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Sample records for guanylate cyclase sgc

  1. A new small molecule inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Filipa; Gane, Paul; Hampden-Smith, Kathryn; Allerston, Charles K.; Garthwaite, John; Selwood, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a haem containing enzyme that regulates cardiovascular homeostasis and multiple mechanisms in the central and peripheral nervous system. Commonly used inhibitors of sGC activity act through oxidation of the haem moiety, however they also bind haemoglobin and this limits their bioavailability for in vivo studies. We have discovered a new class of small molecule inhibitors of sGC and have characterised a compound designated D12 (compound 10) which binds to the catalytic domain of the enzyme with a KD of 11 μM in a SPR assay. PMID:26264842

  2. Heme deficiency of soluble guanylate cyclase induces gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    COSYNS, S. M. R.; DHAESE, I.; THOONEN, R.; BUYS, E. S.; VRAL, A.; BROUCKAERT, P.; LEFEBVRE, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the principal target of nitric oxide (NO) to control gastrointestinal motility. The consequence on nitrergic signaling and gut motility of inducing a heme-free status of sGC, as induced by oxidative stress, was investigated. Methods sGCβ1H105F knock-in (apo-sGC) mice, which express heme-free sGC that has basal activity, but cannot be stimulated by NO, were generated. Key Results Diethylenetriamine NONOate did not increase sGC activity in gastrointestinal tissue of apo-sGC mice. Exogenous NO did not induce relaxation in fundic, jejunal and colonic strips, and pyloric rings of apo-sGC mice. The stomach was enlarged in apo-sGC mice with hypertrophy of the muscularis externa of the fundus and pylorus. In addition, gastric emptying and intestinal transit were delayed and whole-gut transit time was increased in the apo-sGC mice, while distal colonic transit time was maintained. The nitrergic relaxant responses to electrical field stimulation at 1–4 Hz were abolished in fundic and jejunal strips from apo-sGC mice, but in pyloric rings and colonic strips, only the response at 1 Hz was abolished, indicating the contribution of other transmitters than NO. Conclusions & Inferences The results indicate that the gastrointestinal consequences of switching from a native sGC to a heme-free sGC, which cannot be stimulated by NO, are most pronounced at the level of the stomach establishing a pivotal role of the activation of sGC by NO in normal gastric functioning. In addition, delayed intestinal transit was observed, indicating that nitrergic activation of sGC also plays a role in the lower gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23551931

  3. Quaternary Structure Controls Ligand Dynamics in Soluble Guanylate Cyclase*

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byung-Kuk; Lamarre, Isabelle; Martin, Jean-Louis; Negrerie, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the mammalian endogenous nitric oxide (NO) receptor. The mechanisms of activation and deactivation of this heterodimeric enzyme are unknown. For deciphering them, functional domains can be overexpressed. We have probed the dynamics of the diatomic ligands NO and CO within the isolated heme domain β1(190) of human sGC by piconanosecond absorption spectroscopy. After photo-excitation of nitrosylated sGC, only NO geminate rebinding occurs in 7.5 ps. In β1(190), both photo-dissociation of 5c-NO and photo-oxidation occur, contrary to sGC, followed by NO rebinding (7 ps) and back-reduction (230 ps and 2 ns). In full-length sGC, CO geminate rebinding to the heme does not occur. In contrast, CO geminately rebinds to β1(190) with fast multiphasic process (35, 171, and 18 ns). We measured the bimolecular association rates kon = 0.075 ± 0.01 × 106 m−1·s−1 for sGC and 0.83 ± 0.1 × 106 m−1·s−1 for β1(190). These different dynamics reflect conformational changes and less proximal constraints in the isolated heme domain with respect to the dimeric native sGC. We concluded that the α-subunit and the β1(191–619) domain exert structural strains on the heme domain. These strains are likely involved in the transmission of the energy and relaxation toward the activated state after Fe2+-His bond breaking. This also reveals the heme domain plasticity modulated by the associated domains and subunit. PMID:22223482

  4. Tetrahydrobiopterin protects soluble guanylate cyclase against oxidative inactivation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kurt; Neubauer, Andrea; Kolesnik, Bernd; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Werner, Ernst R; Gorren, Antonius C F; Mayer, Bernd

    2012-09-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a major endogenous vasoprotective agent that improves endothelial function by increasing nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and scavenging of superoxide and peroxynitrite. Therefore, administration of BH4 is considered a promising therapy for cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Here we report on a novel function of BH4 that might contribute to the beneficial vascular effects of the pteridine. Treatment of cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells with nitroglycerin (GTN) or 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) resulted in heme oxidation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), as evident from diminished NO-induced cGMP accumulation that was paralleled by increased cGMP response to a heme- and NO-independent activator of soluble guanylate cyclase [4-([(4-carboxybutyl)[2-(5-fluoro-2-([4'-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-4-yl]methoxy)phenyl)ethyl]amino]methyl)benzoic acid (BAY 60-2770)]. Whereas scavenging of superoxide and/or peroxynitrite with superoxide dismutase, tiron, Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin, and urate had no protective effects, supplementation of the cells with BH4, either by application of BH4 directly or of its precursors dihydrobiopterin or sepiapterin, completely prevented the inhibition of NO-induced cGMP accumulation by GTN and ODQ. Tetrahydroneopterin had the same effect, and virtually identical results were obtained with RFL-6 fibroblasts, suggesting that our observation reflects a general feature of tetrahydropteridines that is unrelated to NO synthase function and not limited to endothelial cells. Protection of sGC against oxidative inactivation may contribute to the known beneficial effects of BH4 in cardiovascular disorders associated with oxidative stress. PMID:22648973

  5. Guanylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum with the topology of mammalian adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, J; Snippe, H; Kleineidam, R G; Van Haastert, P J

    2001-01-01

    The core of adenylate and guanylate cyclases is formed by an intramolecular or intermolecular dimer of two cyclase domains arranged in an antiparallel fashion. Metazoan membrane-bound adenylate cyclases are composed of 12 transmembrane spanning regions, and two cyclase domains which function as a heterodimer and are activated by G-proteins. In contrast, membrane-bound guanylate cyclases have only one transmembrane spanning region and one cyclase domain, and are activated by extracellular ligands to form a homodimer. In the cellular slime mould, Dictyostelium discoideum, membrane-bound guanylate cyclase activity is induced after cAMP stimulation; a G-protein-coupled cAMP receptor and G-proteins are essential for this activation. We have cloned a Dictyostelium gene, DdGCA, encoding a protein with 12 transmembrane spanning regions and two cyclase domains. Sequence alignment demonstrates that the two cyclase domains are transposed, relative to these domains in adenylate cyclases. DdGCA expressed in Dictyostelium exhibits high guanylate cyclase activity and no detectable adenylate cyclase activity. Deletion of the gene indicates that DdGCA is not essential for chemotaxis or osmo-regulation. The knock-out strain still exhibits substantial guanylate cyclase activity, demonstrating that Dictyostelium contains at least one other guanylate cyclase. PMID:11237875

  6. NO-independent stimulators and activators of soluble guanylate cyclase: discovery and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Evgenov, Oleg V.; Pacher, Pál; Schmidt, Peter M.; Haskó, György; Schmidt, Harald H. H. W.; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a key signal-transduction enzyme activated by nitric oxide (NO). Impaired bioavailability and/or responsiveness to endogenous NO has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and other diseases. Current therapies that involve the use of organic nitrates and other NO donors have limitations, including non-specific interactions of NO with various biomolecules, lack of response and the development of tolerance following prolonged administration. Compounds that activate sGC in an NO-independent manner might therefore provide considerable therapeutic advantages. Here we review the discovery, biochemistry, pharmacology and clinical potential of haem-dependent sGC stimulators (including YC-1, BAY 41-2272, BAY 41-8543, CFM-1571 and A-350619) and haem-independent sGC activators (including BAY 58-2667 and HMR-1766). PMID:16955067

  7. Immunohistochemical Localization of Guanylate Cyclase within Neurons of Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariano, Marjorie A.; Lewicki, John A.; Brandwein, Harvey J.; Murad, Ferid

    1982-02-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of guanylate cyclase [GTP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.2] has been examined in rat neocortex, caudate-putamen, and cerebellum by using specific monoclonal antibodies. Immunofluorescence could be seen within somata and proximal dendrites of neurons in these regions. A nuclear immunofluorescence reaction to guanylate cyclase was characteristically absent. The staining pattern for guanylate cyclase was coincident with previously described localizations of cyclic GMP immunofluorescence within medium spiny neurons of the caudate-putamen and pyramidal cells of the neocortex. Cerebellar guanylate cyclase immunoreactivity was primarily confined to Purkinje cells and their primary dendrites, similar to the pattern reported for cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase localization. Guanylate cyclase immunofluorescence was abolished when the monoclonal antibodies were exposed to purified enzyme prior to incubation of the tissue slices or when control antibody was substituted for the primary antibody. Immunohistochemical localization of cyclic AMP in these same tissues was readily distinguished from that of guanylate cyclase or cyclic GMP, showing uniform fluorescence throughout the cell bodies of neurons and glial elements.

  8. Carnosine as a regulator of soluble guanylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Severina, I S; Bussygina, O G; Pyatakova, N V

    2000-07-01

    The molecular mechanism of the participation of carnosine in the functioning of soluble guanylate cyclase is discussed. It is shown that carnosine inhibits the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by sodium nitroprusside and a derivative of furoxan--1,2,5-oxadiazolo-trioxide (an NO donor). However, carnosine has no effect on stimulation of the enzyme by a structural analog of the latter compound, a furazan derivative (1,2,5-oxadiazolo-dioxide) that is not an NO donor; nor was carnosine involved in the enzyme activation by protoporphyrin IX, whose stimulatory effect is not associated with the guanylate cyclase heme. The inhibition by carnosine of guanylate cyclase activation by an NO donor is due to the interaction of carnosine with heme iron with subsequent formation of a chelate complex. It was first demonstrated that carnosine is a selective inhibitor of NO-dependent activation of guanylate cyclase and may be used for suppression of activity of the intracellular signaling system NO-soluble guanylate cyclase-cGMP, whose sharp increase is observed in malignant tumors, sepsis, septic shock, asthma, and migraine. PMID:10951096

  9. Human soluble guanylate cyclase: functional expression and revised isoenzyme family.

    PubMed Central

    Zabel, U; Weeger, M; La, M; Schmidt, H H

    1998-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a heterodimeric (alpha/beta) haem protein that converts GTP to the second messenger cGMP, functions as the receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and nitrovasodilator drugs. Three distinct cDNA species of each subunit (alpha1-alpha3, beta1-beta3) have been reported from various species. From human sources, none of these have been expressed as functionally active enzyme. Here we describe the expression of human alpha/beta heterodimeric sGC in Sf9 cells yielding active recombinant enzyme that was stimulated by the nitrovasodilator sodium nitroprusside or the NO-independent activator 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1). At the protein level, both alpha and beta subunits were detected in human tissues, suggesting co-expression also in vivo. Moreover, resequencing of the human cDNA clones [originally termed alpha3 and beta3; Giuili, Scholl, Bulle and Guellaen (1992) FEBS Lett. 304, 83-88] revealed several sequencing errors in human alpha3; correction of these eliminated major regions of divergence from rat and bovine alpha1. As human beta3 also displays more than 98% similarity to rat and bovine beta1 at the amino acid level, alpha3 and beta3 represent the human homologues of rat and bovine alpha1 and beta1, and the isoenzyme family is decreased to two isoforms for each subunit (alpha1, alpha2; beta1, beta2). Having access to the human key enzyme of NO signalling will now permit the study of novel sGC-modulating compounds with therapeutic potential. PMID:9742212

  10. The molecular mechanism of heme loss from oxidized soluble guanylate cyclase induced by conformational change.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Yuan, Hong; Xu, Qiming; Zhang, Huijuan; Zhou, Yajun; Huang, Zhong-Xian; Tan, Xiangshi

    2016-05-01

    Heme oxidation and loss of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is thought to be an important contributor to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, it remains unknown why the heme loses readily in oxidized sGC. In the current study, the conformational change of sGC upon heme oxidation by ODQ was studied based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the heme and a fluorophore fluorescein arsenical helix binder (FlAsH-EDT2) labeled at different domains of sGC β1. This study provides an opportunity to monitor the domain movement of sGC relative to the heme. The results indicated that heme oxidation by ODQ in truncated sCC induced the heme-associated αF helix moving away from the heme, the Per/Arnt/Sim domain (PAS) domain moving closer to the heme, but led the helical domain going further from the heme. We proposed that the synergistic effect of these conformational changes of the discrete region upon heme oxidation forces the heme pocket open, and subsequent heme loss readily. Furthermore, the kinetic studies suggested that the heme oxidation was a fast process and the conformational change was a relatively slow process. The kinetics of heme loss from oxidized sGC was monitored by a new method based on the heme group de-quenching the fluorescence of FlAsH-EDT2. PMID:26876536

  11. The Influence of Nitric Oxide on Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Regulation by Nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Sürmeli, Nur Başak; Müskens, Frederike M.; Marletta, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by the signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) leads to formation of the second messenger cGMP, which mediates numerous physiological processes. NO activates sGC by binding to the ferrous heme cofactor; the relative amount of NO with respect to sGC heme affects the enzyme activity. ATP can also influence the activity by binding to an allosteric site, most likely the pseudosymmetric site located in the catalytic domain. Here, the role of the pseudosymmetric site on nucleotide regulation was investigated by point mutations at this site. ATP inhibition kinetics of wild type and a pseudosymmetric site (α1-C594A/β1-D477A) variant of sGC was determined at various levels of NO. Results obtained show that in the presence of less than 1 eq of NO, there appears to be less than complete activation and little change in the nucleotide binding parameters. The most dramatic effects are observed for the addition of excess NO, which results in an increase in the affinity of GTP at the catalytic site and full activation of sGC. The pseudosymmetric site mutation only affected nucleotide affinities in the presence of excess NO; there was a decrease in the affinity for ATP in both the allosteric and catalytic sites. These observations led to a new kinetic model for sGC activity in the presence of excess NO. This model revealed that the active and allosteric sites show cooperativity. This new comprehensive model gives a more accurate description of sGC regulation by NO and nucleotides in vivo. PMID:25907555

  12. Cardiovascular and pharmacological implications of haem-deficient NO-unresponsive soluble guanylate cyclase knock-in mice

    PubMed Central

    Thoonen, Robrecht; Cauwels, Anje; Decaluwe, Kelly; Geschka, Sandra; Tainsh, Robert E.; Delanghe, Joris; Hochepied, Tino; De Cauwer, Lode; Rogge, Elke; Voet, Sofie; Sips, Patrick; Karas, Richard H.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Van de Voorde, Johan; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Brouckaert, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress, a central mediator of cardiovascular disease, results in loss of the prosthetic haem group of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), preventing its activation by nitric oxide (NO). Here we introduce Apo-sGC mice expressing haem-free sGC. Apo-sGC mice are viable and develop hypertension. The haemodynamic effects of NO are abolished, but those of the sGC activator cinaciguat are enhanced in apo-sGC mice, suggesting that the effects of NO on smooth muscle relaxation, blood pressure regulation and inhibition of platelet aggregation require sGC activation by NO. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-induced hypotension and mortality are preserved in apo-sGC mice, indicating that pathways other than sGC signalling mediate the cardiovascular collapse in shock. Apo-sGC mice allow for differentiation between sGC-dependent and -independent NO effects and between haem-dependent and -independent sGC effects. Apo-sGC mice represent a unique experimental platform to study the in vivo consequences of sGC oxidation and the therapeutic potential of sGC activators. PMID:26442659

  13. Dephosphorylation of sperm guanylate cyclase during sea urchin fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    When intact Arbacia punctulata spermatozoa are exposed to solubilized egg jelly, the electrophoretic mobility of an abundant sperm flagellar membrane protein changes from an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa to 150 kDa. A. punctulata spermatozoa can be labeled in vivo with /sup 32/P-labeled cells it was demonstrated that the mobility shift of the 160-kDa protein is due to dephosphorylation. The peptide resact (Cys-Val-Thr-Gly-Ala-Pro-Gly-Cys-Val-Gly-Gly-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH/sub 2/) is the component of egg jelly which is responsible for inducing the dephosphorylation. The 160/150-kdal sperm membrane protein has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-agarose, and identified as sperm guanylate cyclase. The enzymatic activity of the guanylate cyclase is tightly coupled to its phosphorylation state. Resact has been shown to act as a potent chemoattractant for A. punctulata spermatozoa. The chemotactic response is concentration-dependent, is abolished by pretreatment of the spermatozoa with resact, and shows an absolute requirement for external calcium. This work represents the first demonstration of animal sperm chemotaxis in response to a precisely-defined molecule of egg origin. The results established a new, biologically meaningful function for resact, and may implicate sperm guanylate cyclase and cGMP in flagellar function and the chemotactic response.

  14. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulators: a Novel Treatment Option for Heart Failure Associated with Cardiorenal Syndromes?

    PubMed

    Dubin, Ruth F; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2016-06-01

    Heart failure in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasingly common scenario and carries a poor prognosis. Clinicians lack tools for primary or secondary heart failure prevention in patients with cardiorenal syndromes. In patients without CKD, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and statins mitigate cardiovascular risk in large part due to salutary effects on the endothelium. In the setting of CKD, use of these therapies is limited by adverse effects of hyperkalemia in pre-dialysis CKD (ACE-I/ARB), or potential increased risk of stroke in end-stage renal disease (statins). The soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulators are a novel class of medications that promote endothelial and myocardial function with no known risk of hyperkalemia or stroke. In this review, we discuss the evidence emerging from recent clinical trials of sGC stimulators in pulmonary hypertension and heart failure, the diseased pathways involved in cardiorenal syndromes likely to be restored by sGC stimulators, and several strategies for designing future clinical trials of cardiorenal syndromes that might shorten the timeline for discovery and approval of effective cardiovascular therapies in these high-risk patients. PMID:27118234

  15. Chronic Activation of Heme Free Guanylate Cyclase Leads to Renal Protection in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Linda S; Kretschmer, Axel; Lawrenz, Bettina; Hocher, Berthold; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophasphate (cGMP)-signalling pathway is impaired under oxidative stress conditions due to oxidation and subsequent loss of the prosthetic sGC heme group as observed in particular in chronic renal failure. Thus, the pool of heme free sGC is increased under pathological conditions. sGC activators such as cinaciguat selectively activate the heme free form of sGC and target the disease associated enzyme. In this study, a therapeutic effect of long-term activation of heme free sGC by the sGC activator cinaciguat was investigated in an experimental model of salt-sensitive hypertension, a condition that is associated with increased oxidative stress, heme loss from sGC and development of chronic renal failure. For that purpose Dahl/ss rats, which develop severe hypertension upon high salt intake, were fed a high salt diet (8% NaCl) containing either placebo or cinaciguat for 21 weeks. Cinaciguat markedly improved survival and ameliorated the salt-induced increase in blood pressure upon treatment with cinaciguat compared to placebo. Renal function was significantly improved in the cinaciguat group compared to the placebo group as indicated by a significantly improved glomerular filtration rate and reduced urinary protein excretion. This was due to anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of the cinaciguat treatment. Taken together, this is the first study showing that long-term activation of heme free sGC leads to renal protection in an experimental model of hypertension and chronic kidney disease. These results underline the promising potential of cinaciguat to treat renal diseases by targeting the disease associated heme free form of sGC. PMID:26717150

  16. Chronic Activation of Heme Free Guanylate Cyclase Leads to Renal Protection in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Linda S.; Kretschmer, Axel; Lawrenz, Bettina; Hocher, Berthold; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophasphate (cGMP)-signalling pathway is impaired under oxidative stress conditions due to oxidation and subsequent loss of the prosthetic sGC heme group as observed in particular in chronic renal failure. Thus, the pool of heme free sGC is increased under pathological conditions. sGC activators such as cinaciguat selectively activate the heme free form of sGC and target the disease associated enzyme. In this study, a therapeutic effect of long-term activation of heme free sGC by the sGC activator cinaciguat was investigated in an experimental model of salt-sensitive hypertension, a condition that is associated with increased oxidative stress, heme loss from sGC and development of chronic renal failure. For that purpose Dahl/ss rats, which develop severe hypertension upon high salt intake, were fed a high salt diet (8% NaCl) containing either placebo or cinaciguat for 21 weeks. Cinaciguat markedly improved survival and ameliorated the salt-induced increase in blood pressure upon treatment with cinaciguat compared to placebo. Renal function was significantly improved in the cinaciguat group compared to the placebo group as indicated by a significantly improved glomerular filtration rate and reduced urinary protein excretion. This was due to anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of the cinaciguat treatment. Taken together, this is the first study showing that long-term activation of heme free sGC leads to renal protection in an experimental model of hypertension and chronic kidney disease. These results underline the promising potential of cinaciguat to treat renal diseases by targeting the disease associated heme free form of sGC. PMID:26717150

  17. Elevation of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Suppresses Proliferation and Survival of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Shiah, Shine-Gwo; Kung, Hsing-Jien; King, Kuang-Liang; Su, Liang-Chen; Chang, Shi-Chuan; Chang, Chung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential signaling molecule in biological systems. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), composing of α1 and β1 subunit, is the receptor for NO. Using radioimmunoassay, we discovered that activation of sGC by treatment with bradykinin or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is impaired in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells as compared to normal breast epithelial 184A1 cells. The 184A1 cells expressed both sGC α1 and sGCβ1 mRNAs. However, levels of sGCβ1 mRNAs were relatively lower in MCF-7 cells while both mRNA of sGC subunits were absent in MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) increased mRNA levels of both sGCα1 and sGCβ1 in MDA-MB-231 cells but only sGCβ1 mRNAs in MCF-7 cells. The 5-aza-dC treatment increased the SNP-induced cGMP production in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, but not in 184A1 cells. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that the promoter of sGCα1 in MDA-MB-231 cells and promoter of sGCβ1 in MCF-7 cells were methylated. Promoter hypermethylation of sGCα1 and sGCβ1 was found in 1 out of 10 breast cancer patients. Over-expression of both sGC subunits in MDA-MB-231 cells induced apoptosis and growth inhibition in vitro as well as reduced tumor incidence and tumor growth rate of MDA-MB-231 xenografts in nude mice. Elevation of sGC reduced protein abundance of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Cdc2, Cdc25A, Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1, Cdk6, c-Myc, and Skp2 while increased protein expression of p53. Our study demonstrated that down-regulation of sGC, partially due to promoter methylation, provides growth and survival advantage in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25928539

  18. A Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Activator Inhibits the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in the ZSF1 Rat.

    PubMed

    Boustany-Kari, Carine M; Harrison, Paul C; Chen, Hongxing; Lincoln, Kathleen A; Qian, Hu Sheng; Clifford, Holly; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Xiaomei; Gueneva-Boucheva, Kristina; Bosanac, Todd; Wong, Diane; Fryer, Ryan M; Richman, Jeremy G; Sarko, Chris; Pullen, Steven S

    2016-03-01

    Therapies that restore renal cGMP levels are hypothesized to slow the progression of diabetic nephropathy. We investigated the effect of BI 703704, a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activator, on disease progression in obese ZSF1 rats. BI 703704 was administered at doses of 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg/d to male ZSF1 rats for 15 weeks, during which mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and urinary protein excretion (UPE) were determined. Histologic assessment of glomerular and interstitial lesions was also performed. Renal cGMP levels were quantified as an indicator of target modulation. BI 703704 resulted in sGC activation, as evidenced by dose-dependent increases in renal cGMP levels. After 15 weeks of treatment, sGC activation resulted in dose-dependent decreases in UPE (from 463 ± 58 mg/d in vehicle controls to 328 ± 55, 348 ± 23, 283 ± 45, and 108 ± 23 mg/d in BI 703704-treated rats at 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg, respectively). These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in the incidence of glomerulosclerosis and interstitial lesions. Decreases in MAP and increases in HR were only observed at the high dose of BI 703704. These results are the first demonstration of renal protection with sGC activation in a nephropathy model induced by type 2 diabetes. Importantly, beneficial effects were observed at doses that did not significantly alter MAP and HR. PMID:26729306

  19. The Function of Guanylate Cyclase 1 and Guanylate Cyclase 2 in Rod and Cone Photoreceptors*S

    PubMed Central

    Baehr, Wolfgang; Karan, Sukanya; Maeda, Tadao; Luo, Dong-Gen; Li, Sha; Darin Bronson, J.; Watt, Carl B.; Yau, King-Wai; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Retinal guanylate cyclases 1 and 2 (GC1 and GC2) are responsible for synthesis of cyclic GMP in rods and cones, but their individual contributions to phototransduction are unknown. We report here that the deletion of both GC1 and GC2 rendered rod and cone photoreceptors nonfunctional and unstable. In the rod outer segments of GC double knock-out mice, guanylate cyclase-activating proteins 1 and 2, and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase were undetectable, although rhodopsin and transducin α-subunit were mostly unaffected. Outer segment membranes of GC1−/− and GC double knock-out cones were destabilized and devoid of cone transducin (α- and γ-subunits), cone phosphodiesterase, and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1, whereas cone pigments were present at reduced levels. Real time reverse transcription-PCR analyses demonstrated normal RNA transcript levels for the down-regulated proteins, indicating that down-regulation is posttranslational. We interpret these results to demonstrate an intrinsic requirement of GCs for stability and/or transport of a set of membrane-associated phototransduction proteins. PMID:17255100

  20. Potential role of mitochondrial superoxide decreasing ferrochelatase and heme in coronary artery soluble guanylate cyclase depletion by angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhara; Alhawaj, Raed; Kelly, Melissa R; Accarino, John J O; Lakhkar, Anand; Gupte, Sachin A; Sun, Dong; Wolin, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Oxidation of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) heme promotes loss of regulation by nitric oxide (NO) and depletion of sGC. We hypothesized that angiotensin II (ANG II) stimulation of mitochondrial superoxide by its type 1 receptor could function as a potential inhibitor of heme biosynthesis by ferrochelatase, and this could decrease vascular responsiveness to NO by depleting sGC. These processes were investigated in a 24-h organoid culture model of bovine coronary arteries (BCA) with 0.1 μM ANG II. Treatment of BCA with ANG II increased mitochondrial superoxide, depleted mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), ferrochelatase, and cytochrome oxidase subunit 4, and sGC, associated with impairment of relaxation to NO. These processes were attenuated by organoid culture with 8-bromo-cGMP and/or δ-aminolevulinic acid (a stimulator of sGC by protoporphyrin IX generation and heme biosynthesis). Organoid culture with Mito-TEMPOL, a scavenger of mitochondrial matrix superoxide, also attenuated ANG II-elicited ferrochelatase depletion and loss of relaxation to NO, whereas organoid culture with Tempol, an extramitochondrial scavenger of superoxide, attenuated the loss of relaxation to NO by ANG II, but not ferrochelatase depletion, suggesting cytosolic superoxide could be an initiating factor in the loss of sGC regulation by NO. The depletion of cytochrome oxidase subunit 4 and sGC (but not catalase) suggests that sGC expression may be very sensitive to depletion of heme caused by ANG II disrupting ferrochelatase activity by increasing mitochondrial superoxide. In addition, cGMP-dependent activation of protein kinase G appears to attenuate these ANG II-stimulated processes through both preventing SOD2 depletion and increases in mitochondrial and extramitochondrial superoxide. PMID:27037373

  1. Alternative splicing for the alpha1 subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, D; Taylor, J F; Hoffmann, J W; Carnaghi, L; Giddings, S J; Zakeri, H; Kwok, P Y

    2000-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), the receptor for nitric oxide, is a heterodimer consisting of alpha and beta subunits. We investigated the mRNA species for the alpha(1) subunit in human brain, heart, artery and immortalized B-lymphocytes. Three mRNA species were identified in these tissues. The major mRNA species contained the full expression sequence of the alpha(1) subunit. Two other types of mRNA were detected in which 5' sequences were deleted by splicing (506-590 and 412-590). Each of these deletions included the predicted translation start site, indicating that translation of these two alternatively spliced RNA species does not result in the production of full-length alpha(1) subunits. The relative amounts of the two mRNA species with deletions of the translation start site differed significantly between cell lines of immortalized B-lymphocytes from different individuals. sGC enzymic activity was significantly decreased in cellular extracts from cell lines with high proportions of mRNA species containing the deletion 506-590 when compared with extracts from cell lines that contained mostly mRNA without this deletion. PMID:10698711

  2. Neurons detect increases and decreases in oxygen levels using distinct guanylate cyclases.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Manuel; Gray, Jesse M; Pokala, Navin; Chang, Andy J; Karow, David S; Marletta, Michael A; Hudson, Martin L; Morton, David B; Chronis, Nikos; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2009-03-26

    Homeostatic sensory systems detect small deviations in temperature, water balance, pH, and energy needs to regulate adaptive behavior and physiology. In C. elegans, a homeostatic preference for intermediate oxygen (O2) levels requires cGMP signaling through soluble guanylate cyclases (sGCs), proteins that bind gases through an associated heme group. Here we use behavioral analysis, functional imaging, and genetics to show that reciprocal changes in O2 levels are encoded by sensory neurons that express alternative sets of sGCs. URX sensory neurons are activated by increases in O2 levels, and require the sGCs gcy-35 and gcy-36. BAG sensory neurons are activated by decreases in O2 levels, and require the sGCs gcy-31 and gcy-33. The sGCs are instructive O2 sensors, as forced expression of URX sGC genes causes BAG neurons to detect O2 increases. Both sGC expression and cell-intrinsic dynamics contribute to the differential roles of URX and BAG in O2-dependent behaviors. PMID:19323996

  3. Control of nitric oxide dynamics by guanylate cyclase in its activated state.

    PubMed

    Négrerie, M; Bouzhir, L; Martin, J L; Liebl, U

    2001-12-14

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the target of nitric oxide (NO) released by nitric-oxide synthase in endothelial cells, inducing an increase of cGMP synthesis in response. This heterodimeric protein possesses a regulatory subunit carrying a heme where NO binding occurs, while the second subunit harbors the catalytic site. The binding of NO and the subsequent breaking of the bond between the proximal histidine and the heme-Fe(2+) are assumed to induce conformational changes, which are the origin of the catalytic activation. At the molecular level, the activation and deactivation mechanisms are unknown, as is the dynamics of NO once in the heme pocket. Using ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy, we measured the kinetics of NO rebinding to sGC after photodissociation. The main spectral transient in the Soret band does not match the equilibrium difference spectrum of NO-liganded minus unliganded sGC, and the geminate rebinding was found to be monoexponential and ultrafast (tau = 7.5 ps), with a relative amplitude close to unity (0.97). These characteristics, so far not observed in other hemoproteins, indicate that NO encounters a high energy barrier for escaping from the heme pocket once the His-Fe(2+) bond has been cleaved; this bond does not reform before NO recombination. The deactivation of isolated sGC cannot occur by only simple diffusion of NO from the heme; therefore, several allosteric states may be inferred, including a desensitized one, to induce NO release. Thus, besides the structural change leading to activation, a consequence of the decoupling of the proximal histidine may also be to induce a change of the heme pocket distal geometry, which raises the energy barrier for NO escape, optimizing the efficiency of NO trapping. The non-single exponential character of the NO picosecond rebinding coexists only with the presence of the protein structure surrounding the heme, and the single exponential rate observed in sGC is very likely to be due to

  4. Targeting soluble guanylate cyclase for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lasker, George F; Maley, Jason H; Pankey, Edward A; Kadowitz, Philip J

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a disease characterized by a sustained increase in pulmonary arterial pressure leading to right heart failure. Current treatments focus on endothelial dysfunction and an aberrant regulatory pathway for vascular tone. Unfortunately, a large proportion of patients are unresponsive to conventional vasodilator therapy. Investigations are ongoing into the effects of experimental therapies targeting the signal transduction pathway that mediates vasodilation. Here, we briefly discuss the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, along with current treatments. We then present a focused review of recent animal studies and human trials examining the use of activators and stimulators of soluble guanylate cyclase for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:21510726

  5. Motion of proximal histidine and structural allosteric transition in soluble guanylate cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byung-Kuk; Lamarre, Isabelle; Martin, Jean-Louis; Rappaport, Fabrice; Negrerie, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the changes of heme coordination in purified soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by time-resolved spectroscopy in a time range encompassing 11 orders of magnitude (from 1 ps to 0.2 s). After dissociation, NO either recombines geminately to the 4-coordinate (4c) heme (τG1 = 7.5 ps; 97 ± 1% of the population) or exits the heme pocket (3 ± 1%). The proximal His rebinds to the 4c heme with a 70-ps time constant. Then, NO is distributed in two approximately equal populations (1.5%). One geminately rebinds to the 5c heme (τG2 = 6.5 ns), whereas the other diffuses out to the solution, from where it rebinds bimolecularly (τ = 50 μs with [NO] = 200 μM) forming a 6c heme with a diffusion-limited rate constant of 2 × 108 M−1⋅s−1. In both cases, the rebinding of NO induces the cleavage of the Fe-His bond that can be observed as an individual reaction step. Saliently, the time constant of bond cleavage differs depending on whether NO binds geminately or from solution (τ5C1 = 0.66 μs and τ5C2 = 10 ms, respectively). Because the same event occurs with rates separated by four orders of magnitude, this measurement implies that sGC is in different structural states in both cases, having different strain exerted on the Fe-His bond. We show here that this structural allosteric transition takes place in the range 1–50 μs. In this context, the detection of NO binding to the proximal side of sGC heme is discussed. PMID:25831539

  6. [Soluble guanylate cyclase in the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic action of drugs].

    PubMed

    Piatakova, N V; Severina, I S

    2012-01-01

    The influence of ambroxol--a mucolytic drug--on the activity of human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase and rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase and activation of both enzymes by NO-donors (sodium nitroprusside and Sin-1) were investigated. Ambroxol in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 microM had no effect on the basal activity of both enzymes. Ambroxol inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the sodium nitroprusside-induced human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase and rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase with the IC50 values 3.9 and 2.1 microM, respectively. Ambroxol did not influence the stimulation of both enzymes by protoporphyrin IX. The influence of artemisinin--an antimalarial drug--on human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase activity and the enzyme activation by NO-donors were investigated. Artemisinin (0.1-100 microM) had no effect on the basal activity of the enzyme. Artemisinin inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the sodium nitroprusside-induced activation of human platelet guanylate cyclase with an IC50 value 5.6 microM. Artemisinin (10 microM) also inhibited (by 71 +/- 4.0%) the activation of the enzyme by thiol-dependent NO-donor the derivative of furoxan, 3,4-dicyano-1,2,5-oxadiazolo-2-oxide (10 microM), but did not influence the stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase by protoporphyrin IX. It was concluded that the sygnalling system NO-soluble guanylate cyclase-cGMP is involved in the molecular mechanism of the therapeutic action of ambroxol and artemisinin. PMID:22642150

  7. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulation Prevents Fibrotic Tissue Remodeling and Improves Survival in Salt-Sensitive Dahl Rats

    PubMed Central

    Geschka, Sandra; Kretschmer, Axel; Sharkovska, Yuliya; Evgenov, Oleg V.; Lawrenz, Bettina; Hucke, Andreas; Hocher, Berthold; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background A direct pharmacological stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is an emerging therapeutic approach to the management of various cardiovascular disorders associated with endothelial dysfunction. Novel sGC stimulators, including riociguat (BAY 63-2521), have a dual mode of action: They sensitize sGC to endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) and also directly stimulate sGC independently of NO. Little is known about their effects on tissue remodeling and degeneration and survival in experimental malignant hypertension. Methods and Results Mortality, hemodynamics and biomarkers of tissue remodeling and degeneration were assessed in Dahl salt-sensitive rats maintained on a high salt diet and treated with riociguat (3 or 10 mg/kg/d) for 14 weeks. Riociguat markedly attenuated systemic hypertension, improved systolic heart function and increased survival from 33% to 85%. Histological examination of the heart and kidneys revealed that riociguat significantly ameliorated fibrotic tissue remodeling and degeneration. Correspondingly, mRNA expression of the pro-fibrotic biomarkers osteopontin (OPN), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the myocardium and the renal cortex was attenuated by riociguat. In addition, riociguat reduced plasma and urinary levels of OPN, TIMP-1, and PAI-1. Conclusions Stimulation of sGC by riociguat markedly improves survival and attenuates systemic hypertension and systolic dysfunction, as well as fibrotic tissue remodeling in the myocardium and the renal cortex in a rodent model of pressure and volume overload. These findings suggest a therapeutic potential of sGC stimulators in diseases associated with impaired cardiovascular and renal functions. PMID:21789188

  8. Downregulation of vascular soluble guanylate cyclase induced by high salt intake in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Kagota, Satomi; Tamashiro, Akiko; Yamaguchi, Yu; Sugiura, Reiko; Kuno, Takayoshi; Nakamura, Kazuki; Kunitomo, Masaru

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP)-mediated mechanism plays an important role in vasodilatation and blood pressure regulation. We investigated the effects of high salt intake on the nitric oxide (NO) – cyclic GMP signal transduction pathway regulating relaxation in aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).Four-week-old SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) received a normal salt diet (0.3% NaCl) or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 4 weeks.In aortic rings from SHR, endothelium-dependent relaxations in response to acetylcholine (ACh), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and calcium ionophore A23187 were significantly impaired by the high salt intake. The endothelium-independent relaxations in response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and nitroglycerin were also impaired, but that to 8-bromo-cyclic GMP remained unchanged. On the other hand, high salt diet had no significant effects on the relaxations of aortic rings from WKY.In aortas from SHR, the release of NO stimulated by ACh was significantly enhanced, whereas the production of cyclic GMP induced by either ACh or SNP was decreased by the high salt intake.Western blot analysis showed that the protein level of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) was slightly increased, whereas that of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) was dramatically reduced by the high salt intake.These results indicate that in SHR, excessive dietary salt can result in downregulation of sGC followed by decreased cyclic GMP production, which leads to impairment of vascular relaxation in responses to NO. It is notable that chronic high salt intake impairs the sGC/cyclic GMP pathway but not the eNOS/NO pathway. PMID:11606313

  9. Role of soluble guanylate cyclase in the molecular mechanism underlying the physiological effects of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Severina, I S

    1998-07-01

    In this review the molecular mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive and antiaggregatory actions of nitric oxide (NO) are discussed. It has been shown that these effects are directly connected with the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and the accumulation of cyclic 3;,5;-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). The mechanism of guanylate cyclase activation by NO is analyzed, especially the role and biological significance of the nitrosyl--heme complex formed as a result of interaction of guanylate cyclase heme with NO and the role of sulfhydryl groups of the enzyme in this process. Using new approaches for studying the antihypertensive and antiaggregatory actions of nitric oxide in combination with the newly obtained data on the regulatory role of guanylate cyclase in the platelet aggregation process, the most important results were obtained regarding the molecular bases providing for a directed search for and creation of new effective antihypertensive and antiaggregatory preparations. In studying the molecular mechanism for directed activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by new NO donors, a series of hitherto unknown enzyme activators generating NO and involved in the regulation of hemostasis and vascular tone were revealed. PMID:9721331

  10. Purification and physiological evaluation of a guanylate cyclase activating protein from retinal rods.

    PubMed Central

    Gorczyca, W A; Gray-Keller, M P; Detwiler, P B; Palczewski, K

    1994-01-01

    In retinal rods light triggers a cascade of enzymatic reactions that increases cGMP hydrolysis and generates an electrical signal by causing closure of cGMP-gated ion channels in the photoreceptor outer segment. This leads to a decrease in internal Ca, which activates guanylate cyclase and promotes photoresponse recovery by stimulating the resynthesis of cGMP. We report here that the activation of guanylate cyclase by low Ca is mediated by an approximately 20-kDa protein purified from bovine rod outer segments by using DEAE-Sepharose, hydroxylapatite, and reverse-phase chromatographies. In a reconstituted system, this protein restores the Ca-sensitive regulation of guanylate cyclase and when dialyzed into functionally intact lizard rod outer segment decreases the sensitivity, time to peak, and recovery time of the flash response. Images PMID:7909609

  11. Heme-Dependent and Independent Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Activators and Vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Priviero, Fernanda B. M.; Webb, R. Clinton

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of nitric oxide (NO), which is released from endothelial cells as the main mediator of vasodilation, its target, the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), has become a focus of interest for the treatment of diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction. NO donors were developed to suppress NO deficiency; however, tolerance to organic nitrates was reported. Non-NO-based drugs targeting sGC were developed to overcome the problem of tolerance. In this review, we briefly describe the process of sGC activation by its main physiological activator NO and the advances in the development of drugs capable of activating sGC in a NO-independent manner. sGC stimulators, as some of these drugs are called, require the integrity of the reduced heme moiety of the prosthetic group within the sGC and therefore are called heme-dependent stimulators. Other drugs are able to activate sGC independent of heme moiety and are hence called heme-independent activators. Because pathologic conditions modulate sGC and oxidize the heme moiety, the heme-independent sGC activators could potentially become drugs of choice because of their higher affinity to the oxidized enzyme. However, these drugs are still undergoing clinical trials and are not available for clinical use. PMID:20571429

  12. Preconditioning with soluble guanylate cyclase activation prevents postischemic inflammation and reduces nitrate tolerance in heme oxygenase-1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Walter Z; Jones, Allan W; Wang, Meifang; Durante, William; Korthuis, Ronald J

    2013-08-15

    Previously we have shown that, unlike wild-type mice (WT), heme oxygenase-1 knockout (HO-1-/-) mice developed nitrate tolerance and were not protected from inflammation caused by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) when preconditioned with a H2S donor. We hypothesized that stimulation (with BAY 41-2272) or activation (with BAY 60-2770) of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) would precondition HO-1-/- mice against an inflammatory effect of I/R and increase arterial nitrate responses. Intravital fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize leukocyte rolling and adhesion to postcapillary venules of the small intestine in anesthetized mice. Relaxation to ACh and BAY compounds was measured on superior mesenteric arteries isolated after I/R protocols. Preconditioning with either BAY compound 10 min (early phase) or 24 h (late phase) before I/R reduced postischemic leukocyte rolling and adhesion to sham control levels and increased superior mesenteric artery responses to ACh, sodium nitroprusside, and BAY 41-2272 in WT and HO-1-/- mice. Late-phase preconditioning with BAY 60-2770 was maintained in HO-1-/- and endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice pretreated with an inhibitor (dl-propargylglycine) of enzymatically produced H2S. Pretreatment with BAY compounds also prevented the I/R increase in small intestinal TNF-α. We speculate that increasing sGC activity and related PKG acts downstream to H2S and disrupts signaling processes triggered by I/R in part by maintaining low cellular Ca²⁺. In addition, BAY preconditioning did not increase sGC levels, yet increased the response to agents that act on reduced heme-containing sGC. Collectively these actions would contribute to increased nitrate sensitivity and vascular function. PMID:23771693

  13. Biological activity of designed photolabile metal nitrosyls: light-dependent activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and vasorelaxant properties in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Madhani, Melanie; Patra, Apurba K; Miller, Thomas W; Eroy-Reveles, Aura A; Hobbs, Adrian J; Fukuto, Jon M; Mascharak, Pradip K

    2006-12-14

    The biological and pharmacological utility of nitric oxide (NO) has led to the development of many classes of NO-donor compounds as both research tools and therapeutic agents. Many donors currently in use rely on thermal decomposition or bioactivation for the release of NO. We have developed several photolabile metal-nitrosyl donors that release NO when exposed to either visible or UV light. Herein, we show that these donors are capable of activating the primary "NO receptor", soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), in a light-dependent fashion leading to increases in cGMP. Moreover, we demonstrate that these donors are capable of eliciting light-dependent increases of cGMP in smooth muscle cells and vasorelaxation of rat aortic smooth muscle tissue, all effects that are attributed to activation of sGC. The potential utility of these compounds as drugs and/or research tools is discussed. PMID:17149862

  14. Revisiting the kinetics of nitric oxide (NO) binding to soluble guanylate cyclase: The simple NO-binding model is incorrect

    PubMed Central

    Ballou, David P.; Zhao, Yunde; Brandish, Philip E.; Marletta, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a ferrous iron hemoprotein receptor for nitric oxide (NO). NO binding to the heme activates the enzyme 300-fold. sGC as isolated is five-coordinate, ferrous with histidine as the axial ligand. The NO-activated enzyme is a five-coordinate nitrosyl complex where the axial histidine bond is broken. Past studies using rapid-reaction kinetics demonstrated that both the formation of a six-coordinate intermediate and the conversion of the intermediate to the activated five-coordinate nitrosyl complex depended on the concentration of NO. A model invoking a second NO molecule as a catalyst for the conversion of the six-coordinate intermediate to the five-coordinate sGC–NO complex was proposed to explain the observed kinetic data. A recent study [Bellamy, T. C., Wood, J. & Garthwaite, J. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 507–510] concluded that a simple two-step binding model explains the results. Here we show through further analysis and simulations of previous data that the simple two-step binding model cannot be used to describe our results. Instead we show that a slightly more complex two-step binding model, where NO is used as a ligand in the first step and a catalyst in the second step, can describe our results quite satisfactorily. These new simulations combined with the previous activation data lead to the conclusion that the intermediate six-coordinate sGC–NO complex has substantial activity. The model derived from our simulations also can account for the slow deactivation of sGC that has been observed in vitro. PMID:12209005

  15. Soluble guanylate cyclase is activated differently by excess NO and by YC-1: Resonance Raman spectroscopic evidence†

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Derbyshire, Emily R.; Soldatova, Alexandra V.; Marletta, Michael A.; Spiro, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Modulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activity by nitric oxide (NO) involves two distinct steps. Low level activation of sGC is achieved by the stoichiometric binding of NO (1-NO) to the heme cofactor, while much higher activation is achieved by the binding of additional NO (xsNO) at a non-heme site. Addition of the allosteric activator YC-1 to the 1-NO form leads to activity comparable to xsNO state. In this study the mechanisms of sGC activation were investigated using electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopic methods. RR spectroscopy confirmed that the 1-NO form contains 5-coordinate NO-heme and showed that the addition of NO to the 1-NO form has no significant effect on the spectrum. In contrast, addition of YC-1 to either the 1-NO or xsNO forms alters the RR spectrum significantly, indicating a protein-induced change in the heme geometry. This change in the heme geometry was also observed when BAY 41-2272 was added to the xsNO form. Bands assigned to bending and stretching motions of the vinyl and propionate substituents change intensity in a pattern suggesting altered tilting of the pyrrole rings to which they are attached. In addition, the N-O stretching frequency increases, with no change in the Fe-NO frequency, an effect modeled via DFT calculations as resulting from a small opening of the Fe-N-O angle. These spectral differences demonstrate different mechanisms of activation by synthetic activators, such as YC-1 and BAY 41-2272, and excess NO. PMID:20459051

  16. Receptor-type guanylate cyclase is required for carbon dioxide sensation by Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hallem, Elissa A; Spencer, W Clay; McWhirter, Rebecca D; Zeller, Georg; Henz, Stefan R; Rätsch, Gunnar; Miller, David M; Horvitz, H Robert; Sternberg, Paul W; Ringstad, Niels

    2011-01-01

    CO(2) is both a critical regulator of animal physiology and an important sensory cue for many animals for host detection, food location, and mate finding. The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans shows CO(2) avoidance behavior, which requires a pair of ciliated sensory neurons, the BAG neurons. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show that CO(2) specifically activates the BAG neurons and that the CO(2)-sensing function of BAG neurons requires TAX-2/TAX-4 cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels and the receptor-type guanylate cyclase GCY-9. Our results delineate a molecular pathway for CO(2) sensing and suggest that activation of a receptor-type guanylate cyclase is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which animals detect environmental CO(2). PMID:21173231

  17. Involvement of H1 and H2 receptors and soluble guanylate cyclase in histamine-induced relaxation of rat mesenteric collecting lymphatics

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Kristine H.; Moor, Andrea N.; Souza-Smith, Flavia M.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the roles of the H1 and H2 histamine receptors, nitric oxide (NO) synthase, and soluble guanylate (sGC) cyclase in histamine-induced modulation of rat mesenteric collecting lymphatic pumping. Methods Isolated rat mesenteric collecting lymphatics were treated with 1–100 μM histamine. Histamine receptors were blocked with either the H1 antagonist mepyramine or the H2 antagonist cimetidine. The role of NO/sGC signaling was tested using the arginine analog L-NAME, the sGC inhibitor ODQ, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a positive control. Results Histamine applied at 100 μM decreased tone and contraction frequency (CF) of isolated rat mesenteric collecting lymphatics. Pharmacologic blockade of either H1 or H2 histamine receptors significantly inhibited the response to histamine. Pretreatment with ODQ, but not L-NAME, completely inhibited the histamine-induced decrease in tone. ODQ pretreatment also significantly inhibited SNP-induced lymphatic relaxation. Conclusions H1 and H2 histamine receptors are both involved in histamine-induced relaxation of rat mesenteric collecting lymphatics. NO synthesis does not appear to contribute to the histamine-induced response. However, sGC is critical for the histamine-induced decrease in tone and contributes to the drop in CF. PMID:24702851

  18. α1 Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase (sGC) Splice Forms as Potential Regulators of Human sGC Activity*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sharina, Iraida G.; Jelen, Filip; Bogatenkova, Elena P.; Thomas, Anthony; Martin, Emil; Murad, Ferid

    2008-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), a key protein in the NO/cGMP signaling pathway, is an obligatory heterodimeric protein composed of one α- and one β-subunit. The α1/β1 sGC heterodimer is the predominant form expressed in various tissues and is regarded as the major isoform mediating NO-dependent effects such as vasodilation. We have identified three new α1 sGC protein variants generated by alternative splicing. The 363 residue N1-α1 sGC splice variant contains the regulatory domain, but lacks the catalytic domain. The shorter N2-α1 sGC maintains 126 N-terminal residues and gains an additional 17 unique residues. The C-α1 sGC variant lacks 240 N-terminal amino acids, but maintains a part of the regulatory domain and the entire catalytic domain. Q-PCR of N1-α1, N2-α1 sGC mRNA levels together with RT-PCR analysis for C-α1 sGC demonstrated that the expression of the α1 sGC splice forms vary in different human tissues indicative of tissue-specific regulation. Functional analysis of the N1-α1 sGC demonstrated that this protein has a dominant-negative effect on the activity of sGC when coexpressed with the α1/β1 heterodimer. The C-α1 sGC variant heterodimerizes with the β1 subunit and produces a fully functional NO- and BAY41-2272-sensitive enzyme. We also found that despite identical susceptibility to inhibition by ODQ, intracellular levels of the 54-kDa C-α1 band did not change in response to ODQ treatments, while the level of 83 kDa α1 band was significantly affected by ODQ. These studies suggest that modulation of the level and diversity of splice forms may represent novel mechanisms modulating the function of sGC in different human tissues. PMID:18381288

  19. Regulation of Neuronal Oxygen Responses in C. elegans Is Mediated through Interactions between Globin 5 and the H-NOX Domains of Soluble Guanylate Cyclases.

    PubMed

    Abergel, Zohar; Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Zuckerman, Binyamin; Gross, Einav

    2016-01-20

    Soluble guanylate cyclases (sGCs) are gas-binding proteins that control diverse physiological processes such as vasodilation, platelet aggregation, and synaptic plasticity. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a complex of sGCs, GCY-35 and GCY-36, functions in oxygen (O2) sensing. Previous studies suggested that the neuroglobin GLB-5 genetically interacts with GCY-35, and that the inhibitory effect of GLB-5 on GCY-35 function is necessary for fast recovery from prolonged hypoxia. In this study, we identified mutations in gcy-35 and gcy-36 that impact fast recovery and other phenotypes associated with GLB-5, without undermining sGC activity. These mutations, heb1 and heb3, change conserved amino acid residues in the regulatory H-NOX domains of GCY-35 and GCY-36, respectively, and appear to suppress GLB-5 activity by different mechanisms. Moreover, we observed that short exposure to 35% O2 desensitized the neurons responsible for ambient O2 sensing and that this phenomenon does not occur in heb1 animals. These observations may implicate sGCs in neuronal desensitization mechanisms far beyond the specific case of O2 sensing in nematodes. The conservation of functionally important regions of sGCs is supported by examining site-directed mutants of GCY-35, which suggested that similar regions in the H-NOX domains of O2 and NO-sensing sGCs are important for heme/gas interactions. Overall, our studies provide novel insights into sGC activity and regulation, and implicate similar structural determinants in the control of both O2 and NO sensors. Significance statement: Soluble guanylate cyclases (sGCs) control essential and diverse physiological processes, including memory processing. We used Caenorhabditis elegans to explore how a neuroglobin inhibits a complex of oxygen-sensing sGCs, identifying sGC mutants that resist inhibition. Resistance appears to arise by two different mechanisms: increased basal sGC activity or disruption of an interaction with neuroglobin. Our

  20. Regulation of Neuronal Oxygen Responses in C. elegans Is Mediated through Interactions between Globin 5 and the H-NOX Domains of Soluble Guanylate Cyclases

    PubMed Central

    Abergel, Zohar; Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Zuckerman, Binyamin

    2016-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclases (sGCs) are gas-binding proteins that control diverse physiological processes such as vasodilation, platelet aggregation, and synaptic plasticity. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a complex of sGCs, GCY-35 and GCY-36, functions in oxygen (O2) sensing. Previous studies suggested that the neuroglobin GLB-5 genetically interacts with GCY-35, and that the inhibitory effect of GLB-5 on GCY-35 function is necessary for fast recovery from prolonged hypoxia. In this study, we identified mutations in gcy-35 and gcy-36 that impact fast recovery and other phenotypes associated with GLB-5, without undermining sGC activity. These mutations, heb1 and heb3, change conserved amino acid residues in the regulatory H-NOX domains of GCY-35 and GCY-36, respectively, and appear to suppress GLB-5 activity by different mechanisms. Moreover, we observed that short exposure to 35% O2 desensitized the neurons responsible for ambient O2 sensing and that this phenomenon does not occur in heb1 animals. These observations may implicate sGCs in neuronal desensitization mechanisms far beyond the specific case of O2 sensing in nematodes. The conservation of functionally important regions of sGCs is supported by examining site-directed mutants of GCY-35, which suggested that similar regions in the H-NOX domains of O2 and NO-sensing sGCs are important for heme/gas interactions. Overall, our studies provide novel insights into sGC activity and regulation, and implicate similar structural determinants in the control of both O2 and NO sensors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Soluble guanylate cyclases (sGCs) control essential and diverse physiological processes, including memory processing. We used Caenorhabditis elegans to explore how a neuroglobin inhibits a complex of oxygen-sensing sGCs, identifying sGC mutants that resist inhibition. Resistance appears to arise by two different mechanisms: increased basal sGC activity or disruption of an interaction with neuroglobin. Our

  1. Oxygen sensation and social feeding mediated by a C. elegans guanylate cyclase homologue.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jesse M; Karow, David S; Lu, Hang; Chang, Andy J; Chang, Jennifer S; Ellis, Ronald E; Marletta, Michael A; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2004-07-15

    Specialized oxygen-sensing cells in the nervous system generate rapid behavioural responses to oxygen. We show here that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a strong behavioural preference for 5-12% oxygen, avoiding higher and lower oxygen levels. 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a common second messenger in sensory transduction and is implicated in oxygen sensation. Avoidance of high oxygen levels by C. elegans requires the sensory cGMP-gated channel tax-2/tax-4 and a specific soluble guanylate cyclase homologue, gcy-35. The GCY-35 haem domain binds molecular oxygen, unlike the haem domains of classical nitric-oxide-regulated guanylate cyclases. GCY-35 and TAX-4 mediate oxygen sensation in four sensory neurons that control a naturally polymorphic social feeding behaviour in C. elegans. Social feeding and related behaviours occur only when oxygen exceeds C. elegans' preferred level, and require gcy-35 activity. Our results suggest that GCY-35 is regulated by molecular oxygen, and that social feeding can be a behavioural strategy for responding to hyperoxic environments. PMID:15220933

  2. Role of guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) in setting the flash sensitivity of rod photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Ana; Burns, Marie E.; Sokal, Izabela; Dizhoor, Alexander M.; Baehr, Wolfgang; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Baylor, Denis A.; Chen, Jeannie

    2001-01-01

    The retina's photoreceptor cells adjust their sensitivity to allow photons to be transduced over a wide range of light intensities. One mechanism thought to participate in sensitivity adjustments is Ca2+ regulation of guanylate cyclase (GC) by guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). We evaluated the contribution of GCAPs to sensitivity regulation in rods by disrupting their expression in transgenic mice. The GC activity from GCAPs−/− retinas showed no Ca2+ dependence, indicating that Ca2+ regulation of GCs had indeed been abolished. Flash responses from dark-adapted GCAPs−/− rods were larger and slower than responses from wild-type rods. In addition, the incremental flash sensitivity of GCAPs−/− rods failed to be maintained at wild-type levels in bright steady light. GCAP2 expressed in GCAPs−/− rods restored maximal light-induced GC activity but did not restore normal flash response kinetics. We conclude that GCAPs strongly regulate GC activity in mouse rods, decreasing the flash sensitivity in darkness and increasing the incremental flash sensitivity in bright steady light, thereby extending the rod's operating range. PMID:11493703

  3. Heat Shock Protein 90 Associates with the Per-Arnt-Sim Domain of Heme-free Soluble Guanylate Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Anindya; Dai, Yue; Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Seeger, Franziska; Ghosh, Arnab; Garcin, Elsa D.; Montfort, William R.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Misra, Saurav; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) drives heme insertion into the β1 subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) β1, which enables it to associate with a partner sGCα1 subunit and mature into a nitric oxide (NO)-responsive active form. We utilized fluorescence polarization measurements and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to define molecular interactions between the specific human isoforms hsp90β and apo-sGCβ1. hsp90β and its isolated M domain, but not its isolated N and C domains, bind with low micromolar affinity to a heme-free, truncated version of sGCβ1 (sGCβ1(1–359)-H105F). Surprisingly, hsp90β and its M domain bound to the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain of apo-sGC-β1(1–359), which lies adjacent to its heme-binding (H-NOX) domain. The interaction specifically involved solvent-exposed regions in the hsp90β M domain that are largely distinct from sites utilized by other hsp90 clients. The interaction strongly protected two regions of the sGCβ1 PAS domain and caused local structural relaxation in other regions, including a PAS dimerization interface and a segment in the H-NOX domain. Our results suggest a means by which the hsp90β interaction could prevent apo-sGCβ1 from associating with its partner sGCα1 subunit while enabling structural changes to assist heme insertion into the H-NOX domain. This mechanism would parallel that in other clients like the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and HIF1α, which also interact with hsp90 through their PAS domains to control protein partner and small ligand binding interactions. PMID:26134567

  4. Cinaciguat, a novel activator of soluble guanylate cyclase, protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury: role of hydrogen sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Fadi N.; Das, Anindita; Samidurai, Arun; Hoke, Nicholas N.; Chau, Vinh Q.; Ockaili, Ramzi A.; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cinaciguat (BAY 58–2667) is a novel nitric oxide (NO)-independent activator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which induces cGMP-generation and vasodilation in diseased vessels. We tested the hypothesis that cinaciguat might trigger protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in the heart and adult cardiomyocytes through cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG)-dependent generation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Adult New Zealand White rabbits were pretreated with 1 or 10 μg/kg cinaciguat (iv) or 10% DMSO (vehicle) 15 min before I/R or with 10 μg/kg cinaciguat (iv) at reperfusion. Additionally, adult male ICR mice were treated with either cinaciguat (10 μg/kg ip) or vehicle 30 min before I/R or at the onset of reperfusion (10 μg/kg iv). The PKG inhibitor KT5283 (KT; 1 mg/kg ip) or dl-propargylglycine (PAG; 50 mg/kg ip) the inhibitor of the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) were given 10 and 30 min before cinaciguat. Cardiac function and infarct size were assessed by echocardiography and tetrazolium staining, respectively. Primary adult mouse cardiomyocytes were isolated and treated with cinaciguat before simulated ischemia/reoxygenation. Cinaciguat caused 63 and 41% reduction of infarct size when given before I/R and at reperfusion in rabbits, respectively. In mice, cinaciguat pretreatment caused a more robust 80% reduction in infarct size vs. 63% reduction when given at reperfusion and preserved cardiac function following I/R, which were blocked by KT and PAG. Cinaciguat also caused an increase in myocardial PKG activity and CSE expression. In cardiomyocytes, cinaciguat (50 nM) reduced necrosis and apoptosis and increased H2S levels, which was abrogated by KT. Cinaciguat is a novel molecule to induce H2S generation and a powerful protection against I/R injury in heart. PMID:22268103

  5. The Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator Riociguat Ameliorates Pulmonary Hypertension Induced by Hypoxia and SU5416 in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xia; Kalymbetov, Anuar; Weissmann, Norbert; Grimminger, Friedrich; Kretschmer, Axel; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schermuly, Ralph Theo

    2012-01-01

    Background The nitric oxide (NO)–soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)–cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signal-transduction pathway is impaired in many cardiovascular diseases, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Riociguat (BAY 63–2521) is a stimulator of sGC that works both in synergy with and independently of NO to increase levels of cGMP. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of NO–sGC–cGMP signaling in a model of severe PAH and to evaluate the effects of sGC stimulation by riociguat and PDE5 inhibition by sildenafil on pulmonary hemodynamics and vascular remodeling in severe experimental PAH. Methods and Results Severe angioproliferative PAH was induced in rats by combined exposure to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor antagonist SU5416 and hypoxia (SUHx). Twenty-one days thereafter rats were randomized to receive either riociguat (10 mg/kg/day), sildenafil (50 mg/kg/day) or vehicle by oral gavage, for 14 days until the day of the terminal hemodynamic measurements. Administration of riociguat or sildenafil significantly decreased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP). Riociguat significantly decreased RV hypertrophy (RVH) (0.55±0.02, p<0.05), increased cardiac output (60.8±.8 mL/minute, p<0.05) and decreased total pulmonary resistance (4.03±0.3 mmHg min−1 ml−1 100 g BW, p<0.05), compared with sildenafil and vehicle. Both compounds significantly decreased the RV collagen content and improved RV function, but the effects of riociguat on tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and RV myocardial performance were significantly better than those of sildenafil (p<0.05). The proportion of occluded arteries was significantly lower in animals receiving riociguat than in those receiving vehicle (p<0.05); furthermore, the neointima/media ratio was significantly lower in those receiving riociguat than in those receiving sildenafil or vehicle (p<0.05). Conclusion Riociguat and sildenafil significantly reduced

  6. Vasodilator responses to acetylcholine are not mediated by the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase or TRPV4 channels in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Pankey, Edward A.; Kassan, Modar; Choi, Soo-Kyoung; Matrougui, Khalid; Nossaman, Bobby D.; Hyman, Albert L.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadizaolo[4,3-]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) on responses to NO donors acetylcholine (ACh) and bradykinin (BK) were investigated in the pulmonary and systemic vascular beds of the rat. In these studies the administration of ODQ in a dose of 5 mg/kg iv attenuated vasodilator responses to five different NO donors without inhibiting responses to ACh and BK in the systemic and pulmonary vascular beds of the rat. Vasodilator responses to ACh were not inhibited by l-NAME or the transient receptor vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) antagonist GSK-2193874, which attenuated vasodilator responses to the TRPV4 agonist GSK-1016790A. ODQ did not inhibit vasodilator responses to agents reported to act in an NO-independent manner or to vasoconstrictor agents, and ODQ did not increase blood methemoglobin levels, suggesting that off target effects were minimal. These results show that ODQ in a dose that inhibited NO donor-mediated responses did not alter vasodilator responses to ACh in the pulmonary and systemic vascular beds and did not alter systemic vasodilator responses to BK. The present results indicate that decreases in pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures in response to ACh are not mediated by the activation of sGC or TRPV4 channels and that ODQ can be used to study the role of the activation of sGC in mediating vasodilator responses in the rat. PMID:24658016

  7. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulators and Activators: Novel Therapies for Pulmonary Vascular Disease or a Different Method of Increasing cGMP?

    PubMed

    Koress, Cody; Swan, Kevin; Kadowitz, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressively worsening disorder characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance leading to increased afterload, right ventricular hypertrophy, and ultimately right heart failure and death. Current pharmacologic treatments primarily act to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and provide some benefit but do not cure PAH. Canonical vasodilator therapy involving the nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)-cGMP pathway has demonstrated efficacy, but in pathologic states, endothelial dysfunction within the pulmonary vasculature leads to the reduced synthesis and bioavailability of NO. Acting downstream of NO, sGC stimulators and activators restore the endogenous functions of NO and exploit the positive effects of sGC stimulation on various organ systems, including the heart. Riociguat (BAY 63-2521) is the first agent in a class of sGC stimulators to receive FDA approval for the treatment of PAH and chronic thromboembolic hypertension (CTEPH). Riociguat has demonstrated significant benefit as assessed by 6MWD, PVR, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, time to clinical worsening, World Health Organization (WHO) functional class, and other quality of life measures in clinical trials as a monotherapy and in combination with endothelin receptor antagonists or non-intravenous prostanoids. Riociguat is the first FDA-approved treatment option for inoperable or persistent CTEPH and adds a new effective drug to available treatment options for pulmonary hypertension (PH). The question of whether riociguat is superior to other available treatment options is unanswered at the present time and requires further study. PMID:27118316

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel pyrazoles and indazoles as activators of the nitric oxide receptor, soluble guanylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Selwood, D L; Brummell, D G; Budworth, J; Burtin, G E; Campbell, R O; Chana, S S; Charles, I G; Fernandez, P A; Glen, R C; Goggin, M C; Hobbs, A J; Kling, M R; Liu, Q; Madge, D J; Meillerais, S; Powell, K L; Reynolds, K; Spacey, G D; Stables, J N; Tatlock, M A; Wheeler, K A; Wishart, G; Woo, C K

    2001-01-01

    Database searching and compound screening identified 1-benzyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyloxy)indazole (benzydamine, 3) as a potent activator of the nitric oxide receptor, soluble guanylate cyclase. A comprehensive structure-activity relationship study surrounding 3 clearly showed that the indazole C-3 dimethylaminopropyloxy substituent was critical for enzyme activity. However replacement of the indazole ring of 3 by appropriately substituted pyrazoles maintained enzyme activity. Compounds were evaluated for inhibition of platelet aggregation and showed a general lipophilicity requirement. Aryl-substituted pyrazoles 32, 34, and 43 demonstrated potent activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and potent inhibition of platelet aggregation. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed that compound 32 exhibits modest oral bioavailability (12%). Furthermore 32 has an excellent selectivity profile notably showing no significant inhibition of phosphodiesterases or nitric oxide synthases. PMID:11141091

  9. Identification of guanylate cyclases and related signaling proteins in sperm tail from sea stars by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nakachi, Mia; Matsumoto, Midori; Terry, Philip M; Cerny, Ronald L; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    Marine invertebrates employ external fertilization to take the advantages of sexual reproduction as one of excellent survival strategies. To prevent mismatching, successful fertilization can be made only after going though strictly defined steps in the fertilization. In sea stars, the fertilization process starts with the chemotaxis of sperm followed by hyperactivation of sperm upon arriving onto the egg coat, and then sperm penetrate to the egg coat before achieving the fusion. To investigate whether the initiation of chemotaxis and the following signaling has species specificity, we conducted comparative studies in the protein level among sea stars, Asterias amurensis, A. forbesi, and Asterina pectinifera. Since transcription of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) has been suppressed in gamete, the roles of sperm proteins during the fertilization cannot be investigated by examining the mRNA profile. Therefore, proteomics analysis by mass spectrometry was used in this study. In sea stars, upon receiving asteroidal sperm-activating peptide (asterosap), the receptor membrane-bound guanylate cyclases in the sperm tail trigger sperm chemotaxis. We confirmed the presence of membrane-bound guanylate cyclases in the three sea star species, and they all had the same structural domains including the extracellular domain, kinase-like domain, and guanylate cyclase domain. The majority of peptides recovered were from alpha-helices distributed on the solvent side of the protein. More peptides were recovered from the intracellular domains. The transmembrane domain has not been recovered. The functions of the receptors seemed to be conserved among the species. Furthermore, we identified proteins that may be involved in the guanylate cyclase-triggered signaling pathway. PMID:18461395

  10. Effect of cyanide on nitrovasodilator-induced relaxation, cyclic GMP accumulation and guanylate cyclase activation in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, R M; Murad, F

    1984-09-01

    The effects of sodium cyanide on relaxation, increases in cyclic GMP accumulation and guanylate cyclase activation induced by sodium nitroprusside and other nitrovasodilators were examined in rat thoracic aorta. Cyanide abolished nitroprusside-induced relaxation and the associated increase in cyclic GMP levels. Basal levels of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP were also depressed. Reversal of nitroprusside-induced relaxation by cyanide was independent of the tissue level of cyclic GMP prior to addition of cyanide. Incubation of nitroprusside with cyanide prior to addition to aortic strips did not alter the relaxant effect of nitroprusside. Sodium azide-, hydroxylamine-, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanide-, nitroglycerin- and acetylcholine-induced relaxations and increased levels of cyclic GMP were also inhibited by cyanide. Relaxations induced by nitric oxide were also inhibited by cyanide, although the relaxation with the low concentration of nitric oxide employed was not accompanied by detectable increases in cyclic GMP. Relaxation to 8-bromo-cyclic GMP was essentially unaltered by cyanide; however, isoproterenol-induced relaxation was inhibited. Guanylate cyclase in soluble and particulate fractions of aorta homogenates was activated by nitroprusside and the activation was prevented by cyanide. The present results suggest that cyanide inhibits nitrovasodilator-induced relaxation through inhibition of guanylate cyclase activation; however, cyanide may also have nonspecific effects which inhibit relaxation. PMID:6149944

  11. Structure, signaling mechanism and regulation of natriuretic peptide receptor-guanylate cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Misono, Kunio S.; Philo, John S.; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Ogata, Craig M.; Qiu, Yue; Ogawa, Haruo; Young, Howard S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and homologous B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are cardiac hormones that dilate blood vessels and stimulate natriuresis and diuresis, thereby lowering blood pressure and blood volume. ANP and BNP counterbalance the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and neurohormonal systems, and play a central role in cardiovascular regulation. These activities are mediated by the A-type natriuretic peptide receptor (NPRA), a single transmembrane segment, guanylate cyclase (GC) linked receptor that occurs as a homodimer. Here we present an overview of the structure, possible chloride-mediated regulation, and signaling mechanism of the NPRA and other receptor-GCs. Earlier, we determined the crystal structures of the NPRA extracellular domain with and without bound ANP. Their structural comparison has revealed a novel ANP-induced rotation mechanism occurring in the juxtamembrane region that apparently triggers transmembrane signal transduction. More recently, the crystal structures of the dimerized catalytic domain of green algae GC Cyg12 and that of cyanobacter GC Cya2 have been reported. These structures closely resemble that of the adenylate cyclase catalytic domain consisting of C1 and C2 subdomain heterodimer. AC is activated by binding of Gsα to C2 and ensuing 7° rotation of C1 around an axis parallel to the central cleft, thereby inducing the heterodimer into a catalytically active conformation. We speculate that, in the NPRA, the ANP-induced rotation of the juxtamembrane domains, transmitted across the transmembrane helices, may induce a similar rotation in each of the dimerized GC catalytic domains, leading to the stimulation of the GC catalytic activity. PMID:21375693

  12. Regulation of intraocular pressure by soluble and membrane guanylate cyclases and their role in glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Buys, Emmanuel S.; Potter, Lincoln R.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Ksander, Bruce R.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by visual field defects that ultimately lead to irreversible blindness (Alward, 2000; Anderson et al., 2006). By the year 2020, an estimated 80 million people will have glaucoma, 11 million of which will be bilaterally blind. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently the only risk factor amenable to treatment. How IOP is regulated and can be modulated remains a topic of active investigation. Available therapies, mostly geared toward lowering IOP, offer incomplete protection, and POAG often goes undetected until irreparable damage has been done, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic approaches, drug targets, and biomarkers (Heijl et al., 2002; Quigley, 2011). In this review, the role of soluble (nitric oxide (NO)-activated) and membrane-bound, natriuretic peptide (NP)-activated guanylate cyclases that generate the secondary signaling molecule cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the regulation of IOP and in the pathophysiology of POAG will be discussed. PMID:24904270

  13. Genetic modifiers of hypertension in soluble guanylate cyclase α1–deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Buys, Emmanuel S.; Raher, Michael J.; Kirby, Andrew; Mohd, Shahid; Baron, David M.; Hayton, Sarah R.; Tainsh, Laurel T.; Sips, Patrick Y.; Rauwerdink, Kristen M.; Yan, Qingshang; Tainsh, Robert E.T.; Shakartzi, Hannah R.; Stevens, Christine; Decaluwé, Kelly; Rodrigues-Machado, Maria da Gloria; Malhotra, Rajeev; Van de Voorde, Johan; Wang, Tong; Brouckaert, Peter; Daly, Mark J.; Bloch, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an essential role in regulating hypertension and blood flow by inducing relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Male mice deficient in a NO receptor component, the α1 subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGCα1), are prone to hypertension in some, but not all, mouse strains, suggesting that additional genetic factors contribute to the onset of hypertension. Using linkage analyses, we discovered a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 1 that was linked to mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the context of sGCα1 deficiency. This region is syntenic with previously identified blood pressure–related QTLs in the human and rat genome and contains the genes coding for renin. Hypertension was associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Further, we found that RAAS inhibition normalized MAP and improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in sGCα1-deficient mice. These data identify the RAAS as a blood pressure–modifying mechanism in a setting of impaired NO/cGMP signaling. PMID:22565307

  14. A Bacterial Hemerythrin Domain Regulates Activity of a Vibrio cholerae Di-Guanylate Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Ruth A.; Ali, Syed Khalid; Klose, Karl E.; Kurtz, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    The first demonstrated example of a regulatory function for a bacterial hemerythrin (Bhr) domain is reported. Bhrs have a characteristic sequence motif providing ligand residues for a type of non-heme diiron site that is known to bind O2 and undergo autoxidation. The amino acid sequence encoded by the gene, VC1216, from Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar El Tor str. N16961 contains an N-terminal Bhr domain connected to a C-terminal domain characteristic of bacterial di-guanylate cyclases (DGCs) that catalyze formation of cyclic di-(3′,5′)-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) from GTP. This protein, Vc Bhr-DGC, was found to contain two tightly bound non-heme iron atoms per protein monomer. The as-isolated protein showed the spectroscopic signatures of oxo/dicarboxylato-bridged non-heme diferric sites of previously characterized Bhr domains. The diiron site was capable of cycling between diferric and diferrous forms, the latter of which was stable only under anaerobic conditions, undergoing rapid autoxidation upon exposure to air. Vc Bhr-DGC showed approximately 10-times higher DGC activity in the diferrous relative to the diferric form. The level of intracellular c-di-GMP is known to regulate biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae. The higher DGC activity of the diferrous Vc Bhr-DGC is consistent with induction of biofilm formation in low dioxygen environments. The non-heme diiron cofactor in the Bhr domain thus represents an alternative to heme or flavin for redox and/or diatomic gas sensing and regulation of DGC activity. PMID:23057727

  15. Activation of guanylate cyclase-C attenuates stretch responses and sensitization of mouse colorectal afferents

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bin; Kiyatkin, Michael E.; La, Jun-Ho; Ge, Pei; Solinga, Robert; Silos-Santiago, Inmaculada; Gebhart, G.F.

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by altered bowel habits, persistent pain and discomfort, and typically colorectal hypersensitivity. Linaclotide, a peripherally-restricted 14-amino acid peptide approved for the treatment of IBS with constipation, relieves constipation and reduces IBS-associated pain in these patients presumably by activation of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C), which stimulates production and release of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) from intestinal epithelial cells. We investigated whether activation of GC-C by the endogenous agonist uroguanylin or the primary downstream effector of that activation, cGMP, directly modulates responses and sensitization of mechanosensitive colorectal primary afferents. The distal 2 cm of mouse colorectum with attached pelvic nerve was harvested, pinned flat mucosal side up for in vitro single-fiber recordings and the encoding properties of mechanosensitive afferents (serosal, mucosal, muscular and muscular-mucosal) to probing and circumferential stretch studied. Both cGMP (10–300μM) and uroguanylin (1–1000nM) applied directly to colorectal receptive endings significantly reduced responses of muscular and muscular-mucosal afferents to stretch; serosal and mucosal afferents were not affected. Sensitized responses (i.e., increased responses to stretch) of muscular and muscular-mucosal afferents were reversed by cGMP, returning responses to stretch to control. Blocking the transport of cGMP from colorectal epithelia by probenecid, a mechanism validated by studies in cultured intestinal T84 cells, abolished the inhibitory effect of uroguanylin on muscular-mucosal afferents. These results suggest that GC-C agonists like linaclotide alleviate colorectal pain and hypersensitivity by dampening stretch-sensitive afferent mechanosensitivity and normalizing afferent sensitization. PMID:23739979

  16. Differential effects of stimulus termination on excitation and desensitization of folic acid receptors and guanylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    de Wit, R J; Bulgakov, R; Bominaar, T A; Rinke de Wit, T F

    1987-08-19

    The response of guanylate cyclase to addition of extracellular stimuli is well documented. Here we report for the first time the response of guanylate cyclase to removal of stimuli. Three methods were employed to terminate rapidly a stimulus of folic acid. (1) Addition of a highly active folate deaminase preparation, or (2) 12-fold dilution of the stimulated cell suspension, or (3) addition of an excess concentration of a non-agonistic derivative of folic acid, i.e., 2-deaminofolic acid, which chases the folate agonist from its cell-surface receptors. Accumulation of cGMP terminated instantaneously upon addition of deaminase, but degradation of the synthesized cGMP was not observed until 10-12 s after stimulation. Also in a cGMP phosphodiesterase-lacking 'streamer' mutant an instantaneous termination of further cGMP accumulation was observed upon stimulus removal. This suggests that the termination of cGMP accumulation is due to inactivation of guanylate cyclase instead of a steady state of cGMP synthesis and degradation. Further accumulation of cGMP was approx. 75% reduced upon dilution of a cell suspension after stimulation with both agonists. Stimulation by 300 nM folic acid or by 30 nM N10-methylfolic acid (a more potent agonist) yielded identical results. However, upon addition of deaminofolic acid the accumulation of cGMP continued normally if the cells had been stimulated with N10-methylfolic acid, but only slightly in the case of a folic acid stimulus. The effect of stimulus duration on desensitization was monitored; it was observed that 50% desensitization was induced by stimulation for 1 s, while 4 s was sufficient for maximal desensitization. Short stimuli were observed to elicit high levels of desensitization without much excitation of guanylate cyclase. A desensitization-like process was observed at the level of the folate-binding chemotactic receptors as well. Relationships between the cGMP response data and folic acid receptor kinetics are discussed

  17. Effects of hydroxyl radical scavengers KCN and CO on ultraviolet light-induced activation of crude soluble guanylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, J.O.; Axelsson, K.L.; Andersson, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The crude soluble guanylate cyclase (GC) from bovine mesenteric artery was stimulated by ultraviolet (UV) light (366 nm). Addition of free radical scavengers, dimethylsulfoxide or superoxide dismutase and/or catalase to the GC assay did not abolish the stimulatory effect of UV light. On the contrary, the UV light-induced activation was enhanced in the presence of these scavengers. KCN (1 mM) did not affect the UV light-induced activation, while 0.1 mM of CO potentiated the activation. These results may indicate that UV light is operating through a direct interaction with the ferrous form of the GC-heme.

  18. A constitutively activated mutant of human soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC): implication for the mechanism of sGC activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Emil; Sharina, Iraida; Kots, Alexander; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    Heterodimeric alphabeta soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a recognized receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and mediates many of its physiological functions. Although it has been clear that the heme moiety coordinated by His-105 of the beta subunit is crucial for mediating the activation of the enzyme by NO, it is not understood whether the heme moiety plays any role in the function of the enzyme in the absence of NO. Here we analyze the effects of biochemical and genetic removal of heme and its reconstitution on the activity of the enzyme. Detergent-induced loss of heme from the wild-type alphabeta enzyme resulted in several-fold activation of the enzyme. This activation was inhibited after hemin reconstitution. A heme-deficient mutant alphabetaCys-105 with Cys substituted for His-105 was constitutively active with specific activity approaching the activity of the wild-type enzyme activated by NO. However, reconstitution of mutant enzyme with heme and/or DTT treatment significantly inhibited the enzyme. Mutant enzyme reconstituted with ferrous heme was activated by NO and CO alone and showed additive effects between gaseous effectors and the allosteric activator 5-cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-pyrim idin-4-ylamine. We propose that the heme moiety through its coordination with His-105 of the beta subunit acts as an endogenous inhibitor of sGC. Disruption of the heme-coordinating bond induced by binding of NO releases the restrictions imposed by this bond and allows the formation of an optimally organized catalytic center in the heterodimer.

  19. A constitutively activated mutant of human soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC): Implication for the mechanism of sGC activation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Emil; Sharina, Iraida; Kots, Alexander; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    Heterodimeric αβ soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a recognized receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and mediates many of its physiological functions. Although it has been clear that the heme moiety coordinated by His-105 of the β subunit is crucial for mediating the activation of the enzyme by NO, it is not understood whether the heme moiety plays any role in the function of the enzyme in the absence of NO. Here we analyze the effects of biochemical and genetic removal of heme and its reconstitution on the activity of the enzyme. Detergent-induced loss of heme from the wild-type αβ enzyme resulted in several-fold activation of the enzyme. This activation was inhibited after hemin reconstitution. A heme-deficient mutant αβCys-105 with Cys substituted for His-105 was constitutively active with specific activity approaching the activity of the wild-type enzyme activated by NO. However, reconstitution of mutant enzyme with heme and/or DTT treatment significantly inhibited the enzyme. Mutant enzyme reconstituted with ferrous heme was activated by NO and CO alone and showed additive effects between gaseous effectors and the allosteric activator 5-cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-pyrimidin-4-ylamine. We propose that the heme moiety through its coordination with His-105 of the β subunit acts as an endogenous inhibitor of sGC. Disruption of the heme-coordinating bond induced by binding of NO releases the restrictions imposed by this bond and allows the formation of an optimally organized catalytic center in the heterodimer. PMID:12883009

  20. NO-independent regulatory site of direct sGC stimulators like YC-1 and BAY 41-2272

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Eva Maria; Alonso-Alija, Cristina; Apeler, Heiner; Gerzer, Rupert; Minuth, Torsten; Pleiβ, Ulrich; Schmidt, Peter; Schramm, Matthias; Schröder, Henning; Schroeder, Werner; Steinke, Wolfram; Straub, Alexander; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2001-01-01

    Background The most important receptor for nitic oxide is the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a heme containing heterodimer. Recently, a pyrazolopyridine derivative BAY 41-2272, structurally related to YC-1, was identified stimulating soluble guanylate cyclase in an NO-independent manner, which results in vasodilatation and antiplatelet activity. The study described here addresses the identification of the NO-independent site on soluble guanylate cyclase. Results We developed a photoaffinity label (3H-meta-PAL) for the direct and NO-independent soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator BAY 41-2272 by introducing an azido-group into the tritium labeled compound. The synthesized photoaffinitylabel directly stimulates the purified sGC and shows in combination with NO a synergistic effect on sGC activity. Irradiation with UV light of 3H-meta-PAL together with the highly purified sGC leads to a covalent binding to the α1-subunit of the enzyme. This binding is blocked by unlabeled meta-PAL, YC-1 and BAY 41-2272. For further identification of the NO-independent regulatory site the 3H-meta-PAL labeled sGC was fragmented by CNBr digest. The 3H-meta-PAL binds to a CNBr fragment, consisting of the amino acids 236–290 of the α1-subunit. Determination of radioactivity of the single PTH-cycles from the sequencing of this CNBr fragment detected the cysteines 238 and 243 as binding residues of the 3H-meta-PAL. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the region surrounding the cysteines 238 and 243 in the α1-subunit of the sGC could play an important role in regulation of sGC activity and could be the target of this new type of sGC stimulators. PMID:11801189

  1. Guanylate cyclase C limits systemic dissemination of a murine enteric pathogen

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Guanylate Cyclase C (GC-C) is an apically-oriented transmembrane receptor that is expressed on epithelial cells of the intestine. Activation of GC-C by the endogenous ligands guanylin or uroguanylin elevates intracellular cGMP and is implicated in intestinal ion secretion, cell proliferation, apoptosis, intestinal barrier function, as well as the susceptibility of the intestine to inflammation. Our aim was to determine if GC-C is required for host defense during infection by the murine enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium of the family Enterobacteriacea. Methods GC-C+/+ control mice or those having GC-C genetically ablated (GC-C−/−) were administered C. rodentium by orogastric gavage and analyzed at multiple time points up to post-infection day 20. Commensal bacteria were characterized in uninfected GC-C+/+ and GC-C−/− mice using 16S rRNA PCR analysis. Results GC-C−/− mice had an increase in C. rodentium bacterial load in stool relative to GC-C+/+. C. rodentium infection strongly decreased guanylin expression in GC-C+/+ mice and, to an even greater degree, in GC-C−/− animals. Fluorescent tracer studies indicated that mice lacking GC-C, unlike GC-C+/+ animals, had a substantial loss of intestinal barrier function early in the course of infection. Epithelial cell apoptosis was significantly increased in GC-C−/− mice following 10 days of infection and this was associated with increased frequency and numbers of C. rodentium translocation out of the intestine. Infection led to significant liver histopathology in GC-C−/− mice as well as lymphocyte infiltration and elevated cytokine and chemokine expression. Relative to naïve GC-C+/+ mice, the commensal microflora load in uninfected GC-C−/− mice was decreased and bacterial composition was imbalanced and included outgrowth of the Enterobacteriacea family. Conclusions This work demonstrates the novel finding that GC-C signaling is an essential component of host defense during

  2. Pharmacokinetic interaction profile of riociguat, a new soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rickert, Verena; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Weiss, Johanna

    2014-08-01

    Riociguat is a new soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator under development for pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. So far, the interaction potential of riociguat with other drugs is nearly unknown. Therefore, we assessed in vitro the potency of riociguat to inhibit important drug metabolising enzymes (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) and drug transporters (P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1 and 1B3). In addition we evaluated its substrate characteristics for P-gp, BCRP, and the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1). We also assessed riociguat's inducing properties on important drug metabolising enzymes and transporters and investigated its ability to activate the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). Riociguat was identified as a weak to moderate inhibitor of P-gp (f2-value: 11.7 ± 4.8 μM), BCRP (IC50 = 46.2 ± 20.3 μM), OATP1B1 (IC50 = 34.1 ± 3.15 μM), OATP1B3 (IC50 = 50.3 ± 7.5 μM), CYP2D6 (IC50 = 12.4 ± 0.74 μM), and CYP2C19 (IC50 = 46.1 ± 7.14 μM). Furthermore, it induced mRNA expression of BCRP/ABCG2 (3-fold at 20 μM) and to a lesser extent of CYP3A4 (2.3-fold at 20 μM), UGT1A4, and ABCB11. The only weak inducing properties were confirmed by weak activation of PXR. Considering its systemic concentrations its interaction potential as a perpetrator drug seems to be low. In contrast, our data suggest that riociguat is a P-gp substrate and might therefore act as a victim drug when co-administered with strong P-gp inductors or inhibitors. PMID:24657506

  3. Nitric oxide and guanylate cyclase signalling are differentially involved in gonadotrophin (LH) release responses to two endogenous GnRHs from goldfish pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Meints, A N; Pemberton, J G; Chang, J P

    2012-08-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity is present in goldfish gonadotrophs. The present study investigated whether two native goldfish gonadotrophin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), salmon (s)GnRH and chicken (c)GnRH-II, use NOS/nitric oxide (NO) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cyclic (c)GMP/protein kinase G (PKG) signalling to stimulate maturational gonadotrophin [teleost gonadotrophin-II, luteinising hormone (LH)] release. In cell column perifusion experiments with dispersed goldfish pituitary cells, the application of three NOS inhibitors (aminoguanidine hemisulphate, 1400W and 7-nitroindazole) and two NO scavengers [2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) and rutin hydrate] reduced sGnRH-elicited, but not cGnRH-II-induced, LH increases. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) increased NO production in goldfish pituitary cells in static incubation. SNP-stimulated LH release in column perifusion was attenuated by PTIO and the sGC inhibitor 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-oneon (ODQ), and additive to responses elicited by cGnRH-II, but not sGnRH. ODQ and the PKG inhibitor KT5823 decreased sGnRH- and cGnRH-II-stimulated LH release. Similarly, the LH response to dibutyryl cGMP was reduced by KT5823. These results indicate that, although only sGnRH uses the NOS/NO pathway to stimulate LH release, both GnRHs utilise sGC/PKG to increase LH secretion. PMID:22487215

  4. Digital Holographic Tomography and Fluorescence Used to Localize sGC in HEK293 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldrake, Eric; Mann, Christopher; Gage, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Digital Holographic Tomography (DHT) is used to analyze and localize the intracellular protein soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. DHT is a non-invasive phase microscopy technique that provides three dimensional quantitative information of HEK293 cells including variance of index of refraction or physical thickness. A fluorescence component will be added to the microscope to further studies of sGC localization. The signaling pathway including nitric oxide (NO) and sGC is studied and has been linked to various cardiovascular diseases, platelet aggregation, and variations in blood pressure via vasodilation. sGC will be labeled using a fluorescent antibody and analyzed using the DHT microscope. DHT will be used to analyze changes in sGC localization in its natural environment and when stimulated by NO. An understanding of how sGC interacts with its surroundings is vital to further research in cardiovascular disease.

  5. Mutations in a guanylate cyclase GCY-35/GCY-36 modify Bardet-Biedl syndrome-associated phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Mok, Calvin A; Healey, Michael P; Shekhar, Tanvi; Leroux, Michel R; Héon, Elise; Zhen, Mei

    2011-10-01

    Ciliopathies are pleiotropic and genetically heterogeneous disorders caused by defective development and function of the primary cilium. Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) proteins localize to the base of cilia and undergo intraflagellar transport, and the loss of their functions leads to a multisystemic ciliopathy. Here we report the identification of mutations in guanylate cyclases (GCYs) as modifiers of Caenorhabditis elegans bbs endophenotypes. The loss of GCY-35 or GCY-36 results in suppression of the small body size, developmental delay, and exploration defects exhibited by multiple bbs mutants. Moreover, an effector of cGMP signalling, a cGMP-dependent protein kinase, EGL-4, also modifies bbs mutant defects. We propose that a misregulation of cGMP signalling, which underlies developmental and some behavioural defects of C. elegans bbs mutants, may also contribute to some BBS features in other organisms. PMID:22022287

  6. Overexpression of Guanylate Cyclase Activating Protein 2 in Rod Photoreceptors In Vivo Leads to Morphological Changes at the Synaptic Ribbon

    PubMed Central

    López-Begines, Santiago; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Cuenca, Nicolás; Llorens, Jordi; de la Villa, Pedro; Méndez, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Guanylate cyclase activating proteins are EF-hand containing proteins that confer calcium sensitivity to retinal guanylate cyclase at the outer segment discs of photoreceptor cells. By making the rate of cGMP synthesis dependent on the free intracellular calcium levels set by illumination, GCAPs play a fundamental role in the recovery of the light response and light adaptation. The main isoforms GCAP1 and GCAP2 also localize to the synaptic terminal, where their function is not known. Based on the reported interaction of GCAP2 with Ribeye, the major component of synaptic ribbons, it was proposed that GCAP2 could mediate the synaptic ribbon dynamic changes that happen in response to light. We here present a thorough ultrastructural analysis of rod synaptic terminals in loss-of-function (GCAP1/GCAP2 double knockout) and gain-of-function (transgenic overexpression) mouse models of GCAP2. Rod synaptic ribbons in GCAPs−/− mice did not differ from wildtype ribbons when mice were raised in constant darkness, indicating that GCAPs are not required for ribbon early assembly or maturation. Transgenic overexpression of GCAP2 in rods led to a shortening of synaptic ribbons, and to a higher than normal percentage of club-shaped and spherical ribbon morphologies. Restoration of GCAP2 expression in the GCAPs−/− background (GCAP2 expression in the absence of endogenous GCAP1) had the striking result of shortening ribbon length to a much higher degree than overexpression of GCAP2 in the wildtype background, as well as reducing the thickness of the outer plexiform layer without affecting the number of rod photoreceptor cells. These results indicate that preservation of the GCAP1 to GCAP2 relative levels is relevant for maintaining the integrity of the synaptic terminal. Our demonstration of GCAP2 immunolocalization at synaptic ribbons at the ultrastructural level would support a role of GCAPs at mediating the effect of light on morphological remodeling changes of synaptic

  7. Nicorandil stimulates a Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger by activating guanylate cyclase in guinea pig cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiazhang; Watanabe, Yasuhide; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Kanna; Tashiro, Miyuki; Kita, Satomi; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kimura, Junko

    2016-04-01

    Nicorandil, a hybrid of an ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel opener and a nitrate generator, is used clinically for the treatment of angina pectoris. This agent has been reported to exert antiarrhythmic actions by abolishing both triggered activity and spontaneous automaticity in an in vitro study. It is well known that delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) are caused by the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (I NCX). In this study, we investigated the effect of nicorandil on the cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1). We used the whole-cell patch clamp technique and the Fura-2/AM (Ca(2+) indicator) method to investigate the effect of nicorandil on I NCX in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes and CCL39 fibroblast cells transfected with dog heart NCX1. Nicorandil enhanced I NCX in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC50 (half-maximum concentration for enhancement of the drug) values were 15.0 and 8.7 μM for the outward and inward components of I NCX, respectively. 8-Bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP), a membrane-permeable analog of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), enhanced I NCX. 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a guanylate cyclase inhibitor (10 μM), completely abolished the nicorandil-induced I NCX increase. Nicorandil increased I NCX in CCL39 cells expressing wild-type NCX1 but did not affect mutant NCX1 without a long intracellular loop between transmembrane segments (TMSs) 5 and 6. Nicorandil at 100 μM abolished DADs induced by electrical stimulation with ouabain. Nicorandil enhanced the function of NCX1 via guanylate cyclase and thus may accelerate Ca(2+) exit via NCX1. This may partially contribute to the cardioprotection by nicorandil in addition to shortening action potential duration (APD) by activating KATP channels. PMID:26631169

  8. Structure, signaling mechanism and regulation of the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylate cyclase.

    SciTech Connect

    Misono, K. S.; Philo, J. S.; Arakawa, T.; Ogata, C. M.; Qiu, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Young, H. S.

    2011-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the homologous B-type natriuretic peptide are cardiac hormones that dilate blood vessels and stimulate natriuresis and diuresis, thereby lowering blood pressure and blood volume. ANP and B-type natriuretic peptide counterbalance the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and neurohormonal systems, and play a central role in cardiovascular regulation. These activities are mediated by natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA), a single transmembrane segment, guanylyl cyclase (GC)-linked receptor that occurs as a homodimer. Here, we present an overview of the structure, possible chloride-mediated regulation and signaling mechanism of NPRA and other receptor GCs. Earlier, we determined the crystal structures of the NPRA extracellular domain with and without bound ANP. Their structural comparison has revealed a novel ANP-induced rotation mechanism occurring in the juxtamembrane region that apparently triggers transmembrane signal transduction. More recently, the crystal structures of the dimerized catalytic domain of green algae GC Cyg12 and that of cyanobacterium GC Cya2 have been reported. These structures closely resemble that of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic domain, consisting of a C1 and C2 subdomain heterodimer. Adenylyl cyclase is activated by binding of G{sub s}{alpha} to C2 and the ensuing 7{sup o} rotation of C1 around an axis parallel to the central cleft, thereby inducing the heterodimer to adopt a catalytically active conformation. We speculate that, in NPRA, the ANP-induced rotation of the juxtamembrane domains, transmitted across the transmembrane helices, may induce a similar rotation in each of the dimerized GC catalytic domains, leading to the stimulation of the GC catalytic activity.

  9. Structural and functional characterization of the rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Goraczniak, R M; Duda, T; Sitaramayya, A; Sharma, R K

    1994-01-01

    In the vertebrate photoreceptor cell, rod outer segment (ROS) is the site of visual signal-transduction process, and a pivotal molecule that regulates this process is cyclic GMP. Cyclic GMP controls the cationic conductance into the ROS, and light causes a decrease in the conductance by activating hydrolysis of the cyclic nucleotide. The identity of the granylate cyclase (ROS-GC) that synthesizes this pool of cyclic GMP is unknown. We now report the cloning, expression and functional characterization of a DNA from bovine retina that encodes ROS-GC. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:7916565

  10. Expression of guanylate cyclase-C, guanylin, and uroguanylin is downregulated proportionally to the ulcerative colitis disease activity index

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Danfeng; Niu, Junkun; Miao, Jiarong; Dong, Xiangqian; Wang, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Kunhua; Miao, Yinglei

    2016-01-01

    The transmembrane receptor guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) signaling pathway has been implicated in several gastrointestinal disorders. Activation of GC-C via guanylin (Gn) and uroguanylin (Ugn) regulates intestinal fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. However, how it regulates the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unclear. Here, we investigated the activation of GC-C signaling in ulcerative colitis (UC) of different clinical severities. A total of 60 UC patients and 20 normal controls were recruited. Evaluation of the UC disease activity index (DAI) was performed using a modified Mayo scoring system. The expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn in the colonic mucosa was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. We found that the UC patients had significantly lower expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn than the controls. Furthermore, there were significant differences for GC-C, Gn and Ugn expression for the UC groups of Grade 1, 2 and 3, and their expression levels were reduced with increases in their DAI. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GC-C, Gn and Ugn are downregulated in UC, and this downregulation is more significant with aggravation of the clinical condition. Therefore, the GC-C signaling pathway may be implicated in the progression of UC. PMID:27125248

  11. Vascular natriuretic peptide receptor-linked particulate guanylate cyclases are modulated by nitric oxide–cyclic GMP signalling

    PubMed Central

    Madhani, Melanie; Scotland, Ramona S; MacAllister, Raymond J; Hobbs, Adrian J

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of the particulate guanylate cyclase–cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) system to atrial (ANP) and C-type (CNP) natriuretic peptides was investigated in aortae and mesenteric small arteries from wild-type (WT) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knockout (KO) mice. ANP and CNP produced concentration-dependent relaxations of mouse aorta that were significantly attenuated by the natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A/B antagonist HS-142-1 (10−5 M). Both ANP and CNP were more potent in aortae from eNOS KO mice compared to WT. The potency of ANP and CNP in aortae from WT animals was increased in the presence of the NOS inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (3 × 10−4 M) and the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolol[4,3,a]quinoxalin-1-one (5 × 10−6 M). In contrast, the potency of ANP and CNP in aortae from eNOS KO animals was reduced following pretreatment of tissues with supramaximal concentrations of the NO-donor, glyceryl trinitrate (3 × 10−5 M, 30 min) or ANP (10−7 M, 30 min). Responses to acetylcholine in aortae from WT mice (dependent on the release of endothelium-derived NO) were significantly reduced following pretreatment of tissues with GTN (3 × 10−5 M, 30 min) and ANP (10−7 M, 30 min). CNP and the NO-donor, spermine-NONOate caused concentration-dependent relaxations of mesenteric small arteries from WT animals that were significantly increased in eNOS KO mice compared to WT. ANP was unable to significantly relax mesenteric arteries from WT or eNOS KO animals. In conclusion, both NPR-A- and NPR-B-linked pGC pathways are modulated by NO–cGMP in murine aorta and mesenteric small arteries and crossdesensitisation occurs between NPR subtypes. The biological activity of endothelium-derived NO is also influenced by the ambient concentration of NO and natriuretic peptides. Such an autoregulatory pathway may represent an important physiological homeostatic mechanism and link the paracrine activity

  12. A Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Mediates Negative Signaling by Ammonium on Expression of Nitrate Reductase in Chlamydomonas[W

    PubMed Central

    de Montaigu, Amaury; Sanz-Luque, Emanuel; Galván, Aurora; Fernández, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Nitrate assimilation in plants and related organisms is a highly regulated and conserved pathway in which the enzyme nitrate reductase (NR) occupies a central position. Although some progress has been made in understanding the regulation of the protein, transcriptional regulation of the NR gene (NIA1) is poorly understood. This work describes a mechanism for the ammonium-mediated repression of NIA1. We report the characterization of a mutant defective in the repression of NIA1 and NR in response to ammonium and show that a gene (CYG56) coding for a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent guanylate cyclase (GC) was interrupted in this mutant. NO donors, cGMP analogs, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), and a calcium ionophore (A23187) repress the expression of NIA1 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii wild-type cells and also repress the expression of other ammonium-sensitive genes. In addition, the GC inhibitors LY83,583 (6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione) and ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one) release cells from ammonium repression. Intracellular NO and cGMP levels were increased in the presence of ammonium in wild-type cells. In the cyg56 mutant, NIA1 transcription was less sensitive to NO donors and A23187, but responded like the wild type to IBMX. Results presented here suggest that CYG56 participates in ammonium-mediated NIA1 repression through a pathway that involves NO, cGMP, and calcium and that similar mechanisms might be occurring in plants. PMID:20442374

  13. Promoter activity of the 5'-flanking regions of medaka fish soluble guanylate cyclase alpha1 and beta1 subunit genes.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takehiro; Suzuki, Norio

    2002-01-01

    We examined the spatial expression pattern of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) soluble guanylate cyclase alpha(1) and beta(1) subunit genes, OlGCS-alpha(1) and OlGCS-beta(1), and characterized the 5'-flanking region required for expression of both genes by introducing various promoter-luciferase fusion-gene constructs into COS-1 cells and medaka fish embryos. The OlGCS-alpha(1) and OlGCS-beta(1) gene transcripts were detected in whole brain and kidney in 7-day and 9-day embryos. Primer-extension analysis demonstrated that there were no differences among various adult organs (brain, eye, kidney, ovary and testis) in the transcription start site of the OlGCS-alpha(1) and OlGCS-beta(1) genes. Neither gene contained the functional TATA box within its 5'-flanking region, and the basal promoter activity was found between nucleotides +33 and +42 in the OlGCS-alpha(1) gene and between nucleotides +146 and +155 in the OlGCS-beta(1) gene. In the assay of medaka fish embryos, the 5'-flanking region of the OlGCS-beta(1) gene exhibited lower promoter activity than that of the OlGCS-alpha(1) gene. In the experiments on dual-luciferase fusion-gene constructs, the 5'-flanking region of the OlGCS-alpha(1) gene connected to the 5'-flanking region of the OlGCS-beta(1) gene was introduced into medaka fish embryos, and the 5'-flanking regions of both subunit genes were shown to mutually influence each other's promoter activity. PMID:11772405

  14. Effects of age and sex on the pharmacokinetics of the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator riociguat (BAY 63-2521)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Riociguat is a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the pharmacokinetics of riociguat and its metabolite M1 in young (18–45 years) and elderly (64.5–80 years) healthy volunteers of both sexes to assist planning of the dose regimens for clinical trials. The data were also used to draw comparisons with the effects of age and sex on riociguat pharmacokinetics in patients with PAH and CTEPH from the riociguat phase 3 trials, PATENT and CHEST. Volunteers received an oral dose of either riociguat 2.5 mg or placebo, and the concentrations of riociguat and M1 in blood and urine samples were determined using mass spectrometry. In elderly healthy volunteers, overall riociguat and M1 exposure tended to be higher than in young healthy volunteers (P > 0.05), partly because of reduced renal clearance (approximately 28% reduction) and differences in body weight. Although the mean maximum concentrations of riociguat and M1 were significantly higher in women than in men (35% and 50% higher, respectively), total exposure was similar. Despite differences in riociguat and M1 pharmacokinetics, riociguat was well tolerated with a comparable safety profile across all subgroups, suggesting that differences in drug exposure due to age or sex were not sufficient to warrant a dose adjustment in clinical trials. Furthermore, similar pharmacokinetics were observed in patients with PAH and CTEPH. However, particular care should be exercised during individual dose titration of riociguat in elderly patients. PMID:27162629

  15. Androgen-sensitive hypertension associated with soluble guanylate cyclase-α1 deficiency is mediated by 20-HETE.

    PubMed

    Dordea, Ana C; Vandenwijngaert, Sara; Garcia, Victor; Tainsh, Robert E T; Nathan, Daniel I; Allen, Kaitlin; Raher, Michael J; Tainsh, Laurel T; Zhang, Fan; Lieb, Wolfgang S; Mikelman, Sarah; Kirby, Andrew; Stevens, Christine; Thoonen, Robrecht; Hindle, Allyson G; Sips, Patrick Y; Falck, John R; Daly, Mark J; Brouckaert, Peter; Bloch, Kenneth D; Bloch, Donald B; Malhotra, Rajeev; Schwartzman, Michal L; Buys, Emmanuel S

    2016-06-01

    Dysregulated nitric oxide (NO) signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension, a prevalent and often sex-specific risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We previously reported that mice deficient in the α1-subunit of the NO receptor soluble guanylate cyclase (sGCα1 (-/-) mice) display sex- and strain-specific hypertension: male but not female sGCα1 (-/-) mice are hypertensive on an 129S6 (S6) but not a C57BL6/J (B6) background. We aimed to uncover the genetic and molecular basis of the observed sex- and strain-specific blood pressure phenotype. Via linkage analysis, we identified a suggestive quantitative trait locus associated with elevated blood pressure in male sGCα1 (-/-)S6 mice. This locus encompasses Cyp4a12a, encoding the predominant murine synthase of the vasoconstrictor 20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). Renal expression of Cyp4a12a in mice was associated with genetic background, sex, and testosterone levels. In addition, 20-HETE levels were higher in renal preglomerular microvessels of male sGCα1 (-/-)S6 than of male sGCα1 (-/-)B6 mice. Furthermore, treating male sGCα1 (-/-)S6 mice with the 20-HETE antagonist 20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid (20-HEDE) lowered blood pressure. Finally, 20-HEDE rescued the genetic background- and testosterone-dependent impairment of acetylcholine-induced relaxation in renal interlobar arteries associated with sGCα1 deficiency. Elevated Cyp4a12a expression and 20-HETE levels render mice susceptible to hypertension and vascular dysfunction in a setting of sGCα1 deficiency. Our data identify Cyp4a12a as a candidate sex-specific blood pressure-modifying gene in the context of deficient NO-sGC signaling. PMID:27199131

  16. Gastrointestinal pain: unraveling a novel endogenous pathway through uroguanylin/guanylate cyclase-C/cGMP activation.

    PubMed

    Silos-Santiago, Inmaculada; Hannig, Gerhard; Eutamene, Helene; Ustinova, Elena E; Bernier, Sylvie G; Ge, Pei; Graul, Christopher; Jacobson, Sarah; Jin, Hong; Liong, Elaine; Kessler, Marco M; Reza, Tammi; Rivers, Samuel; Shea, Courtney; Tchernychev, Boris; Bryant, Alexander P; Kurtz, Caroline B; Bueno, Lionel; Pezzone, Michael A; Currie, Mark G

    2013-09-01

    The natural hormone uroguanylin regulates intestinal fluid homeostasis and bowel function through activation of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C), resulting in increased intracellular cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP). We report the effects of uroguanylin-mediated activation of the GC-C/cGMP pathway in vitro on extracellular cGMP transport and in vivo in rat models of inflammation- and stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. In vitro exposure of intestinal Caco-2 cells to uroguanylin stimulated bidirectional, active extracellular transport of cGMP into luminal and basolateral spaces. cGMP transport was significantly and concentration dependently decreased by probenecid, an inhibitor of cGMP efflux pumps. In ex vivo Ussing chamber assays, uroguanylin stimulated cGMP secretion from the basolateral side of rat colonic epithelium into the submucosal space. In a rat model of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced visceral hypersensitivity, orally administered uroguanylin increased colonic thresholds required to elicit abdominal contractions in response to colorectal distension (CRD). Oral administration of cGMP mimicked the antihyperalgesic effects of uroguanylin, significantly decreasing TNBS- and restraint stress-induced visceromotor response to graded CRD in rats. The antihyperalgesic effects of cGMP were not associated with increased colonic spasmolytic activity, but were linked to significantly decreased firing rates of TNBS-sensitized colonic afferents in rats in response to mechanical stimuli. In conclusion, these data suggest that the continuous activation of the GC-C/cGMP pathway along the intestinal tract by the endogenous hormones guanylin and uroguanylin results in significant reduction of gastrointestinal pain. Extracellular cGMP produced on activation of GC-C is the primary mediator in this process via modulation of sensory afferent activity. PMID:23748116

  17. Vasorelaxant and antiplatelet activity of 4,7-dimethyl-1,2,5-oxadiazolo[3,4-d]pyridazine 1,5,6-trioxide: role of soluble guanylate cyclase, nitric oxide and thiols

    PubMed Central

    Kots, Alexander Ya; Grafov, Mikhail A; Khropov, Yuri V; Betin, Vasily L; Belushkina, Natalya N; Busygina, Olga G; Yazykova, Marina Yu; Ovchinnikov, Igor V; Kulikov, Alexander S; Makhova, Nina N; Medvedeva, Natalya A; Bulargina, Tamara V; Severina, Irina S

    2000-01-01

    Certain heterocyclic N-oxides are vasodilators and inhibitors of platelet aggregation. The pharmacological activity of the furoxan derivative condensed with pyridazine di-N-oxide 4,7-dimethyl-1,2,5-oxadiazolo[3,4-d]pyridazine 1,5,6-trioxide (FPTO) and the corresponding furazan (FPDO) was studied. FPTO reacted with thiols generating nitrite (NO), S-nitrosoglutathione and hydroxylamine (nitroxyl) and converted oxyHb to metHb. FPDO did not generate detectable amounts of NO-like species but reacted with thiols and oxyHb. FPTO and FPDO haem-dependently stimulated the activity of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and this stimulation was inhibited by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) and by 0.1 mM dithiothreitol. FPTO relaxed noradrenaline-precontracted aortic rings and its concentration-response curve was biphasic (pIC50=9.03±0.13 and 5.85±0.06). FPDO was significantly less potent vasodilator (pIC50=5.19±0.14). The vasorelaxant activity of FPTO and FPDO was inhibited by ODQ. oxyHb significantly inhibited only FPTO-dependent relaxation. FPTO and FPDO were equipotent inhibitors of ADP-induced platelet aggregation (IC50=0.63±0.15 and 0.49±0.05 μM, respectively). The antiplatelet activity of FPTO (but not FPDO) was partially suppressed by oxyHb. The antiaggregatory effects of FPTO and FPDO were only partially blocked by sGC inhibitors. FPTO and FPDO (10–20 μM) significantly increased cyclic GMP levels in aortic rings and platelets and this increase was blocked by ODQ. Thus, FPTO can generate NO and, like FPDO, reacts with thiols and haem. The vasorelaxant activity of FPTO and FPDO is sGC-dependent and a predominant role is played by NO at FPTO concentrations below 1 μM. On the contrary, inhibition of platelet aggregation is only partially related to sGC activation. PMID:10725265

  18. Vasorelaxant and antiplatelet activity of 4,7-dimethyl-1,2, 5-oxadiazolo[3,4-d]pyridazine 1,5,6-trioxide: role of soluble guanylate cyclase, nitric oxide and thiols.

    PubMed

    Kots, A Y; Grafov, M A; Khropov, Y V; Betin, V L; Belushkina, N N; Busygina, O G; Yazykova, M Y; Ovchinnikov, I V; Kulikov, A S; Makhova, N N; Medvedeva, N A; Bulargina, T V; Severina, I S

    2000-03-01

    1. Certain heterocyclic N-oxides are vasodilators and inhibitors of platelet aggregation. The pharmacological activity of the furoxan derivative condensed with pyridazine di-N-oxide 4,7-dimethyl-1,2, 5-oxadiazolo[3,4-d]pyridazine 1,5,6-trioxide (FPTO) and the corresponding furazan (FPDO) was studied. 2. FPTO reacted with thiols generating nitrite (NO), S-nitrosoglutathione and hydroxylamine (nitroxyl) and converted oxyHb to metHb. FPDO did not generate detectable amounts of NO-like species but reacted with thiols and oxyHb. 3. FPTO and FPDO haem-dependently stimulated the activity of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and this stimulation was inhibited by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) and by 0.1 mM dithiothreitol. 4. FPTO relaxed noradrenaline-precontracted aortic rings and its concentration-response curve was biphasic (pIC(50)=9. 03+/-0.13 and 5.85+/-0.06). FPDO was significantly less potent vasodilator (pIC(50)=5.19+/-0.14). The vasorelaxant activity of FPTO and FPDO was inhibited by ODQ. oxyHb significantly inhibited only FPTO-dependent relaxation. 5. FPTO and FPDO were equipotent inhibitors of ADP-induced platelet aggregation (IC(50)=0.63+/-0.15 and 0.49+/-0. 05 microM, respectively). The antiplatelet activity of FPTO (but not FPDO) was partially suppressed by oxyHb. The antiaggregatory effects of FPTO and FPDO were only partially blocked by sGC inhibitors. 6. FPTO and FPDO (10 - 20 microM) significantly increased cyclic GMP levels in aortic rings and platelets and this increase was blocked by ODQ. 7. Thus, FPTO can generate NO and, like FPDO, reacts with thiols and haem. The vasorelaxant activity of FPTO and FPDO is sGC-dependent and a predominant role is played by NO at FPTO concentrations below 1 microM. On the contrary, inhibition of platelet aggregation is only partially related to sGC activation. PMID:10725265

  19. The process of S-nitrosation in sGC β1(1-194) revealed by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Dandan; Xu, Haoran; Mi, Mengdan; Li, Zhengqiang

    2015-06-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the most important receptor for the signaling molecule NO. NO activates sGC by binding to its heme cofactor and reacts with free thiols in the protein itself. The S-nitrosation of cysteine thiols affects the activity of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). In this study, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis were used to investigate S-H vibration and the process of S-nitrosation in the β1 subunit (amino acids 1-194) of sGC. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed that wild-type and mutants (C78S and C122S) of sGC β1(1-194) exhibited S-H peaks around 2560 cm-1. The signals were attenuated in the IR spectra of S-nitrosoglutathione-treated mutants, demonstrating that S-nitrosation in sGC β1(1-194) occured at residues C78 and C122, and the process of the reaction was GSNO concentration-dependent.

  20. Plecanatide and dolcanatide, novel guanylate cyclase-C agonists, ameliorate gastrointestinal inflammation in experimental models of murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Shailubhai, Kunwar; Palejwala, Vaseem; Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Saykhedkar, Sayali; Nefsky, Bradley; Foss, John A; Comiskey, Stephen; Jacob, Gary S; Plevy, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of orally administered plecanatide or dolcanatide, analogs of uroguanylin, on amelioration of colitis in murine models. METHODS: The cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) stimulatory potency of plecanatide and dolcanatide was measured using a human colon carcinoma T84 cell-based assay. For animal studies all test agents were formulated in phosphate buffered saline. Sulfasalazine or 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA) served as positive controls. Effect of oral treatment with test agents on amelioration of acute colitis induced either by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water or by rectal instillation of trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS) acid, was examined in BALB/c and/or BDF1 mice. Additionally, the effect of orally administered plecanatide on the spontaneous colitis in T-cell receptor alpha knockout (TCRα-/-) mice was also examined. Amelioration of colitis was assessed by monitoring severity of colitis, disease activity index and by histopathology. Frozen colon tissues were used to measure myeloperoxidase activity. RESULTS: Plecanatide and dolcanatide are structurally related analogs of uroguanylin, which is an endogenous ligand of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C). As expected from the agonists of GC-C, both plecanatide and dolcanatide exhibited potent cGMP-stimulatory activity in T84 cells. Once-daily treatment by oral gavage with either of these analogs (0.05-0.5 mg/kg) ameliorated colitis in both DSS and TNBS-induced models of acute colitis, as assessed by body weight, reduction in colitis severity (P < 0.05) and disease activity index (P < 0.05). Amelioration of colitis by either of the drug candidates was comparable to that achieved by orally administered sulfasalazine or 5-ASA. Plecanatide also effectively ameliorated colitis in TCRα-/- mice, a model of spontaneous colitis. As dolcanatide exhibited higher resistance to proteolysis in simulated gastric and intestinal juices, it was selected for further studies. CONCLUSION: This is

  1. Discovery of IWP-051, a Novel Orally Bioavailable sGC Stimulator with Once-Daily Dosing Potential in Humans.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Takashi; Perl, Nicholas R; Barden, Timothy C; Carvalho, Andrew; Fretzen, Angelika; Germano, Peter; Im, G-Yoon J; Jin, Hong; Kim, Charles; Lee, Thomas W-H; Long, Kimberly; Moore, Joel; Rohde, Jason M; Sarno, Renee; Segal, Chrissie; Solberg, Erik O; Tobin, Jenny; Zimmer, Daniel P; Currie, Mark G

    2016-05-12

    In recent years, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC, EC 4.6.1.2) has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for treating cardiovascular diseases and diseases associated with fibrosis and end-organ failure. Herein, we describe our design and synthesis of a series of 4-hydroxypyrimidine sGC stimulators starting with an internally discovered lead. Our efforts have led to the discovery of IWP-051, a molecule that achieves good alignment of potency, stability, selectivity, and pharmacodynamic effects while maintaining favorable pharmacokinetic properties with once-daily dosing potential in humans. PMID:27190594

  2. GLOBIN-5-Dependent O2 Responses Are Regulated by PDL-1/PrBP That Targets Prenylated Soluble Guanylate Cyclases to Dendritic Endings

    PubMed Central

    Soltesz, Zoltan; Oda, Shigekazu; Zelmanovich, Veronica; Abergel, Zohar

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic animals constantly monitor and adapt to changes in O2 levels. The molecular mechanisms involved in sensing O2 are, however, incompletely understood. Previous studies showed that a hexacoordinated globin called GLB-5 tunes the dynamic range of O2-sensing neurons in natural C. elegans isolates, but is defective in the N2 lab reference strain (McGrath et al., 2009; Persson et al., 2009). GLB-5 enables a sharp behavioral switch when O2 changes between 21 and 17%. Here, we show that GLB-5 also confers rapid behavioral and cellular recovery from exposure to hypoxia. Hypoxia reconfigures O2-evoked Ca2+ responses in the URX O2 sensors, and GLB-5 enables rapid recovery of these responses upon re-oxygenation. Forward genetic screens indicate that GLB-5's effects on O2 sensing require PDL-1, the C. elegans ortholog of mammalian PrBP/PDE6δ protein. In mammals, PDE6δ regulates the traffic and activity of prenylated proteins (Zhang et al., 2004; Norton et al., 2005). PDL-1 promotes localization of GCY-33 and GCY-35, atypical soluble guanylate cyclases that act as O2 sensors, to the dendritic endings of URX and BAG neurons, where they colocalize with GLB-5. Both GCY-33 and GCY-35 are predicted to be prenylated. Dendritic localization is not essential for GCY-35 to function as an O2 sensor, but disrupting pdl-1 alters the URX neuron's O2 response properties. Functional GLB-5 can restore dendritic localization of GCY-33 in pdl-1 mutants, suggesting GCY-33 and GLB-5 are in a complex. Our data suggest GLB-5 and the soluble guanylate cyclases operate in close proximity to sculpt O2 responses. PMID:25505325

  3. AAV-Mediated Gene Therapy in the Guanylate Cyclase (RetGC1/RetGC2) Double Knockout Mouse Model of Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    PubMed Central

    Boye, Sanford L.; Peshenko, Igor V.; Huang, Wei Chieh; Min, Seok Hong; McDoom, Issam; Kay, Christine N.; Liu, Xuan; Dyka, Frank M.; Foster, Thomas C.; Umino, Yumiko; Karan, Sukanya; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Baehr, Wolfgang; Dizhoor, Alexander; Hauswirth, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in GUCY2D are associated with recessive Leber congenital amaurosis-1 (LCA1). GUCY2D encodes photoreceptor-specific, retinal guanylate cyclase-1 (RetGC1). Reports of retinal degeneration in LCA1 are conflicting; some describe no obvious degeneration and others report loss of both rods and cones. Proof of concept studies in models representing the spectrum of phenotypes is warranted. We have previously demonstrated adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated RetGC1 is therapeutic in GC1ko mice, a model exhibiting loss of cones only. The purpose of this study was to characterize AAV-mediated gene therapy in the RetGC1/RetGC2 double knockout (GCdko) mouse, a model lacking rod and cone function and exhibiting progressive loss of both photoreceptor subclasses. Use of this model also allowed for the evaluation of the functional efficiency of transgenic RetGC1 isozyme. Subretinal delivery of AAV8(Y733F) vector containing the human rhodopsin kinase (hGRK1) promoter driving murine Gucy2e was performed in GCdko mice at various postnatal time points. Treatment resulted in restoration of rod and cone function at all treatment ages and preservation of retinal structure in GCdko mice treated as late as 7 weeks of age. Functional gains and structural preservation were stable for at least 1 year. Treatment also conferred cortical- and subcortical-based visually-guided behavior. Functional efficiency of transgenic RetGC1 was indistinguishable from that of endogenous isozyme in congenic wild-type (WT) mice. This study clearly demonstrates AAV-mediated RetGC1 expression restores function to and preserves structure of rod and cone photoreceptors in a degenerative model of retinal guanylate cyclase deficiency, further supporting development of an AAV-based vector for treatment of LCA1. PMID:23210611

  4. A Novel Mutation (I143NT) in Guanylate Cyclase-Activating Protein 1 (GCAP1) Associated with Autosomal Dominant Cone Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nishiguchi, Koji M.; Sokal, Izabela; Yang, Lili; Roychowdhury, Nirmalya; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Berson, Eliot L.; Dryja, Thaddeus P.; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE. To identify pathogenic mutations in the guanylate cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP1) and GCAP2 genes and to characterize the biochemical effect of mutation on guanylate cyclase (GC) stimulation. METHODS. The GCAP1 and GCAP2 genes were screened by direct sequencing for mutations in 216 patients and 421 patients, respectively, with various hereditary retinal diseases. A mutation in GCAP1 segregating with autosomal dominant cone degeneration was further evaluated biochemically by employing recombinant proteins, immunoblotting, Ca2+-dependent stimulation of GC, fluorescence emission spectra, and limited proteolysis in the absence and presence of Ca2+. RESULTS. A novel GCAP1 mutation, I143NT (substitution of Ile at codon 143 by Asn and Thr), affecting the EF4 Ca2+-binding loop, was identified in a heterozygote father and son with autosomal dominant cone degeneration. Both patients had much greater loss of cone function versus rod function; previous histopathologic evaluation of the father's eyes at autopsy (age 75 years) showed no foveal cones but a few, scattered cones remaining in the peripheral retina. Biochemical analysis showed that the GCAP1-I143NT mutant adopted a conformation susceptible to proteolysis, and the mutant inhibited GC only partially at high Ca2+ concentrations. Individual patients with atypical or recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) had additional heterozygous GCAP1-T114I and GCAP2 gene changes (V85M and F150C) of unknown pathogenicity. CONCLUSIONS. A novel GCAP1 mutation, I143NT, caused a form of autosomal dominant cone degeneration that destroys foveal cones by mid-life but spares some cones in the peripheral retina up to 75 years. Properties of the GCAP1-I143NT mutant protein suggested that it is incompletely inactivated by high Ca2+ concentrations as should occur with dark adaptation. The continued activity of the mutant GCAP1 likely results in higher-than-normal scotopic cGMP levels which may, in turn, account for the progressive

  5. The opposing effects of calmodulin, adenosine 5 prime -triphosphate, and pertussis toxin on phorbol ester induced inhibition of atrial natriuretic factor stimulated guanylate cyclase in SK-NEP-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiya, M.; Frohlich, E.D.; Cole, F.E. )

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of calmodulin, adenosine 5{prime}-triphosphate (ATP) and pertussis toxin (PT) on phorbol ester (PMA) induced inhibition of ANF-stimulated cyclic GMP formation in cells from the human renal cell line, SK-NEP-1. PMA inhibited ANF-stimulated guanylate cyclase activity in particulate membranes by about 65%. Calmodulin reversed this inhibition in a dose dependent manner. ATP potentiated Mg++ but not Mn++ supported guanylate cyclase activity. In PMA treated membranes, ATP potentiating effects were abolished. PMA also inhibited ANF-stimulated cGMP accumulation, but pretreatment with PT prevented this PMA inhibition. PT did not affect basal or ANF-stimulated cGMP accumulation. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that PMA inhibited ANF stimulation of particulate guanylate cyclase in opposition to the activating effects of calmodulin or ATP in SK-NEP-1 cells. The protein kinase C inhibitory effects appeared to be mediated via a PT-sensitive G protein.

  6. Internalization and trafficking of guanylyl (guanylate) cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor A is regulated by an acidic tyrosine-based cytoplasmic motif GDAY

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.; Nguyen, Huong T.; Garg, Renu; Khurana, Madan L.; Fink, Jude

    2004-01-01

    We have identified a GDAY motif in the C-terminal domain of guanylyl cyclase (guanylate cyclase)/NPRA (natriuretic peptide receptor A) sequence, which serves a dual role as an internalization signal and a recycling signal. To delineate the role of the GDAY motif in receptor internalization and sequestration, we mutated Gly920, Asp921 and Tyr923 to alanine residues (GDAY/AAAA) in the NPRA cDNA sequence. The cDNAs encoding wild-type and mutant receptors were transfected in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells). The internalization studies of ligand–receptor complexes revealed that endocytosis of 125I-ANP by HEK-293 cells expressing G920A, Y923A or GDAY/AAAA mutant receptor was decreased by almost 50% (P<0.001) when compared with cells expressing the wild-type receptor. However, the effect of D921A mutation on receptor internalization was minimal. Ligand-mediated down-regulation of G920A, Y923A and GDAY/AAAA mutant receptors was decreased by 35–40% when compared with wild-type NPRA. Subsequently, the recycling of internalized D921A and GDAY/AAAA mutant receptors from the intracellular pool was decreased by more than 40±4% when compared with wild-type NPRA. Recycling of G920A and Y923A mutant receptors was also decreased, but to a significantly lesser extent compared with the D921A or GDAY/AAAA mutant receptors. We conclude that the Gly920 and Tyr923 residues within the GDAY consensus motif are necessary for internalization, and that residue Asp921 is important for recycling of NPRA. The current results provide new evidence for a dual role of the GDAY sequence motif in ligand-mediated internalization, recycling and down-regulation of a single-transmembrane receptor protein NPRA. PMID:15574117

  7. Anti-Cdc25 antibodies inhibit guanyl nucleotide-dependent adenylyl cyclase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and cross-react with a 150-kilodalton mammalian protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, E; Marbach, I; Engelberg, D; Segal, M; Simchen, G; Levitzki, A

    1992-01-01

    The CDC25 gene product of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown to be a positive regulator of the Ras protein. The high degree of homology between yeast RAS and the mammalian proto-oncogene ras suggests a possible resemblance between the mammalian regulator of Ras and the regulator of the yeast Ras (Cdc25). On the basis of this assumption, we have raised antibodies against the conserved C-terminal domain of the Cdc25 protein in order to identify its mammalian homologs. Anti-Cdc25 antibodies raised against a beta-galactosidase-Cdc25 fusion protein were purified by immunoaffinity chromatography and were shown by immunoblotting to specifically recognize the Cdc25 portion of the antigen and a truncated Cdc25 protein, also expressed in bacteria. These antibodies were shown both by immunoblotting and by immunoprecipitation to recognize the CDC25 gene product in wild-type strains and in strains overexpressing Cdc25. The anti-Cdc25 antibodies potently inhibited the guanyl nucleotide-dependent and, approximately 3-fold less potently, the Mn(2+)-dependent adenylyl cyclase activity in S. cerevisiae. The anti-Cdc25 antibodies do not inhibit cyclase activity in a strain harboring RAS2Val-19 and lacking the CDC25 gene product. These results support the view that Cdc25, Ras2, and Cdc35/Cyr1 proteins are associated in a complex. Using these antibodies, we were able to define the conditions to completely solubilize the Cdc25 protein. The results suggest that the Cdc25 protein is tightly associated with the membrane but is not an intrinsic membrane protein, since only EDTA at pH 12 can solubilize the protein. The anti-Cdc25 antibodies strongly cross-reacted with the C-terminal domain of the Cdc25 yeast homolog, Sdc25. Most interestingly, these antibodies also cross-reacted with mammalian proteins of approximately 150 kDa from various tissues of several species of animals. These interactions were specifically blocked by the beta-galactosidase-Cdc25 fusion protein. Images

  8. Assessment of the effects of hepatic impairment and smoking on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator riociguat (BAY 63-2521)

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Corina; Unger, Sigrun; Schmidt, Anja; Wensing, Georg; Mück, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Riociguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator developed for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, is metabolized in part by the liver. Expression of one of the metabolizing enzymes, CYP1A1, is induced by aromatic hydrocarbons in tobacco smoke. Two nonrandomized, nonblinded studies were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics of riociguat in individuals with mild (Child-Pugh A) or moderate (Child-Pugh B) hepatic impairment associated with liver cirrhosis compared with that in age-, weight-, and sex-matched healthy controls: study 1 included smokers and nonsmokers, and study 2 included nonsmokers only. Data from these studies were integrated for analysis. All participants (N = 64) received a single oral dose of riociguat 1.0 mg. Riociguat exposure was significantly higher in individuals with Child-Pugh B hepatic impairment than in healthy controls (ratio: 153% [90% confidence interval: 103%–228%]) but was similar in those with Child-Pugh A hepatic impairment and controls. The half-life of the riociguat metabolite M1 was prolonged in patients with Child-Pugh B or A hepatic impairment compared with that in controls by approximately 43% and 24%, respectively. Impaired hepatic function was associated with higher riociguat exposure in nonsmokers compared with the population of smokers and nonsmokers combined. Riociguat’s safety profile was similar in individuals with impaired or normal liver function. In conclusion, moderate hepatic impairment was associated with increased riociguat exposure compared with that in controls, probably as a result of reduced clearance of the metabolite M1. This suggests that dose titration of riociguat should be administered with particular care in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. PMID:27162628

  9. MRP4 Modulation of the Guanylate Cyclase-C/cGMP Pathway: Effects on Linaclotide-Induced Electrolyte Secretion and cGMP Efflux.

    PubMed

    Tchernychev, Boris; Ge, Pei; Kessler, Marco M; Solinga, Robert M; Wachtel, Derek; Tobin, Jenny V; Thomas, Sara R; Lunte, Craig E; Fretzen, Angelika; Hannig, Gerhard; Bryant, Alexander P; Kurtz, Caroline B; Currie, Mark G; Silos-Santiago, Inmaculada

    2015-10-01

    MRP4 mediates the efflux of cGMP and cAMP and acts as an important regulator of these secondary messengers, thereby affecting signaling events mediated by cGMP and cAMP. Immunofluorescence staining showed high MRP4 expression localized predominantly in the apical membrane of rat colonic epithelium. In vitro studies were performed using a rat colonic mucosal layer mounted in an Ussing chamber. Linaclotide activation of the guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C)/cGMP pathway induced a concentration-dependent increase in transepithelial ion current [short-circuit current (Isc)] across rat colonic mucosa (EC50: 9.2 nM). Pretreatment of colonic mucosa with the specific MRP4 inhibitor MK571 potentiated linaclotide-induced electrolyte secretion and augmented linaclotide-stimulated intracellular cGMP accumulation. Notably, pretreatment with the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil increased basal Isc, but had no amplifying effect on linaclotide-induced Isc. MRP4 inhibition selectively affected the activation phase, but not the deactivation phase, of linaclotide. In contrast, incubation with a GC-C/Fc chimera binding to linaclotide abrogated linaclotide-induced Isc, returning to baseline. Furthermore, linaclotide activation of GC-C induced cGMP secretion from the apical and basolateral membranes of colonic epithelium. MRP4 inhibition blocked cGMP efflux from the apical membrane, but not the basolateral membrane. These data reveal a novel, previously unrecognized mechanism that functionally couples GC-C-induced luminal electrolyte transport and cGMP secretion to spatially restricted, compartmentalized regulation by MRP4 at the apical membrane of intestinal epithelium. These findings have important implications for gastrointestinal disorders with symptoms associated with dysregulated fluid homeostasis, such as irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, chronic idiopathic constipation, and secretory diarrhea. PMID:26216942

  10. Trpc2-expressing sensory neurons in the mouse main olfactory epithelium of type B express the soluble guanylate cyclase Gucy1b2.

    PubMed

    Omura, Masayo; Mombaerts, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Chemoreception in the mouse olfactory system occurs primarily at two chemosensory epithelia in the nasal cavity: the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal epithelium. The canonical chemosensory neurons in the MOE, the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), express the odorant receptor (OR) gene repertoire, and depend on Adcy3 and Cnga2 for chemosensory signal transduction. The canonical chemosensory neurons in the vomeronasal epithelium, the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs), express two unrelated vomeronasal receptor (VR) gene repertoires, and involve Trpc2 for chemosensory signal transduction. Recently we reported the discovery of two types of neurons in the mouse MOE that express Trcp2 in addition to Cnga2. These cell types can be distinguished at the single-cell level by expression of Adcy3: positive, type A and negative, type B. Some type A cells express OR genes. Thus far there is no specific gene or marker for type B cells, hampering further analyses such as physiological recordings. Here, we show that among MOE cells, type B cells are unique in their expression of the soluble guanylate cyclase Gucy1b2. We came across Gucy1b2 in an explorative approach based on Long Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (LongSAGE) that we applied to single red-fluorescent cells isolated from whole olfactory mucosa and vomeronasal organ of mice of a novel Trcp2-IRES-taumCherry gene-targeted strain. The generation of a novel Gucy1b2-IRES-tauGFP gene-targeted strain enabled us to visualize coalescence of axons of type B cells into glomeruli in the main olfactory bulb. Our molecular and anatomical analyses define Gucy1b2 as a marker for type B cells within the MOE. The Gucy1b2-IRES-tauGFP strain will be useful for physiological, molecular, cellular, and anatomical studies of this newly described chemosensory subsystem. PMID:25701815

  11. Assessment of the effects of renal impairment and smoking on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator riociguat (BAY 63-2521)

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Corina; Unger, Sigrun; Schmidt, Anja; Wensing, Georg; Mück, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Renal impairment is a common comborbidity in patients with pulmonary hypertension. The breakdown of riociguat, an oral soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator used to treat pulmonary hypertension, may be affected by smoking because polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tobacco smoke induce expression of one of the metabolizing enzymes, CYP1A1. Two nonrandomized, nonblinded studies were therefore performed to investigate the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single oral dose of riociguat 1.0 mg in individuals with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment compared with age-, weight-, and sex-matched healthy controls, including either smokers and nonsmokers (study I) or nonsmokers alone (study II). Pharmacokinetic analyses focused on the integrated per-protocol data set of both studies (N = 63). In patients with renal impairment, the renal clearance of riociguat was reduced and its terminal half-life prolonged compared with those in healthy controls. There was a monotonic relationship between creatinine clearance on treatment day and riociguat renal clearance (R2 = 0.62). However, increased riociguat exposure with decreasing renal function was not strictly proportional. Riociguat exposure appeared to be greater in nonsmokers than in the combined population of smokers and nonsmokers, irrespective of renal function. Adverse events were mild to moderate and in line with the mode of action of riociguat. No serious adverse events occurred. In conclusion, renal impairment was associated with reduced riociguat clearance compared with that in controls; however, riociguat exposure in patients with renal impairment was highly variable, and ranges overlapped with those observed in healthy controls. PMID:27162624

  12. Allostery in Recombinant Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase from Manduca sexta*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaohui; Murata, Lauren B.; Weichsel, Andrzej; Brailey, Jacqueline L.; Roberts, Sue A.; Nighorn, Alan; Montfort, William R.

    2008-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl/guanylate cyclase (sGC), the primary biological receptor for nitric oxide, is required for proper development and health in all animals. We have expressed heterodimeric full-length and N-terminal fragments of Manduca sexta sGC in Escherichia coli, the first time this has been accomplished for any sGC, and have performed the first functional analyses of an insect sGC. Manduca sGC behaves much like its mammalian counterparts, displaying a 170-fold stimulation by NO and sensitivity to compound YC-1. YC-1 reduces the NO and CO off-rates for the ∼100-kDa N-terminal heterodimeric fragment and increases the CO affinity by ∼50-fold to 1.7 μm. Binding of NO leads to a transient six-coordinate intermediate, followed by release of the proximal histidine to yield a five-coordinate nitrosyl complex (k6-5 = 12.8 s-1). The conversion rate is insensitive to nucleotides, YC-1, and changes in NO concentration up to ∼30 μm. NO release is biphasic in the absence of YC-1 (koff1 = 0.10 s-1 and koff2 = 0.0015 s-1); binding of YC-1 eliminates the fast phase but has little effect on the slower phase. Our data are consistent with a model for allosteric activation in which sGC undergoes a simple switch between two conformations, with an open or a closed heme pocket, integrating the influence of numerous effectors to give the final catalytic rate. Importantly, YC-1 binding occurs in the N-terminal two-thirds of the protein. Homology modeling and mutagenesis experiments suggest the presence of an H-NOX domain in the α subunit with importance for heme binding. PMID:18515359

  13. Direct sGC Activation Bypasses NO Scavenging Reactions of Intravascular Free Oxy-Hemoglobin and Limits Vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Tabima, D. Marcela; Specht, Patricia A.C.; Tejero, Jesús; Champion, Hunter C.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Baust, Jeff; Mik, Egbert G.; Hildesheim, Mariana; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Becker, Eva-Maria; Truebel, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC) provide a potential alternative to red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Their clinical application has been limited by adverse effects, in large part thought to be mediated by the intravascular scavenging of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) by cell-free plasma oxy-hemoglobin. Free hemoglobin may also cause endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation in hemolytic diseases and after transfusion of aged stored RBCs. The new soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator Bay 41-8543 and sGC activator Bay 60-2770 directly modulate sGC, independent of NO bioavailability, providing a potential therapeutic mechanism to bypass hemoglobin-mediated NO inactivation. Results: Infusions of human hemoglobin solutions and the HBOC Oxyglobin into rats produced a severe hypertensive response, even at low plasma heme concentrations approaching 10 μM. These reactions were only observed for ferrous oxy-hemoglobin and not analogs that do not rapidly scavenge NO. Infusions of L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a competitive NO synthase inhibitor, after hemoglobin infusion did not produce additive vasoconstriction, suggesting that vasoconstriction is related to scavenging of vascular NO. Open-chest hemodynamic studies confirmed that hypertension occurred secondary to direct effects on increasing vascular resistance, with limited negative cardiac inotropic effects. Intravascular hemoglobin reduced the vasodilatory potency of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and sildenafil, but had no effect on vasodilatation by direct NO-independent activation of sGC by BAY 41-8543 and BAY 60-2770. Innovation and Conclusion: These data suggest that both sGC stimulators and sGC activators could be used to restore cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent vasodilation in conditions where cell-free plasma hemoglobin is sufficient to inhibit endogenous NO signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 2232–2243. PMID:23697678

  14. The regulation of sGC on the rat model of neuropathic pain is mediated by 5-HT1ARs and NO/cGMP pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zifeng; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Jianhai; Zheng, Jijian

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate management of neuropathic pain results in poor clinical outcomes and reduces quality of life for the patient all over the world, but intricate interplay between wide variety of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and progression of neuropathic pain makes it difficult to design effective therapeutic strategies. The present study aims to elucidate the interaction of 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1ARs), soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and NO/cGMP signaling pathway in the development of neuropathic pain. The results showed that after sciatic nerve crush procedure, the protein level of sGC in the spinal cord was greatly increased. The mechanical threshold in rats was significantly enhanced by the sGC inhibitor ODQ and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) inhibitor SMTC, indicating the role of sGC and nNOS in the process of neuropathic pain. The treatment of NO donors (SNP and SIN-1) and cGMP-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor (Zaprinast) all significantly decreased the mechanical threshold in rats, but the 5-HT1ARs inhibitor WAY100635 significantly increased the mechanical threshold in rats, demonstrating the role of NO/cGMP pathway and 5-HT1ARs in the development of neuropathic pain. Finally, the protein levels of sGC was greatly increased by SNP and Zaprinast but decreased by WAY100635 and SMTC, showing the regulation of NO/cGMP pathway and 5-HT1ARs on the protein expression of sGC. Taken together, it is suggested that sGC in the spinal cord regulates the neuropathic pain, which is mediated by 5-HT1ARs and NO/cGMP pathway. PMID:27158388

  15. The vasodilatory effect of sulfur dioxide via SGC/cGMP/PKG pathway in association with sulfhydryl-dependent dimerization.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qiuyu; Huang, Yaqian; Liu, Angie Dong; Zhu, Mingzhu; Liu, Jia; Yan, Hui; Zhang, Qingyou; Geng, Bin; Gao, Yuansheng; Du, Shuxu; Huang, Pan; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-06-01

    The present study was designed to explore the role of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/PKG pathway in sulfur dioxide (SO2)-induced vasodilation. We showed that SO2 induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine (PE)-precontracted rat aortic rings in association with an increase in cGMP concentration, whereas l-aspartic acid β-hydroxamate (HDX), an inhibitor of SO2 synthase, contracted rings in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of aortic rings with the sGC inhibitor ODQ (30 μM) attenuated the vasodilatory effects of SO2, suggesting the involvement of cGMP pathway in SO2-induced vasodilation. Mechanistically, SO2 upregulated the protein levels of sGC and PKG dimers, while HDX inhibited it, indicating SO2 could promote cGMP synthesis through sGC activation. Furthermore, the dimerization of sGC and PKG and vasodilation induced by SO2 in precontracted rings were significantly prevented by thiol reductants dithiothreitol (DTT). In addition, SO2 reduced the activity of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), a cGMP-specific hydrolytic enzyme, implying that SO2 elevated cGMP concentration by inhibiting its hydrolysis. Hence, SO2 exerted its vasodilatory effects at least partly by promoting disulfide-dependent dimerization of sGC and PKG, resulting in an activated sGC/cGMP/PKG pathway in blood vessels. These findings revealed a new mode of action and mechanisms by which SO2 regulated the vascular tone. PMID:27009048

  16. YC-1 BINDING TO THE BETA SUBUNIT OF SOLUBLE GUANYLYL CYCLASE OVERCOMES ALLOSTERIC INHIBITION BY THE ALPHA SUBUNIT

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Rahul; Fritz, Bradley G.; The, Juliana; Issaian, Aaron; Weichsel, Andrzej; David, Cynthia L.; Campbell, Eric; Hausrath, Andrew C.; Rassouli-Taylor, Leida; Garcin, Elsa D.; Gage, Matthew J.; Montfort, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric heme protein and the primary nitric oxide receptor. NO binding stimulates cyclase activity, leading to regulation of cardiovascular physiology and making sGC an attractive target for drug discovery. YC-1 and related compounds stimulate sGC both independently and synergistically with NO and CO binding; however, where the compounds bind and how they work remains unknown. Using linked-equilibria binding measurements, surface plasmon resonance, and domain truncations in Manduca sexta and bovine sGC, we demonstrate that YC-1 binds near or directly to the heme-containing domain of the beta subunit. In the absence of CO, YC-1 binds with Kd = 9–21 μM, depending on construct. In the presence of CO, these values decrease to 0.6–1.1 μM. Pfizer compound 25 bound ~10-fold weaker than YC-1 in the absence of CO whereas compound BAY 41–2272 bound particularly tightly in the presence of CO (Kd = 30–90 nM). Additionally, we found that CO binding is much weaker to heterodimeric sGC proteins (Kd = 50–100 μM) than to the isolated heme domain (Kd = 0.2 μM for Manduca beta H-NOX/PAS). YC-1 greatly enhanced CO binding to heterodimeric sGC, as expected (Kd = ~1 μM). These data indicate the alpha subunit induces a heme pocket conformation with lower affinity for CO and NO. YC-1 family compounds bind near the heme domain, overcoming the alpha subunit effect and inducing a heme pocket conformation with high affinity. We propose this high-affinity conformation is required for the full-length protein to achieve high catalytic activity. PMID:24328155

  17. Human recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase: Expression, purification, and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Martin, Emil; Murad, Ferid

    2000-01-01

    The α1- and β1-subunits of human soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were coexpressed in the Sf9 cells/baculovirus system. In addition to the native enzyme, constructs with hexahistidine tag at the amino and carboxyl termini of each subunit were coexpressed. This permitted the rapid and efficient purification of active recombinant enzyme on a nickel-affinity column. The enzyme has one heme per heterodimer and was readily activated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′furyl)-1-benzyl-indazole (YC-1). Sodium nitroprusside and YC-1 treatment potentiated each other in combination and demonstrated a remarkable 2,200-fold stimulation of the human recombinant sGC. The effects were inhibited with 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1one (ODQ). The kinetics of the recombinant enzyme with respect to GTP was examined. The products of the reaction, cGMP and pyrophosphate, inhibited the enzyme. The extent of inhibition by cGMP depended on the activation state of the enzyme, whereas inhibition by pyrophosphate was not affected by the enzyme state. Both reaction products displayed independent binding and cooperativity with respect to enzyme inhibition. The expression of large quantities of active enzyme will facilitate structural characterization of the protein. PMID:10995472

  18. Human recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase: expression, purification, and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Martin, E.; Murad, F.

    2000-01-01

    The alpha1- and beta1-subunits of human soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were coexpressed in the Sf9 cells/baculovirus system. In addition to the native enzyme, constructs with hexahistidine tag at the amino and carboxyl termini of each subunit were coexpressed. This permitted the rapid and efficient purification of active recombinant enzyme on a nickel-affinity column. The enzyme has one heme per heterodimer and was readily activated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'furyl)-1-benzyl-indazole (YC-1). Sodium nitroprusside and YC-1 treatment potentiated each other in combination and demonstrated a remarkable 2,200-fold stimulation of the human recombinant sGC. The effects were inhibited with 1H-(1,2, 4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1one (ODQ). The kinetics of the recombinant enzyme with respect to GTP was examined. The products of the reaction, cGMP and pyrophosphate, inhibited the enzyme. The extent of inhibition by cGMP depended on the activation state of the enzyme, whereas inhibition by pyrophosphate was not affected by the enzyme state. Both reaction products displayed independent binding and cooperativity with respect to enzyme inhibition. The expression of large quantities of active enzyme will facilitate structural characterization of the protein.

  19. Endogenous occurrence of protein S-guanylation in Escherichia coli: Target identification and genetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Tsutsuki, Hiroyasu; Jung, Minkyung; Zhang, Tianli; Ono, Katsuhiko; Ida, Tomoaki; Kunieda, Kohei; Ihara, Hideshi; Akaike, Takaaki; Sawa, Tomohiro

    2016-09-01

    8-Nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP) is a nitrated cGMP derivative formed in response to nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). It can cause a post-translational modification (PTM) of protein thiols through cGMP adduction (protein S-guanylation). Accumulating evidence has suggested that, in mammals, S-guanylation of redox-sensor proteins may implicate in regulation of adaptive responses against ROS-associated oxidative stress. Occurrence as well as protein targets of S-guanylation in bacteria remained unknown, however. Here we demonstrated, for the first time, the endogenous occurrence of protein S-guanylation in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Western blotting using anti-S-guanylation antibody clearly showed that multiple proteins were S-guanylated in E. coli. Interestingly, some of those proteins were more intensely S-guanylated when bacteria were cultured under static culture condition than shaking culture condition. It has been known that E. coli is deficient of guanylate cyclase, an enzyme indispensable for 8-nitro-cGMP formation in mammals. We found that adenylate cyclase from E. coli potentially catalyzed 8-nitro-cGMP formation from its precursor 8-nitroguanosine 5'-triphosphate. More importantly, E. coli lacking adenylate cyclase showed significantly reduced formation of S-guanylated proteins. Our S-guanylation proteomics successfully identified S-guanylation protein targets in E. coli, including chaperons, ribosomal proteins, and enzymes which associate with protein synthesis, redox regulation and metabolism. Understanding of functional impacts for protein S-guanylation in bacterial signal transduction is necessary basis for development of potential chemotherapy and new diagnostic strategy for control of pathogenic bacterial infections. PMID:27473654

  20. Guanylyl cyclase structure, function and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Lincoln R.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide, bicarbonate, natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP), guanylins, uroguanylins and guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs) activate a family of enzymes variously called guanyl, guanylyl or guanylate cyclases that catalyze the conversion of guanosine triphosphate to cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and pyrophosphate. Intracellular cyclic GMP is a second messenger that modulates: platelet aggregation, neurotransmission, sexual arousal, gut peristalsis, blood pressure, long bone growth, intestinal fluid secretion, lipolysis, phototransduction, cardiac hypertrophy and oocyte maturation. This review briefly discusses the discovery of cGMP and guanylyl cyclases, then nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylyl cyclase are described in slightly greater detail. Finally, the structure, function, and regulation of the individual mammalian single membrane-spanning guanylyl cyclases GC-A, GC-B, GC-C, GC-D, GC-E, GC-F and GC-G are described in greatest detail as determined by biochemical, cell biological and gene-deletion studies. PMID:21914472

  1. Proatherosclerotic Effect of the α1-Subunit of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase by Promoting Smooth Muscle Phenotypic Switching.

    PubMed

    Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Mergia, Evanthia; Al-Hasani, Jaafar; Aherrahrou, Redouane; Stoelting, Stephanie; Kremer, Felix; Freyer, Jennifer; Koesling, Doris; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; de Wit, Cor; Aherrahrou, Zouhair

    2016-08-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a key enzyme of the nitric oxide signaling pathway, is formed as a heterodimer by various isoforms of its α and β subunit. GUCY1A3, encoding the α1 subunit, was identified as a risk gene for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, but its specific contribution to atherosclerosis remains unclear. This study sought to decipher the role of Gucy1a3 in atherosclerosis in mice. At age 32 weeks and after 20 weeks of standard or high-fat diet, Gucy1a3(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) mice exhibited a significant reduction of the atherosclerotic plaque size at the aortic root and the aorta for high-fat diet animals as compared with Ldlr(-/-) control mice. Collagen content in plaques in the aortic root was reduced, suggesting an alteration of smooth muscle cell function. Proliferation and migration were reduced in Gucy1a3(-/-) primary aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs), and proliferation was also reduced in human AoSMCs after inhibition of sGC by 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one. Gucy1a3 deficiency in AoSMCs prevents their phenotypic switching, as indicated by the differential expression of marker proteins. The inherited Gucy1a3(-/-) loss exerts an atheroprotective effect. We suggest that sGC activity promotes the phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells from a contractile to a synthetic state, fostering the formation of atherosclerosis. Preventing this switch by sGC inhibition may provide a novel target in atherosclerotic disease. PMID:27315776

  2. Mapping Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and Protein Disulfide Isomerase Regions of Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mohit; Liu, Tong; Li, Hong; Beuve, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric nitric oxide (NO) receptor that produces cyclic GMP. This signaling mechanism is a key component in the cardiovascular system. NO binds to heme in the β subunit and stimulates the catalytic conversion of GTP to cGMP several hundred fold. Several endogenous factors have been identified that modulate sGC function in vitro and in vivo. In previous work, we determined that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) interacts with sGC in a redox-dependent manner in vitro and that PDI inhibited NO-stimulated activity in cells. To our knowledge, this was the first report of a physical interaction between sGC and a thiol-redox protein. To characterize this interaction between sGC and PDI, we first identified peptide linkages between sGC and PDI, using a lysine cross-linking reagent and recently developed mass spectrometry analysis. Together with Flag-immunoprecipitation using sGC domain deletions, wild-type (WT) and mutated PDI, regions of sGC involved in this interaction were identified. The observed data were further explored with computational modeling to gain insight into the interaction mechanism between sGC and oxidized PDI. Our results indicate that PDI interacts preferentially with the catalytic domain of sGC, thus providing a mechanism for PDI inhibition of sGC. A model in which PDI interacts with either the α or the β catalytic domain is proposed. PMID:26618351

  3. Nitric Oxide Receptor Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Undergoes Splicing Regulation in Differentiating Human Embryonic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharin, Vladislav G.; Mujoo, Kalpana; Kots, Alexander Y.; Martin, Emil; Murad, Ferid

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an important mediator molecule in mammalian physiology, initiates a number of signaling mechanisms by activating the enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Recently, a new role for NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling in embryonic development and cell differentiation has emerged. The changes in expression of NO synthase isoforms and various sGC subunits has been demonstrated during human and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiation. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated that nascent α1 sGC transcript undergoes alternative splicing and that expression of α1 sGC splice forms directly affects sGC activity. Expression of sGC splice variants in the process of human ES (hES) cells differentiation has not been investigated. In this report, we demonstrate that α1 sGC undergoes alternative splicing during random hES differentiation for the first time. Our results indicate that C-α1 sGC splice form is expressed at high levels in differentiating cells and its intracellular distribution varies from canonical α1 sGC subunit. Together, our data suggest that alternative splicing of sGC subunits is associated with differentiation of hES cells. PMID:20964618

  4. RNA splicing in regulation of Nitric Oxide receptor Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Sharina, Iraida G.; Cote, Gilbert J.; Martin, Emil; Doursout, Marie-Francoise; Murad, Ferid

    2011-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a key protein in the nitric oxide (NO)/-cGMP signaling pathway. sGC activity is involved in a number of important physiological processes including smooth muscle relaxation, neurotransmission and platelet aggregation and adhesion. Regulation of sGC expression and activity emerges as a crucial factor in control of sGC function in normal and pathological conditions. Recently accumulated evidence strongly indicates that the regulation of sGC expression is a complex process modulated on several levels including transcription, post-transcriptional regulation, translation and protein stability. Presently our understanding of mechanisms governing regulation of sGC expression remains very limited and awaits systematic investigation. Among other ways, the expression of sGC subunits is modulated at the levels of mRNA abundance and transcript diversity. In this review we summarize available information on different mechanisms (including transcriptional activation, mRNA stability and alternative splicing) involved in the modulation of mRNA levels of sGC subunits in response to various environmental clues. We also summarize and cross-reference the information on human sGC splice forms available in the literature and in genomic databases. This review highlights the fact that the study of the biological role and regulation of sGC splicing will bring new insights to our understanding of NO/cGMP biology. PMID:21867767

  5. Estradiol rapidly inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase expression in rat uterus

    PubMed Central

    Krumenacker, Joshua S.; Hyder, Salman M.; Murad, Ferid

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports that investigated the regulation of the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway by estrogenic compounds have focused primarily on the levels of NO, NO-producing enzymes, and cGMP in various tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that 17β-estradiol (E2) regulates the α1 and β1 subunits of the NO receptor, sGC, at the mRNA and protein levels in rat uterus. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that within 1 h of in vivo E2 administration to rats, sGC mRNA levels begin to diminish. After 3 h, there is a maximal diminution of sGC mRNA expression (sGC α1 10% and sGC β1 33% of untreated). This effect was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, indicating that estrogen receptor is required. The effect of E2 also was observed in vitro with incubations of uterine tissue, indicating that the response does not depend on the secondary release of other hormones or factors from other tissues. Puromycin did not block the effect, suggesting the effects occur because of preexisting factors in uterine tissues and do not require new protein synthesis. Using immunoblot analysis, we found that sGC protein levels also were reduced by E2 over a similar time course as the sGC mRNA. We conclude that sGC plays a vital role in the NO/sGC/cGMP regulatory pathway during conditions of elevated estrogen levels in the rat uterus as a result of the reduction of sGC expression. PMID:11209068

  6. Estradiol rapidly inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase expression in rat uterus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krumenacker, J. S.; Hyder, S. M.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports that investigated the regulation of the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway by estrogenic compounds have focused primarily on the levels of NO, NO-producing enzymes, and cGMP in various tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol (E2) regulates the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the NO receptor, sGC, at the mRNA and protein levels in rat uterus. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that within 1 h of in vivo E2 administration to rats, sGC mRNA levels begin to diminish. After 3 h, there is a maximal diminution of sGC mRNA expression (sGC alpha(1) 10% and sGC beta(1) 33% of untreated). This effect was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, indicating that estrogen receptor is required. The effect of E2 also was observed in vitro with incubations of uterine tissue, indicating that the response does not depend on the secondary release of other hormones or factors from other tissues. Puromycin did not block the effect, suggesting the effects occur because of preexisting factors in uterine tissues and do not require new protein synthesis. Using immunoblot analysis, we found that sGC protein levels also were reduced by E2 over a similar time course as the sGC mRNA. We conclude that sGC plays a vital role in the NO/sGC/cGMP regulatory pathway during conditions of elevated estrogen levels in the rat uterus as a result of the reduction of sGC expression.

  7. Identification of novel S-nitrosation sites in soluble guanylyl cyclase, the nitric oxide receptor.

    PubMed

    Beuve, Annie; Wu, Changgong; Cui, Chuanlong; Liu, Tong; Jain, Mohit Raja; Huang, Can; Yan, Lin; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Li, Hong

    2016-04-14

    Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase (sGC) is the main receptor for nitric oxide (NO). NO activates sGC to synthesize cGMP, triggering a plethora of signals. Recently, we discovered that NO covalently modifies select sGC cysteines via a post-translational modification termed S-nitrosation or S-nitrosylation. Earlier characterization was conducted on a purified sGC treated with S-nitrosoglutathione, and identified three S-nitrosated cysteines (SNO-Cys). Here we describe a more biologically relevant mapping of sGC SNO-Cys in cells to better understand the multi-faceted interactions between SNO and sGC. Since SNO-Cys are labile during LC/MS/MS, MS analysis of nitrosation typically occurs after a biotin switch reaction, in which a SNO-Cys is converted to a biotin-Cys. Here we report the identification of ten sGC SNO-Cys in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes using an Orbitrap MS. A majority of the SNO-Cys identified is located at the solvent-exposed surface of the sGC, and half of them in the conserved catalytic domain, suggesting biological significance. These findings provide a solid basis for future studies of the regulations and functions of diverse sGC S-nitrosation events in cells. PMID:26917471

  8. Stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase protects against obesity by recruiting brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Linda S; Etzrodt, Jennifer; Willkomm, Lena; Sanyal, Abhishek; Scheja, Ludger; Fischer, Alexander W C; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Bloch, Wilhelm; Friebe, Andreas; Heeren, Joerg; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by a positive energy balance and expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT). In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts energy to produce heat. Here we show that a small molecule stimulator (BAY 41-8543) of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP), protects against diet-induced weight gain, induces weight loss in established obesity, and also improves the diabetic phenotype. Mechanistically, the haeme-dependent sGC stimulator BAY 41-8543 enhances lipid uptake into BAT and increases whole-body energy expenditure, whereas ablation of the haeme-containing β1-subunit of sGC severely impairs BAT function. Notably, the sGC stimulator enhances differentiation of human brown adipocytes as well as induces 'browning' of primary white adipocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that sGC is a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:26011238

  9. Conventional and Unconventional Mechanisms for Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuansheng

    2016-05-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the principal enzyme in mediating the biological actions of nitric oxide. On activation, sGC converts guanosine triphosphate to guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), which mediates diverse physiological processes including vasodilation, platelet aggregation, and myocardial functions predominantly by acting on cGMP-dependent protein kinases. Cyclic GMP has long been considered as the sole second messenger for sGC action. However, emerging evidence suggests that, in addition to cGMP, other nucleoside 3',5'-cyclic monophosphates (cNMPs) are synthesized by sGC in response to nitric oxide stimulation, and some of these nucleoside 3',5'-cyclic monophosphates are involved in various physiological activities. For example, inosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate synthesized by sGC may play a critical role in hypoxic augmentation of vasoconstriction. The involvement of cytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and uridine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate in certain cardiovascular activities is also implicated. PMID:26452163

  10. NO and CO Differentially Activate Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase via a Heme Pivot-bend Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Ma,X.; Sayed, N.; Beuve, A.; van den Akker, F.

    2007-01-01

    Diatomic ligand discrimination by soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is paramount to cardiovascular homeostasis and neuronal signaling. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates sGC activity 200-fold compared with only four-fold by carbon monoxide (CO). The molecular details of ligand discrimination and differential response to NO and CO are not well understood. These ligands are sensed by the heme domain of sGC, which belongs to the heme nitric oxide oxygen (H-NOX) domain family, also evolutionarily conserved in prokaryotes. Here we report crystal structures of the free, NO-bound, and CO-bound H-NOX domains of a cyanobacterial homolog. These structures and complementary mutational analysis in sGC reveal a molecular ruler mechanism that allows sGC to favor NO over CO while excluding oxygen, concomitant to signaling that exploits differential heme pivoting and heme bending. The heme thereby serves as a flexing wedge, allowing the N-terminal subdomain of H-NOX to shift concurrent with the transition of the six- to five-coordinated NO-bound state upon sGC activation. This transition can be modulated by mutations at sGC residues 74 and 145 and corresponding residues in the cyanobacterial H-NOX homolog.

  11. CCAAT-binding factor regulates expression of the β1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase gene in the BE2 human neuroblastoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Sharina, Iraida G.; Martin, Emil; Thomas, Anthony; Uray, Karen L.; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a cytosolic enzyme producing the intracellular messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) on activation with nitric oxide (NO). sGC is an obligatory heterodimer composed of α and β subunits. We investigated human β1 sGC transcriptional regulation in BE2 human neuroblastoma cells. The 5′ upstream region of the β1 sGC gene was isolated and analyzed for promoter activity by using luciferase reporter constructs. The transcriptional start site of the β1 sGC gene in BE2 cells was identified. The functional significance of consensus transcriptional factor binding sites proximal to the transcriptional start site was investigated by site deletions in the 800-bp promoter fragment. The elimination of CCAAT-binding factor (CBF) and growth factor independence 1 (GFI1) binding cores significantly diminished whereas deletion of the NF1 core elevated the transcription. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA) and Western analysis of proteins bound to biotinated EMSA probes confirmed the interaction of GFI1, CBF, and NF1 factors with the β1 sGC promoter. Treatment of BE2 cells with genistein, known to inhibit the CBF binding to DNA, significantly reduced protein levels of β1 sGC by inhibiting transcription. In summary, our study represents an analysis of the human β1 sGC promoter regulation in human neuroblastoma BE2 cells and identifies CBF as a critically important factor in β1 sGC expression. PMID:14504408

  12. CCAAT-binding factor regulates expression of the beta1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase gene in the BE2 human neuroblastoma cell line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharina, Iraida G.; Martin, Emil; Thomas, Anthony; Uray, Karen L.; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a cytosolic enzyme producing the intracellular messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) on activation with nitric oxide (NO). sGC is an obligatory heterodimer composed of alpha and beta subunits. We investigated human beta1 sGC transcriptional regulation in BE2 human neuroblastoma cells. The 5' upstream region of the beta1 sGC gene was isolated and analyzed for promoter activity by using luciferase reporter constructs. The transcriptional start site of the beta1 sGC gene in BE2 cells was identified. The functional significance of consensus transcriptional factor binding sites proximal to the transcriptional start site was investigated by site deletions in the 800-bp promoter fragment. The elimination of CCAAT-binding factor (CBF) and growth factor independence 1 (GFI1) binding cores significantly diminished whereas deletion of the NF1 core elevated the transcription. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA) and Western analysis of proteins bound to biotinated EMSA probes confirmed the interaction of GFI1, CBF, and NF1 factors with the beta1 sGC promoter. Treatment of BE2 cells with genistein, known to inhibit the CBF binding to DNA, significantly reduced protein levels of beta1 sGC by inhibiting transcription. In summary, our study represents an analysis of the human beta1 sGC promoter regulation in human neuroblastoma BE2 cells and identifies CBF as a critically important factor in beta1 sGC expression.

  13. YC-1 activation of human soluble guanylyl cyclase has both heme-dependent and heme-independent components

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Emil; Lee, Yu-Chen; Murad, Ferid

    2001-01-01

    YC-1 [3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′furyl)-1-benzyl indazole] is an allosteric activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). YC-1 increases the catalytic rate of the enzyme and sensitizes the enzyme toward its gaseous activators nitric oxide or carbon monoxide. In other studies the administration of YC-1 to experimental animals resulted in the inhibition of the platelet-rich thrombosis and a decrease of the mean arterial pressure, which correlated with increased cGMP levels. However, details of YC-1 interaction with sGC and enzyme activation are incomplete. Although evidence in the literature indicates that YC-1 activation of sGC is strictly heme-dependent, this report presents evidence for both heme-dependent and heme-independent activation of sGC by YC-1. The oxidation of the sGC heme by 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one completely inhibited the response to NO, but only partially attenuated activation by YC-1. We also observed activation by YC-1 of a mutant sGC, which lacks heme. These findings indicate that YC-1 activation of sGC can occur independently of heme, but that activation is substantially increased when the heme moiety is present in the enzyme. PMID:11687640

  14. YC-1 activation of human soluble guanylyl cyclase has both heme-dependent and heme-independent components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, E.; Lee, Y. C.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    YC-1 [3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'furyl)-1-benzyl indazole] is an allosteric activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). YC-1 increases the catalytic rate of the enzyme and sensitizes the enzyme toward its gaseous activators nitric oxide or carbon monoxide. In other studies the administration of YC-1 to experimental animals resulted in the inhibition of the platelet-rich thrombosis and a decrease of the mean arterial pressure, which correlated with increased cGMP levels. However, details of YC-1 interaction with sGC and enzyme activation are incomplete. Although evidence in the literature indicates that YC-1 activation of sGC is strictly heme-dependent, this report presents evidence for both heme-dependent and heme-independent activation of sGC by YC-1. The oxidation of the sGC heme by 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one completely inhibited the response to NO, but only partially attenuated activation by YC-1. We also observed activation by YC-1 of a mutant sGC, which lacks heme. These findings indicate that YC-1 activation of sGC can occur independently of heme, but that activation is substantially increased when the heme moiety is present in the enzyme.

  15. Activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase by the nitrovasodilator 3-morpholinosydnonimine involves formation of S-nitrosoglutathione.

    PubMed

    Schrammel, A; Pfeiffer, S; Schmidt, K; Koesling, D; Mayer, B

    1998-07-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the major physiological target of sydnonimine-based vasodilators such as molsidomine. Decomposition of sydnonimines results in the stoichiometric formation of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2-), which rapidly react to form peroxynitrite. Inasmuch as sGC is activated by NO but not by peroxynitrite, we investigated the mechanisms underlying sGC activation by 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1). Stimulation of purified bovine lung sGC by SIN-1 was found to be strongly dependent on glutathione (GSH). By contrast, GSH did not affect sGC activation by NO released from 2,2-diethyl-1-nitroso-oxyhydrazine, indicating that NO/O2- released from SIN-1 converted GSH to an activator of sGC. High performance liquid chromatography identified this product as the thionitrite S-nitrosoglutathione. Further, the reaction product decomposed to release NO upon addition of Cu(NO3)2 in the presence of GSH. Activation of sGC was antagonized by the Cu(I)-specific chelator neocuproine, whereas the Cu(II)-selective drug cuprizone was less potent. Carbon dioxide (delivered as NaHCO3) antagonized S-nitrosation by peroxynitrite but not by SIN-1. Thus, NO/O2- released from SIN-1 mediates a CO2-insensitive conversion of GSH to S-nitrosoglutathione, a thionitrite that activates sGC via trace metal-catalyzed release of NO. These results may provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the nitrovasodilator action of SIN-1. PMID:9658207

  16. Restoring Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Expression and Function Blocks the Aggressive Course of GliomaS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haifeng; Li, Jessica Tao; Zheng, Fang; Martin, Emil; Kots, Alexander Y.; Krumenacker, Joshua S.; Choi, Byung-Kwon; McCutcheon, Ian E.; Weisbrodt, Norman; Bögler, Oliver; Murad, Ferid

    2011-01-01

    The NO and cGMP signaling pathways are of broad physiological and pathological significance. We compared the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway in human glioma tissues and cell lines with that of healthy control samples and demonstrated that sGC expression is significantly lower in glioma preparations. Our analysis of GEO databases (National Cancer Institute) further revealed a statistically significant reduction of sGC transcript levels in human glioma specimens. On the other hand, the expression levels of particulate (membrane) guanylyl cyclases (pGC) and cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) were intact in the glioma cells that we have tested. Pharmacologically manipulating endogenous cGMP generation in glioma cells through either stimulating pGC by ANP/BNP, or blocking PDE by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine/zaprinast caused significant inhibition of proliferation and colony formation of glioma cells. Genetically restoring sGC expression also correlated inversely with glioma cells growth. Orthotopic implantation of glioma cells transfected with an active mutant form of sGC (sGCα1β1Cys105) in athymic mice increased the survival time by 4-fold over the control. Histological analysis of xenografts overexpressing α1β1Cys105 sGC revealed changes in cellular architecture that resemble the morphology of normal cells. In addition, a decrease in angiogenesis contributed to glioma inhibition by sGC/cGMP therapy. Our study proposes the new concept that suppressed expression of sGC, a key enzyme in the NO/cGMP pathway, may be associated with an aggressive course of glioma. The sGC/cGMP signaling-targeted therapy may be a favorable alternative to chemotherapy and radiotherapy for glioma and perhaps other tumors. PMID:21908708

  17. Multiple lineage specific expansions within the guanylyl cyclase gene family

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, David A; O'Halloran, Damien M; Burnell, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    Background Guanylyl cyclases (GCs) are responsible for the production of the secondary messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate, which plays important roles in a variety of physiological responses such as vision, olfaction, muscle contraction, homeostatic regulation, cardiovascular and nervous function. There are two types of GCs in animals, soluble (sGCs) which are found ubiquitously in cell cytoplasm, and receptor (rGC) forms which span cell membranes. The complete genomes of several vertebrate and invertebrate species are now available. These data provide a platform to investigate the evolution of GCs across a diverse range of animal phyla. Results In this analysis we located GC genes from a broad spectrum of vertebrate and invertebrate animals and reconstructed molecular phylogenies for both sGC and rGC proteins. The most notable features of the resulting phylogenies are the number of lineage specific rGC and sGC expansions that have occurred during metazoan evolution. Among these expansions is a large nematode specific rGC clade comprising 21 genes in C. elegans alone; a vertebrate specific expansion in the natriuretic receptors GC-A and GC-B; a vertebrate specific expansion in the guanylyl GC-C receptors, an echinoderm specific expansion in the sperm rGC genes and a nematode specific sGC clade. Our phylogenetic reconstruction also shows the existence of a basal group of nitric oxide (NO) insensitive insect and nematode sGCs which are regulated by O2. This suggests that the primordial eukaryotes probably utilized sGC as an O2 sensor, with the ligand specificity of sGC later switching to NO which provides a very effective local cell-to-cell signalling system. Phylogenetic analysis of the sGC and bacterial heme nitric oxide/oxygen binding protein domain supports the hypothesis that this domain originated from a cyanobacterial source. Conclusion The most salient feature of our phylogenies is the number of lineage specific expansions, which have occurred within

  18. Cobinamides Are Novel Coactivators of Nitric Oxide Receptor That Target Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Catalytic Domain

    PubMed Central

    Sharina, Iraida; Sobolevsky, Michael; Doursout, Marie-Francoise; Gryko, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), a ubiquitously expressed heme-containing receptor for nitric oxide (NO), is a key mediator of NO-dependent processes. In addition to NO, a number of synthetic compounds that target the heme-binding region of sGC and activate it in a NO-independent fashion have been described. We report here that dicyanocobinamide (CN2-Cbi), a naturally occurring intermediate of vitamin B12 synthesis, acts as a sGC coactivator both in vitro and in intact cells. Heme depletion or heme oxidation does not affect CN2-Cbi-dependent activation. Deletion mutagenesis demonstrates that CN2-Cbi targets a new regulatory site and functions though a novel mechanism of sGC activation. Unlike all known sGC regulators that target the N-terminal regulatory regions, CN2-Cbi directly targets the catalytic domain of sGC, resembling the effect of forskolin on adenylyl cyclases. CN2-Cbi synergistically enhances sGC activation by NO-independent regulators 3-(4-amino-5-cyclopropylpyrimidine-2-yl)-1-(2-fluorobenzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine (BAY41-2272), 4-[((4-carboxybutyl){2-[(4-phenethylbenzyl)oxy]phenethyl}amino) methyl [benzoic]-acid (cinaciguat or BAY58-2667), and 5-chloro-2-(5-chloro-thiophene-2-sulfonylamino-N-(4-(morpholine-4-sulfonyl)-phenyl)-benzamide sodium salt (ataciguat or HMR-1766). BAY41-2272 and CN2-Cbi act reciprocally by decreasing the EC50 values. CN2-Cbi increases intracellular cGMP levels and displays vasorelaxing activity in phenylephrine-constricted rat aortic rings in an endothelium-independent manner. Both effects are synergistically potentiated by BAY41-2272. These studies uncover a new mode of sGC regulation and provide a new tool for understanding the mechanism of sGC activation and function. CN2-Cbi also offers new possibilities for its therapeutic applications in augmenting the effect of other sGC-targeting drugs. PMID:22171090

  19. Polymerization of serine guanylate in the presence of montmorillonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paecht-Horowitz, M.

    1981-01-01

    Serine guanylate was prepared and its polymerization studied in the presence of montmorillonite and in its absence. In water, without clay, serine guanylate polymerizes in the same way as does serine adenylate. In the presence of montmorillonite, serine guanylate polymerizes to a lesser extent and produces also lower degrees of polymerization than does serine adenylate. It is postulated that the reason for this difference in behavior might lie in the fact that guanylic acid is much more acidic than adenylic acid; hence would bind much more strongly to the edges of montmorillonite and thus, by blocking these sites, would inhibit the catalytic activity of the clay.

  20. The fibrate gemfibrozil is a NO- and haem-independent activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase: in vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Sharina, I G; Sobolevsky, M; Papakyriakou, A; Rukoyatkina, N; Spyroulias, G A; Gambaryan, S; Martin, E

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Fibrates are a class of drugs widely used to treat dyslipidaemias. They regulate lipid metabolism and act as PPARα agonists. Clinical trials demonstrate that besides changes in lipid profiles, fibrates decrease the incidence of cardiovascular events, with gemfibrozil exhibiting the most pronounced benefit. This study aims to characterize the effect of gemfibrozil on the activity and function of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), the key mediator of NO signalling. Experimental Approach High-throughput screening of a drug library identified gemfibrozil as a direct sGC activator. Activation of sGC is unique to gemfibrozil and is not shared by other fibrates. Key Results Gemfibrozil activated purified sGC, induced endothelium-independent relaxation of aortic rings and inhibited platelet aggregation. Gemfibrozil-dependent activation was absent when the sGC haem domain was deleted, but was significantly enhanced when sGC haem was lacking or oxidized. Oxidation of sGC haem enhanced the vasoactive and anti-platelet effects of gemfibrozil. Gemfibrozil competed with the haem-independent sGC activators ataciguat and cinaciguat. Computational modelling predicted that gemfibrozil occupies the space of the haem group and interacts with residues crucial for haem stabilization. This is consistent with structure-activity data which revealed an absolute requirement for gemfibrozil's carboxyl group. Conclusions and Implications These data suggest that in addition to altered lipid and lipoprotein state, the cardiovascular preventive benefits of gemfibrozil may derive from direct activation and protection of sGC function. A sGC-directed action may explain the more pronounced cardiovascular benefit of gemfibrozil observed over other fibrates and some of the described side effects of gemfibrozil. PMID:25536881

  1. Stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase protects against obesity by recruiting brown adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Linda S.; Etzrodt, Jennifer; Willkomm, Lena; Sanyal, Abhishek; Scheja, Ludger; Fischer, Alexander W.C.; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Bloch, Wilhelm; Friebe, Andreas; Heeren, Joerg; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by a positive energy balance and expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT). In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts energy to produce heat. Here we show that a small molecule stimulator (BAY 41-8543) of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP), protects against diet-induced weight gain, induces weight loss in established obesity, and also improves the diabetic phenotype. Mechanistically, the haeme-dependent sGC stimulator BAY 41–8543 enhances lipid uptake into BAT and increases whole-body energy expenditure, whereas ablation of the haeme-containing β1-subunit of sGC severely impairs BAT function. Notably, the sGC stimulator enhances differentiation of human brown adipocytes as well as induces ‘browning' of primary white adipocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that sGC is a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:26011238

  2. Evidence for a dissociable protein subunit required for calmodulin stimulation of brain adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, W A; Westcott, K R; LaPorte, D C; Storm, D R

    1979-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphatelyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] preparation that is not stimulated by NaF,5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate, or Ca2+.calmodulin has been isolated from bovine cerebral cortex by Affi-Gel Blue chromatography and calmodulin-Sepharose chromatography. Sensitivity to these effectors was restored by incubation of the adenylate cyclase preparation with detergent-solubilized protein from bovine cerebral cortex. Reconstitution of of Ca2+.calmodulin activation required the presence of 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate. The factor required for restoration of Ca2+.calmodulin stimulation was sensitive to heat, trypsin digestion, and N-ethylmaleimide. These observations suggest that this adenylate cyclase activity requires the presence of one or more guanyl nucleotide binding subunits for calmodulin sensitivity. PMID:293663

  3. Enhancement of choleragen ADP-ribosyltransferase activities by guanyl nucleotides and a 19-kDa membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, S C; Noda, M; Adamik, R; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1987-01-01

    Choleragen activates adenylate cyclase by catalyzing, in the presence of NAD, the ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha, the stimulatory guanyl nucleotide-binding protein of the cyclase system. Kahn and Gilman [Kahn, R. A. & Gilman, A. G. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 7906-7911] identified another guanyl nucleotide-binding protein termed ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) that stimulated this reaction. It was proposed that the toxin substrate is an ARF-Gs alpha complex and that ARF may have a physiological role in regulation of Gs alpha activity. We have found that purified ARF from bovine brain enhances not only the ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha but also Gs alpha-independent choleragen-catalyzed reactions. These are (i) ADP-ribosylation of agmatine, a low molecular weight guanidino compound; (ii) ADP-ribosylation of several proteins unrelated to Gs alpha; and (iii) auto-ADP-ribosylation of the toxin A1 peptide. These reactions, as well as the ADP-ribosylation of ARF itself, were stimulated by GTP or stable GTP analogues such as guanyl-5'-yl imido-beta gamma-diphosphate and guanosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio]triphosphate; GDP and guanosine 5'-O-[beta-thio]diphosphate were inactive. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that ARF interacts directly with the A subunit of choleragen in a GTP-dependent fashion thereby enhancing catalytic activity manifest as transfer of ADP-ribose to Gs alpha and other proteins, to the toxin A1 peptide, or to agmatine. It is tempting to speculate that ARF may be involved in regulating one or another of the ADP-ribosyltransferases found in animal cells. Images PMID:3110784

  4. Role of soluble guanylyl cyclase-cyclic GMP signaling in tumor cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Mujoo, Kalpana; Sharin, Vladislav G.; Martin, Emil; Choi, Byung-Kwon; Sloan, Courtney; Nikonoff, Lubov E.; Kots, Alexander Y; Murad, Ferid

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrate a differential expression of nitric oxide (NO) signaling components in ES cells and our recent study demonstrated an enhanced differentiation of ES cells into myocardial cells with NO donors and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activators. Since NO-cGMP pathway exhibits a diverse role in cancer, we were interested in evaluating the role of the NO receptor sGC and other components of the pathway in regulation of the tumor cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate a differential expression of the sGC subunits, NOS-1 and PKG mRNA and protein levels in various human cancer models. In contrast to sGCα1, robust levels of sGC β1 were observed in OVCAR-3 (ovarian) and MDA-MB-468 (breast) cancer cells which correlated well with the sGC activity and a marked increase in cGMP levels upon exposure to the combination of a NO donor and a sGC activator. NOC-18 (DETA NONOate; NO donor), BAY41-2272 (3-(4-Amino-5-cyclopropylpyrimidin-2-yl)-1-(2-fluorobenzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine); sGC activator), NOC-18+BAY41-2272, IBMX (3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine; phosphodiesterase inhibitor) and 8-bromo-cGMP (cGMP analog) caused growth inhibition and apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in growth inhibition, we evaluated the effect of activators/inhibitors on ERK phosphorylation. Our studies indicate that BAY41-2272 or the combination NOC18+BAY41-2272 caused inhibition of the basal ERK1/2 phosphorylation in OVCAR-3 (high sGC activity), SK-OV-3 and SK-Br-3 (low sGC activity) cell lines and in some cases the inhibition was rescued by the sGC inhibitor ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one). These studies suggest that the effects of activators/inhibitors of NO-sGC-cGMP in tumor cell proliferation is mediated by both cGMP-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:19948239

  5. Stimulators of the soluble guanylyl cyclase: promising functional insights from rare coding atherosclerosis-related GUCY1A3 variants.

    PubMed

    Wobst, Jana; von Ameln, Simon; Wolf, Bernhard; Wierer, Michael; Dang, Tan An; Sager, Hendrik B; Tennstedt, Stephanie; Hengstenberg, Christian; Koesling, Doris; Friebe, Andreas; Braun, Siegmund L; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Kessler, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    Stimulators of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) are emerging therapeutic agents in cardiovascular diseases. Genetic alterations of the GUCY1A3 gene, which encodes the α1 subunit of the sGC, are associated with coronary artery disease. Studies investigating sGC stimulators in subjects with CAD and carrying risk-related variants in sGC are, however, lacking. Here, we functionally investigate the impact of coding GUCY1A3 variants on sGC activity and the therapeutic potential of sGC stimulators in vitro. In addition to a known loss-of-function variant, eight coding variants in GUCY1A3 were cloned and expressed in HEK 293 cells. Protein levels and dimerization capability with the β1 subunit were analysed by immunoblotting and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively. All α1 variants found in MI patients dimerized with the β1 subunit. Protein levels were reduced by 72 % in one variant (p < 0.01). Enzymatic activity was analysed using cGMP radioimmunoassay after stimulation with a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Five variants displayed decreased cGMP production upon NO stimulation (p < 0.001). The addition of the sGC stimulator BAY 41-2272 increased cGMP formation in all of these variants (p < 0.01). Except for the variant leading to decreased protein level, cGMP amounts reached the wildtype NO-induced level after addition of BAY 41-2272. In conclusion, rare coding variants in GUCY1A3 lead to reduced cGMP formation which can be rescued by a sGC stimulator in vitro. These results might therefore represent the starting point for discovery of novel treatment strategies for patients at risk with coding GUCY1A3 variants. PMID:27342234

  6. Bacterial terpene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2016-01-01

    Covering: up to 2015. This review summarises the accumulated knowledge about characterised bacterial terpene cyclases. The structures of identified products and of crystallised enzymes are included, and the obtained insights into enzyme mechanisms are discussed. After a summary of mono-, sesqui- and diterpene cyclases the special cases of the geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol synthases that are both particularly widespread in bacteria will be presented. A total number of 63 enzymes that have been characterised so far is presented, with 132 cited references. PMID:26563452

  7. Hydrogen Peroxide Alters Splicing of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and Selectively Modulates Expression of Splicing Regulators in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Gilbert J.; Zhu, Wen; Thomas, Anthony; Martin, Emil; Murad, Ferid; Sharina, Iraida G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) plays a central role in nitric oxide (NO)-mediated signal transduction in the cardiovascular, nervous and gastrointestinal systems. Alternative RNA splicing has emerged as a potential mechanism to modulate sGC expression and activity. C-α1 sGC is an alternative splice form that is resistant to oxidation-induced protein degradation and demonstrates preferential subcellular distribution to the oxidized environment of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report that splicing of C-α1 sGC can be modulated by H2O2 treatment in BE2 neuroblastoma and MDA-MD-468 adenocarcinoma human cells. In addition, we show that the H2O2 treatment of MDA-MD-468 cells selectively decreases protein levels of PTBP1 and hnRNP A2/B1 splice factors identified as potential α1 gene splicing regulators by in silico analysis. We further demonstrate that down-regulation of PTBP1 by H2O2 occurs at the protein level with variable regulation observed in different breast cancer cells. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate that H2O2 regulates RNA splicing to induce expression of the oxidation-resistant C-α1 sGC subunit. We also report that H2O2 treatment selectively alters the expression of key splicing regulators. This process might play an important role in regulation of cellular adaptation to conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:22911749

  8. Ligand selectivity of soluble guanylyl cyclase: effect of the hydrogen-bonding tyrosine in the distal heme pocket on binding of oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emil; Berka, Vladimir; Bogatenkova, Elena; Murad, Ferid; Tsai, Ah-Lim

    2006-09-22

    Although soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) functions in an environment in which O(2), NO, and CO are potential ligands for its heme moiety, the enzyme displays a high affinity for only its physiological ligand, NO, but has a limited affinity for CO and no affinity for O(2). Recent studies of a truncated version of the sGC beta(1)-subunit containing the heme-binding domain (Boon, E. M., Huang, S H., and Marletta, M. A. (2005) Nat. Chem. Biol., 1, 53-59) showed that introduction of the hydrogen-bonding tyrosine into the distal heme pocket changes the ligand specificity of the heme moiety and results in an oxygen-binding sGC. The hypothesis that the absence of hydrogen-bonding residues in the distal heme pocket is sufficient to provide oxygen discrimination by sGC was put forward. We tested this hypothesis in a context of a complete sGC heterodimer containing both the intact alpha(1)- and beta(1)-subunits. We found that the I145Y substitution in the full-length beta-subunit of the sGC heterodimer did not produce an oxygen-binding enzyme. However, this substitution impeded the association of NO and destabilized the NO.heme complex. The tyrosine in the distal heme pocket also impeded both the binding and dissociation of the CO ligand. We propose that the mechanism of oxygen exclusion by sGC not only involves the lack of hydrogen bonding in the distal heme pocket, but also depends on structural elements from other domains of sGC. PMID:16864588

  9. Effect of soluble guanylyl cyclase activator and stimulator therapy on nitroglycerin-induced nitrate tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Jabs, A; Oelze, M; Mikhed, Y; Stamm, P; Kröller-Schön, S; Welschof, P; Jansen, T; Hausding, M; Kopp, M; Steven, S; Schulz, E; Stasch, J-P; Münzel, T; Daiber, A

    2015-08-01

    Chronic nitroglycerin (GTN) anti-ischemic therapy induces side effects such as nitrate tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. Both phenomena could be based on a desensitization/oxidation of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the effects of the therapy with the sGC activator BAY 60-2770 and the sGC stimulator BAY 41-8543 on side effects induced by chronic nitroglycerin treatment. Male Wistar rats were treated with nitroglycerin (100mg/kg/d for 3.5days, s.c. in ethanol) and BAY 60-2770 (0.5 or 2.5mg/kg/d) or BAY 41-8543 (1 and 5mg/kg/d) for 6days. Therapy with BAY 60-2770 but not with BAY 41-8543 improved nitroglycerin-triggered endothelial dysfunction and nitrate tolerance, corrected the decrease in aortic nitric oxide levels, improved the cGMP dependent activation of protein kinase I in aortic tissue and reduced vascular, cardiac and whole blood oxidative stress (fluorescence and chemiluminescence assays; 3-nitrotyrosine staining). In contrast to BAY 41-8543, the vasodilator potency of BAY 60-2770 was not impaired in isolated aortic ring segments from nitrate tolerant rats. sGC activator therapy improves partially the adverse effects of nitroglycerin therapy whereas sGC stimulation has only minor beneficial effects pointing to a nitroglycerin-dependent sGC oxidation/inactivation mechanism contributing to nitrate tolerance. PMID:25869522

  10. Insights into BAY 60-2770 activation and S-nitrosylation-dependent desensitization of soluble guanylyl cyclase via crystal structures of homologous Nostoc H-NOX domain complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Martin, Faye; Hahn, Michael G.; Schaefer, Martina; Stamler, Jonathan S.; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; van den Akker, Focco

    2013-01-01

    The soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is an important receptor for nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide activates sGC several hundred fold to generate cGMP from GTP. Because of sGC’s salutary roles in cardiovascular physiology, it has received substantial attention as a drug target. The heme domain of sGC is key to its regulation as it not only contains the NO activation site but also harbors sites for NO-independent sGC activators as well an S-nitrosylation site (β1 C122) involved in desensitization. Here we report the crystal structure of the activator BAY 60-2770 bound to the Nostoc H-NOX domain that is homologous to sGC. The structure reveals that BAY 60-2770 has displaced the heme and acts as a heme mimetic via carboxylate-mediated interactions with the conserved YxSxR motif as well as hydrophobic interactions. Comparisons with the previously determined BAY 58-2667 bound structure reveals that BAY 60-2770 is more ordered in its hydrophobic tail region. sGC activity assays demonstrate that BAY 60-2770 has about 10% higher fold maximal stimulation compared to BAY 58-2667. S-nitrosylation of the BAY 60-2770 substituted Nostoc H-NOX domain causes subtle changes in the vicinity of the S-nitrosylated C122 residue. These shifts could impact the adjacent YxSxR motif and αF helix and as such potentially inhibit either heme incorporation or NO-activation of sGC and thus provide a structural basis for desensitization. PMID:23614626

  11. Prolonged exposure of chromaffin cells to nitric oxide down-regulates the activity of soluble guanylyl cyclase and corresponding mRNA and protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Rut; Torres, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    Background Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the main receptor for nitric oxide (NO) when the latter is produced at low concentrations. This enzyme exists mainly as a heterodimer consisting of one α and one β subunit and converts GTP to the second intracellular messenger cGMP. In turn, cGMP plays a key role in regulating several physiological processes in the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of a NO donor on sGC activity and its protein and subunit mRNA levels in a neural cell model. Results Continuous exposure of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture to the nitric oxide donor, diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA/NO), resulted in a lower capacity of the cells to synthesize cGMP in response to a subsequent NO stimulus. This effect was not prevented by an increase of intracellular reduced glutathione level. DETA/NO treatment decreased sGC subunit mRNA and β1 subunit protein levels. Both sGC activity and β1 subunit levels decreased more rapidly in chromaffin cells exposed to NO than in cells exposed to the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that NO decreases β1 subunit stability. The presence of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors effectively prevented the DETA/NO-induced down regulation of sGC subunit mRNA and partially inhibited the reduction in β1 subunits. Conclusions These results suggest that activation of PKG mediates the drop in sGC subunit mRNA levels, and that NO down-regulates sGC activity by decreasing subunit mRNA levels through a cGMP-dependent mechanism, and by reducing β1 subunit stability. PMID:12350235

  12. Crystal Structure of the Signaling Helix Coiled-coil Domain of the b1 Subunit of the Soluble guanylyl Cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, X.; Beuve, A; van den Akker, F

    2010-01-01

    The soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric enzyme that, upon activation by nitric oxide, stimulates the production of the second messenger cGMP. Each sGC subunit harbor four domains three of which are used for heterodimerization: H-NOXA/H-NOBA domain, coiled-coil domain (CC), and catalytic guanylyl cyclase domain. The CC domain has previously been postulated to be part of a larger CC family termed the signaling helix (S-helix) family. Homodimers of sGC have also been observed but are not functionally active yet are likely transient awaiting their intended heterodimeric partner. To investigate the structure of the CC S-helix region, we crystallized and determined the structure of the CC domain of the sGC{beta}1 subunit comprising residues 348-409. The crystal structure was refined to 2.15 {angstrom} resolution. The CC structure of sGC{beta}1 revealed a tetrameric arrangement comprised of a dimer of CC dimers. Each monomer is comprised of a long a-helix, a turn near residue P399, and a short second a-helix. The CC structure also offers insights as to how sGC homodimers are not as stable as (functionally) active heterodimers via a possible role for inter-helix salt-bridge formation. The structure also yielded insights into the residues involved in dimerization. In addition, the CC region is also known to harbor a number of congenital and man-made mutations in both membrane and soluble guanylyl cyclases and those function-affecting mutations have been mapped onto the CC structure. This mutant analysis indicated an importance for not only certain dimerization residue positions, but also an important role for other faces of the CC dimer which might perhaps interact with adjacent domains. Our results also extend beyond guanylyl cyclases as the CC structure is, to our knowledge, the first S-helix structure and serves as a model for all S-helix containing family members.

  13. Activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase by BAY 58-2667 improves bladder function in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in mice.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Mariana G; Calmasini, Fabiano B; Alexandre, Eduardo C; De Nucci, Gilberto; Mónica, Fabíola Z; Antunes, Edson

    2016-07-01

    Activators of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) interact directly with its prosthetic heme group, enhancing the enzyme responsiveness in pathological conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the sGC activator BAY 58-2667 on voiding dysfunction, protein expressions of α1 and β1 sGC subunits and cGMP levels in the bladder tissues after cyclophosphamide (CYP) exposure. Female C57BL/6 mice (20-25 g) were injected with CYP (300 mg/kg ip) to induce cystitis. Mice were pretreated or not with BAY 58-2667 (1 mg/kg, gavage), given 1 h before CYP injection. The micturition patterns and in vitro bladder contractions were evaluated at 24 h. In freely moving mice, the CYP injection produced reduced the micturition volume and increased the number of urine spots. Cystometric recordings in CYP-injected mice revealed significant increases in basal pressure, voiding frequency, and nonvoiding contractions (NVCs), along with decreases in bladder capacity, intercontraction interval, and compliance. BAY 58-2667 significantly prevented the micturition alterations observed in both freely moving mice and cystometry and normalized the reduced in vitro carbachol-induced contractions in the CYP group. Reduced protein expressions of α1 and β1 sGC subunits and of cGMP levels were observed in the CYP group, all of which were prevented by BAY 58-2667. CYP exposure significantly increased reactive-oxygen species (ROS) generation in both detrusor and urothelium, and this was normalized by BAY 58-2667. The increased myeloperoxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 activities in the bladders of the CYP group remained unchanged by BAY 58-2667. Activators of sGC may constitute a novel and promising therapeutic approach for management of interstitial cystitis. PMID:27122537

  14. The adenylate cyclase receptor complex and aqueous humor formation.

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, J.; Sears, M.

    1984-01-01

    The secretory tissue of the eye, the ciliary processes, contains an enzyme receptor complex, composed of membrane proteins, the catalytic moiety of the enzyme adenylate cyclase, a guanyl nucleotide regulatory protein (or N protein), and other features. The enzyme can be activated by well-known neurohumoral or humoral agents, catecholamines, glycoprotein hormones produced by the hypothalamic pituitary axis, and other related compounds, including placental gonadotropin, organic fluorides, and forskolin, a diterpene. These compounds cause the ciliary epithelia to produce cyclic AMP at an accelerated rate. Cyclic AMP, as a second messenger, causes, either directly or indirectly, a decrease in the net rate of aqueous humor inflow that may be modulated by cofactors. Clinical syndromes fit the experimental data so that an integrated explanation can be given for the reduced intraocular pressure witnessed under certain central nervous system and adrenergic influences. The molecular biology of this concept provides important leads for future investigations that bear directly both upon the regulation of intraocular pressure and upon glaucoma. Images FIG. 11 PMID:6093393

  15. Apoptosis of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells induced by podophyllotoxin

    PubMed Central

    JI, CHEN-FENG; JI, YU-BIN

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that podophyllotoxin and its derivatives exhibit antitumor effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate SGC-7901 cell apoptosis and the underlying mechanism induced by podophyllotoxin. SGC-7901 cells were treated with varying concentrations of podophyllotoxin. MTT assays and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the effects of podophyllotoxin on the proliferation and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells, while fluorescence inverted microscopy was used to observe the morphology of SGC-7901 cells that had been dyed with Hoechst 33258. In addition, laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to analyze the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of SGC-7901 cells dyed with Rhodamine 123. Western blotting was performed to analyze the expression levels of cytochrome c (cyt-c), caspase-9 and caspase-3 in the SGC-7901 cells. The results indicated that podophyllotoxin was capable of inhibiting growth and inducing the apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner, causing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. After 48 h of treatment, the apoptotic morphology of SGC-7901 cells was clear, exhibiting cell protuberance, concentrated cytoplasms and apoptotic bodies. Following 24 h of treatment, the MMP of the SGC-7901 cells decreased. In addition, after 48 h, the expression of cyt-c was shown to be upregulated, while the expression levels of pro-caspase-9 and pro-caspase-3 in the SGC-7901 cells were shown to be downregulated. In conclusion, apoptosis can be induced in SGC-7901 cells by podophyllotoxin, potentially via a mitochondrial pathway, indicating that podophyllotoxin may be a potent agent for cancer treatment. PMID:24940431

  16. Lessons from ten years of crystallization experiments at the SGC

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Jia Tsing; Dekker, Carien; Reardon, Paul; von Delft, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Although protein crystallization is generally considered more art than science and remains significantly trial-and-error, large-scale data sets hold the promise of providing general learning. Observations are presented here from retrospective analyses of the strategies actively deployed for the extensive crystallization experiments at the Oxford site of the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC), where comprehensive annotations by SGC scientists were recorded on a customized database infrastructure. The results point to the importance of using redundancy in crystallizing conditions, specifically by varying the mixing ratios of protein sample and precipitant, as well as incubation temperatures. No meaningful difference in performance could be identified between the four most widely used sparse-matrix screens, judged by the yield of crystals leading to deposited structures; this suggests that in general any comparison of screens will be meaningless without extensive cross-testing. Where protein sample is limiting, exploring more conditions has a higher likelihood of being informative by yielding hits than does redundancy of either mixing ratio or temperature. Finally, on the logistical question of how long experiments should be stored, 98% of all crystals that led to deposited structures appeared within 30 days. Overall, these analyses serve as practical guidelines for the design of initial screening experiments for new crystallization targets. PMID:26894670

  17. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase from pigeon erythrocytes under the action of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, K.M.; Bulargina, T.V.; Severin, E.S.

    1985-09-20

    Preincubation of the plasma membranes from pigeon erythrocytes with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase leads to desensitization of adenylate cyclase of the erythrocytes. The adenylate cyclase activity, measured in the presence of 10 ..mu..M isoproterenol and 50 ..mu..M GTP-..gamma..-S, is decreased by 40% in 10 min of incubation, while the activity in the presence of 50 ..mu..M GTP-..gamma..-S is decreased by 35% in 20 min. The decrease in the adenylate cyclase activity is due to an increase in the lag phase of activation of the enzyme in the presence of a GTP analog stable to hydrolysis and a decrease in the activity in the steady-state phase of activation. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase under the action of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is coupled with a decrease in the number of ..beta..-adrenoreceptors capable of passing into a state of high affinity for antagonists in the absence of guanylic nucleotides. The influence of the catalytic subunit on adenylate cyclase entirely models the process of desensitization of the enzyme absorbed in the influence of isoproterenol or cAMP on erythrocytes.

  18. Functional properties of a naturally occurring isoform of soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Russwurm, M; Behrends, S; Harteneck, C; Koesling, D

    1998-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), the target enzyme of the signalling molecule NO, contains one prosthetic haem group and consists of an alpha and a beta subunit. So far, only the alpha1beta1 heterodimer has been shown to exist in different cells and tissues, and most biochemical studies of sGC have been performed with the alpha1 beta1 heterodimer. Here we demonstrate for the first time the natural occurrence of the alpha2 subunit on the protein level. The alpha2 subunit co-precipitated with the beta1 subunit from human placenta, showing the existence of the alpha2 beta1 isoform in vivo. The new enzyme was expressed in and purified from cells from the Spodoptera frugiperda ovary cell line Sf 9. Spectral analysis showed that the alpha2 beta1 heterodimer contains a prosthetic haem group revealing the same characteristics as the haem in the alpha1 beta1 form. The kinetic properties of both isoforms and sensitivity towards NO were indistinguishable. 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a selective inhibitor of sGC, abolished NO-stimulated activity of both heterodimers. The new NO-independent activator, 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1), increased the maximal NO-stimulated activity of the new isoform, caused a leftward-shift in the NO concentration-response curve and turned CO into an effective activator, as it did for the alpha1 beta1 heterodimer (200-fold activation). In summary, the differences in primary structure of both alpha subunits are contrasted by their functional similarity. Further studies will be needed to elucidate the physiological purpose of the new isoform. PMID:9742221

  19. Effects of the soluble guanylyl cyclase activator, YC-1, on vascular tone, cyclic GMP levels and phosphodiesterase activity

    PubMed Central

    Galle, Jan; Zabel, Ulrike; Hübner, Ulrich; Hatzelmann, Armin; Wagner, Birgit; Wanner, Christoph; Schmidt, Harald H H W

    1999-01-01

    The vasomotor and cyclic GMP-elevating activity of YC-1, a novel NO-independent activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), was studied in isolated rabbit aortic rings and compared to that of the NO donor compounds sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and NOC 18.Similarly to SNP and NOC 18, YC-1 (0.3–300 μM) caused a concentration-dependent, endothelium-independent relaxation that was greatly reduced by the sGC inhibitor 1-H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ 10 μM; 59% inhibition of dilation induced by 100 μM YC-1) suggesting the activation of sGC as one mechanism of action.Preincubation with YC-1 (3 and 30 μM) significantly increased the maximal dilator responses mediated by endogenous NO in aortic rings that was released upon exposure to acetylcholine, and enhanced the dilator response to the exogenous NO-donors, SNP and NOC 18, by almost two orders of magnitude.Vasoactivity induced by SNP and YC-1 displayed different kinetics as evidenced by a long-lasting inhibition by YC-1 (300 μM) on the phenylephrine (PE)-induced contractile response, which was not fully reversible even after extensive washout (150 min) of YC-1, and was accompanied by a long-lasting elevation of intracellular cyclic GMP content. In contrast, SNP (30 μM) had no effect on the vasoconstrictor potency of PE, and increases in intravascular cyclic GMP levels were readily reversed after washout of this NO donor compound.Surprisingly, YC-1 not only activated sGC, but also affected cyclic GMP metabolism, as it inhibited both cyclic GMP break down in aortic extracts and the activity of phosphodiesterase isoforms 1–5 in vitro.In conclusion, YC-1 caused persistent elevation of intravascular cyclic GMP levels in vivo by activating sGC and inhibiting cyclic GMP break down. Thus, YC-1 is a highly effective vasodilator compound with a prolonged duration of action, and mechanisms that are unprecedented for any previously known sGC activator. PMID:10369473

  20. Mechano-chemistry of the enzyme Guanylate Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, C.-Y.; Wang, A.; Zocchi, G.

    2010-07-01

    We address the coupling of mechanics and chemistry in an enzyme through equilibrium experiments where we mechanically deform the enzyme and measure the effect on the chemical reaction it catalyzes. We use the DNA molecular spring method to exert stresses at three different specific locations on the enzyme Guanylate Kinase, and for each case determine the changes in substrates binding affinities and catalytic rate. We find that the enzyme kinetics parameters can be affected separately, depending on where the mechanical stress is applied. For one configuration the applied stress mainly affects the catalytic rate kcat, for another it mainly affects the binding affinity of the substrate GMP. These experiments show that a stress applied by pulling two residues on the surface of the protein generally results in a strain propagating into the structure.

  1. Regiospecific chlorination of (S)-beta-tyrosyl-S-carrier protein catalyzed by SgcC3 in the biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuangjun; Van Lanen, Steven G; Shen, Ben

    2007-10-17

    C-1027 is a potent antitumor antibiotic composed of an apo-protein and a reactive enediyne chromophore. The chromophore consists of four different chemical subunits including an (S)-3-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-beta-phenylalanine moiety, the biosynthesis of which from l-alpha-tyrosine is catalyzed by six proteins, SgcC, SgcC1, SgcC2, SgcC3, SgcC4, and SgcC5. Biochemical characterization of SgcC3 unveiled the following: (i) SgcC3 is a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent halogenase; (ii) SgcC3 acts only on the SgcC2 peptidyl carrier protein-tethered substrates; (iii) SgcC3-catalyzed halogenation requires O2 and reduced FAD and either the C-1027 pathway-specific flavin reductase SgcE6 or E. coli flavin reductase (Fre) can support the SgcC3 activity; (iv) SgcC3 also efficiently catalyzes bromination but not fluorination or iodination; (v) SgcC3 can utilize both (S)- and (R)-beta-tyrosyl-S-SgcC2 but not 3-hydroxy-beta-tyrosyl-S-SgcC2 as a substrate. These results establish that SgcC3 catalyzes the third enzymatic transformation during the biosynthesis of the (S)-3-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-beta-phenylalanine moiety of C-1027 from l-alpha-tyrosine. SgcC3 now represents the second biochemically characterized flavin-dependent halogenase that acts on a carrier protein-tethered substrate. These findings will facilitate the engineering of new C-1027 analogs by combinatorial biosynthesis methods. PMID:17887753

  2. Pathophysiological role of guanylate-binding proteins in gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Britzen-Laurent, Nathalie; Herrmann, Christian; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Croner, Roland S; Stürzl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) are interferon-stimulated factors involved in the defense against cellular pathogens and inflammation. These proteins, particularly GBP-1, the most prominent member of the family, have been established as reliable markers of interferon-γ-activated cells in various diseases, including colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In CRC, GBP-1 expression is associated with a Th1-dominated angiostatic micromilieu and is correlated with a better outcome. Inhibition of tumor growth by GBP-1 is the result of its strong anti-angiogenic activity as well as its direct anti-tumorigenic effect on tumor cells. In IBD, GBP-1 mediates the anti-proliferative effects of interferon-γ on intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, it plays a protective role on the mucosa by preventing cell apoptosis, by inhibiting angiogenesis and by regulating the T-cell receptor signaling. These functions rely to a large extent on the ability of GBP-1 to interact with and remodel the actin cytoskeleton.

  3. Pathophysiological role of guanylate-binding proteins in gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Britzen-Laurent, Nathalie; Herrmann, Christian; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Croner, Roland S; Stürzl, Michael

    2016-07-28

    Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) are interferon-stimulated factors involved in the defense against cellular pathogens and inflammation. These proteins, particularly GBP-1, the most prominent member of the family, have been established as reliable markers of interferon-γ-activated cells in various diseases, including colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In CRC, GBP-1 expression is associated with a Th1-dominated angiostatic micromilieu and is correlated with a better outcome. Inhibition of tumor growth by GBP-1 is the result of its strong anti-angiogenic activity as well as its direct anti-tumorigenic effect on tumor cells. In IBD, GBP-1 mediates the anti-proliferative effects of interferon-γ on intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, it plays a protective role on the mucosa by preventing cell apoptosis, by inhibiting angiogenesis and by regulating the T-cell receptor signaling. These functions rely to a large extent on the ability of GBP-1 to interact with and remodel the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27605879

  4. Vasorelaxing effects of the soluble guanylyl cyclase activator BAY 60-2770 in nitrate-tolerant monkey and canine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Tawa, Masashi; Shimosato, Takashi; Iwasaki, Hirotaka; Imamura, Takeshi; Okamura, Tomio

    2015-03-01

    Nitrate tolerance is an important problem in the treatment of ischemic heart diseases. The present study investigated whether or not a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activator can be used as a coronary vasodilator under nitrate-tolerant conditions. Helically cut strips of endothelium-denuded monkey and canine coronary arteries were suspended in organ chambers for isometric tension recording. Nitrate tolerance was induced by a 1-h treatment with nitroglycerin (0.1 mM) followed by 1-h washout of the agent. Control strips were not exposed previously to nitroglycerin, but otherwise were treated identically. The relaxant response to nitroglycerin was dramatically impaired by previous exposure to the drug for 1 h in either monkey or canine coronary arteries, indicating the development of nitrate tolerance. In contrast, development of nitrate tolerance did not affect the relaxant potency and efficacy of the sGC activator BAY 60-2770 in either the monkey or canine coronary arteries. These findings suggest that it may be possible to use sGC activators as substitute drugs for nitroglycerin if tolerance is developed during the treatment of ischemic heart diseases. PMID:25582420

  5. SGC tests for influence of material composition on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun; Li, Yuzhi

    2013-01-01

    Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture) was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes. PMID:23818830

  6. SGC Tests for Influence of Material Composition on Compaction Characteristic of Asphalt Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun

    2013-01-01

    Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture) was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes. PMID:23818830

  7. BUGLE-96 validation with MORSE-SGC/S using water and iron experiments from SINBAD 97

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-12-03

    This document summarizes the validation of MORSE-SGC/S with the BUGLE-96 cross section library. SINBAD Benchmark Experiment 2.004, Winfrith Water Benchmark Experiment and SBE 6.001, Karlsruhe Iron Sphere Benchmark Experiment were utilized for this validation. The MORESE-SGC/S code with the BUGLE-96 cross-section library was used to model the experimental configurations as given in SINDBAD 97. SINDBAD is a shielding integral benchmark archive and database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). For means of comparison, the experimental models were also executed with MORSE-SGC/S using the BUGLE-80 cross-section library. BUGLE-96 cross section will be used for shielding applications only as recommended by ORNL.

  8. Oridonin induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiyong; Tan, Huixin; Zhu, Nan; Gao, Haiyu; Lv, Chunyu; Gang, Jian; Ji, Yubin

    2016-06-01

    Oridonin is one of the most important antitumor active ingredients of Rabdosia rubescens. Recently published studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that oridonin was able to arrest human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells at G2/M phase. However, little is known about inducing apoptosis in gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oridonin on antineoplastic capability of SGC-7901 cells and the detailed molecular mechanism of oridonin-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay while apoptosis induced by oridonin was determined by Hoechst 33342 staining assay and Annexin V/PI double staining assay. Early apoptotic rate was stained by Annexin V/PI and detected by flow cytometry. Apoptosis pathway was analyzed by western blot analysis of Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c and caspase-3 expression. The results showed that oridonin was able to inhibit the SGC-7901 cell proliferation, the 50% growth inhibition (IC50) was 22.74 µM. Oridonin could induce cell apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells and the early apoptotic rates induced by 0, 20, 40, 80 µmol/l oridonin were 1.53±0.67, 3.33±0.29, 84.80±0.82 and 96.43±0.51%, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that oridonin downregulated Bcl-2 protein (the anti-apoptotic factor) and upregulated Bax protein (pro-apoptotic factor), eventually leading to a reduction in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax proteins. Furthermore, oridonin induced the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol and the activation of caspase-3. Taken together, the current study suggested that oridonin induced apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells via the mitochondrial signal pathway, which may represent one of the major mechanisms of oridonin-mediated apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. PMID:27082253

  9. Nitric oxide sets off an antioxidant response in adrenal cells: involvement of sGC and Nrf2 in HO-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Astort, F; Mercau, M; Giordanino, E; Degese, M S; Caldareri, L; Coso, O; Cymeryng, C B

    2014-02-15

    Induction of microsomal heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) activity is considered a cytoprotective mechanism in different cell types. In adrenal cells, HO-1 induction by ACTH exerts a modulatory effect on steroid production as well. As nitric oxide (NO) has been also regarded as an autocrine/paracrine modulator of adrenal steroidogenesis we sought to study the effects of NO on the induction of HO-1 and the mechanism involved. We hereby analyzed the time and dose-dependent effect of a NO-donor (DETA/NO) on HO-1 induction in a murine adrenocortical cell line. We showed that this effect is mainly exerted at a transcriptional level as it is inhibited by actinomycin D and HO-1 mRNA degradation rates were not affected by DETA/NO treatment. HO-1 induction by NO does not appear to involve the generation of oxidative stress as it was not affected by antioxidant treatment. We also demonstrated that NO-treatment results in the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), an effect that is attenuated by transfecting the cells with a dominant negative isoform of Nrf2. We finally show that the effects of the NO-donor are reproduced by a permeable analog of cGMP and that a soluble guanylate cyclase specific inhibitor blocked both the induction of HO-1 by NO and the nuclear translocation of Nrf2. PMID:24361900

  10. [Adeno-associated virus mediated T-bet gene transfer into SGC-7901 cell to regulate IFN-gamma production].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Gufeng; Wang, Suoying; Wang, Shengjun; Shao, Qixiang; Ma, Jie; Yang, Ming; Xu, Xiaopeng; Mao, Chaoming; Su, Zhaoliang; Huang, Xinxiang; Xu, Huaxi

    2009-06-01

    In order to investigate the effect of T-bet on malignant cells, we selected SGC-7901, a kind of human gastric carcinoma cell line, and used gene clone technique and adeno-associated virus (AAV) packing technology, thus obtaining a recombinant rAAV-eGFP-T-bet and T-bet gene-transfected SGC-7901 cells. Then the function of T-bet gene-infected SGC-7901 cells was researched by detecting the levels of IFN-gamma and T-bet production. The results showed: (1) It was verified that rAAV-T-bet's packing was completed; (2) After SGC-7901 cells was transfected by rAAV-eGFP-T-bet, a green fluorescence was found in about 30%-40% SGC-7901s, and the gene of 1670 bp (T-bet) and 388 bp (IFN-gamma) were generated from SGC-7901s cells; (3) The proteins of IFN-gamma and T-bet secreted by SGC-7901 cells were also detected. These reveal that SGC-7901 cell is efficiently infected by rAAV encoding T-bet, which can induce transfected cells to secret IFN-gamma. It may be useful in the researches on cancer immune therapy of transfecting T-bet gene. PMID:19634682

  11. Cytokine-Induced S-Nitrosylation of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and Expression of Phosphodiesterase 1A Contribute to Dysfunction of Longitudinal Smooth Muscle Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Nalli, Ancy D.; Kumar, Divya P.; Bhattacharya, Sayak; Hu, Wenhui; Mahavadi, Sunila; Grider, John R.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of proinflammatory cytokines on the expression and activity of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and cGMP–phosphodiesterases (PDEs) was determined in intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle. In control muscle cells, cGMP levels are regulated via activation of sGC and PDE5; the activity of the latter is regulated via feedback phosphorylation by cGMP-dependent protein kinase. In muscle cells isolated from muscle strips cultured with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or obtained from the colon of TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid)-treated mice, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was induced and sGC was S-nitrosylated, resulting in attenuation of nitric oxide (NO)–induced sGC activity and cGMP formation. The effect of cytokines on sGC S-nitrosylation and activity was blocked by the iNOS inhibitor 1400W [N-([3-(aminomethyl)phenyl]methyl)ethanimidamide dihydrochloride]. The effect of cytokines on cGMP levels measured in the absence of IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine), however, was partly reversed by 1400W or PDE1 inhibitor vinpocetine and completely reversed by a combination of 1400W and vinpocetine. Expression of PDE1A was induced and was accompanied by an increase in PDE1A activity in muscle cells isolated from muscle strips cultured with IL-1β or TNF-α or obtained from the colon of TNBS-treated mice; the effect of cytokines on PDE1 expression and activity was blocked by MG132 (benzyl N-[(2S)-4-methyl-1-[[(2S)-4-methyl-1-[[(2S)-4-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxopentan-2-yl]carbamate), an inhibitor of nuclear factor κB activity. NO-induced muscle relaxation was inhibited in longitudinal muscle cells isolated from muscle strips cultured with IL-1β or TNF-α or obtained from the colon of TNBS-treated mice, and this inhibition was completely reversed by the combination of both 1400W and vinpocetine. Inhibition of smooth muscle relaxation during inflammation reflects the

  12. Pulmonary and systemic vasodilator responses to the soluble guanylyl cyclase activator, BAY 60–2770, are not dependent on endogenous nitric oxide or reduced heme

    PubMed Central

    Pankey, Edward A.; Bhartiya, Manish; Badejo, Adeleke M.; Haider, Umair; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Murthy, Subramanyam N.; Nossaman, Bobby D.

    2011-01-01

    4-({(4-Carboxybutyl)[2-(5-fluoro-2-{[4′-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-4-yl]methoxy}phenyl)ethyl]amino}methyl)benzoic acid (BAY 60–2770) is a nitric oxide (NO)-independent activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) that increases the catalytic activity of the heme-oxidized or heme-free form of the enzyme. In this study, responses to intravenous injections of the sGC activator BAY 60–2770 were investigated under baseline and elevated tone conditions induced by the thromboxane mimic U-46619 when NO synthesis was inhibited by Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME), when sGC activity was inhibited by 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadizaolo[4,3]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ), an agent that oxidizes sGC, and in animals with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. The intravenous injections of BAY 60–2770 under baseline conditions caused small decreases in pulmonary arterial pressure, larger decreases in systemic arterial pressure, and no change or small increases in cardiac output. Under elevated tone conditions during infusion of U-46619, intravenous injections of BAY 60–2770 caused larger decreases in pulmonary arterial pressure, smaller decreases in systemic arterial pressure, and increases in cardiac output. Pulmonary vasodilator responses to BAY 60–2770 were enhanced by l-NAME or by ODQ in a dose that attenuated responses to the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. ODQ had no significant effect on baseline pressures and attenuated pulmonary and systemic vasodilator responses to the sGC stimulator BAY 41–8543 2-{1-[2-(fluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl}-5(4-morpholinyl)-4,6-pyrimidinediamine. BAY 60–2770 and sodium nitroprusside decreased pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures in monocrotaline-treated rats in a nonselective manner. The present data show that BAY 60–2770 has vasodilator activity in the pulmonary and systemic vascular beds that is enhanced by ODQ and NOS inhibition, suggesting that the heme-oxidized form of sGC can be

  13. Pulmonary and systemic vasodilator responses to the soluble guanylyl cyclase activator, BAY 60-2770, are not dependent on endogenous nitric oxide or reduced heme.

    PubMed

    Pankey, Edward A; Bhartiya, Manish; Badejo, Adeleke M; Haider, Umair; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Murthy, Subramanyam N; Nossaman, Bobby D; Kadowitz, Philip J

    2011-03-01

    4-({(4-Carboxybutyl)[2-(5-fluoro-2-{[4'-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-4-yl]methoxy}phenyl)ethyl]amino}methyl)benzoic acid (BAY 60-2770) is a nitric oxide (NO)-independent activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) that increases the catalytic activity of the heme-oxidized or heme-free form of the enzyme. In this study, responses to intravenous injections of the sGC activator BAY 60-2770 were investigated under baseline and elevated tone conditions induced by the thromboxane mimic U-46619 when NO synthesis was inhibited by N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), when sGC activity was inhibited by 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadizaolo[4,3]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ), an agent that oxidizes sGC, and in animals with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. The intravenous injections of BAY 60-2770 under baseline conditions caused small decreases in pulmonary arterial pressure, larger decreases in systemic arterial pressure, and no change or small increases in cardiac output. Under elevated tone conditions during infusion of U-46619, intravenous injections of BAY 60-2770 caused larger decreases in pulmonary arterial pressure, smaller decreases in systemic arterial pressure, and increases in cardiac output. Pulmonary vasodilator responses to BAY 60-2770 were enhanced by L-NAME or by ODQ in a dose that attenuated responses to the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. ODQ had no significant effect on baseline pressures and attenuated pulmonary and systemic vasodilator responses to the sGC stimulator BAY 41-8543 2-{1-[2-(fluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl}-5(4-morpholinyl)-4,6-pyrimidinediamine. BAY 60-2770 and sodium nitroprusside decreased pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures in monocrotaline-treated rats in a nonselective manner. The present data show that BAY 60-2770 has vasodilator activity in the pulmonary and systemic vascular beds that is enhanced by ODQ and NOS inhibition, suggesting that the heme-oxidized form of sGC can be activated in vivo in an

  14. Effects of taxol resistance gene 1 expression on the chemosensitivity of SGC-7901 cells to oxaliplatin

    PubMed Central

    LIU, LIANCHENG; BAI, ZHIGANG; MA, XUEMEI; WANG, TINGTING; YANG, YAO; ZHANG, ZHONGTAO

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the role of taxol resistance gene 1 (Txr1) in the development of oxaliplatin (L-OHP) resistance in gastric cancer (GC). Using SGC-7901 cells as a model, Txr1 was exogenously expressed or knocked down using small interfering RNA. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting were performed to establish whether the Txr1 gene is involved in chemoresistance, and cell proliferation was assessed using an MTS assay. To this end, the mRNA and protein levels of Txr1, thrombospondin-1 and excision repair cross-complementing 1 protein were measured using qPCR and western blotting, respectively. Txr1-knockdown significantly increased the sensitivity of the SGC-7901 cells to L-OHP, whereas Txr1 overexpression promoted the resistance of the SGC-7901 cells to L-OHP. Exogenous Txr1 expression in the SGC-7901 cells induced L-OHP resistance, and the siRNA knockdown of Txr1 sensitized the human GC cells to L-OHP. Txr1 is, therefore, likely to play a role in L-OHP resistance, acting via TSP1, and should be investigated as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of GC. PMID:26998002

  15. The effects of aspirin plus cisplatin on SGC7901/CDDP cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hanzhang; Liu, Gaogao; Jiang, Biao; Guo, Jiubing; Tao, Guoquan; Yiu, Wei; Zhou, Jingsong; Li, Guoxin

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aspirin plus cisplatin (CDDP) in the chemotherapy of gastric cancer. We cultured SGC7901/CDDP cells by long-term exposure of SGC7901 cells to small doses of CDDP in vitro. The cells were treated with aspirin, CDDP or aspirin plus CDDP for 24 h and cell growth was assessed by the MTT assay, the apoptotic rate by flow cytometry, the survivin mRNA expression by RT-PCR and the survivin protein expression by western blotting. The results revealed that the cell growth in the aspirin plus CDDP group was significantly inhibited. The apoptotic rate in the aspirin plus CDDP was significantly higher compared to that in the other groups. The survivin mRNA and protein expression were also significantly reduced in the aspirin plus CDDP group. Our data suggest that the combination of aspirin and CDDP exhibited a higher degree of toxicity against SGC7901/CDDP cells compared to that of aspirin or CDDP alone. Thus, the combination of aspirin plus CDDP may reduce the expression of survivin and induce the apoptosis of SGC7901/CDDP cells. PMID:24748972

  16. Hypoxia induces downregulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase β1 by miR-34c-5p

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojian; Wang, Shumin; Liu, Juan; Dou, Dou; Liu, Limei; Chen, Zhengju; Ye, Liping; Liu, Huixia; He, Qiong; Raj, J. Usha; Gao, Yuansheng

    2012-01-01

    Summary Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the principal receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and crucial for the control of various physiological functions. The β1 subunit of sGC is obligatory for the biological stability and activity of the sGC heterodimer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression and exert great influences on diverse biological activities. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not the expression of sGCβ1 is specifically regulated by miRNAs. We report that miR-34c-5p directly targets sGCβ1 under hypoxia. Bioinformatics analysis of the sGCβ1 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) revealed a putative binding site for miR-34b-5p and miR-34c-5p, but only miR-34c-5p inhibited luciferase activity through interaction with sGCβ1 3′-UTR in HEK293T cells. Site-directed mutagenesis of the putative miR-34c-5p binding site abolished the negative regulation of luciferase expression. Overexpression of miR-34c-5p repressed the expression of sGCβ1 in stable cell lines, which was reversed by miR-34c-5p-specific sponge. Inoculation of mouse lung tissues in vitro with lentivirus bearing miR-34c-5p significantly decreased both the expression of sGCβ1 and NO-stimulated sGC activity, which was also rescued by miR-34c-5p-specific sponge. Furthermore, we identified the putative Sp1-binding site in the promoter region of miR-34c-5p. Luciferase reporter constructs revealed that Sp1 directly binds to the wild-type promoter of miR-34c-5p, which was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In summary, these findings reveal that miR-34c-5p directly regulates sGCβ1 expression, and they identify the key transcription factor Sp1 that governs miR-34c-5p expression during hypoxia. PMID:23038777

  17. Pulmonary and systemic vasodilator responses to the soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator, BAY 41-8543, are modulated by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Badejo, Adeleke M; Nossaman, Vaughn E; Pankey, Edward A; Bhartiya, Manish; Kannadka, Chandrika B; Murthy, Subramanyam N; Nossaman, Bobby D; Kadowitz, Philip J

    2010-10-01

    BAY 41-8543 is a nitric oxide (NO)-independent stimulator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Responses to intravenous injections of BAY 41-8543 were investigated under baseline and elevated tone conditions and when NO synthase (NOS) was inhibited with N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Under baseline conditions, intravenous injections of BAY 41-8543 caused small decreases in pulmonary arterial pressure, larger decreases in systemic arterial pressure, and increases in cardiac output. When pulmonary arterial pressure was increased to ∼30 mmHg with an intravenous infusion of U-46619, intravenous injections of BAY 41-8543 produced larger dose-dependent decreases in pulmonary arterial pressure, and the relative decreases in pulmonary and systemic arterial pressure in response to the sGC stimulator were similar. Treatment with L-NAME markedly decreased responses to BAY 41-8543 when pulmonary arterial pressure was increased to similar values (∼30 mmHg) in U-46619-infused and in U-46619-infused plus L-NAME-treated animals. The intravenous injection of a small dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) when combined with BAY 41-8543 enhanced pulmonary and systemic vasodilator responses to the sGC stimulator in L-NAME-treated animals. The present results indicate that BAY 41-8543 has similar vasodilator activity in the systemic and pulmonary vascular beds when pulmonary vasoconstrictor tone is increased with U-46619. These results demonstrate that pulmonary and systemic vasodilator responses to BAY 41-8543 are significantly attenuated when NOS is inhibited by L-NAME and show that vasodilator responses to BAY 41-8543 are enhanced when combined with a small dose of SNP in L-NAME-treated animals. The present results are consistent with the concept that pulmonary and systemic vasodilator responses to the sGC stimulator are NO-independent; however, the vasodilator activity of the compound is greatly diminished when endogenous NO production is inhibited with L-NAME. These

  18. Pulmonary and systemic vasodilator responses to the soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator, BAY 41-8543, are modulated by nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Badejo, Adeleke M.; Nossaman, Vaughn E.; Pankey, Edward A.; Bhartiya, Manish; Kannadka, Chandrika B.; Murthy, Subramanyam N.; Nossaman, Bobby D.

    2010-01-01

    BAY 41-8543 is a nitric oxide (NO)-independent stimulator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Responses to intravenous injections of BAY 41-8543 were investigated under baseline and elevated tone conditions and when NO synthase (NOS) was inhibited with Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). Under baseline conditions, intravenous injections of BAY 41-8543 caused small decreases in pulmonary arterial pressure, larger decreases in systemic arterial pressure, and increases in cardiac output. When pulmonary arterial pressure was increased to ∼30 mmHg with an intravenous infusion of U-46619, intravenous injections of BAY 41-8543 produced larger dose-dependent decreases in pulmonary arterial pressure, and the relative decreases in pulmonary and systemic arterial pressure in response to the sGC stimulator were similar. Treatment with l-NAME markedly decreased responses to BAY 41-8543 when pulmonary arterial pressure was increased to similar values (∼30 mmHg) in U-46619-infused and in U-46619-infused plus l-NAME-treated animals. The intravenous injection of a small dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) when combined with BAY 41-8543 enhanced pulmonary and systemic vasodilator responses to the sGC stimulator in l-NAME-treated animals. The present results indicate that BAY 41-8543 has similar vasodilator activity in the systemic and pulmonary vascular beds when pulmonary vasoconstrictor tone is increased with U-46619. These results demonstrate that pulmonary and systemic vasodilator responses to BAY 41-8543 are significantly attenuated when NOS is inhibited by l-NAME and show that vasodilator responses to BAY 41-8543 are enhanced when combined with a small dose of SNP in l-NAME-treated animals. The present results are consistent with the concept that pulmonary and systemic vasodilator responses to the sGC stimulator are NO-independent; however, the vasodilator activity of the compound is greatly diminished when endogenous NO production is inhibited with l-NAME. These

  19. Structure reactivity relationship in the reaction of DNA guanyl radicals with hydroxybenzoates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Trinh T.; Tang, Vicky J.; Aguilera, Joseph A.; Milligan, Jamie R.

    2010-11-01

    In DNA, guanine bases are the sites from which electrons are most easily removed. As a result of hole migration to this stable location on guanine, guanyl radicals are major intermediates in DNA damage produced by the direct effect of ionizing radiation (ionization of the DNA itself and not through the intermediacy of water radicals). We have modeled this process by employing gamma irradiation in the presence of thiocyanate ions, a method which also produces single electron oxidized guanyl radicals in plasmid DNA in aqueous solution. The stable products formed in DNA from these radicals are detected as strand breaks after incubation with the FPG protein. When a phenolic compound is present in the solution during gamma irradiation, the formation of guanyl radical species is decreased by electron donation from the phenol to the guanyl radical. We have quantified the rate of this reaction for four different phenolic compounds bearing carboxylate substituents as proton acceptors. A comparison of the rates of these reactions with the redox strengths of the phenolic compounds reveals that salicylate reacts ca. 10-fold faster than its structural analogs. This observation is consistent with a reaction mechanism involving a proton coupled electron transfer, because intra-molecular transfer of a proton from the phenolic hydroxyl group to the carboxylate group is possible only in salicylate, and is favored by the strong 6-membered ring intra-molecular hydrogen bond in this compound.

  20. Guanylic nucleotide starvation affects Saccharomyces cerevisiae mother-daughter separation and may be a signal for entry into quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Sagot, Isabelle; Schaeffer, Jacques; Daignan-Fornier, Bertrand

    2005-01-01

    Background Guanylic nucleotides are both macromolecules constituents and crucial regulators for a variety of cellular processes. Therefore, their intracellular concentration must be strictly controlled. Consistently both yeast and mammalian cells tightly correlate the transcription of genes encoding enzymes critical for guanylic nucleotides biosynthesis with the proliferation state of the cell population. Results To gain insight into the molecular relationships connecting intracellular guanylic nucleotide levels and cellular proliferation, we have studied the consequences of guanylic nucleotide limitation on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle progression. We first utilized mycophenolic acid, an immunosuppressive drug that specifically inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, the enzyme catalyzing the first committed step in de novo GMP biosynthesis. To approach this system physiologically, we next developed yeast mutants for which the intracellular guanylic nucleotide pools can be modulated through changes of growth conditions. In both the pharmacological and genetic approaches, we found that guanylic nucleotide limitation generated a mother-daughter separation defect, characterized by cells with two unseparated daughters. We then showed that this separation defect resulted from cell wall perturbations but not from impaired cytokinesis. Importantly, cells with similar separation defects were found in a wild type untreated yeast population entering quiescence upon nutrient limitation. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that guanylic nucleotide limitation slows budding yeast cell cycle progression, with a severe pause in telophase. At the cellular level, guanylic nucleotide limitation causes the emergence of cells with two unseparated daughters. By fluorescence and electron microscopy, we demonstrate that this phenotype arises from defects in cell wall partition between mother and daughter cells. Because cells with two unseparated daughters are also observed in

  1. Characterization of the two-component, FAD-dependent monooxygenase SgcC that requires carrier protein-tethered substrates for the biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuangjun; Van Lanen, Steven G; Shen, Ben

    2008-05-21

    C-1027 is a potent antitumor antibiotic composed of an apoprotein (CagA) and a reactive enediyne chromophore. The chromophore has four distinct chemical moieties, including an ( S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-beta-tyrosine moiety, the biosynthesis of which from l-alpha-tyrosine requires five proteins: SgcC, SgcC1, SgcC2, SgcC3, and SgcC4; a sixth protein, SgcC5, catalyzes the incorporation of this beta-amino acid moiety into C-1027. Biochemical characterization of SgcC has now revealed that (i) SgcC is a two-component, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent monooxygenase, (ii) SgcC is only active with SgcC2 (peptidyl carrier protein)-tethered substrates, (iii) SgcC-catalyzed hydroxylation requires O 2 and FADH 2, the latter supplied by the C-1027 pathway-specific flavin reductase SgcE6 or Escherichia coli flavin reductase Fre, and (iv) SgcC efficiently catalyzes regioselective hydroxylation of 3-substituted beta-tyrosyl-S-SgcC2 analogues, including the chloro-, bromo-, iodo-, fluoro-, and methyl-substituted analogues, but does not accept 3-hydroxy-beta-tyrosyl-S-SgcC2 as a substrate. Together with the in vitro data for SgcC4, SgcC1, and SgcC3, the results establish that SgcC catalyzes the hydroxylation of ( S)-3-chloro-beta-tyrosyl-S-SgcC2 as the final step in the biosynthesis of the ( S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-beta-tyrosine moiety prior to incorporation into C-1027. SgcC now represents the first biochemically characterized two-component, FAD-dependent monooxygenase that acts on a carrier-protein-tethered aromatic substrate. PMID:18426211

  2. Diterpene Cyclases and the Nature of the Isoprene Fold

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Rong; Zhang, Yonghui; Mann, Francis M.; Huang, Cancan; Mukkamala, Dushyant; Hudock, Michael P.; Mead, Matthew; Prisic, Sladjana; Wang, Ke; Lin, Fu-Yang; Chang, Ting-Kai; Peters, Reuben; Oldfield, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The structures and mechanism of action of many terpene cyclases are known, but there are no structures of diterpene cyclases. Here, we propose structural models based on bioinformatics, site-directed mutagenesis, domain swapping, enzyme inhibition and spectroscopy that help explain the nature of diterpene cyclase structure, function, and evolution. Bacterial diterpene cyclases contain ∼20 α-helices and the same conserved “QW” and DxDD motifs as in triterpene cyclases, indicating the presence of a βγ barrel structure. Plant diterpene cyclases have a similar catalytic motif and βγ-domain structure together with a third, α-domain, forming an αβγ structure, and in H+-initiated cyclases, there is an EDxxD-like Mg2+/diphosphate binding motif located in the γ-domain. The results support a new view of terpene cyclase structure and function and suggest evolution from ancient (βγ) bacterial triterpene cyclases to (βγ) bacterial and thence to (αβγ) plant diterpene cyclases. PMID:20602361

  3. Effects of ophiopogonin B on the proliferation and apoptosis of SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, WEIYUE; ZHANG, QIAOYAN; JIANG, YIPING; LI, FENG; XIN, HAILIANG

    2016-01-01

    Ophiopogonin B (OP-B) is a bioactive component of Radix Ophiopogon japonicus, which is often used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor activity of OP-B in gastric cancer. Cell Counting kit-8, flow cytometry with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate, Hoechst staining, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) detection, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay were used to detect the biological function of SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. The results demonstrated that high concentrations of OP-B (5, 10 and 20 μmol/l) exerted potent antiproliferative effects on SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, apoptotic rates were increased and cell morphology was altered following treatment with OP-B. In addition, OP-B-induced apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells was associated with loss of MMP and increased ROS generation. Western blotting indicated that treatment with OP-B increased the protein expression levels of caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein, whereas the expression levels of Bcl-2 and the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 were decreased. These results suggest that OP-B may be considered a potential inhibitor of gastric cancer progression, and may be used as an alternative compound for its treatment. PMID:27121658

  4. Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Andreas; Meili, Dimirela; Salathe, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cAMP is integral for many physiological processes. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) was recently identified as a widely expressed intracellular source of cAMP in mammalian cells. sAC is evolutionary, structurally, and biochemically distinct from the G-protein-responsive transmembranous adenylyl cyclases (tmAC). The structure of the catalytic unit of sAC is similar to tmAC, but sAC does not contain transmembranous domains, allowing localizations independent of the membranous compartment. sAC activity is stimulated by HCO3-, Ca2+ and is sensitive to physiologically relevant ATP fluctuations. sAC functions as a physiological sensor for carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, and therefore indirectly for pH. Here we review the physiological role of sAC in different human tissues with a major focus on the lung. PMID:25064591

  5. Membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors: an update

    PubMed Central

    Garbers, David L.; Chrisman, Ted D.; Wiegn, Phi; Katafuchi, Takeshi; Albanesi, Joseph P.; Bielinski, Vincent; Barylko, Barbara; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated key roles for several membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors in the regulation of cell hyperplasia, hypertrophy, migration and extracellular matrix production, all of which having an impact on clinically relevant diseases, including tissue remodeling after injury. Additionally, cell differentiation, and even tumor progression, can be profoundly influenced by one or more of these receptors. Some of these receptors also mediate important communication between the heart and intestine, and the kidney to regulate blood volume and Na+ balance. PMID:16815030

  6. Chelidonine induces mitotic slippage and apoptotic-like death in SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhongyuan; Zou, Xiang; Zhang, Xiujuan; Sheng, Jiejing; Wang, Yumeng; Wang, Jiaqi; Wang, Chao; Ji, Yubin

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chelidonine on mitotic slippage and apoptotic-like death in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells. The MTT assay was performed to detect the antiproliferative effect of chelidonine. Following treatment with chelidonine (10 µmol/l), the ultrastructure changes in SGC-7901, MCF-7 and HepG2 cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The effects of chelidonine on G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells were determined by flow cytometry. Indirect immunofluorescence assay and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were used to detect the phosphorylation level of histone H3 (Ser10) and microtubule formation was detected using LSCM following immunofluorescent labeling. Subsequent to treatment with chelidonine (10 µmol/l), expression levels of mitotic slippage-associated proteins, including BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B (BubR1), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and cyclin B1, and apoptosis-associated protein, caspase-3 were examined by western blotting at 24, 48 and 72 h. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of chelidonine was 23.13 µmol/l over 48 h and chelidonine induced G2/M phase arrest of cells. The phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10 was significantly increased following treatment with chelidonine for 24 h, indicating that chelidonine arrested the SGC-7901 cells in the M phase. Chelidonine inhibited microtubule polymerization, destroyed microtubule structures and induced cell cycle arrest in the M phase. Giant cells were observed with multiple micronuclei of varying sizes, which indicated that following a prolonged arrest in the M phase, the cells underwent mitotic catastrophe. Western blotting demonstrated that the protein expression levels of BubR1, cyclin B1 and Cdk1 decreased significantly between 48 and 72 h. Low expression levels of BubR1 and inactivation of the cyclin B1-Cdk1 complex results in the cells being arrested at mitosis and leads to

  7. Facilitation of corticostriatal transmission following pharmacological inhibition of striatal phosphodiesterase 10A: role of nitric oxide-soluble guanylyl cyclase-cGMP signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Padovan-Neto, Fernando E; Sammut, Stephen; Chakroborty, Shreaya; Dec, Alexander M; Threlfell, Sarah; Campbell, Peter W; Mudrakola, Vishnu; Harms, John F; Schmidt, Christopher J; West, Anthony R

    2015-04-01

    The striatum contains a rich variety of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which play a critical role in the regulation of cAMP and cGMP signaling. The dual-substrate enzyme PDE10A is the most highly expressed PDE in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) with low micromolar affinity for both cyclic nucleotides. Previously, we have shown that systemic and local administration of the selective PDE10A inhibitor TP-10 potently increased the responsiveness of MSNs to cortical stimulation. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying PDE10A inhibitor-induced changes in corticostriatal transmission are only partially understood. The current studies assessed the respective roles of cAMP and cGMP in the above effects using soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) or adenylate cyclase (AC) specific inhibitors. Cortically evoked spike activity was monitored in urethane-anesthetized rats using in vivo extracellular recordings performed proximal to a microdialysis probe during local infusion of vehicle, the selective sGC inhibitor ODQ, or the selective AC inhibitor SQ 22536. Systemic administration of TP-10 (3.2 mg/kg) robustly increased cortically evoked spike activity in a manner that was blocked following intrastriatal infusion of ODQ (50 μm). The effects of TP-10 on evoked activity were due to accumulation of cGMP, rather than cAMP, as the AC inhibitor SQ was without effect. Consistent with these observations, studies in neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) knock-out (KO) mice confirmed that PDE10A operates downstream of nNOS to limit cGMP production and excitatory corticostriatal transmission. Thus, stimulation of PDE10A acts to attenuate corticostriatal transmission in a manner largely dependent on effects directed at the NO-sGC-cGMP signaling cascade. PMID:25855188

  8. Carnosine Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cells through Both of the Mitochondrial Respiration and Glycolysis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yao; Yang, Jianbo; Li, Juan; Shi, Xiaojie; Ouyang, Li; Tian, Yueyang; Lu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been recently demonstrated to possess anti-tumor activity. However, its underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of carnosine on the cell viability and proliferation of the cultured human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Carnosine treatment did not induce cell apoptosis or necrosis, but reduced the proliferative capacity of SGC-7901 cells. Seahorse analysis showed SGC-7901 cells cultured with pyruvate have active mitochondria, and depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation more than glycolysis pathway for generation of ATP. Carnosine markedly decreased the absolute value of mitochondrial ATP-linked respiration, and reduced the maximal oxygen consumption and spare respiratory capacity, which may reduce mitochondrial function correlated with proliferative potential. Simultaneously, carnosine also reduced the extracellular acidification rate and glycolysis of SGC-7901 cells. Our results suggested that carnosine is a potential regulator of energy metabolism of SGC-7901 cells both in the anaerobic and aerobic pathways, and provided a clue for preclinical and clinical evaluation of carnosine for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:25115854

  9. Antagonism of soluble guanylyl cyclase attenuates cutaneous vasodilation during whole body heat stress and local warming in humans.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Dean L; Zhao, Joan L; Wu, Yubo; Johnson, John M

    2011-05-01

    We hypothesized that nitric oxide activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) participates in cutaneous vasodilation during whole body heat stress and local skin warming. We examined the effects of the sGC inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), on reflex skin blood flow responses to whole body heat stress and on nonreflex responses to increased local skin temperature. Blood flow was monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry, and blood pressure by Finapres to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Intradermal microdialysis was used to treat one site with 1 mM ODQ in 2% DMSO and Ringer, a second site with 2% DMSO in Ringer, and a third site received Ringer. In protocol 1, after a period of normothermia, whole body heat stress was induced. In protocol 2, local heating units warmed local skin temperature from 34 to 41°C to cause local vasodilation. In protocol 1, in normothermia, CVC did not differ among sites [ODQ, 15 ± 3% maximum CVC (CVC(max)); DMSO, 14 ± 3% CVC(max); Ringer, 17 ± 6% CVC(max); P > 0.05]. During heat stress, ODQ attenuated CVC increases (ODQ, 54 ± 4% CVC(max); DMSO, 64 ± 4% CVC(max); Ringer, 63 ± 4% CVC(max); P < 0.05, ODQ vs. DMSO or Ringer). In protocol 2, at 34°C local temperature, CVC did not differ among sites (ODQ, 17 ± 2% CVC(max); DMSO, 18 ± 4% CVC(max); Ringer, 18 ± 3% CVC(max); P > 0.05). ODQ attenuated CVC increases at 41°C local temperature (ODQ, 54 ± 5% CVC(max); DMSO, 86 ± 4% CVC(max); Ringer, 90 ± 2% CVC(max); P < 0.05 ODQ vs. DMSO or Ringer). sGC participates in neurogenic active vasodilation during heat stress and in the local response to direct skin warming. PMID:21292837

  10. Comparative analysis of plant lycopene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Koc, Ibrahim; Filiz, Ertugrul; Tombuloglu, Huseyin

    2015-10-01

    Carotenoids are essential isoprenoid pigments produced by plants, algae, fungi and bacteria. Lycopene cyclase (LYC) commonly cyclize carotenoids, which is an important branching step in the carotenogenesis, at one or both end of the backbone. Plants have two types of LYC (β-LCY and ϵ-LCY). In this study, plant LYCs were analyzed. Based on domain analysis, all LYCs accommodate lycopene cyclase domain (Pf05834). Furthermore, motif analysis indicated that motifs were conserved among the plants. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, β-LCYs and ϵ-LCYs were classified in β and ϵ groups. Monocot and dicot plants separated from each other in the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, Oryza sativa Japonica Group and Zea mays of LYCs as monocot plants and Vitis vinifera and Solanum lycopersicum of LYCs as dicot plants were analyzed. According to nucleotide diversity analysis of β-LCY and ϵ-LCY genes, nucleotide diversities were found to be π: 0.30 and π: 0.25, respectively. The result highlighted β-LCY genes showed higher nucleotide diversity than ϵ-LCY genes. LYCs interacting genes and their co-expression partners were also predicted using String server. The obtained data suggested the importance of LYCs in carotenoid metabolism. 3D modeling revealed that depicted structures were similar in O. sativa, Z mays, S. lycopersicum, and V. vinifera β-LCYs and ϵ-LCYs. Likewise, the predicted binding sites were highly similar between O. sativa, Z mays, S. lycopersicum, and V. vinifera LCYs. Most importantly, analysis elucidated the V/IXGXGXXGXXXA motif for both type of LYC (β-LCY and ϵ-LCY). This motif related to Rossmann fold domain and probably provides a flat platform for binding of FAD in O. sativa, Z mays, S. lycopersicum, and V. vinifera β-LCYs and ϵ-LCYs with conserved structure. In addition to lycopene cyclase domain, the V/IXGXGXXGXXXA motif can be used for exploring LYCs proteins and to annotate the function of unknown proteins containing lycopene cyclase

  11. Adenylyl cyclases in the digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Gorelick, Fred; Glaser, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of widely distributed enzymes whose functions are very diverse. There are nine known transmembrane AC isoforms activated by Gαs. Each has its own pattern of expression in the digestive system and differential regulation of function by Ca2+ and other intracellular signals. In addition to the transmembrane isoforms, one AC is soluble and exhibits distinct regulation. In this review, the basic structure, regulation and physiological roles of ACs in the digestive system are discussed. PMID:24521753

  12. Adenylyl cyclases in the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Gorelick, Fred; Glaser, Shannon

    2014-06-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of widely distributed enzymes whose functions are very diverse. There are nine known transmembrane AC isoforms activated by Gαs. Each has its own pattern of expression in the digestive system and differential regulation of function by Ca(2+) and other intracellular signals. In addition to the transmembrane isoforms, one AC is soluble and exhibits distinct regulation. In this review, the basic structure, regulation and physiological roles of ACs in the digestive system are discussed. PMID:24521753

  13. Cooperative substrate binding by a diguanylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maycon C; Teixeira, Raphael D; Andrade, Maxuel O; Pinheiro, Glaucia M S; Ramos, Carlos H I; Farah, Chuck S

    2015-01-30

    XAC0610, from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, is a large multi-domain protein containing one GAF (cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases, adenylyl cyclases and FhlA) domain, four PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) domains and one GGDEF domain. This protein has a demonstrable in vivo and in vitro diguanylate cyclase (DGC) activity that leads to the production of cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), a ubiquitous bacterial signaling molecule. Analysis of a XacΔ0610 knockout strain revealed that XAC0610 plays a role in the regulation of Xac motility and resistance to H2O2. Site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved DGC lysine residue (Lys759 in XAC0610) resulted in a severe reduction in XAC0610 DGC activity. Furthermore, experimental and in silico analyses suggest that XAC0610 is not subject to allosteric product inhibition, a common regulatory mechanism for DGC activity control. Instead, steady-state kinetics of XAC0610 DGC activity revealed a positive cooperative effect of the GTP substrate with a dissociation constant for the binding of the first GTP molecule (K1) approximately 5× greater than the dissociation constant for the binding of the second GTP molecule (K2). We present a general kinetics scheme that should be used when analyzing DGC kinetics data and propose that cooperative GTP binding could be a common, though up to now overlooked, feature of these enzymes that may in some cases offer a physiologically relevant mechanism for regulation of DGC activity in vivo. PMID:25463434

  14. PEITC reverse multi-drug resistance of human gastric cancer SGC7901/DDP cell line.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tao; Song, Xin; Liu, Yu-Fen; Wang, Wen-Yue

    2014-04-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world and nearly all patients who respond initially to cisplatin later develop drug resistance, indicating multi-drug resistance is an essential aspect of the failure of treatment. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) has been implicated in inhibiting metastasis of several types of human cancer. However, the effect and potential mechanism of PEITC reversed multi-drug resistance of human gastric cancer is not fully clear. We have identified the role of PEITC in multi-drug resistance reversal of human gastric cancer SGC7901/DDP cell line. PEITC inhibited cisplatin-resistant human SGC7901/DDP cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, causing increased apoptosis, ROS generation, glutathione depletion, accumulation of Rhodamine-123, decreased expression of P-glycoprotein and cell cycle arrest. mRNA and protein expression of the multi-drug resistance gene (MDR1), multi-drug resistance-associated protein (MRP1), excision repair cross-complementing gene 1 (ERCC1), survivin, and Mad2 was decreased, and phosphorylation of Akt and transcriptional activation of NF-κB were suppressed. PEITC may be useful as the therapeutic strategy for overcoming multi-drug resistance through suppressing the PI3K-Akt pathway in human gastric cancer. PMID:23956061

  15. Functional non-nucleoside adenylyl cyclase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lelle, Marco; Hameed, Abdul; Ackermann, Lisa-Maria; Kaloyanova, Stefka; Wagner, Manfred; Berisha, Filip; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Peneva, Kalina

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we describe the synthesis of novel functional non-nucleoside adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, which can be easily modified with thiol containing biomolecules such as tumour targeting structures. The linkage between inhibitor and biomolecule contains cleavable bonds to enable efficient intracellular delivery in the reductive milieu of the cytosol as well as in the acidic environment within endosomes and lysosomes. The suitability of this synthetic approach was shown by the successful bioconjugation of a poor cell-permeable inhibitor with a cell-penetrating peptide. Additionally, we have demonstrated the excellent inhibitory effect of the compounds presented here in a live-cell Förster resonance energy transfer-based assay in human embryonic kidney cells. PMID:25319071

  16. Adenylate cyclases involvement in pathogenicity, a minireview.

    PubMed

    Costache, Adriana; Bucurenci, Nadia; Onu, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP), one of the most important secondary messengers, is produced by adenylate cyclase (AC) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). AC is a widespread enzyme, being present both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although they have the same enzymatic activity (ATP cyclization), the structure of these proteins varies, depending on their function and the producing organism. Some pathogenic bacteria utilize these enzymes as toxins which interact with calmodulin (or another eukaryote activator), causing intense cAMP synthesis and disruption of infected cell functions. In contrast, other pathogenic bacteria benefit of augmentation of AC activity for their own function. Based on sequence analysis ofAC catalytic domain from two pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus anthracis and Bordetellapertussis) with known three-dimensional structures, a possible secondary structure for 1-255 amino acid fragment from Pseudomonas aeruginosa AC (with 80TKGFSVKGKSS90 as the ATP binding site) is proposed. PMID:23947014

  17. Ethanolic extract of Tulipa edulis Bak induces apoptosis in SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells via the mitochondrial signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIN, RUHUI; LI, ZUANFANG; LIN, JIUMAO; YE, JINXIA; CAI, QIAOYAN; CHEN, LIDIAN; PENG, JUN

    2015-01-01

    Tulipa edulis Bak (TEB) is an active ingredient in various traditional Chinese medicine compounds and is commonly used to treat swelling and redness, remove toxicity and eliminate stagnation, as well as to prevent and treat certain cancer types. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of TEB remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of the ethanolic extract of TEB (EETEB) on SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells. An MTT assay was performed to analyze cell viability. In addition, transmission electron microscopy, an Annexin V/fluorescein isothiocyanate assay, a JC-1 assay and laser scanning confocal microscopy with DAPI staining were used to determine the rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression levels of the apoptosis gene and protein. EETEB was identified to inhibit the growth of SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induce changes in cell morphology. At the molecular level, EETEB induced SGC-7901 cell DNA fragmentation, loss of plasma membrane and asymmetrical collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential, while it increased the expression of pro-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein and reduced expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Thus, the results of the current study revealed that the application of EETEB may inhibit the growth of the SGC-7901 cells due to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. PMID:26622854

  18. A study of the single SGC7901 and GES1 cell using synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Qi, Zeming; Wang, Shengyi; Hu, Meicong; Liu, Gang; Tian, Yangchao

    2011-05-01

    In order to obtain unique information of the single gastric cancer cell and investigate gastric cancer further at the cellular and subcellular level, synchrotron infrared (SR-IR) microspectroscopy and imaging was used to study human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SGC7901 and normal gastric mucosal epithelial cell line GES1. When we compared the infrared micro-spectra of the SGC7901 cells with those of the GES1 cells, the peak height ratios of 1121 cm -1/1020 cm -1 (RNA/DNA) of the SGC7901 cells were significantly higher than those of the GES1 cells, which might be useful for distinguishing malignant cells from normal cells. Furthermore, chemical imaging reveals that the amide II/the amide I ratio of the SGC7901 cell is lower than that of the GES1 cell in the most intense absorption region of vPO2-. The result indicates the study of the single gastric cancer cell at subcellular level by synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy and imaging can provide more detailed information which is very helpful for the research and diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  19. Guanyl nucleotide interactions with dopaminergic binding sites labeled by (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol in human caudate and putamen: guanyl nucleotides enhance ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation and cause an apparent loss of high affinity binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Andorn, A.C.; Bacon, B.R.; Nguyen-Hunh, A.T.; Parlato, S.J.; Stitts, J.A.

    1988-02-01

    The human caudate and putamen contain two high affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol. Both of these affinity states exhibit dopaminergic selectivity. Ascorbic acid, at 0.1 mM, induces a slow loss of the low affinity component of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding in these tissues. The addition of guanyl nucleotides to the ascorbate produces a more rapid loss of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding which includes a loss of the highest affinity state for (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol. Ascorbate induces lipid peroxidation in human caudate and putamen, an effect that is further enhanced by guanyl and inosine nucleotides. In the absence of ascorbate, guanyl nucleotides have no effect on (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding but do decrease the affinity of dopamine at each affinity state greater than 60-fold. In the absence of ascorbate, guanyl nucleotides apparently decrease agonist affinity at human brain dopamine2-binding sites without causing an interconversion of agonist affinity states.

  20. Adenylate cyclase activity in a higher plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed Central

    Carricarte, V C; Bianchini, G M; Muschietti, J P; Téllez-Iñón, M T; Perticari, A; Torres, N; Flawiá, M M

    1988-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase activity in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) roots was partially characterized. The enzyme activity remains in the supernatant fluid after centrifugation at 105,000 g and shows in crude extracts an apparent Mr of about 84,000. The enzyme is active with Mg2+ and Ca2+ as bivalent cations, and is inhibited by EGTA and by chlorpromazine. Calmodulin from bovine brain or spinach leaves activates this adenylate cyclase. PMID:3128270

  1. IFN-induced Guanylate Binding Proteins in Inflammasome Activation and Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bae-Hoon; Chee, Jonathan D.; Bradfield, Clinton J.; Park, Eui-Soon; Kumar, Pradeep; MacMicking, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional views of the inflammasome highlight pre-existing core components being assembled under basal conditions shortly after infection or tissue damage. Recent work, however, suggests the inflammasome machinery is also subject to tunable or inducible signals that may accelerate its autocatalytic properties and dictate where inflammasome assembly takes place in the cell. Many of these immune signals operate downstream of interferon (IFN) receptors to elicit inflammasome regulators, including a new family of IFN-induced GTPases termed guanylate binding proteins (GBPs). Here, we examine the critical roles for IFN-induced GBPs in directing inflammasome subtype-specific responses and their consequences for cell-autonomous immunity against a wide variety of microbial pathogens. We discuss emerging mechanisms of action and the potential impact of these GBPs on predisposition to sepsis and other infectious or inflammatory diseases. PMID:27092805

  2. Anisotropic mechanical response of the enzyme Guanylate Kinase perturbed by the DNA molecular spring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Andrew; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2010-03-01

    Protein molecules are semi-rigid objects with organized but fluctuating conformation. For Guanylate Kinase, which catalyzes phosphoryl transfer between ATP and GMP, a large conformational change upon substrate binding occurs which is essential for enzymatic activity. With a DNA molecular spring stretching the molecule in distinct ways, we demonstrate that the enzymatic functions of substrate binding and phosphoryl transfer can be separately controlled mechanically. Three different attachment points of the DNA spring on the surface of the protein were tested, corresponding to stretching the protein along three different directions. Using activity measurements with titration over substrate concentration, the kinetic parameters (i.e., binding affinity of substrates and catalytic rate constant) based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics were obtained in the presence and absence of the three different mechanical perturbations.

  3. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane as an efficient catalyst in the guanylation reaction of amines.

    PubMed

    Antiñolo, Antonio; Carrillo-Hermosilla, Fernando; Fernández-Galán, Rafael; Martínez-Ferrer, Jaime; Alonso-Moreno, Carlos; Bravo, Iván; Moreno-Blázquez, Sonia; Salgado, Manuel; Villaseñor, Elena; Albaladejo, José

    2016-06-28

    Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, [B(C6F5)3], has been used as an efficient catalyst in the guanylation reaction of amines with carbodiimide under mild conditions. A combined approach involving NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations was employed to gain a better insight into the mechanistic features of this process. The results allowed us to propose a new Lewis acid-assisted Brønsted acidic pathway for the guanylation reaction. The process starts with the interaction of tris(pentafluorphenyl)borane and the amine to form the corresponding adduct, [(C6F5)3B-NRH2] , followed by a straightforward proton transfer to one of the nitrogen atoms of the carbodiimide, (i)PrN[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]N(i)Pr, to produce, in two consequent steps, a guanidine-borane adduct, [(C6F5)3B-NRC(N(i)PrH)2] . The rupture of this adduct liberates the guanidine product RNC(N(i)PrH)2 and interaction with additional amine restarts the catalytic cycle. DFT studies have been carried out in order to study the thermodynamic characteristics of the proposed pathway. Significant borane adducts with amines and guanidines have been isolated and characterized by multinuclear NMR in order to study the N-B interaction and to propose the existence of possible Frustrated Lewis Pairs. Additionally, the molecular structures of significant components of the catalytic cycle, namely 4-tert-butylaniline-[B(C6F5)3] adduct and both free and [B(C6F5)3]-bonded 1-(phenyl)-2,3-diisopropylguanidine, and respectively, have been established by X-ray diffraction. PMID:27278089

  4. Phylogenetic distribution of extracellular guanyl-preferring ribonucleases renews taxonomic status of two Bacillus strains.

    PubMed

    Ulyanova, Vera; Shah Mahmud, Raihan; Dudkina, Elena; Vershinina, Valentina; Domann, Eugen; Ilinskaya, Olga

    2016-09-12

    The potential of microbial ribonucleases as promising antitumor and antiviral agents, determines today's directions of their study. One direction is connected with biodiversity of RNases. We have analyzed completed and drafted Bacillus genomes deposited in GenBank for the presence of coding regions similar to the gene of an extracellular guanyl-preferring RNase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (barnase). Orthologues of the barnase gene were detected in 9 species out of 83. All of these belong to "B. subtilis" group within the genus. B. subtilis itself, as well as some other species within this group, lack such types of RNases. RNases similar to barnase were also found in species of "B. cereus" group as a part of plasmid-encoded S-layer toxins. It was also found that taxonomic states of culture collection strains, which were initially described based on a limited set of phenotypic characteristics, can be misleading and need to be confirmed. Using several approaches such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), sequencing of genes for 16S ribosomal RNA and RNA polymerase subunit beta followed by reconstruction of phylogenetic trees, we have re-identified two RNase-secreting Bacillus strains: B. thuringiensis B-388 which should be assigned as B. altitudinis B388 and B. intermedius 7P which should be renamed as B. pumilus 7P. Therefore, small secreted guanyl-preferring RNases are the feature of "B. subtilis" group only, which is characterized by distinctive lifestyle and adaptation strategies to environment. PMID:27373509

  5. Novel hopanoid cyclases from the environment.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ann; Flood Page, Sarah R; Jorgenson, Tyler L; Fischer, Woodward W; Higgins, Meytal B

    2007-09-01

    Hopanoids are ubiquitous isoprenoid lipids found in modern biota, in recent sediments and in low-maturity sedimentary rocks. Because these lipids primarily are derived from bacteria, they are used as proxies to help decipher geobiological communities. To date, much of the information about sources of hopanoids has come from surveys of culture collections, an approach that does not address the vast fraction of prokaryotic communities that remains uncharacterized. Here we investigated the phylogeny of hopanoid producers using culture-independent methods. We obtained 79 new sequences of squalene-hopene cyclase genes (sqhC) from marine and lacustrine bacterioplankton and analysed them along with all 31 sqhC fragments available from existing metagenomics libraries. The environmental sqhCs average only 60% translated amino acid identity to their closest relatives in public databases. The data imply that the sources of these important geologic biomarkers remain largely unknown. In particular, genes affiliated with known cyanobacterial sequences were not detected in the contemporary environments analysed here, yet the geologic record contains abundant hopanoids apparently of cyanobacterial origin. The data also suggest that hopanoid biosynthesis is uncommon: < 10% of bacterial species may be capable of producing hopanoids. A better understanding of the contemporary distribution of hopanoid biosynthesis may reveal fundamental insight about the function of these compounds, the organisms in which they are found, and the environmental signals preserved in the sedimentary record. PMID:17686016

  6. Neurohypophyseal Hormone-Responsive Adenylate Cyclase from Mammalian Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Douša, Thomas; Hechter, Oscar; Schwartz, Irving L.; Walter, Roderich

    1971-01-01

    The investigation was undertaken to evaluate the direct stimulatory effects of neurohypophyseal hormones upon adenylate cyclase activity in a cell-free, particulate fraction derived from the kidney medulla of various mammalian species. The relative affinity of neurohypophyseal hormones for the receptor component of the adenylate cyclase system (as defined by the concentration of hormone required for half-maximal stimulation) had the order [8-arginine]-vasopressin > [8-lysine]-vasopressin ≫ oxytocin (AVP > LVP ≫ OT) for rat, mouse, rabbit, and ox; in the pig, the order was LVP > AVP ≫ OT. The relative affinities of the three hormones in rat and pig cyclase systems were found to correspond with the relative antidiuretic potencies of these hormones in the intact rat and pig. These findings show that the renal receptor for neurohypophyseal hormones in a particular species exhibits the highest affinity for the specific antidiuretic hormone that occurs naturally in that species. Some of the molecular requirements for the stimulation of rabbit adenylate cyclase were defined by studies of several neurohypophyseal analogs possessing structural changes in positions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, and 9. This investigation introduces the particulate preparation of renal medullary adenylate cyclase as a tool for the analysis of neurohypophyseal hormone-receptor interactions and indicates that this preparation can be adapted to serve as an in vitro bioassay system for antidiuretic hormonal activity. PMID:4331557

  7. Glucagon and adenylate cyclase: binding studies and requirements for activation.

    PubMed

    Levey, G S; Fletcher, M A; Klein, I

    1975-01-01

    Solubilization of myocardial adenylate cyclase abolished responsiveness to glucagon and catecholamines, two of the hormones which activate the membrane-bound enzyme. Adenylate cyclase freed of detergent by DEAE-cellulose chromatography continues to remain unresponsive to hormone stimulation. However, adding purified bovine brain phospholipids--phosphotidylserine and monophosphatidylinositol--restored responsiveness to glucagon and catecholamines, respectively. 125-i-glucagon binding appeared to be independent of phospholipid, since equal binding was observed in the presence or absence of detergent and in the presence or absence of phospholipids. Chromatography of the solubilized preparation on Sephadex G-100 WAS CHARACTERIZED BY 125-I-glucagon binding and fluoride-stimulatable adenylate cyclase activity appearing in the fractions consistent with the void volume, suggesting a molecular weight greater than 100,000 for the receptor-adenylate cyclase complex. Prior incubation of the binding peak with 125-I-glucagon and rechromatography of the bound glucagon on Sephadex G-100 shifted its elution to a later fraction consistent with a smaller-molecular-weight peak. The molecular weight of this material was 24,000 to 28,000, as determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The latter findings are consistent with a dissociable receptor site for glucagon on myocardial adenylate cyclase. PMID:165684

  8. Protein kinase C sensitizes olfactory adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Frings, S

    1993-02-01

    Effects of neurotransmitters on cAMP-mediated signal transduction in frog olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) were studied using in situ spike recordings and radioimmunoassays. Carbachol, applied to the mucosal side of olfactory epithelium, amplified the electrical response of ORCs to cAMP-generating odorants, but did not affect unstimulated cells. A similar augmentation of odorant response was observed in the presence of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC). The electrical response to forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase (AC), was also enhanced by PDBu, and it was attenuated by the PKC inhibitor Goe 6983. Forskolin-induced accumulation of cAMP in olfactory tissue was potentiated by carbachol, serotonin, and PDBu to a similar extent. Potentiation was completely suppressed by the PKC inhibitors Goe 6983, staurosporine, and polymyxin B, suggesting that the sensitivity of olfactory AC to stimulation by odorants and forskolin was increased by PKC. Experiments with deciliated olfactory tissue indicated that sensitization of AC was restricted to sensory cilia of ORCs. To study the effects of cell Ca2+ on these mechanisms, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of olfactory tissue was either increased by ionomycin or decreased by BAPTA/AM. Increasing cell Ca2+ had two effects on cAMP production: (a) the basal cAMP production was enhanced by a mechanism sensitive to inhibitors of calmodulin; and (b) similar to phorbol ester, cell Ca2+ caused sensitization of AC to stimulation by forskolin, an effect sensitive to Goe 6983. Decreasing cell Ca2+ below basal levels rendered AC unresponsive to stimulation by forskolin. These data suggest that a crosstalk mechanism is functional in frog ORCs, linking the sensitivity of AC to the activity of PKC. At increased activity of PKC, olfactory AC becomes more responsive to stimulation by odorants, forskolin, and cell Ca2+. Neurotransmitters appear to use this crosstalk mechanism to regulate olfactory

  9. Identification of sea urchin sperm adenylate cyclase

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) affinity chromatography of a detergent extract of sea urchin sperm yielded approximately 20 major proteins. One of these proteins, of Mr 190,000, was purified and used to immunize rabbits. After absorption with living sperm, the serum reacted monospecifically on one- and two-dimensional Western immunoblots with the Mr 190,000 protein. The anti-190-kD serum inhibited 94% of the adenylate cyclase (AC) activity of the CaM eluate. An immunoaffinity column removed 95% of the AC activity, and the purified (but inactive) Mr 190,000 protein was eluted from the column. The antiserum also inhibited 23% of the activity of bovine brain CaM-sensitive AC and 90% of the activity of horse sperm CaM-sensitive AC. These data support the hypothesis that the Mr 190,000 protein is sea urchin sperm AC. Although this AC bound to CaM, it was not possible to demonstrate directly a Ca2+ or CaM sensitivity. However, two CaM antagonists, calmidazolium and chlorpromazine, both inhibited AC activity, and the inhibition was released by added CaM, suggesting the possibility of regulation of this AC by CaM. Indirect immunofluorescence showed the Mr 190,000 protein to be highly concentrated on only the proximal half of the sea urchin sperm flagellum. This asymmetric localization of AC may be important to its function in flagellar motility. This is the first report of the identification of an AC from animal spermatozoa. PMID:2121742

  10. Molecular Physiology of Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    cGMP controls many cellular functions ranging from growth, viability, and differentiation to contractility, secretion, and ion transport. The mammalian genome encodes seven transmembrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs), GC-A to GC-G, which mainly modulate submembrane cGMP microdomains. These GCs share a unique topology comprising an extracellular domain, a short transmembrane region, and an intracellular COOH-terminal catalytic (cGMP synthesizing) region. GC-A mediates the endocrine effects of atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides regulating arterial blood pressure/volume and energy balance. GC-B is activated by C-type natriuretic peptide, stimulating endochondral ossification in autocrine way. GC-C mediates the paracrine effects of guanylins on intestinal ion transport and epithelial turnover. GC-E and GC-F are expressed in photoreceptor cells of the retina, and their activation by intracellular Ca(2+)-regulated proteins is essential for vision. Finally, in the rodent system two olfactorial GCs, GC-D and GC-G, are activated by low concentrations of CO2and by peptidergic (guanylins) and nonpeptidergic odorants as well as by coolness, which has implications for social behaviors. In the past years advances in human and mouse genetics as well as the development of sensitive biosensors monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of cGMP in living cells have provided novel relevant information about this receptor family. This increased our understanding of the mechanisms of signal transduction, regulation, and (dys)function of the membrane GCs, clarified their relevance for genetic and acquired diseases and, importantly, has revealed novel targets for therapies. The present review aims to illustrate these different features of membrane GCs and the main open questions in this field. PMID:27030537

  11. Suppressive effects on cell proliferation and motility in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells by introducing ulinastatin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junqing; Chen, Xuehua; Su, Liping; Zhu, Zhenggang; Wu, Weize; Zhou, Yunyun

    2016-08-01

    Ulinastatin (UTI) is a kind of urinary trypsin inhibitor regulating broad-spectrum proteases and is used widely in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Some evidence has suggested that UTI has antitumor functions in human carcinomas, but its function in gastric cancer (GC) has not been discussed extensively. In this study, we investigated the effects of UTI on GC SGC-7901 cells in vitro by preincubating cells with the UTI. The expression of the related molecules, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), was investigated at both the mRNA and the protein stages. Activation of uPA was analyzed and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 downstream uPA was detected. According to the results, UTI downregulated uPA expression and significantly suppressed the activation of uPA and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Furthermore, the SGC-7901 cells treated by UTI showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation and impairment of invasion and migration. However, no significant influence was observed on cell apoptosis. By ectopically expressing uPA in SGC-7901 cells, suppression effects of UTI were rescued. We suggest that UTI suppresses GC cell proliferation, motility, and at least partly conducted through uPA. Although the effects of UTI in GC cells need to be validated further, UTI represents a strong therapeutic strategy that is worth following up in GC treatment. PMID:27187019

  12. Apoptosis induced by farrerol in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells through the mitochondrial-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enli; Liang, Taigang; Wang, Xiaojian; Ban, Shurong; Han, Lingge; Li, Qingshan

    2015-09-01

    Farrerol, a typical flavanone isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Rhododendron dauricum L., has been found to show various biological activities. However, to the best of our knowledge, its inhibitory actions against cancer cells have not been reported as yet. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of farrerol on human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Farrerol showed a 50% inhibition of SGC-7901 cell growth at a concentration of 40.4 μmol/l for 24 h according to MTT assays. The cell morphology results indicated that SGC-7901 cells treated with farrerol showed several features of apoptotic cell death, which was also confirmed by the Annexin-V FITC/PI double-staining assay. Further studies showed that farrerol treatment induced the attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential, accompanied by the release of Cyt-c and the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Furthermore, farrerol decreased the gene expression of Bcl-2, whereas the gene expression level of Bax was found to increase after farrerol treatment. These combined results indicated that farrerol can induce apoptosis through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway. PMID:26061993

  13. Apoptosis initiation of β-ionone in SGC-7901 gastric carcinoma cancer cells via a PI3K-AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Dong, Hong-Wei; Sun, Wen-Guang; Liu, Ming; Ibla, Juan C; Liu, Lian-Xin; Parry, John W; Han, Xiao-Hui; Li, Ming-Song; Liu, Jia-Ren

    2013-03-01

    β-ionone has been shown to hold potent anti-proliferative and apoptosis induction properties in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the effects of β-ionone on apoptosis initiation and its possible mechanisms of action, we qualified cell apoptosis, proteins related to apoptosis and a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway in human gastric adenocarcinoma cancer SGC-7901 cells. The results demonstrated that β-ionone-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in SGC-7901 cells treated with β-ionone (25, 50, 100 and 200 μmol/L) for 24 h. β-ionone was also shown to induce the expression of cleaved-caspase-3 and inhibit bcl-2 expression in SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The significantly decreased levels of p-PI3K and p-AKT expression were observed in SGC-7901 cells after β-ionone treatments in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). Thus, the apoptosis induction in SGC-7901 cells by β-ionone may be regulated through a PI3K-AKT pathway. These results demonstrate a potential mechanism by which β-ionone to induce apoptosis initiation in SGC-7901 cells. PMID:23100158

  14. Regulation and organization of adenylyl cyclases and cAMP.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Dermot M F

    2003-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclases are a critically important family of multiply regulated signalling molecules. Their susceptibility to many modes of regulation allows them to integrate the activities of a variety of signalling pathways. However, this property brings with it the problem of imparting specificity and discrimination. Recent studies are revealing the range of strategies utilized by the cyclases to solve this problem. Microdomains are a consequence of these solutions, in which cAMP dynamics may differ from the broad cytosol. Currently evolving methodologies are beginning to reveal cAMP fluctuations in these various compartments. PMID:12940771

  15. Regulation of adenylyl cyclase from Blastocladiella emersonii by guanine nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Terenzi, H; Maia, J C

    1993-11-01

    GTP gamma S stimulates adenylyl cyclase in particulate fractions of Blastocladiella emersonii zoospores. Cholera toxin catalyses the ADP-ribosylation of a membrane protein of a molecular weight (46,000) similar to that of the alpha subunit of Gs found in vertebrate cells. A membrane protein of 46 kDa can also be recognized in Western blots by an antipeptide antiserum (RM/1) raised against the C-terminus of G alpha 2-subunits. These results suggest that a G-protein mediates the regulation of Blastocladiella adenylyl cyclase by guanine nucleotides. PMID:8224237

  16. Oxaliplatin triggers necrosis as well as apoptosis in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ping; Zhu, Xueping; Jin, Wei; Hao, Shumei; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Linjie

    2015-05-01

    Intrinsic apoptotic pathway is considered to be responsible for cell death induced by platinum anticancer drugs. While in this study, we found that, necrosis is an indispensable pathway besides apoptosis in oxaliplatin-treated gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Upon exposure to oxaliplatin, both apoptotic and necrotic features were observed. The majority of dead cells were double positive for Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI). Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential collapsed and caspase cascades were activated. However, ultrastructural changes under transmission electron microscope, coupled with the release of cellular contents, demonstrated the rupture of the plasma membrane. Oxaliplatin administration did not stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and autophagy, but elevated the protein level of Bmf. In addition, receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), but not receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3) and its downstream components participated in this death process. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) blocked oxaliplatin-induced cell death nearly completely, whereas z-VAD-fmk could partially suppress cell death. Oxaliplatin treatment resulted in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) overactivation, as indicated by the increase of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which led to NAD{sup +} and ATP depletion. PARP-1 inhibitor, olaparib, could significantly block oxaliplatin-induced cell death, thus confirming that PARP-1 activation is mainly responsible for the cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin. Phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser139 and translocalization of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) are critical for this death process. Taken together, these results indicate that oxaliplatin can bypass canonical cell death pathways to kill gastric cancer cells, which may be of therapeutic advantage in the treatment of gastric cancer. - Highlights: • Oxaliplatin induces apoptotic and necrotic cell death. • Nec-1 can inhibit oxaliplatin-induced cell death nearly completely. • RIP3 and its

  17. Binding dynamics and energetic insight into the molecular forces driving nucleotide binding by guanylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Kandeel, Mahmoud; Kitade, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium deoxyguanylate pathways are an attractive area of investigation for future metabolic and drug discovery studies due to their unique substrate specificities. We investigated the energetic contribution to guanylate kinase substrate binding and the forces underlying ligand recognition. In the range from 20 to 35°C, the thermodynamic profiles displayed marked decrease in binding enthalpy, while the free energy of binding showed little changes. GMP produced a large binding heat capacity change of -356 cal mol(-1) K(-1), indicating considerable conformational changes upon ligand binding. Interestingly, the calculated ΔCp was -32 cal mol(-1) K(-1), indicating that the accessible surface area is not the central change in substrate binding, and that other entropic forces, including conformational changes, are more predominant. The thermodynamic signature for GMP is inconsistent with rigid-body association, while dGMP showed more or less rigid-body association. These binding profiles explain the poor catalytic efficiency and low affinity for dGMP compared with GMP. At low temperature, the ligands bind to the receptor site under the effect of hydrophobic forces. Interestingly, by increasing the temperature, the entropic forces gradually vanish and proceed to a nonfavorable contribution, and the interaction occurs mainly through bonding, electrostatic forces, and van der Waals interactions. PMID:21360614

  18. Guanylate Binding Protein (GBP) 5 Is an Interferon-Inducible Inhibitor of HIV-1 Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Krapp, Christian; Hotter, Dominik; Gawanbacht, Ali; McLaren, Paul J; Kluge, Silvia F; Stürzel, Christina M; Mack, Katharina; Reith, Elisabeth; Engelhart, Susanne; Ciuffi, Angela; Hornung, Veit; Sauter, Daniel; Telenti, Amalio; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2016-04-13

    Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are an interferon (IFN)-inducible subfamily of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) with well-established activity against intracellular bacteria and parasites. Here we show that GBP5 potently restricts HIV-1 and other retroviruses. GBP5 is expressed in the primary target cells of HIV-1, where it impairs viral infectivity by interfering with the processing and virion incorporation of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). GBP5 levels in macrophages determine and inversely correlate with infectious HIV-1 yield over several orders of magnitude, which may explain the high donor variability in macrophage susceptibility to HIV. Antiviral activity requires Golgi localization of GBP5, but not its GTPase activity. Start codon mutations in the accessory vpu gene from macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains conferred partial resistance to GBP5 inhibition by increasing Env expression. Our results identify GBP5 as an antiviral effector of the IFN response and may explain the increased frequency of defective vpu genes in primary HIV-1 strains. PMID:26996307

  19. Guanylate-binding Protein 1 (Gbp1) Contributes to Cell-autonomous Immunity against Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Selleck, Elizabeth M.; Fentress, Sarah J.; Beatty, Wandy L.; Degrandi, Daniel; Pfeffer, Klaus; Virgin, Herbert W.; MacMicking, John D.; Sibley, L. David

    2013-01-01

    IFN-γ activates cells to restrict intracellular pathogens by upregulating cellular effectors including the p65 family of guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs). Here we test the role of Gbp1 in the IFN-γ-dependent control of T. gondii in the mouse model. Virulent strains of T. gondii avoided recruitment of Gbp1 to the parasitophorous vacuole in a strain-dependent manner that was mediated by the parasite virulence factors ROP18, an active serine/threonine kinase, and the pseudokinase ROP5. Increased recruitment of Gbp1 to Δrop18 or Δrop5 parasites was associated with clearance in IFN-γ-activated macrophages in vitro, a process dependent on the autophagy protein Atg5. The increased susceptibility of Δrop18 mutants in IFN-γ-activated macrophages was reverted in Gbp1−/− cells, and decreased virulence of this mutant was compensated in Gbp1−/− mice, which were also more susceptible to challenge with type II strain parasites of intermediate virulence. These findings demonstrate that Gbp1 plays an important role in the IFN-γ-dependent, cell-autonomous control of toxoplasmosis and predict a broader role for this protein in host defense. PMID:23633952

  20. Structure of the GH1 domain of guanylate kinase-associated protein from Rattus norvegicus

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Junsen; Yang, Huiseon; Eom, Soo Hyun; Chun, ChangJu; Im, Young Jun

    2014-09-12

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The crystal structure of GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) was determined. • GKAP GH1 is a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. • The predicted helix α4 associates weakly with the helix α3, suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. - Abstract: Guanylate-kinase-associated protein (GKAP) is a scaffolding protein that links NMDA receptor-PSD-95 to Shank–Homer complexes by protein–protein interactions at the synaptic junction. GKAP family proteins are characterized by the presence of a C-terminal conserved GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) of unknown structure and function. In this study, crystal structure of the GH1 domain of GKAP from Rattus norvegicus was determined in fusion with an N-terminal maltose-binding protein at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure of GKAP GH1 displays a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. The predicted helix α4 which was not visible in the crystal structure associates weakly with the helix α3 suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. The strict conservation of GH1 domain across GKAP family members and the lack of a catalytic active site required for enzyme activity imply that the GH1 domain might serve as a protein–protein interaction module for the synaptic protein clustering.

  1. Differential contribution of the guanylyl cyclase-cyclic GMP-protein kinase G pathway to the proliferation of neural stem cells stimulated by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Bruno P; Morte, Maria Inês; Lourenço, Ana Sofia; Santos, Ana Isabel; Inácio, Angela; Ambrósio, António F; Carvalho, Caetana M; Araújo, Inês M

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important inflammatory mediator involved in the initial boost in the proliferation of neural stem cells following brain injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the proliferative effect of NO are still unclear. The aim of this work was to investigate whether cyclic GMP (cGMP) and the cGMP-dependent kinase (PKG) are involved in the proliferative effect triggered by NO in neural stem cells. For this purpose, cultures of neural stem cells isolated from the mouse subventricular zone (SVZ) were used. We observed that long-term exposure to the NO donor (24 h), NOC-18, increased the proliferation of SVZ cells in a cGMP-dependent manner, since the guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, prevented cell proliferation. Similarly to NOC-18, the cGMP analogue, 8-Br-cGMP, also increased cell proliferation. Interestingly, shorter exposures to NO (6 h) increased cell proliferation in a cGMP-independent manner via the ERK/MAP kinase pathway. The selective inhibitor of PKG, KT5823, prevented the proliferative effect induced by NO at 24 h but not at 6 h. In conclusion, the proliferative effect of NO is initially mediated by the ERK/MAPK pathway, and at later stages by the GC/cGMP/PKG pathway. Thus, our work shows that NO induces neural stem cell proliferation by targeting these two pathways in a biphasic manner. PMID:22378242

  2. Modification of adenylate cyclase by photoaffinity analogs of forskolin

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, L.T.; Nie, Z.M.; Mende, T.J.; Richardson, S.; Chavan, A.; Kolaczkowska, E.; Watt, D.S.; Haley, B.E.; Ho, R.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Photoaffinity labeling analogs of the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (PF) have been synthesized, purified and tested for their effect on preparations of membrane-bound, Lubrol solubilized and forskolin affinity-purified adenylate cyclase (AC). All analogs of forskolin significantly activated AC. However, in the presence of 0.1 to 0.3 microM forskolin, the less active forskolin photoaffinity probes at 100 microM caused inhibition. This inhibition was dose-dependent for PF, suggesting that PF may complete with F for the same binding site(s). After cross-linking (125I)PF-M to either membrane or Lubrol-solubilized AC preparations by photolysis, a radiolabeled 100-110 kDa protein band was observed after autoradiography following SDS-PAGE. F at 100 microM blocked the photoradiolabeling of this protein. Radioiodination of forskolin-affinity purified AC showed several protein bands on autoradiogram, however, only one band (Mr = 100-110 kDa) was specifically labeled by (125I)PF-M following photolysis. The photoaffinity-labeled protein of 100-110 kDa of AC preparation of rat adipocyte may be the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase of rat adipocyte itself as supported by the facts that (a) no other AC-regulatory proteins are known to be of this size, (b) the catalytic unit of bovine brain enzyme is in the same range and (c) this PF specifically stimulates AC activity when assayed alone, and weekly inhibits forskolin-activation of cyclase. These studies indicate that radiolabeled PF probes may be useful for photolabeling and detecting the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase.

  3. Effects of PDE5 Inhibitors and sGC Stimulators in a Rat Model of Artificial Ureteral Calculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandner, Peter; Tinel, Hanna; Affaitati, Giannapia; Costantini, Raffaele; Giamberardino, Maria Adele

    2015-01-01

    Urinary colics from calculosis are frequent and intense forms of pain whose current pharmacological treatment remains unsatisfactory. New and more effective drugs are needed to control symptoms and improve stone expulsion. Recent evidence suggested that the Nitric Oxide (NO) / cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) / phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) system may contribute to ureteral motility influencing stone expulsion. We investigated if PDE5 inhibitors and sGC stimulators influence ureteral contractility, pain behaviour and stone expulsion in a rat model of ureteral calculosis. We investigated: a)the sex-specific PDE5 distribution in the rat ureter; b)the functional in vitro effects of vardenafil and sildenafil (PDE5 inhibitors) and BAY41-2272 (sGC stimulator) on induced ureteral contractility in rats and c)the in vivo effectiveness of vardenafil and BAY41-2272, alone and combined with ketoprofen, vs hyoscine-N-butylbromide alone or combined with ketoprofen, on behavioural pain indicators and stone expulsion in rats with artificial calculosis in one ureter. PDE5 was abundantly expressed in male and female rats’ ureter. In vitro, both vardenafil and BAY41-2272 significantly relaxed pre-contracted ureteral strips. In vivo, all compounds significantly reduced number and global duration of “ureteral crises” and post-stone lumbar muscle hyperalgesia in calculosis rats. The highest level of reduction of the pain behaviour was observed with BAY41-2272 among all spasmolytics administered alone, and with the combination of ketoprofen with BAY41-2272. The percentage of stone expulsion was maximal in the ketoprofen+BAY41-2272 group. The NO/cGMP/PDE5 pathway is involved in the regulation of ureteral contractility and pain behaviour in urinary calculosis. PDE5 inhibitors and sGC stimulators could become a potent new option for treatment of urinary colic pain. PMID:26509272

  4. Substrate specificity of the adenylation enzyme SgcC1 involved in the biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027.

    PubMed

    Van Lanen, Steven G; Lin, Shuangjun; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Kelleher, Neil L; Shen, Ben

    2006-10-01

    C-1027 is an enediyne antitumor antibiotic composed of a chromophore with four distinct chemical moieties, including an (S)-3-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-beta-phenylalanine moiety that is derived from l-alpha-tyrosine. SgcC4, a novel aminomutase requiring no added co-factor that catalyzes the formation of the first intermediate (S)-beta-tyrosine and subsequently SgcC1 homologous to adenylation domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases, was identified as specific for the SgcC4 product and did not recognize any alpha-amino acids. To definitively establish the substrate for SgcC1, a full kinetic characterization of the enzyme was performed using amino acid-dependent ATP-[(32)P]PP(i) exchange assay to monitor amino acid activation and electrospray ionization-Fourier transform mass spectroscopy to follow the loading of the activated beta-amino acid substrate to the peptidyl carrier protein SgcC2. The data establish (S)-beta-tyrosine as the preferred substrate, although SgcC1 shows promiscuous activity toward aromatic beta-amino acids such as beta-phenylalanine, 3-chloro-beta-tyrosine, and 3-hydroxy-beta-tyrosine, but all were <50-fold efficient. A putative active site mutant P571A adjacent to the invariant aspartic acid residue of all alpha-amino acid-specific adenylation domains known to date was prepared as a preliminary attempt to probe the substrate specificity of SgcC1; however the mutation resulted in a loss of activity with all substrates except (S)-beta-tyrosine, which was 142-fold less efficient relative to the wild-type enzyme. In total, SgcC1 is now confirmed to catalyze the second step in the biosynthesis of the (S)-3-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-beta-phenylalanine moiety of C-1027, presenting downstream enzymes with an (S)-beta-tyrosyl-S-SgcC2 thioester substrate, and represents the first beta-amino acid-specific adenylation enzyme characterized biochemically. PMID:16887797

  5. Characterization of the adenosine receptor in cultured embryonic chick atrial myocytes: Coupling to modulation of contractility and adenylate cyclase activity and identification by direct radioligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, B.T.

    1989-06-01

    Adenosine receptors in a spontaneously contracting atrial myocyte culture from 14-day chick embryos were characterized by radioligand binding studies and by examining the involvement of G-protein in coupling these receptors to a high-affinity state and to the adenylate cyclase and the myocyte contractility. Binding of the antagonist radioligand (3H)-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-diproylxanthine ((3H)CPX) was rapid, reversible and saturable and was to a homogeneous population of sites with a Kd value of 2.1 +/- 0.2 nM and an apparent maximum binding of 26.2 +/- 3 fmol/mg of protein (n = 10, +/- S.E.). Guanyl-5-yl-(beta, gamma-imido)diphosphate had no effect on either the Kd or the maximum binding and CPX reversed the N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and contractility, indicating that (3H) CPX is an antagonist radioligand. Competition curves for (3H) CPX binding by a series of reference adenosine agonists were consistent with labeling of an A1 adenosine receptor and were better fit by a two-site model than by a one-site model. ADP-ribosylation of the G-protein by the endogenous NAD+ in the presence of pertussis toxin shifted the competition curves from bi to monophasic with Ki values similar to those of the KL observed in the absence of prior pertussis intoxication. The adenosine agonists were capable of inhibiting both the adenylate cyclase activity and myocyte contractility in either the absence or the presence of isoproterenol. The A1 adenosine receptor-selective antagonist CPX reversed these agonist effects. The order of ability of the reference adenosine receptor agonists in causing these inhibitory effects was similar to the order of potency of the same agonists in inhibiting the specific (3H)CPX binding (N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine greater than N6-S-phenyl-2-propyladenosine or N-ethyladenosine-5'-uronic acid).

  6. Angiostatin up-regulation in gastric cancer cell SGC7901 inhibits tumorigenesis in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Shi, Yong-Quan; Wu, Kai-Chun; Zhang, De-Xin; Yang, Jing-Hua; Fan, Dai-Ming

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the influence of angiostatin up-regulation on the biologic behavior of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and the potential of angiostatin gene therapy in the treatment of human gastric cancer. METHODS: Mouse angiostatin cDNA was subcloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+) and identified by restriction endonucleases digestion and sequencing. The recombinant vector pcDNA3.1(+)-angio was transfected into human gastric cancer cells SGC7901 with liposome and paralleled with the vector control and the mock control. Angiostatin transcription and protein expression were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot in the stable cell lines selected by G418. Cell proliferation and growth in vitro of the three groups were observed respectively under microscope, cell number counting and FACS. The cells overexpressing angiostatin, vector transfected and untreated were respectively implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 30 days the size of tumors formed was measured, and microvessel density count (MVD) in the tumor tissues was assessed by immunohistochemistry with the primary anti-vWF antibody. RESULTS: The recombinant vector pcDNA3.1(+)-angio was confirmed with the correct sequence of mouse angiostatin under the promoter CMV. After 30 d of transfection and selection with G418, macroscopic resistant cell clones were formed in the experimental group transfected with pcDNA 3.1(+)-angio and the vector control. But no untreated cells survived in the mock control. Angiostatin mRNA transcription and protein expression were detected in the experimental group. No significant differences were observed among the three groups in cell morphology, cell growth curves and cell cycle phase distributions in vitro. However, in nude mice model, markedly inhibited tumorigenesis and slowed tumor expansion were observed in the experimental group as compared with the controls, which was paralleled with decreased microvessel density in and around tumor tissues (P

  7. Soluble guanylyl cyclase-activated cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits arterial smooth muscle cell migration independent of VASP-serine 239 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Holt, Andrew W; Martin, Danielle N; Shaver, Patti R; Adderley, Shaquria P; Stone, Joshua D; Joshi, Chintamani N; Francisco, Jake T; Lust, Robert M; Weidner, Douglas A; Shewchuk, Brian M; Tulis, David A

    2016-09-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) accounts for over half of all cardiovascular disease-related deaths. Uncontrolled arterial smooth muscle (ASM) cell migration is a major component of CAD pathogenesis and efforts aimed at attenuating its progression are clinically essential. Cyclic nucleotide signaling has long been studied for its growth-mitigating properties in the setting of CAD and other vascular disorders. Heme-containing soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) synthesizes cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and maintains vascular homeostasis predominantly through cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling. Considering that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can interfere with appropriate sGC signaling by oxidizing the cyclase heme moiety and so are associated with several CVD pathologies, the current study was designed to test the hypothesis that heme-independent sGC activation by BAY 60-2770 (BAY60) maintains cGMP levels despite heme oxidation and inhibits ASM cell migration through phosphorylation of the PKG target and actin-binding vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). First, using the heme oxidant ODQ, cGMP content was potentiated in the presence of BAY60. Using a rat model of arterial growth, BAY60 significantly reduced neointima formation and luminal narrowing compared to vehicle (VEH)-treated controls. In rat ASM cells BAY60 significantly attenuated cell migration, reduced G:F actin, and increased PKG activity and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation (pVASP·S239) compared to VEH controls. Site-directed mutagenesis was then used to generate overexpressing full-length wild type VASP (FL-VASP/WT), VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-mimetic (FL-VASP/239D) and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-resistant (FL-VASP/239A) ASM cell mutants. Surprisingly, FL-VASP/239D negated the inhibitory effects of FL-VASP/WT and FL-VASP/239A cells on migration. Furthermore, when FL-VASP mutants were treated with BAY60, only the FL-VASP/239D group showed reduced migration compared to its VEH controls

  8. Origin of the Heterogeneous Distribution of the Yield of Guanyl Radical in UV Laser Photolyzed DNA

    PubMed Central

    Angelov, Dimitar; Beylot, Benedicte; Spassky, Annick

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative guanine lesions were analyzed, at the nucleotide level, within DNA exposed to nanosecond ultraviolet (266 nm) laser pulses of variable intensity (0.002–0.1 J/cm2). Experiments were carried out, at room temperature, in TE buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5; 1 mM EDTA) containing 35 mM NaCl, on 5′-end radioactively labeled double-stranded and single-stranded oligomer DNA at a size of 33–37 nucleobases. Lesions were analyzed on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by taking advantage of the specific removal of 8-oxodG from DNA by the formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg protein) and of the differential sensitivity of 8-oxodG and oxazolone to piperidine. The quantum yields of lesions at individual sites, determined from the normalized intensities of bands, were plotted against the irradiation energy levels. Simplified model fitting of the experimental data enabled to evaluate the spectroscopic parameters characterizing excitation and photoionization processes. Results show that the distribution of guanine residues, excited to the lowest triplet state or photoionized, is heterogeneous and depends on the primary and secondary DNA structure. These findings are generalized in terms of excitation energy and charge-migration mediated biphotonic ionization. On the basis of the changes in the yield of the guanyl radical resulting from local helical perturbations in the DNA π-stack, it can be assessed that the distance range of migration is <6–8 bp. PMID:15613625

  9. Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide-protein HEG-5 inhibits SGC-7901 cell growth via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zan, Xinyi; Cui, Fengjie; Li, Yunhong; Yang, Yan; Wu, Di; Sun, Wenjing; Ping, Lifeng

    2015-05-01

    HEG-5 is a novel polysaccharide-protein purified from the fermented mycelia of Hericium erinaceus CZ-2. The present study aims to investigate the effects of HEG-5 on proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells SGC-7901. Here, we first uncover that HEG-5 significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of SGC-7901 cells by promoting apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at S phase. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis suggested that HEG-5 could decrease the expressions of Bcl2, PI3K and AKT1, while increase the expressions of Caspase-8, Caspase-3, p53, CDK4, Bax and Bad. These findings indicated that the Caspase-8/-3-dependent, p53-dependent mitochondrial-mediated and PI3k/Akt signaling pathways involved in the molecular events of HEG-5 induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Thus, our study provides in vitro evidence that HEG-5 may be taken as a potential candidate for treating gastric cancer. PMID:25703932

  10. Mechanism of activation of adenylate cyclase by Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Bennett, V; Cuatrecasas, P

    1975-06-01

    The kinetics and properties of the activation of adenylate cyclase by cholera enterotoxin have been examined primarily in toad erythrocytes, but also in avian erythrocytes, rat fat cells and cultured melanoma cells. When cholera toxin is incubated with intact cells it stimulates adenylate cyclase activity, as measured in the subsequently isolated plasma membranes, according to a triphasic time course. This consists of a true lag period of about 30 min, followed by a stage of exponentially increasing adenylate cyclase activity which continues for 110 to 130 min, and finally a period of slow activation which may extend as long as 30 hr in cultured melanoma cells. The progressive activation of adenylate cyclase activity by cholera toxin is interrupted by cell lysis; continued incubation of the isolated membranes under nearly identical conditions does not lead to further activation of the enzyme. The delay in the action of the toxin is not grossly dependent of the number of toxin-receptor (GM1 ganglioside) complexes, and is still seen upon adding a second dose of toxin to partially stimulated cells. Direct measurements indicate negligible intracellular levels of biologically active radioiodinated toxin in either a soluble or a nuclear-bound form. The effects are not prevented by Actinomycin D (20 mug/ml), uromycin (30 mug/ml), cycloheximide (30 mug/ml), sodium fluoride (10 mM) or sodium azide (1 mM); KCN, however, almost completely prevents the action of cholera toxin. The action of the toxin is temperature dependent, occurring at very slow or negligible rates below certain critical temperatures, the values of which depend on the specific animal species. Thetransition for toad erythrocytes occurs at 15 to 17 degrees C, while rat adipocytes and turkey erythrocytes demonstrate a discontinuity at 26 to 30 degrees C. The temperature effects are evident during the lag period as well as during the exponential phase of activation. The rate of decay of the stimulated adenylate

  11. Interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi adenylate cyclase with liver regulatory factors.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenschlos, C; Flawiá, M M; Torruella, M; Torres, H N

    1986-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi adenylate cyclase catalytic subunits may interact with regulatory factors from rat liver membranes, reconstituting heterologous systems which are catalytically active in assay mixtures containing MgATP. The systems show stimulatory responses to glucagon and guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) or fluoride. Reconstitution was obtained by three different methods: fusion of rat liver membranes (pretreated with N-ethylmaleimide) to T. cruzi membranes; interaction of detergent extracts of rat liver membranes with T. cruzi membranes; or interaction of purified preparations of T. cruzi adenylate cyclase and of liver membrane factors in phospholipid vesicles. The liver factors responsible for the guanine nucleotide effect were characterized as the NS protein. Data also indicate that reconstitution requires the presence of a membrane substrate. PMID:2947568

  12. High skeletal muscle adenylate cyclase in malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed Central

    Willner, J H; Cerri, C G; Wood, D S

    1981-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia occurs in humans with several congenital myopathies, usually in response to general anesthesia. Commonly, individuals who develop this syndrome lack symptoms of muscle disease, and their muscle lacks specific pathological changes. A biochemical marker for this myopathy has not previously been available; we found activity of adenylate cyclase and content of cyclic AMP to be abnormally high in skeletal muscle. Secondary modification of protein phosphorylation could explain observed abnormalities of phosphorylase activation and sarcoplasmic reticulum function. PMID:6271806

  13. Yeast mating pheromone alpha factor inhibits adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Liao, H; Thorner, J

    1980-01-01

    The pheromone alpha factor, secreted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells of the alpha mating type, serves to synchronize the opposite mating type (a cells) at G1 as a prelude to fusion of the two cell types. We found that, in vitro, alpha factor inhibited the membrane-bound adenylate cyclase of these cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, one class (ste5) of a cell mutants that grow normally at either 23 degrees or 34 degrees C but that are unable to respond to alpha factor or to mate at the higher temperature possessed an adenylate cyclase activity that was not inhibited by alpha factor at 34 degrees C but was fully sensitive to inhibition at 23 degrees C. Furthermore, addition of cyclic AMP to a cell culture medium shortened the period of pheromone-induced G1 arrest. We conclude that inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity by alpha factor may constitute, at least in part, the biochemical mode of action of the pheromone in vivo. PMID:6246513

  14. Requirements for the adenylyl cyclases in the development of Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Anjard, C; Söderbom, F; Loomis, W F

    2001-09-01

    It has been suggested that all intracellular signaling by cAMP during development of Dictyostelium is mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA, since cells carrying null mutations in the acaA gene that encodes adenylyl cyclase can develop so as to form fruiting bodies under some conditions if PKA is made constitutive by overexpressing the catalytic subunit. However, a second adenylyl cyclase encoded by acrA has recently been found that functions in a cell autonomous fashion during late development. We have found that expression of a modified acaA gene rescues acrA- mutant cells indicating that the only role played by ACR is to produce cAMP. To determine whether cells lacking both adenylyl cyclase genes can develop when PKA is constitutive we disrupted acrA in a acaA- PKA-C(over) strain. When developed at high cell densities, acrA- acaA- PKA-C(over) cells form mounds, express cell type-specific genes at reduced levels and secrete cellulose coats but do not form fruiting bodies or significant numbers of viable spores. Thus, it appears that synthesis of cAMP is required for spore differentiation in Dictyostelium even if PKA activity is high. PMID:11566867

  15. Adenylate cyclase mediates olfactory transduction for a wide variety of odorants.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, G; Nakamura, T; Gold, G H

    1989-01-01

    An odor-stimulated adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] is thought to mediate olfactory transduction in vertebrates. However, it is not known whether the adenylate cyclase serves this function for all odorants or for only certain classes of odorants. To investigate this question, we have compared the abilities of 35 odorants to stimulate the adenylate cyclase and to elicit an electrophysiological response. We report a strong positive correlation between the magnitude of adenylate cyclase stimulation and the summated electrical response of the olfactory epithelium (electro-olfactogram) evoked by individual odorants. We also show that the adenylate cyclase stimulator forskolin equally attenuates the electro-olfactogram response for all odorants tested. These data provide evidence that the adenylate cyclase mediates transduction for a wide variety of odorants. PMID:2787513

  16. Involvement of nuclear receptor RZR/RORγ in melatonin-induced HIF-1α inactivation in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ri-Xiong; Liu, Hui; Xu, Li; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Rui-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    The melatonin nuclear receptor is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily RZR/ROR, which consists of three subtypes (α, β and γ), suggesting that immunomodulatory and antitumor effects through the intracellular action of melatonin depend on nuclear signaling. In the present study, the biological mechanisms of melatonin were elucidated in association with the RZR/RORγ pathway in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells under hypoxia. Melatonin suppressed the activity of RZR/RORγ and SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1) signaling pathway, which is essential for stabilization of hypoxia‑inducible factor-1α (HIF‑1α) during hypoxia. Furthermore, melatonin inhibited the stability of HIF-1α in a time- and conce-ntration-dependent manner in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells during hypoxia. Consistently, siRNA-RZR/RORγ effectively blocked the expression of SENP1, HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in SGC-7901 cells under hypoxia, suggesting the role of nuclear receptor RZR/RORγ in melatonin-inhibited HIF-1α and VEGF accumulation. Moreover, siRNA RZR/RORγ obviously antagonized to inhibit the action of the gastric cancer cell proliferation by melatonin. Our findings suggest that melatonin suppresses HIF-1α accumulation and VEGF generation via inhibition of melatonin nuclear receptor RZR/RORγ in SGC-7901 cells under hypoxia. PMID:26330273

  17. Fangchinoline targets PI3K and suppresses PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in SGC7901 cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng; Ding, Ding; Li, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Fangchinoline, an important compound in Stephania tetrandra S. Moore, as a novel antitumor agent, has been implicated in several types of cancers cells except gastric cancer. To investigate whether fangchinoline affects gastric cancer cells, we detected the signaling pathway by which fangchinoline plays a role in different human gastric cancer cells lines. We found that fangchinoline effectively suppressed proliferation and invasion of SGC7901 cell lines, but not MKN45 cell lines by inhibiting the expression of PI3K and its downstream pathway. All of the Akt/MMP2/MMP9 pathway, Akt/Bad pathway, and Akt/Gsk3β/CDK2 pathway could be inhibited by fangchinoline through inhibition of PI3K. Taken together, these results suggest that fangchinoline targets PI3K in tumor cells that express PI3K abundantly and inhibits the growth and invasive ability of the tumor cells. PMID:25872479

  18. Fangchinoline targets PI3K and suppresses PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in SGC7901 cells

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, FENG; DING, DING; LI, DANDAN

    2015-01-01

    Fangchinoline, an important compound in Stephania tetrandra S. Moore, as a novel antitumor agent, has been implicated in several types of cancers cells except gastric cancer. To investigate whether fangchinoline affects gastric cancer cells, we detected the signaling pathway by which fangchinoline plays a role in different human gastric cancer cells lines. We found that fangchinoline effectively suppressed proliferation and invasion of SGC7901 cell lines, but not MKN45 cell lines by inhibiting the expression of PI3K and its downstream pathway. All of the Akt/MMP2/MMP9 pathway, Akt/Bad pathway, and Akt/Gsk3β/CDK2 pathway could be inhibited by fangchinoline through inhibition of PI3K. Taken together, these results suggest that fangchinoline targets PI3K in tumor cells that express PI3K abundantly and inhibits the growth and invasive ability of the tumor cells. PMID:25872479

  19. Characterization of the SgcF epoxide hydrolase supporting an (R)-vicinal diol intermediate for enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027 biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuangjun; Horsman, Geoffrey P; Chen, Yihua; Li, Wenli; Shen, Ben

    2009-11-18

    C-1027 is a chromoprotein antitumor antibiotic consisting of an apoprotein and the C-1027 chromophore. The C-1027 chromophore possesses four distinct structural moieties-an enediyne core, a deoxy aminosugar, a benzoxazolinate, and an (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-beta-tyrosine-the latter two of which are proposed to be appended to the enediyne core via a convergent biosynthetic strategy. Here we report the in vitro characterization of SgcF, an epoxide hydrolase from the C-1027 biosynthetic gene cluster that catalyzes regio- and stereospecific hydrolysis of styrene oxide, serving as an enediyne core epoxide intermediate mimic, to form a vicinal diol. Abolishment of C-1027 production in the DeltasgcF mutant strain Streptomyces globisporus SB1010 unambiguously establishes that sgcF plays an indispensable role in C-1027 biosynthesis. SgcF efficiently hydrolyzes (S)-styrene oxide, displaying an apparent K(m) of 0.6 +/- 0.1 mM and k(cat) of 48 +/- 1 min(-1), via attack at the alpha-position to exclusively generate the (R)-phenyl vicinal diol, consistent with the stereochemistry of the C-1027 chromophore. These findings support the role of SgcF in the proposed convergent pathway for C-1027 biosynthesis, unveiling an (R)-vicinal diol as a key intermediate. Interestingly, SgcF can also hydrolyze (R)-styrene oxide to afford preferentially the (R)-phenyl vicinal diol via attack at the beta-position, albeit with significantly reduced efficiency (apparent K(m) of 2.0 +/- 0.4 mM and k(cat) = 4.3 +/- 0.3 min(-1)). Although the latter activity unlikely contributes to C-1027 biosynthesis in vivo, such enantioconvergence arising from complementary regioselective hydrolysis of a racemic substrate could be exploited to engineer epoxide hydrolases with improved regio- and/or enantiospecificity. PMID:19856960

  20. Iron Trichloride and Air Mediated Guanylation of Acylthioureas. An Ecological Route to Acylguanidines: Scope and Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Pape, Simon; Wessig, Pablo; Brunner, Heiko

    2016-06-01

    Recently we introduced iron trichloride as an environmentally benign and cost-efficient reagent for the synthesis of N-benzoylguanidines. This highly attractive synthetic approach grants access to a broad spectrum of N-benzoylguanidines under mild conditions in short reaction times. In this work we present an extended scope of our methodology along with the results obtained from mechanistic studies via in situ IR spectroscopy in combination with LC (liquid chromatography)-MS analyses. On the basis of these new mechanistic insights we were able to optimize the synthetic protocol and to develop an alternative mechanistic proposal. In this context the symbiotic roles of iron trichloride and oxygen in the guanylation process are highlighted. PMID:27181741

  1. Guanylate-binding proteins promote AIM2 inflammasome activation during Francisella novicida infection by inducing cytosolic bacteriolysis and DNA release

    PubMed Central

    Dreier, Roland F.; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Anton, Leonie; Rühl, Sebastian; Dussurgey, Sébastien; Dick, Mathias S.; Kistner, Anne; Rigard, Mélanie; Degrandi, Daniel; Pfeffer, Klaus; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Henry, Thomas; Broz, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The AIM2 inflammasome detects double-stranded DNA in the cytosol and induces caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis as well as release of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. AIM2 is critical for host defense against DNA viruses and bacteria that replicate in the cytosol, such as Francisella novicida. AIM2 activation by F. novicida requires bacteriolysis, yet whether this process is accidental or a host-driven immune mechanism remained unclear. Using siRNA screening for nearly 500 interferon-stimulated genes, we identified guanylate-binding proteins GBP2 and GBP5 as key AIM2 activators during F. novicida infection. Their prominent role was validated in vitro and in a mouse model of tularemia. Mechanistically, these two GBPs target cytosolic F. novicida and promote bacteriolysis. Thus, besides their role in host defense against vacuolar pathogens, GBPs also facilitate the presentation of ligands by directly attacking cytosolic bacteria. PMID:25774716

  2. Complete genomic organization of the human erythroid p55 gene (MPP1), a membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologue

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.C.; Metzenberg, A.B.; Sahr, K.E.

    1996-01-15

    Human p55 is an abundantly palmitoylated phosphoprotein of the erythroid membrane. It is the prototype of a newly discovered family of membrane-associated proteins termed MAGUKs (membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologues). The MAGUKs interact with the cytoskeleton and regulate cell proliferation, signaling pathways, and intercellular junctions. Here, we report the complete intron-exon map of the human erythroid p55 gene (HGMW-approved symbol MPP1). The structure of the p55 gene was determined from cosmid clones isolated from a cosmid library specific for the human X chromosome. There is a single copy of the p55 gene, composed of 12 exons and spanning approximately 28 kb in the q28 region of the human X chromosome. The exon sizes range from 69 (exon 5) to 203 bp (intron 2) to {approximately}14 kb (intron 1). The intron-exon boundaries conform to the donor/acceptor consensus sequence, GT-AG, for splice junctions. Several of the exon boundaries correspond to the boundaries of functional domains in the p55 protein. These domains include a SH3 motif and a region that binds to cytoskeletal protein 4.1. In addition, a comparison of the genomic and the primary structures of p55 reveals a highly conserved phosphotyrosine domain located between the protein 4.1 binding domain and the guanylate kinase domain. Finally, promoter activity measurements of the region immediately upstream of the p55 gene, which contains several cis-elements commonly found in housekeeping genes, suggest that a CpG island may be associated with the p55 gene expression in vivo. 42 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Differential effects of ceramides upon adenylyl cyclase subtypes.

    PubMed

    Bösel, A; Pfeuffer, T

    1998-01-30

    Ceramides are reported to stimulate different effector systems, among them atypical protein kinases C (PKCs). When HEK 293 cells, stably expressing adenylyl cyclase type II (AC II), were treated with various ceramide derivatives, adenylyl cyclase activity was enhanced 8-15-fold. The stimulation by the most potent analog, C18/C24 ceramide, was comparable to that by the phorbolester TPA. The stimulatory effect of ceramide was not restricted to AC II, although the type I and type V enzymes were affected less dramatically. Unexpectedly, the dihydro derivatives of ceramides, generally serving as non-activating controls, exhibited only slightly lower stimulation than ceramides, whereas short-chain ceramides (e.g. C2) were without effect. The action of ceramides was at least partially inhibited by okadaic acid, suggesting involvement of a phosphatase. Furthermore, ceramides and TPA operated synergistically. While the PKC inhibitor staurosporine counteracted the action of phorbol-esters, it significantly (2.5x) enhanced the effect of ceramides. PMID:9490008

  4. Crystallization of the class IV adenylyl cyclase from Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Natasha; Kim, Sook-Kyung; Reddy, Prasad T.; Gallagher, D. Travis

    2006-03-01

    The class IV adenylyl cyclase from Y. pestis has been crystallized in an orthorhombic form suitable for structure determination. The class IV adenylyl cyclase from Yersinia pestis has been cloned and crystallized in both a triclinic and an orthorhombic form. An amino-terminal His-tagged construct, from which the tag was removed by thrombin, crystallized in a triclinic form diffracting to 1.9 Å, with one dimer per asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = 33.5, b = 35.5, c = 71.8 Å, α = 88.7, β = 82.5, γ = 65.5°. Several mutants of this construct crystallized but diffracted poorly. A non-His-tagged native construct (179 amino acids, MW = 20.5 kDa) was purified by conventional chromatography and crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. These crystals have unit-cell parameters a = 56.8, b = 118.6, c = 144.5 Å, diffract to 3 Å and probably have two dimers per asymmetric unit and V{sub M} = 3.0 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. Both crystal forms appear to require pH below 5, complicating attempts to incorporate nucleotide ligands into the structure. The native construct has been produced as a selenomethionine derivative and crystallized for phasing and structure determination.

  5. Receptor guanylyl cyclases in Inka cells targeted by eclosion hormone.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jer-Cherng; Yang, Ruey-Bing; Adams, Michael E; Lu, Kuang-Hui

    2009-08-11

    A signature of eclosion hormone (EH) action in insect ecdysis is elevation of cGMP in Inka cells, leading to massive release of ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH) and ecdysis initiation. Although this aspect of EH-induced signal transduction is well known, the receptor mediating this process has not been identified. Here, we describe a receptor guanylyl cyclase BdmGC-1 and its isoform BdmGC-1B in the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis that are activated by EH. The B form exhibits the conserved domains and putative N-glycosylation sites found in BdmGC-1, but possesses an additional 46-amino acid insertion in the extracellular domain and lacks the C-terminal tail of BdmGC-1. Combined immunolabeling and in situ hybridization reveal that BdmGC-1 is expressed in Inka cells. Heterologous expression of BdmGC-1 in HEK cells leads to robust increases in cGMP following exposure to low picomolar concentrations of EH. The B-isoform responds only to higher EH concentrations, suggesting different physiological roles of these cyclases. We propose that BdmGC-1 and BdmGC-1B are high- and low-affinity EH receptors, respectively. PMID:19666575

  6. Role of soluble adenylyl cyclase in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jonathan; Levin, Lonny R.

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the potential place of soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in the framework of signaling in the cardiovascular system. cAMP has been studied as a critical and pleiotropic second messenger in cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle vascular cells for many years. It is involved in the transduction of signaling by catecholamines, prostaglandins, adenosine, and glucagon, just to name a few. These hormones can act via cAMP by binding to a G protein-coupled receptor on the plasma membrane with subsequent activation of a heterotrimeric G protein and its downstream effector, transmembrane adenylyl cyclase. This has long been the canonical standard for cAMP production in a cell. However, the relatively recent discovery of a unique source of cAMP, sAC, creates the potential for a shift in this signaling paradigm. In fact, sAC has been shown to play a role in apoptosis in coronary endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Additionally, it links nutrient utilization with ATP production in the liver and brain, which suggests one of many potential roles for sAC in cardiac function. The possibility of producing cAMP from a source distal to the plasma membrane provides a critical new building block for reconstructing the cellular signaling infrastructure. PMID:22058150

  7. Adenylate cyclase in Arthrospira platensis responds to light through transcription.

    PubMed

    Kashith, M; Keerthana, B; Sriram, S; Ramamurthy, V

    2016-08-19

    Cyclic 3',5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule, but its role in higher plants was in doubt due to its very low concentration. In this study we wanted to look at the flux of cAMP in response to light in algae, considered to be the more primitive form of photosynthetic organisms. While it did not fluctuate very much in the tested green algae, in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis its level was closely linked to exposure to light. The expression from cyaC, the major isoform of adenylate cyclase was strongly influenced by exposure of the cells to light. There was about 300 fold enhancement of cyaC transcripts in cells exposed to light compared to the transcripts in cells in the dark. Although post-translational regulation of adenylate cyclase activity has been widely known, our studies suggest that transcriptional control could also be an important aspect of its regulation in A. platensis. PMID:27311855

  8. Investigation of the role of nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway in ascorbic acid-mediated protection against acute kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Koul, Vaishali; Kaur, Anudeep; Singh, Amrit Pal

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the possible involvement of nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase (NO/sGC) pathway in ascorbic acid (AA)-mediated protection against acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. The rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia by occluding renal pedicles for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The AKI was assessed in terms of measuring creatinine clearance (CrCl), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma uric acid, potassium level, fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa), and microproteinuria. The NO level and oxidative stress in renal tissues were assessed by measuring myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione level. AA (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 3 days before subjecting rats to AKI. In separate groups, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and sGC inhibitor, methylene blue (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered prior to AA treatment in rats. The significant decrease in CrCl and increase in BUN, plasma uric acid, potassium, FeNa, microproteinuria, and oxidative stress in renal tissues demonstrated ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI in rats. The AA treatment ameliorated ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI along with the increase in renal NO level. The pretreatment with L-NAME and methylene blue abolished protective effect of AA. It is concluded that AA protects against ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI. Moreover, the NO/sGC pathway finds its definite involvement in AA-mediated reno-protective effect. PMID:26142728

  9. Regulation of NANC neural bronchoconstriction in vivo in the guinea-pig: involvement of nitric oxide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Y. H.; Barnes, P. J.; Rogers, D. F.

    1993-01-01

    1. We investigated the effect of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and the peptidase alpha-chymotrypsin on non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC neural) bronchoconstriction induced by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves and by capsaicin in anaesthetized guinea-pigs in vivo using pulmonary insufflation pressure (PIP) as an index of bronchial tone. We also investigated the contribution of soluble guanylyl cyclase (SGC) to NANC neural relaxant mechanisms. 2. In the presence of atropine and propranolol, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves induced a frequency-dependent increase in PIP above baseline of 67% at 2.5 Hz, of 128% at 5 Hz and of 230% at 10 Hz. L-NAME (1-50 mg kg-1, i.v.), at doses inducing increases in systemic blood pressure, dose-relatedly potentiated NANC bronchoconstriction. At 10 mg kg-1 i.v., L-NAME significantly (P < 0.05) potentiated NANC bronchoconstriction by a further 106% at 2.5 Hz and a further 147% at 5 Hz but did not potentiate the increase in PIP at 10 Hz. L-NAME did not induce bronchoconstriction in sham-stimulated control animals. D-NAME did not potentiate NANC bronchoconstriction. Raising systemic blood pressure with phenylephrine did not potentiate vagally-induced bronchoconstriction (2.5 Hz). 3. The NO precursor L-arginine, but not D-arginine, (100 mg kg-1, i.v.) significantly reversed the potentiation by L-NAME of NANC bronchoconstriction. L-Arginine alone significantly inhibited neurogenic bronchoconstriction at 10 Hz (by 74%); the inhibition of 25% at 2.5 Hz was not significant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7679032

  10. Asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases (CrtLm) from non-photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Picataggio, S; Rouvière, P E; Cheng, Q

    2004-03-01

    Carotenoids have important functions in photosynthesis, nutrition, and protection against oxidative damage. Some natural carotenoids are asymmetrical molecules that are difficult to produce chemically. Biological production of carotenoids using specific enzymes is a potential alternative to extraction from natural sources. Here we report the isolation of lycopene beta-cyclases that selectively cyclize only one end of lycopene or neurosporene. The crtLm genes encoding the asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases were isolated from non-photosynthetic bacteria that produced monocyclic carotenoids. Co-expression of these crtLm genes with the crtEIB genes from Pantoea stewartii (responsible for lycopene synthesis) resulted in the production of monocyclic gamma-carotene in Escherichia coli. The asymmetric cyclization activity of CrtLm could be inhibited by the lycopene beta-cyclase inhibitor 2-(4-chlorophenylthio)-triethylamine (CPTA). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that bacterial CrtL-type lycopene beta-cyclases might represent an evolutionary link between the common bacterial CrtY-type of lycopene beta-cyclases and plant lycopene beta- and epsilon-cyclases. These lycopene beta-cyclases may be used for efficient production of high-value asymmetrically cyclized carotenoids. PMID:14740205

  11. A C21-Steroidal Glycoside Isolated from the Roots of Cynanchum auriculatum Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Qi; Zhang, Shui-Juan; Lu, Hong; Yang, Bo; Ye, Liang-Fei; Zhang, Ru-Song

    2013-01-01

    Caudatin 3-O-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside (CGII) is one of the C21-steroidal glycosides isolated from the roots of Cynanchum auriculatum ROYLE ex WIGHT. This study aimed to determine the cell growth, cell proliferation, and apoptotic cell death of human gastric cancer cells after CGII treatment. MTT assay was used to determine cell growth; fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was used to evaluate cell cycle distribution and apoptotic cell death. Immunoblotting was applied for measuring the expression of proteins involved in the cell cycle progression. The activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 were detected by colorimetric caspase activity assays. CGII inhibited cell growth of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of SGC-7901 cells with CGII resulted in G1 phase cell cycle arrest, accompanied with decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6. CGII induced cell apoptosis and activated caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9. In contrast, pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk partially abolished the CGII-induced growth inhibition of SGC-7901 cells. In conclusion, CGII inhibits cell growth of human gastric cancer cells by inducing G1 phase cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis cascades. PMID:24454488

  12. Prokaryotic adenylate cyclase toxin stimulates anterior pituitary cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, M.J.; Evans, W.S.; Rogol, A.D.; Weiss, A.A.; Thorner, M.O.; Orth, D.N.; Nicholson, W.E.; Yasumoto, T.; Hewlett, E.L.

    1986-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis synthesis a variety of virulence factors including a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (AC) toxin. Treatment of anterior pituitary cells with this AC toxin resulted in an increase in cellular cAMP levels that was associated with accelerated exocytosis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The kinetics of release of these hormones, however, were markedly different; GH and prolactin were rapidly released, while LH and ACTH secretion was more gradually elevated. Neither dopamine agonists nor somatostatin changes the ability of AC toxin to generate cAMP (up to 2 h). Low concentrations of AC toxin amplified the secretory response to hypophysiotrophic hormones. The authors conclude that bacterial AC toxin can rapidly elevate cAMP levels in anterior pituitary cells and that it is the response that explains the subsequent acceleration of hormone release.

  13. Monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine improve the sensory quality of fermented cooked sausages with 50% and 75% replacement of NaCl with KCl.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Morgano, Marcelo Antônio; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Fermented cooked sausages were produced by replacing 50% and 75% of NaCl with KCl and adding monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine. The manufacturing process was monitored by pH and water activity measurements. The sodium and potassium contents of the resulting products were measured. The color values (L*, a* and b*), texture profiles and sensory profiles were also examined. Replacing 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl depreciated the sensory quality of the products. The reformulated sausages containing monosodium glutamate combined with lysine, taurine, disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate masked the undesirable sensory attributes associated with the replacement of 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl, allowing the production of fermented cooked sausages with good sensory acceptance and approximately 68% sodium reduction. PMID:24008059

  14. Structural and biochemical analysis of the essential diadenylate cyclase CdaA from Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jonathan; Dickmanns, Achim; Neumann, Piotr; Gunka, Katrin; Arens, Johannes; Kaever, Volkhard; Stülke, Jörg; Ficner, Ralf; Commichau, Fabian M

    2015-03-01

    The recently identified second messenger cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is involved in several important cellular processes, such as cell wall metabolism, maintenance of DNA integrity, ion transport, transcription regulation, and allosteric regulation of enzyme function. Interestingly, c-di-AMP is essential for growth of the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Although the genome of B. subtilis encodes three c-di-AMP-producing diadenlyate cyclases that can functionally replace each other, the phylogenetically related human pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus possess only one enzyme, the diadenlyate cyclase CdaA. Because CdaA is also essential for growth of these bacteria, the enzyme is a promising target for the development of novel antibiotics. Here we present the first crystal structure of the L. monocytogenes CdaA diadenylate cyclase domain that is conserved in many human pathogens. Moreover, biochemical characterization of the cyclase revealed an unusual metal cofactor requirement. PMID:25605729

  15. Structural and Biochemical Analysis of the Essential Diadenylate Cyclase CdaA from Listeria monocytogenes*

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Jonathan; Dickmanns, Achim; Neumann, Piotr; Gunka, Katrin; Arens, Johannes; Kaever, Volkhard; Stülke, Jörg; Ficner, Ralf; Commichau, Fabian M.

    2015-01-01

    The recently identified second messenger cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is involved in several important cellular processes, such as cell wall metabolism, maintenance of DNA integrity, ion transport, transcription regulation, and allosteric regulation of enzyme function. Interestingly, c-di-AMP is essential for growth of the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Although the genome of B. subtilis encodes three c-di-AMP-producing diadenlyate cyclases that can functionally replace each other, the phylogenetically related human pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus possess only one enzyme, the diadenlyate cyclase CdaA. Because CdaA is also essential for growth of these bacteria, the enzyme is a promising target for the development of novel antibiotics. Here we present the first crystal structure of the L. monocytogenes CdaA diadenylate cyclase domain that is conserved in many human pathogens. Moreover, biochemical characterization of the cyclase revealed an unusual metal cofactor requirement. PMID:25605729

  16. 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate and adenylate cyclase in phototransduction by limulus ventral photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J E; Kaupp, U B; Malbon, C C

    1984-01-01

    Biochemical and electrophysiological measurements were made on photoreceptor cells from Limulus ventral eyes to investigate the possible role of cyclic AMP and adenylate cyclase in the visual transduction mechanism. Cyclic AMP content in a photoreceptor-enriched fraction (the end organs) of Limulus ventral eyes was approximately 15 pmol/mg protein. The cyclic AMP content was increased by bathing eyes in 1-methyl-3-isobutyl xanthine or forskolin and was increased almost 100-fold when bathed in both. Illumination did not change cyclic AMP content significantly in any of these conditions. Discrete events that can be recorded electrophysiologically occur spontaneously in darkness. An increase in the frequency of discrete events is evoked by dim illumination. The discrete events are a sign of excitation of Limulus photoreceptor cells. Drug-induced changes in the rate of occurrence of discrete events recorded electrophysiologically in darkness were not correlated with changes in cyclic AMP content. Adenylate cyclase activity measured from a small number of pooled photoreceptor clusters was stimulated by fluoride and vanadate ions, hydrolysis-resistant analogues of GTP, cholera toxin and forskolin. The Limulus enzyme is similar pharmacologically to mammalian and avian adenylate cyclases. Activation of adenylate cyclase by drugs was not correlated with changes in the rate of occurrence of discrete events recorded electrophysiologically in darkness. A heat-treated Lubrol extract of membranes from Limulus ventral eyes reconstituted the adenylate cyclase activity of membranes from S49 mouse lymphoma cyc- mutant cells which lack a functional regulatory protein. These findings suggest that Limulus ventral eye photoreceptors contain a regulatory protein that mediates the activation of adenylate cyclase by guanine nucleotides, fluoride or cholera toxin. This regulatory protein is homologous with that found in mammalian and avian adenylate cyclases. Our findings suggest that

  17. Structure and mechanism of the diterpene cyclase ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Köksal, Mustafa; Hu, Huayou; Coates, Robert M.; Peters, Reuben J.; Christianson, David W.

    2011-09-20

    The structure of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase reveals three {alpha}-helical domains ({alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}), as also observed in the related diterpene cyclase taxadiene synthase. However, active sites are located at the interface of the {beta}{gamma} domains in ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase but exclusively in the {alpha} domain of taxadiene synthase. Modular domain architecture in plant diterpene cyclases enables the evolution of alternative active sites and chemical strategies for catalyzing isoprenoid cyclization reactions.

  18. Adenylate cyclase in prothoracic glands during the last larval instar of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, C H; Gu, S H; Chow, Y S

    2001-04-27

    We have previously reported that the absence of prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) signal transduction during the early last larval instar of Bombyx mori plays a role in leading to very low ecdysteroid levels in the hemolymph, inactivation of the corpora allata, as well as larval-pupal transformation. In the present study, adenylate cyclase was characterized in crude preparations of prothoracic gland cell membranes in an effort to localize the cause of refractoriness to PTTH. It was found that cyclase activity of the prothoracic glands from the day 6 last instar showed activation responses to fluoride, a guanine nucleotide analogue, as well as calmodulin (CaM) in dose-dependent fashions. The additive effects of day 5 prothoracic gland adenylate cyclase stimulation by fluoride and CaM imply that there may exist Gs protein-dependent and CaM-dependent forms of adenylate cyclase. For day 1 last instar prothoracic glands, which showed no response to stimulation by PTTH in either cAMP generation or ecdysteroidogenesis, adenylate cyclase activity exhibited far less responsiveness to Ca(2+)/CaM than did that from day 5 glands. These findings suggest that day 1 prothoracic glands may possess some lesions in the receptor-Ca(2+) influx-adenylate cyclase signal transduction pathway and these impairments in PTTH signal transduction may be, at least in part, responsible for decreased ecdysteroidogenesis. PMID:11267904

  19. Prenatal exposure to cocaine decreases adenylyl cyclase activity in embryonic mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Unterwald, Ellen M; Ivkovic, Sanja; Cuntapay, Marie; Stroppolo, Antonella; Guinea, Barbara; Ehrlich, Michelle E

    2003-12-30

    Adenylyl cyclase activity was measured in the striatum of naive mice as a function of age and in mice exposed in utero to cocaine. In naive Swiss-Webster mice, basal and forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity increased gradually from embryonic day 13 (E13) until 2-3 weeks of age when activity peaked before decreasing slightly to adult levels. The ability of the dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF 82958, to stimulate adenylyl cyclase activity also increased in magnitude until P15. In a separate study, pregnant Swiss-Webster mice were injected twice daily with cocaine (15 mg/kg, s.c.) or an equal volume of saline from E10 to E17. Adenylyl cyclase activity was measured in the striatum of E18 embryos. Basal adenylyl cyclase activity was significantly reduced following prenatal exposure to cocaine. Likewise, the ability of forskolin or SKF 82958 to stimulate adenylyl cyclase was attenuated following cocaine exposure. DeltaFosB was not induced, contrary to what is seen in adult mice. These results demonstrate a functional change in a critical signal transduction pathway following chronic in utero exposure to cocaine that might have profound effects of the development of the brain. Alterations in the cAMP system may underlie some of the deficits seen in humans exposed in utero to cocaine. PMID:14741752

  20. Cloning, chromosomal mapping, and expression of human fetal brain type I adenylyl cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Villacres, E.C.; Xia, Z.; Bookbinder, L.H.; Edelhoff, S.; Disteche, C.M.; Storm, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    The neural-specific calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase (type I), which was first cloned from bovine brain, has been implicated in learning and memory. The objective of this study was to clone and determine the chromosomal localization of human fetal brain type I adenylyl cyclase. A 3.8-kb cDNA clone was isolated that contained sequence coinciding with the 3{prime} end 2553 nucleotides of the bovine open reading frame. This clone shows 87% nucleotide and 92% translated amino acid sequence identity to the bovine clone. The most significant sequence differences were in the carboxy-terminal 100 amino acid residues. This region contains one of several possible calmodulin binding domains and the only putative cAMP-dependent protein kinase A phosphorylation site. A chimera was constructed that contained the 5{prime} half of the bovine type I adenylyl cyclase and the 3{prime} half of the human type I adenylyl cyclase. The activity of the chimeric gene product and its sensitivity to calmodulin and calcium were indistinguishable from those of the bovine type I adenylyl cyclase. In situ hybridization was used to localize the human type I adenylyl cyclase gene to the proximal portion of the short arm of chromosome 7. 36 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Nonstructural Protein 1 of Influenza A Virus Interacts with Human Guanylate-Binding Protein 1 to Antagonize Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wenjun; Wei, Jianchao; Shao, Donghua; Deng, Xufang; Wang, Shaohui; Li, Beibei; Tong, Guangzhi; Ma, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Human guanylate-binding protein 1 (hGBP1) is an interferon-inducible protein involved in the host immune response against viral infection. In response to infection by influenza A virus (IAV), hGBP1 transcript and protein were significantly upregulated. Overexpression of hGBP1 inhibited IAV replication in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. The lysine residue at position 51 (K51) of hGBP1 was essential for inhibition of IAV replication. Mutation of K51 resulted in an hGBP1 that was unable to inhibit IAV replication. The viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) was found to interact directly with hGBP1. K51 of hGBP1 and a region between residues 123 and 144 in NS1 were demonstrated to be essential for the interaction between NS1 and hGBP1. Binding of NS1 to hGBP1 resulted in a significant reduction in both GTPase activity and the anti-IAV activity of hGBP1. These findings indicated that hGBP1 contributed to the host immune response against IAV replication and that hGBP1-mediated antiviral activity was antagonized by NS1 via binding to hGBP1. PMID:23405236

  2. Insights into Regulated Ligand Binding Sites from the Structure of ZO-1 Src Homology 3-Guanylate Kinase Module

    SciTech Connect

    Lye, Ming F.; Fanning, Alan S.; Su, Ying; Anderson, James M.; Lavie, Arnon

    2010-11-09

    Tight junctions are dynamic components of epithelial and endothelial cells that regulate the paracellular transport of ions, solutes, and immune cells. The assembly and permeability of these junctions is dependent on the zonula occludens (ZO) proteins, members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase homolog (MAGUK) protein family, which are characterized by a core Src homology 3 (SH3)-GUK module that coordinates multiple protein-protein interactions. The structure of the ZO-1 SH3-GUK domain confirms that the interdependent folding of the SH3 and GUK domains is a conserved feature of MAGUKs, but differences in the orientation of the GUK domains in three different MAGUKs reveal interdomain flexibility of the core unit. Using pull-down assays, we show that an effector loop, the U6 region in ZO-1, forms a novel intramolecular interaction with the core module. This interaction is divalent cation-dependent and overlaps with the binding site for the regulatory molecule calmodulin on the GUK domain. These findings provide insight into the previously observed ability of the U6 region to regulate TJ assembly in vivo and the structural basis for the complex protein interactions of the MAGUK family.

  3. Guanylate binding protein-1 mediates EGFRvIII and promotes glioblastoma growth in vivo but not in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yanwei; Mukasa, Akitaki; Ma, Jiawei; Hong, Lei; Yu, Shuye; Sun, Lili; Huang, Qiang; Purow, Benjamin; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadly primary brain tumor in adults. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently amplified and mutated in GBM. We previously reported that Guanylate binding protein-1 (GBP1) is a novel transcriptional target gene of EGFR and plays a role in GBM invasion. Here we demonstrate that GBP1 can also be induced by EGFRvIII at the transcriptional level through the p38 MAPK/Yin Yang 1 (YY1) signaling pathway. Silencing of GBP1 by RNA interference significantly inhibits EGFRvIII-mediated GBM cell proliferation in vitro and in a mouse model. Overexpression of GBP1 has no obvious effect on glioblastoma cell proliferation in vitro. In contrast, in an orthotopic glioma mouse model GBP1 overexpression significantly promotes glioma growth and reduces survival rate of glioma-bearing mice by increasing cell proliferation and decreasing cell apoptosis in tumor. Clinically, GBP1 expression is elevated in human GBM tumors and positively correlates with EGFRvIII status in GBM specimens, and its expression is inversely correlated with the survival rate of GBM patients. Taken together, these results reveal that GBP1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for GBMs with EGFRvIII mutation. PMID:26848767

  4. Catalytic Mechanism of Mammalian Adenylyl Cyclase: A Computational Investigation.

    PubMed

    Hahn, David K; Tusell, Jose R; Sprang, Stephen R; Chu, Xi

    2015-10-13

    Adenylyl cyclase (AC) catalyzes the synthesis of cyclic AMP, an important intracellular regulatory molecule, from ATP. We propose a catalytic mechanism for class III mammalian AC based on density functional theory calculations. We employ a model of the AC active site derived from a crystal structure of mammalian AC activated by Gα·GTP and forskolin at separate allosteric sites. We compared the calculated activation free energies for 13 possible reaction sequences involving proton transfer, nucleophilic attack, and elimination of pyrophosphate. The proposed most probable mechanism is initiated by deprotonation of 3'OH and water-mediated transfer of the 3'H to the γ-phosphate. Proton transfer is followed by changes in coordination of the two magnesium ion cofactors and changes in the conformation of ATP to enhance the role of 3'O as a nucleophile and to bring 3'O close to Pα. The subsequent phosphoryl transfer step is concerted and rate-limiting. Comparison of the enzyme-catalyzed and nonenzymatic reactions reveals that the active site residues lower the free energy barrier for both phosphoryl transfer and proton transfer and significantly shift the proton transfer equilibrium. Calculations for mutants K1065A and R1029A demonstrate that K1065 plays a significant role in shifting the proton transfer equilibrium, whereas R1029 is important for making the transition state of concerted phosphoryl transfer tight rather than loose. PMID:26393535

  5. Structure of RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase bound to substrate RNA.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kevin K; Bingman, Craig A; Cheng, Chin L; Phillips, George N; Raines, Ronald T

    2014-10-01

    RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase (RtcA) catalyzes the ATP-dependent cyclization of a 3'-phosphate to form a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate at RNA termini. Cyclization proceeds through RtcA-AMP and RNA(3')pp(5')A covalent intermediates, which are analogous to intermediates formed during catalysis by the tRNA ligase RtcB. Here we present a crystal structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii RtcA in complex with a 3'-phosphate terminated RNA and adenosine in the AMP-binding pocket. Our data reveal that RtcA recognizes substrate RNA by ensuring that the terminal 3'-phosphate makes a large contribution to RNA binding. Furthermore, the RNA 3'-phosphate is poised for in-line attack on the P-N bond that links the phosphorous atom of AMP to N(ε) of His307. Thus, we provide the first insights into RNA 3'-phosphate termini recognition and the mechanism of 3'-phosphate activation by an Rtc enzyme. PMID:25161314

  6. Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase inactivation by the host cell.

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa-Ron, A; Rogel, A; Hanski, E

    1989-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis produces a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (AC) which acts as a toxin capable of penetrating eukaryotic cells and generating high levels of intracellular cyclic AMP. Transfer of target cells into B. pertussis AC-free medium leads to a rapid decay in the intracellular AC activity, implying that the invasive enzyme is unstable in the host cytoplasm. We report here that treatment of human lymphocytes with a glycolysis inhibitor and an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation completely blocked the intracellular inactivation of B. pertussis AC. Lymphocyte lysates inactivated all forms of B. pertussis AC in the presence of exogenous ATP. This inactivation was associated with degradation of an 125I-labelled 200 kDa form of B. pertussis AC. It appears that ATP is required for the proteolytic pathway, but not as an energy source, since non-hydrolysable ATP analogues supported inactivation and complete degradation of the enzyme. The possibility that binding of ATP to B. pertussis AC renders it susceptible to degradation by the host cell protease is discussed. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:2554887

  7. Expression of soluble adenylyl cyclase in acral melanomas.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Kim, S M; Savkovic, V; Jin, S A; Choi, Y D; Yun, S J

    2016-06-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) regulates melanocytic cells, and is a diagnostic marker for pigmented skin lesions. Because only a few studies on sAC expression in acral melanomas have been performed, we investigated the histopathological significance of sAC expression in 33 cases of acral melanoma, and assessed its diagnostic value in distinguishing melanoma in situ (MIS, n = 17) from acral invasive melanomas (n = 16) and melanocytic naevi (n = 11). Acral melanomas exhibited more marked nuclear immunopositivity compared with acral melanocytic naevi. sAC expression significantly correlated with the nuclear morphology of melanocytes and melanoma cells, namely, hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli within vesicular nuclei. sAC expression was predominantly observed in the hyperchromatic nuclei of MIS and the prominent nucleoli invasive melanomas, respectively. In vitro culture models of melanocytes and melanoma cell lines exhibited sAC staining patterns similar to those of acral melanomas. Differentiation induction showed that nuclear and nucleolar expression varied depending on cell morphology. sAC immunostaining may be useful for the differential diagnosis of acral melanocytic lesions, and sAC expressed in the nucleus and nucleolus might be related to cytological and nuclear changes associated with invasion and progression of acral melanomas. PMID:26290224

  8. Adenylate Cyclase Toxin promotes bacterial internalisation into non phagocytic cells

    PubMed Central

    Martín, César; Etxaniz, Asier; Uribe, Kepa B.; Etxebarria, Aitor; González-Bullón, David; Arlucea, Jon; Goñi, Félix M.; Aréchaga, Juan; Ostolaza, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough, a respiratory infectious disease that is the fifth largest cause of vaccine-preventable death in infants. Though historically considered an extracellular pathogen, this bacterium has been detected both in vitro and in vivo inside phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. However the precise mechanism used by B. pertussis for cell entry, or the putative bacterial factors involved, are not fully elucidated. Here we find that adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), one of the important toxins of B. pertussis, is sufficient to promote bacterial internalisation into non-phagocytic cells. After characterization of the entry route we show that uptake of “toxin-coated bacteria” proceeds via a clathrin-independent, caveolae-dependent entry pathway, allowing the internalised bacteria to survive within the cells. Intracellular bacteria were found inside non-acidic endosomes with high sphingomyelin and cholesterol content, or “free” in the cytosol of the invaded cells, suggesting that the ACT-induced bacterial uptake may not proceed through formation of late endolysosomes. Activation of Tyr kinases and toxin-induced Ca2+-influx are essential for the entry process. We hypothesize that B. pertussis might use ACT to activate the endocytic machinery of non-phagocytic cells and gain entry into these cells, in this way evading the host immune system. PMID:26346097

  9. Effects of 5‑fluorouracil and class III phosphoinositide 3‑kinase small interfering RNA combination therapy on SGC7901 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Song; Sun, Jia-Lei; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Xing-Ding; Wu, Yong-You; Xing, Chun-Gen

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of small interfering RNA‑mediated inhibition of Class III phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K) signal transduction on the proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells. The present study also aimed to examine the contribution of autophagic inhibition to the antitumor effects of 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU). A PI3K(III)‑RNA interference (i)‑green fluorescent protein (GFP) recombinant replication adenovirus (AD) and the negative control (NC)‑RNAi‑GFP control AD were constructed and infected into SGC7901 cells. A methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was used to determine the growth rate of the SGC7901 cells. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect microtubule‑associated protein 1 light chain 3 expression. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using the JC‑1 fluorescent probe. Autophagic expression was monitored with MDC staining and transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that following combination treatment of the SGC7901 gastric cancer cells with 5‑FU + PI3K(III)‑RNAi‑AD, the optical density absorbance values at 24, 48 and 72 h were 0.17 ± 1.64, 0.13 ± 4.64 and 0.11 ± 3.56%, respectively, with cell viability inhibition ratios of 45.89 ± 6.67, 72.57 ± 9.48 and 87.51 ± 4.65%, respectively. As compared with the other treatment groups, the inhibition rate in the combined treatment group was significantly higher (P<0.05). The percentages of the cells with green fluorescence in the combined treatment group were 74.4 ± 3.86 (24 h), 82.3 ± 1.84 (48 h) and 92.5 ± 1.1% (72 h), which were larger than those of the other groups. The percentage of cells with green fluorescence became larger, which indicated that the mitochondrion membrane potential had been reduced to a greater extent. MDC staining revealed that the number of autophagic vacuoles in the cells (measured at 24, 48 and 72 h) decreased gradually with time, with more autophagic

  10. Characterization of cancer stem-like cells derived from a side population of a human gallbladder carcinoma cell line, SGC-996

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin-xing; Wang, Jian; Wang, Hao-lu; Wang, Wei; Yin, Xiao-bin; Li, Qi-wei; Chen, Yu-ying; Yi, Jing

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We sorted SP cells from a human gallbladder carcinoma cell lines, SGC-996. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP cells displayed higher proliferation and stronger clonal-generating capability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP cells showed more migratory and invasive abilities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP cells were more resistant and tumorigenic than non-SP counterparts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABCG2 might be a candidate as a marker for SP cells. -- Abstract: The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis proposes that CSCs, which can renew themselves proliferate infinitely, and escape chemotherapy, become the root of recurrence and metastasis. Previous studies have verified that side population (SP) cells, characterized by their ability to efflux lipophilic substrate Hoechst 33342, to share many characteristics of CSCs in multiplying solid tumors. The purpose of this study was to sort SP cells from a human gallbladder carcinoma cell line, SGC-996 and to preliminarily identify the biological characteristics of SP cells from the cell line. Using flow cytometry we effectively sorted SP cells from the cell line SGC-996. SP cells not only displayed higher proliferative, stronger clonal-generating, more migratory and more invasive capacities, but showed stronger resistance. Furthermore, our experiments demonstrated that SP cells were more tumorigenic than non-SP counterparts in vivo. Real-time PCR analysis and immunocytochemistry showed that the expression of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) was significantly higher in SP cells. Hence, these results collectively suggest that SP cells are progenitor/stem-like cells and ABCG2 might be a candidate marker for SP cells in human gallbladder cancer.

  11. Oncogenic NanogP8 expression regulates cell proliferation and migration through the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in human gastric cancer – SGC-7901cell line

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zheng; Liu, Yao; Wang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Although elevated expression of NanogP8 has been detected in many human tumor tissues, its role in gastric tumorigenesis remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the function and regulatory mechanism of NanogP8 in gastric cancer. Methods In this study, NanogP8 cDNA was amplified by real time polymerase chain reaction from the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. The shRNA for RNA interference was established. The NanogP8, pAkt, Akt, pERK, ERK, p-mTOR, and mTOR proteins were detected by using the Western blot assay. Cell viability was evaluated by using the CCK-8 assay. Cell migration and invasion were also examined by using the transwell assay. Results The results indicated that the NanogP8 overexpression promoted proliferation and migration of SGC-7901 cell line, whereas its ablation exerted opposite effects. Interestingly, NanogP8 activated Akt, a key mediator of survival signals, and without affecting total Akt protein level. The NanogP8-increased gastric cell proliferation was downregulated by Akt inhibition. Our results further showed that increasing NanogP8 expression in human gastric cancer cells promoted cell proliferation by activating the AKT/mTOR pathway and further maintained gastric cell survival. Conclusion Our findings extend the knowledge regarding the oncogenic functions and proved that the NanogP8 regulates cell proliferation and migration by Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in human gastric cancer SGC-7901cell line. PMID:27563247

  12. Endothelin-1, superoxide and adeninediphosphate ribose cyclase in shark vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Fellner, Susan K; Parker, Laurel

    2005-03-01

    In vascular smooth muscle (VSM) of Squalus acanthias, endothelin-1 (ET-1) signals via the ET(B) receptor. In both shark and mammalian VSM, ET-1 induces a rise in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) via activation of the inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor (IP(3)R) and subsequent release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). IP(3)R-mediated release of SR Ca(2+) causes calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) via the ryanodine receptor (RyR), which can be sensitized by cyclic adeninediphosphate ribose (cADPR). cADPR is synthesized from NAD(+) by a membrane-bound bifunctional enzyme, ADPR cyclase. We have previously shown that the antagonists of the RyR, Ruthenium Red, high concentrations of ryanodine and 8-Br cADPR, diminish the [Ca(2+)](i) response to ET-1 in shark VSM. To investigate how ET-1 might influence the activity of the ADPR cyclase, we employed inhibitors of the cyclase. To explore the possibility that ET-1-induced production of superoxide (O(2)*-) might activate the cyclase, we used an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX), DPI and a scavenger of O(2)*-, TEMPOL. Anterior mesenteric artery VSM was loaded with fura-2AM to measure [Ca(2+)](i). In Ca(2+)-free shark Ringers, ET-1 increased [Ca(2+)](i) by 104+/-8 nmol l(-1). The VSM ADPR cyclase inhibitors, nicotinamide and Zn(2+), diminished the response by 62% and 72%, respectively. Both DPI and TEMPOL reduced the response by 63%. The combination of the IP(3)R antagonists, 2-APB or TMB-8, with DPI or TEMPOL further reduced the response by 83%. We show for the first time that in shark VSM, inhibition of the ADPR cyclase reduces the [Ca(2+)](i) response to ET-1 and that superoxide may be involved in the activation of the cyclase. PMID:15767306

  13. Molecular identification and functional characterization of an adenylyl cyclase from the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Wachten, Sebastian; Schlenstedt, Jana; Gauss, Renate; Baumann, Arnd

    2006-03-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) serves as an important messenger in virtually all organisms. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera), cAMP-dependent signal transduction has been implicated in behavioural processes as well as in learning and memory. Key components of cAMP-signalling cascades are adenylyl cyclases. However, the molecular identities and biochemical properties of adenylyl cyclases are completely unknown in the honeybee. We have cloned a cDNA (Amac3) from honeybee brain that encodes a membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase. The Amac3 gene is an orthologue of the Drosophila ac39E gene. The corresponding proteins share an overall amino acid similarity of approximately 62%. Phylogenetically, AmAC3 belongs to group 1 adenylyl cyclases. Heterologously expressed AmAC3 displays basal enzymatic activity and efficient coupling to endogenous G protein signalling pathways. Stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors induces AmAC3 activity with an EC(50) of about 3.1 microm. Enzymatic activity is also increased by forskolin (EC(50) approximately 15 microm), a specific agonist of membrane-bound adenylyl cyclases. Similar to certain biogenic amine receptor genes of the honeybee, Amac3 transcripts are expressed in many somata of the brain, especially in mushroom body neurones. These results suggest that the enzyme serves in biogenic amine signal transduction cascades and in higher brain functions that contribute to learning and memory of the bee. PMID:16464235

  14. Stimulation of hormone-responsive adenylate cyclase activity by a factor present in the cell cytosol.

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, S; Crawford, A; Amirrasooli, H; Johnson, S; Pollock, A; Ollis, C; Tomlinson, S

    1980-01-01

    1. Homogenates of whole tissues were shown to contain both intracellular and extracellular factors that affected particulate adenylate cyclase activity in vitro. Factors present in the extracellular fluids produced an inhibition of basal, hormone- and fluoride-stimulated enzyme activity but factors present in the cell cytosol increased hormone-stimulated activity with relatively little effect on basal or fluoride-stimulated enzyme activity. 2. The existence of this cytosol factor or factors was investigated using freshly isolated human platelets, freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, and cultured cells derived from rat osteogenic sarcoma, rat calvaria, mouse melanoma, pig aortic endothelium, human articular cartilage chondrocytes and human bronchial carcinoma (BEN) cells. 3. The stimulation of the hormone response by the cytosol factor ranged from 60 to 890% depending on the tissue of origin of the adenylate cyclase. 4. In each case the behaviour of the factor was similar to the action of GTP on that particular adenylate cyclase preparation. 5. No evidence of tissue or species specificity was found, as cytosols stimulated adenylate cyclase from their own and unrelated tissues to the same degree. 6. In the human platelet, the inclusion of the cytosol in the assay of adenylate cyclase increased the rate of enzyme activity in response to stimulation by prostaglandin E1 without affecting the amount of prostaglandin E1 required for half-maximal stimulation or the characteristics of enzyme activation by prostaglandin E. PMID:7396869

  15. Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides

    PubMed Central

    Gagne, Steve J.; Stout, Jake M.; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2012-01-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2–C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric α+β barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity. PMID:22802619

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of the triterpene cyclase protein family in prokaryotes and eukaryotes suggests bidirectional lateral gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Frickey, Tancred; Kannenberg, Elmar

    2009-05-01

    Functional constraints to modifications in triterpene cyclase amino acid sequences make them good candidates for evolutionary studies on the phylogenetic relatedness of these enzymes in prokaryotes as well as in eukaryotes. In this study, we used a set of identified triterpene cyclases, a group of mainly bacterial squalene cyclases and a group of predominantly eukaryotic oxidosqualene cyclases, as seed sequences to identify 5288 putative triterpene cyclase homologues in publicly available databases. The Cluster Analysis of Sequences software was used to detect groups of sequences with increased pairwise sequence similarity. The sequences fall into two main clusters, a bacterial and a eukaryotic. The conserved, informative regions of a multiple sequence alignment of the family were used to construct a neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree using the AsaturA and maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree using the PhyML software. Both analyses showed that most of the triterpene cyclase sequences were similarly grouped to the accepted taxonomic relationships of the organism the sequences originated from, supporting the idea of vertical transfer of cyclase genes from parent to offspring as the main evolutionary driving force in this protein family. However, a small group of sequences from three bacterial species (Stigmatella, Gemmata and Methylococcus) grouped with an otherwise purely eukaryotic cluster of oxidosqualene cyclases, while a small group of sequences from seven fungal species and a sequence from the fern Adiantum grouped consistently with a cluster of otherwise purely bacterial squalene cyclases. This suggests that lateral gene transfer may have taken place, entailing a transfer of oxidosqualene cyclases from eukaryotes to bacteria and a transfer of squalene cyclase from bacteria to an ancestor of the group of Pezizomycotina fungi. PMID:19207562

  17. Functional role of the Ti plasmid-encoded catabolic mannopine cyclase in mannityl opine catabolism by Agrobacterium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S B; Farrand, S K

    1994-01-01

    Catabolic mannopine (MOP) cyclase encoded by Ti or Ri plasmids lactonizes MOP to agropine (AGR). The gene of the octopine-type Ti plasmid pTi15955 encoding the catabolic MOP cyclase enzyme previously was localized to a 1.6-kb segment within a cosmid clone, pYDH208. A subclone containing only this region complemented the AGR catabolism-negative phenotype conferred by a derivative of the octopine-type plasmid pTiB6S3 containing a Tn7 insertion in the region encoding the MOP cyclase enzyme. Uptake assays of strains harboring pRiA4 or pArA4a, along with complementation analyses, indicate that MOP cyclase is not sufficient for catabolism of AGR but that the strains must also express an AGR transport system. To determine the requirement for MOP cyclase in opine catabolism unequivocally, a site-specific, nonpolar deletion mutation abolishing only MOP cyclase activity was introduced into pYDH208, a cosmid clone that confers utilization of MOP, AGR, and mannopinic acid (MOA). Strains harboring this MOP cyclase-negative mutant clone, pYDPH208, did not utilize AGR but continued to utilize MOP. Growth on AGR was restored in this strain upon introduction of clones encoding the pTi15955-derived catabolic or anabolic MOP cyclase genes. The induction pattern of MOA catabolism shown by strain NT1 harboring the MOP cyclase-deficient pYDPH208 suggests that AGR is converted into MOP by MOP cyclase and that MOP, but not AGR, induces catabolism of MOA. Genetic and biochemical analyses of MOP and AGR metabolism suggest that only the conversion of AGR to MOP is directly involved in catabolism of AGR, even though the reaction catalyzed by MOP cyclase predominantly lies in the lactonization of MOP to AGR. Images PMID:8206835

  18. Localization of nigrostriatal dopamine receptor subtypes and adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Filloux, F.; Dawson, T.M.; Wamsley, J.K.

    1988-04-01

    Quantitative autoradiography using (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390, (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride and (/sup 3/H)-forskolin was used to assess the effects of single and combined neurotoxin lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway in the rat brain on dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes and adenylate cyclase (AC), respectively. Ibotenic acid (IA) lesions of the caudate-putamen (CPu) resulted in near total loss of both (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 and of (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding in the ipsilateral CPu and substantia nigra reticulata (SNR). (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the CPu was only partially removed by this same lesion, and nigral (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding was virtually unchanged. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and IA lesions of the substantia nigra compacta (SNC) did not affect (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 or (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding, but largely removed (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the SNC. A 6-OHDA lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway followed by an ipsilateral IA injection of the CPu failed to further reduce (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the CPu. These results demonstrate that postsynaptic DA receptors in the CPu are of both the D1 and D2 variety; however, a portion of D2 receptors in the CPu may be presynaptic on afferent nerve terminals to this structure. D1 receptors in the SNR are presynaptic on striatonigral terminals, whereas the D2 receptors of the SNC are autoreceptors on nigral DA neurons. The existence of presynaptic D2 receptors on nigrostriatal DA-ergic terminals could not be confirmed by this study. Co-localization of D1 receptors and AC occurs in both the CPu and SNR.

  19. Role of Adenylate Cyclase 1 in Retinofugal Map Development

    PubMed Central

    Dhande, Onkar S.; Bhatt, Shivani; Anishchenko, Anastacia; Elstrott, Justin; Iwasato, Takuji; Swindell, Eric C.; Xu, Hong-Ping; Jamrich, Milan; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Feller, Marla B.; Crair, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of topographic maps of the sensory periphery is sensitive to the disruption of adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1) signaling. AC1 catalyzes the production of cAMP in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner, and AC1 mutant mice (AC1−/−) have disordered visual and somatotopic maps. However, the broad expression of AC1 in the brain and the promiscuous nature of cAMP signaling have frustrated attempts to determine the underlying mechanism of AC1-dependent map development. In the mammalian visual system, the initial coarse targeting of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections to the superior colliculus (SC) and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is guided by molecular cues, and the subsequent refinement of these crude projections occurs via an activity-dependent process that depends on spontaneous retinal waves. Here, we show that AC1−/− mice have normal retinal waves but disrupted map refinement. We demonstrate that AC1 is required for the emergence of dense and focused termination zones and elimination of inaccurately targeted collaterals at the level of individual retinofugal arbors. Conditional deletion of AC1 in the retina recapitulates map defects, indicating that the locus of map disruptions in the SC and dorsal LGN of AC1−/− mice is presynaptic. Finally, map defects in mice without AC1 and disrupted retinal waves (AC1−/−;β2−/− double KO mice) are no worse than those in mice lacking only β2−/−, but loss of AC1 occludes map recovery in β2−/− mice during the second postnatal week. These results suggest that AC1 in RGC axons mediates the development of retinotopy and eye-specific segregation in the SC and dorsal LGN. PMID:22102330

  20. Functional characterization of transmembrane adenylyl cyclases from the honeybee brain.

    PubMed

    Balfanz, Sabine; Ehling, Petra; Wachten, Sebastian; Jordan, Nadine; Erber, Joachim; Mujagic, Samir; Baumann, Arnd

    2012-06-01

    The second messenger cAMP has a pivotal role in animals' physiology and behavior. Intracellular concentrations of cAMP are balanced by cAMP-synthesizing adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and cAMP-cleaving phosphodiesterases. Knowledge about ACs in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is rather limited and only an ortholog of the vertebrate AC3 isoform has been functionally characterized, so far. Employing bioinformatics and functional expression we characterized two additional honeybee genes encoding membrane-bound (tm)ACs. The proteins were designated AmAC2t and AmAC8. Unlike the common structure of tmACs, AmAC2t lacks the first transmembrane domain. Despite this unusual topography, AmAC2t-activity could be stimulated by norepinephrine and NKH477 with EC(50s) of 0.07 μM and 3 μM. Both ligands stimulated AmAC8 with EC(50s) of 0.24 μM and 3.1 μM. In brain cryosections, intensive staining of mushroom bodies was observed with specific antibodies against AmAC8, an expression pattern highly reminiscent of the Drosophila rutabaga AC. In a current release of the honeybee genome database we identified three additional tmAC- and one soluble AC-encoding gene. These results suggest that (1) the AC-gene family in honeybees is comparably large as in other species, and (2) based on the restricted expression of AmAC8 in mushroom bodies, this enzyme might serve important functions in honeybee behavior. PMID:22426196

  1. Cloning and Characterization of Oxidosqualene Cyclases from Kalanchoe daigremontiana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhonghua; Yeats, Trevor; Han, Hong; Jetter, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The first committed step in triterpenoid biosynthesis is the cyclization of oxidosqualene to polycyclic alcohols or ketones C30H50O. It is catalyzed by single oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) enzymes that can carry out varying numbers of carbocation rearrangements and, thus, generate triterpenoids with diverse carbon skeletons. OSCs from diverse plant species have been cloned and characterized, the large majority of them catalyzing relatively few rearrangement steps. It was recently predicted that special OSCs must exist that can form friedelin, the pentacyclic triterpenoid whose formation involves the maximum possible number of rearrangement steps. The goal of the present study, therefore, was to clone a friedelin synthase from Kalanchoe daigremontiana, a plant species known to accumulate this triterpenoid in its leaf surface waxes. Five OSC cDNAs were isolated, encoding proteins with 761–779 amino acids and sharing between 57.4 and 94.3% nucleotide sequence identity. Heterologous expression in yeast and GC-MS analyses showed that one of the OSCs generated the steroid cycloartenol together with minor side products, whereas the other four enzymes produced mixtures of pentacyclic triterpenoids dominated by lupeol (93%), taraxerol (60%), glutinol (66%), and friedelin (71%), respectively. The cycloartenol synthase was found expressed in all leaf tissues, whereas the lupeol, taraxerol, glutinol, and friedelin synthases were expressed only in the epidermis layers lining the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf blade. It is concluded that the function of these enzymes is to form respective triterpenoid aglycones destined to coat the leaf exterior, probably as defense compounds against pathogens or herbivores. PMID:20610397

  2. Molecular Characterization of Tick Salivary Gland Glutaminyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Steven W.; Browning, Rebecca E.; Chao, Chien-Chung; Bateman, Robert C.; Ching, Wei-Mei; Karim, Shahid

    2013-01-01

    Glutaminyl cyclase (QC) catalyzes the cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamate. This post-translational modification extends the half-life of peptides and, in some cases, is essential in binding to their cognate receptor. Due to its potential role in the post-translational modification of tick neuropeptides, we report the molecular, biochemical and physiological characterization of salivary gland QC during the prolonged blood-feeding of the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the gulf-coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum). QC sequences from I. scapularis and A. maculatum showed a high degree of amino acid identity to each other and other arthropods and residues critical for zinc-binding/catalysis (D159, E202, and H330) or intermediate stabilization (E201, W207, D248, D305, F325, and W329) are conserved. Analysis of QC transcriptional gene expression kinetics depicts an upregulation during the blood-meal of adult female ticks prior to fast feeding phases in both I. scapularis and A. maculatum suggesting a functional link with blood meal uptake. QC enzymatic activity was detected in saliva and extracts of tick salivary glands and midguts. Recombinant QC was shown to be catalytically active. Furthermore, knockdown of QC-transcript by RNA interference resulted in lower enzymatic activity, and small, unviable egg masses in both studied tick species as well as lower engorged tick weights for I. scapularis. These results suggest that the post-translational modification of neurotransmitters and other bioactive peptides by QC is critical to oviposition and potentially other physiological processes. Moreover, these data suggest that tick-specific QC-modified neurotransmitters/hormones or other relevant parts of this system could potentially be used as novel physiological targets for tick control. PMID:23770496

  3. Dynamics of adenylate cyclase regulation via heterotrimeric G-proteins.

    PubMed

    Milde, Markus; Werthmann, Ruth C; von Hayn, Kathrin; Bünemann, Moritz

    2014-04-01

    A wide variety of G-protein-coupled receptors either activate or inhibit ACs (adenylate cyclases), thereby regulating cellular cAMP levels and consequently inducing proper physiological responses. Stimulatory and inhibitory G-proteins interact directly with ACs, whereas G(q)-coupled receptors exert their effects primarily via Ca2+. Using the FRET-based cAMP sensor Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1)-cAMPS (adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate), we studied cAMP levels in single living VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) or HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) with subsecond temporal resolution. Stimulation of purinergic (VSMCs) or thrombin (HUVECs) receptors rapidly decreased cAMP levels in the presence of the β-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline via a rise in Ca2+ and subsequent inhibition of AC5 and AC6. Specifically in HUVECs, we observed that, in the continuous presence of thrombin, cAMP levels climbed slowly after the initial decline with a delay of a little less than 1 min. The underlying mechanism includes phospholipase A2 activity and cyclo-oxygenase-mediated synthesis of prostaglandins. We studied further the dynamics of the inhibition of ACs via G(i)-proteins utilizing FRET imaging to resolve interactions between fluorescently labelled G(i)-proteins and AC5. FRET between Gα(i1) and AC5 developed at much lower concentration of agonist compared with the overall G(i)-protein activity. We found the dissociation of Gα(i1) subunits and AC5 to occur slower than the G(i)-protein deactivation. This led us to the conclusion that AC5, by binding active Gα(i1), interferes with G-protein deactivation and reassembly and thereby might sensitize its own regulation. PMID:24646224

  4. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J.; Rattner, Jerome B.; Hoorn, Frans A. van der

    2009-10-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  5. ADENYLATE CYCLASE REGULATES ELONGATION OF MAMMALIAN PRIMARY CILIA

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J.; Rattner, Jerome B.; van der Hoorn, Frans A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3β by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1–2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway. PMID:19576885

  6. Downregulation of nitrovasodilator-induced cyclic GMP accumulation in cells exposed to endotoxin or interleukin-1 beta.

    PubMed Central

    Papapetropoulos, A.; Abou-Mohamed, G.; Marczin, N.; Murad, F.; Caldwell, R. W.; Catravas, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    1. Induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) results in overproduction of nitric oxide (NO), which may be a principal cause of the massive vasodilatation and hypotension observed in septic shock. Since NO-induced vasorelaxation is mediated via the soluble isoform of guanylate cyclase (sGC), the regulation of sGC activity during shock is of obvious importance, but yet poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the activation of sGC by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) before and after exposure of rat aortic smooth muscle cells to endotoxin (LPS) or interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). 2. Exposure of rat aortic smooth muscle cells to SNP (10 microM) elicited up to 200 fold increases in cyclic GMP. This effect was attenuated by 30-70% in IL-1 beta- or LPS-pretreated cells, in a pretreatment time-and IL-1 beta- or LPS-concentration-dependent manner. When, however, cells were exposed to IL-1 beta or LPS and then stimulated with the particulate guanylate cyclase activator, atriopeptin II, no reduction in cyclic GMP accumulation was observed. 3. Pretreatment of rats with LPS (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) for 6 h led to a decrease in aortic ring SNP-induced cyclic GMP accumulation. 4. The IL-1 beta-induced reduction in SNP-stimulated cyclic GMP accumulation in cultured cells was dependent on NO production, as arginine depletion abolished the downregulation of cyclic GMP accumulation in response to SNP. 5. Reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the ratio of steady state mRNA for the alpha, subunit of sGC to glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase was decreased in LPS- or IL-1 beta-treated cells, as compared to vehicle-treated cells. 6. Protein levels of the alpha 1 sGC subunit remained unaltered upon exposure to LPS or IL-1 beta, suggesting that the early decreased cyclic GMP accumulation in IL-1 beta- or LPS-pretreated cells was probably due to reduced sGC activation. Thus, the observed decreased responsiveness of sGC to NO stimulation

  7. Oxygen mediates vascular smooth muscle relaxation in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Dada, Jessica; Pinder, Andrew G; Lang, Derek; James, Philip E

    2013-01-01

    The activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by nitric oxide (NO) and other ligands has been extensively investigated for many years. In the present study we considered the effect of molecular oxygen (O2) on sGC both as a direct ligand and its affect on other ligands by measuring cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production, as an index of activity, as well as investigating smooth muscle relaxation under hypoxic conditions. Our isolated enzyme studies confirm the function of sGC is impaired under hypoxic conditions and produces cGMP in the presence of O2, importantly in the absence of NO. We also show that while O2 could partially affect the magnitude of sGC stimulation by NO when the latter was present in excess, activation by the NO independent, haem-dependent sGC stimulator 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1) was unaffected. Our in vitro investigation of smooth muscle relaxation confirmed that O2 alone in the form of a buffer bolus (equilibrated at 95% O2/5% CO2) had the ability to dilate vessels under hypoxic conditions and that this was dependent upon sGC and independent of eNOS. Our studies confirm that O2 can be a direct and important mediator of vasodilation through an increase in cGMP production. In the wider context, these observations are key to understanding the relative roles of O2 versus NO-induced sGC activation. PMID:23451175

  8. Oxygen Mediates Vascular Smooth Muscle Relaxation in Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Derek; James, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    The activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by nitric oxide (NO) and other ligands has been extensively investigated for many years. In the present study we considered the effect of molecular oxygen (O2) on sGC both as a direct ligand and its affect on other ligands by measuring cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production, as an index of activity, as well as investigating smooth muscle relaxation under hypoxic conditions. Our isolated enzyme studies confirm the function of sGC is impaired under hypoxic conditions and produces cGMP in the presence of O2, importantly in the absence of NO. We also show that while O2 could partially affect the magnitude of sGC stimulation by NO when the latter was present in excess, activation by the NO independent, haem-dependent sGC stimulator 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1) was unaffected. Our in vitro investigation of smooth muscle relaxation confirmed that O2 alone in the form of a buffer bolus (equilibrated at 95% O2/5% CO2) had the ability to dilate vessels under hypoxic conditions and that this was dependent upon sGC and independent of eNOS. Our studies confirm that O2 can be a direct and important mediator of vasodilation through an increase in cGMP production. In the wider context, these observations are key to understanding the relative roles of O2 versus NO-induced sGC activation. PMID:23451175

  9. Inhibition of PRL-3 gene expression in gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 via microRNA suppressed reduces peritoneal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhengrong; Zhan Wenhua . E-mail: wcywk@hotmail.com; Wang Zhao; Zhu Baohe; He Yulong; Peng Junsheng; Cai Shirong; Ma Jinping

    2006-09-15

    High expression of PRL-3, a protein tyrosine phosphatase, is proved to be associated with lymph node metastasis in gastric carcinoma from previous studies. In this paper, we examined the relationship between PRL-3 expression and peritoneal metastasis in gastric carcinoma. We applied the artificial miRNA (pCMV-PRL3miRNA), which is based on the murine miR-155 sequence, to efficiently silence the target gene expression of PRL-3 in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells at both mRNA and protein levels. Then we observed that, in vitro, pCMV-PRL3miRNA significantly depressed the SGC7901 cell invasion and migration independent of cellular proliferation. In vivo, PRL-3 knockdown effectively suppressed the growth of peritoneal metastases and improved the prognosis in nude mice. Therefore, we concluded that artificial miRNA can depress the expression of PRL-3, and that PRL-3 might be a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis.

  10. Molecular study of a squalene cyclase homolog gene in Bacillus subtilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosak, T.; Pearson, A.; Losick, R.

    2005-12-01

    Polycyclic triterpenoids such as hopanes and steranes are formed by enzymatic cyclization of linear isoprenoid precursors by squalene cyclases and oxidosqualene cyclases. Due to their amazing preservation potential, polycyclic triterpenoids have been used to indicate the source of organic matter in oils and sediments for decades, although many cannot be attributed to known organisms and genes. To bridge the gap between the genomic database and the geochemical record, we are using molecular tools to study the expression, intracellular localization, and products of a squalene cyclase homolog found in Bacillus subtilis, a Gram-positive soil bacterium. We find that the gene is expressed during sporulation and is localized to the spore coat. Our results may help to understand the source of some previously unassigned natural products, and they may also provide clues to the physiological role of triterpenoids in the Bacillales.

  11. Upregulation of miR-34a by diallyl disulfide suppresses invasion and induces apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    WANG, GUOJUN; LIU, GUANGHUI; YE, YANWEI; FU, YANG; ZHANG, XIEFU

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) exerts anticarcinogenic activity in various types of cancer. However, the mechanism underlying its anticarcinogenic activity remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to explore the mechanism of the anticarcinogenic activity of DADS in gastric cancer (GC). The expression levels of microRNA (miR)-34a in GC and normal tissues were measured using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The expression of miR-34a was also measured using RT-qPCR in SGC-7901 cells following treatment with DADS. In addition, the effect of DADS on the invasion capability of SGC-7901 cells was observed in the presence of miR-34a or anti-miR-34a using a Matrigel invasion assay. Furthermore, in identical conditions, the apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells was observed using flow cytometry. Finally, the present study investigated the effects of DADS and miR-34a on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway in vitro. The level of miR-34a in GC tissues was reduced compared with that in adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). Treatment with DADS upregulated miR-34a expression in SGC-7901 cells (P<0.05). In the Matrigel invasion assay, DADS inhibited the invasive capability of SGC-7901 cells (P<0.05 vs. control), which was improved by overexpression of miR-34a (P<0.01 vs. control) but reduced by downregulation of miR-34a (P<0.05 vs. DADS treatment group). Furthermore, DADS induced apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells (P<0.05 vs. control); and DADS and miR-34a synergistically enhanced apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells (P<0.01 vs. control). In addition, DADS and miR-34a inhibited the expression levels of phosphorylated (p)-PI3K and p-Akt (P<0.05 vs. control). By contrast, downregulation of miR-34a alleviated the decrease in p-PI3K and p-Akt expression induced by DADS (P<0.05 vs. DADS treatment group). Cell viability was reduced with increasing concentrations of DADS, however, DADS did not affect cell viability following inhibition of the PI

  12. Cooperative phenomena in binding and activation of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase by calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Bouhss, A; Krin, E; Munier, H; Gilles, A M; Danchin, A; Glaser, P; Bârzu, O

    1993-01-25

    The catalytic domain of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase located within the first 400 amino acids of the protein can be cleaved by trypsin in two subdomains (T25 and T18) corresponding to ATP-(T25) and calmodulin (CaM)-(T18) binding sites. Reassociation of subdomains by CaM is a cooperative process, which is a unique case among CaM-activated enzymes. To understand better the molecular basis of this phenomenon, we used several approaches such as partial deletions of the adenylate cyclase gene, isolation of peptides of various size, and site-directed mutagenesis experiments. We found that a stretch of 72 amino acid residues overlapping the carboxyl terminus of T25 and the amino terminus of T18 accounts for 90% of the binding energy of adenylate cyclase-CaM complex. The hydrophobic "side" of the helical region situated around Trp242 plays a major role in the interaction of adenylate cyclase with CaM, whereas basic residues that alternate with acidic residues in bacterial enzyme play a much less important role. The amino-terminal half of the catalytic domain of adenylate cyclase contributes only 10% to the binding energy of CaM, whereas the last 130 amino acid residues are not at all involved in binding. However, these segments of adenylate cyclase might affect protein/protein interaction and catalysis by propagating conformational changes to the CaM-binding sequence which is located in the middle of the catalytic domain of bacterial enzyme. PMID:8420945

  13. A Novel Mechanism for Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibition from the Crystal Structure of its Complex with Catechol Estrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Steegborn,C.; Litvin, T.; Hess, K.; Capper, A.; Taussig, R.; Buck, J.; Levin, L.; Wu, H.

    2005-01-01

    Catechol estrogens are steroid metabolites that elicit physiological responses through binding to a variety of cellular targets. We show here that catechol estrogens directly inhibit soluble adenylyl cyclases and the abundant trans-membrane adenylyl cyclases. Catechol estrogen inhibition is non-competitive with respect to the substrate ATP, and we solved the crystal structure of a catechol estrogen bound to a soluble adenylyl cyclase from Spirulina platensis in complex with a substrate analog. The catechol estrogen is bound to a newly identified, conserved hydrophobic patch near the active center but distinct from the ATP-binding cleft. Inhibitor binding leads to a chelating interaction between the catechol estrogen hydroxyl groups and the catalytic magnesium ion, distorting the active site and trapping the enzyme substrate complex in a non-productive conformation. This novel inhibition mechanism likely applies to other adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, and the identified ligand-binding site has important implications for the development of specific adenylyl cyclase inhibitors.

  14. Synechocystis Strain PCC 6803 cya2, a Prokaryotic Gene That Encodes a Guanylyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa de Alda, Jesús A. G.; Ajlani, Ghada; Houmard, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Synechocystis strain PCC 6803 exhibits similar levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP). A thorough analysis of its genome showed that Cya2 (Sll0646) has all the sequence determinants required in terms of activity and purine specificity for being a guanylyl cyclase. Insertional mutagenesis of cya2 caused a marked reduction in cGMP content without altering the cAMP content. Thus, Cya2 represents the first example of a prokaryotic guanylyl cyclase. PMID:10851002

  15. Purification and assay of cell-invasive form of calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis

    SciTech Connect

    Masure, H.R.; Donovan, M.G.; Storm, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    An invasive form of the CaM-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis can be isolated from bacterial culture supernatants. This isolation is achieved through the use of QAE-Sephadex anion-exchange chromatography. It has been demonstrated that the addition of exogenous Ca{sup 2}{sup +} to the anion-exchange gradient buffers will affect elution from the column and will thereby affect the isolation of invasive adenylyl cyclase. This is probably due to a Ca2(+)-dependent interaction of the catalytic subunit with another component in the culture supernatant. Two peaks of adenylyl cyclase activity are obtained. The Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation is able to cause significant increases in intracellular cAMP levels in animal cells. This increase occurs rapidly and in a dose-dependent manner in both N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells and human erythrocytes. The Pk2 adenylyl cyclase has catalytic activity but is not cell invasive. This material can serve, therefore, as a control to ensure that the cAMP which is measured is, indeed, intracellular. A second control is to add exogenous CaM to the Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation. The 45-kDa catalytic subunit-CaM complex is not cell invasive. Although the mechanism for membrane translocation of the adenylyl cyclase is unknown, there is evidence that the adenylyl cyclase enters animal cells by a mechanism distinct from receptor-mediated endocytosis. Calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase activity can be removed from preparations of the adenylyl cyclase that have been subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This property of the enzyme has enabled purification of the catalytic subunit to apparent homogeneity. The purified catalytic subunit from culture supernatants has a predicted molecular weight of 45,000. This polypeptide interacts directly with Ca{sup 2}{sup +} and this interaction may be important for its invasion into animal cells.

  16. A Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase Form Targets to Axonemes and Rescues Beat Regulation in Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Baumlin, Nathalie; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.; Fregien, Nevis

    2014-01-01

    Ciliary beating is important for effective mucociliary clearance. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) regulates ciliary beating, and a roughly 50-kD sAC variant is expressed in axonemes. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells express multiple sAC splice variants: full-length sAC; variants with catalytic domain 1 (C1) deletions; and variants with partial C1. One variant, sACex5v2-ex12v2, contains two alternative splices creating new exons 5 (ex5v2) and 12 (ex12v2), encoding a roughly 45-kD protein. It is therefore similar in size to ciliary sAC. The variant increases in expression upon ciliogenesis during differentiation at the air–liquid interface. When expressed in NHBE cells, this variant was targeted to cilia. Exons 5v2–7 were important for ciliary targeting, whereas exons 2–4 prevented it. In vitro, cytoplasmic sACex2-ex12v2 (containing C1 and C2) was the only variant producing cAMP. Ciliary sACex5v2-ex12v2 was not catalytically active. Airway epithelial cells isolated from wild-type mice revealed sAC-dependent ciliary beat frequency (CBF) regulation, analogous to NHBE cells: CBF rescue from HCO3−/CO2–mediated intracellular acidification was sensitive to the sAC inhibitor, KH7. Compared with wild type, sAC C2 knockout (KO) mice revealed lower CBF baseline, and the HCO3−/CO2–mediated CBF decrease was not inhibited by KH7, confirming lack of functional sAC. Human sACex5v2-ex12v2 was targeted to cilia and sACex2-ex12v2 to the cytoplasm in these KO mice. Introduction of the ciliary sACex5v2-ex12v2 variant, but not the cytoplasmic sACex2-ex12v2, restored functional sAC activity in C2 KO mice. Thus, we show, for the first time, a mammalian axonemal targeting sequence that localizes a sAC variant to cilia to regulate CBF. PMID:24874272

  17. A Short History of cGMP, Guanylyl Cyclases, and cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Kots, Alexander Y.; Martin, Emil; Sharina, Iraida G.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we review the early studies on cGMP, guanylyl cyclases, and cGMP-dependent protein kinases to facilitate understanding of development of this exciting but complex field of research encompassing pharmacology, biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology of these important regulatory molecules. PMID:19089322

  18. Determinants for the activation and autoinhibition of the diguanylate cyclase response regulator WspR

    PubMed Central

    De, Nabanita; Navarro, Marcos V.A.S.; Raghavan, Rahul V.; Sondermann, Holger

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP controls secretion, cell adhesion and motility leading to biofilm formation and increased cytotoxicity. Diguanylate cyclases containing GGDEF and phosphodiesterases containing EAL or HD-GYP domains have been identified as the enzymes controlling cellular c-di-GMP levels, yet less is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing regulation and signaling specificity. We recently determined a product-inhibition pathway for the diguanylate cyclase response regulator WspR from Pseudomonas, a potent molecular switch that controls biofilm formation. In WspR, catalytic activity is modulated by a helical stalk motif that connects its phospho-receiver (REC) and GGDEF domains. The stalks facilitate the formation of distinct oligomeric states that contribute to both activation and autoinhibition. Here, we provide novel insights into the regulation of diguanylate cyclase activity in WspR based on the crystal structures of full-length WspR, the isolated GGDEF domain, and an artificially dimerized catalytic domain. The structures highlight that inhibition is achieved by restricting the mobility of rigid GGDEF domains, mediated by c-di-GMP binding to an inhibitory site at the GGDEF domain. Kinetic measurements and biochemical characterization corroborate a model in which the activation of WspR requires the formation of a tetrameric species. Tetramerization occurs spontaneously at high protein concentration or upon addition of the phosphomimetic compound beryllium fluoride. Our analyses elucidate common and WspR-specific mechanisms for the fine-tuning of diguanylate cyclase activity. PMID:19695263

  19. Soluble guanylyl cyclase is involved in PDT-induced injury of crayfish glial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, V. D.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a potential tool for selective destruction of malignant brain tumors. However, not only malignant but also healthy neurons and glial cells may be damaged during PDT. Nitric oxide is an important modulator of cell viability and intercellular neuroglial communications. NO have been already shown to participate in PDT-induced injury of neurons and glial cells. As soluble guanylyl cyclase is the only known receptor for NO, we have studied the possible role of soluble guanylyl cyclase in the regulation of survival and death of neurons and surrounding glial cells under photo-oxidative stress induced by photodynamic treatment (PDT). The crayfish stretch receptor consisting of a single identified sensory neuron enveloped by glial cells is a simple but informative model object. It was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine photosens (10 nM) and irradiated with a laser diode (670 nm, 0.4 W/cm2). Using inhibitory analysis we have shown that during PDT soluble guanylyl cyclase, probably, has proapoptotic and antinecrotic effect on the glial cells of the isolated crayfish stretch receptor. Proapoptotic effect of soluble guanylyl cyclase could be mediated by protein kinase G (PKG). Thus, the involvement of NO/sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway in PDT-induced apoptosis of glial cells was indirectly demonstrated.

  20. Cytochemical localization of adenylate cyclase in the various tissues of Locusta migratoria (migratorioides R.F.).

    PubMed

    Benedeczky, I; Rózsa, K S

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructural cytochemical procedure to demonstrate adenyl cyclase in mammalian organs was used in insects. After several modifications, an utilizable method was applied for the detection of the enzyme in the various tissues. Adenylate cyclase which can be stimulated with octopamine was localized on the membrane of the glial cells and the axolemma of certain large axons in the insect brain. Adenylate cyclase which could be activated by NaF and isoproterenol was also demonstrated in the lipid droplets of glial cells of the brain. With the simultaneous application of NaF and isoproterenol, rather strong adenylate cyclase activity could be detected on the surface of the corpora allata cells both in the cells situated on the glandular surface and the central part of the gland. In contrast in the corpus cardiacum enzyme activity was only observable on the basal lamina of the glandular surface. An appreciable amount of reaction product, indicating the presence of the enzyme, could be found on the surface of the lipid droplets in the fat body situated near the glandular tissues. In the heart muscle, reaction product referring to enzyme activation could not be demonstrated with the help of the methods applied. PMID:7216835

  1. Squalene-hopene cyclase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath): a bacterium producing hopanoids and steroids.

    PubMed

    Tippelt, A; Jahnke, L; Poralla, K

    1998-03-30

    We report the cloning and characterisation of the Methylococcus capsulatus shc gene, which encodes the squalene-hopene cyclase (SHC). This enzyme catalyses the complex cyclization of squalene to the pentacyclic triterpene skeleton of hopanoids and represents the key reaction in this biosynthesis. Using a combination of PCR amplification and DNA hybridization, two overlapping 2.6 kb PstI and 3.3 kb SalI DNA fragments were cloned bearing a 1962 bp open reading frame encoding a 74 kDa protein with 654 amino acids and a predicted isoelectric point at about pH 6.3. The deduced amino acid sequence of the M. capsulatus shc gene showed significant similarity to known prokaryotic SHCs and to a lesser degree to the related eukaryotic oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs). Like other triterpene cyclases, the M. capsulatus SHC contains seven so-called QW-motifs as well as an aspartate-rich domain. The recombinant M. capsulatus SHC was expressed in Escherichia coli and in vitro activity of the recombinant cyclase was demonstrated using crude cell-free lysate or solubilized membrane preparation. The cyclization products hop-22-ene and hopan-22-ol (diplopterol) were identified by GC and GC-MS. PMID:9555026

  2. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpace, P.J.; Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E. Univ. of California, Los Angeles )

    1987-12-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the {beta}-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the {beta}-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and {beta}-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. {beta}-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using ({sup 125}I)iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed {beta}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 2}-type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in {beta}-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic subtype. This BAT {beta}-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial {beta}-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability.

  3. S-benzyl-cysteine-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis involving activation of mitochondrial-dependent caspase cascade through the p53 pathway in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Jun; Meng, Lin-Yi; Shen, Yang; Zhu, Yi-Zhun; Liu, Hong-Rui

    2013-01-01

    S-benzyl-cysteine (SBC) is a structural analog of S-allylcysteine (SAC), which is one of the major water- soluble compounds in aged garlic extract. In this study, anticancer activities and the underlying mechanisms of SBC action were investigated and compared these with those of SAC using human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. SBC significantly suppressed the survival rate of SGC-7901 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and the inhibitory activities of SBC were stronger than those of SAC. Flow cytometry revealed that SBC induced G2-phase arrest and apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. Typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed by Hoechst 33258 dye assay. SBC-treatment dramatically induced the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), and enhanced the enzymatic activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 whilst hardly affecting caspase-8 activity. Furthermore, Western blotting indicated that SBC-induced apoptosis was accompanied by up-regulation of the expression of p53, Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. Taken together, this study suggested that SBC exerts cytotoxic activity involving activation of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis through p53 and Bax/Bcl-2 pathways in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. PMID:24377536

  4. NO-Mediated [Ca2+]cyt Increases Depend on ADP-Ribosyl Cyclase Activity in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Carlos T.; Davey, Matthew P.; Dodd, Antony N.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR) is a Ca2+-mobilizing intracellular second messenger synthesized from NAD by ADP-ribosyl cyclases (ADPR cyclases). In animals, cADPR targets the ryanodine receptor present in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum to promote Ca2+ release from intracellular stores to increase the concentration of cytosolic free Ca2+ in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and cADPR has been proposed to play a central role in signal transduction pathways evoked by the drought and stress hormone, abscisic acid, and the circadian clock. Despite evidence for the action of cADPR in Arabidopsis, no predicted proteins with significant similarity to the known ADPR cyclases have been reported in any plant genome database, suggesting either that there is a unique route for cADPR synthesis or that a homolog of ADPR cyclase with low similarity might exist in plants. We sought to determine whether the low levels of ADPR cyclase activity reported in Arabidopsis are indicative of a bona fide activity that can be associated with the regulation of Ca2+ signaling. We adapted two different fluorescence-based assays to measure ADPR cyclase activity in Arabidopsis and found that this activity has the characteristics of a nucleotide cyclase that is activated by nitric oxide to increase cADPR and mobilize Ca2+. PMID:26932235

  5. Molecular structure and enzymatic function of lycopene cyclase from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp strain PCC7942.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, F X; Sun, Z; Chamovitz, D; Hirschberg, J; Gantt, E

    1994-08-01

    A gene encoding the enzyme lycopene cyclase in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp strain PCC7942 was mapped by genetic complementation, cloned, and sequenced. This gene, which we have named crtL, was expressed in strains of Escherichia coli that were genetically engineered to accumulate the carotenoid precursors lycopene, neurosporene, and zeta-carotene. The crtL gene product converts the acyclic hydrocarbon lycopene into the bicyclic beta-carotene, an essential component of the photosynthetic apparatus in oxygen-evolving organisms and a source of vitamin A in human and animal nutrition. The enzyme also converts neurosporene to the monocyclic beta-zeacarotene but does not cyclize zeta-carotene, indicating that desaturation of the 7-8 or 7'-8' carbon-carbon bond is required for cyclization. The bleaching herbicide 2-(4-methylphenoxy)triethylamine hydrochloride (MPTA) effectively inhibits both cyclization reactions. A mutation that confers resistance to MPTA in Synechococcus sp PCC7942 was identified as a point mutation in the promoter region of crtL. The deduced amino acid sequence of lycopene cyclase specifies a polypeptide of 411 amino acids with a molecular weight of 46,125 and a pI of 6.0. An amino acid sequence motif indicative of FAD utilization is located at the N terminus of the polypeptide. DNA gel blot hybridization analysis indicated a single copy of crtL in Synechococcus sp PCC7942. Other than the FAD binding motif, the predicted amino acid sequence of the cyanobacterial lycopene cyclase bears little resemblance to the two known lycopene cyclase enzymes from nonphotosynthetic bacteria. Preliminary results from DNA gel blot hybridization experiments suggest that, like two earlier genes in the pathway, the Synechococcus gene encoding lycopene cyclase is homologous to plant and algal genes encoding this enzyme. PMID:7919981

  6. Mechanisms of nonhormonal activation of adenylate cyclase based on target analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Verkman, A.S.; Ausiello, D.A.; Jung, C.Y.; Skorecki, K.L.

    1986-08-12

    Radiation inactivation was used to examine the mechanism of activation of adenylate cyclase in the cultured renal epithelial cell line LLC-PK1 with hormonal (vasopressin) and nonhormonal (GTP, forskolin, fluoride, and chloride) activating ligands. Intact cells were frozen, irradiated at -70 degrees C (0-14 Mrad), thawed, and assayed for adenylate cyclase activity in the presence of activating ligands. The ln (adenylate cyclase activity) vs. radiation dose relation was linear (target size 162 kDa) for vasopressin- (2 microM) stimulated activity and concave downward for unstimulated (10 mM Mn/sup 2 +/), NaF- (10 mM) stimulated, and NaCl- (100 mM) stimulated activities. Addition of 2 microM vasopressin did not alter the ln activity vs. dose relation for NaF- (10 mM) stimulated activity. The dose-response relations for adenylate cyclase activation and for transition in the ln activity vs. dose curve shape were measured for vasopressin and NaF. On the basis of our model for adenylate cyclase subunit interactions reported previously (Verkman, A. S., Skorecki, K. L., and Ausiello, D. A. (1986) Am. J. Physiol. 260, C103-C123) and of new mathematical analyses, activation mechanisms for each ligand are proposed. In the unstimulated state, equilibrium between alpha beta and alpha + beta favors alpha beta; dissociated alpha binds to GTP (rate-limiting step), which then combines with the catalytic (C) subunit to form active enzyme. Vasopressin binding to receptor provides a rapid pathway for GTP binding to alpha. GTP and its analogues accelerate the rate of alpha GTP formation. Forskolin inhibits the spontaneous deactivation of activated C. Activation by fluoride may occur without alpha beta dissociation or GTP addition through activation of C by an alpha beta-F complex.

  7. The sGC activator inhibits the proliferation and migration, promotes the apoptosis of human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells via the up regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuai; Zou, Lihui; Yang, Ting; Yang, Yuanhua; Zhai, Zhenguo; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Chen

    2015-03-15

    Background: Different types of pulmonary hypertension (PH) share the same process of pulmonary vascular remodeling, the molecular mechanism of which is not entirely clarified by far. The abnormal biological behaviors of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play an important role in this process. Objectives: We investigated the regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) by the sGC activator, and explored the effect of PAI-2 on PASMCs proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Methods: After the transfection with PAI-2 overexpression vector and specific siRNAs or treatment with BAY 41-2272 (an activator of sGC), the mRNA and protein levels of PAI-2 in cultured human PASMCs were detected, and the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of PASMCs were investigated. Results: BAY 41-2272 up regulated the endogenous PAI-2 in PASMCs, on the mRNA and protein level. In PAI-2 overexpression group, the proliferation and migration of PASMCs were inhibited significantly, and the apoptosis of PASMCs was increased. In contrast, PAI-2 knockdown with siRNA increased PASMCs proliferation and migration, inhibited the apoptosis. Conclusions: PAI-2 overexpression inhibits the proliferation and migration and promotes the apoptosis of human PASMCs. Therefore, sGC activator might alleviate or reverse vascular remodeling in PH through the up-regulation of PAI-2. - Highlights: • sGC activator BAY41-2272 up regulated PAI-2 in PASMCs, on the mRNA and protein level. • PAI-2 overexpression inhibits the proliferation and migration of human PASMCs. • PAI-2 overexpression promotes the apoptosis of human PASMCs. • sGC activator might alleviate the vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension.

  8. Critical roles of the guanylyl cyclase B receptor in endochondral ossification and development of female reproductive organs

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Naohisa; Doolittle, Lynda K.; Hammer, Robert E.; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James A.; Garbers, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclase B is the receptor for a small peptide (C-type natriuretic peptide) produced locally in many different tissues. To unravel the functions of the receptor, we generated mice lacking guanylyl cyclase B through gene targeting. Expression of the receptor mRNA in tissues such as bone and female reproductive organs was evident, and significant phenotypes associated with each of these tissues were apparent in null mice. A dramatic impairment of endochondral ossification and an attenuation of longitudinal vertebra or limb-bone growth were seen in null animals. C-type natriuretic peptide-dependent increases of guanylyl cyclase B activity, but not basal enzyme activity, appeared to be required for the progression of endochondral ossification. Female mice were infertile, but male mice were not. This result was due to the failure of the female reproductive tract to develop. Thus, the guanylyl cyclase B receptor is critical for the development of both bone and female reproductive organs. PMID:15572448

  9. Hyperexpression and purification of Escherichia coli adenylate cyclase using a vector designed for expression of lethal gene products.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P; Peterkofsky, A; McKenney, K

    1989-12-25

    We describe the construction of a new generation of vectors (pRE) for the hyperexpression of lethal gene products such as adenylate cyclase in Escherichia coli. The pRE vectors are based on the lambda PL promoter and lambda cII ribosome binding site described by Shimatake and Rosenberg (Nature, 292, 128-132, 1981). They have a unique NdeI restriction endonuclease site 3' of the lambda cII ribosome binding site that includes the ATG initiation codon, multilinker cloning sites 3' to the NdeI site, and two lambda transcription terminators 5' and 3' of the lambda PL promoter to eliminate nonspecific transcription and reduce leaky PL transcription, respectively. For hyperexpression of adenylate cyclase, tight control of transcription was necessary since elevation of cAMP levels above the physiological range is lethal to E. coli. Lethality associated with the overproduction of adenylate cyclase was shown to be mediated through the cAMP receptor protein. We used this expression system to overproduce adenylate cyclase 7500 fold, corresponding to 30% of the total cellular protein. Under these conditions the enzyme precipitated with significant loss of activity. Reducing the rate and amount of adenylate cyclase expression to 16% of the total cell protein produced one fourth of the enzyme in a soluble form with high specific activity. The soluble adenylate cyclase was purified to near homogeneity. PMID:2557591

  10. Alkaline phosphatase relieves desensitization of adenylate cyclase-coupled beta-adrenergic receptors in avian erythrocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Stadel, J.M.; Rebar, R.; Crooke, S.T.

    1987-05-01

    Desensitization of adenylate cyclase-coupled ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in avian erythrocytes results in 40-65% decrease in agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity and correlates with increased phosphorylation of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors. To assess the role of phosphorylation in desensitization, membranes from isoproterenol- and cAMP-desensitized turkey erythrocytes were incubated with alkaline phosphatase for 30 min at 37/sup 0/C, pH = 8.0. In both cases alkaline phosphatase treatment significantly reduced desensitization of agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by 40-60%. Similar results were obtained following alkaline phosphatase treatment of membranes from isoproterenol- and cAMP-desensitized duck erythrocytes. In addition, alkaline phosphatase treatment of membranes from duck erythrocytes desensitized with phorbol 12-mystrate 13-acetate returned adenylate cyclase activity to near control values. In all experiments inclusion of 20 mM NaPO/sub 4/ to inhibit alkaline phosphatase during treatment of membranes blocked the enzyme's effect on agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. These results demonstrate a role for phosphorylation in desensitization of adenylate cyclase-coupled ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in avian erythrocytes.

  11. Mechanistic Characterisation of Two Sesquiterpene Cyclases from the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Immo; Siemon, Thomas; Henrot, Matthias; Studt, Lena; Rösler, Sarah; Tudzynski, Bettina; Christmann, Mathias; Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2016-07-18

    Two sesquiterpene cyclases from Fusarium fujikuroi were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The first enzyme was inactive because of a critical mutation, but activity was restored by sequence correction through site-directed mutagenesis. The mutated enzyme and two naturally functional homologues from other fusaria converted farnesyl diphosphate into guaia-6,10(14)-diene. The second enzyme produced eremophilene. The absolute configuration of guaia-6,10(14)-diene was elucidated by enantioselective synthesis, while that of eremophilene was evident from the sign of its optical rotation and is opposite to that in plants but the same as in Sorangium cellulosum. The mechanisms of both terpene cyclases were studied with various (13) C- and (2) H-labelled FPP isotopomers. PMID:27294564

  12. An Adenylyl Cyclase, CyaB, Acts as an Osmosensor in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yoshio; Ohtani, Mika; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported that a receptor-type adenylyl cyclase (CyaA) of Myxococcus xanthus undergoes an osmosensor mainly during spore germination (Y. Kimura et al., J. Bacteriol. 184:3578-3585, 2002). In the present study, we cloned another receptor-type adenylyl cyclase gene (cyaB) and characterized the function of the cyaB-encoded protein. Disruption of cyaB generates a mutant that showed growth retardation at high ionic (NaCl) or high nonionic (sucrose) osmolarity. When vegetative cells were stimulated with 0.15 M NaCl, the increases in intracellular cyclic AMP levels of cyaB mutant cells were lower than those of wild-type cells. Under nonionic osmostress, the cyaB mutant exhibited reduced spore germination; however, the germination rate of the cyaB mutant was significantly higher than that of the cyaA mutant. PMID:15866951

  13. Overexpression of the Type 1 Adenylyl Cyclase in the Forebrain Leads to Deficits of Behavioral Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hong; Saraf, Amit; Zweifel, Larry S.

    2015-01-01

    The type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1) is an activity-dependent, calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase expressed in the nervous system that is implicated in memory formation. We examined the locomotor activity, and impulsive and social behaviors of AC1+ mice, a transgenic mouse strain overexpressing AC1 in the forebrain. Here we report that AC1+ mice exhibit hyperactive behaviors and demonstrate increased impulsivity and reduced sociability. In contrast, AC1 and AC8 double knock-out mice are hypoactive, and exhibit increased sociability and reduced impulsivity. Interestingly, the hyperactivity of AC1+ mice can be corrected by valproate, a mood-stabilizing drug. These data indicate that increased expression of AC1 in the forebrain leads to deficits in behavioral inhibition. PMID:25568126

  14. Adenylate cyclase responsiveness to hormones in various portions of the human nephron.

    PubMed Central

    Chabardès, D; Gagnan-Brunette, M; Imbert-Teboul, M; Gontcharevskaia, O; Montégut, M; Clique, A; Morel, F

    1980-01-01

    The action sites for parathyroid hormone (PTH), salmon calcitonin (SCT), and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) were investigated along the human nephron by measuring adenylate cyclase activity, using a single tubule in vitro microassay. Well-localized segments of tubule were isolated by microdissection from five human kidneys unsuitable for transplantation. PTH (10 IU/ml) increased adenylate cyclase activity in the convoluted and the straight proximal tubule, in the medullary and cortical portions of the thick ascending limb, and in the early portion of the distal convoluted tubule (corresponding stimulated:basal activity ratios were 64, 19, 10, 18, and 22, respectively). SCT (10 ng/ml) increased adenylate cyclase activity in the medullary and cortical portions of the thick ascending limb, in the early portion of the distal convoluted tubule, and, to a lesser extent, in the cortical and the medullay collecting tubule (activity ratios were 7, 14, 15, 3, and 3, respectively). AVP (1 microM) stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the terminal nephron segments only, i.e., the late portion of the distal convoluted tubule, the cortical and medullary portions of the collecting tubule (activity ratios 81, 51, and 97, respectively). As measured in one experiment, nearly one-half maximal responses were obtained with 0.1 IU/ml PTH or 0.3 ng/ml SCT in thick ascending limbs and with 1 nM AVP in collecting tubules, suggesting that enzyme sensitivity to hormones as well preserved under the conditions used in this study. PMID:7356689

  15. Control of the Diadenylate Cyclase CdaS in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Mehne, Felix M. P.; Schröder-Tittmann, Kathrin; Eijlander, Robyn T.; Herzberg, Christina; Hewitt, Lorraine; Kaever, Volkhard; Lewis, Richard J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Tittmann, Kai; Stülke, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis encodes three diadenylate cyclases that synthesize the essential signaling nucleotide cyclic di-AMP. The activities of the vegetative enzymes DisA and CdaA are controlled by protein-protein interactions with their conserved partner proteins. Here, we have analyzed the regulation of the unique sporulation-specific diadenylate cyclase CdaS. Very low expression of CdaS as the single diadenylate cyclase resulted in the appearance of spontaneous suppressor mutations. Several of these mutations in the cdaS gene affected the N-terminal domain of CdaS. The corresponding CdaS mutant proteins exhibited a significantly increased enzymatic activity. The N-terminal domain of CdaS consists of two α-helices and is attached to the C-terminal catalytically active diadenylate cyclase (DAC) domain. Deletion of the first or both helices resulted also in strongly increased activity indicating that the N-terminal domain serves to limit the enzyme activity of the DAC domain. The structure of YojJ, a protein highly similar to CdaS, indicates that the protein forms hexamers that are incompatible with enzymatic activity of the DAC domains. In contrast, the mutations and the deletions of the N-terminal domain result in conformational changes that lead to highly increased enzymatic activity. Although the full-length CdaS protein was found to form hexamers, a truncated version with a deletion of the first N-terminal helix formed dimers with high enzyme activity. To assess the role of CdaS in sporulation, we assayed the germination of wild type and cdaS mutant spores. The results indicate that cyclic di-AMP formed by CdaS is required for efficient germination. PMID:24939848

  16. An improved technique for the rapid chemical characterisation of bacterial terpene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Dickschat, Jeroen S; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A K; Rabe, Patrick; Klapschinski, Tim A

    2014-04-14

    A derivative of the pET28c(+) expression vector was constructed. It contains a yeast replication system (2μ origin of replication) and a yeast selectable marker (URA3), and can be used for gene cloning in yeast by efficient homologous recombination, and for heterologous expression in E. coli. The vector was used for the expression and chemical characterisation of three bacterial terpene cyclases. PMID:24573945

  17. Elevation of lutein content in tomato: a biochemical tug-of-war between lycopene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Giorio, Giovanni; Yildirim, Arzu; Stigliani, Adriana Lucia; D'Ambrosio, Caterina

    2013-11-01

    Lutein is becoming increasingly important in preventive medicine due to its possible role in maintaining good vision and in preventing age-related maculopathy. Average daily lutein intake in developed countries is often below suggested daily consumption levels, and lutein supplementation could be beneficial. Lutein is also valuable in the food and feed industries and is emerging in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical markets. Currently, lutein is obtained at high cost from marigold petals, and synthesis alternatives are thus desirable. Tomato constitutes a promising starting system for production as it naturally accumulates high levels of lycopene. To develop tomato for lutein synthesis, the tomato Red Setter cultivar was transformed with the tomato lycopene ε-cyclase-encoding gene under the control of a constitutive promoter, and the HighDelta (HD) line, characterised by elevated lutein and δ-carotene content in ripe fruits, was selected. HD was crossed to the transgenic HC line and to RS(B) with the aim of converting all residual fruit δ-carotene to lutein. Fruits of both crosses were enriched in lutein and presented unusual carotenoid profiles. The unique genetic background of the crosses used in this study permitted an unprecedented analysis of the role and regulation of the lycopene cyclase enzymes in tomato. A new defined biochemical index, the relative cyclase activity ratio, was used to discern post-transcriptional regulation of cyclases, and will help in the study of carotenoid biosynthesis in photosynthetic plant species and particularly in those, like tomato, that have been domesticated for the production of food, feed or useful by-products. PMID:24141052

  18. Non-co-ordinate development of beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase in chick heart.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, R W; Galper, J B; Neer, E J; Smith, T W

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the properties of beta-adrenergic receptors and of their interaction with adenylate cyclase in the chick myocardium during embryogenesis. Between 4.5 and 7.5 days in ovo the number of receptors determined by (-)-[3H]dihydroalprenolol ([3H]DHA) binding is constant at approx. 0.36 pmol of receptor/mg of protein. By day 9 the density decreases significantly to 0.22 pmol of receptor/mg of protein. At day 12.5--13.5 the number was 0.14--0.18 pmol of receptor/mg of protein. This number did not change further up to day 16. The same results were obtained with guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) added to the assay mixtures. There was no significant change in receptor affinity for the antagonist [3H]DHA between days 5.5 and 13. Despite the decrease in numbers of beta-adrenergic receptors, there was no change in basal, p[NH]ppG-, isoprenaline- or isoprenaline-plus-p[NH]ppG-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity between days 3 and 12 of development. We conclude that beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase are not co-ordinately regulated during early embryonic development of the chick heart. Some of the beta-adrenergic receptors present very early in the ontogeny of cardiac tissue appear not to be coupled to adenylate cyclase since their loss is not reflected in decreased activation of the enzyme. PMID:6289805

  19. Identification of photoactivated adenylyl cyclases in Naegleria australiensis and BLUF-containing protein in Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Hiro; Sato, Aya; Kita, Ayaka; Kodaira, Ken-Ichi; Iseki, Mineo; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Shibusawa, Mami; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Yagita, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Complete genome sequencing of Naegleria gruberi has revealed that the organism encodes polypeptides similar to photoactivated adenylyl cyclases (PACs). Screening in the N. australiensis genome showed that the organism also encodes polypeptides similar to PACs. Each of the Naegleria proteins consists of a "sensors of blue-light using FAD" domain (BLUF domain) and an adenylyl cyclase domain (AC domain). PAC activity of the Naegleria proteins was assayed by comparing sensitivities of Escherichia coli cells heterologously expressing the proteins to antibiotics in a dark condition and a blue light-irradiated condition. Antibiotics used in the assays were fosfomycin and fosmidomycin. E. coli cells expressing the Naegleria proteins showed increased fosfomycin sensitivity and fosmidomycin sensitivity when incubated under blue light, indicating that the proteins functioned as PACs in the bacterial cells. Analysis of the N. fowleri genome revealed that the organism encodes a protein bearing an amino acid sequence similar to that of BLUF. A plasmid expressing a chimeric protein consisting of the BLUF-like sequence found in N. fowleri and the adenylyl cyclase domain of N. gruberi PAC was constructed to determine whether the BLUF-like sequence functioned as a sensor of blue light. E. coli cells expressing a chimeric protein showed increased fosfomycin sensitivity and fosmidomycin sensitivity when incubated under blue light. These experimental results indicated that the sequence similar to the BLUF domain found in N. fowleri functioned as a sensor of blue light. PMID:24201148

  20. The Presence of Two Cyclase Thioesterases Expands the Conformational Freedom of the Cyclic Peptide Occidiofungin

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Akshaya; Gu, Ganyu; Escano, Jerome; Lu, Shi-En; Smith, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Occidiofungin is a cyclic nonribosomally synthesized antifungal peptide with submicromolar activity produced by Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia contaminans. The biosynthetic gene cluster was confirmed to contain two cyclase thioesterases. NMR analysis revealed that the presence of both thioesterases is used to increase the conformational repertoire of the cyclic peptide. The loss of the OcfN cyclic thioesterase by mutagenesis results in a reduction of conformational variants and an appreciable decrease in bioactivity against Candida species. Presumably, the presence of both asparagine and β-hydroxyasparagine variants coordinate the enzymatic function of both of the cyclase thioesterases. OcfN has presumably evolved to be part of the biosynthetic gene cluster due to its ability to produce structural variants that enhance antifungal activity against some fungi. The enhancement of the antifungal activity from the incorporation of an additional cyclase thioesterase into the biosynthetic gene cluster of occidiofungin supports the need to explore new conformational variants of other therapeutic or potentially therapeutic cyclic peptides. PMID:23394257

  1. Sensitization of olfactory guanylyl cyclase to a specific imprinted odorant in coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Dittman, A H; Quinn, T P; Nevitt, G A; Hacker, B; Storm, D R

    1997-08-01

    The role of cGMP in olfactory signaling is not fully understood, but it is believed to play a modulatory role in intracellular signaling in vertebrate olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). Here, we present evidence that cGMP in ORNs may play an important role in recognition of biologically relevant odors and olfactory learning. Specifically, we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying olfactory imprinting in salmon. Salmon learn odors associated with their natal site as juveniles and later use these odors to guide their homing migration. This imprinting is believed to involve sensitization of the peripheral olfactory system to specific homestream odorants. We imprinted juvenile salmon to the odorant beta-phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) and examined the sensitivity of olfactory adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases to PEA during development. Stimulation of guanylyl cyclase activity by PEA was significantly greater in olfactory cilia isolated from PEA-imprinted salmon compared with PEA-naive fish only at the time of the homing migration, 2 years after PEA exposure. These results suggest that sensitization of olfactory guanylyl cyclase may play an important role in olfactory imprinting by salmon. PMID:9292727

  2. Guanylyl cyclase and cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase participate in the acrosome reaction of starfish sperm.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Osamu; Ueno, Seiichi; Minakata, Hiroyuki; Hoshi, Motonori; Matsumoto, Midori

    2004-11-01

    In the starfish, Asterias amurensis, the cooperation of three components of the egg jelly, i.e. ARIS (acrosome reaction-inducing substance), Co-ARIS and asterosap, is responsible for inducing the acrosome reaction. Experimentally, ARIS and asterosap are sufficient for the induction. However, when sperm are treated only with asterosap, they become unresponsive to the egg jelly to undergo the reaction. In this study, we analysed the mechanism of the acrosome reaction, using sperm inactivation by asterosap as a clue. Asterosap causes a rapid and transient increase in intracellular cGMP through the activation of the asterosap receptor, a guanylyl cyclase, and causes an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). When sperm were pretreated with asterosap, the guanylyl cyclase seemed to be inactivated irreversibly by dephosphorylation. They were still responsive to ARIS but no longer to asterosap. However, in the presence of IBMX or zaprinast, inhibitors against phosphodiesterases (PDEs), they retained their capacity to undergo the acrosome reaction in response to the egg jelly or ARIS alone. IBMX and zaprinast suppressed the intracellular catabolism of cGMP, but not of cAMP. These results suggest that guanylyl cyclase and cGMP-specific, IBMX- and zaprinast-susceptible PDEs are involved in the regulation of the acrosome reaction. PMID:15751545

  3. Sll0254 (CrtLdiox) Is a Bifunctional Lycopene Cyclase/Dioxygenase in Cyanobacteria Producing Myxoxanthophyll

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hatem E.; Vermaas, Wim F. J.

    2006-01-01

    Upon depletion of Sll0254 in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, cyclized carotenoids were replaced by linear, relatively hydrophilic carotenoids, and the amount of the two photosystems decreased greatly. Full segregants of the sll0254 deletion in Synechocystis were not obtained, implying that this gene is essential for survival, most likely to allow normal cell division. The N-terminal half of Sll0254 has limited similarity to the family of lycopene cyclases, has an additional dehydrogenase motif near the N terminus, and is followed by a Rieske 2Fe-2S center sequence signature. To test whether Sll0254 serves as a lycopene cyclase in Synechocystis, the corresponding gene was expressed in Escherichia coli strains that can produce lycopene or neurosporene. In the presence of Sll0254 these linear carotenoids were converted into cyclized, relatively hydrophilic pigments, with masses consistent with the introduction of two hydroxyl groups and with spectra indicative of only small changes in the number of conjugated double bonds. This suggests that Sll0254 catalyzes formation of oxygenated, cyclized carotenoids. We interpret the appearance of the hydroxyl groups in the carotenoids to be due to dioxygenase activity involving the Rieske 2Fe-2S center and the additional dehydrogenase domain. This dioxygenase activity is required in the myxoxanthophyll biosynthesis pathway, after or concomitant with cyclization on the other end of the molecule. We interpret Sll0254 to be a dual-function enzyme with both lycopene cyclase and dioxygenase activity and have named it CrtLdiox. PMID:16621828

  4. Central role of soluble adenylyl cyclase and cAMP in sperm physiology

    PubMed Central

    Buffone, Mariano G.; Wertheimer, Eva V.; Visconti, Pablo E.; Krapf, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP), the first second messenger to be described, plays a central role in cell signaling in a wide variety of cell types. Over the last decades, a wide body of literature addressed the different roles of cAMP in cell physiology, mainly in response to neurotransmitters and hormones. cAMP is synthesized by a wide variety of adenylyl cylases that can generally be grouped in two types: transmembrane adenylyl cyclase and soluble adenylyl cyclases. In particular, several aspects of sperm physiology are regulated by cAMP produced by a single atypical adenylyl cyclase (Adcy10, aka sAC, SACY). The signature that identifies sAC among other ACs, is their direct stimulation by bicarbonate. The essential nature of cAMP in sperm function has been demonstrated using gain of function as well as loss of function approaches. This review unifies state of the art knowledge of the role of cAMP and those enzymes involved in cAMP signaling pathways required for the acquisition of fertilizing capacity of mammalian sperm. PMID:25066614

  5. Evidence for an essential histidine residue in 4S-limonene synthase and other terpene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Rajaonarivony, J I; Gershenzon, J; Miyazaki, J; Croteau, R

    1992-11-15

    (4S)-Limonene synthase, isolated from glandular trichome secretory cell preparations of Mentha x piperita (peppermint) leaves, catalyzes the metal ion-dependent cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate, via 3S-linalyl pyrophosphate, to (-)-(4S)-limonene as the principal product. Treatment of this terpene cyclase with the histidine-directed reagent diethyl pyrocarbonate at a concentration of 0.25 mM resulted in 50% loss of enzyme activity, and this activity could be completely restored by treatment of the preparation with 5 mM hydroxylamine. Inhibition with diethyl pyrocarbonate was distinguished from inhibition with thiol-directed reagents by protection studies with histidine and cysteine carried out at varying pH. Inactivation of the cyclase by dye-sensitized photooxidation in the presence of rose bengal gave further indication of the presence of a readily modified histidine residue. Protection of the enzyme against inhibition with diethyl pyrocarbonate was afforded by the substrate geranyl pyrophosphate in the presence of Mn2+, and by the sulfonium ion analog of the linalyl carbocation intermediate of the reaction in the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate plus Mn2+, suggesting that an essential histidine residue is located at or near the active site. Similar studies on the inhibition of other monoterpene and sesquiterpene cyclases with diethyl pyrocarbonate suggest that a histidine residue (or residues) may play an important role in catalysis by this class of enzymes. PMID:1444454

  6. Microarray evidence of glutaminyl cyclase gene expression in melanoma: implications for tumor antigen specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, John Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Background In recent years encouraging progress has been made in developing vaccine treatments for cancer, particularly with melanoma. However, the overall rate of clinically significant results has remained low. The present research used microarray datasets from previous investigations to examine gene expression patterns in cancer cell lines with the goal of better understanding the tumor microenvironment. Methods Principal Components Analyses with Promax rotational transformations were carried out with 90 cancer cell lines from 3 microarray datasets, which had been made available on the internet as supplementary information from prior publications. Results In each of the analyses a well defined melanoma component was identified that contained a gene coding for the enzyme, glutaminyl cyclase, which was as highly expressed as genes from a variety of well established biomarkers for melanoma, such as MAGE-3 and MART-1, which have frequently been used in clinical trials of melanoma vaccines. Conclusion Since glutaminyl cyclase converts glutamine and glutamic acid into a pyroglutamic form, it may interfere with the tumor destructive process of vaccines using peptides having glutamine or glutamic acid at their N-terminals. Finding ways of inhibiting the activity of glutaminyl cyclase in the tumor microenvironment may help to increase the effectiveness of some melanoma vaccines. PMID:16820060

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the glutaminyl cyclase from Carica papaya latex

    SciTech Connect

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Clantin, Bernard; Bompard, Coralie; Belrhali, Hassan; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Looze, Yvan; Wintjens, René

    2005-01-01

    The glutaminyl cyclase isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop method. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to 1.7 Å resolution. In living systems, the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues is accomplished by glutaminyl cyclase enzymes (EC 2.3.2.5). While in mammals these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of hormonal and neurotransmitter peptides, the physiological role played by the corresponding plant enzymes still remains to be unravelled. Papaya glutaminyl cyclase (PQC), a 33 kDa enzyme found in the latex of the tropical tree Carica papaya, displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation as well as to proteolysis. In order to elucidate its enzymatic mechanism and to gain insights into the structural determinants underlying its remarkable stability, PQC was isolated from papaya latex, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.82, b = 81.23, c = 108.17 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to a resolution of 1.7 Å.

  8. Picomolar-affinity binding and inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity by melatonin in Syrian hamster hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Niles, L.P.; Hashemi, F. )

    1990-12-01

    1. The effect of melatonin on forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was measured in homogenates of Syrian hamster hypothalamus. In addition, the saturation binding characteristics of the melatonin receptor ligand, ({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin, was examined using an incubation temperature (30{degree}C) similar to that used in enzyme assays. 2. At concentrations ranging from 10 pM to 1 nM, melatonin caused a significant decrease in stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with a maximum inhibition of approximately 22%. 3. Binding experiments utilizing ({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin in a range of approximately 5-80 pM indicated a single class of high-affinity sites: Kd = 55 +/- 9 pM, Bmax = 1.1 +/- 0.3 fmol/mg protein. 4. The ability of picomolar concentrations of melatonin to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity suggests that this affect is mediated by picomolar-affinity receptor binding sites for this hormone in the hypothalamus.

  9. Eubacterial Diterpene Cyclase Genes Essential for Production of the Isoprenoid Antibiotic Terpentecin

    PubMed Central

    Dairi, Tohru; Hamano, Yoshimitsu; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Itoh, Nobuya; Furihata, Kazuo; Seto, Haruo

    2001-01-01

    A gene cluster containing the mevalonate pathway genes (open reading frame 2 [ORF2] to ORF7) for the formation of isopentenyl diphosphate and a geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) synthase gene (ORF1) had previously been cloned from Streptomyces griseolosporeus strain MF730-N6, a diterpenoid antibiotic, terpentecin (TP) producer (Y. Hamano, T. Dairi, M. Yamamoto, T. Kawasaki, K Kaneda, T. Kuzuyama, N. Itoh, and H. Seto, Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 65:1627–1635, 2001). Sequence analysis in the upstream region of the cluster revealed seven new ORFs, ORF8 to ORF14, which were suggested to encode TP biosynthetic genes. We constructed two mutants, in which ORF11 and ORF12, which encode a protein showing similarities to eukaryotic diterpene cyclases (DCs) and a eubacterial pentalenene synthase, respectively, were inactivated by gene disruptions. The mutants produced no TP, confirming that these cyclase genes are essential for the production of TP. The two cyclase genes were also expressed in Streptomyces lividans together with the GGDP synthase gene under the control of the ermE* constitutive promoter. The transformant produced a novel cyclic diterpenoid, ent-clerod-3,13(16),14-triene (terpentetriene), which has the same basic skeleton as TP. The two enzymes, each of which was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity, converted GGDP into terpentetriene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a eubacterial DC. PMID:11567009

  10. Dcsbis (PA2771) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly active diguanylate cyclase with unique activity regulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Shiheng; Liu, Cuilan; Huang, Yan; Chi, Kaikai; Su, Tiantian; Zhu, Deyu; Peng, Jin; Xia, Zhijie; He, Jing; Xu, Sujuan; Hu, Wei; Gu, Lichuan

    2016-01-01

    C-di-GMP (3',5' -Cyclic diguanylic acid) is an important second messenger in bacteria that influences virulence, motility, biofilm formation, and cell division. The level of c-di-GMP in cells is controlled by diguanyl cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Here, we report the biochemical functions and crystal structure of the potential diguanylase Dcsbis (PA2771, a diguanylate cyclase with a self-blocked I-site) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The full-length Dcsbis protein contains an N-terminal GAF domain and a C-terminal GGDEF domain. We showed that Dcsbis tightly coordinates cell motility without markedly affecting biofilm formation and is a diguanylate cyclase with a catalytic activity much higher than those of many other DGCs. Unexpectedly, we found that a peptide loop (protecting loop) extending from the GAF domain occupies the conserved inhibition site, thereby largely relieving the product-inhibition effect. A large hydrophobic pocket was observed in the GAF domain, thus suggesting that an unknown upstream signaling molecule may bind to the GAF domain, moving the protecting loop from the I-site and thereby turning off the enzymatic activity. PMID:27388857

  11. Modulation of ischemic-induced damage to cerebral adenylate cyclase in gerbils by calcium channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Christie-Pope, B C; Palmer, G C

    1986-12-01

    It has been previously established that prolonged bilateral carotid occlusion followed by recirculation produces damage to the synaptic enzyme adenylate cyclase in the frontal cortex of the gerbil. Since calcium entrance into the brain may account in part for the deleterious consequences of stroke, the present study examined whether pretreatment with calcium channel blockers would modify the effects of 60 min of bilateral ischemia plus 40 min of reflow on various parameters of cortical adenylate cyclase activation. In this context activation of cerebral homogenates by norepinephrine with or without 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate was preserved by pretreatment of ischemic gerbils with verapamil but worsened by flunarizine. In contrast, in particulate fractions (treated with EGTA to reduce metallic ion levels) the damage to the Mn2+-sensitive catalytic site of adenylate cyclase was prevented only by flunarizine. Pretreatment with the two calcium channel blockers resulted in an elevated basal activity of the enzyme, thereby reducing the response in the homogenate preparation to forskolin. Gerbils pretreated with verapamil tended to have an increased ability for survival resulting from the ischemic episode. Under in vitro conditions the enzyme preparations were not markedly influenced by either drug. PMID:3508245

  12. An Adenylyl Cyclase, CyaA, of Myxococcus xanthus Functions in Signal Transduction during Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yoshio; Mishima, Yukako; Nakano, Hiromi; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2002-01-01

    An adenylyl cyclase gene (cyaA) present upstream of an osmosensor protein gene (mokA) was isolated from Myxococcus xanthus. cyaA encoded a polypeptide of 843 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 91,187 Da. The predicted cyaA gene product had structural similarity to the receptor-type adenylyl cyclases that are composed of an amino-terminal sensor domain and a carboxy-terminal catalytic domain of adenylyl cyclase. In reverse transcriptase PCR experiments, the transcript of the cyaA gene was detected mainly during development and spore germination. A cyaA mutant, generated by gene disruption, showed normal growth, development, and germination. However, a cyaA mutant placed under conditions of ionic (NaCl) or nonionic (sucrose) osmostress exhibited a marked reduction in spore formation and spore germination. When wild-type and cyaA mutant cells at developmental stages were stimulated with 0.2 M NaCl or sucrose, the mutant cells increased cyclic AMP accumulation at levels similar to those of the wild-type cells. In contrast, the mutant cells during spore germination had mainly lost the ability to respond to high-ionic osmolarity. In vegetative cells, the cyaA mutant responded normally to osmotic stress. These results suggested that M. xanthus CyaA functions mainly as an ionic osmosensor during spore germination and that CyaA is also required for osmotic tolerance in fruiting formation and sporulation. PMID:12057952

  13. Evolutionary Divergence of Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate Cyclases Leads to Several Distinct Cyclic Products

    PubMed Central

    Asamizu, Shumpei; Xie, Pengfei; Brumsted, Corey J.; Flatt, Patricia M.; Mahmud, Taifo

    2012-01-01

    Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate cyclases are enzymes that utilize the pentose phosphate pathway intermediate, sedoheptulose 7-phosphate, to generate cyclic precursors of many bioactive natural products, such as the antidiabetic drug acarbose, the crop protectant validamycin, and the natural sunscreens mycosporine-like amino acids. These proteins are phylogenetically related to the dehydroquinate (DHQ) synthases from the shikimate pathway, and are part of the more recently recognized superfamily of sugar phosphate cyclases, which includes DHQ synthases, aminoDHQ synthases and 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthases. Through genome mining and biochemical studies, we identified yet another subset of DHQS-like proteins in the actinomycete Actinosynnema mirum and the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca DW4/3–1. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate to 2-epi-valiolone, which is predicted to be an alternative precursor for aminocyclitol biosynthesis. Comparative bioinformatics and biochemical analyses of these proteins with 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthases (EEVS) and desmethyl-4-deoxygadusol synthases (DDGS) provided further insights into their genetic diversity, conserved amino acid sequences, and plausible catalytic mechanisms. The results further highlight the uniquely diverse DHQS-like sugar phosphate cyclases, which may provide new tools for chemoenzymatic, stereospecific synthesis of various cyclic molecules. PMID:22741921

  14. Persistent stimulation of adenylate cyclase and urea transport by an AVP photolabel

    SciTech Connect

    Eggena, P.; Ma, C.L.; Fahrenholz, F.; Schwartz, I.L.

    1985-07-01

    The effects of a photoaffinity label for arginine vasopressin receptors, (Phe2, Phe(p-N3)3)AVP (N3-AVP), on urea permeability and adenylate cyclase activity have been investigated in the toad urinary bladder. This compound, when activated by ultraviolet light, induced a maximal and persistent increase in the urea permeability of the intact bladder and a persistent increase in the adenylate cyclase activity of toad bladder epithelial cell homogenates. Covalent attachment of the analogue to target tissue during photolysis was equivalent at 4 and 20 degrees C. Bladders exposed to N3-AVP in the presence of AVP during photolysis were substantially less permeable to urea than controls that had been exposed to N3-AVP alone. These findings constitute further evidence in support of the previous suggestion that N3-AVP binds covalently to AVP receptors and, in addition, demonstrates that N3-AVP evokes a persistent increase in adenylate cyclase activity which, in turn, triggers a persistent increase in bladder permeability to urea.

  15. Dcsbis (PA2771) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly active diguanylate cyclase with unique activity regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Shiheng; Liu, Cuilan; Huang, Yan; Chi, Kaikai; Su, Tiantian; Zhu, Deyu; Peng, Jin; Xia, Zhijie; He, Jing; Xu, Sujuan; Hu, Wei; Gu, Lichuan

    2016-01-01

    C-di-GMP (3’,5’ -Cyclic diguanylic acid) is an important second messenger in bacteria that influences virulence, motility, biofilm formation, and cell division. The level of c-di-GMP in cells is controlled by diguanyl cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Here, we report the biochemical functions and crystal structure of the potential diguanylase Dcsbis (PA2771, a diguanylate cyclase with a self-blocked I-site) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The full-length Dcsbis protein contains an N-terminal GAF domain and a C-terminal GGDEF domain. We showed that Dcsbis tightly coordinates cell motility without markedly affecting biofilm formation and is a diguanylate cyclase with a catalytic activity much higher than those of many other DGCs. Unexpectedly, we found that a peptide loop (protecting loop) extending from the GAF domain occupies the conserved inhibition site, thereby largely relieving the product-inhibition effect. A large hydrophobic pocket was observed in the GAF domain, thus suggesting that an unknown upstream signaling molecule may bind to the GAF domain, moving the protecting loop from the I-site and thereby turning off the enzymatic activity. PMID:27388857

  16. HAMP domain-mediated signal transduction probed with a mycobacterial adenylyl cyclase as a reporter.

    PubMed

    Mondéjar, Laura García; Lupas, Andrei; Schultz, Anita; Schultz, Joachim E

    2012-01-01

    HAMP domains, ∼55 amino acid motifs first identified in histidine kinases, adenylyl cyclases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, and phosphatases, operate as signal mediators in two-component signal transduction proteins. A bioinformatics study identified a coevolving signal-accepting network of 10 amino acids in membrane-delimited HAMP proteins. To probe the functionality of this network we used a HAMP containing mycobacterial adenylyl cyclase, Rv3645, as a reporter enzyme in which the membrane anchor was substituted by the Escherichia coli chemotaxis receptor for serine (Tsr receptor) and the HAMP domain alternately with that from the protein Af1503 of the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus or the Tsr receptor. In a construct with the Tsr-HAMP, cyclase activity was inhibited by serine, whereas in a construct with the HAMP domain from A. fulgidus, enzyme activity was not responsive to serine. Amino acids of the signal-accepting network were mutually swapped between both HAMP domains, and serine signaling was examined. The data biochemically tentatively established the functionality of the signal-accepting network. Based on a two-state gearbox model of rotation in HAMP domain-mediated signal propagation, we characterized the interaction between permanent and transient core residues in a coiled coil HAMP structure. The data are compatible with HAMP rotation in signal propagation but do not exclude alternative models for HAMP signaling. Finally, we present data indicating that the connector, which links the α-helices of HAMP domains, plays an important structural role in HAMP function. PMID:22094466

  17. The isoenzyme of glutaminyl cyclase is an important regulator of monocyte infiltration under inflammatory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cynis, Holger; Hoffmann, Torsten; Friedrich, Daniel; Kehlen, Astrid; Gans, Kathrin; Kleinschmidt, Martin; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Wolf, Raik; Wermann, Michael; Stephan, Anett; Haegele, Monique; Sedlmeier, Reinhard; Graubner, Sigrid; Jagla, Wolfgang; Müller, Anke; Eichentopf, Rico; Heiser, Ulrich; Seifert, Franziska; Quax, Paul H A; de Vries, Margreet R; Hesse, Isabel; Trautwein, Daniela; Wollert, Ulrich; Berg, Sabine; Freyse, Ernst-Joachim; Schilling, Stephan; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Acute and chronic inflammatory disorders are characterized by detrimental cytokine and chemokine expression. Frequently, the chemotactic activity of cytokines depends on a modified N-terminus of the polypeptide. Among those, the N-terminus of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2 and MCP-1) is modified to a pyroglutamate (pE-) residue protecting against degradation in vivo. Here, we show that the N-terminal pE-formation depends on glutaminyl cyclase activity. The pE-residue increases stability against N-terminal degradation by aminopeptidases and improves receptor activation and signal transduction in vitro. Genetic ablation of the glutaminyl cyclase iso-enzymes QC (QPCT) or isoQC (QPCTL) revealed a major role of isoQC for pE1-CCL2 formation and monocyte infiltration. Consistently, administration of QC-inhibitors in inflammatory models, such as thioglycollate-induced peritonitis reduced monocyte infiltration. The pharmacologic efficacy of QC/isoQC-inhibition was assessed in accelerated atherosclerosis in ApoE3*Leiden mice, showing attenuated atherosclerotic pathology following chronic oral treatment. Current strategies targeting CCL2 are mainly based on antibodies or spiegelmers. The application of small, orally available inhibitors of glutaminyl cyclases represents an alternative therapeutic strategy to treat CCL2-driven disorders such as atherosclerosis/restenosis and fibrosis. PMID:21774078

  18. H2S induces vasoconstriction of rat cerebral arteries via cAMP/adenylyl cyclase pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Sen; Ping, Na-Na; Cao, Lei; Mi, Yan-Ni; Cao, Yong-Xiao

    2015-12-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), traditionally known for its toxic effects, is now involved in regulating vascular tone. Here we investigated the vasoconstrictive effect of H2S on cerebral artery and the underlying mechanism. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H2S, concentration-dependently induced vasoconstriction on basilar artery, which was enhanced in the presence of isoprenaline, a β-adrenoceptor agonist or forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator. Administration of NaHS attenuated the vasorelaxant effects of isoprenaline or forskolin. Meanwhile, the NaHS-induced vasoconstriction was diminished in the presence of 8B-cAMP, an analog of cAMP, but was not affected by Bay K-8644, a selective L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist. These results could be explained by the revised effects of NaHS on isoprenaline-induced cAMP elevation and forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity. Additionally, NaHS-induced vasoconstriction was enhanced by removing the endothelium or in the presence of L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. L-NAME only partially attenuated the effect of NaHS which was given together with forskolin on the pre-contracted artery. In conclusion, H2S induces vasoconstriction of cerebral artery via, at least in part, cAMP/adenylyl cyclase pathway. PMID:26524654

  19. Opioid inhibition of adenylate cyclase in the striatum and vas deferens of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Bhoola, K. D.; Pay, S.

    1986-01-01

    The activity of adenylate cyclase in striatal membrane-enriched fractions (25,000 g) was inhibited by morphine, beta-endorphin, [D-Ala2-D-Leu5] enkephalin (DADLenk), fentanyl and bremazocine. Whereas guanosine triphosphate (GTP) appeared essential for the expression of this effect, sodium chloride seemed to enhance the degree of inhibition. Dopamine stimulation and sodium fluoride activation of the enzyme was also suppressed by morphine, beta-endorphin and DADLenk. beta-Endorphin and DADLenk inhibited adenylate cyclase activity in vasa deferentia membrane-enriched fractions (25,000 g); both opioids required GTP and NaCl and were inhibited by a delta-opioid receptor antagonist and by naloxone. Morphine, bremazocine and tifluadom did not significantly alter the activity of the vas deferens enzyme. Basal cyclic AMP values of striatal slices were not significantly altered by morphine, beta-endorphin or DADLenk. However, dopamine-induced elevation of cyclic AMP was reduced by morphine and this effect of the opiate was suppressed by naloxone. Only beta-endorphin lowered the basal cyclic AMP values in the vas deferens. The physiological relevance of adenylate cyclase coupling to opioid receptor subtypes is considered. PMID:3026542

  20. A Simple Luminescent Adenylate-Cyclase Functional Assay for Evaluation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Israeli, Ma’ayan; Rotem, Shahar; Elia, Uri; Bar-Haim, Erez; Cohen, Ofer; Chitlaru, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Edema Factor (EF), the toxic sub-unit of the Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin (ET) is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase whose detrimental activity in the infected host results in severe edema. EF is therefore a major virulence factor of B. anthracis. We describe a simple, rapid and reliable functional adenylate-cyclase assay based on inhibition of a luciferase-mediated luminescence reaction. The assay exploits the efficient adenylate cyclase-mediated depletion of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), and the strict dependence on ATP of the light-emitting luciferase-catalyzed luciferin-conversion to oxyluciferin, which can be easily visualized. The assay exhibits a robust EF-dose response decrease in luminescence, which may be specifically reverted by anti-EF antibodies. The application of the assay is exemplified in: (a) determining the presence of EF in B. anthracis cultures, or its absence in cultures of EF-defective strains; (b) evaluating the anti-EF humoral response in experimental animals infected/vaccinated with B. anthracis; and (c) rapid discrimination between EF producing and non-producing bacterial colonies. Furthermore, the assay may be amenable with high-throughput screening for EF inhibitory molecules. PMID:27548219

  1. Isolation and characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant affected in the regulation of adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Guidi-Rontani, C; Danchin, A; Ullmann, A

    1981-01-01

    A mutant, cyaR1, affecting regulation of adenylate cyclase expression or activity is described. It was obtained as a thermoresistant revertant of a strain harboring a thermosensitive transcription termination factor, rho (rho-15). This mutant failed to synthesize adenosine 3',5'-phosphate and exhibited a carbohydrate-negative phenotype. A secondary mutation at the crp locus (crpC) restored the ability of the mutant to synthesize adenosine 3',5'-phosphate, enabled the expression of catabolite-sensitive operons, and conferred on the strain an extreme sensitivity to catabolite repression. In addition, we showed that the crpC mutation restored the pleiotropic carbohydrate-positive phenotype even in a delta cya background. We interpret this to mean that the adenosine 3',5'-phosphate receptor protein regulates negatively either the activity or synthesis of adenylate cyclase and that the cyaR1 mutation is either in a regulatory protein or a regulatory site of adenylate cyclase. Images PMID:6273380

  2. Two members of a widely expressed subfamily of hormone-stimulated adenylyl cyclases.

    PubMed Central

    Premont, R T; Chen, J; Ma, H W; Ponnapalli, M; Iyengar, R

    1992-01-01

    cDNA encoding a hormone- and guanine nucleotide-stimulated adenylyl cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] (type 6) from rat liver and kidney has been cloned and expressed. This enzyme is stimulated by forskolin, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, and isoproterenol plus GTP but is not stimulated by beta gamma subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. A second form (type 5), which is 75% similar to type 6, has also been cloned. Both types 5 and 6 cDNAs have multiple messages. PCR-based detection of the mRNA for the type 5 and 6 enzymes indicates that both are widely distributed. Homology analyses indicate at least four distinct subfamilies of guanine nucleotide stimulatory protein-regulated adenylyl cyclases. Types 5 and 6 enzymes define one distinct subfamily of mammalian adenylyl cyclases. Diversity of one guanine nucleotide-binding protein-regulated effector may allow different modes of regulation of cell-surface signal transmission. Images PMID:1409703

  3. A Simple Luminescent Adenylate-Cyclase Functional Assay for Evaluation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Activity.

    PubMed

    Israeli, Ma'ayan; Rotem, Shahar; Elia, Uri; Bar-Haim, Erez; Cohen, Ofer; Chitlaru, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Edema Factor (EF), the toxic sub-unit of the Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin (ET) is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase whose detrimental activity in the infected host results in severe edema. EF is therefore a major virulence factor of B. anthracis. We describe a simple, rapid and reliable functional adenylate-cyclase assay based on inhibition of a luciferase-mediated luminescence reaction. The assay exploits the efficient adenylate cyclase-mediated depletion of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), and the strict dependence on ATP of the light-emitting luciferase-catalyzed luciferin-conversion to oxyluciferin, which can be easily visualized. The assay exhibits a robust EF-dose response decrease in luminescence, which may be specifically reverted by anti-EF antibodies. The application of the assay is exemplified in: (a) determining the presence of EF in B. anthracis cultures, or its absence in cultures of EF-defective strains; (b) evaluating the anti-EF humoral response in experimental animals infected/vaccinated with B. anthracis; and (c) rapid discrimination between EF producing and non-producing bacterial colonies. Furthermore, the assay may be amenable with high-throughput screening for EF inhibitory molecules. PMID:27548219

  4. Activation of adenylate cyclase by dopamine, GTP, NaF and forskolin in striatal membranes of neonatal, adult and senescent rats.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Y; Makihata, J; Segawa, T

    1984-11-13

    Dopamine (DA) caused a significant activation of striatal adenylate cyclase in neonatal and adult but not in senescent rats. GTP activated cyclase at the adult stage but not at both neonatal and senescent stages. NaF and forskolin activated cyclase at every stage. The coupling mechanism between DA1 receptors and catalytic units of cyclase seems to become functional at the neonatal stage but GTP recognition and/or binding sites lack in stimulatory GTP binding protein in neonatal and senescent membranes. PMID:6543337

  5. Novel mechanism of harmaline on inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by up-regulating Fas/FasL in SGC-7901 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihai; Wang, Chunhua; Jiang, Chenguang; Zeng, Hong; He, Xiangjiu

    2015-01-01

    Harmaline (HAR), a natural occurrence β-carboline alkaloid, was isolated from the seeds of Peganum harmala and exhibited potent antitumor effect. In this study, the anti-gastric tumor effects of HAR were firstly investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results strongly showed that HAR could inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce G2/M cell cycle arrest accompanied by an increase in apoptotic cell death in SGC-7901 cancer cells. HAR could up-regulate the expressions of cell cycle-related proteins of p-Cdc2, p21, p-p53, Cyclin B and down-regulate the expression of p-Cdc25C. In addition, HAR could up-regulate the expressions of Fas/FasL, activated Caspase-8 and Caspase-3. Moreover, blocking Fas/FasL signaling could markedly inhibit the apoptosis caused by HAR, suggesting that Fas/FasL mediated pathways were involved in HAR-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, HAR could also exert on antitumor activity with a dose of 15 mg/kg/day in vivo, which was also related with cell cycle arrest. These new findings provided a framework for further exploration of HAR which possess the potential antitumor activity by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PMID:26678950

  6. Novel mechanism of harmaline on inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by up-regulating Fas/FasL in SGC-7901 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihai; Wang, Chunhua; Jiang, Chenguang; Zeng, Hong; He, Xiangjiu

    2015-01-01

    Harmaline (HAR), a natural occurrence β-carboline alkaloid, was isolated from the seeds of Peganum harmala and exhibited potent antitumor effect. In this study, the anti-gastric tumor effects of HAR were firstly investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results strongly showed that HAR could inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce G2/M cell cycle arrest accompanied by an increase in apoptotic cell death in SGC-7901 cancer cells. HAR could up-regulate the expressions of cell cycle-related proteins of p-Cdc2, p21, p-p53, Cyclin B and down-regulate the expression of p-Cdc25C. In addition, HAR could up-regulate the expressions of Fas/FasL, activated Caspase-8 and Caspase-3. Moreover, blocking Fas/FasL signaling could markedly inhibit the apoptosis caused by HAR, suggesting that Fas/FasL mediated pathways were involved in HAR-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, HAR could also exert on antitumor activity with a dose of 15 mg/kg/day in vivo, which was also related with cell cycle arrest. These new findings provided a framework for further exploration of HAR which possess the potential antitumor activity by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PMID:26678950

  7. Characterization, Purification of Poncirin from Edible Citrus Ougan (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima) and Its Growth Inhibitory Effect on Human Gastric Cancer Cells SGC-7901

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Luo, Fenglei; Zheng, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiukai; Huang, Jianzhen; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2013-01-01

    Poncirin is a bitter flavanone glycoside with various biological activities. Poncirin was isolated from four different tissues (flavedo, albedo, segment membrane, and juice sac) of Ougan fruit (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima). The highest content of poncirin was found in the albedo of Ougan fruit (1.37 mg/g DW). High speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with D101 resin chromatography was utilized for the separation and purification of poncirin from the albedo of Ougan fruit. After this two-step purification, poncirin purity increased from 0.14% to 96.56%. The chemical structure of the purified poncirin was identified by both HPLC-PDA and LC-MS. Poncirin showed a significant in vitro inhibitory effect on the growth of the human gastric cancer cells, SGC-7901, in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, poncirin from Ougan fruit, may be beneficial for gastric cancer prevention. The purification method demonstrated here will be useful for further studies on the pharmacological mechanism of poncirin activity, as well as for guiding the consumption of Ougan fruit. PMID:23615464

  8. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization of the interaction of N7-guanyl thioether derivatives of d(TGCTG*CAAG) with potential complements.

    PubMed

    Persmark, M; Guengerich, F P

    1994-07-26

    The oligomer d(TGCTGCAAG) corresponds to a region of bacteriophage M13mp18 DNA where mutations have been found to be induced by S-(2-chloroethyl)glutathione (glutathione, GSH) [Cmarik, J. L., Humphreys, W. G., Bruner, K. L., Lloyd, R. S., Tibbetts, C., & Guengerich, F. P. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 6672-6679]. This oligomer was prepared with the central G replaced by S-(2-N7-guanylethyl)-GSH or N-acetyl-S-(2-N7-guanylethyl)Cys methyl ester; these derivatives were purified by HPLC and by affinity chromatography in the latter case. UV mixing and CD spectroscopy studies showed no evidence for preferred pairing of the S-(2-N7-guanylethyl)GSH moiety to any base other than C. UV melting studies of duplexes were performed with complementary strands containing the normal C, as well as the three mismatches (T, A, and G), across from the adducted base. Thermal stabilities were reduced in all cases when G was replaced by either N7-guanyl adduct; the C-containing complement was still the most stable. The reduced stability of the duplex d(TGCTG*CAAG)/d(CTTGCAGCA), where S-(2-N7-guanylethyl)-GSH corresponds to G*, was characterized by an increase in delta G zero of 1.4-2.0 kcal mol-1 (in the range of 25-37 degrees C) relative to the unadducted duplex. van't Hoff analysis of concentration-dependent melting experiments indicated that the delta H zero of the duplex was actually more favorable when this adduct was introduced (delta delta H zero = 13 kcal mol-1), but the decreased thermal stability was due to the entropic component. Similar results were observed when G* was N-acetyl-S-(2-N7-guanylethyl)Cys methyl ester. Under the conditions used, the overall relative stabilities of the oligomeric duplexes containing various base pairs do not indicate that S-(2-N7-guanylethyl)GSH would contribute to a higher frequency of T misinsertion than G. The possibility that ionization at the guanine N1 position may be involved in mutagenesis by N7-guanyl adducts is considered. PMID:8038155

  9. Guanylate-Binding Protein 1, an Interferon-Induced GTPase, Exerts an Antiviral Activity against Classical Swine Fever Virus Depending on Its GTPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lian-Feng; Yu, Jiahui; Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Jinghan; Li, Su; Zhang, Lingkai; Xia, Shui-Li; Yang, Qian; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Shaoxiong; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan; Zhu, Yan; Munir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many viruses trigger the type I interferon (IFN) pathway upon infection, resulting in the transcription of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which define the antiviral state of the host. Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious viral disease endangering the pig industry in many countries. However, anti-CSFV ISGs are poorly documented. Here we screened 20 ISGs that are commonly induced by type I IFNs against CSFV in lentivirus-delivered cell lines, resulting in the identification of guanylate-binding protein 1 (GBP1) as a potent anti-CSFV ISG. We observed that overexpression of GBP1, an IFN-induced GTPase, remarkably suppressed CSFV replication, whereas knockdown of endogenous GBP1 expression by small interfering RNAs significantly promoted CSFV growth. Furthermore, we demonstrated that GBP1 acted mainly on the early phase of CSFV replication and inhibited the translation efficiency of the internal ribosome entry site of CSFV. In addition, we found that GBP1 was upregulated at the transcriptional level in CSFV-infected PK-15 cells and in various organs of CSFV-infected pigs. Coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays revealed that GBP1 interacted with the NS5A protein of CSFV, and this interaction was mapped in the N-terminal globular GTPase domain of GBP1. Interestingly, the K51 of GBP1, which is crucial for its GTPase activity, was essential for the inhibition of CSFV replication. We showed further that the NS5A-GBP1 interaction inhibited GTPase activity, which was critical for its antiviral effect. Taking our findings together, GBP1 is an anti-CSFV ISG whose action depends on its GTPase activity. IMPORTANCE Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), an economically important viral disease affecting the pig industry in many countries. To date, only a few host restriction factors against CSFV

  10. Nerve growth factor-induced differentiation of PC12 cells is accompanied by elevated adenylyl cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Yung, H S; Lai, K H; Chow, K B S; Ip, N Y; Tsim, K W K; Wong, Y H; Wu, Z; Wise, H

    2010-01-01

    Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells characteristically undergo differentiation when cultured with nerve growth factor (NGF). Here we show that NGF dramatically increased the adenylyl cyclase-activating property of forskolin in PC12 cells. This effect of NGF was well maintained even when NGF was removed after 4 days, even though the morphological features of neuronal differentiation were rapidly lost on removal of NGF. The enhanced cAMP production in response to forskolin could be due to a synergistic interaction between forskolin and endogenously released agonists acting on G(s)-coupled receptors. However, responses to forskolin were not attenuated by antagonists of adenosine A2 receptors or pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptors, suggesting that adenosine and PACAP were not involved. Adenylyl cyclases 3, 6 and 9 were the predominant isoforms expressed in PC12 cells, but we found no evidence for NGF-induced changes in expression levels of any of the 9 adenylyl cyclase isoforms, nor in the expression of Gα(s). These findings highlight that NGF has a subtle influence on adenylyl cyclase activity in PC12 cells which may influence more than the neurite extension process classically associated with neuronal differentiation. PMID:20389133

  11. Dual mechanism of action of nicorandil on rabbit corpus cavernosal smooth muscle tone.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, G C; Kolasa, T; Sullivan, J P; Brioni, J D

    2001-08-01

    The potential of ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers (KCOs) for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction has recently been suggested based on positive clinical outcomes following intra-cavernosal administration of pinacidil. Agents that increase the levels of cGMP via elevation of nitric oxide (NO) nitroglycerin, for example, are also effective in improving erectile function preclinically and clinically. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects and mechanism of the action of nicorandil on rabbit corpus cavernosum. The in vitro regulation of smooth muscle tone was assessed in isolated cavernosal tissues pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Nicorandil, but not its major metabolite, relaxed phenylephrine-precontracted cavernosum smooth muscle with an EC(50) of 15 microM. The effects of nicorandil were only partially reversed by the K(ATP) channel blocker glyburide (10 microM) or by a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazole [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 3 microM). However, a combination of ODQ and glyburide completely blocked the relaxant effects of nicorandil. The results of the present study indicate that nicorandil can relax rabbit cavernosal tissue in vitro via a mechanism that involves activation of K(ATP) channels and stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase. PMID:11494082

  12. Insights into open/closed conformations of the catalytically active human guanylate kinase as investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohit; Khan, Nazimuddin; Menzel, Andreas; Rajkovic, Ivan; Konrad, Manfred; Techert, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Bio-catalysis is the outcome of a subtle interplay between internal motions in enzymes and chemical kinetics. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) investigation of an enzyme's internal motions during catalysis offers an integral view of the protein's structural plasticity, dynamics, and function, which is useful for understanding allosteric effects and developing novel medicines. Guanylate kinase (GMPK) is an essential enzyme involved in the guanine nucleotide metabolism of unicellular and multicellular organisms. It is also required for the intracellular activation of numerous antiviral and anticancer purine nucleoside analog prodrugs. Catalytically active recombinant human GMPK (hGMPK) was purified for the first time and changes in the size and shape of open/closed hGMPK were tracked by SAXS. The binding of substrates (GMP + AMPPNP or Ap5G or GMP + ADP) resulted in the compaction of size and shape of hGMPK. The structural changes between open and completely closed hGMPK conformation were confirmed by observing differences in the hGMPK secondary structures with circular dichroism spectroscopy. PMID:26446352

  13. Regulation and therapeutic targeting of peptide-activated receptor guanylyl cyclases

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Lincoln R.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic GMP is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates a wide array of physiologic processes such as blood pressure, long bone growth, intestinal fluid secretion, phototransduction and lipolysis. Soluble and single-membrane-spanning enzymes called guanylyl cyclases (GC) synthesize cGMP. In humans, the latter group consists of GC-A, GC-B, GC-C, GC-E and GC-F, which are also known as NPR-A, NPR-B, StaR, Ret1-GC and Ret2-GC, respectively. Membrane GCs are activated by peptide ligands such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), guanylin, uroguanylin, heat stable enterotoxin and GC-activating proteins. Nesiritide and carperitide are clinically approved peptide-based drugs that activate GC-A. CD-NP is an experimental heart failure drug that primarily activates GC-B but also activates GC-A at high concentrations and is resistant to degradation. Inactivating mutations in GC-B cause acromesomelic dysplasia type Maroteaux dwarfism and chromosomal mutations that increase CNP concentrations are associated with Marfanoid-like skeletal overgrowth. Pump-based CNP infusions increase skeletal growth in a mouse model of the most common type of human dwarfism, which supports CNP/GC-B-based therapies for short stature diseases. Linaclotide is a peptide activator of GC-C that stimulates intestinal motility and is in late-stage clinical trials for the treatment of chronic constipation. This review discusses the discovery of cGMP, guanylyl cyclases, the general characteristics and therapeutic applications of GC-A, GC-B and GC-C, and emphasizes the regulation of transmembrane guanylyl cyclases by phosphorylation and ATP. PMID:21185863

  14. Structure of a Sedoheptulose 7-Phosphate Cyclase: ValA from Streptomyces hygroscopicus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate cyclases (SH7PCs) encompass three enzymes involved in producing the core cyclitol structures of pseudoglycosides and similar bioactive natural products. One such enzyme is ValA from Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. jinggangensis 5008, which makes 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone as part of the biosynthesis of the agricultural antifungal agent validamycin A. We present, as the first SH7PC structure, the 2.1 Å resolution crystal structure of ValA in complex with NAD+ and Zn2+ cofactors. ValA has a fold and active site organization resembling those of the sugar phosphate cyclase dehydroquinate synthase (DHQS) and contains two notable, previously unrecognized interactions between NAD+ and Asp side chains conserved in all sugar phosphate cyclases that may influence catalysis. Because the domains of ValA adopt a nearly closed conformation even though no sugar substrate is present, comparisons with a ligand-bound DHQS provide a model for aspects of substrate binding. One striking active site difference is a loop that adopts a distinct conformation as a result of an Asp → Asn change with respect to DHQS and alters the identity and orientation of a key Arg residue. This and other active site differences in ValA are mostly localized to areas where the ValA substrate differs from that of DHQS. Sequence comparisons with a second SH7PC making a product with distinct stereochemistry lead us to postulate that the product stereochemistry of a given SH7PC is not the result of events taking place during catalysis but is accomplished by selective binding of either the α or β pyranose anomer of the substrate. PMID:24832673

  15. Cellular levels of feedback regulator of adenylate cyclase and the effect of epinephrine and insulin.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, R j; Russell, T R; Asakawa, T; Sutherland, E W

    1975-01-01

    We have obtained direct evidence that shows the cellular formation and subsequent release of a potent inhibitor (feedback regulator) of adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] by adipocytes, upon stimulation with epinephrine. The appearance of such a feedback regulator in adipocytes preceded its release into the medium. During a 30 min incubation, intracellular regulator levels rose rapidly and reached 39-61 units/g of adipocyte at 10 min. Release of inhibitor into the medium increased slowly and was 11-16 units/g of adipocyte at 10 min. Upon continued incubation, the cells at 30 min contained 30-41 units/g of ingibitor, slightly less than the content at 30 min; meanwhile, the medium content rose more than 3-fold. The inhibitor from both locations appeared to have the same characteristics, judging from the purification procedures and the biological activities on hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase was inhibited by the feedback regulator in vitro when either epinephrine, corticotropin (ACTH), or glucagon was used as activator. The site of action of this inhibitor is therefore most likely beyond the specific hormone receptors. A new in vitro action of insulin has been found. Insulin, 50-500 microunits/ml, inhibited the formation and release of this factor from isolated rat or hamster adipocytes by 29-81% after these cells were stimulated by hormones that raise intracellular adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate. This factor enhaced the effect of insulin in lowering the adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate levels in fresh rat adipocytes. A reduced formation of such a factor may modify the metabolic events in adipocytes, and some as yet unexplained effects of insulin could therefore be linked to the metabolic effects of this factor. PMID:174073

  16. Reconstitution of beta 1-adrenoceptor-dependent adenylate cyclase from purified components.

    PubMed Central

    Feder, D; Im, M J; Klein, H W; Hekman, M; Holzhöfer, A; Dees, C; Levitzki, A; Helmreich, E J; Pfeuffer, T

    1986-01-01

    In continuation of our efforts to reconstitute from purified components into lipid vesicles the signal transmission chain from beta 1-adrenoceptors to adenylate cyclase, we now report on the total reconstitution of the hormone-dependent adenylate cyclase. In these reconstitution experiments we have employed the purified adenylate cyclase (C) from bovine brain and rabbit heart, the stimulatory GTP-binding protein (GS) purified from turkey erythrocytes and rabbit liver and the beta 1-adrenoceptor (R) from turkey erythrocytes. Several detergents were compared with respect to their suitability to allow reconstitution of subunits into phospholipid vesicles. While octyl-polyoxyethylene (octyl-POE) was almost as potent as lauroyl-sucrose for preparation of vesicles containing GS.C, the latter detergent was clearly superior for vesicles enabling productive R.GS and R.GS.C coupling. The catalytic subunit from either bovine brain or rabbit heart was equally efficient in reconstitution. However, GS from turkey erythrocytes and rabbit liver revealed significant differences in RGS and RGS.C containing vesicles. While isoproterenol-induced activation of GS by GTP gamma S was first order in both instances, kon with turkey GS was 0.12 min-1, whereas kon with rabbit liver GS was 0.6 min-1. Moreover, GTP gamma S activation of erythrocyte GS was significantly more dependent on the presence of hormone than that of liver GS, confirming observations made on the native membrane-bound system. Compared with stimulation by isoproterenol (GTP gamma S) (4-fold), stimulation by isoproterenol/GTP was modest (1.3- to 1.6-fold).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. PMID:3017696

  17. Insect Stage-Specific Adenylate Cyclases Regulate Social Motility in African Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Miguel A.; Saada, Edwin A.

    2014-01-01

    Sophisticated systems for cell-cell communication enable unicellular microbes to act as multicellular entities capable of group-level behaviors that are not evident in individuals. These group behaviors influence microbe physiology, and the underlying signaling pathways are considered potential drug targets in microbial pathogens. Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan parasite that causes substantial human suffering and economic hardship in some of the most impoverished regions of the world. T. brucei lives on host tissue surfaces during transmission through its tsetse fly vector, and cultivation on surfaces causes the parasites to assemble into multicellular communities in which individual cells coordinate their movements in response to external signals. This behavior is termed “social motility,” based on its similarities with surface-induced social motility in bacteria, and it demonstrates that trypanosomes are capable of group-level behavior. Mechanisms governing T. brucei social motility are unknown. Here we report that a subset of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (ACs) in the trypanosome flagellum regulate social motility. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of adenylate cyclase 6 (AC6), or dual knockdown of AC1 and AC2, causes a hypersocial phenotype but has no discernible effect on individual cells in suspension culture. Mutation of the AC6 catalytic domain phenocopies AC6 knockdown, demonstrating that loss of adenylate cyclase activity is responsible for the phenotype. Notably, knockdown of other ACs did not affect social motility, indicating segregation of AC functions. These studies reveal interesting parallels in systems that control social behavior in trypanosomes and bacteria and provide insight into a feature of parasite biology that may be exploited for novel intervention strategies. PMID:25416239

  18. Multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclases and cytochrome P450 involved in the biosynthesis of apple fruit triterpenic acids.

    PubMed

    Andre, Christelle M; Legay, Sylvain; Deleruelle, Amélie; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Punter, Matthew; Brendolise, Cyril; Cooney, Janine M; Lateur, Marc; Hausman, Jean-François; Larondelle, Yvan; Laing, William A

    2016-09-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) accumulates bioactive ursane-, oleanane-, and lupane-type triterpenes in its fruit cuticle, but their biosynthetic pathway is still poorly understood. We used a homology-based approach to identify and functionally characterize two new oxidosqualene cyclases (MdOSC4 and MdOSC5) and one cytochrome P450 (CYP716A175). The gene expression patterns of these enzymes and of previously described oxidosqualene cyclases were further studied in 20 apple cultivars with contrasting triterpene profiles. MdOSC4 encodes a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase producing an oleanane-type triterpene, putatively identified as germanicol, as well as β-amyrin and lupeol, in the proportion 82 : 14 : 4. MdOSC5 cyclizes 2,3-oxidosqualene into lupeol and β-amyrin at a ratio of 95 : 5. CYP716A175 catalyses the C-28 oxidation of α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol and germanicol, producing ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, and putatively morolic acid. The gene expression of MdOSC1 was linked to the concentrations of ursolic and oleanolic acid, whereas the expression of MdOSC5 was correlated with the concentrations of betulinic acid and its caffeate derivatives. Two new multifuntional triterpene synthases as well as a multifunctional triterpene C-28 oxidase were identified in Malus × domestica. This study also suggests that MdOSC1 and MdOSC5 are key genes in apple fruit triterpene biosynthesis. PMID:27214242

  19. [Octarphin--Nonopioid Peptide of the Opioid Origin].

    PubMed

    Navolotskaya, E V

    2015-01-01

    The data on the properties and mechanism of action of the peptide octarphin (TPLVTLFK, the fragment 12-19 of β-endorphin)--a selective agonist of nonopioid (insensitive to the action of the opioid antagonist naloxone) β-endorphin receptor found on n immune cells (peritoneal macrophages, T and B lymphocytes of spleen and blood), endocrine (adrenal cortex, hypothalamus), cardiovascular (cardiomyocytes) systems are analyzed and systematized. Binding to the receptor octarphin increases increases the mitogen-induced pro- liferation of human and mouse T and B lymphocytes in vitro, activates murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo, stimulates growth of human T-lymphoblast cell lines Jurkat and MT-4, inhibits adenylate cyclase activity of rat adrenal cortex membranes and suppresses the secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal gland into the blood. It was shown that in a concentration range of 1-1000 nM the peptide increases the activity of inducible NO-synthase (iNOS), and the content of NO and cGMP in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine peritoneal macrophages. Taking into account that NO acts as a primary activator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), it can be assumed that the activating effect of octarphin on macrophages is realized in the following way: increase in th iNOS expression --> increase in the NO production --> increase in the sGC activity --> increase in intracellular levels of cGMP. PMID:26762089

  20. Bioactivation of Nitroglycerin by Purified Mitochondrial and Cytosolic Aldehyde Dehydrogenases*

    PubMed Central

    Beretta, Matteo; Gruber, Karl; Kollau, Alexander; Russwurm, Michael; Koesling, Doris; Goessler, Walter; Keung, Wing Ming; Schmidt, Kurt; Mayer, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Metabolism of nitroglycerin (GTN) to 1,2-glycerol dinitrate (GDN) and nitrite by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is essentially involved in GTN bioactivation resulting in cyclic GMP-mediated vascular relaxation. The link between nitrite formation and activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is still unclear. To test the hypothesis that the ALDH2 reaction is sufficient for GTN bioactivation, we measured GTN-induced formation of cGMP by purified sGC in the presence of purified ALDH2 and used a Clark-type electrode to probe for nitric oxide (NO) formation. In addition, we studied whether GTN bioactivation is a specific feature of ALDH2 or is also catalyzed by the cytosolic isoform (ALDH1). Purified ALDH1 and ALDH2 metabolized GTN to 1,2- and 1,3-GDN with predominant formation of the 1,2-isomer that was inhibited by chloral hydrate (ALDH1 and ALDH2) and daidzin (ALDH2). GTN had no effect on sGC activity in the presence of bovine serum albumin but caused pronounced cGMP accumulation in the presence of ALDH1 or ALDH2. The effects of the ALDH isoforms were dependent on the amount of added protein and, like 1,2-GDN formation, were sensitive to ALDH inhibitors. GTN caused biphasic sGC activation with apparent EC50 values of 42 ± 2.9 and 3.1 ± 0.4 μm in the presence of ALDH1 and ALDH2, respectively. Incubation of ALDH1 or ALDH2 with GTN resulted in sustained, chloral hydrate-sensitive formation of NO. These data may explain the coupling of ALDH2-catalyzed GTN metabolism to sGC activation in vascular smooth muscle. PMID:18450747

  1. Role of adenylyl cyclase in reduced β-adrenoceptor-mediated vasorelaxation during maturation

    PubMed Central

    López-Canales, O.A.; Castillo-Hernandez, M.C.; Vargas-Robles, H.; Rios, A.; López-Canales, J.S.; Escalante, B.

    2016-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptor (βAR)-dependent blood vessel relaxation is impaired in older animals and G protein activation has been suggested as the causative mechanism. Here, we investigated the role of βAR subtypes (β1AR, β2AR, and β3AR) and cAMP in maturation-dependent vasorelaxation impairment. Aortic rings from 15 Sprague-Dawley male rats (3 or 9 weeks old) were harvested and left intact or denuded of the endothelium. Vascular relaxation in aortic rings from younger and older groups was compared in the presence of βAR subtype agonists and antagonists along with cAMP and cGMP antagonists. Isolated aortic rings were used to evaluate relaxation responses, protein expression was evaluated by western blot or real time PCR, and metabolites were measured by ELISA. Expression of βAR subtypes and adenylyl cyclase was assessed, and cAMP activity was measured in vascular tissue from both groups. Isoproterenol- and BRL744-dependent relaxation in aortic rings with and without endothelium from 9-week-old rats was impaired compared with younger rats. The β1AR antagonist CGP20712A (10-7 M) did not affect isoproterenol or BRL744-dependent relaxation in arteries from either group. The β2AR antagonist ICI-118,551 (10-7 M) inhibited isoproterenol-dependent aortic relaxation in both groups. The β3AR antagonist SR59230A (10-7 M) inhibited isoproterenol- and BRL744-dependent aortic ring relaxation in younger but not in older rats. All βAR subtypes were expressed in both groups, although β3AR expression was lower in the older group. Adenylyl cyclase (SQ 22536) or protein kinase A (H89) inhibitors prevented isoproterenol-induced relaxation in younger but not in older rats. Production of cAMP was reduced in the older group. Adenylyl cyclase III and RyR3 protein expression was higher in the younger group. In conclusion, altered expression of β3AR and adenylyl cyclase III may be responsible for reduced cAMP production in the older group. PMID:27383122

  2. Aluminum: a requirement for activation of the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase by fluoride.

    PubMed Central

    Sternweis, P C; Gilman, A G

    1982-01-01

    Activation of the purified guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory component (G/F) of adenylate cyclase by F- requires the presence of Mg2+ and another factor. This factor, which contaminates commercial preparations of various nucleotides and disposable glass test tubes, has been identified as Al3+. In the presence of 10 mM Mg2+ and 5 mM F-, AlCl3 causes activation of G/F with an apparent activation constant of approximately 1-5 muM. The requirement for Al3+ is highly specific; of 28 other metals tested, only Be2+ promoted activation of G/F by F-. PMID:6289322

  3. Effect of serum lipoproteins on the adenylate cyclase activity of rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Ghiselli, G; Sirtori, C R; Nicosia, S

    1981-01-01

    Four rat lipoprotein classes [lymph chylomicrons, VLD (very-low-density), LD (low-density) and HD (high-density) lipoproteins] were tested for their ability to affect basal adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) activity of rat liver plasma membranes. All the lipoproteins, with the exception of lymph chylomicrons, effectively increase the enzyme activity. VLD lipoproteins are the most active class (67% maximal increase), followed by HD lipoproteins (33%) and LD lipoproteins (23%). The effect of VLD lipoproteins is additive to that elicited by GTP or GTP plus glucagon (at least within a certain concentration range). VLD lipoproteins affect only the Vmax. of the enzyme, not the Km. PMID:7317023

  4. Role of adenylyl cyclase in reduced β-adrenoceptor-mediated vasorelaxation during maturation.

    PubMed

    López-Canales, O A; Castillo-Hernandez, M C; Vargas-Robles, H; Rios, A; López-Canales, J S; Escalante, B

    2016-07-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptor (βAR)-dependent blood vessel relaxation is impaired in older animals and G protein activation has been suggested as the causative mechanism. Here, we investigated the role of βAR subtypes (β1AR, β2AR, and β3AR) and cAMP in maturation-dependent vasorelaxation impairment. Aortic rings from 15 Sprague-Dawley male rats (3 or 9 weeks old) were harvested and left intact or denuded of the endothelium. Vascular relaxation in aortic rings from younger and older groups was compared in the presence of βAR subtype agonists and antagonists along with cAMP and cGMP antagonists. Isolated aortic rings were used to evaluate relaxation responses, protein expression was evaluated by western blot or real time PCR, and metabolites were measured by ELISA. Expression of βAR subtypes and adenylyl cyclase was assessed, and cAMP activity was measured in vascular tissue from both groups. Isoproterenol- and BRL744-dependent relaxation in aortic rings with and without endothelium from 9-week-old rats was impaired compared with younger rats. The β1AR antagonist CGP20712A (10-7 M) did not affect isoproterenol or BRL744-dependent relaxation in arteries from either group. The β2AR antagonist ICI-118,551 (10-7 M) inhibited isoproterenol-dependent aortic relaxation in both groups. The β3AR antagonist SR59230A (10-7 M) inhibited isoproterenol- and BRL744-dependent aortic ring relaxation in younger but not in older rats. All βAR subtypes were expressed in both groups, although β3AR expression was lower in the older group. Adenylyl cyclase (SQ 22536) or protein kinase A (H89) inhibitors prevented isoproterenol-induced relaxation in younger but not in older rats. Production of cAMP was reduced in the older group. Adenylyl cyclase III and RyR3 protein expression was higher in the younger group. In conclusion, altered expression of β3AR and adenylyl cyclase III may be responsible for reduced cAMP production in the older group. PMID:27383122

  5. Correlation between Activity and Domain Complementation in Adenylyl Cyclase Demonstrated with a Novel Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Sensor.

    PubMed

    Ritt, Michael; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2016-04-01

    Adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity relies on multiple effectors acting through distinct binding sites. Crystal structures have revealed the location of these sites, and biochemical studies have explored the kinetics of ACs, but the interplay between conformation and activity remains incompletely understood. Here, we describe a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensor that functions both as a soluble cyclase and a reporter of complementation within the catalytic domain. We report a strong linear correlation between catalytic domain complementation and cyclase activity upon stimulation with forskolin and Gαs. Exploiting this, we dissect the mechanism of action of a series of forskolin analogs and a P-site inhibitor, 2'-d3'-AMP. Finally, we demonstrate that this sensor is functional in live cells, wherein it reports forskolin-stimulated activity of AC. PMID:26801393

  6. Enzymatic 13C Labeling and Multidimensional NMR Analysis of Miltiradiene Synthesized by Bifunctional Diterpene Cyclase in Selaginella moellendorffii*

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, Yoshinori; Ueno, Yohei; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Oogami, Shingo; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Matsumoto, Sadamu; Natsume, Masahiro; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Kawaide, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Diterpenes show diverse chemical structures and various physiological roles. The diversity of diterpene is primarily established by diterpene cyclases that catalyze a cyclization reaction to form the carbon skeleton of cyclic diterpene. Diterpene cyclases are divided into two types, monofunctional and bifunctional cyclases. Bifunctional diterpene cyclases (BDTCs) are involved in hormone and defense compound biosyntheses in bryophytes and gymnosperms, respectively. The BDTCs catalyze the successive two-step type-B (protonation-initiated cyclization) and type-A (ionization-initiated cyclization) reactions of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP). We found that the genome of a lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, contains six BDTC genes with the majority being uncharacterized. The cDNA from S. moellendorffii encoding a BDTC-like enzyme, miltiradiene synthase (SmMDS), was cloned. The recombinant SmMDS converted GGDP to a diterpene hydrocarbon product with a molecular mass of 272 Da. Mutation in the type-B active motif of SmMDS abolished the cyclase activity, whereas (+)-copalyl diphosphate, the reaction intermediate from the conversion of GGDP to the hydrocarbon product, rescued the cyclase activity of the mutant to form a diterpene hydrocarbon. Another mutant lacking type-A activity accumulated copalyl diphosphate as the reaction intermediate. When the diterpene hydrocarbon was enzymatically synthesized from [U-13C6]mevalonate, all carbons were labeled with 13C stable isotope (>99%). The fully 13C-labeled product was subjected to 13C-13C COSY NMR spectroscopic analyses. The direct carbon-carbon connectivities observed in the multidimensional NMR spectra demonstrated that the hydrocarbon product by SmMDS is miltiradiene, a putative biosynthetic precursor of tanshinone identified from the Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza. Hence, SmMDS functions as a bifunctional miltiradiene synthase in S. moellendorffii. In this study, we demonstrate that one-dimensional and

  7. Regulation of sesquiterpene cyclase gene expression. Characterization of an elicitor- and pathogen-inducible promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, S; Mei, L; Newman, J; Back, K; Chappell, J

    1997-01-01

    The promoter for a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) sesquiterpene cyclase gene, a key regulatory step in sesquiterpene phytoalexin biosynthesis, has been analyzed. The EAS4 promoter was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, and the temporal and spatial expression patterns of GUS activity were examined in stably transformed plants and in transient expression assays using electroporated protoplasts of tobacco. No GUS activity was observed in any tissues under normal growth conditions. A low level of GUS activity was detected in wounded leaf, root, and stem tissues, whereas a much higher level was observed when these tissues were challenged with elicitors or microbial pathogens. The GUS expression pattern directed by the EAS4 promoter was identical to the induction patterns observed for the endogenous sesquiterpene cyclase genes. Neither exogenous salicylic acid nor methyl jasmonate induced GUS expression; and H2O2 induced GUS expression to only a limited extent. Although the EAS4 promoter contains cis-sequences resembling previously identified transcriptional control motifs, other cis-sequences important for quantitative and qualitative gene expression were identified by deletion and gain-of-function analyses. The EAS4 promoter differs from previously described pathogen-/elicitor-inducible promoters because it only supports inducible gene expression and directs unique spatial expression patterns. PMID:9342864

  8. Purification and Characterization of Allene Oxide Cyclase from Dry Corn Seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, J.; Hamberg, M.; Miersch, O.; Parthier, B.

    1997-01-01

    Allene oxide cyclase (AOC; EC 5.3.99.6) catalyzes the cyclization of 12,13(S)-epoxy-9(Z),11,15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid to 12-oxo- 10,15(Z)-phytodienoic acid, the precursor of jasmonic acid (JA). This soluble enzyme was purified 2000-fold from dry corn (Zea mays L.) kernels to apparent homogeneity. The dimeric protein has a molecular mass of 47 kD. Allene oxide cyclase activity was not affected by divalent ions and was not feedback-regulated by its product, 12-oxo-l0,15(Z)-phytodienoic acid, or by JA. ([plus or minus])-cis- 12,13-Epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a substrate analog, strongly inhibited the enzyme, with 50% inhibition at 20 [mu]M. Modification of the inhibitor, such as methylation of the carboxyl group or a shift in the position of the epoxy group, abolished the inhibitory effect, indicating that both structural elements and their position are essential for binding to AOC. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which are often used to interfere with JA biosynthesis, did not influence AOC activity. The purified enzyme catalyzed the cyclization of 12,13(S)-epoxy-9(Z),11,15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid derived from linolenic acid, but not that of 12,13(S)-epoxy-9(Z),11- octadecadienoic acid derived from linoleic acid. PMID:12223729

  9. Phosphorylation-Independent Regulation of the Diguanylate Cyclase WspR

    PubMed Central

    De, Nabanita; Pirruccello, Michelle; Krasteva, Petya Violinova; Bae, Narae; Raghavan, Rahul Veera; Sondermann, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Environmental signals that trigger bacterial pathogenesis and biofilm formation are mediated by changes in the level of cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), a unique eubacterial second messenger. Tight regulation of cellular c-di-GMP concentration is governed by diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases, which are responsible for its production and degradation, respectively. Here, we present the crystal structure of the diguanylate cyclase WspR, a conserved GGDEF domain-containing response regulator in Gram-negative bacteria, bound to c-di-GMP at an inhibitory site. Biochemical analyses revealed that feedback regulation involves the formation of at least three distinct oligomeric states. By switching from an active to a product-inhibited dimer via a tetrameric assembly, WspR utilizes a novel mechanism for modulation of its activity through oligomerization. Moreover, our data suggest that these enzymes can be activated by phosphodiesterases. Thus, in addition to the canonical pathways via phosphorylation of the regulatory domains, both product and enzyme concentration contribute to the coordination of c-di-GMP signaling. A structural comparison reveals resemblance of the oligomeric states to assemblies of GAF domains, widely used regulatory domains in signaling molecules conserved from archaea to mammals, suggesting a similar mechanism of regulation. PMID:18366254

  10. Binding of (/sup 3/H)forskolin to solubilized preparations of adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.A.; Seamon, K.B.

    1988-01-01

    The binding of (/sup 3/H)forskolin to proteins solubilized from bovine brain membranes was studied by precipitating proteins with polyethylene glycol and separating (/sup 3/H)forskolin bound to protein from free (/sup 3/H)forskolin by rapid filtration. The K/sub d/ for (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding to solubilized proteins was 14 nM which was similar to that for (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding sites in membranes from rat brain and human platelets. Forskolin analogs competed for (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding sites with the same rank potency in both brain membranes and in proteins solubilized from brain membranes. (/sup 3/H)forskolin bound to proteins solubilized from membranes with a Bmax of 38 fmolmg protein which increased to 94 fmolmg protein when GppNHp was included in the binding assay. In contrast, GppNHp had no effect on (/sup 3/H)forskolin binding to proteins solubilized from membranes preactivated with GppNHp. Solubilized adenylate cyclase from non-preactivated membranes had a basal activity of 130 pmolmgmin which was increased 7-fold by GppNHp. In contrast, adenylate cyclase from preactivated membranes had a basal activity of 850 pmolmgmin which was not stimulated by GppNHp or forskolin

  11. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica Subspecies I Using Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Adenylate Cyclase.

    PubMed

    Guard, Jean; Abdo, Zaid; Byers, Sara Overstreet; Kriebel, Patrick; Rothrock, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Methods to rapidly identify serotypes of Salmonella enterica subspecies I are of vital importance for protecting the safety of food. To supplement the serotyping method dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR), single-nucleotide polymorphisms were characterized within adenylate cyclase (cyaA). The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database had 378 cyaA sequences from S. enterica subspecies I, which included 42 unique DNA sequences and 19 different amino acid sequences. Five representative isolates, namely serotypes Typhimurium, Kentucky, Enteritidis phage type PT4, and two variants of Enteritidis phage type PT13a, were differentiated within a microsphere-based fluidics system in cyaA by allele-specific primer extension. Validation against 25 poultry-related environmental Salmonella isolates representing 11 serotypes yielded a ∼89% success rate at identifying the serotype of the isolate, and a different region could be targeted to achieve 100%. When coupled with ISR, all serotypes were differentiated. Phage lineages of serotype Enteritidis 13a and 4 were identified, and a biofilm-forming strain of PT13a was differentiated from a smooth phenotype within phage type. Comparative ranking of mutation indices to genes such as the tRNA transferases, the diguanylate cyclases, and genes used for multilocus sequence typing indicated that cyaA is an appropriate gene for assessing epidemiological trends of Salmonella because of its relative stability in nucleotide composition. PMID:27035032

  12. Neofunctionalization of Chromoplast Specific Lycopene Beta Cyclase Gene (CYC-B) in Tomato Clade.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vijee; Pandey, Arun; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of tomato underwent whole genome triplication ca. 71 Myr ago followed by widespread gene loss. However, few of the triplicated genes are retained in modern day tomato including lycopene beta cyclase that mediates conversion of lycopene to β-carotene. The fruit specific β-carotene formation is mediated by a chromoplast-specific paralog of lycopene beta cyclase (CYC-B) gene. Presently limited information is available about how the variations in CYC-B gene contributed to its neofunctionalization. CYC-B gene in tomato clade contained several SNPs and In-Dels in the coding sequence (33 haplotypes) and promoter region (44 haplotypes). The CYC-B gene coding sequence in tomato appeared to undergo purifying selection. The transit peptide sequence of CYC-B protein was predicted to have a stronger plastid targeting signal than its chloroplast specific paralog indicating a possible neofunctionalization. In promoter of two Bog (Beta old gold) mutants, a NUPT (nuclear plastid) DNA fragment of 256 bp, likely derived from a S. chilense accession, was present. In transient expression assay, this promoter was more efficient than the "Beta type" promoter. CARGATCONSENSUS box sequences are required for the binding of the MADS-box regulatory protein RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN). The loss of CARGATCONSENSUS box sequence from CYC-B promoter in tomato may be related to attenuation of its efficiency to promote higher accumulation of β-carotene than lycopene during fruit ripening. PMID:27070417

  13. Functional analysis of allene oxide cyclase, MpAOC, in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ohshika, Jun; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Matusuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku

    2015-08-01

    12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) is an intermediate in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis. OPDA exerts JA-dependent and JA-independent biological effects; therefore, it is considered a signaling molecule in flowering plants. OPDA is induced by bacterial infection and wounding and inhibits growth in the moss Physcomitrella patens. The functions of OPDA and allene oxide cyclase (AOC) in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha were explored, which represents the most basal lineage of extant land plants. The analysis of OPDA showed that it is present in M. polymorpha and is increased by wounding. OPDA has been suggested to be involved in the response to environmental stresses. Moreover, OPDA showed growth inhibitory activity in M. polymorpha. Nonetheless JA in M. polymorpha was not found in this study. AOC synthesizes OPDA from an unstable allene oxide. A database search of the M. polymorpha genome identified only a putative gene encoding allene oxide cyclase (MpAOC). Recombinant MpAOC showed AOC activity similar to that in flowering plants. MpAOC was localized to chloroplasts, as in flowering plants. Expression of MpAOC was induced by wounding and OPDA treatment, and positive feedback regulation of OPDA was demonstrated in M. polymorpha. Overexpression of MpAOC increased the endogenous OPDA level and suppressed growth in M. polymorpha. These results indicate the role of OPDA as a signaling molecule regulating growth and the response to wounding in the liverwort M. polymorpha. PMID:25892411

  14. Neofunctionalization of Chromoplast Specific Lycopene Beta Cyclase Gene (CYC-B) in Tomato Clade

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vijee; Pandey, Arun; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of tomato underwent whole genome triplication ca. 71 Myr ago followed by widespread gene loss. However, few of the triplicated genes are retained in modern day tomato including lycopene beta cyclase that mediates conversion of lycopene to β-carotene. The fruit specific β-carotene formation is mediated by a chromoplast-specific paralog of lycopene beta cyclase (CYC-B) gene. Presently limited information is available about how the variations in CYC-B gene contributed to its neofunctionalization. CYC-B gene in tomato clade contained several SNPs and In-Dels in the coding sequence (33 haplotypes) and promoter region (44 haplotypes). The CYC-B gene coding sequence in tomato appeared to undergo purifying selection. The transit peptide sequence of CYC-B protein was predicted to have a stronger plastid targeting signal than its chloroplast specific paralog indicating a possible neofunctionalization. In promoter of two Bog (Beta old gold) mutants, a NUPT (nuclear plastid) DNA fragment of 256 bp, likely derived from a S. chilense accession, was present. In transient expression assay, this promoter was more efficient than the “Beta type” promoter. CARGATCONSENSUS box sequences are required for the binding of the MADS-box regulatory protein RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN). The loss of CARGATCONSENSUS box sequence from CYC-B promoter in tomato may be related to attenuation of its efficiency to promote higher accumulation of β-carotene than lycopene during fruit ripening. PMID:27070417

  15. Adenylate cyclase 3: a new target for anti-obesity drug development.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Shen, C; Seed Ahmed, M; Östenson, C-G; Gu, H F

    2016-09-01

    Obesity has become epidemic worldwide, and abdominal obesity has a negative impact on health. Current treatment options on obesity, however, still remain limited. It is then of importance to find a new target for anti-obesity drug development based upon recent molecular studies in obesity. Adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) is the third member of adenylyl cyclase family and catalyses the synthesis of cAMP from ATP. Genetic studies with candidate gene and genome-wide association study approaches have demonstrated that ADCY3 genetic polymorphisms are associated with obesity in European and Chinese populations. Epigenetic studies have indicated that increased DNA methylation levels in the ADCY3 gene are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Furthermore, biological analyses with animal models have implicated that ADCY3 dysfunction resulted in increased body weight and fat mass, while reduction of body weight is partially explained by ADCY3 activation. In this review, we describe genomic and biological features of ADCY3, summarize genetic and epigenetic association studies of the ADCY3 gene with obesity and discuss dysfunction and activation of ADCY3. Based upon all data, we suggest that ADCY3 is a new target for anti-obesity drug development. Further investigation on the effectiveness of ADCY3 activator and its delivery approach to treat abdominal obesity has been taken into our consideration. PMID:27256589

  16. Expression, purification and crystallization of a plant polyketide cyclase from Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinmei; Matsui, Takashi; Mori, Takahiro; Taura, Futoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Plant polyketides are a structurally diverse family of natural products. In the biosynthesis of plant polyketides, the construction of the carbocyclic scaffold is a key step in diversifying the polyketide structure. Olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC) from Cannabis sativa L. is the only known plant polyketide cyclase that catalyzes the C2-C7 intramolecular aldol cyclization of linear pentyl tetra-β-ketide-CoA to generate olivetolic acid in the biosynthesis of cannabinoids. The enzyme is also thought to belong to the dimeric α+β barrel (DABB) protein family. However, because of a lack of functional analysis of other plant DABB proteins and low sequence identity with the functionally distinct bacterial DABB proteins, the catalytic mechanism of OAC has remained unclear. To clarify the intimate catalytic mechanism of OAC, the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.40 Å resolution and belonged to space group P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 47.3, c = 176.0 Å. Further crystallographic analysis will provide valuable insights into the structure-function relationship and catalytic mechanism of OAC. PMID:26625288

  17. Influence of the beta-adrenergic receptor concentration on functional coupling to the adenylate cyclase system.

    PubMed Central

    Severne, Y; Coppens, D; Bottari, S; Riviere, M; Kram, R; Vauquelin, G

    1984-01-01

    Only part of the beta-adrenergic receptors can undergo functional coupling to the adenylate cyclase regulatory unit. This receptor subpopulation shows an increased affinity for agonists in the presence of Mg2+ and undergoes rapid "inactivation" (locking-in of the agonist) by the alkylating reagent N-ethylmaleimide in the presence of agonists. Several experimental conditions, known to modify the total receptor concentration without alteration of the other components of the adenylate cyclase system, do not affect the percentage of receptors that can undergo functional coupling: (i) homologous regulation of beta 1 receptors in rat brain by noradrenaline (through antidepressive drug or reserpine injections); (ii) up- and down-regulation of the beta 2 receptors in Friend erythroleukemia cells by, respectively, sodium butyrate and cinnarizine treatment; and (iii) dithiothreitol-mediated inactivation of receptors in turkey erythrocytes, Friend erythroleukemia cells, and rat brain. Our findings argue against a stoichiometric limitation in the number of regulatory components, genetically different receptor subpopulations, bound guanine nucleotides, or reduced accessibility of part of the receptors to the agonists as the cause for functional receptor heterogeneity. Differences in either the receptor conformation or its membrane microenvironment are more plausible explanations. PMID:6087337

  18. Adenylate cyclase regulation in the spermatogenic cell plasma membrane: Modulating effects of TPA and TCDD

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    This research was designed to compare the effects of TPA, a phorbol ester, and TCDD in a spermatogenic cell population, a target of TCDD toxicity. Membrane-bound adenylate cyclase activity was used an index of membrane function, and was quantified by the amount of {sup 32}P-cAMP formed from {sup 32}P-ATP following chromatographic separation. Exposure to male germ cells in-vitro to TPA and TCDD followed by direct measurement of enzyme activity was used to investigate the potential of each agent to perturb membrane function. TPA and TCDD consistently inhibited adenylate cyclase activity at the levels of G{sub s}-catalytic unit coupling and hormone-receptor activation, as measured by the stimulation of enzyme activity by concomitant addition of forskolin and GTP and FSH and GTP, respectively. The effect on coupling required at least 60 minutes of exposure to TPA or TCDD. Concentration-response curves demonstrated a progressive desensitization with increasing TPA concentration, while TCDD exhibited consistent inhibition over the same concentration range.

  19. Inhibition of monoterpene cyclases by inert analogues of geranyl diphosphate and linalyl diphosphate☆

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Frank; Zhao, Yuxin; Santhamma, Bindu; Assink, Bryce; Coates, Robert M.; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2007-01-01

    The tightly coupled nature of the reaction sequence catalyzed by monoterpene synthases has prevented direct observation of the topologically required isomerization step leading from geranyl diphosphate to the enzyme-bound, tertiary allylic intermediate linalyl diphosphate, which then cyclizes to the various monoterpene skeletons. X-ray crystal structures of these enzymes complexed with suitable analogues of the substrate and intermediate could provide a clearer view of this universal, but cryptic, step of monoterpenoid cyclase catalysis. Toward this end, the functionally inert analogues 2-fluorogeranyl diphosphate, (±)-2-fluorolinalyl diphosphate, and (3R)- and (3S)-homolinalyl diphosphates (2,6-dimethyl-2-vinyl-5-heptenyl diphosphates) were prepared, and compared to the previously described substrate analogue 3-azageranyl diphosphate (3-aza-2,3-dihydrogeranyl diphosphate) as inhibitors and potential crystallization aids with two representative monoterpenoid cyclases, (−)-limonene synthase and (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase. Although these enantioselective synthases readily distinguished between (3R)- and (3S)-homolinalyl diphosphates, both of which were more effective inhibitors than was 3-azageranyl diphosphate, the fluorinated analogues proved to be the most potent competitive inhibitors and have recently yielded informative liganded structures with limonene synthase. PMID:17949678

  20. E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin and guanylyl cyclase C: new functions and unsuspected actions.

    PubMed Central

    Giannella, Ralph A.; Mann, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    Some E. coli cause diarrhea by elaborating heat-labile and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins which stimulate intestinal secretion. E. coli ST's are small peptides which bind to intestinal luminal epithelial cell receptors. The ST receptor, one of a family of receptor-cyclases called guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C), is a membrane spanning protein containing an extracellular binding domain and intracellular protein kinase and catalytic domains. The intestine synthesizes and secretes homologous peptides, guanylin and uroguanylin. The kidney also synthesizes uroguanylin. ST, guanylin or uroguanylin binding to GC-C results in increased cGMP, phosphorylation of the CFTR Cl- channel and secretion. Proguanylin and prouroguanylin circulate in blood and bind to receptors in intestine, kidney, liver, brain etc. In the kidney, they stimulate the excretion of Na+ and K+. Study of GC-C "knock-out" mice reveal that GC-C is important to intestinal salt and water secretion, duodenal bicarbonate secretion, recovery from CCl4-induced liver injury, and to intestinal polyp formation in Min mice lacking GC-C. PMID:12813912

  1. Soluble adenylyl cyclase is an acid-base sensor in epithelial base-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Roa, Jinae N; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Blood acid-base regulation by specialized epithelia, such as gills and kidney, requires the ability to sense blood acid-base status. Here, we developed primary cultures of ray (Urolophus halleri) gill cells to study mechanisms for acid-base sensing without the interference of whole animal hormonal regulation. Ray gills have abundant base-secreting cells, identified by their noticeable expression of vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (VHA), and also express the evolutionarily conserved acid-base sensor soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Exposure of cultured cells to extracellular alkalosis (pH 8.0, 40 mM HCO3 (-)) triggered VHA translocation to the cell membrane, similar to previous reports in live animals experiencing blood alkalosis. VHA translocation was dependent on sAC, as it was blocked by the sAC-specific inhibitor KH7. Ray gill base-secreting cells also express transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs); however, tmAC inhibition by 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine did not prevent alkalosis-dependent VHA translocation, and tmAC activation by forskolin reduced the abundance of VHA at the cell membrane. This study demonstrates that sAC is a necessary and sufficient sensor of extracellular alkalosis in ray gill base-secreting cells. In addition, this study indicates that different sources of cAMP differentially modulate cell biology. PMID:27335168

  2. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica Subspecies I Using Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Adenylate Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Zaid; Byers, Sara Overstreet; Kriebel, Patrick; Rothrock, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Methods to rapidly identify serotypes of Salmonella enterica subspecies I are of vital importance for protecting the safety of food. To supplement the serotyping method dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR), single-nucleotide polymorphisms were characterized within adenylate cyclase (cyaA). The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database had 378 cyaA sequences from S. enterica subspecies I, which included 42 unique DNA sequences and 19 different amino acid sequences. Five representative isolates, namely serotypes Typhimurium, Kentucky, Enteritidis phage type PT4, and two variants of Enteritidis phage type PT13a, were differentiated within a microsphere-based fluidics system in cyaA by allele-specific primer extension. Validation against 25 poultry-related environmental Salmonella isolates representing 11 serotypes yielded a ∼89% success rate at identifying the serotype of the isolate, and a different region could be targeted to achieve 100%. When coupled with ISR, all serotypes were differentiated. Phage lineages of serotype Enteritidis 13a and 4 were identified, and a biofilm-forming strain of PT13a was differentiated from a smooth phenotype within phage type. Comparative ranking of mutation indices to genes such as the tRNA transferases, the diguanylate cyclases, and genes used for multilocus sequence typing indicated that cyaA is an appropriate gene for assessing epidemiological trends of Salmonella because of its relative stability in nucleotide composition. PMID:27035032

  3. The Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Repeat-in-Toxin (RTX) Domain Is Immunodominant and Elicits Neutralizing Antibodies*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianzhe; Maynard, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is a multifunctional virulence factor secreted by Bordetella species. Upon interaction of its C-terminal hemolysin moiety with the cell surface receptor αMβ2 integrin, the N-terminal cyclase domain translocates into the host cell cytosol where it rapidly generates supraphysiological cAMP concentrations, which inhibit host cell anti-bacterial activities. Although ACT has been shown to induce protective immunity in mice, it is not included in any current acellular pertussis vaccines due to protein stability issues and a poor understanding of its role as a protective antigen. Here, we aimed to determine whether any single domain could recapitulate the antibody responses induced by the holo-toxin and to characterize the dominant neutralizing antibody response. We first immunized mice with ACT and screened antibody phage display libraries for binding to purified ACT. The vast majority of unique antibodies identified bound the C-terminal repeat-in-toxin (RTX) domain. Representative antibodies binding two nonoverlapping, neutralizing epitopes in the RTX domain prevented ACT association with J774A.1 macrophages and soluble αMβ2 integrin, suggesting that these antibodies inhibit the ACT-receptor interaction. Sera from mice immunized with the RTX domain showed similar neutralizing activity as ACT-immunized mice, indicating that this domain induced an antibody response similar to that induced by ACT. These data demonstrate that RTX can elicit neutralizing antibodies and suggest it may present an alternative to ACT. PMID:25505186

  4. A Rhodopsin-Guanylyl Cyclase Gene Fusion Functions in Visual Perception in a Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Avelar, Gabriela M.; Schumacher, Robert I.; Zaini, Paulo A.; Leonard, Guy; Richards, Thomas A.; Gomes, Suely L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sensing light is the fundamental property of visual systems, with vision in animals being based almost exclusively on opsin photopigments [1]. Rhodopsin also acts as a photoreceptor linked to phototaxis in green algae [2, 3] and has been implicated by chemical means as a light sensor in the flagellated swimming zoospores of the fungus Allomyces reticulatus [4]; however, the signaling mechanism in these fungi remains unknown. Here we use a combination of genome sequencing and molecular inhibition experiments with light-sensing phenotype studies to examine the signaling pathway involved in visual perception in the closely related fungus Blastocladiella emersonii. Our data show that in these fungi, light perception is accomplished by the function of a novel gene fusion (BeGC1) of a type I (microbial) rhodopsin domain and guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain. Photobleaching of rhodopsin function prevents accumulation of cGMP levels and phototaxis of fungal zoospores exposed to green light, whereas inhibition of guanylyl cyclase activity negatively affects fungal phototaxis. Immunofluorescence microscopy localizes the BeGC1 protein to the external surface of the zoospore eyespot positioned close to the base of the swimming flagellum [4, 5], demonstrating this is a photoreceptive organelle composed of lipid droplets. Taken together, these data indicate that Blastocladiomycota fungi have a cGMP signaling pathway involved in phototaxis similar to the vertebrate vision-signaling cascade but composed of protein domain components arranged as a novel gene fusion architecture and of distant evolutionary ancestry to type II rhodopsins of animals. PMID:24835457

  5. A rhodopsin-guanylyl cyclase gene fusion functions in visual perception in a fungus.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Gabriela M; Schumacher, Robert I; Zaini, Paulo A; Leonard, Guy; Richards, Thomas A; Gomes, Suely L

    2014-06-01

    Sensing light is the fundamental property of visual systems, with vision in animals being based almost exclusively on opsin photopigments [1]. Rhodopsin also acts as a photoreceptor linked to phototaxis in green algae [2, 3] and has been implicated by chemical means as a light sensor in the flagellated swimming zoospores of the fungus Allomyces reticulatus [4]; however, the signaling mechanism in these fungi remains unknown. Here we use a combination of genome sequencing and molecular inhibition experiments with light-sensing phenotype studies to examine the signaling pathway involved in visual perception in the closely related fungus Blastocladiella emersonii. Our data show that in these fungi, light perception is accomplished by the function of a novel gene fusion (BeGC1) of a type I (microbial) rhodopsin domain and guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain. Photobleaching of rhodopsin function prevents accumulation of cGMP levels and phototaxis of fungal zoospores exposed to green light, whereas inhibition of guanylyl cyclase activity negatively affects fungal phototaxis. Immunofluorescence microscopy localizes the BeGC1 protein to the external surface of the zoospore eyespot positioned close to the base of the swimming flagellum [4, 5], demonstrating this is a photoreceptive organelle composed of lipid droplets. Taken together, these data indicate that Blastocladiomycota fungi have a cGMP signaling pathway involved in phototaxis similar to the vertebrate vision-signaling cascade but composed of protein domain components arranged as a novel gene fusion architecture and of distant evolutionary ancestry to type II rhodopsins of animals. PMID:24835457

  6. Activation of locus coeruleus heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway promoted an anxiolytic-like effect in rats

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G.; Branco, L.G.S.; Leite-Panissi, C.R.A.

    2016-01-01

    The heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway has been shown to play an important role in many physiological processes and is capable of altering nociception modulation in the nervous system by stimulating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). In the central nervous system, the locus coeruleus (LC) is known to be a region that expresses the heme oxygenase enzyme (HO), which catalyzes the metabolism of heme to carbon monoxide (CO). Additionally, several lines of evidence have suggested that the LC can be involved in the modulation of emotional states such as fear and anxiety. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the activation of the heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway in the LC in the modulation of anxiety by using the elevated plus maze test (EPM) and light-dark box test (LDB) in rats. Experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n=182). The results showed that the intra-LC microinjection of heme-lysinate (600 nmol), a substrate for the enzyme HO, increased the number of entries into the open arms and the percentage of time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test, indicating a decrease in anxiety. Additionally, in the LDB test, intra-LC administration of heme-lysinate promoted an increase on time spent in the light compartment of the box. The intracerebroventricular microinjection of guanylate cyclase, an sGC inhibitor followed by the intra-LC microinjection of the heme-lysinate blocked the anxiolytic-like reaction on the EPM test and LDB test. It can therefore be concluded that CO in the LC produced by the HO pathway and acting via cGMP plays an anxiolytic-like role in the LC of rats. PMID:27074170

  7. Murine GBP-5, a new member of the murine guanylate-binding protein family, is coordinately regulated with other GBPs in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam Thuan; Hu, Yan; Widney, Daniel P; Mar, Rebecca A; Smith, Jeffrey B

    2002-08-01

    A new murine member of the interferon (IFN)-inducible guanylate-binding protein (GBP) family was cloned in a search for glucocorticoid-attenuated response genes induced in the lung during endotoxemia. The full-length MuGBP-5 cDNA encodes a 590 amino acid residue protein with GTP binding motifs identical to those in human GBP-1 (HuGBP-1) and a similar isoprenylation sequence at the C-terminus. An alternatively spliced form of MuGBP-5 that lacks the second GTP binding motif and differs at the C-terminus was also identified. The MuGBP-5 gene is located on chromosome 3, near MuGBP-3 and MuGBP-2, and has a genomic organization similar to other GBP genes. To facilitate the evaluation of GBP family message expression, we constructed RNase protection assay probes for MuGBP-1, MuGBP-2, MuGBP-3, MuGBP-4/Mag-2 (macrophage activation gene-2), and MuGBP-5 and validated their use in Swiss Webster, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. In BALB/c mice, all five MuGBPs were induced in multiple organs during endotoxemia, and all had a similar pattern of expression in different tissues. With minor quantitative differences, the MuGBPs also had similar patterns of response to IFN-gamma, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in RAW 264.7 and Swiss 3T3 cells. The coordinate expression of the MuGBPs suggests that they share common mechanisms of regulation. PMID:12396730

  8. Mechanism of activation of light-activated phosphodiesterase and evidence for homology with hormone-activated adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yamazaki, A.; Wheeler, M.A.; George, J.S.; Rasenick, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    Light-activated cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) is one of the effector proteins in the rod outer segments in vertebrate retina. The hydrolysis of cGMP in rod occurs with a speed and light sensitivity which suggests a role for this hydrolysis in visual transduction. In fact, there is electrophysiological data which supports the possibility that cGMP could regulate rod membrane voltage. PDE shows very rapid activation in the presence of photons and GTP. We have called attention to the intriguing analogy between light activated rod phosphodiesterase and hormone activated adenylate cyclase. A number of studies have implicated the binding of GTP to a GTP binding protein as a factor in the hormone dependent activation of adenylate cyclase. Moreover, Cassel and Selinger have shown that hydrolysis of GTP is a component in the inactivation of the hormone dependent adenylate cyclase. We review here recent additional data which provide specific molecular details of the mechanism of light activation of rod PDE as well as demonstrate the exchange of components between light activated PDE and hormone activated cyclase.

  9. Phorbol ester-induced sensitisation of adenylyl cyclase type II is related to phosphorylation of threonine 1057.

    PubMed

    Böl, G F; Gros, C; Hülster, A; Bösel, A; Pfeuffer, T

    1997-08-18

    Following up the results from previous studies on chemical fragmentation of TPA-treated, [32P]phosphate labeled adenylyl cyclase type II (AC II) (Böl, G. F., Hülster, A., and Pfeuffer, T. in press) we have replaced serine 871 or threonine 1057 by alanine using site directed mutagenesis. Both mutants had unimpaired catalytic activity, however enhancement by phorbolester TPA was reduced by 60-80 % in the T1057A mutant, but not in the S871A mutant. The stimulation of adenylyl cyclase type II by betagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G-pro teins and that by PKC have been previously shown to be mutually exclusive (Zimmermann and Taussig (1996), J. Biol. Chem. 271, 27161-27166). This is in line with the present findings that AC II expressed in COS-1 cells was only barely stimulated (10%) by coexpressed betagamma-subunits in presence of TPA. Mutation of threonine 1057 to alanine however caused partial regain of betagamma-stimulation in the presence of TPA by 40%, as compared to that of WT adenylyl cyclase type II which was 70% in the absence of TPA. These data strongly implicate the importance of threonine 1057 as phosphate acceptor following PKC-mediated sensitisation of adenylyl cyclase type II. PMID:9268695

  10. Cyclic nucleotide binding and structural changes in the isolated GAF domain of Anabaena adenylyl cyclase, CyaB2

    PubMed Central

    Badireddy, Suguna; Rajendran, Abinaya; Anand, Ganesh Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    GAF domains are a large family of regulatory domains, and a subset are found associated with enzymes involved in cyclic nucleotide (cNMP) metabolism such as adenylyl cyclases and phosphodiesterases. CyaB2, an adenylyl cyclase from Anabaena, contains two GAF domains in tandem at the N-terminus and an adenylyl cyclase domain at the C-terminus. Cyclic AMP, but not cGMP, binding to the GAF domains of CyaB2 increases the activity of the cyclase domain leading to enhanced synthesis of cAMP. Here we show that the isolated GAFb domain of CyaB2 can bind both cAMP and cGMP, and enhanced specificity for cAMP is observed only when both the GAFa and the GAFb domains are present in tandem (GAFab domain). In silico docking and mutational analysis identified distinct residues important for interaction with either cAMP or cGMP in the GAFb domain. Structural changes associated with ligand binding to the GAF domains could not be detected by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments. However, amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDXMS) experiments provided insights into the structural basis for cAMP-induced allosteric regulation of the GAF domains, and differences in the changes induced by cAMP and cGMP binding to the GAF domain. Thus, our findings could allow the development of molecules that modulate the allosteric regulation by GAF domains present in pharmacologically relevant proteins. PMID:25922789

  11. Multiplex PCR Assay Targeting a Diguanylate Cyclase-Encoding Gene, cgcA, To Differentiate Species within the Genus Cronobacter

    PubMed Central

    Carter, L.; Lindsey, L. A.; Grim, C. J.; Sathyamoorthy, V.; Jarvis, K. G.; Gopinath, G.; Lee, C.; Sadowski, J. A.; Trach, L.; Pava-Ripoll, M.; McCardell, B. A.; Tall, B. D.

    2013-01-01

    In a comparison to the widely used Cronobacter rpoB PCR assay, a highly specific multiplexed PCR assay based on cgcA, a diguanylate cyclase gene, that identified all of the targeted six species among 305 Cronobacter isolates was designed. This assay will be a valuable tool for identifying suspected Cronobacter isolates from food-borne investigations. PMID:23144142

  12. Development of a High-Throughput Screening Paradigm for the Discovery of Small-Molecule Modulators of Adenylyl Cyclase: Identification of an Adenylyl Cyclase 2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Jason M.; Brand, Cameron S.; Bogard, Amy S.; Pratt, Evan P. S.; Xu, Ruqiang; Hockerman, Gregory H.; Ostrom, Rennolds S.; Dessauer, Carmen W.

    2013-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms are implicated in several physiologic processes and disease states, but advancements in the therapeutic targeting of AC isoforms have been limited by the lack of potent and isoform-selective small-molecule modulators. The discovery of AC isoform-selective small molecules is expected to facilitate the validation of AC isoforms as therapeutic targets and augment the study of AC isoform function in vivo. Identification of chemical probes for AC2 is particularly important because there are no published genetic deletion studies and few small-molecule modulators. The present report describes the development and implementation of an intact-cell, small-molecule screening approach and subsequent validation paradigm for the discovery of AC2 inhibitors. The NIH clinical collections I and II were screened for inhibitors of AC2 activity using PMA-stimulated cAMP accumulation as a functional readout. Active compounds were subsequently confirmed and validated as direct AC2 inhibitors using orthogonal and counterscreening assays. The screening effort identified SKF-83566 [8-bromo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepin-7-ol hydrobromide] as a selective AC2 inhibitor with superior pharmacological properties for selective modulation of AC2 compared with currently available AC inhibitors. The utility of SKF-83566 as a small-molecule probe to study the function of endogenous ACs was demonstrated in C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells and human bronchial smooth muscle cells. PMID:24008337

  13. Efficacy of inverse agonists in cells overexpressing a constitutively active β2-adrenoceptor and type II adenylyl cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Patricia A; Milligan, Graeme

    1998-01-01

    Maximal stimulant output from the adenylyl cyclase cascade in neuroblastoma × glioma hybrid, NG108-15, cells is limited by the levels of expression of isoforms of adenylyl cyclase. Stable expression in these cells of a constitutively active mutant (CAM) version of the human β2-adrenoceptor resulted in higher basal adenylyl cyclase activity than following expression of the human wild type β2-adrenoceptor. Isoprenaline acted as a full agonist in membranes from both wild type and CAM β2-adrenoceptor expressing clones.Expression of type II adenylyl cyclase resulted in a substantially elevated capacity of isoprenaline to stimulate [3H]-forskolin binding, whereas in CAM β2-adrenoceptor expressing cells the basal high affinity [3H]-forskolin binding represented a markedly greater % of the maximal effect which could be produced by addition of isoprenaline, and the EC50 for isoprenaline was some 10 fold lower than in cells expressing the wild type β2-adrenoceptor.Further transfection of the CAM β2-adrenoceptor expressing cells with type II adenylyl cyclase greatly increased both absolute basal and agonist-stimulated levels of adenylyl cyclase activity.Betaxolol, ICI 118,551, sotalol and timolol acted as inverse agonists with varying degrees of efficacy, whereas propranolol functioned as a neutral antagonist and alprenolol as a partial agonist.Pretreatment of the CAM β2-adrenoceptor and type II adenylyl cyclase expressing clones with the irreversible alkylating agent BAAM (1 μM) did not reduce the efficacy of isoprenaline but eliminated efficacy from all the inverse agonist ligands. This effect was dependent upon the concentration of BAAM employed, with half-maximal effects being produced between 10 nM and 100 nM of the alkylating agent, which is similar to the concentrations required to prevent subsequent ligand access to some 50% of the CAM β2-adrenoceptor population.These data demonstrate that inverse agonist efficacy can be modulated by receptor

  14. Differential activation of yeast adenylyl cyclase by Ras1 and Ras2 depends on the conserved N terminus.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, N; Segal, M; Marbach, I; Levitzki, A

    1995-11-21

    Although both Ras1 and Ras2 activate adenylyl cyclase in yeast, a number of differences can be observed regarding their function in the cAMP pathway. To explore the relative contribution of conserved and variable domains in determining these differences, chimeric RAS1-RAS2 or RAS2-RAS1 genes were constructed by swapping the sequences encoding the variable C-terminal domains. These constructs were expressed in a cdc25ts ras1 ras2 strain. Biochemical data show that the difference in efficacy of adenylyl cyclase activation between the two Ras proteins resides in the highly conserved N-terminal domain. This finding is supported by the observation that Ras2 delta, in which the C-terminal domain of Ras2 has been deleted, is a more potent activator of the yeast adenylyl cyclase than Ras1 delta, in which the C-terminal domain of Ras1 has been deleted. These observations suggest that amino acid residues other than the highly conserved residues of the effector domain within the N terminus may determine the efficiency of functional interaction with adenylyl cyclase. Similar levels of intracellular cAMP were found in Ras1, Ras1-Ras2, Ras1 delta, Ras2, and Ras2-Ras1 strains throughout the growth curve. This was found to result from the higher expression of Ras1 and Ras1-Ras2, which compensate for their lower efficacy in activating adenylyl cyclase. These results suggest that the difference between the Ras1 and the Ras2 phenotype is not due to their different efficacy in activating the cAMP pathway and that the divergent C-terminal domains are responsible for these differences, through interaction with other regulatory elements. PMID:7479926

  15. The YHS-Domain of an Adenylyl Cyclase from Mycobacterium phlei Is a Probable Copper-Sensor Module

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Jürgen Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    YHS-domains are small protein modules which have been proposed to bind transition-metal ions like the related TRASH-domains. They are found in a variety of enzymes including copper-transporting ATPases and adenylyl cyclases. Here we investigate a class IIIc adenylyl cyclase from Mycobacterium phlei which contains a C-terminal YHS-domain linked to the catalytic domain by a peptide of 8 amino acids. We expressed the isolated catalytic domain and the full-length enzyme in E. coli. The catalytic domain requires millimolar Mn2+ as a cofactor for efficient production of cAMP, is unaffected by low micromolar concentrations of Cu2+ and inhibited by concentrations higher than 10 μM. The full-length enzyme also requires Mn2+ in the absence of an activator. However, 1–10 μM Cu2+ stimulate the M. phlei adenylyl cyclase sixfold when assayed with Mn2+. With Mg2+ as the probable physiological cofactor of the adenylyl cyclase Cu2+ specifically switches the enzyme from an inactive to an active state. Other transition-metal ions do not elicit activity with Mg2+. We favor the view that the YHS-domain of M. phlei adenylyl cyclase acts as a sensor for copper ions and signals elevated levels of the transition-metal via cAMP. By analogy to TRASH-domains binding of Cu2+ probably occurs via one conserved aspartate and three conserved cysteine-residues in the YHS-domain. PMID:26512893

  16. Pharmacological actions of a novel NO-independent guanylyl cyclase stimulator, BAY 41-8543: in vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Alonso-Alija, Cristina; Apeler, Heiner; Dembowsky, Klaus; Feurer, Achim; Minuth, Torsten; Perzborn, Elisabeth; Schramm, Matthias; Straub, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    BAY 41-8543 is a novel, highly specific and so far the most potent NO-independent stimulator of sGC. Here we report the effects of BAY 41-8543 on the isolated enzyme, endothelial cells, platelets, isolated vessels and Langendorff heart preparation. BAY 41-8543 stimulates the recombinant sGC concentration-dependently from 0.0001 μM to 100 μM up to 92-fold. In combination, BAY 41-8543 and NO have synergistic effects over a wide range of concentrations. Similar results are shown in implying that BAY 41-8543 stimulates the sGC directly and furthermore makes the enzyme more sensitive to its endogenous activator NO. In vitro, BAY 41-8543 is a potent relaxing agent of aortas, saphenous arteries, coronary arteries and veins with IC50-values in the nM range. In the rat heart Langendorff preparation, BAY 41-8543 potently reduces coronary perfusion pressure from 10−9 to 10−6 g ml−1 without any effect on left ventricular pressure and heart rate. BAY 41-8543 is effective even under nitrate tolerance conditions proved by the same vasorelaxing effect on aortic rings taken either from normal or nitrate-tolerant rats. BAY 41-8543 is a potent inhibitor of collagen-mediated aggregation in washed human platelets (IC50=0.09 μM). In plasma, BAY 41-8543 inhibits collagen-mediated aggregation better than ADP-induced aggregation, but has no effect on the thrombin pathway. BAY 41-8543 is also a potent direct stimulator of the cyclic GMP/PKG/VASP pathway in platelets and synergizes with NO over a wide range of concentrations. These results suggest that BAY 41-8543 is on the one hand an invaluable tool for studying sGC signaling in vitro and on the other hand its unique profile may offer a novel approach for treating cardiovascular diseases. PMID:11815368

  17. An Approach to Mimicking the Sesquiterpene Cyclase Phase by Nickel-Promoted Diene/Alkyne Cooligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Dane; Götz, Daniel C. G.; Baran, Phil S.

    2012-01-01

    Artificially mimicking the cyclase phase of terpene biosynthesis inspires the invention of new methodologies, since working with carbogenic frameworks containing minimal functionality limits the chemist’s toolbox of synthetic strategies. For example, the construction of terpene skeletons from five-carbon building blocks would be an exciting pathway to mimic in the laboratory. Nature oligomerizes, cyclizes, and then oxidizes γ,γ-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) to all of the known terpenes. Starting from isoprene, the goal of this work was to mimic Nature’s approach for rapidly building molecular complexity. In principle, the controlled oligomerization of isoprene would drastically simplify the synthesis of terpenes used in the medicine, perfumery, flavor, and materials industries. This article delineates our extensive efforts to cooligomerize isoprene or butadiene with alkynes in a controlled fashion by zero-valent nickel catalysis building off the classic studies by Günther Wilke and coworkers. PMID:22229741

  18. Phosphorylation of adenylyl cyclase III at serine1076 does not attenuate olfactory response in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cygnar, Katherine D; Collins, Sarah Ellen; Ferguson, Christopher H; Bodkin-Clarke, Chantal; Zhao, Haiqing

    2012-01-01

    Feedback inhibition of adenylyl cyclase III (ACIII) via Ca2+-induced phosphorylation has long been hypothesized to contribute to response termination and adaptation of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). To directly determine the functional significance of this feedback mechanism for olfaction in vivo, we genetically mutated serine1076 of ACIII, the only residue responsible for Ca2+-induced phosphorylation and inhibition of ACIII (Wei et al., 1996; Wei et al., 1998), to alanine in mice. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis showed that the mutation affects neither the cilial localization nor the expression level of ACIII in OSNs. Electroolfactogram analysis showed no differences in the responses between wildtype and mutant mice to single-pulse odorant stimulations or in several stimulation paradigms for adaptation. These results suggest that phosphorylation of ACIII on serine1076 plays a far less important role in olfactory response attenuation than previously thought. PMID:23077041

  19. Phosphorylation of adenylyl cyclase III at serine1076 does not attenuate olfactory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Cygnar, Katherine D; Collins, Sarah Ellen; Ferguson, Christopher H; Bodkin-Clarke, Chantal; Zhao, Haiqing

    2012-10-17

    Feedback inhibition of adenylyl cyclase III (ACIII) via Ca(2+)-induced phosphorylation has long been hypothesized to contribute to response termination and adaptation of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). To directly determine the functional significance of this feedback mechanism for olfaction in vivo, we genetically mutated serine(1076) of ACIII, the only residue responsible for Ca(2+)-induced phosphorylation and inhibition of ACIII (Wei et al., 1996, 1998), to alanine in mice. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis showed that the mutation affects neither the cilial localization nor the expression level of ACIII in OSNs. Electroolfactogram analysis showed no differences in the responses between wild-type and mutant mice to single-pulse odorant stimulations or in several stimulation paradigms for adaptation. These results suggest that phosphorylation of ACIII on serine(1076) plays a far less important role in olfactory response attenuation than previously thought. PMID:23077041

  20. Hopanoid lipids in Frankia: identification of squalene-hopene cyclase gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Dobritsa, S V; Potter, D; Gookin, T E; Berry, A M

    2001-06-01

    In Frankia, the microsymbiont in actinorhizal root nodules, nitrogen fixation takes place in specialized structures called vesicles. The lipidic vesicle envelope forms a barrier to oxygen diffusion, an essential part of the nitrogenase oxygen protection system. We have shown previously that the vesicle envelope is composed primarily of two species of hopanoid lipids, sterol-like molecules that are synthesized in a wide range of bacteria, including Frankia, several cyanobacteria, and rhizobia. The levels of hopanoid found in Frankia are among the highest of any organism known to date. Here we report that short (328-bp) DNA sequences from several strains of Frankia spp. have been identified that are homologous to a portion of the coding region of squalene-hopene cyclase (shc) genes. The fragments and corresponding polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers can be used in phylogenetic comparisons of Frankia, both within Frankiaceae and among bacteria that synthesize hopanoids. PMID:11467729

  1. Pharmacology and clinical potential of guanylyl cyclase C agonists in the treatment of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Pitari, Giovanni M

    2013-01-01

    Agonists of the transmembrane intestinal receptor guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) have recently attracted interest as promising human therapeutics. Peptide ligands that can specifically induce GCC signaling in the intestine include endogenous hormones guanylin and uroguanylin, diarrheagenic bacterial enterotoxins (ST), and synthetic drugs linaclotide, plecanatide, and SP-333. These agonists bind to GCC at intestinal epithelial surfaces and activate the receptor’s intracellular catalytic domain, an event initiating discrete biological responses upon conversion of guanosine-5′-triphosphate to cyclic guanosine monophosphate. A principal action of GCC agonists in the colon is the promotion of mucosal homeostasis and its dependent barrier function. Herein, GCC agonists are being developed as new medications to treat inflammatory bowel diseases, pathological conditions characterized by mucosal barrier hyperpermeability, abnormal immune reactions, and chronic local inflammation. This review will present important concepts underlying the pharmacology and therapeutic utility of GCC agonists for patients with ulcerative colitis, one of the most prevalent inflammatory bowel disease disorders. PMID:23637522

  2. Effect of the citrus lycopene β-cyclase transgene on carotenoid metabolism in transgenic tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Zhou, Wenjing; Zhang, Jiancheng; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-01-01

    Lycopene β-cyclase (LYCB) is the key enzyme for the synthesis of β-carotene, a valuable component of the human diet. In this study, tomato constitutively express Lycb-1 was engineered. The β-carotene level of transformant increased 4.1 fold, and the total carotenoid content increased by 30% in the fruits. In the transgenic line, the downstream α-branch metabolic fluxes were repressed during the three developmental stages while α-carotene content increased in the ripe stage. Microarray analysis in the ripe stage revealed that the constitutive expression of Lycb-1 affected a number of pathways including the synthesis of fatty acids, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids, the degradation of limonene and pinene, starch and sucrose metabolism and photosynthesis. This study provided insight into the regulatory effect of Lycb-1 gene on plant carotenoid metabolism and fruit transcriptome. PMID:22384184

  3. An approach to mimicking the sesquiterpene cyclase phase by nickel-promoted diene/alkyne cooligomerization.

    PubMed

    Holte, Dane; Götz, Daniel C G; Baran, Phil S

    2012-01-20

    Artificially mimicking the cyclase phase of terpene biosynthesis inspires the invention of new methodologies, since working with carbogenic frameworks containing minimal functionality limits the chemist's toolbox of synthetic strategies. For example, the construction of terpene skeletons from five-carbon building blocks would be an exciting pathway to mimic in the laboratory. Nature oligomerizes, cyclizes, and then oxidizes γ,γ-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) to all of the known terpenes. Starting from isoprene, the goal of this work was to mimic Nature's approach for rapidly building molecular complexity. In principle, the controlled oligomerization of isoprene would drastically simplify the synthesis of terpenes used in the medicine, perfumery, flavor, and materials industries. This article delineates our extensive efforts to cooligomerize isoprene or butadiene with alkynes in a controlled fashion by zerovalent nickel catalysis building off the classic studies by Wilke and co-workers. PMID:22229741

  4. Measles virus modulates human T-cell somatostatin receptors and their coupling to adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Krantic, S; Enjalbert, A; Rabourdin-Combe, C

    1997-01-01

    The possible role of immunomodulatory peptide somatostatin (SRIF) in measles virus (MV)-induced immunopathology was addressed by analysis of SRIF receptors and their coupling to adenylyl cyclase in mitogen-stimulated Jurkat T cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). SRIF-specific receptors were assayed in semipurified membrane preparations by using SRIF14 containing iodinated tyrosine at the first position in the amino acid chain ([125I]Tyr1) as a radioligand. A determination of receptor number by saturation of radioligand binding at equilibrium showed that in Jurkat cells, MV infection led to a dramatic decrease in the total receptor number. The virus-associated disappearance of one (Ki2 = 12 +/- 4 nM [mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM

  5. Endothelial CD99 signals through soluble adenylyl cyclase and PKA to regulate leukocyte transendothelial migration

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Richard L.; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.; Winger, Ryan C.; Wang, Jing; Arase, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    CD99 is a critical regulator of leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM). How CD99 signals during this process remains unknown. We show that during TEM, endothelial cell (EC) CD99 activates protein kinase A (PKA) via a signaling complex formed with the lysine-rich juxtamembrane cytoplasmic tail of CD99, the A-kinase anchoring protein ezrin, and soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). PKA then stimulates membrane trafficking from the lateral border recycling compartment to sites of TEM, facilitating the passage of leukocytes across the endothelium. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of EC sAC or PKA, like CD99 blockade, arrests neutrophils and monocytes partway through EC junctions, in vitro and in vivo, without affecting leukocyte adhesion or the expression of relevant cellular adhesion molecules. This is the first description of the CD99 signaling pathway in TEM as well as the first demonstration of a role for sAC in leukocyte TEM. PMID:26101266

  6. Squalene hopene cyclases are protonases for stereoselective Brønsted acid catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Stephan C; Marjanovic, Antonija; Dominicus, Jörg M; Nestl, Bettina M; Hauer, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    For many important reactions catalyzed in chemical laboratories, the corresponding enzymes are missing, representing a restriction in biocatalysis. Although nature provides highly developed machineries appropriate to catalyze such reactions, their potential is often ignored. This also applies to Brønsted acid catalysis, a powerful method to promote a myriad of chemical transformations. Here, we report on the unique protonation machinery of a squalene hopene cyclase (SHC). Active site engineering of this highly evolvable enzyme yielded a platform for enzymatic Brønsted acid catalysis in water. This is illustrated by activation of different functional groups (alkenes, epoxides and carbonyls), enabling the highly stereoselective syntheses of various cyclohexanoids while uncoupling SHC from polycyclization chemistry. This work highlights the potential of systematic investigation on nature's catalytic machineries to generate unique catalysts. PMID:25503928

  7. Reconstitution of a fungal meroterpenoid biosynthesis reveals the involvement of a novel family of terpene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Takayuki; Tokunaga, Kinya; Matsuda, Yudai; Fujii, Isao; Abe, Ikuro; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Kushiro, Tetsuo

    2010-10-01

    Meroterpenoids are hybrid natural products of both terpenoid and polyketide origin. We identified a biosynthetic gene cluster that is responsible for the production of the meroterpenoid pyripyropene in the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus through reconstituted biosynthesis of up to five steps in a heterologous fungal expression system. The cluster revealed a previously unknown terpene cyclase with an unusual sequence and protein primary structure. The wide occurrence of this sequence in other meroterpenoid and indole-diterpene biosynthetic gene clusters indicates the involvement of these enzymes in the biosynthesis of various terpenoid-bearing metabolites produced by fungi and bacteria. In addition, a novel polyketide synthase that incorporated nicotinyl-CoA as the starter unit and a prenyltransferase, similar to that in ubiquinone biosynthesis, was found to be involved in the pyripyropene biosynthesis. The successful production of a pyripyropene analogue illustrates the catalytic versatility of these enzymes for the production of novel analogues with useful biological activities. PMID:20861902

  8. Reconstitution of a fungal meroterpenoid biosynthesis reveals the involvement of a novel family of terpene cyclases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Takayuki; Tokunaga, Kinya; Matsuda, Yudai; Fujii, Isao; Abe, Ikuro; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Kushiro, Tetsuo

    2010-10-01

    Meroterpenoids are hybrid natural products of both terpenoid and polyketide origin. We identified a biosynthetic gene cluster that is responsible for the production of the meroterpenoid pyripyropene in the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus through reconstituted biosynthesis of up to five steps in a heterologous fungal expression system. The cluster revealed a previously unknown terpene cyclase with an unusual sequence and protein primary structure. The wide occurrence of this sequence in other meroterpenoid and indole-diterpene biosynthetic gene clusters indicates the involvement of these enzymes in the biosynthesis of various terpenoid-bearing metabolites produced by fungi and bacteria. In addition, a novel polyketide synthase that incorporated nicotinyl-CoA as the starter unit and a prenyltransferase, similar to that in ubiquinone biosynthesis, was found to be involved in the pyripyropene biosynthesis. The successful production of a pyripyropene analogue illustrates the catalytic versatility of these enzymes for the production of novel analogues with useful biological activities.

  9. Characterization of a Fungal Thioesterase Having Claisen Cyclase and Deacetylase Activities in Melanin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Vagstad, Anna L; Hill, Eric A; Labonte, Jason W; Townsend, Craig A

    2012-01-01

    Summary Melanins are a broad class of darkly-pigmented macromolecules formed by oxidative polymerization of phenolic monomers. In fungi, melanins are known virulence factors that contribute to pathogenicity. Their biosynthesis generally involves polymerization of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene via a 1,3,6,8- tetrahydroxynaphthalene (THN) precursor assembled by multidomain, nonreducing polyketide synthases. Multiple, convergent routes to THN have evolved in fungi. Parallel heptaketide and hexaketide pathways exist that utilize conventional C-terminal thioesterase/Claisen cyclase domains and separate side-chain deacylases. Here, in vitro characterization of Pks1 from Colletotrichum lagenarium establishes a true THN synthase with a bifunctional thioesterase (TE) catalyzing both cyclization and deacetylation of an enzyme-bound hexaketide substrate. Chimeric TE domains were generated by swapping lid regions of active sites between classes of melanin TEs to gain insight into this unprecedented catalysis of carbon–carbon bond making and breaking by an α/β-hydrolase fold enzyme. PMID:23261597

  10. Oxygen promotes biofilm formation of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 through a diguanylate cyclase and an adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Yin, Hao; Song, Xiang-Ning; Li, Wen-Wei; Zhou, Xian-Xuan; Zhao, Li-Ping; Tian, Li-Jiao; Han, Jun-Cheng; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Although oxygen has been reported to regulate biofilm formation by several Shewanella species, the exact regulatory mechanism mostly remains unclear. Here, we identify a direct oxygen-sensing diguanylate cyclase (DosD) and reveal its regulatory role in biofilm formation by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 under aerobic conditions. In vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that the activity of DosD culminates to synthesis of cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) in the presence of oxygen. DosD regulates the transcription of bpfA operon which encodes seven proteins including a large repetitive adhesin BpfA and its cognate type I secretion system (TISS). Regulation of DosD in aerobic biofilms is heavily dependent on an adhesin BpfA and the TISS. This study offers an insight into the molecular mechanism of oxygen-stimulated biofilm formation by S. putrefaciens CN32. PMID:23736081

  11. Fetal nicotine exposure produces postnatal up-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity in peripheral tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Slotkin, T.A.; Navarro, H.A.; McCook, E.C.; Seidler, F.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Gestational exposure to nicotine has been shown to affect development of noradrenergic activity in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the current study, pregnant rats received nicotine infusions of 6 mg/kg/day throughout gestation, administered by osmotic minipump implants. After birth, offspring of the nicotine-infused dams exhibited marked increases in basal adenylate cyclase activity in membranes prepared from kidney and heart, as well as supersensitivity to stimulation by either a {beta}-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, or by forskolin. The altered responses were not accompanied by up-regulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors: in fact, ({sup 125}I)pindolol binding was significantly decreased in the nicotine group. These results indicate that fetal nicotine exposure affects enzymes involved in membrane receptor signal transduction, leading to altered responsiveness independently of changes at the receptor level.

  12. Crystal Structure of Human Soluble Adenylate Cyclase Reveals a Distinct, Highly Flexible Allosteric Bicarbonate Binding Pocket

    PubMed Central

    Saalau-Bethell, Susanne M; Berdini, Valerio; Cleasby, Anne; Congreve, Miles; Coyle, Joseph E; Lock, Victoria; Murray, Christopher W; O'Brien, M Alistair; Rich, Sharna J; Sambrook, Tracey; Vinkovic, Mladen; Yon, Jeff R; Jhoti, Harren

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylate cyclases catalyse the synthesis of the second messenger cAMP through the cyclisation of ATP and are the only known enzymes to be directly activated by bicarbonate. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the human enzyme that reveals a pseudosymmetrical arrangement of two catalytic domains to produce a single competent active site and a novel discrete bicarbonate binding pocket. Crystal structures of the apo protein, the protein in complex with α,β-methylene adenosine 5′-triphosphate (AMPCPP) and calcium, with the allosteric activator bicarbonate, and also with a number of inhibitors identified using fragment screening, all show a flexible active site that undergoes significant conformational changes on binding of ligands. The resulting nanomolar-potent inhibitors that were developed bind at both the substrate binding pocket and the allosteric site, and can be used as chemical probes to further elucidate the function of this protein. PMID:24616449

  13. Transmembrane adenylyl cyclase regulates amphibian sperm motility through Protein Kinase A activation

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Emma D.; Krapf, Darío; Cabada, Marcelo O.; Visconti, Pablo E.; Arranz, Silvia E.

    2014-01-01

    Sperm motility is essential for achieving fertilization. In animals with external fertilization as amphibians, spermatozoa are stored in a quiescent state in the testis. Spermiation to hypotonic fertilization media triggers activation of sperm motility. Bufo arenarum sperm are immotile in artificial seminal plasma (ASP) but acquire in situ flagellar beating upon dilution. In addition to the effect of low osmolarity on sperm motility activation, we report that diffusible factors of the egg jelly coat (EW) regulate motility patterns, switching from in situ to progressive movement. The signal transduction pathway involved in amphibian sperm motility activation is mostly unknown. In the present study, we show a correlation between motility activation triggered by low osmotic pressure and activation of protein kinase A (PKA). Moreover, this is the first study to present strong evidences that point toward a role of a transmembrane adenyl-cyclase (tmAC) in the regulation of amphibian sperm motility through PKA activation. PMID:21126515

  14. Adenylyl cyclase 6 mediates loading-induced bone adaptation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kristen L.; Hoey, David A.; Spasic, Milos; Tang, Tong; Hammond, H. Kirk; Jacobs, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Primary cilia are single, nonmotile, antenna-like structures extending from the apical membrane of most mammalian cells. They may mediate mechanotransduction, the conversion of external mechanical stimuli into biochemical intracellular signals. Previously we demonstrated that adenylyl cyclase 6 (AC6), a membrane-bound enzyme enriched in primary cilia of MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells, may play a role in a primary cilium-dependent mechanism of osteocyte mechanotransduction in vitro. In this study, we determined whether AC6 deletion impairs loading-induced bone formation in vivo. Skeletally mature mice with a global knockout of AC6 exhibited normal bone morphology and responded to osteogenic chemical stimuli similar to wild-type mice. Following ulnar loading over 3 consecutive days, bone formation parameters were assessed using dynamic histomorphometry. Mice lacking AC6 formed significantly less bone than control animals (41% lower bone formation rate). Furthermore, there was an attenuated flow-induced increase in COX-2 mRNA expression levels in primary bone cells isolated from AC6 knockout mice compared to controls (1.3±0.1- vs. 2.6±0.2-fold increase). Collectively, these data indicate that AC6 plays a role in loading-induced bone adaptation, and these findings are consistent with our previous studies implicating primary cilia and AC6 in a novel mechanism of osteocyte mechanotransduction.—Lee, K. L., Hoey, D. A., Spasic, M., Tang, T., Hammond, H. K., Jacobs, C. R. Adenylyl cyclase 6 mediates loading-induced bone adaptation in vivo. PMID:24277577

  15. Topological mimicry and epitope duplication in the guanylyl cyclase C receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, A.; Suguna, K.; Surolia, A.; Visweswariah, S. S.

    1998-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) is the receptor for the gastrointestinal hormones, guanylin, and uroguanylin, in addition to the bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins, which are one of the major causes of watery diarrhea the world over. GCC is expressed in intestinal cells, colorectal tumor tissue and tumors originating from metastasis of the colorectal carcinoma. We have earlier generated a monoclonal antibody to human GCC, GCC:B10, which was useful for the immunohistochemical localization of the receptor in the rat intestine (Nandi A et al., 1997, J Cell Biochem 66:500-511), and identified its epitope to a 63-amino acid stretch in the intracellular domain of GCC. In view of the potential that this antibody has for the identification of colorectal tumors, we have characterized the epitope for GCC:B10 in this study. Overlapping peptide synthesis indicated that the epitope was contained in the sequence HIPPENIFPLE. This sequence was unique to GCC, and despite a short stretch of homology with serum amyloid protein and pertussis toxin, no cross reactivity was detected. The core epitope was delineated using a random hexameric phage display library, and two categories of sequences were identified, containing either a single, or two adjacent proline residues. No sequence identified by phage display was identical to the epitope present in GCC, indicating that phage sequences represented mimotopes of the native epitope. Alignment of these sequences with HIPPENIFPLE suggested duplication of the recognition motif, which was confirmed by peptide synthesis. These studies allowed us not only to define the requirements of epitope recognition by GCC:B10 monoclonal antibody, but also to describe a novel means of epitope recognition involving topological mimicry and probable duplication of the cognate epitope in the native guanylyl cyclase C receptor sequence. PMID:9792105

  16. Isolation and characterization of glutaminyl cyclases from Drosophila: evidence for enzyme forms with different subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Stephan; Lindner, Christiane; Koch, Birgit; Wermann, Michael; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; von Bohlen, Alex; Rudolph, Thomas; Reuter, Gunter; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2007-09-25

    Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs) present in plants and vertebrates catalyze the formation of pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) from N-terminal glutamine. Pyroglutamyl hormones also identified in invertebrates imply the involvement of QC activity during their posttranslational maturation. Database mining led to the identification of two genes in Drosophila, which putatively encode QCs, CG32412 (DromeQC) and CG5976 (isoDromeQC). Analysis of their primary structure suggests different subcellular localizations. While DromeQC appeared to be secreted due to an N-terminal signal peptide, isoDromeQC contains either an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting or a secretion signal due to generation of different transcripts from gene CG5976. According to the prediction, homologous expression of the corresponding cDNAs in S2 cells revealed either secreted protein in the medium or intracellular QC activity. Subcellular fractionation and immunochemistry support export of isoDromeQC into the mitochondrion. For enzymatic characterization, DromeQC and isoDromeQC were expressed heterologously in Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli, respectively. Compared to mammalian QCs, the specificity constants were about 1 order of magnitude lower for most of the analyzed substrates. The pH dependence of the specificity constant was similar for both enzymes, indicating the necessity of an unprotonated substrate amino group and two protonated groups of the enzyme, resulting in an asymmetric bell-shaped characteristic. The determination of the metal content of DromeQC revealed equimolar protein-bound zinc. These results prove conserved enzymatic mechanisms between QCs from invertebrates and mammals. Drosophila is the first organism for which isoenzymes of glutaminyl cyclase have been isolated. The identification of a mitochondrial QC points toward yet undiscovered physiological functions of these enzymes. PMID:17722885

  17. Tachyphylaxis to PACAP-27 after inhibition of NO synthesis: a loss of adenylate cyclase activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    The vasodilator effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP-27) are subject to tachyphylaxis in rats treated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). This study examined whether this tachyphylaxis is due to the loss of vasodilator potency of cAMP generated by activation of the G(s) protein-coupled PACAP receptors. Five successive treatments with PACAP-27 (2 nmol/kg iv) produced pronounced vasodilator responses in saline-treated rats that were not subject to tachyphylaxis. The first injection of PACAP-27 (2 nmol/kg iv) in L-NAME (50 micromol/kg iv)-treated rats produced vasodilator responses of similar magnitude to those in saline-treated rats, whereas four subsequent injections produced progressively and markedly smaller responses. The hemodynamic effects of the membrane-permeable cAMP analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthiol)-cAMP (8-CPT-cAMP; 5-15 micromol/kg iv) were similar in L-NAME-treated rats and in L-NAME-treated rats that had received the five injections of PACAP-27. In addition, five injections of 8-CPT-cAMP (10 micromol/kg iv) produced pronounced vasodilator responses in saline- and L-NAME-treated rats that were not subject to the development of tachyphylaxis. These results suggest that a loss of biological potency of cAMP is not responsible for tachyphylaxis to PACAP-27 in L-NAME-treated rats. This tachyphylaxis may be due to the inability of the G(s) protein-coupled PACAP receptor to activate adenylate cyclase.

  18. Engineering of Bacillus subtilis Strains To Allow Rapid Characterization of Heterologous Diguanylate Cyclases and Phosphodiesterases

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaohui; Dong, Xiao; Subramanian, Sundharraman; Matthews, Paige M.; Cooper, Caleb A.; Kearns, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial processes, including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence, are often regulated by changes in the available concentration of cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). Generally, high c-di-GMP concentrations are correlated with decreased motility and increased biofilm formation and low c-di-GMP concentrations are correlated with an increase in motility and activation of virulence pathways. The study of c-di-GMP is complicated, however, by the fact that organisms often encode dozens of redundant enzymes that synthesize and hydrolyze c-di-GMP, diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs); thus, determining the contribution of any one particular enzyme is challenging. In an effort to develop a facile system to study c-di-GMP metabolic enzymes, we have engineered a suite of Bacillus subtilis strains to assess the effect of individual heterologously expressed proteins on c-di-GMP levels. As a proof of principle, we characterized all 37 known genes encoding predicted DGCs and PDEs in Clostridium difficile using parallel readouts of swarming motility and fluorescence from green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed under the control of a c-di-GMP-controlled riboswitch. We found that 27 of the 37 putative C. difficile 630 c-di-GMP metabolic enzymes had either active cyclase or phosphodiesterase activity, with agreement between our motility phenotypes and fluorescence-based c-di-GMP reporter. Finally, we show that there appears to be a threshold level of c-di-GMP needed to inhibit motility in Bacillus subtilis. PMID:25085482

  19. Diguanylate cyclase NicD based signaling mechanism of nutrient-induced dispersion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ankita Basu; Sauer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Dispersion enables the transition from the biofilm to the planktonic growth state in response to various cues. While several P. aeruginosa proteins, including BdlA and the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases DipA, RbdA, and NbdA, have been shown to be required for dispersion to occur, little is known about dispersion cue sensing and the signaling translating these cues into the modulation c-di-GMP levels to enable dispersion. Using glutamate-induced dispersion as a model, we report that dispersion-inducing nutrient cues are sensed via an outside-in signaling mechanism by the diguanylate cyclase NicD belonging to a family of seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors. NicD directly interacts with BdlA and the phosphodiesterase DipA, with NicD, BdlA, and DipA being part of the same pathway required for dispersion. Glutamate-sensing by NicD results in NicD dephosphorylation and increased cyclase activity. Active NicD contributes to the non-processive proteolysis and activation of BdlA via phosphorylation and temporarily elevated c-di-GMP levels. BdlA, in turn, activates DipA, resulting in the overall reduction of c-di-GMP levels. Our results provide a basis for understanding the signaling mechanism based on NicD to induce biofilm dispersion that may be applicable to various biofilm-forming species and may have implications for the control of biofilm-related infections. PMID:25243483

  20. Guanylyl Cyclase C Hormone Axis at the Intersection of Obesity and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Blomain, Erik S; Merlino, Dante J; Pattison, Amanda M; Snook, Adam E; Waldman, Scott A

    2016-09-01

    Obesity has emerged as a principal cause of mortality worldwide, reflecting comorbidities including cancer risk, particularly in colorectum. Although this relationship is established epidemiologically, molecular mechanisms linking colorectal cancer and obesity continue to be refined. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), a membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, binds the paracrine hormones guanylin and uroguanylin, inducing cGMP signaling in colorectum and small intestine, respectively. Guanylin is the most commonly lost gene product in sporadic colorectal cancer, and its universal loss early in transformation silences GUCY2C, a tumor suppressor, disrupting epithelial homeostasis underlying tumorigenesis. In small intestine, eating induces endocrine secretion of uroguanylin, the afferent limb of a novel gut-brain axis that activates hypothalamic GUCY2C-cGMP signaling mediating satiety opposing obesity. Recent studies revealed that diet-induced obesity suppressed guanylin and uroguanylin expression in mice and humans. Hormone loss reflects reversible calorie-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and the associated unfolded protein response, rather than the endocrine, adipokine, or inflammatory milieu of obesity. Loss of intestinal uroguanylin secretion silences the hypothalamic GUCY2C endocrine axis, creating a feed-forward loop contributing to hyperphagia in obesity. Importantly, calorie-induced guanylin loss silences the GUCY2C-cGMP paracrine axis underlying obesity-induced epithelial dysfunction and colorectal tumorigenesis. Indeed, genetically enforced guanylin replacement eliminated diet-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in mice. Taken together, these observations suggest that GUCY2C hormone axes are at the intersection of obesity and colorectal cancer. Moreover, they suggest that hormone replacement that restores GUCY2C signaling may be a novel therapeutic paradigm to prevent both hyperphagia and intestinal tumorigenesis in obesity

  1. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activity in rat brown fat

    SciTech Connect

    Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E.; Scarpace, P.J.

    1986-03-01

    Catecholamines stimulate thermogenesis in rat brown fat through a mechanism which involves binding to the beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR), stimulation of adenylate cyclase (AC) and culminating with uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. The authors characterized BAR, AC and cytochrome (cyt) c oxidase in CDF (F-344) interscapular brown fat. Scatchard analysis of (/sup 125/)Iodopindolol binding yields a straight line consistent with a single class of antagonist binding sites with 41.8 +/- 12.0 fmol BAR/mg protein and a K/sub d/ of 118 +/- 15 pM. Binding was both specific and stereospecific. Competition with 1-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 6.7 nM) was 15 times more potent than d-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 103 nM). Competition with isoproterenol (K/sub d/ = 79 nM) was 10 times more potent than epinephrine (K/sub d/ = 820 nM) which was 35 times more potent than norepinephrine (K/sub d/ = 2.9 x 10/sup -5/ M) suggesting predominate beta/sub 2/-type BAR. Cyt c oxidase activity was assessed in brown fat mitochrondrial preparations. The ratio of BAR to cyt c activity was 959 +/- 275 nmol BAR/mol cyc c/min. Isoproterenol (0.1 mM) stimulated AC activity was 24 times GTP (0.1 mM) stimulated AC (98.5 vs 40.7 pmol cAMP/min/mg). NaF-stimulated AC was nine times basal activity (90.5 vs 11.3 pmol cAMP/min/mg). These data demonstrate the presence of a beta-/sub 2/-type BAR coupled to adenylate cyclase in rat brown fat.

  2. Inhibition of monoterpene cyclases by sulfonium analogs of presumptive carbocationic intermediates of the cyclization reaction.

    PubMed

    Croteau, R; Wheeler, C J; Aksela, R; Oehlschlager, A C

    1986-06-01

    The enzymatic cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate to monoterpenes is thought to proceed through a series of carbocation-pyrophosphate anion paired intermediates. Sulfonium analogs of two putative carbocationic intermediates of the cyclization sequence were shown to be inhibitors of the conversion of the acyclic precursor to the bicyclic monoterpenes (+)-alpha-pinene and (+)-bornyl pyrophosphate by partially purified cyclase preparations from sage (Salvia officinalis). The sulfonium analog of the tertiary allylic, linalyl, intermediate (i.e. methyl-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)vinyl-sulfonium perchlorate) provided respective Ki values of 2.5 microM and 3.0 microM against the cyclization to alpha-pinene and bornyl pyrophosphate at a substrate concentration of 5 microM, whereas the sulfonium analog of the monocyclic, alpha-terpinyl, intermediate (i.e. dimethyl-(4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-yl) sulfonium iodide) exhibited respective Ki values of 3.4 microM and 3.9 microM against the same two cyclizations. The potency of inhibition in all cases increased with increasing substrate concentration, indicating that the affinity of the enzymes for the sulfonium analogs was increased by the presence of the pyrophosphate ester. Inorganic pyrophosphate at a concentration of 50 microM, which alone had little influence on the cyclizations, increased the effectiveness of inhibition of the sulfonium analogs severalfold, and the apparent Ki for inorganic pyrophosphate was reduced manyfold by the presence of either analog at 5 microM. That the combination of sulfonium analog and pyrophosphate provided synergistic inhibition of the electrophilic cyclizations indicated that the cyclases bind the paired species more tightly than either partner alone. Specificity studies suggested that inhibition by the above sulfonium ion:pyrophosphate pairs was due to both electronic and structural resemblance to intermediates of the reaction. PMID:3011779

  3. The cystathionine-β-synthase domains on the guanosine 5''-monophosphate reductase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase enzymes from Leishmania regulate enzymatic activity in response to guanylate and adenylate nucleotide levels.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sabrina; Boitz, Jan; Chidambaram, Ehzilan Subramanian; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Ait-Tihyaty, Maria; Ullman, Buddy; Jardim, Armando

    2016-06-01

    The Leishmania guanosine 5'-monophosphate reductase (GMPR) and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) are purine metabolic enzymes that function maintaining the cellular adenylate and guanylate nucleotide. Interestingly, both enzymes contain a cystathionine-β-synthase domain (CBS). To investigate this metabolic regulation, the Leishmania GMPR was cloned and shown to be sufficient to complement the guaC (GMPR), but not the guaB (IMPDH), mutation in Escherichia coli. Kinetic studies confirmed that the Leishmania GMPR catalyzed a strict NADPH-dependent reductive deamination of GMP to produce IMP. Addition of GTP or high levels of GMP induced a marked increase in activity without altering the Km values for the substrates. In contrast, the binding of ATP decreased the GMPR activity and increased the GMP Km value 10-fold. These kinetic changes were correlated with changes in the GMPR quaternary structure, induced by the binding of GMP, GTP, or ATP to the GMPR CBS domain. The capacity of these CBS domains to mediate the catalytic activity of the IMPDH and GMPR provides a regulatory mechanism for balancing the intracellular adenylate and guanylate pools. PMID:26853689

  4. Conserved chloroplast open-reading frame ycf54 is required for activity of the magnesium protoporphyrin monomethylester oxidative cyclase in Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Hollingshead, Sarah; Kopecná, Jana; Jackson, Philip J; Canniffe, Daniel P; Davison, Paul A; Dickman, Mark J; Sobotka, Roman; Hunter, C Neil

    2012-08-10

    The cyclase step in chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis has not been characterized biochemically, although there are some plausible candidates for cyclase subunits. Two of these, Sll1214 and Sll1874 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803, were FLAG-tagged in vivo and used as bait in separate pulldown experiments. Mass spectrometry identified Ycf54 as an interaction partner in each case, and this interaction was confirmed by a reciprocal pulldown using FLAG-tagged Ycf54 as bait. Inactivation of the ycf54 gene (slr1780) in Synechocystis 6803 resulted in a strain that exhibited significantly reduced Chl levels. A detailed analysis of Chl precursors in the ycf54 mutant revealed accumulation of very high levels of Mg-protoporphyrin IX methyl ester and only traces of protochlorophyllide, the product of the cyclase, were detected. Western blotting demonstrated that levels of the cyclase component Sll1214 and the Chl biosynthesis enzymes Mg-protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase and protochlorophyllide reductase are significantly impaired in the ycf54 mutant. Ycf54 is, therefore, essential for the activity and stability of the oxidative cyclase. We discuss a possible role of Ycf54 as an auxiliary factor essential for the assembly of a cyclase complex or even a large multienzyme catalytic center. PMID:22711541

  5. Cardiovascular therapeutics targets on the NO-sGC-cGMP signaling pathway: a critical overview.

    PubMed

    Evora, Paulo Roberto B; Evora, Patricia M; Celotto, Andrea C; Rodrigues, Alfredo J; Joviliano, Edwaldo E

    2012-08-01

    In a brief overview, in NO-sGC-cGMP signaling in a blood vessel, l-arginine is converted in the endothelium monolayer by the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to NO which diffuses into both the vessel lumen and the vessel wall, thereby activating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). Heme-dependent sGC stimulators and hem-independent sGC activators increase the cellular cGMP concentration via the direct activation of sGC, which results in both vasorelaxation and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Studies of the 90's definitively established the role of endothelium in all cardiovascular diseases, which were associated with endothelial dysfunction by impaired release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors with consequent risk of spasm and thrombosis. The rationale of this review is based on the fact that the discovery of NO changed the concepts of cardiovascular disease mechanisms. However, considering the jargon "from the bench to clinical practice" we concluded that a potential therapeutic revolution did not follow the pathophysiological revolution. The review is focused on general aspects without regard for advanced research aspects, and designed in two main groups: the NO/cGMP positive stimulators and blockers as "future and encouraging" new therapeutic drugs. The potential vasodilators include 1) NOS uncoupling; 2) NOS enhancers (AVE compounds); 3) NO donors (nitrovasodilators); 4) NO-independent activators (BAY compounds), and; 5) PDE5 inhibitors. The potential vasoconstrictors include 1) NOS-blockers (L-NAME, L-NMMA); 2) sGC-blockers (methylene blue), and; 3) PDEs. Few texts, selected by excellence and relevance, were crucial and considerably facilitated the elaboration of this text, in addition to our own experimental and clinical experience working on vasoplegic endothelium dysfunction. PMID:22716077

  6. Nitric Oxide-cGMP Signaling Stimulates Erythropoiesis through Multiple Lineage-Specific Transcription Factors: Clinical Implications and a Novel Target for Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Tohru; Sellak, Hassan; Odo, Nadine; Adekile, Adekunle D.; Gaensler, Karin M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Much attention has been directed to the physiological effects of nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP signaling, but virtually nothing is known about its hematologic effects. We reported for the first time that cGMP signaling induces human γ-globin gene expression. Aiming at developing novel therapeutics for anemia, we examined here the hematologic effects of NO-cGMP signaling in vivo and in vitro. We treated wild-type mice with NO to activate soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a key enzyme of cGMP signaling. Compared to untreated mice, NO-treated mice had higher red blood cell counts and total hemoglobin but reduced leukocyte counts, demonstrating that when activated, NO-cGMP signaling exerts hematopoietic effects on multiple types of blood cells in vivo. We next generated mice which overexpressed rat sGC in erythroid and myeloid cells. The forced expression of sGCs activated cGMP signaling in both lineage cells. Compared with non-transgenic littermates, sGC mice exhibited hematologic changes similar to those of NO-treated mice. Consistently, a membrane-permeable cGMP enhanced the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors toward erythroid-lineage cells but inhibited them toward myeloid-lineage cells by controlling multiple lineage-specific transcription factors. Human γ-globin gene expression was induced at low but appreciable levels in sGC mice carrying the human β-globin locus. Together, these results demonstrate that NO-cGMP signaling is capable of stimulating erythropoiesis in both in vitro and vivo settings by controlling the expression of multiple lineage-specific transcription factors, suggesting that cGMP signaling upregulates erythropoiesis at the level of gene transcription. The NO-cGMP signaling axis may constitute a novel target to stimulate erythropoiesis in vivo. PMID:26727002

  7. Disruption of the type III adenylyl cyclase gene leads to peripheral and behavioral anosmia in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wong, S T; Trinh, K; Hacker, B; Chan, G C; Lowe, G; Gaggar, A; Xia, Z; Gold, G H; Storm, D R

    2000-09-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are hypothesized to play a critical role in olfaction. However, it has not been demonstrated that the cAMP signaling is required for olfactory-based behavioral responses, and the contributions of specific adenylyl cyclases to olfaction have not been defined. Here, we report the presence of adenylyl cyclases 2, 3, and 4 in olfactory cilia. To evaluate the role of AC3 in olfactory responses, we disrupted the gene for AC3 in mice. Interestingly, electroolfactogram (EOG) responses stimulated by either cAMP- or inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate- (IP3-) inducing odorants were completely ablated in AC3 mutants, despite the presence of AC2 and AC4 in olfactory cilia. Furthermore, AC3 mutants failed several olfaction-based behavioral tests, indicating that AC3 and cAMP signaling are critical for olfactory-dependent behavior. PMID:11055432

  8. A Diguanylate Cyclase Acts as a Cell Division Inhibitor in a Two-Step Response to Reductive and Envelope Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Kyung

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell division arrest is a universal checkpoint in response to environmental assaults that generate cellular stress. In bacteria, the cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling network is one of several signal transduction systems that regulate key processes in response to extra-/intracellular stimuli. Here, we find that the diguanylate cyclase YfiN acts as a bifunctional protein that produces c-di-GMP in response to reductive stress and then dynamically relocates to the division site to arrest cell division in response to envelope stress in Escherichia coli. YfiN localizes to the Z ring by interacting with early division proteins and stalls cell division by preventing the initiation of septal peptidoglycan synthesis. These studies reveal a new role for a diguanylate cyclase in responding to environmental change, as well as a novel mechanism for arresting cell division. PMID:27507823

  9. Upregulation of microRNA-31 targeting integrin α5 suppresses tumor cell invasion and metastasis by indirectly regulating PI3K/AKT pathway in human gastric cancer SGC7901 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Bin; Song, Lei; Wen, Hong-Juan; Bai, Xiao-Xue; Li, Zhen-Juan; Ma, Lian-Jun

    2016-06-01

    To verify the hypothesis that upregulation of microRNA-31 (miR-31) targeting integrin α5 (ITGA5) suppresses tumor cell invasion and metastasis by indirectly regulating phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway in human SGC7901 gastric cancer (GC) cells. The miRTarBase was used to predict whether ITGA5 is the target gene of miR-31, which was further confirmed by luciferase reporter gene assay. The SGC7901 GC cells were divided into five groups including the blank, miR-31 mimic, miR-31 mimic control, miR-31 inhibitor, and miR-31 inhibitor control groups. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting, cell scratch test, and transwell assays were respectively performed in our study. TGA5 was found as the target gene of miR-31. The RT-PCR detection revealed that, compared with the blank group, ITGA5 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression decreased in the miR-31 mimic group, but increased in the miR-31 inhibitor group. The western blotting examination suggested that the expressions of ITGA5, PI3K, and AKT proteins reduced in the miR-31 mimic group, but enhanced in the miR-31 inhibitor group when compared to the blank group, respectively. The cell scratch and transwell assays indicated that the miR-31 expressions were negatively associated with GC cell migration and invasion. Besides, RT-PCR combined with western blotting demonstrated that the miR-31 expressions were higher in the normal tissues than those in the GC tissues, while the ITGA5 mRNA and protein showed lower expression in the normal tissues than they did in the GC tissues. Our study concluded that upregulation of miR-31 targeting ITGA5 may suppress tumor cell invasion and metastasis by indirectly regulating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in human SGC7901 GC cells. PMID:26729197

  10. Dual role for adenine nucleotides in the regulation of the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor, guanylyl cyclase-A.

    PubMed

    Foster, D C; Garbers, D L

    1998-06-26

    The ability to both sensitize and desensitize a guanylyl cyclase receptor has not been previously accomplished in a broken cell or membrane preparation. The guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor is known to require both atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and an adenine nucleotide for maximal cyclase activation. When membranes from NIH 3T3 cells stably overexpressing GC-A were incubated with ATP, AMPPNP, or ATPgammaS, only ATPgammaS dramatically potentiated ANP-dependent cyclase activity. When the membranes were incubated with ATPgammaS and then washed, GC-A now became sensitive to ANP/AMPPNP stimulation, suggestive that thiophosphorylation had sensitized GC-A to ligand and adenine nucleotide binding. Consistent with this hypo- thesis, the ATPgammaS effects were both time- and concentration-dependent. Protein phosphatase stability of thiophosphorylation (ATPgammaS) relative to phosphorylation (ATP) appeared to explain the differential effects of the two nucleotides since microcystin, beta-glycerol phosphate, or okadaic acid coincident with ATP or ATPgammaS effectively sensitized GC-A to ligand stimulation over prolonged periods of time in either case. GC-A was phosphorylated in the presence of [gamma32P]ATP, and the magnitude of the phosphorylation was increased by the addition of microcystin. Thus, the phosphorylation of GC-A correlates with the acquisition of ligand sensitivity. The establishment of an in vitro system to sensitize GC-A demonstrates that adenine nucleotides have a daul function in the regulation of GC-A through both phosphorylation of and binding to regulatory sites. PMID:9632692

  11. Persistent Electrical Activity in Primary Nociceptors after Spinal Cord Injury Is Maintained by Scaffolded Adenylyl Cyclase and Protein Kinase A and Is Associated with Altered Adenylyl Cyclase Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bavencoffe, Alexis; Li, Yong; Wu, Zizhen; Yang, Qing; Herrera, Juan; Kennedy, Eileen J.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about intracellular signaling mechanisms that persistently excite neurons in pain pathways. Persistent spontaneous activity (SA) generated in the cell bodies of primary nociceptors within dorsal root ganglia (DRG) has been found to make major contributions to chronic pain in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) (Bedi et al., 2010; Yang et al., 2014). The occurrence of SCI-induced SA in a large fraction of DRG neurons and the persistence of this SA long after dissociation of the neurons provide an opportunity to define intrinsic cell signaling mechanisms that chronically drive SA in pain pathways. The present study demonstrates that SCI-induced SA requires continuing activity of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), as well as a scaffolded complex containing AC5/6, A-kinase anchoring protein 150 (AKAP150), and PKA. SCI caused a small but significant increase in the expression of AKAP150 but not other AKAPs. DRG membranes isolated from SCI animals revealed a novel alteration in the regulation of AC. AC activity stimulated by Ca2+-calmodulin increased, while the inhibition of AC activity by Gαi showed an unexpected and dramatic decrease after SCI. Localized enhancement of the activity of AC within scaffolded complexes containing PKA is likely to contribute to chronic pathophysiological consequences of SCI, including pain, that are promoted by persistent hyperactivity in DRG neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic neuropathic pain is a major clinical problem with poorly understood mechanisms and inadequate treatments. Recent findings indicate that chronic pain in a rat SCI model depends upon hyperactivity in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Although cAMP signaling is involved in many forms of neural plasticity, including hypersensitivity of nociceptors in the presence of inflammatory mediators, our finding that continuing cAMP-PKA signaling is required for persistent SA months after SCI and long after isolation of

  12. Type VI adenylyl cyclase negatively regulates GluN2B-mediated LTD and spatial reversal learning

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching-Pang; Lee, Cheng-Ta; Hou, Wen-Hsien; Lin, Meng-Syuan; Lai, Hsing-Lin; Chien, Chen-Li; Chang, Chen; Cheng, Pei-Lin; Lien, Cheng-Chang; Chern, Yijuang

    2016-01-01

    The calcium-sensitive type VI adenylyl cyclase (AC6) is a membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase (AC) that converts ATP to cAMP under stimulation. It is a calcium-inhibited AC and integrates negative inputs from Ca2+ and multiple other signals to regulate the intracellular cAMP level. In the present study, we demonstrate that AC6 functions upstream of CREB and negatively controls neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus. Genetic removal of AC6 leads to cyclase-independent and N-terminus of AC6 (AC6N)-dependent elevation of CREB expression, and enhances the expression of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in hippocampal neurons. Consequently, GluN2B-dependent calcium signaling and excitatory postsynaptic current, long-term depression, and spatial reversal learning are enhanced in the hippocampus of AC6−/− mice without altering the gross anatomy of the brain. Together, our results suggest that AC6 negatively regulates neuronal plasticity by modulating the levels of CREB and GluN2B in the hippocampus. PMID:26932446

  13. Characterization of a novel serotonin receptor coupled to adenylate cyclase in the hybrid neuroblastoma cell line NCB. 20

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Pharmacological characterization of the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase in membrane preparation using over 40 serotonergic and non-serotonergic compounds demonstrated that the receptor mediating the response was distinct from previously described mammalian serotonin receptors. Agonist activity was only observed with tryptamine and ergoline derivatives. Potent antagonism was observed with several ergoline derivatives and with compounds such as mianserin and methiothepine. A comparison of the rank order of potency of a variety of compounds for the NCB.20 cell receptor with well characterized mammalian and non-mammalian serotonin receptors showed a pharmacological similarity, but not identity, with the mammalian 5-HT{sub 1C} receptor, which modulates phosphatidylinositol metabolism, and with serotonin receptors in the parasitic trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma mansoni, which are coupled to adenylate cyclase. Equilibrium binding analysis utilizing ({sup 3}H)serotonin, ({sup 3}H)lysergic acid diethylamide or ({sup 3}H)dihydroergotamine demonstrated that there are no abundant high affinity serotonergic sites, which implies that the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase is mediated by receptors present in low abundance. Incubation of intact NCB.20 cells with serotinin resulted in a time and concentration dependent desensitization of the serotonin receptor.

  14. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the (/sup 3/H)DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor in rat heart.

  15. High throughput synthetic lethality screen reveals a tumorigenic role of adenylate cyclase in fumarate hydratase-deficient cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Synthetic lethality is an appealing technique for selectively targeting cancer cells which have acquired molecular changes that distinguish them from normal cells. High-throughput RNAi-based screens have been successfully used to identify synthetic lethal pathways with well-characterized tumor suppressors and oncogenes. The recent identification of metabolic tumor suppressors suggests that the concept of synthetic lethality can be applied to selectively target cancer metabolism as well. Results Here, we perform a high-throughput RNAi screen to identify synthetic lethal genes with fumarate hydratase (FH), a metabolic tumor suppressor whose loss-of-function has been associated with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC). Our unbiased screen identified synthetic lethality between FH and several genes in heme metabolism, in accordance with recent findings. Furthermore, we identified an enrichment of synthetic lethality with adenylate cyclases. The effects were validated in an embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293T) and in HLRCC-patient derived cells (UOK262) via both genetic and pharmacological inhibition. The reliance on adenylate cyclases in FH-deficient cells is consistent with increased cyclic-AMP levels, which may act to regulate cellular energy metabolism. Conclusions The identified synthetic lethality of FH with adenylate cyclases suggests a new potential target for treating HLRCC patients. PMID:24568598

  16. Extracellular Regulation of Sperm Transmembrane Adenylyl Cyclase by a Forward Motility Stimulating Protein

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Souvik; Roy, Debarun; Majumder, Gopal C.; Bhattacharyya, Debdas

    2014-01-01

    Forward motility stimulating factor (FMSF), a glycoprotein isolated from buffalo serum, binds to the surface of the mature sperm cells to promote their progressive motility. This article reports the mode of signal transduction of this extracellular factor in goat sperm. The mechanism was investigated by assaying intracellular second messenger level and forward motility in presence of different pharmacological modulators. Mg++-dependent Forskolin responsive form of transmembrane adenylyl cyclase (tmAC) of goat spermatozoa was probed for its involvement in FMSF action. Dideoxyadenosine, a selective inhibitor of tmACs, was used to identify the role of this enzyme in the scheme of FMSF-signaling. Involvement of the α-subunit of G-protein in this regard has been inspected using GTPγS. Participation of protein kinase A (PKA) and tyrosine kinase was checked using IP20 and genistein, respectively. FMSF promotes tmAC activity in a dose-dependent manner through receptor/G-protein activation to enhance intracellular cAMP and forward motility. Motility boosting effects of this glycoprotein are almost lost in presence of dideoxyadenosine. But, FMSF displayed substantial motility promoting activity when movement of spermatozoa was inhibited with KH7, the specific inhibitor of soluble adenylyl cyclase indicating tmAC to be the primary target of FMSF action. Involvement of cAMP in mediating FMSF action was confirmed by the application of dibutyryl cAMP. Observed motility regulatory effects with IP20 and genistein indicate contribution of PKA and tyrosine kinase in FMSF activity; enhanced phosphorylation of a tyrosine containing ≈50 kDa protein was detected in this regard. FMSF initiates a novel signaling cascade to stimulate tmAC activity that augments intracellular cAMP, which through downstream crosstalk of phosphokinases leads to enhanced forward motility in mature spermatozoa. Thus, this article for the first time describes conventional tmAC-dependent profound activation

  17. Cloning, expression, and characterization of epi-cedrol synthase, a sesquiterpene cyclase from Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Mercke, P; Crock, J; Croteau, R; Brodelius, P E

    1999-09-15

    Sesquiterpene cyclases (synthases) catalyze the conversion of the isoprenoid intermediate farnesyl diphosphate to various sesquiterpene structural types. In plants, many sesquiterpenes are produced as defensive chemicals (phytoalexins) or mediators of chemical communication (i.e., pollinator attractants). A number of sesquiterpene synthases are present in Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood). We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding one of these, epi-cedrol synthase. This clone contains a 1641-bp open reading frame coding for 547 amino acids (63.5 kDa), a 38-bp 5'-untranslated end, and a 272-bp 3'-untranslated sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence was 32 to 43% identical with the sequences of other known sesquiterpene cyclases from angiosperms. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme catalyzed the formation of both olefinic (3%) and oxygenated (97%) sesquiterpenes from farnesyl diphosphate. GC-MS analysis identified the olefins as alpha-cedrene (57% of the olefins), beta-cedrene (13%), (E)-beta-farnesene (5%), alpha-acoradiene (1%), (E)-alpha-bisabolene (8%), and three unknown olefins (16%) and the oxygenated sesquiterpenes (97% of total sesquiterpene generated, exclusive of farnesol and nerolidol) as cedrol (4%) and epi-cedrol (96%). epi-Cedrol synthase was not active with geranylgeranyl diphosphate as substrate, whereas geranyl diphosphate was converted to monoterpenes by the recombinant enzyme at a rate of about 15% of that observed with farnesyl diphosphate as substrate. The monoterpene olefin products are limonene (45%), terpinolene (42%), gamma-terpinene (8%), myrcene (5%), and alpha-terpinene (2%); a small amount of the monoterpene alcohol terpinen-4-ol is also produced. The pH optimum for the recombinant enzyme is 8.5-9.0 (with farnesyl diphosphate as substrate) and the K(m) values for farnesyl diphosphate are 0.4 and 1.3 microM at pH 7. 0 and 9.0, respectively. The K(m) for Mg(2+) is 80 microM at pH 7.0 and 9.0. PMID:10486140

  18. A Wheat Allene Oxide Cyclase Gene Enhances Salinity Tolerance via Jasmonate Signaling1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Naibo; Ai, Xinghui; Wang, Mengcheng; Huang, Zhigang; Xiao, Langtao; Xia, Guangmin

    2014-01-01

    One of the two branches of the α-linolenic acid metabolism pathway is catalyzed by 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase I, and the other is involved in jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis. The former is known to be active in the response to salinity tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum), but the participation of the latter in this response has not been established as yet. Here, the salinity-responsive bread wheat gene TaAOC1, which encodes an allene oxide cyclase involved in the α-linolenic acid metabolism pathway, was constitutively expressed in both bread wheat and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In both species, transgenic lines exhibited an enhanced level of tolerance to salinity. The transgenic plants accumulated a higher content of JA and developed shorter roots. Both the shortened roots and the salinity tolerance were abolished in a background lacking a functional AtMYC2, a key component of the JA and abscisic acid signaling pathway, but were still expressed in a background deficient with respect to abscisic acid synthesis. We provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, suggesting that JA is also involved in the plant salinity response and that the α-linolenic acid metabolism pathway has a regulatory role over this response. PMID:24326670

  19. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique ligand of the integrin complement receptor 3

    PubMed Central

    Osicka, Radim; Osickova, Adriana; Hasan, Shakir; Bumba, Ladislav; Cerny, Jiri; Sebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion and signaling receptors that are essential for metazoan existence. Some integrins contain an I-domain that is a major ligand binding site. The ligands preferentially engage the active forms of the integrins and trigger signaling cascades that alter numerous cell functions. Here we found that the adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA), a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis, preferentially binds an inactive form of the integrin complement receptor 3 (CR3), using a site outside of its I-domain. CyaA binding did not trigger downstream signaling of CR3 in human monocytes and CyaA-catalyzed elevation of cAMP effectively blocked CR3 signaling initiated by a natural ligand. This unprecedented type of integrin-ligand interaction distinguishes CyaA from all other known ligands of the I-domain-containing integrins and provides a mechanistic insight into the previously observed central role of CyaA in the pathogenesis of B. pertussis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10766.001 PMID:26650353

  20. Adenylyl cyclase localization to the uropod of aggregating Dictyostelium cells requires RacC.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Jung, D; Cao, Z; Chung, C Y

    2015-09-25

    The localization of adenylyl cyclase A (ACA) to uropod of cells is required for the stream formation during Dictyostelium development. RacC is a Dictyostelium orthologue of Cdc42. We identified a streaming defect of racC(-) cells as they are clearly less polarized and form smaller and fragmented streams. ACA-YFP is mainly associated with intracellular vesicular structures, but not with the plasma membrane in racC(-) cells. racC(-) cells have a slightly higher number of vesicles than Ax3 cells, suggesting that the defect of ACA trafficking is not simply due to the lack of vesicle formation. While the ACA-YFP vesicles traveled with an average velocity of 9.1 μm/min in Ax3 cells, a slow and diffusional movement without direction with an average velocity of 4 μm/min was maintained in racC(-) cells. Images acquired by using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis revealed that a significantly decreased number of ACA-YFP vesicles appeared near the cell membrane, indicating a defect in ACA-YFP vesicle trafficking. These results suggest an important role of RacC in the rapid and directional movements of ACA vesicles on microtubules to the plasma membrane, especially to the back of polarized cell. PMID:26315268

  1. The Functional Genomics of Guanylyl Cyclase/Natriuretic Peptide Receptor-A: Perspectives and Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac hormones atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) activate guanylyl cyclase-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) and produce the second messenger cGMP. The GC-A/NPRA is a member of the growing family of GC receptors. The recent biochemical, molecular, and genomic studies of GC-A/NPRA have provided important insights into the regulation and functional activity of this receptor protein with a particular emphasis on cardiac and renal protective roles in hypertension and cardiovascular disease states. The progress in this field of research has significantly strengthened and advanced our knowledge about the critical roles of Npr1 gene (coding for GC-A/NPRA) in control of fluid volume, blood pressure, cardiac remodeling, and other physiological functions and pathological states. Overall, this review attempts to provide insight and to delineate the current concepts in the field of functional genomics and signaling of GC-A/NPRA in hypertension and cardiovascular disease states at the molecular level. PMID:21375691

  2. Guanylyl Cyclase/Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Receptor-A: Role in the Pathophysiology of Cardiovascular Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2012-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), also known as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), is an endogenous and potent hypotensive hormone that elicits natriuretic, diuretic, vasorelaxant, and anti-proliferative effects, which are important in the control of blood pressure and cardiovascular events. One principal locus involved in the regulatory action of ANP and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA). Studies on ANP, BNP, and their receptor, GC-A/NPRA, have greatly increased our knowledge of the control of hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. Cellular, biochemical, and molecular studies have helped to delineate the receptor function and signaling mechanisms of NPRA. Gene-targeted and transgenic mouse models have advanced our understanding of the importance of ANP, BNP, and GC-A/NPRA in disease states at the molecular level. Importantly, ANP and BNP are used as critical markers of cardiac events; however, their therapeutic potentials for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and stroke have just begun to be realized. We are now just at the initial stage of molecular therapeutics and pharmacogenomic advancement of the natriuretic peptides. More investigations should be undertaken and ongoing ones be extended in this important field. PMID:21815745

  3. Guanylyl cyclase / atrial natriuretic peptide receptor-A: role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular regulation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kailash N

    2011-08-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), also known as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), is an endogenous and potent hypotensive hormone that elicits natriuretic, diuretic, vasorelaxant, and anti-proliferative effects, which are important in the control of blood pressure and cardiovascular events. One principal locus involved in the regulatory action of ANP and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is guanylyl cyclase / natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA). Studies on ANP, BNP, and their receptor, GC-A/NPRA, have greatly increased our knowledge of the control of hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. Cellular, biochemical, and molecular studies have helped to delineate the receptor function and signaling mechanisms of NPRA. Gene-targeted and transgenic mouse models have advanced our understanding of the importance of ANP, BNP, and GC-A/NPRA in disease states at the molecular level. Importantly, ANP and BNP are used as critical markers of cardiac events; however, their therapeutic potentials for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and stroke have just begun to be realized. We are now just at the initial stage of molecular therapeutics and pharmacogenomic advancement of the natriuretic peptides. More investigations should be undertaken and ongoing ones be extended in this important field. PMID:21815745

  4. Laboratory evolution of adenylyl cyclase independent learning in Drosophil and missing heritability

    PubMed Central

    Cressy, M.; Valente, D.; Altick, A; Kockenmeister, E.; Honegger, K.; Qin, H.; Mitra, P.P.; Dubnau, J

    2014-01-01

    Gene interactions are acknowledged to be a likely source of missing heritability in large-scale genetic studies of complex neurological phenotypes. However, involvement of rare variants, de novo mutations, genetic lesions that are not easily detected with commonly used methods and epigenetic factors also are possible explanations. We used a laboratory evolution study to investigate the modulatory effects of background genetic variation on the phenotypic effect size of a null mutation with known impact on olfactory learning. To accomplish this, we first established a population that contained variation at just 23 loci and used selection to evolve suppression of the learning defect seen with null mutations in the rutabaga adenylyl cyclase. We thus biased the system to favor relatively simplified outcomes by choosing a Mendelian trait and by restricting the genetic variation segregating in the population. This experimental design also assures that the causal effects are among the known 23 segregating loci. We observe a robust response to selection that requires the presence of the 23 variants. Analyses of the underlying genotypes showed that interactions between more than two loci are likely to be involved in explaining the selection response, with implications for the missing heritability problem. PMID:24888634

  5. DgcA, a diguanylate cyclase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae regulates bacterial pathogenicity on rice.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianmei; Zou, Xia; Huang, Liangbo; Bai, Tenglong; Liu, Shu; Yuan, Meng; Chou, Shan-Ho; He, Ya-Wen; Wang, Haihong; He, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice blight disease as well as a serious phytopathogen worldwide. It is also one of the model organisms for studying bacteria-plant interactions. Current progress in bacterial signal transduction pathways has identified cyclic di-GMP as a major second messenger molecule in controlling Xanthomonas pathogenicity. However, it still remains largely unclear how c-di-GMP regulates the secretion of bacterial virulence factors in Xoo. In this study, we focused on the important roles played by DgcA (XOO3988), one of our previously identified diguanylate cyclases in Xoo, through further investigating the phenotypes of several dgcA-related mutants, namely, the dgcA-knockout mutant ΔdgcA, the dgcA overexpression strain OdgcA, the dgcA complemented strain CdgcA and the wild-type strain. The results showed that dgcA negatively affected virulence, EPS production, bacterial autoaggregation and motility, but positively triggered biofilm formation via modulating the intracellular c-di-GMP levels. RNA-seq data further identified 349 differentially expressed genes controlled by DgcA, providing a foundation for a more solid understanding of the signal transduction pathways in Xoo. Collectively, the present study highlights DgcA as a major regulator of Xoo virulence, and can serve as a potential target for preventing rice blight diseases. PMID:27193392

  6. The ADP-ribosyl cyclases--the current evolutionary state of the ARCs.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Enza; Lo Buono, Nicola; Horenstein, Alberto L; Funaro, Ada; Malavasi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The major ADP-ribosylating enzyme families are the focus of this special issue of Frontiers in Bioscience . However, there is room for another family of enzymes with the capacity to utilize nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD): the ADP-ribosyl cyclases (ARCs). These unique enzymes catalyse the cyclization of NAD to cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR), a widely distributed second messenger. However, the ARCs are versatile enzymes that can manipulate NAD, NAD phosphate (NADP) and other substrates to generate various bioactive molecules including nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide diphosphate (NAADP) and ADP ribose (ADPR). This review will focus on the group of well-characterized invertebrate and vertebrate ARCs whose common gene structure allows us to trace their origin to the ancestor of bilaterian animals. Behind a facade of gene and protein homology lies a family with a disparate functional repertoire dictated by the animal model and the physical trait under investigation. Here we present a phylogenetic view of the ARCs to better understand the evolution of function in this family. PMID:24896331

  7. Glutaminyl Cyclases as Novel Targets for the Treatment of Septic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hellvard, Annelie; Maresz, Katarzyna; Schilling, Stephan; Graubner, Sigrid; Heiser, Ulrich; Jonsson, Roland; Cynis, Holger; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Potempa, Jan; Mydel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Background. Septic arthritis is a severe and rapidly debilitating disease mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we assess the antiarthritic efficiency of glutaminyl cyclase (QC) inhibitors. Methods. Mice were inoculated with an arthritogenic amount of S. aureus intravenously or by local administration into the knee joint. Animals were treated with QC inhibitors (PBD155 and PQ529) via chow during the experiment. QC and isoQC knockout mice were also analyzed for arthritis symptoms after local administration of bacteria. Results. Both QC inhibitors significantly delayed the onset of clinical signs of arthritis, and inhibitors significantly decreased weight loss in treated animals. Following intraarticular injection of S. aureus, PBD155-treated mice had lower levels of synovitis and bone erosion, as well as less myeloperoxidase in synovial tissue. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed that PBD155 treatment affected the expression pattern of adhesion molecules, preventing the upregulation of cells expressing CD11b/CD18. Conclusion. The compounds investigated here represent a novel class of small molecular antiarthritic inhibitors. In our studies, they exerted strong antiinflammatory actions, and therefore they might be suited for disease-modifying treatment of infectious arthritis. PMID:23204180

  8. Characterization of the thermoregulatory response to pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in rodents.

    PubMed

    Banki, Eszter; Pakai, Eszter; Gaszner, Balazs; Zsiboras, Csaba; Czett, Andras; Bhuddi, Paras Rahul Parkash; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Toth, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Garami, Andras

    2014-11-01

    Administration of the long form (38 amino acids) of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP38) into the central nervous system causes hyperthermia, suggesting that PACAP38 plays a role in the regulation of deep body temperature (T b). In this study, we investigated the thermoregulatory role of PACAP38 in details. First, we infused PACAP38 intracerebroventricularly to rats and measured their T b and autonomic thermoeffector responses. We found that central PACAP38 infusion caused dose-dependent hyperthermia, which was brought about by increased thermogenesis and tail skin vasoconstriction. Compared to intracerebroventricular administration, systemic (intravenous) infusion of the same dose of PACAP38 caused significantly smaller hyperthermia, indicating a central site of action. We then investigated the thermoregulatory phenotype of mice lacking the Pacap gene (Pacap (-/-)). Freely moving Pacap (-/-) mice had higher locomotor activity throughout the day and elevated deep T b during the light phase. When the Pacap (-/-) mice were loosely restrained, their metabolic rate and T b were lower compared to their wild-type littermates. We conclude that PACAP38 causes hyperthermia via activation of the autonomic cold-defense thermoeffectors through central targets. Pacap (-/-) mice express hyperkinesis, which is presumably a compensatory mechanism, because under restrained conditions, these mice are hypometabolic and hypothermic compared to controls. PMID:24994541

  9. Contribution of the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D to chemosensory function in the olfactory epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Cockerham, Renee E.; Michalakis, Stylianos; Biel, Martin; Garbers, David L.; Reed, Randall R.; Zufall, Frank; Munger, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    The mammalian main olfactory epithelium (MOE) recognizes and transduces olfactory cues through a G protein-coupled, cAMP-dependent signaling cascade. Additional chemosensory transduction mechanisms have been suggested but remain controversial. We show that a subset of MOE neurons expressing the orphan receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D and the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel subunit CNGA3 employ an excitatory cGMP-dependent transduction mechanism for chemodetection. By combining gene targeting of Gucy2d, which encodes GC-D, with patch clamp recording and confocal Ca2+ imaging from single dendritic knobs in situ, we find that GC-D cells recognize the peptide hormones uroguanylin and guanylin as well as natural urine stimuli. These molecules stimulate an excitatory, cGMP-dependent signaling cascade that increases intracellular Ca2+ and action potential firing. Responses are eliminated in both Gucy2d- and Cnga3-null mice, demonstrating the essential role of GC-D and CNGA3 in the transduction of these molecules. The sensitive and selective detection of two important natriuretic peptides by the GC-D neurons suggests the possibility that these cells contribute to the maintenance of salt and water homeostasis or the detection of cues related to hunger, satiety, or thirst. PMID:17724338

  10. Functional Analysis Of The Guanylyl Cyclase Type D Signaling System In The Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Cockerham, Renee E.; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Munger, Steven D.; Zufall, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory system recognizes a wide range of chemical stimuli. The majority of cells in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) use a cAMP-mediated signaling system to transduce odor signals. However, a subset of MOE neurons instead expresses components of a cGMP signaling cascade, including the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D and the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel subunit CNGA3. We used a combination of molecular biological, physiological and imaging approaches to characterize this neuronal population. Neurons expressing GC-D show excitatory responses to the natriuretic peptide hormones uroguanylin and guanylin, as well as to stimuli present in urine, that are dependent on both GC-D and CNGA3. Though all GC-D-expressing neurons are highly sensitive to these stimuli, individual cells are differentially tuned to either one or both of the peptides. Together, these findings suggest that neurons expressing GC-D are part of a specialized olfactory subsystem that is responsive to semiochemicals. PMID:19686132

  11. Structure of the Class IV Adenylyl Cyclase Reveals a Novel Fold

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher,D.; Smith, N.; Kim, S.; Heroux, A.; Robinson, H.; Reddy, P.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure of the class IV adenylyl cyclase (AC) from Yersinia pestis (Yp) is reported at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. The class IV AC fold is distinct from the previously described folds for class II and class III ACs. The dimeric AC-IV folds into an antiparallel eight-stranded barrel whose connectivity has been seen in only three previous structures: yeast RNA triphosphatase and two proteins of unknown function from Pyrococcus furiosus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Eight highly conserved ionic residues E10, E12, K14, R63, K76, K111, D126, and E136 lie in the barrel core and form the likely binding sites for substrate and divalent cations. A phosphate ion is observed bound to R63, K76, K111, and R113 near the center of the conserved cluster. Unlike the AC-II and AC-III active sites that utilize two-Asp motifs for cation binding, the AC-IV active site is relatively enriched in glutamate and features an ExE motif as its most conserved element. Homologs of Y. pestis AC-IV, including human thiamine triphosphatase, span the three kingdoms of life and delineate an ancient family of phosphonucleotide processing enzymes.

  12. The kiwifruit lycopene beta-cyclase plays a significant role in carotenoid accumulation in fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; McGhie, Tony; Wibisono, Reginald; Montefiori, Mirco; Hellens, Roger P.; Allan, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    The composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the Actinidia (kiwifruit) species. Lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening. In addition, the accumulation of beta-carotene and lutein is influenced by the temperature at which harvested fruit are stored. Expression analysis of carotenoid biosynthetic genes among different genotypes and fruit developmental stages identified Actinidia lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-β) as the gene whose expression pattern appeared to be associated with both total carotenoid and beta-carotene accumulation. Phytoene desaturase (PDS) expression was the least variable among the different genotypes, while zeta carotene desaturase (ZDS), beta-carotene hydroxylase (CRH-β), and epsilon carotene hydroxylase (CRH-ϵ) showed some variation in gene expression. The LCY-β gene was functionally tested in bacteria and shown to convert lycopene and delta-carotene to beta-carotene and alpha-carotene respectively. This indicates that the accumulation of beta-carotene, the major carotenoid in these kiwifruit species, appears to be controlled by the level of expression of LCY-β gene. PMID:19574250

  13. The kiwifruit lycopene beta-cyclase plays a significant role in carotenoid accumulation in fruit.

    PubMed

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; McGhie, Tony; Wibisono, Reginald; Montefiori, Mirco; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C

    2009-01-01

    The composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the Actinidia (kiwifruit) species. Lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening. In addition, the accumulation of beta-carotene and lutein is influenced by the temperature at which harvested fruit are stored. Expression analysis of carotenoid biosynthetic genes among different genotypes and fruit developmental stages identified Actinidia lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-beta) as the gene whose expression pattern appeared to be associated with both total carotenoid and beta-carotene accumulation. Phytoene desaturase (PDS) expression was the least variable among the different genotypes, while zeta carotene desaturase (ZDS), beta-carotene hydroxylase (CRH-beta), and epsilon carotene hydroxylase (CRH-epsilon) showed some variation in gene expression. The LCY-beta gene was functionally tested in bacteria and shown to convert lycopene and delta-carotene to beta-carotene and alpha-carotene respectively. This indicates that the accumulation of beta-carotene, the major carotenoid in these kiwifruit species, appears to be controlled by the level of expression of LCY-beta gene. PMID:19574250

  14. Effects of forskolin on cerebral blood flow: implications for a role of adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Wysham, D.G.; Brotherton, A.F.; Heistad, D.D.

    1986-11-01

    We have studied cerebral vascular effects of forskolin, a drug which stimulates adenylate cyclase and potentiates dilator effects of adenosine in other vascular beds. Our goals were to determine whether forskolin is a cerebral vasodilator and whether it potentiates cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine. We measured cerebral blood flow with microspheres in anesthetized rabbits. Forskolin (10 micrograms/kg per min) increased blood flow (ml/min per 100 gm) from 39 +/- 5 (mean +/- S.E.) to 56 +/- 9 (p less than 0.05) in cerebrum, and increased flow to myocardium and kidney despite a decrease in mean arterial pressure. Forskolin did not alter cerebral oxygen consumption, which indicates that the increase in cerebral blood flow is a direct vasodilator effect and is not secondary to increased metabolism. We also examined effects of forskolin on the response to infusion of adenosine. Cerebral blood flow was measured during infusion of 1-5 microM/min adenosine into one internal carotid artery, under control conditions and during infusion of forskolin at 3 micrograms/kg per min i.v. Adenosine alone increased ipsilateral cerebral blood flow from 32 +/- 3 to 45 +/- 5 (p less than 0.05). Responses to adenosine were not augmented during infusion of forskolin. We conclude that forskolin is a direct cerebral vasodilator and forskolin does not potentiate cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine.

  15. High density and ligand affinity confer ultrasensitive signal detection by a guanylyl cyclase chemoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Pichlo, Magdalena; Bungert-Plümke, Stefanie; Weyand, Ingo; Seifert, Reinhard; Bönigk, Wolfgang; Strünker, Timo; Kashikar, Nachiket Dilip; Goodwin, Normann; Müller, Astrid; Pelzer, Patric; Van, Qui; Enderlein, Jörg; Klemm, Clementine; Krause, Eberhard; Trötschel, Christian; Poetsch, Ansgar; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Körschen, Heinz G; Collienne, Ursel

    2014-08-18

    Guanylyl cyclases (GCs), which synthesize the messenger cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate, control several sensory functions, such as phototransduction, chemosensation, and thermosensation, in many species from worms to mammals. The GC chemoreceptor in sea urchin sperm can decode chemoattractant concentrations with single-molecule sensitivity. The molecular and cellular underpinnings of such ultrasensitivity are not known for any eukaryotic chemoreceptor. In this paper, we show that an exquisitely high density of 3 × 10(5) GC chemoreceptors and subnanomolar ligand affinity provide a high ligand-capture efficacy and render sperm perfect absorbers. The GC activity is terminated within 150 ms by dephosphorylation steps of the receptor, which provides a means for precise control of the GC lifetime and which reduces "molecule noise." Compared with other ultrasensitive sensory systems, the 10-fold signal amplification by the GC receptor is surprisingly low. The hallmarks of this signaling mechanism provide a blueprint for chemical sensing in small compartments, such as olfactory cilia, insect antennae, or even synaptic boutons. PMID:25135936

  16. A comparative analysis of the sugar phosphate cyclase superfamily involved in primary and secondary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiumei; Flatt, Patricia M; Schlörke, Oliver; Zeeck, Axel; Dairi, Tohru; Mahmud, Taifo

    2007-01-22

    Sugar phosphate cyclases (SPCs) catalyze the cyclization of sugar phosphates to produce a variety of cyclitol intermediates that serve as the building blocks of many primary metabolites, for example, aromatic amino acids, and clinically relevant secondary metabolites, for example, aminocyclitol/aminoglycoside and ansamycin antibiotics. Feeding experiments with isotopically labeled cyclitols revealed that cetoniacytone A, a unique C(7)N-aminocyclitol antibiotic isolated from an insect endophytic Actinomyces sp., is derived from 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone, a product of SPC. By using heterologous probes from the 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthase class of SPCs, an SPC homologue gene, cetA, was isolated from the cetoniacytone producer. cetA is closely related to BE-orf9 found in the BE-40644 biosynthetic gene cluster from Actinoplanes sp. strain A40644. Recombinant expression of cetA and BE-orf9 and biochemical characterization of the gene products confirmed their function as 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthases. Further phylogenetic analysis of SPC sequences revealed a new clade of SPCs that might regulate the biosynthesis of a novel set of secondary metabolites. PMID:17195255

  17. Common mechanisms for calorie restriction and adenylyl cyclase type 5 knockout models of longevity.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Park, Ji Yeon; Dillinger, Jean-Guillaume; De Lorenzo, Mariana S; Yuan, Chujun; Lai, Lo; Wang, Chunbo; Ho, David; Tian, Bin; Stanley, William C; Auwerx, Johan; Vatner, Dorothy E; Vatner, Stephen F

    2012-12-01

    Adenylyl cyclase type 5 knockout mice (AC5 KO) live longer and are stress resistant, similar to calorie restriction (CR). AC5 KO mice eat more, but actually weigh less and accumulate less fat compared with WT mice. CR applied to AC5 KO results in rapid decrease in body weight, metabolic deterioration, and death. These data suggest that despite restricted food intake in CR, but augmented food intake in AC5 KO, the two models affect longevity and metabolism similarly. To determine shared molecular mechanisms, mRNA expression was examined genome-wide for brain, heart, skeletal muscle, and liver. Significantly more genes were regulated commonly rather than oppositely in all the tissues in both models, indicating commonality between AC5 KO and CR. Gene ontology analysis identified many significantly regulated, tissue-specific pathways shared by the two models, including sensory perception in heart and brain, muscle function in skeletal muscle, and lipid metabolism in liver. Moreover, when comparing gene expression changes in the heart under stress, the glutathione regulatory pathway was consistently upregulated in the longevity models but downregulated with stress. In addition, AC5 and CR shared changes in genes and proteins involved in the regulation of longevity and stress resistance, including Sirt1, ApoD, and olfactory receptors in both young- and intermediate-age mice. Thus, the similarly regulated genes and pathways in AC5 KO and CR mice, particularly related to the metabolic phenotype, suggest a unified theory for longevity and stress resistance. PMID:23020244

  18. Adenylyl cyclase 6 mediates loading-induced bone adaptation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kristen L; Hoey, David A; Spasic, Milos; Tang, Tong; Hammond, H Kirk; Jacobs, Christopher R

    2014-03-01

    Primary cilia are single, nonmotile, antenna-like structures extending from the apical membrane of most mammalian cells. They may mediate mechanotransduction, the conversion of external mechanical stimuli into biochemical intracellular signals. Previously we demonstrated that adenylyl cyclase 6 (AC6), a membrane-bound enzyme enriched in primary cilia of MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells, may play a role in a primary cilium-dependent mechanism of osteocyte mechanotransduction in vitro. In this study, we determined whether AC6 deletion impairs loading-induced bone formation in vivo. Skeletally mature mice with a global knockout of AC6 exhibited normal bone morphology and responded to osteogenic chemical stimuli similar to wild-type mice. Following ulnar loading over 3 consecutive days, bone formation parameters were assessed using dynamic histomorphometry. Mice lacking AC6 formed significantly less bone than control animals (41% lower bone formation rate). Furthermore, there was an attenuated flow-induced increase in COX-2 mRNA expression levels in primary bone cells isolated from AC6 knockout mice compared to controls (1.3±0.1- vs. 2.6±0.2-fold increase). Collectively, these data indicate that AC6 plays a role in loading-induced bone adaptation, and these findings are consistent with our previous studies implicating primary cilia and AC6 in a novel mechanism of osteocyte mechanotransduction. PMID:24277577

  19. Multiple diguanylate cyclase-coordinated regulation of pyoverdine synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yicai; Yuan, Mingjun; Mohanty, Anee; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong; Liu, Yang; Chua, Song Lin; Nielsen, Thomas E; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael; Cao, Bin; Yang, Liang

    2015-06-01

    The nucleotide signalling molecule bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) plays an essential role in regulating microbial virulence and biofilm formation. C-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and degraded by phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. One intrinsic feature of c-di-GMP signalling is the abundance of DGCs and PDEs encoded by many bacterial species. It is unclear whether the different DGCs or PDEs coordinately establish the c-di-GMP regulation or function independently of each other. Here, we provide evidence that multiple DGCs are involved in regulation of c-di-GMP on synthesis of the major iron siderophore pyoverdine in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Constitutive expression of the WspG or YedQ DGC in P. aeruginosa is able to induce its pyoverdine synthesis. Induction of pyoverdine synthesis by high intracellular c-di-GMP depends on the synthesis of exopolysaccharides and another two DGCs, SiaD and SadC. SiaD was found to boost the c-di-GMP synthesis together with constitutively expressing YedQ. The exopolysaccharides and the SiaD DGC were found to modulate the expression of the RsmY/RsmZ ncRNAs. Induction of the RsmY/RsmZ ncRNAs might enhance the pyoverdine synthesis through SadC. Our study sheds light on a novel multiple DGC-coordinated c-di-GMP regulatory mechanism of bacteria. PMID:25683454

  20. Cloning and characterization of peanut allene oxide cyclase gene involved in salt-stressed responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Wang, Y G; Wang, S P; Li, H J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the full-length cDNA encoding allene oxide cyclase (AhAOC) was isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The deduced amino acid sequence of AhAOC showed high homology with other plant AOCs. The transcript of AhAOC was found to be abundantly expressed in roots. Expression analysis demonstrated that AhAOC was induced by abscisic acid, methyl-jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, salinity, polyethylene glycol, and cold stresses, particularly by high salinity. Overexpression of AhAOC in rice increased root elongation and plant height compared with expression in control plants and conferred tolerance against salinity. Thus, the AhAOC gene may play an important role in increasing the expression of transcription factors (MYB2 and OsONAC045) and functional genes (DREB1F and LEA3) in transgenic rice under salt stress as well as improve stress tolerance through the accumulation of compatible solutes (proline and soluble sugar). The AhAOC gene is a potential resource for enhancing salt tolerance in crop species. PMID:25867379

  1. Contribution of Physical Interactions to Signaling Specificity between a Diguanylate Cyclase and Its Effector

    PubMed Central

    Dahlstrom, Kurt M.; Giglio, Krista M.; Collins, Alan J.; Sondermann, Holger

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger that controls multiple cellular processes. c-di-GMP networks have up to dozens of diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) that synthesize c-di-GMP along with many c-di-GMP-responsive target proteins that can bind and respond to this signal. For such networks to have order, a mechanism(s) likely exists that allow DGCs to specifically signal their targets, and it has been suggested that physical interactions might provide such specificity. Our results show a DGC from Pseudomonas fluorescens physically interacting with its target protein at a conserved interface, and this interface can be predictive of DGC-target protein interactions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that physical interaction is necessary for the DGC to maximally signal its target. If such “local signaling” is a theme for even a fraction of the DGCs used by bacteria, it becomes possible to posit a model whereby physical interaction allows a DGC to directly signal its target protein, which in turn may help curtail undesired cross talk with other members of the network. PMID:26670387

  2. Functional analysis of the sporulation-specific diadenylate cyclase CdaS in Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Cao; Ma, Yang; Wang, Xun; Xie, Yuqun; Ali, Maria K.; He, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a recently discovered bacterial secondary messenger molecule, which is associated with various physiological functions. In the genus Bacillus, the intracellular level and turnover of c-di-AMP are mainly regulated by three diadenylate cyclases (DACs), including DisA, CdaA and CdaS, and two c-di-AMP-specific phosphodiesterases (GdpP and PgpH). In this study, we demonstrated that CdaS protein from B. thuringiensis is a hexameric DAC protein that can convert ATP or ADP to c-di-AMP in vitro and the N-terminal YojJ domain is essential for the DAC activity. Based on the markerless gene knock-out method, we demonstrated that the transcription of cdaS was initiated by the sporulation-specific sigma factor σH and the deletion of cdaS significantly delayed sporulation and parasporal crystal formation. These findings contrast with similar experiments conducted using B. subtilis, wherein transcription of its cdaS was initiated by the sigma factor σG. Deletion of all the three DAC genes from a single strain was unsuccessful, suggesting that c-di-AMP is an indispensable molecule in B. thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated increased diversity of CdaS in the B. cereus and B. subtilis Bacillus subgroups. In summary, this study identifies important aspects in the regulation of c-di-AMP in the genus Bacillus. PMID:26441857

  3. Metabolic Communication between Astrocytes and Neurons via Bicarbonate-Responsive Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun B.; Gordon, Grant R.J.; Zhou, Ning; Tai, Chao; Rungta, Ravi L.; Martinez, Jennifer; Milner, Teresa A.; Ryu, Jae K.; McLarnon, James G.; Tresguerres, Martin; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen; MacVicar, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Astrocytes are proposed to participate in brain energy metabolism by supplying substrates to neurons from their glycogen stores and from glycolysis. However, the molecules involved in metabolic sensing and the molecular pathways responsible for metabolic coupling between different cell types in the brain are not fully understood. Here we show that a recently cloned bicarbonate (HCO3−) sensor, soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC), is highly expressed in astrocytes and becomes activated in response to HCO3− entry via the electrogenic NaHCO3 cotransporter (NBC). Activated sAC increases intracellular cAMP levels, causing glycogen breakdown, enhanced glycolysis, and the release of lactate into the extracellular space, which is subsequently taken up by neurons for use as an energy substrate. This process is recruited over a broad physiological range of [K+]ext and also during aglycemic episodes, helping to maintain synaptic function. These data reveal a molecular pathway in astrocytes that is responsible for brain metabolic coupling to neurons. PMID:22998876

  4. Levels of Lycopene β-Cyclase 1 Modulate Carotenoid Gene Expression and Accumulation in Daucus carota

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of α-carotene and β-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of α-carotene and β-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and β-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots. PMID:23555569

  5. Functional analysis of the sporulation-specific diadenylate cyclase CdaS in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cao; Ma, Yang; Wang, Xun; Xie, Yuqun; Ali, Maria K; He, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a recently discovered bacterial secondary messenger molecule, which is associated with various physiological functions. In the genus Bacillus, the intracellular level and turnover of c-di-AMP are mainly regulated by three diadenylate cyclases (DACs), including DisA, CdaA and CdaS, and two c-di-AMP-specific phosphodiesterases (GdpP and PgpH). In this study, we demonstrated that CdaS protein from B. thuringiensis is a hexameric DAC protein that can convert ATP or ADP to c-di-AMP in vitro and the N-terminal YojJ domain is essential for the DAC activity. Based on the markerless gene knock-out method, we demonstrated that the transcription of cdaS was initiated by the sporulation-specific sigma factor σ(H) and the deletion of cdaS significantly delayed sporulation and parasporal crystal formation. These findings contrast with similar experiments conducted using B. subtilis, wherein transcription of its cdaS was initiated by the sigma factor σ(G). Deletion of all the three DAC genes from a single strain was unsuccessful, suggesting that c-di-AMP is an indispensable molecule in B. thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated increased diversity of CdaS in the B. cereus and B. subtilis Bacillus subgroups. In summary, this study identifies important aspects in the regulation of c-di-AMP in the genus Bacillus. PMID:26441857

  6. In vitro susceptibility of fungi to acyclic inhibitors of 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Airaudi, D; Ceruti, M; Bianco, C; Filipello Marchisio, V

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we determine the antifungal properties of two acyclic inhibitors of 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases: 22,23-epoxy-2-aza-2,3-dihydrosqualene (EAS) and azasqualene alcohol (ASA). Fungistatic and fungicidal activity towards dermatophytes and other fungi involved in cutaneous and systemic infections was tested (48 isolates from 10 species). The tests were carried out by inoculating 10 microliters of mycelial homogenate in 1 ml of Sabouraud glucose liquid medium containing serial dilutions of 100 to 0.25 micrograms ml-1 of the substance. For each isolate, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of both compounds were determined. EAS was more active (MIC range 1.5-25 micrograms ml-1) than ASA (MIC range 3-50 micrograms ml-1). At the highest concentration tested, EAS also showed fungicidal action towards some isolates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. terrestre, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis and Scopulariopsis brumptii. The most sensitive species was T. mentagrophytes, the most resistant T. rubrum. PMID:8786759

  7. Homology modeling and molecular docking of human pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide I receptor

    PubMed Central

    WU, LUSHENG; GUANG, WENHUA; CHEN, XIAOJIA; HONG, AN

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide I receptor (PAC1R) is member of the B class of G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors, with molecular functions associated with neural cell differentiation, regeneration and the inhibition of apoptosis. However, the integrity of the protein structure is difficult to be determined in vitro. In the present study, the physicochemical properties of PAC1R were analyzed, the extracellular, transmembrane and intracellular regions were constructed and a three-dimensional structure model of PAC1R was produced using extracellular loop region optimization and the energy minimization homology modeling method. Preliminary studies on the PAC1R protein and ligand interactions used a molecular docking method. The results indicated that the interaction sites of PAC1R were at Ile63, Ser100 and Gln105. These were the sites where the PAC1R combined with a hydrazide small molecule inhibitor. This study provides a theoretical basis for further studies on the model for the development of PAC1R target drugs. PMID:25069645

  8. In silico prediction of tyrosinase and adenylyl cyclase inhibitors from natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Fong, Pedro; Tong, Henry H Y; Chao, Chi M

    2014-02-01

    Although many herbal medicines are effective in the treatment of hyperpigmentation, the potency of different constituents remains unknown. In this work, more than 20,000 herbal ingredients from 453 herbs were docked into the crystal structures of adenylyl cyclase and a human homology tyrosinase model using Surflex-Dock. These two enzymes are responsible for melanin production and inhibition of them may attain a skin-whitening effect superior to currently available agents. The essential drug properties for topical formulation of the herbal ingredients, including skin permeability, sensitization, irritation, corrosive and carcinogenic properties were predicted by Dermwin, Skin Sensitization Alerts (SSA), Skin Irritation Corrosion Rules Estimation Tool (SICRET) and Benigni/Bossa rulebase module of Toxtree. Moreover, similarity ensemble and pharmacophore mapping approaches were used to forecast other potential targets for these herbal compounds by the software, SEArch and PharmMapper. Overall, this study predicted seven compounds to have advanced drug-like properties over the well-known effective tyrosinase inhibitors, arbutin and kojic acid. These seven compounds have the highest potential for further in vitro and in vivo investigation with the aim of developing safe and high-efficacy skin-whitening agents. PMID:24689287

  9. High density and ligand affinity confer ultrasensitive signal detection by a guanylyl cyclase chemoreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Pichlo, Magdalena; Bungert-Plümke, Stefanie; Weyand, Ingo; Seifert, Reinhard; Bönigk, Wolfgang; Strünker, Timo; Kashikar, Nachiket Dilip; Goodwin, Normann; Müller, Astrid; Körschen, Heinz G.; Collienne, Ursel; Pelzer, Patric; Van, Qui; Enderlein, Jörg; Klemm, Clementine; Krause, Eberhard; Trötschel, Christian; Poetsch, Ansgar; Kremmer, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclases (GCs), which synthesize the messenger cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate, control several sensory functions, such as phototransduction, chemosensation, and thermosensation, in many species from worms to mammals. The GC chemoreceptor in sea urchin sperm can decode chemoattractant concentrations with single-molecule sensitivity. The molecular and cellular underpinnings of such ultrasensitivity are not known for any eukaryotic chemoreceptor. In this paper, we show that an exquisitely high density of 3 × 105 GC chemoreceptors and subnanomolar ligand affinity provide a high ligand-capture efficacy and render sperm perfect absorbers. The GC activity is terminated within 150 ms by dephosphorylation steps of the receptor, which provides a means for precise control of the GC lifetime and which reduces “molecule noise.” Compared with other ultrasensitive sensory systems, the 10-fold signal amplification by the GC receptor is surprisingly low. The hallmarks of this signaling mechanism provide a blueprint for chemical sensing in small compartments, such as olfactory cilia, insect antennae, or even synaptic boutons. PMID:25135936

  10. Soluble adenylyl cyclase is not required for axon guidance to netrin-1.

    PubMed

    Moore, Simon W; Lai Wing Sun, Karen; Xie, Fang; Barker, Philip A; Conti, Marco; Kennedy, Timothy E

    2008-04-01

    During development, axons are directed to their targets by extracellular guidance cues. The axonal response to the guidance cue netrin-1 is profoundly influenced by the concentration of cAMP within the growth cone. In some cases, cAMP affects the sensitivity of the growth cone to netrin-1, whereas in others it changes the response to netrin-1 from attraction to repulsion. The effects of cAMP on netrin-1 action are well accepted, but the critical issue of whether cAMP production is activated by a netrin-1 induced signaling cascade remains uncertain. A previous report has suggested that axon guidance in response to netrin-1 requires cAMP production mediated by soluble adenyl cyclase (sAC). We have used genetic, molecular and biochemical strategies to assess this issue. Surprisingly, we found only extremely weak expression of sAC in embryonic neurons and determined that, under conditions where netrin-1 directs axonal pathfinding, exposure to netrin-1 does not alter cAMP levels. Furthermore, although netrin-1-deficient mice exhibit major axon guidance defects, we show that pathfinding is normal in sAC-null mice. Therefore, although cAMP can alter the response of axons to netrin-1, we conclude that netrin-1 does not alter cAMP levels in axons attracted by this cue, and that sAC is not required for axon attraction to netrin-1. PMID:18400890

  11. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique ligand of the integrin complement receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Osicka, Radim; Osickova, Adriana; Hasan, Shakir; Bumba, Ladislav; Cerny, Jiri; Sebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion and signaling receptors that are essential for metazoan existence. Some integrins contain an I-domain that is a major ligand binding site. The ligands preferentially engage the active forms of the integrins and trigger signaling cascades that alter numerous cell functions. Here we found that the adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA), a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis, preferentially binds an inactive form of the integrin complement receptor 3 (CR3), using a site outside of its I-domain. CyaA binding did not trigger downstream signaling of CR3 in human monocytes and CyaA-catalyzed elevation of cAMP effectively blocked CR3 signaling initiated by a natural ligand. This unprecedented type of integrin-ligand interaction distinguishes CyaA from all other known ligands of the I-domain-containing integrins and provides a mechanistic insight into the previously observed central role of CyaA in the pathogenesis of B. pertussis. PMID:26650353

  12. Disruption of Epac1 protects the heart from adenylyl cyclase type 5-mediated cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenqian; Fujita, Takayuki; Hidaka, Yuko; Jin, Huiling; Suita, Kenji; Prajapati, Rajesh; Liang, Chen; Umemura, Masanari; Yokoyama, Utako; Sato, Motohiko; Okumura, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-17

    Type 5 adenylyl cyclase (AC5) plays an important role in the development of chronic catecholamine stress-induced heart failure and arrhythmia in mice. Epac (exchange protein activated by cAMP), which is directly activated by cAMP independent of protein kinase A, has been recently identified as a novel mediator of cAMP signaling in the heart. However, the role of Epac in AC5-mediated cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias remains poorly understood. We therefore generated AC5 transgenic mice (AC5TG) with selective disruption of the Epac1 gene (AC5TG-Epac1KO), and compared their phenotypes with those of AC5TG after chronic isoproterenol (ISO) infusion. Decreased cardiac function as well as increased susceptibility to pacing-induced atrial fibrillation (AF) in response to ISO were significantly attenuated in AC5TG-Epac1KO mice, compared to AC5TG mice. Increased cardiac apoptosis and cardiac fibrosis were also concomitantly attenuated in AC5TG-Epac1KO mice compared to AC5TG mice. These findings indicate that Epac1 plays an important role in AC5-mediated cardiac dysfunction and AF susceptibility. PMID:27117748

  13. Activity Regulation by Heteromerization of Arabidopsis Allene Oxide Cyclase Family Members.

    PubMed

    Otto, Markus; Naumann, Christin; Brandt, Wolfgang; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived signals in plant stress responses and development. A crucial step in JA biosynthesis is catalyzed by allene oxide cyclase (AOC). Four genes encoding functional AOCs (AOC1, AOC2, AOC3 and AOC4) have been characterized for Arabidopsis thaliana in terms of organ- and tissue-specific expression, mutant phenotypes, promoter activities and initial in vivo protein interaction studies suggesting functional redundancy and diversification, including first hints at enzyme activity control by protein-protein interaction. Here, these analyses were extended by detailed analysis of recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli. Treatment of purified AOC2 with SDS at different temperatures, chemical cross-linking experiments and protein structure analysis by molecular modelling approaches were performed. Several salt bridges between monomers and a hydrophobic core within the AOC2 trimer were identified and functionally proven by site-directed mutagenesis. The data obtained showed that AOC2 acts as a trimer. Finally, AOC activity was determined in heteromers formed by pairwise combinations of the four AOC isoforms. The highest activities were found for heteromers containing AOC4 + AOC1 and AOC4 + AOC2, respectively. All data are in line with an enzyme activity control of all four AOCs by heteromerization, thereby supporting a putative fine-tuning in JA formation by various regulatory principles. PMID:27135223

  14. A Cytochrome P450 Serves as an Unexpected Terpene Cyclase during Fungal Meroterpenoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chooi, Yit-Heng; Hong, Young J.; Cacho, Ralph A.; Tantillo, Dean J.; Tang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Viridicatumtoxin (1) is a tetracycline-like fungal meroterpenoid with a unique, fused spirobicyclic ring system. Puzzlingly, no dedicated terpene cyclase is found in the gene cluster identified in Penicillium aethiopicum. The two cytochrome P450 enzymes VrtE and VrtK in the vrt gene cluster were shown to catalyze C5-hydroxylation and spirobicyclic ring formation, respectively. Feeding of acyclic previridicatumtoxin (2) to Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing VrtK confirmed that VrtK is the sole enzyme required for cyclization of the geranyl moiety. Thus, VrtK is the first example of a P450 that can catalyze terpene cyclization, most likely via the initial oxidation of C17 to an allylic carbocation. Quantum chemical modeling revealed a possible new tertiary carbocation intermediate E that forms after the allylic carbocation formation. The intermediate E can readily undergo concerted 1,2-alkyl shift/1,3-hydride shift, either spontaneously or further aided by the active site configuration of VrtK, followed by C7 Friedel-Crafts alkylation to afford 1,. The most likely stereochemical course of the reaction was proposed based on the results of our computations. PMID:24161266

  15. Structure of a Diguanylate Cyclase from Thermotoga maritima: Insights into Activation, Feedback Inhibition and Thermostability

    PubMed Central

    Deepthi, Angeline; Liew, Chong Wai; Liang, Zhao-Xun; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Lescar, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of bis-3′-5′-cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) would facilitate biological studies of numerous bacterial signaling pathways and phenotypes controlled by this second messenger molecule, such as virulence and biofilm formation. C-di-GMP constitutes also a potentially interesting molecule as a vaccine adjuvant. Even though chemical synthesis of c-di-GMP can be done, the yields are incompatible with mass-production. tDGC, a stand-alone diguanylate cyclase (DGC or GGDEF domain) from Thermotoga maritima, enables the robust enzymatic production of large quantities of c-di-GMP. To understand the structural correlates of tDGC thermostability, its catalytic mechanism and feedback inhibition, we determined structures of an active-like dimeric conformation with both active (A) sites facing each other and of an inactive dimeric conformation, locked by c-di-GMP bound at the inhibitory (I) site. We also report the structure of a single mutant of tDGC, with the R158A mutation at the I-site, abolishing product inhibition and unproductive dimerization. A comparison with structurally characterized DGC homologues from mesophiles reveals the presence of a higher number of salt bridges in the hyperthermophile enzyme tDGC. Denaturation experiments of mutants disrupting in turn each of the salt bridges unique to tDGC identified three salt-bridges critical to confer thermostability. PMID:25360685

  16. Activity Regulation by Heteromerization of Arabidopsis Allene Oxide Cyclase Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Markus; Naumann, Christin; Brandt, Wolfgang; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived signals in plant stress responses and development. A crucial step in JA biosynthesis is catalyzed by allene oxide cyclase (AOC). Four genes encoding functional AOCs (AOC1, AOC2, AOC3 and AOC4) have been characterized for Arabidopsis thaliana in terms of organ- and tissue-specific expression, mutant phenotypes, promoter activities and initial in vivo protein interaction studies suggesting functional redundancy and diversification, including first hints at enzyme activity control by protein-protein interaction. Here, these analyses were extended by detailed analysis of recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli. Treatment of purified AOC2 with SDS at different temperatures, chemical cross-linking experiments and protein structure analysis by molecular modelling approaches were performed. Several salt bridges between monomers and a hydrophobic core within the AOC2 trimer were identified and functionally proven by site-directed mutagenesis. The data obtained showed that AOC2 acts as a trimer. Finally, AOC activity was determined in heteromers formed by pairwise combinations of the four AOC isoforms. The highest activities were found for heteromers containing AOC4 + AOC1 and AOC4 + AOC2, respectively. All data are in line with an enzyme activity control of all four AOCs by heteromerization, thereby supporting a putative fine-tuning in JA formation by various regulatory principles. PMID:27135223

  17. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Reverses Ammonium Metavanadate-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tlili, Mounira; Rouatbi, Sonia; Sriha, Badreddine; Ben Rhouma, Khémais; Sakly, Mohsen; Vaudry, David; Wurtz, Olivier; Tebourbi, Olfa

    2015-01-01

    The rate of atmospheric vanadium is constantly increasing due to fossil fuel combustion. This environmental pollution favours vanadium exposure in particular to its vanadate form, causing occupational bronchial asthma and bronchitis. Based on the well admitted bronchodilator properties of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), we investigated the ability of this neuropeptide to reverse the vanadate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in rats. Exposure to ammonium metavanadate aerosols (5 mg/m3/h) for 15 minutes induced 4 hours later an array of pathophysiological events, including increase of bronchial resistance and histological alterations, activation of proinflammatory alveolar macrophages, and increased oxidative stress status. Powerfully, PACAP inhalation (0.1 mM) for 10 minutes alleviated many of these deleterious effects as demonstrated by a decrease of bronchial resistance and histological restoration. PACAP reduced the level of expression of mRNA encoding inflammatory chemokines (MIP-1α, MIP-2, and KC) and cytokines (IL-1α and TNF-α) in alveolar macrophages and improved the antioxidant status. PACAP reverses the vanadate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness not only through its bronchodilator activity but also by counteracting the proinflammatory and prooxidative effects of the metal. Then, the development of stable analogs of PACAP could represent a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory respiratory disorders. PMID:26199679

  18. Identification of Small Molecules That Antagonize Diguanylate Cyclase Enzymes To Inhibit Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Sambanthamoorthy, Karthik; Sloup, Rudolph E.; Parashar, Vijay; Smith, Joshua M.; Kim, Eric E.; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Neiditch, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation is responsible for numerous chronic infections, causing a severe health burden. Many of these infections cannot be resolved, as bacteria in biofilms are resistant to the host's immune defenses and antibiotic therapy. New strategies to treat biofilm-based infections are critically needed. Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a widely conserved second-messenger signal essential for biofilm formation. As this signaling system is found only in bacteria, it is an attractive target for the development of new antibiofilm interventions. Here, we describe the results of a high-throughput screen to identify small-molecule inhibitors of diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes that synthesize c-di-GMP. We report seven small molecules that antagonize these enzymes and inhibit biofilm formation by Vibrio cholerae. Moreover, two of these compounds significantly reduce the total concentration of c-di-GMP in V. cholerae, one of which also inhibits biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a continuous-flow system. These molecules represent the first compounds described that are able to inhibit DGC activity to prevent biofilm formation. PMID:22850508

  19. DgcA, a diguanylate cyclase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae regulates bacterial pathogenicity on rice

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jianmei; Zou, Xia; Huang, Liangbo; Bai, Tenglong; Liu, Shu; Yuan, Meng; Chou, Shan-Ho; He, Ya-Wen; Wang, Haihong; He, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice blight disease as well as a serious phytopathogen worldwide. It is also one of the model organisms for studying bacteria-plant interactions. Current progress in bacterial signal transduction pathways has identified cyclic di-GMP as a major second messenger molecule in controlling Xanthomonas pathogenicity. However, it still remains largely unclear how c-di-GMP regulates the secretion of bacterial virulence factors in Xoo. In this study, we focused on the important roles played by DgcA (XOO3988), one of our previously identified diguanylate cyclases in Xoo, through further investigating the phenotypes of several dgcA-related mutants, namely, the dgcA-knockout mutant ΔdgcA, the dgcA overexpression strain OdgcA, the dgcA complemented strain CdgcA and the wild-type strain. The results showed that dgcA negatively affected virulence, EPS production, bacterial autoaggregation and motility, but positively triggered biofilm formation via modulating the intracellular c-di-GMP levels. RNA-seq data further identified 349 differentially expressed genes controlled by DgcA, providing a foundation for a more solid understanding of the signal transduction pathways in Xoo. Collectively, the present study highlights DgcA as a major regulator of Xoo virulence, and can serve as a potential target for preventing rice blight diseases. PMID:27193392

  20. Identification of a Diguanylate Cyclase and Its Role in Porphyromonas gingivalis Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Swarnava; Pratap, Siddharth; Paromov, Victor; Li, Zhijun; Mantri, Chinmay K.

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative obligate anaerobic bacterium and is considered a keystone pathogen in the initiation of periodontitis, one of the most widespread infectious diseases. Bacterial bis-(3′-5′) cyclic GMP (cyclic di-GMP [c-di-GMP]) serves as a second messenger and is involved in modulating virulence factors in numerous bacteria. However, the role of this second messenger has not been investigated in P. gingivalis, mainly due to a lack of an annotation regarding diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) in this bacterium. Using bioinformatics tools, we found a protein, PGN_1932, containing a GGDEF domain. A deletion mutation in the pgn_1932 gene had a significant effect on the intracellular c-di-GMP level in P. gingivalis. Genetic analysis showed that expression of the fimA and rgpA genes, encoding the major protein subunit of fimbriae and an arginine-specific proteinase, respectively, was downregulated in the pgn_1932 mutant. Correspondingly, FimA protein production and the fimbrial display on the mutant were significantly reduced. Mutations in the pgn_1932 gene also had a significant impact on the adhesive and invasive capabilities of P. gingivalis, which are required for its pathogenicity. These findings provide evidence that the PGN_1932 protein is both responsible for synthesizing c-di-GMP and involved in biofilm formation and host cell invasion by P. gingivalis by controlling the expression and biosynthesis of FimA. PMID:24733094

  1. Metabolic engineering of potato tuber carotenoids through tuber-specific silencing of lycopene epsilon cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Diretto, Gianfranco; Tavazza, Raffaela; Welsch, Ralf; Pizzichini, Daniele; Mourgues, Fabienne; Papacchioli, Velia; Beyer, Peter; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Background Potato is a major staple food, and modification of its provitamin content is a possible means for alleviating nutritional deficiencies. beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and of xanthophyll esters. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. Results We silenced the first dedicated step in the beta-epsilon- branch of carotenoid biosynthesis, lycopene epsilon cyclase (LCY-e), by introducing, via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an antisense fragment of this gene under the control of the patatin promoter. Real Time measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of Lcy-e. Antisense tubers showed significant increases in beta-beta-carotenoid levels, with beta-carotene showing the maximum increase (up to 14-fold). Total carotenoids increased up to 2.5-fold. These changes were not accompanied by a decrease in lutein, suggesting that LCY-e is not rate-limiting for lutein accumulation. Tuber-specific changes in expression of several genes in the pathway were observed. Conclusion The data suggest that epsilon-cyclization of lycopene is a key regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. Upon tuber-specific silencing of the corresponding gene, beta-beta-carotenoid and total carotenoid levels are increased, and expression of several other genes in the pathway is modified. PMID:16800876

  2. Dominant regulation of interendothelial cell gap formation by calcium-inhibited type 6 adenylyl cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Cioffi, Donna L.; Moore, Timothy M.; Schaack, Jerry; Creighton, Judy R.; Cooper, Dermot M.F.; Stevens, Troy

    2002-01-01

    Acute transitions in cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) through store-operated calcium entry channels catalyze interendothelial cell gap formation that increases permeability. However, the rise in [Ca2+]i only disrupts barrier function in the absence of a rise in cAMP. Discovery that type 6 adenylyl cyclase (AC6; EC 4.6.6.1) is inhibited by calcium entry through store-operated calcium entry pathways provided a plausible explanation for how inflammatory [Ca2+]i mediators may decrease cAMP necessary for endothelial cell gap formation. [Ca2+]i mediators only modestly decrease global cAMP concentrations and thus, to date, the physiological role of AC6 is unresolved. Present studies used an adenoviral construct that expresses the calcium-stimulated AC8 to convert normal calcium inhibition into stimulation of cAMP, within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Thrombin stimulated a dose-dependent [Ca2+]i rise in both pulmonary artery (PAECs) and microvascular (PMVEC) endothelial cells, and promoted intercellular gap formation in both cell types. In PAECs, gap formation was progressive over 2 h, whereas in PMVECs, gap formation was rapid (within 10 min) and gaps resealed within 2 h. Expression of AC8 resulted in a modest calcium stimulation of cAMP, which virtually abolished thrombin-induced gap formation in PMVECs. Findings provide the first direct evidence that calcium inhibition of AC6 is essential for endothelial gap formation. PMID:12082084

  3. Ectopic expression of guanylyl cyclase C in adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and stomach.

    PubMed

    Park, Jason; Schulz, Stephanie; Haaf, Janis; Kairys, John C; Waldman, Scott A

    2002-08-01

    Guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C), a receptor specifically expressed in cells originating from differentiated intestinal epithelium, is a marker and therapeutic target for colorectal cancer metastases. Intestinal metaplasia, in which epithelial cells assume histological and molecular characteristics of differentiated intestinal enterocytes, is a common precursor to adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and stomach. Thus, those tumors, tissues adjacent to them, and their associated regional lymph nodes were assessed for GC-C expression by reverse transcription coupled with the PCR. GC-C mRNA was detected in five of five and eight of nine esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas, respectively. Also, GC-C mRNA was detected in three of five and six of seven tissues adjacent to, but not histologically involved in, esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas, respectively, reflecting molecular changes associated with neoplastic transformation preceding histopathological changes. In contrast, three normal gastric specimens did not express GC-C. Furthermore, GC-C mRNA was detected in 1 of 1 lymph node containing tumor cells by histopathology from a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and in 3 of 11 lymph nodes, all of which were free of tumor cells by histopathology, from a patient with a gastroesophageal junction tumor. This is the first demonstration that GC-C is ectopically expressed by primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and stomach and suggests that GC-C may be a sensitive and specific clinical marker and target for adenocarcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:12163327

  4. Photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC) reveals novel mechanisms underlying cAMP-dependent axonal morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiwen; Tanaka, Kenji F.; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Iseki, Mineo; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji; Koyama, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of axonal branching and elongation is essential in the development of refined neural circuits. cAMP is a key regulator of axonal growth; however, whether and how intracellular cAMP regulates axonal branching and elongation remain unclear, mainly because tools to spatiotemporally manipulate intracellular cAMP levels have been lacking. To overcome this issue, we utilized photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC), which produces cAMP in response to blue-light exposure. In primary cultures of dentate granule cells transfected with PAC, short-term elevation of intracellular cAMP levels induced axonal branching but not elongation, whereas long-term cAMP elevation induced both axonal branching and elongation. The temporal dynamics of intracellular cAMP levels regulated axonal branching and elongation through the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), respectively. Thus, using PAC, our study for the first time reveals that temporal cAMP dynamics could regulate axonal branching and elongation via different signaling pathways. PMID:26795422

  5. Posttraumatic administration of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in central fluid percussion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kövesdi, Erzsébet; Tamás, Andrea; Reglodi, Dóra; Farkas, Orsolya; Pál, József; Tóth, Gábor; Bukovics, Péter; Dóczi, Tamás; Büki, András

    2008-04-01

    Several in vitro and in vivo experiments have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in focal cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of PACAP administration on diffuse axonal injury (DAI), an important contributor to morbidity and mortality associated with TBI, in a central fluid percussion (CFP) model of TBI. Rats were subjected to moderate (2 Atm) CFP injury. Thirty min after injury, 100 microg PACAP was administered intracerebroventricularly. DAI was assessed by immunohistochemical detection of beta-amyloid precursor protein, indicating impaired axoplasmic transport, and RMO-14 antibody, representing foci of cytoskeletal alterations (neurofilament compaction), both considered classical markers of axonal damage. Analysis of damaged, immunoreactive axonal profiles revealed significant axonal protection in the PACAP-treated versus vehicle-treated animals in the corticospinal tract, as far as traumatically induced disturbance of axoplasmic transport and cytoskeletal alteration were considered. Similarly to our former observations in an impact acceleration model of diffuse TBI, the present study demonstrated that PACAP also inhibits DAI in the CFP injury model. The finding indicates that PACAP and derivates can be considered potential candidates for further experimental studies, or purportedly for clinical trials in the therapy of TBI. PMID:18515209

  6. Kinetic Evidence for the Presence of Two Postaglandin Receptor Sites Regulating the Activity of Intestinal Adenylate Cyclase Sensitive to Escherichia coli Enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Harvey S.; Tao, Pearl; Kiefer, Helen Chilton

    1974-01-01

    Kinetic behavior most consistent with the presence of two independent, but simultaneously acting, regulatory effector sites for prostaglandins has been presented for adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) of rabbit intestinal epithelial cells. One site regulates activation of the catalytic site, while the other site regulates inhibition. A synthetic prostaglandin analogue, 7-oxa-13-prostynoic acid, is recognized at both sites in a concentration-dependent manner. At concentrations of 7-oxa-13-prostynoic acid less than 45 μg/ml, activation is seen, while at higher concentrations, inhibition is seen. Different naturally occurring prostaglandins appear to be site-specific. Prostaglandin E1 gives only activation of the cyclase, while prostaglandin A1 gives only inhibition of the activated cyclase. When saturating concentrations of prostaglandin E1 are used to activate adenylate cyclase, no further activation by 7-oxa-13-prostynoic acid can be elicited, indicating that both molecules activate at the same site. The similarity of inhibition constants for both 7-oxa-13-prostynoic acid and prostaglandin A1 suggests that the mode of binding is the same for both compounds and that they probably inhibit by acting at the same site. The inhibition by 7-oxa-13-prostynoic acid and by prostaglandin A1 overrides enzyme activation produced by either Escherichia coli enterotoxin, prostaglandin E1, or sodium fluoride, suggesting that in intestinal adenylate cyclase this site is the primary regulatory site (i.e., primary allosteric effector site) for enzyme activity. These data suggest that sites exist on adenylate cyclase which would allow prostaglandins to serve as the intracellular messengers by which the cell controls its adenylate-cyclase-mediated response to extracellular stimulation, as with hormones. PMID:4208548

  7. Dopamine inhibition of anterior pituitary adenylate cyclase is mediated through the high-affinity state of the D/sub 2/ receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Borgundvaag, B.; George, S.R.

    1985-07-29

    The diterpinoid forskolin stimulated adenylate cyclase activity (measured by conversion of (/sup 3/H)-ATP to (/sup 3/H)-cAMP) in anterior pituitary from male and female rats. Inhibition of stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by potent dopaminergic agonists was demonstrable only in female anterior pituitary. The inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity displayed a typically dopaminergic rank order of agonist potencies and could be completely reversed by a specific dopamine receptor antagonist. The IC/sub 50/ values of dopamine agonist inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity correlated with equal molarity with the dissociation constant of the high-affinity dopamine agonist-detected receptor binding site and with the IC/sub 50/ values for inhibition of prolactin secretion. T