolactin receptor genes, thereby interfering with decidualization, while in FTDC, EGF co-cultured with PIF reduced ZHX2, gene that regulates neural AFP secretion. Conclusions PIF promotes decidual trophic genes and proteins to regulate neural development. By regulating the uterine milieu, PIF may decrease embryo vulnerability to post-natal neurodevelopmental disorders. Examination of PIF-based intervention strategies used during embryogenesis to improve pregnancy prognosis and reduce post-natal vulnerability is clearly in order.

  7. Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on growth and biological efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of bean damping-off.

    PubMed

    Peighamy-Ashnaei, S; Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Ahmadzadeh, M; Behboudi, K

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important environmental factors that regulate the growth and antagonistic efficacy of biocontrol agents is the medium. The aim of this paper was to find the nitrogen and carbon sources that provide maximum biomass production of strains P-5 and P-6 (Pseudomonas fluorescens), B-3 and B-16 (Bacillus subtilis) and minimum cost of media, whilst maintaining biocontrol efficacy. All of the strains were grown in seven liquid media (pH=6.9) including: sucrose + yeast extract, molasses of sugar beet + yeast extract in 2:1 and 1:1 w/w ratios, molasses of sugar beet + urea, nutrient broth, molasses and malt extract, at an initial inoculation of 1 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1). Cells from over night cultures used to inoculate soil at 1 x 10(9) CFU cm(-3) soil. At the same time, fungal inoculum (infected millet seed with Rhizoctonia solani) was added to soil at the rate of 2 g kg(-1) soil. Results indicated that growth of P-6, B-3 and B-16 in molasses + yeast extract (1:1 w/w) medium was significantly higher than in the other media. Molasses + yeast extract (1:1 and 2:1 w/w) media supported rapid growth and high cell yields in P-5. In greenhouse condition, results indicated that the influence of the media on the biocontrol efficacy of P-5, P-6, B-3 and B-16 was the same and Pseudomonas fluorescens P-5 in molasses and malt extract media reduced the severity of disease up to 72.8 percent. On the other hand, there were observed significant differences on bean growth after one month in greenhouse. P-5 in molasses + yeast extract (1:1 w/w) medium had the most effects on bean growth promotion. In this study molasses media showed good yield efficacy in all of the strains. The high sucrose concentration in molasses justifies the high biomass in all of the strains. Also, the low cost of molasses allows its concentration to be increased in media. On the other hand, yeast extract was the best organic nitrogen source for antagonist bacteria but it is expensive for an industrial process. So it should be replaced by another industrial product instead of yeast extract, which confirm by an economic and technological study. The results obtained in this study could be used to provide a reliable basis to increase the population of biocontrol agents in fermentation process. PMID:18396833

  8. The inhibition of Platycodin D on Mycoplasma pneumoniae proliferation and its effect on promoting cell growth after anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae treatment

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yanli; Yang, Yang; Lu, Weihong; Wang, Yingyan; Qian, Feng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Zhihua; Wang, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Platycodin D, extract from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum, is one of the most important monomers of the Qinbaiqingfei pellets (Qinbai) that has already been approved as the first Traditional Chinese Medicine for clinic use as an anti-M. pneumoniae agent. Qinbai constituents Scutellaria baicalensis and Platycodon grandiflorum were used to treat thousands of patients clinically in China each year. In this study, a M. pneumoniae–infected mouse strain, BALB/c, and a human-derived epithelial cell line, A549 type II pneumocytes, were used as experimental model. Anti-M. pneumoniae effect of Platycodin D was measured by the Real-time quantitative PCR, while the cell pathological change with hematoxylin and eosin and the growth recovery effects were determined with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Trypan Blue dye in the experimental model after M. pneumoniae infection. Our research results showed that Platycodin D could significantly inhibit M. pneumoniae and promote cell growth after anti- M. pneumoniae treatment in the infected cells or mice. PMID:25629010

  9. Defense enzymes induced in cucumber roots by treatment with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Pythium aphanidermatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHUNQUAN CHEN; RICHARD R. BÉLANGER; NICOLE BENHAMOU; TIMOTHY C. PAULITZ

    2000-01-01

    Root and crown rot of cucumber caused by Pythium aphanidermatum can be suppressed by various rhizobacteria or PGPR (plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria). When cucumber roots were treated with Pseudomonas corrugata 13 or Pseudomonas aureofaciens 63–28, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was stimulated in root tissues in 2 days and this activated accumulation lasted for 16 days after bacterization. Peroxidase (PO) and polyphenol

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterobacter aerogenes, a DDE-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Cucurbita pepo

    PubMed Central

    Eevers, Nele; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Bottos, Eric M.; Weyens, Nele

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome of Enterobacter aerogenes, a Gram-negative bacterium of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Cucurbita pepo root tissue. This bacterium shows 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE)-degrading potential and plant growth-promoting capacity. An analysis of its 4.5-Mb draft genome will enhance the understanding of DDE degradation pathways and phytoremediation applications for DDE-contaminated soils. PMID:25883299

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Paenibacillus polymyxa Type Strain (ATCC 842T), a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium ?

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Park, Soo-Young; Chung, Won-Hyong; Kim, Sun Hong; Kim, Namshin; Park, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Jihyun F.

    2011-01-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa is an endospore-forming Gram-positive soil bacterium that is well-known for its ability to promote plant growth. Here we report the draft genome sequence of P. polymyxa ATCC 842T, the type strain of the species P. polymyxa, and the family Paenibacillaceae. The P. polymyxa genome contains a repertoire of biosynthetic genes for antibiotics and hydrolytic enzymes that account for its beneficial effects in the rhizosphere to the host plants it associates with. PMID:21742878

  12. T-DNA trapping of a cryptic promoter identifies an ortholog of highly conserved SNZ growth arrest response genes in

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Csaba Mathea; Eva Horvath; Jeff Schell; Csaba Koncz

    A T-DNA tagged Arabidopsis locus, A37, identified by a promoter-trap aph(3%)II reporter gene fusion expressed in calli and roots, encodes an ortholog of evolutionarily conserved SNZ growth arrest response proteins. Gene A37 is located on chromosome 3-35, lacks introns, and shares considerable sequence identity with HEVER1 from rubber tree, SLEXORFA-1 from Stellaria longipes, SNZ1 from yeast, and SNZ-homologs from bacteria

  13. Plant growth promoting potential of the fungus Discosia sp. FIHB 571 from tea rhizosphere tested on chickpea, maize and pea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Rahi; P. Vyas; S. Sharma; Ashu Gulati; Arvind Gulati

    2009-01-01

    The ITS region sequence of a phosphate-solubilizing fungus isolated from the rhizosphere of tea growing in Kangra valley of\\u000a Himachal Pradesh showed 96% identity with Discosia sp. strain HKUCC 6626 ITS 1, 5.8S rRNA gene and ITS 2 complete sequence, and 28S rRNA gene partial sequence. The fungus exhibited\\u000a the multiple plant growth promoting attributes of solubilization of inorganic phosphate

  14. Plant growth promotion by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB45 depends on inoculum rate and P-related soil properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camilo A. Ramírez; Joseph W. Kloepper

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the effect of soil P-related properties and inoculum concentration on plant growth promotion by the phytase-producing\\u000a strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB45. The response (shoot fresh weight\\/Pi content) of a mycorrhizal-independent plant, Chinese cabbage, was evaluated in a soil with well-defined P-related properties.\\u000a Two inoculum concentrations were evaluated under four P regimes: no P addition, inorganic P, and two

  15. Toxicological Effects of Selective Herbicides on Plant Growth Promoting Activities of Phosphate Solubilizing Klebsiella sp . Strain PS19

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Munees Ahemad

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of four herbicides, quizalafop-p-ethyl, clodinafop, metribuzin and glyphosate, on plant growth promoting activities like phosphate solubilization, siderophores,\\u000a indole acetic acid, exo-polysaccharides, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia production by herbicide tolerant Klebsiella sp. strain PS19. The strain was isolated from mustard rhizosphere. The selected herbicides were applied two to three times\\u000a at the recommended rates. Klebsiella sp.

  16. Plant growth promotion abilities and formulation of Bacillus megaterium strain B 388 (MTCC6521) isolated from a temperate Himalayan location

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pankaj Trivedi; Anita Pandey

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium strain B388, isolated from rhizosphere soil of pine belonging to a temperate Himalayan location has been characterized. The\\u000a plant growth promotion and biocontrol properties of the bacterium have been evaluated through petridish and broth based assays.\\u000a The isolate solubilized tricalcium phosphate under in vitro conditions; maximum activity (166 ?g\\/ml) was recorded at 28°C\\u000a after 15 days of incubation.

  17. The remarkable hydrophobic effect of a fatty acid side chain on the microbial growth promoting activity of a synthetic siderophore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Ming Lin; Marvin J. Miller; Ute Möllmann

    2001-01-01

    The ability of synthetic derivatives of the siderophore tripeptide of N5-hydroxy-N5-acetyl-l-ornithine to promote the growth of various strains of mycobacteria and Gram negative bacteria was found to depend significantly on the hydrophobic nature of the derivative. Although the tripeptide of N5-hydroxy-N5-acetyl-l-ornithine is not normally utilized by mycobacteria, an N-terminal palmitoyl derivative mimicked natural mycobactin J in all studies.

  18. Nitrate-dependent control of root architecture and N nutrition are altered by a plant growth-promoting Phyllobacterium sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Mantelin; Guilhem Desbrosses; Marièle Larcher; Timothy J. Tranbarger; Jean-Claude Cleyet-Marel; Bruno Touraine

    2006-01-01

    Both root architecture and plant N nutrition are altered by inoculation with the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)\\u000a Phyllobacterium strain STM196. It is known that NO3? and N metabolites can act as regulatory signals on root development and N transporters. In this study, we investigate the\\u000a possible interrelated effects on root development and N transport. We show that the inhibition of

  19. Endophytic Colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Burkholderia sp. Strain PsJN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephane Compant; Birgit Reiter; Angela Sessitsch; Jerzy Nowak; Christophe Clement; E. Ait Barka

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of colonization of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay plantlets by a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN, were studied under gnotobiotic conditions. Wild-type strain PsJN and genetically engineered derivatives of this strain tagged with gfp (PsJN::gfp2x) or gusA (PsJN::gusA11) genes were used to enumerate and visualize tissue colonization. The rhizospheres of 4- to 5-week-old plantlets with five developed

  20. Inoculation of Ni-Resistant Plant Growth Promoting Bacterium Psychrobacter sp. Strain SRS8 for the Improvement of Nickel Phytoextraction by Energy Crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ma; M. Rajkumar; J. A. F. Vicente; H. Freitas

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate effects of inoculating plant growth-promoting bacterium Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 on the growth and phytoextraction potential of energy crops Ricinus communis and Helianthus annuus in artificially Ni contaminated soils. The toxicity symptom in plants under Ni stress expressed as chlorophyll, protein content, growth inhibition, and Fe, P concentrations were studied, and the possible relationship among

  1. Cow dung extract: a medium for the growth of pseudomonads enhancing their efficiency as biofertilizer and biocontrol agent in rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rashmi Srivastava; Michel Aragno; A. K. Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Some pseudomands are being utilized as biofertilizers and biopesticides because of their role in plant growth promotion and\\u000a plant protection against root parasites, respectively. Two strains of Pseudomonas, P. jessenii LHRE62 and P. synxantha HHRE81, recovered from wheat rhizosphere, have shown their potential in field bioinoculation tests under rice-wheat and pulse-wheat\\u000a rotation systems. Normally, pseudomonads are cultivated on synthetic media-like

  2. Host miR155 promotes tumor growth through a myeloid-derived suppressor cell-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siqi; Wang, Long; Fan, Jie; Ye, Cong; Dominguez, Donye; Zhang, Yi; Curiel, Tyler J; Fang, Deyu; Kuzel, Timothy M; Zhang, Bin

    2015-02-01

    miR155 is a regulator of immune cell development and function that is generally thought to be immunostimulatory. However, we report here that genetic ablation of miR155 renders mice resistant to chemical carcinogenesis and the growth of several transplanted tumors, suggesting that miR155 functions in immunosuppression and tumor promotion. Host miR155 deficiency promoted overall antitumor immunity despite the finding of defective responses of miR155-deficient dendritic cells and antitumor T cells. Further analysis of immune cell compartments revealed that miR155 regulated the accumulation of functional myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSC) in the tumor microenvironment. Specifically, miR155 mediated MDSC suppressor activity through at least two mechanisms, including SOCS1 repression and a reduced ability to license the generation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that miR155 expression was required for MDSC to facilitate tumor growth. Thus, our results revealed a contextual function for miR155 in antitumor immunity, with a role in MDSC support that appears to dominate in tumor-bearing hosts. Overall, the balance of these cellular effects appears to be a root determinant of whether miR155 promotes or inhibits tumor growth. PMID:25502838

  3. Effects of plant growth promoting bacteria and composed organic fertilizers on the reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita and tomato growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zaki A Siddiqui

    2004-01-01

    Glasshouse experiments were conducted to assess the influence of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense and composted organic fertilizers (cow dung, horse dung, goat dung and poultry manure) alone and in combination on the multiplication of Meloidogyne incognita and growth of tomato. P. fluorescens was better at improving tomato growth and reducing galling and nematode multiplication than A. chroococcum or

  4. Growth hormone promotes skeletal muscle cell fusion independent of insulin-like growth factor 1 up-regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athanassia Sotiropoulos; Mickaël Ohanna; Cécile Kedzia; Ram K. Menon; John J. Kopchick; Paul A. Kelly; Mario Pende

    2006-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) participates in the postnatal regulation of skeletal muscle growth, although the mechanism of action is unclear. Here we show that the mass of skeletal muscles lacking GH receptors is reduced because of a decrease in myofiber size with normal myofiber number. GH signaling controls the size of the differentiated myotubes in a cell-autonomous manner while having no

  5. Targeted mutations in the ATR pathway define agent-specific requirements for cancer cell growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Wilsker, Deborah; Chung, Jon H; Pradilla, Ivan; Petermann, Eva; Helleday, Thomas; Bunz, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Many anticancer agents induce DNA strand breaks or cause the accumulation of DNA replication intermediates. The protein encoded by ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad 3-related (ATR) generates signals in response to these altered DNA structures and activates cellular survival responses. Accordingly, ATR has drawn increased attention as a potential target for novel therapeutic strategies designed to potentiate the effects of existing drugs. In this study, we use a unique panel of genetically modified human cancer cells to unambiguously test the roles of upstream and downstream components of the ATR pathway in the responses to common therapeutic agents. Upstream, the S-phase-specific cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2 was required for robust activation of ATR in response to diverse chemotherapeutic agents. While Cdk2-mediated ATR activation promoted cell survival after treatment with many drugs, signaling from ATR directly to the checkpoint kinase Chk1 was required for survival responses to only a subset of the drugs tested. These results show that specifically inhibiting the Cdk2/ATR/Chk1 pathway via distinct regulators can differentially sensitize cancer cells to a wide range of therapeutic agents. PMID:22084169

  6. Targeted mutations in the ATR pathway define agent-specific requirements for cancer cell growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Wilsker, Deborah; Chung, Jon H.; Pradilla, Ivan; Petermann, Eva; Helleday, Thomas; Bunz, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Many anticancer agents induce DNA strand breaks or cause the accumulation of DNA replication intermediates. The protein encoded by ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad 3-related (ATR) generates signals in response to these altered DNA structures, and activates cellular survival responses. Accordingly, ATR has drawn increased attention as a potential target for novel therapeutic strategies designed to potentiate the effects of existing drugs. In this study, we employ a unique panel of genetically modified human cancer cells to unambiguously test the roles of upstream and downstream components of the ATR pathway in the responses to common therapeutic agents. Upstream, the S-phase specific cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2 was required for robust activation of ATR in response to diverse chemotherapeutic agents. While Cdk2-mediated ATR activation promoted cell survival after treatment with many drugs, signaling from ATR directly to the checkpoint kinase Chk1 was required for survival responses to only a subset of the drugs tested. These results demonstrate that specifically inhibiting the Cdk2/ATR/Chk1 pathway via distinct regulators can differentially sensitize cancer cells to a wide range of therapeutic agents. PMID:22084169

  7. A Novel Osteogenic Oxysterol Compound for Therapeutic Development to Promote Bone Growth: Activation of Hedgehog Signaling and Osteogenesis through Smoothened Binding

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Scott R.; Nargizyan, Taya; Meliton, Vicente; Nachtergaele, Sigrid; Rohatgi, Rajat; Stappenbeck, Frank; Jung, Michael E.; Johnson, Jared S.; Aghdasi, Bayan; Tian, Haijun; Weintraub, Gil; Inoue, Hirokazu; Atti, Elisa; Tetradis, Sotirios; Pereira, Renata C; Hokugo, Akishige; Alobaidaan, Raed; Tan, Yanlin; Hahn, Theodor J.; Wang, Jeffrey C; Parhami, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenic factors are often used in orthopedics to promote bone growth, improve fracture healing, and induce spine fusion. Osteogenic oxysterols are naturally occurring molecules that were shown to induce osteogenic differentiation in vitro and promote spine fusion in vivo. The purpose of this study was to identify an osteogenic oxysterol more suitable for clinical development than those previously reported, and evaluate its ability to promote osteogenesis in vitro and spine fusion in rats in vivo. Among more than 100 oxysterol analogues synthesized, Oxy133 induced significant expression of osteogenic markers Runx2, osterix (OSX), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteocalcin (OCN) in C3H10T1/2 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in M2-10B4 mouse marrow stromal cells. Oxy133-induced activation of an 8×-Gli luciferase reporter, its direct binding to Smoothened, and the inhibition of Oxy133-induced osteogenic effects by the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibitor, cyclopamine, demonstrated the role of Hh pathway in mediating osteogenic responses to Oxy133. Oxy133 did not stimulate osteogenesis via BMP or Wnt signaling. Oxy133 induced the expression of OSX, BSP, and OCN and stimulated robust mineralization in primary human mesenchymal stem cells. In vivo, bilateral spine fusion occurred through endochondral ossification and was observed in animals treated with Oxy133 at the fusion site on xray after 4 weeks and confirmed with manual assessment, micro CT (?CT), and histology after 8 weeks, with equal efficiency to recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Unlike rhBMP-2, Oxy133 did not induce adipogenesis in the fusion mass and resulted in denser bone evidenced by greater BV/TV ratio and smaller trabecular separation. Findings here suggest that Oxy133 has significant potential as an osteogenic molecule with greater ease of synthesis and improved time to fusion compared to previously studied oxysterols. Small molecule osteogenic oxysterols may serve as the next generation of bone anabolic agents for therapeutic development. PMID:24591126

  8. Effects of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN throughout the life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Poupin, María Josefina; Timmermann, Tania; Vega, Andrea; Zuñiga, Ana; González, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) induce positive effects in plants, such as increased growth or reduced stress susceptibility. The mechanisms behind PGPR/plant interaction are poorly understood, as most studies have described short-term responses on plants and only a few studies have analyzed plant molecular responses under PGPR colonization. Here, we studied the effects of the PGPR bacterial model Burkholderiaphytofirmans PsJN on the whole life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. We reported that at different plant developmental points, strain PsJN can be found in the rhizosphere and also colonizing their internal tissues. In early ontogeny, strain PsJN increased several growth parameters and accelerated growth rate of the plants. Also, an Arabidopsis transcriptome analysis revealed that 408 genes showed differential expression in PsJN-inoculated plants; some of these genes are involved in stress response and hormone pathways. Specifically, genes implicated in auxin and gibberellin pathways were induced. Quantitative transcriptional analyses of selected genes in different developmental stages revealed that the beginning of these changes could be evidenced early in development, especially among the down-regulated genes. The inoculation with heat-killed bacteria provoked a more severe transcriptional response in plants, but was not able to induce plant growth-promotion. Later in ontogeny, the growth rates of inoculated plants decreased with respect to the non-inoculated group and, interestingly, the inoculation accelerated the flowering time and the appearance of senescence signs in plants; these modifications correlate with the early up-regulation of flowering control genes. Then, we show that a single inoculation with a PGPR could affect the whole life cycle of a plant, accelerating its growth rate and shortening its vegetative period, both effects relevant for most crops. Thus, these findings provide novel and interesting aspects of these relevant biological interactions. PMID:23869243

  9. Root ethylene signalling is involved in Miscanthus sinensis growth promotion by the bacterial endophyte Herbaspirillum frisingense GSF30T

    PubMed Central

    Ludewig, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial endophyte Herbaspirillum frisingense GSF30T is a colonizer of several grasses grown in temperate climates, including the highly nitrogen-efficient perennial energy grass Miscanthus. Inoculation of Miscanthus sinensis seedlings with H. frisingense promoted root and shoot growth but had only a minor impact on nutrient concentrations. The bacterium affected the root architecture and increased fine-root structures. Although H. frisingense has the genetic requirements to fix nitrogen, only minor changes in nitrogen concentrations were observed. Herbaspirillum agglomerates were identified primarily in the root apoplast but also in the shoots. The short-term (3h) and long-term (3 weeks) transcriptomic responses of the plant to bacterial inoculation revealed that H. frisingense induced rapid changes in plant hormone signalling, most prominent in jasmonate signalling. Ethylene signalling pathways were also affected and persisted after 3 weeks in the root. Growth stimulation of the root by the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid was dose dependent and was affected by H. frisingense inoculation. Minor changes in the proteome were identified after 3 weeks. This study suggests that H. frisingense improves plant growth by modulating plant hormone signalling pathways and provides a framework to understand the beneficial effects of diazotrophic plant-growth-promoting bacteria, such as H. frisingense, on the biomass grass Miscanthus. PMID:24043849

  10. Root ethylene signalling is involved in Miscanthus sinensis growth promotion by the bacterial endophyte Herbaspirillum frisingense GSF30(T).

    PubMed

    Straub, Daniel; Yang, Huaiyu; Liu, Yan; Tsap, Tatsiana; Ludewig, Uwe

    2013-11-01

    The bacterial endophyte Herbaspirillum frisingense GSF30(T) is a colonizer of several grasses grown in temperate climates, including the highly nitrogen-efficient perennial energy grass Miscanthus. Inoculation of Miscanthus sinensis seedlings with H. frisingense promoted root and shoot growth but had only a minor impact on nutrient concentrations. The bacterium affected the root architecture and increased fine-root structures. Although H. frisingense has the genetic requirements to fix nitrogen, only minor changes in nitrogen concentrations were observed. Herbaspirillum agglomerates were identified primarily in the root apoplast but also in the shoots. The short-term (3h) and long-term (3 weeks) transcriptomic responses of the plant to bacterial inoculation revealed that H. frisingense induced rapid changes in plant hormone signalling, most prominent in jasmonate signalling. Ethylene signalling pathways were also affected and persisted after 3 weeks in the root. Growth stimulation of the root by the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid was dose dependent and was affected by H. frisingense inoculation. Minor changes in the proteome were identified after 3 weeks. This study suggests that H. frisingense improves plant growth by modulating plant hormone signalling pathways and provides a framework to understand the beneficial effects of diazotrophic plant-growth-promoting bacteria, such as H. frisingense, on the biomass grass Miscanthus. PMID:24043849

  11. Waste materials derived bio-effectors used as growth promoters for strawberry plants. An agronomic and metabolomic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileva, Brankica; Chami, Ziad Al; De Pascali, Sandra; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a novel concept of bio-effectors has emerged to describe a group of products that are able to improve plant performance more than fertilizers. In this study, three different agro-industrial residues, i.e. brewers' spent grain (BSG), fennel processing residues (FPR) and lemon processing residues (LPR) were chosen as potential bio-effectors. A greenhouse soilless pot experiment was conducted on strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa var. Festival) in order to study the effect of BSG, FPR and LPR water extracts, at different concentrations, on plant growth and fruit quality. Their effect was compared with humic-like substances as a positive/reference control (Ctrl+) and with Hoagland solution as a negative control (Ctrl-). Agronomic parameters and the nutrient uptake were measured on shoots, roots and fruits. Metabolomic profiling tests were carried out on leaves, roots and fruit juices through the NMR technique. Plants treated with the FPR extract showed better vegetative growth, while plants treated with the BSG extract gave higher yield and better fruit size. Metabolomic profiling showed that fruits and roots of plants treated with FPR and LPR extracts had higher concentrations of sucrose, malate and acetate, while BSG treated plants had higher concentrations of citrate and ?-glucose. In conclusion, according to the results achieved, the bio-effectors used in this study promote plant growth and fruit quality regardless of their nutritional content. Keywords: bio-effectors, agro-industrial waste, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), strawberry, growth promotion, fruit quality.

  12. Specific interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria--as revealed by different combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Jaderlund, Lotta; Arthurson, Veronica; Granhall, Ulf; Jansson, Janet K.

    2008-05-15

    The interactions between two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and Paenibacillus brasilensis PB177, two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices) and one pathogenic fungus (Microdochium nivale) were investigated on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Tarso) in a greenhouse trial. PB177, but not SBW25, had strong inhibitory effects on M. nivale in dual culture plate assays. The results from the greenhouse experiment show very specific interactions; e.g. the two AM fungi react differently when interacting with the same bacteria on plants. G. intraradices (single inoculation or together with SBW25) increased plant dry weight on M. nivale infested plants, suggesting that the pathogenic fungus is counteracted by G. intraradices, but PB177 inhibited this positive effect. This is an example of two completely different reactions between the same AM fungus and two species of bacteria, previously known to enhance plant growth and inhibit pathogens. When searching for plant growth promoting microorganisms it is therefore important to test for the most suitable combination of plant, bacteria and fungi in order to get satisfactory plant growth benefits.

  13. Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Schekkerman; Ingrid Tulp; Theunis Piersma; G. Henk Visser

    2003-01-01

    We compared prefledging growth, energy expenditure, and time budgets in the arctic-breeding red knot (Calidris canutus) to those in temperate shorebirds, to investigate how arctic chicks achieve a high growth rate despite energetic difficulties associated with precocial development in a cold climate. Growth rate of knot chicks was very high compared to other, mainly temperate, shorebirds of their size, but

  14. Hormonal growth-promotant effects on grain-fed cattle maintained under different environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaughan, J. B.; Kreikemeier, W. M.; Mader, T. L.

    2005-07-01

    Six steers (3/4 Charolais×1/4 Brahman) (mean body weight 314±27 kg) and six spayed heifers (3/5 Shorthorn×2/5 Red Angus) (mean body weight 478±30 kg) were used to determine the effects of climatic conditions and hormone growth promotants (HGP) on respiration rate (RR; breaths/min), pulse rate (beats/min), rectal temperature (RT; °C), and heat production (HP; kJ). Cattle were exposed to the following climatic conditions prior to implantation with a HGP and then again 12 days after implantation: 2 days of thermoneutral conditions (TNL) [21.9±0.9°C ambient temperature (TA) and 61.7±22.1% relative humidity (RH)] then 2 days of hot conditions [HOT; 29.2±4°C (TA) and 78.3±13.2% (RH)], then TNL for 3 days and then 2 days of cold conditions [COLD; 17.6±0.9°C (TA) and 63.4±1.8% (RH); cattle were wet during this treatment]. The HGP implants used were: estrogenic implant (E), trenbolone acetate implant (TBA), or both (ET). Both prior to and following administration of HGP, RRs were lower (P<0.05) on cold days and greater (P<0.05) on hot days compared to TNL. On hot days, RTs, were 0.62°C higher after compared to before implanting. Across all conditions, RTs were >0.5°C greater (P<0.05) for E cattle than for TBA or ET cattle. On cold days, RTs of steers were >0.8°C higher than for the heifers, while under TNL and HOT, RTs of steers were 0.2 0.35°C higher than those of heifers. Prior to implantation, HP per hour and per unit of metabolic body weight was higher (P<0.05) for cattle exposed to hot conditions, when compared to HP on cold days. After implantation, HP was greater (P<0.05) on hot days than on cold days. Under TNL, ET cattle had the lowest HP and greatest feed intake. On hot days, E cattle had the lowest HP, and the highest RT; therefore, if the potential exists for cattle death from heat episodes, the use of either TBA or ET may be preferred. Under cold conditions HP was similar among implant groups.

  15. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 deficiency attenuates growth while promoting chemosensitivity of human endometrial xenograft tumors.

    PubMed

    Friel, Anne M; Zhang, Ling; Pru, Cindy A; Clark, Nicole C; McCallum, Melissa L; Blok, Leen J; Shioda, Toshi; Peluso, John J; Rueda, Bo R; Pru, James K

    2015-01-28

    Endometrial cancer is the leading gynecologic cancer in women in the United States with 52,630 women predicted to be diagnosed with the disease in 2014. The objective of this study was to determine if progesterone (P4) receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) influenced endometrial cancer cell viability in response to chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo. A lentiviral-based shRNA knockdown approach was used to generate stable PGRMC1-intact and PGRMC1-deplete Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines that also lacked expression of the classical progesterone receptor (PGR). Progesterone treatment inhibited mitosis of PGRMC1-intact, but not PGRMC1-deplete cells, suggesting that PGRMC1 mediates the anti-mitotic actions of P4. To test the hypothesis that PGRMC1 attenuates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, PGRMC1-intact and PGRMC1-deplete cells were treated in vitro with vehicle, P4 (1?µM), doxorubicin (Dox, 2?µg/ml), or P4?+?Dox for 48?h. Doxorubicin treatment of PGRMC1-intact cells resulted in a significant increase in cell death; however, co-treatment with P4 significantly attenuated Dox-induced cell death. This response to P4 was lost in PGRMC1-deplete cells. To extend these observations in vivo, a xenograft model was employed where PGRMC1-intact and PGRMC1-deplete endometrial tumors were generated following subcutaneous and intraperitoneal inoculation of immunocompromised NOD/SCID and nude mice, respectively. Tumors derived from PGRMC1-deplete cells grew slower than tumors from PGRMC1-intact cells. Mice harboring endometrial tumors were then given three treatments of vehicle (1:1 cremophor EL: ethanol?+?0.9% saline) or chemotherapy [Paclitaxel (15?mg/kg, i.p.) followed after an interval of 30 minutes by CARBOplatin (50?mg/kg)] at five day intervals. In response to chemotherapy, tumor volume decreased approximately four-fold more in PGRMC1-deplete tumors when compared with PGRMC1-intact control tumors, suggesting that PGRMC1 promotes tumor cell viability during chemotherapeutic stress. In sum, these in vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that PGRMC1 plays a prominent role in the growth and chemoresistance of human endometrial tumors. PMID:25304370

  16. Tumor-induced pressure in the bone microenvironment causes osteocytes to promote the growth of prostate cancer bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Sottnik, Joseph L; Dai, Jinlu; Zhang, Honglai; Campbell, Brittany; Keller, Evan T

    2015-06-01

    Cross-talk between tumor cells and their microenvironment is critical for malignant progression. Cross-talk mediators, including soluble factors and direct cell contact, have been identified, but roles for the interaction of physical forces between tumor cells and the bone microenvironment have not been described. Here, we report preclinical evidence that tumor-generated pressure acts to modify the bone microenvironment to promote the growth of prostate cancer bone metastases. Tumors growing in mouse tibiae increased intraosseous pressure. Application of pressure to osteocytes, the main mechanotransducing cells in bone, induced prostate cancer growth and invasion. Mechanistic investigations revealed that this process was mediated in part by upregulation of CCL5 and matrix metalloproteinases in osteocytes. Our results defined the critical contribution of physical forces to tumor cell growth in the tumor microenvironment, and they identified osteocytes as a critical mediator in the bone metastatic niche. Cancer Res; 75(11); 2151-8. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25855383

  17. The hypoxia-inducible factor-responsive proteins semaphorin 4D and vascular endothelial growth factor promote tumor growth and angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hua; Yang, Ying-Hua [Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, 650W. Baltimore Street, 7-North, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)] [Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, 650W. Baltimore Street, 7-North, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Binmadi, Nada O. [Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, 650W. Baltimore Street, 7-North, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States) [Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, 650W. Baltimore Street, 7-North, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Oral Basic and Clinical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Proia, Patrizia [Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, 650W. Baltimore Street, 7-North, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States) [Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, 650W. Baltimore Street, 7-North, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Sports Science (DISMOT), University of Palermo, Via Eleonora Duse 2 90146, Palermo (Italy); Basile, John R., E-mail: jbasile@umaryland.edu [Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, 650W. Baltimore Street, 7-North, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Greenebaum Cancer Center, 22S. Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Growth and metastasis of solid tumors requires induction of angiogenesis to ensure the delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to rapidly dividing transformed cells. Through either mutations, hypoxia generated by cytoreductive therapies, or when a malignancy outgrows its blood supply, tumor cells undergo a change from an avascular to a neovascular phenotype, a transition mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcriptional regulators. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one example of a gene whose transcription is stimulated by HIF. VEGF plays a crucial role in promoting tumor growth and survival by stimulating new blood vessel growth in response to such stresses as chemotherapy or radiotherapy-induced hypoxia, and it therefore has become a tempting target for neutralizing antibodies in the treatment of advanced neoplasms. Emerging evidence has shown that the semaphorins, proteins originally associated with control of axonal growth and immunity, are regulated by changes in oxygen tension as well and may play a role in tumor-induced angiogenesis. Through the use of RNA interference, in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays and tumor xenograft experiments, we demonstrate that expression of semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D), which is under the control of the HIF-family of transcription factors, cooperates with VEGF to promote tumor growth and vascularity in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We use blocking antibodies to show that targeting SEMA4D function along with VEGF could represent a novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategy for the treatment of OSCC and other solid tumors. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar to VEGF, SEMA4D promotes angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both VEGF and SEMA4D are produced by OSCC cells in a HIF-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These factors combine to elicit a robust pro-angiogenic phenotype in OSCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-SEMA4D blocking antibody inhibits Plexin-B1 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEMA4D is a valid anti-angiogenic target in the treatment of OSCC.

  18. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides promote growth and activate cellulase: Evidence for a role of cellulase in cell expansion. [Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    McDougall, G.J.; Fry, S.C. (Univ. of Edinburgh (England))

    1990-07-01

    Oligosaccharides produced by the action of fungal cellulase on xyloglucans promoted the elongation of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) stem segments in a straight-growth bioassay designed for the determination of auxins. The oligosaccharides were most active at about 1 micromolar. We tested the relative growth-promoting activities of four HPLC-purified oligosaccharides which shared a common glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} (XG7) core. The substituted oligosaccharides XG8 (glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} {center dot} galactose) and XG9n (glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} {center dot} galactose{sub 2}) were more effective than XG7 itself and XG9 (glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} {center dot} galactose {center dot} fucose). The same oligosaccharides also promoted the degradation, assayed viscometrically, of xyloglucan by an acidic cellulase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. The oligosaccharides were highly active at 10{sup {minus}4} molar, causing up to a fourfold increase in activity, but the effect was still detectable at 1 micromolar. Those oligosaccharides (XG8 and XG9n) which best promoted growth, stimulated cellulase activity to the greatest extent. The oligosaccharides did not stimulate the action of the cellulase in an assay based on the conversion of ({sup 3}H)xyloglucan to ethanol-soluble fragments. This suggests that the oligosaccharides enhanced the midchain hydrolysis of xyloglucan molecules (which would rapidly reduce the viscosity of the solution), at the expense of cleavage near the termini (which would yield ethanol-soluble products).

  19. Homologous mesenchymal stem cells promote the emergence and growth of pulmonary metastases of the rat osteosarcoma cell line UMR-106

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, PENG; DONG, LING; LONG, HUA; YANG, TONG-TAO; ZHOU, YONG; FAN, QING-YU; MA, BAO-AN

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent primary bone sarcoma and tends to develop pulmonary metastasis. Studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are involved in OS growth and metastasis, but the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify whether homologous MSCs could promote the growth and metastasis of OS in rats with a normal immune system. The OS cell line, UMR-106, which originally derives from a Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat-transplantable osteogenic sarcoma with an osteoblastic phenotype, has a strong carcinogenic capability and a high lung metastasis. Xenotransplanted models of UMR-106 with or without MSCs injected through the tibia (IT) or caudal vein (IV) were established. SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: Control, UMR-106 (IT), MSCs (IV), UMR-106 (IT) + MSCs (IV), UMR-106 (IV) and UMR-106 (IV) + MSCs (IV). Following injection, all rats were sacrificed at week 5, and the volume and quantity of metastatic sarcoma and the serum alkaline phosphatase levels were measured. There was no metastatic sarcoma in the liver, spleen and kidney in all groups. The rats in the MSCs (IV) + UMR-106 (IV) group showed a significantly higher volume and number of pulmonary metastatic tumors than those of the UMR-106 (IV) group. In pulmonary metastatic tissues, MSCs were found in the MSCs (IV) + UMR-106 (IV) group, but not in the UMR-106 (IT) + MSCs (IV) group. Notably, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was increased in the MSCs + UMR-106 cells co-culture system. The present study indicated that MSCs can significantly promote the pulmonary metastasis of the rat OS cell line, UMR-106, with a normal immune system, and VEGF was involved in MSC-promoted UMR-106 emergence and growth of pulmonary metastasis. PMID:24959232

  20. Inoculation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) with growth-promoting Bacillus subtilis retards whitefly Bemisia tabaci development.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Soto, José Humberto; Estrada-Hernández, María Gloria; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Root inoculation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with a Bacillus subtilis strain BEB-DN (BsDN) isolated from the rhizosphere of cultivated potato plants was able to promote growth and to generate an induced systemic resistance (ISR) response against virus-free Bemisia tabaci. Growth promotion was evident 3 weeks after inoculation. No changes in oviposition density, preference and nymphal number in the early stages of B. tabaci development were observed between BsDN-treated plants and control plants inoculated with a non-growth promoting Bs strain (PY-79), growth medium or water. However, a long-term ISR response was manifested by a significantly reduced number of B. tabaci pupae developing into adults in BsDN-treated plants. The observed resistance response appeared to be a combination of jasmonic acid (JA) dependent and JA-independent responses, since the BsDN-related retardation effect on B. tabaci development was still effective in the highly susceptible spr2 tomato mutants with an impaired capacity for JA biosynthesis. A screening of 244 genes, 169 of which were previously obtained from subtractive-suppressive-hybridization libraries generated from B. tabaci-infested plants suggested that the BsDN JA-dependent ISR depended on an anti-nutritive effect produced by the simultaneous expression of genes coding principally for proteases and proteinase inhibitors, whereas the JA-independent ISR observed in the spr2 background curiously involved the up-regulation of several photosynthetic genes, key components of the phenyl-propanoid and terpenoid biosynthetic pathways and of the Hsp90 chaperonin, which probably mediated pest resistance response(s), in addition to the down-regulation of pathogenesis and hypersensitive response genes. PMID:20041333

  1. Erythropoietin promotes peripheral nerve regeneration in rats by upregulating expression of insulin-like growth factor-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Li, Dongsheng; Li, Qing; Wang, Lei; Bai, Guang; Yang, Tao; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Zhitu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to have beneficial effects on peripheral nerve damage, but its mechanism of action remains incompletely understood. In this study we hypothesized that EPO promotes peripheral nerve repair via neurotrophic factor upregulation. Material and methods Thirty adult male Wistar rats were employed to establish a sciatic nerve injury model. They were then randomly divided into two groups to be subjected to different treatment: 0.9% saline (group A) and 5000 U/kg EPO (group B). The walking behavior of rats was evaluated by footprint analysis, and the nerve regeneration was assessed by electron microscopy. The expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the injured sciatic nerves was detected by immunohistochemical analysis. Results Compared to saline treatment, EPO treatment led to the growth of myelin sheath, the recovery of normal morphology of axons and Schwann cells, and higher density of myelinated nerve fibers. Erythropoietin treatment promoted the recovery of SFI in the injured sciatic nerves. In addition, EPO treatment led to increased IGF-1 expression in the injured sciatic nerves. Conclusions Erythropoietin may promote peripheral nerve repair in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through the upregulation of IGF-1 expression. These findings reveal a novel mechanism underlying the neurotrophic effects of EPO. PMID:25995763

  2. A Stimulation-dependent Alternate Core Promoter Links Lymphotoxin Alpha (LTA) Expression with Transforming Growth Factor-?1 and Fibroblast Growth Factor-7 Signaling in Primary Human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Yokley, Brian H.; Selby, Sandra T.; Posch, Phillip E.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphotoxin alpha (LT-?) regulates many biologic activities, yet little is known of the regulation of its gene. In this study, the contribution to LTA transcriptional regulation of the region between the transcription and translation start sites (downstream segment) was investigated. The LTA downstream segment was found to be required for and alone to be sufficient for maximal transcriptional activity in both T and B lymphocytes. The latter observation suggested that an alternate core promoter might be present in the downstream segment. Characterization of LTA mRNAs isolated from primary and from transformed human T cells under different stimulation conditions identified eight unique transcript variants (TVs) including one (LTA TV8) that initiated within a polypyrimidine tract near the 3? end of the downstream segment. Further investigation determined that the LTA downstream segment alternate core promoter that produces the LTA TV8 transcript most likely consists of a Sp1 binding site and an initiator element and that factors involved in transcription initiation (Sp1, TFII-I and RNA polymerase II) bind to this LTA region in vivo. Interestingly, the LTA downstream segment alternate core promoter was active only after specific cellular stimulation and was the major promoter utilized when human T cells were stimulated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7. Most importantly, this study provides evidence of a direct link for crosstalk between T cells and epithelial/stromal cells that has implications for lymphotoxin signaling by T cells in the cooperative regulation of various processes typically associated with TGF-?R and FGF-R2 signaling. PMID:23547113

  3. Inoculation of Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Enterobacter sp. on Sorghum bicolor: Root colonization and plant growth promotion of dual strain inocula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Chiarini; Annamaria Bevivino; Silvia Tabacchioni; Claudia Dalmastri

    1998-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia strain PHP7 was tested for its ability to colonize roots and to promote the growth of Sorghum bicolor alone or in combination with Enterobacter sp. strain BB23T4d or Pseudomonas fluorescnes strain A23T3c. All three strains were able to colonize the root system of sorghum but only B. cepacia and P. fluorescens promoted plant growth in single strain inoculation

  4. Responses of native legume desert trees used for reforestation in the Sonoran Desert to plant growth-promoting microorganisms in screen house

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoav Bashan; Bernardo Salazar; Ma. Esther Puente

    2009-01-01

    Three slow-growing legume trees used for desert reforestation and urban gardening in the Sonoran Desert of Northwestern Mexico\\u000a and the Southwestern USA were evaluated whether their growth can be promoted by inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria\\u000a (Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus pumilus), unidentified arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (mainly Glomus sp.), and supplementation with common compost under regular screenhouse cultivation common to

  5. Variant in Promoter Region of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-? (PDGFR?) Gene Is Associated with the Severity and Allergic Status of Childhood Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence Shih-Hsin Wu; Choon-Yee Tan; Ling-Mei Wang; Cherry Guan-Ju Lin; Jiu-Yao Wang

    2006-01-01

    Background: Upregulation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFR?) in airway myofibroblast cells is one of the mechanisms of airway remodeling. The genetic association between PDGFR? promoter polymorphism and severity of childhood asthma was examined. Methods: Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the promoter regions of the PDGFR? gene were genotyped in 277 unrelated allergic and nonallergic asthmatic children and

  6. Pancreatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase Activation Promotes Medulloblastoma Cell Migration and Invasion through Induction of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Stephanie; Lin, Yifeng; Lin, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that activation of the pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress adapts tumor cells to the tumor microenvironment and enhances tumor angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). Recent studies suggest that VEGF-A can act directly on certain tumor cell types in an autocrine manner, via binding to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), to promote tumor cell migration and invasion. Although several reports show that PERK activation increases VEGF-A expression in medulloblastoma, the most common solid malignancy of childhood, the role that either PERK or VEGF-A plays in medulloblastoma remains elusive. In this study, we mimicked the moderate enhancement of PERK activity observed in tumor patients using a genetic approach and a pharmacologic approach, and found that moderate activation of PERK signaling facilitated medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion and increased the production of VEGF-A. Moreover, using the VEGFR2 inhibitor SU5416 and the VEGF-A neutralizing antibody to block VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signaling, our results suggested that tumor cell-derived VEGF-A promoted medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion through VEGFR2 signaling, and that both VEGF-A and VEGFR2 were required for the promoting effects of PERK activation on medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion. Thus, these findings suggest that moderate PERK activation promotes medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion through enhancement of VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signaling. PMID:25794107

  7. Controllable promotion of chondrocyte adhesion and growth on PVA hydrogels by controlled release of TGF-?1 from porous PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Nie, Lei; Zhang, Guohua; Hou, Ruixia; Xu, Haiping; Li, Yaping; Fu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels have been candidate materials for cartilage tissue engineering. However, the cell non-adhesive nature of PVA hydrogels has been a limit. In this paper, the cell adhesion and growth on PVA hydrogels were promoted by compositing with transform growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) loaded porous poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. The porous microspheres were fabricated by a modified double emulsion method with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as porogen. The average pore size of microspheres was manipulated by changing the BSA/PLGA ratio. Such controllable porous structures effectively influenced the encapsulation efficiency (Eencaps) and release profile of TGF-?1. By compositing PVA hydrogels with such TGF-?1-loaded PLGA microspheres, chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation were significantly promoted in a controllable manner, as confirmed by fluorescent imaging and quantitative CCK-8 assay. That is, the chondrocyte proliferation was favored by using PLGA microspheres with high Eencaps of TGF-?1 or by increasing the PLGA microsphere content in the hydrogels. These results demonstrated a facile method to improve the cell adhesion and growth on the intrinsically cell non-adhesive PVA hydrogels, which may find applications in cartilage substitution. PMID:25437063

  8. Promoting Effects of a Single Rhodopseudomonas palustris Inoculant on Plant Growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under Low Fertilizer Input

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

    2014-01-01

    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×106 CFU g?1 soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture. PMID:25130882

  9. Phytostabilization of moderate copper contaminated soils using co-inoculation of Vicia faba with plant growth promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-03-01

    There is a need to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programs. This article suggest a consortium of bacteria combining Rhizobium sp. CCNWSX0481, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas sp. 2(2010) that was examined for the ability to promote Vicia faba.L. growth when cultivated on the vineyard of soil moderately contaminated with copper. Data showed that inoculation was significant in nodulation; it increases the number and the weight of nodules of 50%. Co-inoculation was also found to positively influence growth and seed yield, through increasing fresh shoot and fresh root weights by 33 and 26%, respectively, and through rising numbers of seed per pod and pods per plant. In contrast, co-inoculation produced a significant reduction of accumulated copper in roots attending 35%, however, the treatment revealed no significant effects on the copper contents in pods and seeds. The tested inoculum could be an option to promote V. faba growth and to enhance soil fertilization in moderate copper contaminated soils. Further studies on the influence of co-inoculation practices on copper migration in soil-plant systems are recommended to acquire more information for evaluation of this legume safety. PMID:24338717

  10. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor promotes tumor growth and metastasis by inducing Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Kendra D.; Templeton, Dennis J.; Cross, Janet V.

    2012-01-01

    The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine, is overexpressed in many solid tumors and is associated with poor prognosis. We previously identified inhibitors of MIF within a class of natural products with demonstrated anti-cancer activities. We therefore sought to determine how MIF contributes to tumor growth and progression. We show here that, in murine tumors including the 4T1 model of aggressive, spontaneously metastatic breast cancer in immunologically intact mice, tumor-derived MIF promotes tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis through control of inflammatory cells within the tumor. Specifically, MIF increases the prevalence of a highly immune suppressive subpopulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) within the tumor. In vitro, MIF promotes differentiation of myeloid cells into the same population of MDSCs. Pharmacologic inhibition of MIF reduces MDSC accumulation in the tumor similar to MIF depletion, and blocks the MIF-dependent in vitro differentiation of MDSCs. Our results demonstrate that MIF is a therapeutically targetable mechanism for control of tumor growth and metastasis through regulation of the host immune response, and support the potential utility of MIF inhibitors, either alone or in combination with standard tumor-targeting therapeutic or immunotherapy approaches. PMID:23125418

  11. Androgen-Induced TMPRSS2 Activates Matriptase and Promotes Extracellular Matrix Degradation, Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion, Tumor Growth, and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chun-Jung; Huang, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Hsin-Ying; Juan, Chun-Pai; Lan, Shao-Wei; Shyu, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Shang-Ru; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Huang, Hsiang-Po; Shun, Chia-Tung; Lee, Ming-Shyue

    2015-07-15

    Dysregulation of androgen signaling and pericellular proteolysis is necessary for prostate cancer progression, but the links between them are still obscure. In this study, we show how the membrane-anchored serine protease TMPRSS2 stimulates a proteolytic cascade that mediates androgen-induced prostate cancer cell invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis. We found that matriptase serves as a substrate for TMPRSS2 in mediating this proinvasive action of androgens in prostate cancer. Further, we determined that higher levels of TMPRSS2 expression correlate with higher levels of matriptase activation in prostate cancer tissues. Lastly, we found that the ability of TMPRSS2 to promote prostate cancer tumor growth and metastasis was associated with increased matriptase activation and enhanced degradation of extracellular matrix nidogen-1 and laminin ?1 in tumor xenografts. In summary, our results establish that TMPRSS2 promotes the growth, invasion, and metastasis of prostate cancer cells via matriptase activation and extracellular matrix disruption, with implications to target these two proteases as a strategy to treat prostate cancer. Cancer Res; 75(14); 2949-60. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26018085

  12. Lactate promotes PGE2 synthesis and gluconeogenesis in monocytes to benefit the growth of inflammation-associated colorectal tumor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Libin; Zhou, Yuxin; Yao, Jing; Qiao, Chen; Ni, Ting; Guo, Ruichen; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-06-30

    Reprogramming energy metabolism, such as enhanced glycolysis, is an Achilles' heel in cancer treatment. Most studies have been performed on isolated cancer cells. Here, we studied the energy-transfer mechanism in inflammatory tumor microenvironment. We found that human THP-1 monocytes took up lactate secreted from tumor cells through monocarboxylate transporter 1. In THP-1 monocytes, the oxidation product of lactate, pyruvate competed with the substrate of proline hydroxylase and inhibited its activity, resulting in the stabilization of HIF-1? under normoxia. Mechanistically, activated hypoxia-inducible factor 1-? in THP-1 monocytes promoted the transcriptions of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, which were the key enzyme of prostaglandin E2 synthesis and gluconeogenesis, respectively, and promote the growth of human colon cancer HCT116 cells. Interestingly, lactate could not accelerate the growth of colon cancer directly in vivo. Instead, the human monocytic cells affected by lactate would play critical roles to 'feed' the colon cancer cells. Thus, recycling of lactate for glucose regeneration was reported in cancer metabolism. The anabolic metabolism of monocytes in inflammatory tumor microenvironment may be a critical event during tumor development, allowing accelerated tumor growth. PMID:25938544

  13. OVA12, a novel tumor antigen, promotes cancer cell growth and inhibits 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renfeng; Jin, Shu; Rao, Wei; Song, Feifei; Yin, Qinqin; Wang, Ying; Wang, Li; Xi, Yebin; Zhang, Xiaoren; Wang, Mingliang; Ge, Hailiang

    2015-02-01

    To achieve a better understanding of mechanisms that underlie carcinogenesis and to identify novel target molecules for diagnosis and therapy of carcinoma, we previously identified 24 distinct gene clones by immunoscreening of a cDNA library derived from an ovarian cancer patient through SEREX analysis. Among these genes we focused on a novel gene termed OVA12 and which putatively encodes a 114-amino-acid protein. In the present study, we found that OVA12 was ubiquitously overexpressed in diverse human tumor cell lines. Interestingly, we noticed that overexpression of OVA12 promoted proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and accelerated tumor growth in nude mice as compared to controls. Conversely, specific downregulation of OVA12 inhibited tumor cell proliferation and tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, OVA12 inhibited 5-FU-induced apoptosis through specific upregulation of Mcl-1 and survivin. These results demonstrate that OVA12 is able to promote tumor growth, suggesting that this antigen might be a new potential target for development of cancer therapy. PMID:25444895

  14. Organic acid production in vitro and plant growth promotion in maize under controlled environment by phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Phosphorus deficiency is a major constraint to crop production due to rapid binding of the applied phosphorus into fixed forms not available to the plants. Microbial solubilization of inorganic phosphates has been attributed mainly to the production of organic acids. Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms enhance plant growth under conditions of poor phosphorus availability by solubilizing insoluble phosphates in the soil. This paper describes the production of organic acids during inorganic phosphate solubilization and influence on plant growth as a function of phosphate solubilization by fluorescent Pseudomonas. Results Nineteen phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas strains of P. fluorescens, P. poae, P. trivialis, and Pseudomonas spp. produced gluconic acid, oxalic acid, 2-ketogluconic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, formic acid, citric acid and malic acid in the culture filtrates during the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate, Mussoorie rock phosphate, Udaipur rock phosphate and North Carolina rock phosphate. The strains differed quantitatively and qualitatively in the production of organic acids during solubilization of phosphate substrates. Cluster analysis based on organic acid profiling revealed inter-species and intra-species variation in organic acids produced by Pseudomonas strains. The phosphate-solubilizing bacterial treatments P. trivialis BIHB 745, P. trivialis BIHB 747, Pseudomonas sp. BIHB 756 and P. poae BIHB 808 resulted in significantly higher or statistically at par growth and total N, P and K content over single super phosphate treatment in maize. These treatments also significantly affected pH, organic matter, and N, P, and K content of the soil. Conclusion The results implied that organic acid production by Pseudomonas strains is independent of their genetic relatedness and each strain has its own ability of producing organic acids during the solubilization of inorganic phosphates. Significant difference in plant growth promotion by efficient phosphate-solubilizing Pseudomonas strains point at the need for selecting potential strains in plant growth promotion experiments in conjunction with various phosphate substrates for their targeted application as bioinoculants. PMID:19698133

  15. Overexpression of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in guard cells promotes light-induced stomatal opening and enhances plant growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Noguchi, Ko; Ono, Natsuko; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Terashima, Ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    Stomatal pores surrounded by a pair of guard cells in the plant epidermis control gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere in response to light, CO2, and the plant hormone abscisic acid. Light-induced stomatal opening is mediated by at least three key components: the blue light receptor phototropin (phot1 and phot2), plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, and plasma membrane inward-rectifying K(+) channels. Very few attempts have been made to enhance stomatal opening with the goal of increasing photosynthesis and plant growth, even though stomatal resistance is thought to be the major limiting factor for CO2 uptake by plants. Here, we show that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing H(+)-ATPase using the strong guard cell promoter GC1 showed enhanced light-induced stomatal opening, photosynthesis, and plant growth. The transgenic plants produced larger and increased numbers of rosette leaves, with ?42-63% greater fresh and dry weights than the wild type in the first 25 d of growth. The dry weights of total flowering stems of 45-d-old transgenic plants, including seeds, siliques, and flowers, were ?36-41% greater than those of the wild type. In addition, stomata in the transgenic plants closed normally in response to darkness and abscisic acid. In contrast, the overexpression of phototropin or inward-rectifying K(+) channels in guard cells had no effect on these phenotypes. These results demonstrate that stomatal aperture is a limiting factor in photosynthesis and plant growth, and that manipulation of stomatal opening by overexpressing H(+)-ATPase in guard cells is useful for the promotion of plant growth. PMID:24367097

  16. Thyroid hormone receptor binds to a site in the rat growth hormone promoter required for induction by thyroid hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, R.J.; Brent, G.A.; Warne, R.L.; Larsen, P.R.; Moore, D.D.

    1987-08-01

    Transcription of the rat growth hormone (rGH) gene in pituitary cells is increased by addition of thyroid hormone (T3). This induction is dependent on the presence of specific sequences just upstream of the rGH promoter. The authors have partially purified T3 receptor from rat liver and examined its interaction with these rGH sequences. They show here that T3 receptor binds specifically to a site just upstream of the basal rGH promoter. This binding site includes two copies of a 7-base-pair direct repeat, the centers of which are separated by 10 base pairs. Deletions that specifically remove the T3 receptor binding site drastically reduce response to T3 in transient transfection experiments. These results demonstrate that T3 receptor can recognize specific DNA sequences and suggest that it can act directly as a positive transcriptional regulatory factor.

  17. Vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates bone repair by promoting angiogenesis and bone turnover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Bao; Leo Deguzman; Stuart Bunting; Franklin V. Peale Jr.; Napoleone Ferrara; Hope Steinmetz; John Hoeffel; Jeffrey L. Cleland; Ann Daugherty; Nicholas van Bruggen; H. Paul Redmond; Richard A. D. Carano; Ellen H. Filvaroff

    2002-01-01

    Several growth factors are expressed in distinct temporal and spatial patterns during fracture repair. Of these, vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, is of particular interest because of its ability to induce neovascularization (angiogenesis). To determine whether VEGF is required for bone repair, we inhibited VEGF activity during secondary bone healing via a cartilage intermediate (endochondral ossification) and during direct bone

  18. Characterization of rhizobacterial strain Rs-2 with ACC deaminase activity and its performance in promoting cotton growth under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhansheng; Yue, Haitao; Lu, Jianjiang; Li, Chun

    2012-06-01

    A plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strain Rs-2 with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity was isolated from salinized soils using ACC as the sole nitrogen source. Based on its physiological and biochemical properties and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this strain was identified as Raoultella planticola. The maximum value of nitrogen fixation, dissolved phosphorus and dissolved potassium of Rs-2 were 148.8 ?g/ml, 205.0 and 4.31 mg/l, respectively within 192 h liquid culture. The germination rate of cotton seeds (Gossypium hirsutum L.) inoculated with Rs-2 (Rs-2-S) was enhanced by 29.5 % in pot experiments compared with that of the control (CK-S). Subsequently, individual plant height, fresh weight and dry weight of cotton seedlings in Rs-2-S treatment increased by 15.0, 33.7 and 33.3 %, respectively, compared with those in CK-S treatment. Statistical analysis showed that the inoculums of Rs-2 promoted significantly (P < 0.05) cotton growth. Further analysis showed that Rs-2 reduced the quantities of ethylene and abscisic acid in cotton seedlings, and increased indole acetic acid content in cotton seedlings under salinity stress. The accumulation of N, P, K(+), Ca(2+) and Fe(2+) in the cotton plants was increased significantly (P < 0.05) in Rs-2-S treatment, whereas the uptake of Na(+) in cotton seedlings decreased (P < 0.05). Hence, the present observations suggested that R. planticola Rs-2 could have a promising potential for promoting cotton growth and alleviating salinity stress. PMID:22806112

  19. ProNGF promotes neurite growth from a subset of NGF-dependent neurons by a p75NTR-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Laura; Wyatt, Sean; Nagappan, Guhan; Davies, Alun M.

    2013-01-01

    The somatosensory and sympathetic innervation of the vertebrate head is derived principally from the neurons of trigeminal and superior cervical ganglia (SCG), respectively. During development, the survival of both populations of neurons and the terminal growth and branching of their axons in the tissues they innervate is regulated by the supply of nerve growth factor (NGF) produced by these tissues. NGF is derived by proteolytic cleavage of a large precursor protein, proNGF, which is recognised to possess distinctive biological functions. Here, we show that proNGF promotes profuse neurite growth and branching from cultured postnatal mouse SCG neurons. In marked contrast, proNGF does not promote the growth of trigeminal neurites. Studies using compartment cultures demonstrated that proNGF acts locally on SCG neurites to promote growth. The neurite growth-promoting effect of proNGF is not observed in SCG neurons cultured from p75NTR-deficient mice, and proNGF does not phosphorylate the NGF receptor tyrosine kinase TrkA. These findings suggest that proNGF selectively promotes the growth of neurites from a subset of NGF-responsive neurons by a p75NTR-dependent mechanism during postnatal development when the axons of these neurons are ramifying within their targets in vivo. PMID:23633509

  20. Thiol protecting agents and antioxidants inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition promoted by etoposide: implications in the prevention of etoposide-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Custódio, José B A; Cardoso, Carla M P; Almeida, Leonor M

    2002-05-20

    Etoposide (VP-16) is known to promote cell apoptosis either in cancer or in normal cells as a side effect. This fact is preceded by the induction of several mitochondrial events, including increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio followed by cytochrome c release and consequent activation of caspase-9 and -3, reduction of ATP levels, depolarization of membrane potential (DeltaPsi) and rupture of the outer membrane. These events are apoptotic factors essentially associated with the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). VP-16 has been shown to stimulate the Ca2+-dependent MPT induction similarly to prooxidants and to promote apoptosis by oxidative stress mechanisms, which is prevented by glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effects of antioxidants and thiol protecting agents on MPT promoted by VP-16, attempting to identify the underlying mechanisms on VP-16-induced apoptosis. The increased sensitivity of isolated mitochondria to Ca2+-induced swelling, Ca2+ release, depolarization of DeltaPsi and uncoupling of respiration promoted by VP-16, which are prevented by cyclosporine A proving that VP-16 induces the MPT, are also efficiently prevented by ascorbate, the primary reductant of the phenoxyl radicals produced by VP-16. The thiol reagents GSH, dithiothreitol and N-ethylmaleimide, which have been reported to prevent the MPT induction, also protect this event promoted by VP-16. The inhibition of the VP-16-induced MPT by antioxidants agrees with the prevention of etoposide-induced apoptosis by GSH and NAC and suggests the generation of oxidant species as a potential mechanism underlying the MPT that may trigger the release of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors responsible for apoptotic cascade activation. PMID:12076523