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Sample records for guidance significantly improves

  1. Resources for Guidance Program Improvement. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenza, Mary C., Comp.; and Others

    This guide, for guidance personnel and teachers, is designed to provide ready access to current, practical programs, activities, and references for improving guidance programs. The resources are organized in four sections representing areas of basic concern for guidance personnel. Section 1 presents selected portions of guidance programs from…

  2. Can coffee improve image guidance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirz, Raul; Lathrop, Ray A.; Godage, Isuru S.; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica; Russell, Paul T.; Webster, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Anecdotally, surgeons sometimes observe large errors when using image guidance in endonasal surgery. We hypothesize that one contributing factor is the possibility that operating room personnel might accidentally bump the optically tracked rigid body attached to the patient after registration has been performed. In this paper we explore the registration error at the skull base that can be induced by simulated bumping of the rigid body, and find that large errors can occur when simulated bumps are applied to the rigid body. To address this, we propose a new fixation method for the rigid body based on granular jamming (i.e. using particles like ground coffee). Our results show that our granular jamming fixation prototype reduces registration error by 28%-68% (depending on bump direction) in comparison to a standard Brainlab reference headband.

  3. Improvements in inservice testing regulatory guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    Over the last few years, the NRC has issued guidance to licensees toward improving the quality of requests for relief or alternatives to the code requirements and bring some measure of consistency to the implementation of the code requirements. Based on the majority of the recent submittals, the overall quality has improved. If all of the steps in the internal process for responding to the requests are timely, the review of an updated program can be completed in six to nine months. When a single or only a few requests are submitted, the staff is generally able to complete an evaluation in less than three months. When schedules are related to outages or exigent circumstances, the NRC responds accordingly. The improvements in schedules can be attributed to publication of staff guideline documents, licensees` efforts in preparing more complete descriptions and justification and an increase in the number of NRC technical staff reviewers assigned to IST.

  4. Augmented reality needle guidance improves facet joint injection training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungi, Tamas; Yeo, Caitlin T.; U-Thainual, Paweena; McGraw, Robert C.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2011-03-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if medical trainees would benefit from augmented reality image overlay and laser guidance in learning how to set the correct orientation of a needle for percutaneous facet joint injection. METHODS: A total of 28 medical students were randomized into two groups: (1) The Overlay group received a training session of four insertions with image and laser guidance followed by two insertions with laser overlay only; (2) The Control group was trained by carrying out six freehand insertions. After the training session, needle trajectories of two facet joint injections without any guidance were recorded by an electromagnetic tracker and were analyzed. Number of successful needle placements, distance covered by needle tip inside the phantom and procedural time were measured to evaluate performance. RESULTS: Number of successful placements was significantly higher in the Overlay group compared to the Control group (85.7% vs. 57.1%, p = 0.038). Procedure time and distance covered inside phantom have both been found to be less in the Overlay group, although not significantly. CONCLUSION: Training with augmented reality image overlay and laser guidance improves the accuracy of facet joint injections in medical students learning image-guided facet joint needle placement.

  5. Improved image guidance of coronary stent deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Robert A.; Abbey, Craig K.; Whiting, James S.

    2000-04-01

    Accurate placement and expansion of coronary stents is hindered by the fact that most stents are only slightly radiopaque, and hence difficult to see in a typical coronary x-rays. We propose a new technique for improved image guidance of multiple coronary stents deployment using layer decomposition of cine x-ray images of stented coronary arteries. Layer decomposition models the cone-beam x-ray projections through the chest as a set of superposed layers moving with translation, rotation, and scaling. Radiopaque markers affixed to the guidewire or delivery balloon provide a trackable feature so that the correct vessel motion can be measured for layer decomposition. In addition to the time- averaged layer image, we also derive a background-subtracted image sequence which removes moving background structures. Layer decomposition of contrast-free vessels can be used to guide placement of multiple stents and to assess uniformity of stent expansion. Layer decomposition of contrast-filled vessels can be used to measure residual stenosis to determine the adequacy of stent expansion. We demonstrate that layer decomposition of a clinical cine x-ray image sequence greatly improves the visibility of a previously deployed stent. We show that layer decomposition of contrast-filled vessels removes background structures and reduces noise.

  6. Haptic Guidance Needs to Be Intuitive Not Just Informative to Improve Human Motor Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Mugge, Winfred; Kuling, Irene A.; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Humans make both random and systematic errors when reproducing learned movements. Intuitive haptic guidance that assists one to make the movements reduces such errors. Our study examined whether any additional haptic information about the location of the target reduces errors in a position reproduction task, or whether the haptic guidance needs to be assistive to do so. Holding a haptic device, subjects made reaches to visible targets without time constraints. They did so in a no-guidance condition, and in guidance conditions in which the direction of the force with respect to the target differed, but the force scaled with the distance to the target in the same way. We examined whether guidance forces directed towards the target would reduce subjects’ errors in reproducing a prior position to the same extent as do forces rotated by 90 degrees or 180 degrees, as it might because the forces provide the same information in all three cases. Without vision of the arm, both the accuracy and precision were significantly better with guidance directed towards the target than in all other conditions. The errors with rotated guidance did not differ from those without guidance. Not surprisingly, the movements tended to be faster when guidance forces directed the reaches to the target. This study shows that haptic guidance significantly improved motor performance when using it was intuitive, while non-intuitively presented information did not lead to any improvements and seemed to be ignored even in our simple paradigm with static targets and no time constraints. PMID:26982481

  7. Significance of Image Guidance to Clinical Outcomes for Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qiuzi; Gao, Hong; Li, Gaofeng; Xiu, Xia; Wu, Qinhong; Li, Ming; Xu, Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To compare toxicity profiles and biochemical tumor control outcomes between patients treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) and non-IGRT intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for clinically localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods. Between 2009 and 2012, 65 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with IG-IMRT. This group of patients was retrospectively compared with a similar cohort of 62 patients who were treated between 2004 and 2009 with IMRT to the same dose without image guidance. Results. The median follow-up time was 4.8 years. The rectal volume receiving ≥40 and ≥70 Gy was significantly lower in the IG-IMRT group. Grade 2 and higher acute and late GI and GU toxicity rates were lower in IG-IMRT group, but there was no statistical difference. No significant improvement in biochemical control at 5 years was observed in two groups. In a Cox regression analysis identifying predictors for PSA relapse-free survival, only preradiotherapy PSA was significantly associated with biochemical control; IG-IMRT was not a statistically significant indicator. Conclusions. The use of image guidance in the radiation of prostate cancer at our institute did not show significant reduction in the rates of GI and GU toxicity and did not improve the biochemical control compared with IMRT. PMID:25110701

  8. 77 FR 14402 - Draft Guidance on Classifying Significant Postmarket Drug Safety Issues; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Classifying Significant Postmarket Drug Safety Issues.'' This draft guidance describes FDA's current approach to classifying a significant postmarket drug safety issue as a ``priority'' tracked safety issue (TSI) or a ``standard'' TSI, with the capability of elevating some priority TSIs to an......

  9. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging guidance improves the diagnostic yield of endomyocardial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toby; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Karmarkar, Parag; Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E.; Schenke, William H.; Mazal, Jonathan R.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnostic yield of endomyocardial biopsy is low, particularly in disease that affects the myocardium in a non-uniform distribution. We hypothesized that real-time MRI guidance could improve the yield through targeted biopsy of focal myocardial pathology. Methods An animal model of focal myocardial pathology was created by infusing 3mL of fluorescent microspheres (NuFlow Hydrocoat, 15μm diameter, 5 million spheres/mL) followed by 2mL of 100% ethanol to a branch coronary artery. Animals were survived for minimum 14days, before undergoing MRI guided endomyocardial biopsy using a custom 6.5Fr active visualization MRI-conditional bioptome and X-ray guided biopsy using a commercial bioptome. Specimens were analyzed using a dissecting microscope under ultraviolet light to determine the proportion of ‘on-target’ specimens containing fluorescent microspheres. Results A total of 77 specimens were obtained using real-time MRI guidance and 87 using X-ray guidance, in five animals. Specimens obtained with the MRI-conditional bioptome were smaller compared with the commercial X-ray bioptome. Real-time MRI guidance significantly increased the diagnostic yield of endomyocardial biopsy (82% vs. 56% on-target biopsy specimens with real-time MRI vs. X-ray guidance, p<0.01). Conclusions Endomyocardial biopsy performed using real-time MRI guidance is feasible and significantly improves the diagnostic yield compared with X-ray fluoroscopy guidance.

  10. Brashear High School Career Guidance Improvement Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Public Schools, PA.

    A total of 55 teachers, 5 administrators, 8 pupil services staff members, 3 parents, and 10 student leaders responded to a career guidance improvement survey at Brashear High School (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) by grouping 12 competencies into 3 career development competencies to be included in the local standards: (1) self-knowledge; (2)…

  11. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 36 - Guidance on Significant Price Discovery Contracts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... significant price discovery contract if, over the most recent quarter, greater than 95 percent of the closing... Discovery Contracts A Appendix A to Part 36 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION EXEMPT MARKETS Pt. 36, App. A Appendix A to Part 36—Guidance on Significant Price...

  12. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 36 - Guidance on Significant Price Discovery Contracts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... significant price discovery contract if, over the most recent quarter, greater than 95 percent of the closing... Discovery Contracts A Appendix A to Part 36 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION EXEMPT MARKETS Pt. 36, App. A Appendix A to Part 36—Guidance on Significant Price...

  13. EPA guidance on improving the image of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Möller-Leimkühler, A M; Möller, H-J; Maier, W; Gaebel, W; Falkai, P

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores causes, explanations and consequences of the negative image of psychiatry and develops recommendations for improvement. It is primarily based on a WPA guidance paper on how to combat the stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists and a Medline search on related publications since 2010. Furthermore, focussing on potential causes and explanations, the authors performed a selective literature search regarding additional image-related issues such as mental health literacy and diagnostic and treatment issues. Underestimation of psychiatry results from both unjustified prejudices of the general public, mass media and healthcare professionals and psychiatry's own unfavourable coping with external and internal concerns. Issues related to unjustified devaluation of psychiatry include overestimation of coercion, associative stigma, lack of public knowledge, need to simplify complex mental issues, problem of the continuum between normality and psychopathology, competition with medical and non-medical disciplines and psychopharmacological treatment. Issues related to psychiatry's own contribution to being underestimated include lack of a clear professional identity, lack of biomarkers supporting clinical diagnoses, limited consensus about best treatment options, lack of collaboration with other medical disciplines and low recruitment rates among medical students. Recommendations are proposed for creating and representing a positive self-concept with different components. The negative image of psychiatry is not only due to unfavourable communication with the media, but is basically a problem of self-conceptualization. Much can be improved. However, psychiatry will remain a profession with an exceptional position among the medical disciplines, which should be seen as its specific strength. PMID:26874959

  14. Improved guidance hardware study for the scout launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Salis, M. L.; Mueller, R.; Best, L. E.; Bradt, A. J.; Harrison, R.; Burrell, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    A market survey and evaluation of inertial guidance systems (inertial measurement units and digital computers) were made. Comparisons were made to determine the candidate systems for use in the Scout launch vehicle. Error analyses were made using typical Scout trajectories. A reaction control system was sized for the fourth stage. The guidance hardware to Scout vehicle interface was listed.

  15. Dosimetric Significance of the ICRP's Updated Guidance and Models, 1989-2003, and Implications for U.S. Federal Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.

    2003-09-10

    Over the past two decades the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued a series of Federal guidance documents for the purpose of providing the Federal and State agencies with technical information to assist their implementation of radiation protection programs. Currently recommended dose conversion factors, annual limits on intake, and derived air concentrations for intake of radionuclides are tabulated in Federal Guidance Report No. 11 (FGR 11), published in 1988. The tabulations in FGR 11 were based on dosimetric quantities and biokinetic and dosimetric models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) developed for application to occupational exposures. Since the publication of FGR 11 the ICRP has revised some of its dosimetric quantities and its models for workers and has also developed age-specific models and dose conversion factors for intake of radionuclides by members of the public. This report examines the extent of the changes in the inhalation and ingestion dose coefficients of FGR 11 implied by the updated recommendations of the ICRP, both for workers and members of the public.

  16. Electrophoretic Particle Guidance Significantly Enhances Olfactory Drug Delivery: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A.; Gaide, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Intranasal olfactory drug delivery provides a non-invasive method that bypasses the Blood-Brain-Barrier and directly delivers medication to the brain and spinal cord. However, a device designed specifically for olfactory delivery has not yet been found. Methods In this study, a new delivery method was proposed that utilized electrophoretic forces to guide drug particles to the olfactory region. The feasibility of this method was numerically evaluated in both idealized 2-D and anatomically accurate 3-D nose models. The influence of nasal airflow, electrode strength, and drug release position were also studied on the olfactory delivery efficiency. Findings Results showed that by applying electrophoretic forces, the dosage to the olfactory region was significantly enhanced. In both 2-D and 3-D cases, electrophoretic-guided delivery achieved olfactory dosages nearly two orders of magnitude higher than that without electrophoretic forces. Furthermore, releasing drugs into the upper half of the nostril (i.e., partial release) led to olfactory dosages two times higher than releasing drugs over the entire area of the nostril. By combining the advantages of pointed drug release and appropriate electrophoretic guidance, olfactory dosages of more than 90% were observed as compared to the extremely low olfactory dosage (<1%) with conventional inhaler devices. Conclusion Results of this study have important implications in developing personalized olfactory delivery protocols for the treatment of neurological disorders. Moreover, a high sensitivity of olfactory dosage was observed in relation to different pointed release positions, indicating the importance of precise particle guidance for effective olfactory delivery. PMID:24497957

  17. Recent BRCAPRO upgrades significantly improve calibration

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Emanuele; Chipman, Jonathan; Cheng, Su-Chun; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The recent release of version 2.0-8 of the BayesMendel package contains an updated BRCAPRO risk prediction model, which includes revised modeling of Contralateral Breast Cancer (CBC) penetrance, provisions for pedigrees of mixed ethnicity and an adjustment for mastectomies among family members. We estimated penetrance functions for contralateral breast cancer by a combination of parametric survival modeling of literature data and deconvolution of SEER9 data. We then validated the resulting updated model of CBC in BRCAPRO by comparing it with the previous release (BayesMendel 2.0-7), using pedigrees from the Cancer Genetics Network (CGN) Model Validation Study. Version 2.0-8 of BRCAPRO discriminates BRCA1/BRCA2 carriers from non-carriers with similar accuracy compared to the previous version (increase in AUC: 0.0043), is slightly more precise in terms of RMSE (decrease in RMSE: 0.0108), and it significantly improves calibration (ratio of observed to expected events of 0.9765 in version 2.0-8, compared to 0.8910 in version 2.0-7). We recommend that the new version be used in clinical counseling, particularly in settings where families with CBC are common. PMID:24891549

  18. Image guidance improves localization of sonographically occult colorectal liver metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Universe; Simpson, Amber L.; Adams, Lauryn B.; Jarnagin, William R.; Miga, Michael I.; Kingham, T. Peter

    2015-03-01

    Assessing the therapeutic benefit of surgical navigation systems is a challenging problem in image-guided surgery. The exact clinical indications for patients that may benefit from these systems is not always clear, particularly for abdominal surgery where image-guidance systems have failed to take hold in the same way as orthopedic and neurosurgical applications. We report interim analysis of a prospective clinical trial for localizing small colorectal liver metastases using the Explorer system (Path Finder Technologies, Nashville, TN). Colorectal liver metastases are small lesions that can be difficult to identify with conventional intraoperative ultrasound due to echogeneity changes in the liver as a result of chemotherapy and other preoperative treatments. Interim analysis with eighteen patients shows that 9 of 15 (60%) of these occult lesions could be detected with image guidance. Image guidance changed intraoperative management in 3 (17%) cases. These results suggest that image guidance is a promising tool for localization of small occult liver metastases and that the indications for image-guided surgery are expanding.

  19. Standards, Guidance and Practices for Improved Data Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Martin B. Sattison

    2010-06-01

    Since the mid 1980s, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been involved with numerous projects to collect operational reactor data, develop data tools, and trend and analyze that data for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because the data are used in subsequent risk analyses, the NRC must have confidence in the quality of the data delivered. The NRC tasked the INL to establish a comprehensive data quality assurance program. A key element of that effort was to establish a set of requirements based on industry and government standards, guidance and good practices. This paper discusses where these were found, the process of extracting the requirements and recommendations from the source materials, and the consolidation of them into a concise set of 22 standards, guidance and practices for technical data quality. While this set was created specifically for the data programs within the NRC’s Office of Research, they have broad application to many high-technology industries.

  20. 3D/3D registration of coronary CTA and biplane XA reconstructions for improved image guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Dibildox, Gerardo Baka, Nora; Walsum, Theo van; Punt, Mark; Aben, Jean-Paul; Schultz, Carl; Niessen, Wiro

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors aim to improve image guidance during percutaneous coronary interventions of chronic total occlusions (CTO) by providing information obtained from computed tomography angiography (CTA) to the cardiac interventionist. To this end, the authors investigate a method to register a 3D CTA model to biplane reconstructions. Methods: The authors developed a method for registering preoperative coronary CTA with intraoperative biplane x-ray angiography (XA) images via 3D models of the coronary arteries. The models are extracted from the CTA and biplane XA images, and are temporally aligned based on CTA reconstruction phase and XA ECG signals. Rigid spatial alignment is achieved with a robust probabilistic point set registration approach using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). This approach is extended by including orientation in the Gaussian mixtures and by weighting bifurcation points. The method is evaluated on retrospectively acquired coronary CTA datasets of 23 CTO patients for which biplane XA images are available. Results: The Gaussian mixture model approach achieved a median registration accuracy of 1.7 mm. The extended GMM approach including orientation was not significantly different (P > 0.1) but did improve robustness with regards to the initialization of the 3D models. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the GMM approach can effectively be applied to register CTA to biplane XA images for the purpose of improving image guidance in percutaneous coronary interventions.

  1. An Exploratory Statistical Analysis of a Planet Approach-Phase Guidance Scheme Using Angular Measurements with Significant Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan L.; Harry, David P., III

    1960-01-01

    An exploratory analysis of vehicle guidance during the approach to a target planet is presented. The objective of the guidance maneuver is to guide the vehicle to a specific perigee distance with a high degree of accuracy and minimum corrective velocity expenditure. The guidance maneuver is simulated by considering the random sampling of real measurements with significant error and reducing this information to prescribe appropriate corrective action. The instrumentation system assumed includes optical and/or infrared devices to indicate range and a reference angle in the trajectory plane. Statistical results are obtained by Monte-Carlo techniques and are shown as the expectation of guidance accuracy and velocity-increment requirements. Results are nondimensional and applicable to any planet within limits of two-body assumptions. The problem of determining how many corrections to make and when to make them is a consequence of the conflicting requirement of accurate trajectory determination and propulsion. Optimum values were found for a vehicle approaching a planet along a parabolic trajectory with an initial perigee distance of 5 radii and a target perigee of 1.02 radii. In this example measurement errors were less than i minute of arc. Results indicate that four corrections applied in the vicinity of 50, 16, 15, and 1.5 radii, respectively, yield minimum velocity-increment requirements. Thrust devices capable of producing a large variation of velocity-increment size are required. For a vehicle approaching the earth, miss distances within 32 miles are obtained with 90-percent probability. Total velocity increments used in guidance are less than 3300 feet per second with 90-percent probability. It is noted that the above representative results are valid only for the particular guidance scheme hypothesized in this analysis. A parametric study is presented which indicates the effects of measurement error size, initial perigee, and initial energy on the guidance

  2. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Guidance Improvements for Mars 2018 (DRAFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo; Winski, Richard G.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Grover, Myron R.; Prakash, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will be launched in a mission to deliver the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. A follow on MSL-derived mission, referred to as Mars 2018, is planned for 2018. Mars 2018 goals include performance enhancements of the Entry, Descent and Landing over that of its predecessor MSL mission of 2011. This paper will discuss the main elements of the modified 2018 EDL preliminary design that will increase performance on the entry phase of the mission. In particular, these elements will increase the parachute deploy altitude to allow for more time margin during the subsequent descent and landing phases and reduce the delivery ellipse size at parachute deploy through modifications in the entry reference trajectory design, guidance trigger logic design, and the effect of additional navigation hardware.

  3. Improving the discrimination of hand motor imagery via virtual reality based visual guidance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Choi, Kup-Sze; Qin, Jing; Pang, Wai-Man; Wang, Qiong; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2016-08-01

    While research on the brain-computer interface (BCI) has been active in recent years, how to get high-quality electrical brain signals to accurately recognize human intentions for reliable communication and interaction is still a challenging task. The evidence has shown that visually guided motor imagery (MI) can modulate sensorimotor electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in humans, but how to design and implement efficient visual guidance during MI in order to produce better event-related desynchronization (ERD) patterns is still unclear. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of using object-oriented movements in a virtual environment as visual guidance on the modulation of sensorimotor EEG rhythms generated by hand MI. To improve the classification accuracy on MI, we further propose an algorithm to automatically extract subject-specific optimal frequency and time bands for the discrimination of ERD patterns produced by left and right hand MI. The experimental results show that the average classification accuracy of object-directed scenarios is much better than that of non-object-directed scenarios (76.87% vs. 69.66%). The result of the t-test measuring the difference between them is statistically significant (p = 0.0207). When compared to algorithms based on fixed frequency and time bands, contralateral dominant ERD patterns can be enhanced by using the subject-specific optimal frequency and the time bands obtained by our proposed algorithm. These findings have the potential to improve the efficacy and robustness of MI-based BCI applications. PMID:27282228

  4. Guidance on feedback of outcome data to improve performance in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Li, Mimi M; Shalhoub, Joseph; Davies, Alun H; Maruthappu, Mahiben

    2016-08-01

    Feedback of performance data is a well-established method of performance improvement in the health-care setting, although guidance has been limited in the context of surgical performance. This article outlines how optimal feedback can be achieved using surgeon outcome data. PMID:27487059

  5. 76 FR 77492 - Draft Guidance on Improving the Process for Preparing Efficient and Timely Environmental Reviews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) is issuing its draft guidance on Improving the Process for Preparing Efficient and Timely Environmental Reviews under the National Environmental Policy Act for public review and comment. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and CEQ Regulations implementing NEPA provide numerous techniques for preparing efficient and timely environmental......

  6. Improving intranasal delivery of neurological nanomedicine to the olfactory region using magnetophoretic guidance of microsphere carriers

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Zhang, Ze; Si, Xiuhua A

    2015-01-01

    Background Although direct nose-to-brain drug delivery has multiple advantages, its application is limited by the extremely low delivery efficiency (<1%) to the olfactory region where drugs can enter the brain. It is crucial to developing new methods that can deliver drug particles more effectively to the olfactory region. Materials and methods We introduced a delivery method that used magnetophoresis to improve olfactory delivery efficiency. The performance of the proposed method was assessed numerically in an image-based human nose model. Influences of the magnet layout, magnet strength, drug-release position, and particle diameter on the olfactory dosage were examined. Results and discussion Results showed that particle diameter was a critical factor in controlling the motion of nasally inhaled ferromagnetic drug particles. The optimal particle size was found to be approximately 15 μm for effective magnetophoretic guidance while avoiding loss of particles to the walls in the anterior nose. Olfactory delivery efficiency was shown to be sensitive to the position and strength of magnets and the release position of drug particles. The results of this study showed that clinically significant olfactory doses (up to 45%) were feasible using the optimal combination of magnet layout, selective drug release, and microsphere-carrier diameter. A 64-fold-higher delivery of dosage was predicted in the magnetized nose compared to the control case, which did not have a magnetic field. However, the sensitivity of olfactory dosage to operating conditions and the unstable nature of magnetophoresis make controlled guidance of nasally inhaled aerosols still highly challenging. PMID:25709443

  7. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 36 - Guidance on Significant Price Discovery Contracts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... significant price discovery contract. For example, if, over the most recent quarter, it was found that 95... significant price discovery contract if, over the most recent quarter, greater than 95 percent of the closing... Discovery Contracts A Appendix A to Part 36 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES...

  8. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 36 - Guidance on Significant Price Discovery Contracts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... significant price discovery contract. For example, if, over the most recent quarter, it was found that 95... significant price discovery contract if, over the most recent quarter, greater than 95 percent of the closing... Discovery Contracts A Appendix A to Part 36 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES...

  9. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 36 - Guidance on Significant Price Discovery Contracts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... significant price discovery contract traded on an electronic trading facility, to value a position, transfer... price discovery contract. 6. Because price referencing normally occurs out of the view of the electronic... appropriate, in making a determination that a contract is performing a significant price discovery...

  10. EPA guidance on how to improve the image of psychiatry and of the psychiatrist.

    PubMed

    Bhugra, D; Sartorius, N; Fiorillo, A; Evans-Lacko, S; Ventriglio, A; Hermans, M H M; Vallon, P; Dales, J; Racetovic, G; Samochowiec, J; Roca Bennemar, M; Becker, T; Kurimay, T; Gaebel, W

    2015-03-01

    Stigma against mental illness and the mentally ill is well known. However, stigma against psychiatrists and mental health professionals is known but not discussed widely. Public attitudes and also those of other professionals affect recruitment into psychiatry and mental health services. The reasons for this discriminatory attitude are many and often not dissimilar to those held against mentally ill individuals. In this Guidance paper we present some of the factors affecting the image of psychiatry and psychiatrists which is perceived by the public at large. We look at the portrayal of psychiatry, psychiatrists in the media and literature which may affect attitudes. We also explore potential causes and explanations and propose some strategies in dealing with negative attitudes. Reduction in negative attitudes will improve recruitment and retention in psychiatry. We recommend that national psychiatric societies and other stakeholders, including patients, their families and carers, have a major and significant role to play in dealing with stigma, discrimination and prejudice against psychiatry and psychiatrists. PMID:25735809

  11. Real-time pilot guidance system for improved flight test maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, R. R., Jr.; Schneider, E. T.

    1984-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center has developed a pilot trajectory guidance system that increases the accuracy of flight-test data and decreases the time required to achieve and maintain desired test conditions. The system usually presented to the pilot computed differences between reference or desired and actual flight state conditions. The pilot then used a cockpit display as an aid to acquire and hold desired test conditions. This paper discusses various flight-test maneuvers and the quality of data obtained using the guidance system. Some comparisons are made between the quality of maneuvers obtained with and without the system. Limited details of the guidance system and algorithms used are included. In general, the guidance system improved the quality of the maneuvers and trajectories flown, as well as allowing trajectories to be flown that would not have been possible without the system. This system has moved from the developmental stage to full operational use in various Dryden research and test aircraft.

  12. Real-time pilot guidance system for improved flight-test maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, R. R., Jr.; Schneider, E. T.

    1983-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Facility has developed a pilot trajectory guidance system that is intended to increase the accuracy of flight-test data and decrease the time required to achieve and maintain desired test conditions, or both. The system usually presented to the pilot computed differences between reference or desired and actual flight state conditions. The pilot then used a cockpit display as an aid to acquire and hold desired test conditions. This paper discusses various flight-test maneuvers and the quality of data obtained using the guidance system. Some comparisons are made between the quality of maneuvers obtained with and without the system. Limited details of the guidance system and algorithms used are included. In general, the guidance system improved the quality of the maneuvers and trajectories flown, as well as allowing trajectories to be flown that would not have been possible without the system. This system has moved from the developmental stage to full operational use in various Dryden research and test aircraft.

  13. Precise terrestrial time: A means for improved ballistic missile guidance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrsam, E. E.; Cresswell, S. A.; Mckelvey, G. R.; Matthews, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    An approach developed to improve the ground instrumentation time tagging accuracy and adapted to support the Minuteman ICBM program is desired. The Timing Insertion Unit (TIU) technique produces a telemetry data time tagging resolution of one tenth of a microsecond, with a relative intersite accuracy after corrections and velocity data (range, azimuth, elevation and range rate) also used in missile guidance system analysis can be correlated to within ten microseconds of the telemetry guidance data. This requires precise timing synchronization between the metric and telemetry instrumentation sites. The timing synchronization can be achieved by using the radar automatic phasing system time correlation methods. Other time correlation techniques such as Television (TV) Line-10 and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GEOS) terrestial timing receivers are also considered.

  14. Improving access to clinical guidance: redevelopment of a junior doctor intranet page

    PubMed Central

    Walkden, Graham; Millwood, Sinead; Cavanagh, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Junior doctors frequently rely on electronic access to clinical guidelines to inform assessment and management, particularly whilst on-call and occasionally during emergencies. Difficulties in locating and accessing up to date guidance from different hospital intranet sites can lead to delays or errors in patient management. We used a focus group and email feedback to redesign an intranet site for junior doctors which logically organised the documents which doctors said they needed access to in one readily accessible location. A quality improvement project was carried out over six months, testing two iterations of the new junior doctors' intranet site before a third version was launched and evaluated. Their performance was measured by the number of mouse clicks and the time required for doctors to find a representative subset of five guidelines, and revisions were made at each cycle based on feedback from doctors and stakeholders. Cumulatively, we demonstrated a decrease in the total number of clicks required to access the sample of guidelines from 18 to 12 clicks, a corresponding decrease in the time required to access the sample of guidelines from 130 seconds to 22 seconds, and an increase in user satisfaction. We maintained one-click access to emergency guidance. In conclusion, we have developed and implemented an electronic resource for junior doctors which provides more immediate access to both emergency and non-emergency clinical guidance. To ensure the resource remains up to date, it will be maintained by Foundation Programme representatives at our hospital on a rolling basis. PMID:26734395

  15. Significant improvements in long trace profiler measurement performance

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Bresloff, C.J.

    1996-07-01

    A Modifications made to the Long Trace Profiler (LTP II) system at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory have significantly improved the accuracy and repeatability of the instrument The use of a Dove prism in the reference beam path corrects for phasing problems between mechanical efforts and thermally-induced system errors. A single reference correction now completely removes both error signals from the measured surface profile. The addition of a precision air conditioner keeps the temperature in the metrology enclosure constant to within {+-}0.1{degrees}C over a 24 hour period and has significantly improved the stability and repeatability of the system. We illustrate the performance improvements with several sets of measurements. The improved environmental control has reduced thermal drift error to about 0.75 microradian RMS over a 7.5 hour time period. Measurements made in the forward scan direction and the reverse scan direction differ by only about 0.5 microradian RMS over a 500mm, trace length. We are now able to put 1-sigma error bar of 0.3 microradian on an average of 10 slope profile measurements over a 500mm long trace length, and we are now able to put a 0.2 microradian error bar on an average of 10 measurements over a 200mm trace length. The corresponding 1-sigma height error bar for this measurement is 1.1 run.

  16. Significant improvements in Long Trace Profiler measurement performance

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Bresloff, C.J.

    1996-12-31

    Modifications made to the Long Trace Profiler (LTP II) system at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory have significantly improved the accuracy and repeatability of the instrument. The use of a Dove prism in the reference beam path corrects for phasing problems between mechanical errors and thermally-induced system errors. A single reference correction now completely removes both error signals from the measured surface profile. The addition of a precision air conditioner keeps the temperature in the metrology enclosure constant to within {+-} 0.1 C over a 24 hour period and has significantly improved the stability and repeatability of the system. The authors illustrate the performance improvements with several sets of measurements. The improved environmental control has reduced thermal drift error to about 0.75 microradian RMS over a 7.5 hour time period. Measurements made in the forward scan direction and the reverse scan direction differ by only about 0.5 microradian RMS over a 500 mm trace length. They are now able to put 1-sigma error bar of 0.3 microradian on an average of 10 slope profile measurements over a 500 mm long trace length, and they are now able to put a 0.2 microradian error bar on an average of 10 measurements over a 200 mm trace length. The corresponding 1-sigma height error bar for this measurement is 1.1 nm.

  17. Playing shooter and driving videogames improves top-down guidance in visual search.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sijing; Spence, Ian

    2013-05-01

    Playing action videogames is known to improve visual spatial attention and related skills. Here, we showed that playing action videogames also improves classic visual search, as well as the ability to locate targets in a dual search that mimics certain aspects of an action videogame. In Experiment 1A, first-person shooter (FPS) videogame players were faster than nonplayers in both feature search and conjunction search, and in Experiment 1B, they were faster and more accurate in a peripheral search and identification task while simultaneously performing a central search. In Experiment 2, we showed that 10 h of play could improve the performance of nonplayers on each of these tasks. Three different genres of videogames were used for training: two action games and a 3-D puzzle game. Participants who played an action game (either an FPS or a driving game) achieved greater gains on all search tasks than did those who trained using the puzzle game. Feature searches were faster after playing an action videogame, suggesting that players developed a better target template to guide search in a top-down manner. The results of the dual search suggest that, in addition to enhancing the ability to divide attention, playing an action game improves the top-down guidance of attention to possible target locations. The results have practical implications for the development of training tools to improve perceptual and cognitive skills. PMID:23460295

  18. Sonocrystallization yields monoclinic paracetamol with significantly improved compaction behavior.

    PubMed

    Bučar, Dejan-Krešimir; Elliott, James A; Eddleston, Mark D; Cockcroft, Jeremy K; Jones, William

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted crystallization (sonocrystallization) was used to prepare a mixture of nano- and micrometer-sized crystals of the monoclinic form of paracetamol-a widely used analgesic known for its particularly problematic mechanical behavior under compression (i.e. poor tabletability). The nano- and micrometer-sized crystals yielded a powder which exhibits elastic moduli and bulk cohesions that are significantly higher than those observed in samples consisting of macrometer-sized crystals, thus leading to enhanced tabletability without the use of excipients, particle coating, salt, or cocrystal formation. Experimental compaction and finite element analysis were utilized to rationalize the significantly improved compaction behavior of the monoclinic form of paracetamol. PMID:25370777

  19. Guidance for improving the federal response to foodborne illness outbreaks associated with fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Benson, Sara M

    2010-01-01

    Today, our nation's food supply flows through a complicated chain of farmers, processors, and distributors before reaching consumers. At some point during this process, food can become contaminated with pathogens and it can make people sick. The Food and Drug Administration, along with the Centers for Disease Control, are in charge of fighting an outbreak once it occurs. The CDC first identifies a specific food that is making people ill, and then the FDA steps in to find the source of that contaminated food. This process, however, does not always run smoothly. Historically, these federal agencies have been underfunded and have had few staff dedicated to fighting foodborne illness outbreaks. This means that an outbreak is not always handled effectively or efficiently, which can have devastating effects on innocent industry actors. This Note gives practical guidance to the FDA and CDC for improving its responses to foodborne illness outbreaks so that consumers, as well as innocent industry actors, are protected. PMID:24479238

  20. Real-time pilot guidance system for improved flight-test maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, E. T.; Meyer, R. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The real-time pilot display uplink development at the Dryden Flight Research Facility is described, with a focus on recent F-104 studies. A nose boom gathers data on the Mach number, pressure altitude, and angle of attack. The system provides the pilot with guidance to improve maneuver accuracy and fly more complex trajectories. The uplink presents the pilot with computed differences between a reference flight path and actual flight state conditions, using a downlink to the ground where engineering computations are performed, feedback is transmitted, and corrections are applied. Details of the flight test trajectories and data from test results are provided for level turns, constant thrust turns, dynamic pressure trajectories, constant radar altitude accelerations and decelerations, and a Reynolds number trajectory. The system has proved capable of reducing pilot workload and saving fuel by decreasing the flight time necessary to obtain specific data.

  1. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... coal mining on the aquatic environment. In addition to the existing peer-reviewed science outlined in... AGENCY Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean..., titled Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water...

  2. An improved optical identity authentication system with significant output images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Liu, Ming-tang; Yao, Shu-xia; Xin, Yan-hui

    2012-06-01

    An improved method for optical identity authentication system with significant output images is proposed. In this method, a predefined image is digitally encoded into two phase-masks relating to a fixed phase-mask, and this fixed phase-mask acts as a lock to the system. When the two phase-masks, serving as the key, are presented to the system, the predefined image is generated at the output. In addition to simple verification, our method is capable of identifying the type of input phase-mask, and the duties of identity verification and recognition are separated and, respectively, assigned to the amplitude and phase of the output image. Numerical simulation results show that our proposed method is feasible and the output image with better image quality can be obtained.

  3. Warfarin improves neuropathy in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

    PubMed

    Henry Gomez, Teny; Holkova, Beata; Noreika, Danielle; Del Fabbro, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 60-year-old man who was referred to a palliative care clinic with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)-associated neuropathy, responding to a therapeutic trial of warfarin. Electromyography showed distal symmetric sensory axonal neuropathy. The patient reported having had improvement of his neuropathic symptoms while taking warfarin postoperatively for thromboprophylaxis 1 year prior, and recurrence of his symptoms after the warfarin was discontinued. The patient was rechallenged with a trial of warfarin, targeting an international normalised ratio of 1.5-2.0. His pain scores decreased from 5/10 to 3/10 at 1 month and symptom improvement was maintained through 24 months of follow-up. Warfarin had a remarkable impact on our patient's symptoms and quality of life. The mechanisms mediating the symptomatic benefit with warfarin are unclear; however, a placebo effect is unlikely. Further studies may help guide the use of warfarin for MGUS-associated neuropathy. PMID:27317760

  4. Determination of significance in Ecological Impact Assessment: Past change, current practice and future improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Sam; Hudson, Malcolm D.

    2013-01-15

    Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) is an important tool for conservation and achieving sustainable development. 'Significant' impacts are those which disturb or alter the environment to a measurable degree. Significance is a crucial part of EcIA, our understanding of the concept in practice is vital if it is to be effective as a tool. This study employed three methods to assess how the determination of significance has changed through time, what current practice is, and what would lead to future improvements. Three data streams were collected: interviews with expert stakeholders, a review of 30 Environmental Statements and a broad-scale survey of the United Kingdom Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (IEEM) members. The approach taken in the determination of significance has become more standardised and subjectivity has become constrained through a transparent framework. This has largely been driven by a set of guidelines produced by IEEM in 2006. The significance of impacts is now more clearly justified and the accuracy with which it is determined has improved. However, there are limitations to accuracy and effectiveness of the determination of significance. These are the quality of baseline survey data, our scientific understanding of ecological processes and the lack of monitoring and feedback of results. These in turn are restricted by the limited resources available in consultancies. The most notable recommendations for future practice are the implementation of monitoring and the publication of feedback, the creation of a central database for baseline survey data and the streamlining of guidance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment of significance has changed markedly through time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IEEM guidelines have driven a standardisation of practice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Currently limited by quality of baseline data and scientific understanding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitoring and

  5. Ceramic Composite Intermediate Temperature Stress-Rupture Properties Improved Significantly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Hurst, Janet B.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) composites are considered to be potential materials for future aircraft engine parts such as combustor liners. It is envisioned that on the hot side (inner surface) of the combustor liner, composites will have to withstand temperatures in excess of 1200 C for thousands of hours in oxidizing environments. This is a severe condition; however, an equally severe, if not more detrimental, condition exists on the cold side (outer surface) of the combustor liner. Here, the temperatures are expected to be on the order of 800 to 1000 C under high tensile stress because of thermal gradients and attachment of the combustor liner to the engine frame (the hot side will be under compressive stress, a less severe stress-state for ceramics). Since these composites are not oxides, they oxidize. The worst form of oxidation for strength reduction occurs at these intermediate temperatures, where the boron nitride (BN) interphase oxidizes first, which causes the formation of a glass layer that strongly bonds the fibers to the matrix. When the fibers strongly bond to the matrix or to one another, the composite loses toughness and strength and becomes brittle. To increase the intermediate temperature stress-rupture properties, researchers must modify the BN interphase. With the support of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program, significant improvements were made as state-of-the-art SiC/SiC composites were developed during the Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program. Three approaches were found to improve the intermediate-temperature stress-rupture properties: fiber-spreading, high-temperature silicon- (Si) doped boron nitride (BN), and outside-debonding BN.

  6. Improvement of therapeutic index for brain tumors with daily image guidance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Image-guidance maximizes the therapeutic index of brain irradiation by decreasing setup uncertainty. As dose-volume data emerge defining the tolerance of critical normal structures responsible for neuroendocrine function and neurocognition, minimizing clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) expansion of targets near these structures potentially lessens long-term toxicity. Methods We reviewed the treatment records of 29 patients with brain tumors, with a total of 517 fractions analyzed. The CTV was uniformly expanded by 3 mm to create the PTV for all cases. We determined the effect of patient specific factors (prescribed medications, weight gain, tumor location) and image-guidance technique on setup uncertainty and plotted the mean +/- standard deviation for each factor. ANOVA was used to determine significance between these factors on setup uncertainty. We determined the impact of applying the initial three fraction variation as custom PTV-expansion on dose to normal structures. Results The initial 3 mm margin encompassed 88% of all measured shifts from daily imaging for all fractions. There was no difference (p = n.s.) in average setup uncertainty between CBCT or kV imaging for all patients. Vertical, lateral, longitudinal, and 3D shifts were similar (p = n.s.) between days 1, 2, and 3 imaging and later fractions. Patients prescribed sedatives experienced increased setup uncertainty (p < 0.05), while weight gain, corticosteroid administration, and anti-seizure medication did not associate with increased setup uncertainty. Patients with targets near OAR with individualized margins led to decreased OAR dose. No reductions to targets occurred with individualized PTVs. Conclusions Daily imaging allows application of individualized CTV expansion to reduce dose to OAR responsible for neurocognition, learning, and neuroendocrine function below doses shown to correlate with long-term morbidity. The demonstrated reduction in

  7. Making the Best Match: Improving the Quality of Pre-Course Information, Advice and Guidance. LSDA Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Jackie

    Ways of improving the quality of precourse information, advice, and guidance available to students entering further education and sixth form colleges in the United Kingdom were explored. Data were collected from the following sources: (1) the 3-year Raising Quality and Achievement Programme; (2) seminars on sharing good practice in delivering…

  8. Community Collaboration for Improving Career Guidance Programs: Preliminary Findings Suggest It Can Work. A Monograph and an Evaluation Auditor's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, G. Brian; And Others

    Community collaboration for improving career guidance is an attempt to obtain cooperation from local agencies, organizations, and volunteering individuals to provide assistance to citizens whose career needs are not being addressed. This monograph is designed to motivate and provide initial orientation for community leaders who want to develop…

  9. SHIFTX2: significantly improved protein chemical shift prediction.

    PubMed

    Han, Beomsoo; Liu, Yifeng; Ginzinger, Simon W; Wishart, David S

    2011-05-01

    A new computer program, called SHIFTX2, is described which is capable of rapidly and accurately calculating diamagnetic (1)H, (13)C and (15)N chemical shifts from protein coordinate data. Compared to its predecessor (SHIFTX) and to other existing protein chemical shift prediction programs, SHIFTX2 is substantially more accurate (up to 26% better by correlation coefficient with an RMS error that is up to 3.3× smaller) than the next best performing program. It also provides significantly more coverage (up to 10% more), is significantly faster (up to 8.5×) and capable of calculating a wider variety of backbone and side chain chemical shifts (up to 6×) than many other shift predictors. In particular, SHIFTX2 is able to attain correlation coefficients between experimentally observed and predicted backbone chemical shifts of 0.9800 ((15)N), 0.9959 ((13)Cα), 0.9992 ((13)Cβ), 0.9676 ((13)C'), 0.9714 ((1)HN), 0.9744 ((1)Hα) and RMS errors of 1.1169, 0.4412, 0.5163, 0.5330, 0.1711, and 0.1231 ppm, respectively. The correlation between SHIFTX2's predicted and observed side chain chemical shifts is 0.9787 ((13)C) and 0.9482 ((1)H) with RMS errors of 0.9754 and 0.1723 ppm, respectively. SHIFTX2 is able to achieve such a high level of accuracy by using a large, high quality database of training proteins (>190), by utilizing advanced machine learning techniques, by incorporating many more features (χ(2) and χ(3) angles, solvent accessibility, H-bond geometry, pH, temperature), and by combining sequence-based with structure-based chemical shift prediction techniques. With this substantial improvement in accuracy we believe that SHIFTX2 will open the door to many long-anticipated applications of chemical shift prediction to protein structure determination, refinement and validation. SHIFTX2 is available both as a standalone program and as a web server ( http://www.shiftx2.ca ). PMID:21448735

  10. Alarm system management: evidence-based guidance encouraging direct measurement of informativeness to improve alarm response.

    PubMed

    Rayo, Michael F; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

    2015-04-01

    Although there are powerful incentives for creating alarm management programmes to reduce 'alarm fatigue', they do not provide guidance on how to reduce the likelihood that clinicians will disregard critical alarms. The literature cites numerous phenomena that contribute to alarm fatigue, although many of these, including total rate of alarms, are not supported in the literature as factors that directly impact alarm response. The contributor that is most frequently associated with alarm response is informativeness, which is defined as the proportion of total alarms that successfully conveys a specific event, and the extent to which it is a hazard. Informativeness is low across all healthcare applications, consistently ranging from 1% to 20%. Because of its likelihood and strong evidential support, informativeness should be evaluated before other contributors are considered. Methods for measuring informativeness and alarm response are discussed. Design directions for potential interventions, as well as design alternatives to traditional alarms, are also discussed. With the increased attention and investment in alarm system management that alarm interventions are currently receiving, initiatives that focus on informativeness and the other evidence-based measures identified will allow us to more effectively, efficiently and reliably redirect clinician attention, ultimately improving alarm response. PMID:25734193

  11. 77 FR 14473 - Final Guidance on Improving the Process for Preparing Efficient and Timely Environmental Reviews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ....O. 13,563, 76 FR 3821 (January 21, 2011), available at www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-21/pdf/2011... Environmental Policy Act, 76 FR 77,492, Dec. 11, 2011. What's New in This Guidance Many commenters felt that the....gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-21/pdf/2011-1385.pdf . \\5\\ This guidance is not a rule or regulation, and...

  12. Significant improvement in IR surface-temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Briles, S.D.; Bennett, G.A.; Larkin, T.H.; Worcester, P.

    1989-06-01

    Obtaining infrared (IR) surface-temperature measurements of miniature square targets on the order of 1.6 mm with a spatial resolution of 15 ..mu..m has recently become possible using the Barnes Engineering Computherm System, but the accuracy and precision of the measurements have been limited. The objective of this work is to provide a calibration procedure that will improve by a factor of 8 the accuracy and precision of the two-dimensional temperature measurement. The IR microscope detects energy emitted by the target and displays it as a radiance image. Heating the target to two known temperatures permits calculation of the target emissivity using the radiances at each pixel in the two-dimensional field. An error is induced in the emissivity calculation by substituting the thermal-well temperature for the known target surface temperature. At the same time, the radiance image is distorted by two functions that affect the measurement accuracy. The precision of the instrument is altered by a random noise field function. The noise functions were investigated to determine whether they were added to or multiplied by the radiance equation. A plot of image-radiance means shows the same trends as the added noise functions suggested by the prediction. Correction of the induced distortions improved the accuracy noticeably. Further improvement in the accuracy is accomplished by using a syringe thermocouple to measure the actual surface temperatures used for the emissivity calculations. Investigation of the random noise field shows that it is zero-mean and Gaussian in nature. We can therefore average images over time to improve the precision. 9 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Creating a Middle Grades Environment that Significantly Improves Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Esperance, Mark E.; Lenker, Ethan; Bullock, Ann; Lockamy, Becky; Mason, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the framework that Sampson County Public Schools (North Carolina) used to critically reflect on the current state of their middle grades schools. The article also highlights the changes that resulted from the district-wide analysis and the ways in which these changes led to a significant increase in the academic…

  14. Accuracy of pitch matching significantly improved by live voice model.

    PubMed

    Granot, Roni Y; Israel-Kolatt, Rona; Gilboa, Avi; Kolatt, Tsafrir

    2013-05-01

    Singing is, undoubtedly, the most fundamental expression of our musical capacity, yet an estimated 10-15% of Western population sings "out-of-tune (OOT)." Previous research in children and adults suggests, albeit inconsistently, that imitating a human voice can improve pitch matching. In the present study, we focus on the potentially beneficial effects of the human voice and especially the live human voice. Eighteen participants varying in their singing abilities were required to imitate in singing a set of nine ascending and descending intervals presented to them in five different randomized blocked conditions: live piano, recorded piano, live voice using optimal voice production, recorded voice using optimal voice production, and recorded voice using artificial forced voice production. Pitch and interval matching in singing were much more accurate when participants repeated sung intervals as compared with intervals played to them on the piano. The advantage of the vocal over the piano stimuli was robust and emerged clearly regardless of whether piano tones were played live and in full view or were presented via recording. Live vocal stimuli elicited higher accuracy than recorded vocal stimuli, especially when the recorded vocal stimuli were produced in a forced vocal production. Remarkably, even those who would be considered OOT singers on the basis of their performance when repeating piano tones were able to pitch match live vocal sounds, with deviations well within the range of what is considered accurate singing (M=46.0, standard deviation=39.2 cents). In fact, those participants who were most OOT gained the most from the live voice model. Results are discussed in light of the dual auditory-motor encoding of pitch analogous to that found in speech. PMID:23528675

  15. Anxious To Work. Proposals for Improving Guidance and Course Provision for Unemployed Adults. FEU/REPLAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    A project was designed to define the extent of the courses and programs available to unemployed adults and to investigate the problems involved in maintaining an up-to-date information, guidance, and counseling service in the United Kingdom. Interviews were conducted with 100 unemployed adults in Nottingham, England. Information was sought on…

  16. New guidance to improve asthma control: putting patients at the centre of care.

    PubMed

    Siddall, Rhonda

    2004-07-01

    Recent research studies have revealed an alarming level of uncontrolled asthma in the community. New guidance stresses that greater patient involvement is the key to changing this situation. Rhonda Siddall summarises the latest update to asthma guidelines and discusses recent research findings that reveal how nurses can help. PMID:15317337

  17. Low Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Deutsch, Reena; Gouaux, Ben; Sakai, Staci; Donaghe, Haylee

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling either medium dose (3.53%), low dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being VAS pain intensity. Psychoactive side-effects, and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the two active dose groups’ results (p>0.7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo vs. low dose, 2.9 for placebo vs. medium dose, and 25 for medium vs. low dose. As these NNT are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being, for all intents and purposes, as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well-tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1–2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. PMID:23237736

  18. Direct ChIP-Seq significance analysis improves target prediction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing of protein-bound DNA fragments (ChIP-Seq) is an effective high-throughput methodology for the identification of context specific DNA fragments that are bound by specific proteins in vivo. Despite significant progress in the bioinformatics analysis of this genome-scale data, a number of challenges remain as technology-dependent biases, including variable target accessibility and mappability, sequence-dependent variability, and non-specific binding affinity must be accounted for. Results and discussion We introduce a nonparametric method for scoring consensus regions of aligned immunoprecipitated DNA fragments when appropriate control experiments are available. Our method uses local models for null binding; these are necessary because binding prediction scores based on global models alone fail to properly account for specialized features of genomic regions and chance pull downs of specific DNA fragments, thus disproportionally rewarding some genomic regions and decreasing prediction accuracy. We make no assumptions about the structure or amplitude of bound peaks, yet we show that our method outperforms leading methods developed using either global or local null hypothesis models for random binding. We test prediction performance by comparing analyses of ChIP-seq, ChIP-chip, motif-based binding-site prediction, and shRNA assays, showing high reproducibility, binding-site enrichment in predicted target regions, and functional regulation of predicted targets. Conclusions Given appropriate controls, a direct nonparametric method for identifying transcription-factor targets from ChIP-Seq assays may lead to both higher sensitivity and higher specificity, and should be preferred or used in conjunction with methods that use parametric models for null binding. PMID:26040656

  19. Improved image quality of cone beam CT scans for radiotherapy image guidance using fiber-interspaced antiscatter grid

    SciTech Connect

    Stankovic, Uros; Herk, Marcel van; Ploeger, Lennert S.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-06-15

    acquisition scenarios. Parameters used in the phantom study weret{sub cup} for nonuniformity and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for soft tissue visibility. Clinical scans were evaluated in an observer study in which four experienced radiotherapy technologists rated soft tissue visibility and uniformity of scans with and without the grid. Results: The proposed angle dependent gain correction algorithm suppressed the visible ring artifacts. Grid had a beneficial impact on nonuniformity, contrast to noise ratio, and Hounsfield unit accuracy for both scanning geometries. The nonuniformity reduced by 90% for head sized object and 91% for pelvic-sized object. CNR improved compared to no corrections on average by a factor 2.8 for the head sized object, and 2.2 for the pelvic sized phantom. Grid outperformed software correction alone, but adding additional software correction to the grid was overall the best strategy. In the observer study, a significant improvement was found in both soft tissue visibility and nonuniformity of scans when grid is used. Conclusions: The evaluated fiber-interspaced grid improved the image quality of the CBCT system for broad range of imaging conditions. Clinical scans show significant improvement in soft tissue visibility and uniformity without the need to increase the imaging dose.

  20. Improved image guidance technique for minimally invasive mitral valve repair using real-time tracked 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Adam; Moore, John; Bainbridge, Daniel; Peters, Terry

    2016-03-01

    In the past ten years, numerous new surgical and interventional techniques have been developed for treating heart valve disease without the need for cardiopulmonary bypass. Heart valve repair is now being performed in a blood-filled environment, reinforcing the need for accurate and intuitive imaging techniques. Previous work has demonstrated how augmenting ultrasound with virtual representations of specific anatomical landmarks can greatly simplify interventional navigation challenges and increase patient safety. These techniques often complicate interventions by requiring additional steps taken to manually define and initialize virtual models. Furthermore, overlaying virtual elements into real-time image data can also obstruct the view of salient image information. To address these limitations, a system was developed that uses real-time volumetric ultrasound alongside magnetically tracked tools presented in an augmented virtuality environment to provide a streamlined navigation guidance platform. In phantom studies simulating a beating-heart navigation task, procedure duration and tool path metrics have achieved comparable performance to previous work in augmented virtuality techniques, and considerable improvement over standard of care ultrasound guidance.

  1. Improving Social Interactions in Virtual Learning Environments: Guidance on Spatial Factors for Online Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Serrano, Maria Jose; Gonzales-Sanchez, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a project in which students' interactions with learning environments are investigated from the perspective of the spatial factors. Our research examines a significant dimension generated under the interrelationship between the subject and the virtual space, by establishing that spatial dimensions may determine the level of…

  2. Aqueous Angiography–Mediated Guidance of Trabecular Bypass Improves Angiographic Outflow in Human Enucleated Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Alex S.; Saraswathy, Sindhu; Dastiridou, Anna; Begian, Alan; Mohindroo, Chirayu; Tan, James C. H.; Francis, Brian A.; Hinton, David R.; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the ability of trabecular micro-bypass stents to improve aqueous humor outflow (AHO) in regions initially devoid of AHO as assessed by aqueous angiography. Methods Enucleated human eyes (14 total from 7 males and 3 females [ages 52–84]) were obtained from an eye bank within 48 hours of death. Eyes were oriented by inferior oblique insertion, and aqueous angiography was performed with indocyanine green (ICG; 0.4%) or fluorescein (2.5%) at 10 mm Hg. With an angiographer, infrared and fluorescent images were acquired. Concurrent anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed, and fixable fluorescent dextrans were introduced into the eye for histologic analysis of angiographically positive and negative areas. Experimentally, some eyes (n = 11) first received ICG aqueous angiography to determine angiographic patterns. These eyes then underwent trabecular micro-bypass sham or stent placement in regions initially devoid of angiographic signal. This was followed by fluorescein aqueous angiography to query the effects. Results Aqueous angiography in human eyes yielded high-quality images with segmental patterns. Distally, angiographically positive but not negative areas demonstrated intrascleral lumens on OCT images. Aqueous angiography with fluorescent dextrans led to their trapping in AHO pathways. Trabecular bypass but not sham in regions initially devoid of ICG aqueous angiography led to increased aqueous angiography as assessed by fluorescein (P = 0.043). Conclusions Using sequential aqueous angiography in an enucleated human eye model system, regions initially without angiographic flow or signal could be recruited for AHO using a trabecular bypass stent. PMID:27588614

  3. Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

    1998-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

  4. Improving Vocational Guidance and Counseling through Career Awareness, Orientation and Exploration (Summer Program). Program Evaluation. Program Period July 27-August 14, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, William M.

    The Improving Vocational Guidance and Counseling through Career Awareness, Orientation and Exploration summer program was developed to provide a 3-week career awareness and exploration program for teacher-recommended disadvantaged minority middle school students from the Richmond Public Schools in Virginia. A total of 18 African, African-American,…

  5. Development and Testing of an Automated 4-Day Text Messaging Guidance as an Aid for Improving Colonoscopy Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Klare, Peter; Neu, Bruno; Schmid, Roland M; von Delius, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background In gastroenterology a sufficient colon cleansing improves adenoma detection rate and prevents the need for preterm repeat colonoscopies due to invalid preparation. It has been shown that patient education is of major importance for improvement of colon cleansing. Objective Objective of this study was to assess the function of an automated text messaging (short message service, SMS)–supported colonoscopy preparation starting 4 days before colonoscopy appointment. Methods After preevaluation to assess mobile phone usage in the patient population for relevance of this approach, a Web-based, automated SMS text messaging system was developed, following which a single-center feasibility study at a tertiary care center was performed. Patients scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy were invited to participate. Patients enrolled in the study group received automated information about dietary recommendations and bowel cleansing during colonoscopy preparation. Data of outpatient colonoscopies with regular preparation procedure were used for pair matching and served as control. Primary end point was feasibility of SMS text messaging support in colonoscopy preparation assessed as stable and satisfactory function of the system. Secondary end points were quality of bowel preparation according to the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) and patient satisfaction with SMS text messaging–provided information assessed by a questionnaire. Results Web-based SMS text messaging–supported colonoscopy preparation was successful and feasible in 19 of 20 patients. Mean (standard error of the mean, SEM) total BBPS score was slightly higher in the SMS group than in the control group (7.3, SEM 0.3 vs 6.4, SEM 0.2) and for each colonic region (left, transverse, and right colon). Patient satisfaction regarding SMS text messaging–based information was high. Conclusions Using SMS for colonoscopy preparation with 4 days’ guidance including dietary recommendation is a new approach

  6. Using the Significant Learning Taxonomy and Active Learning to Improve Accounting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Larita J.; Brandon, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    Like other members of the academy, accounting professors are challenged to improve student learning. We must help students move beyond the "bean counter" role and develop higher-level skills such as analysis, synthesis, and problem-solving. The Significant Learning Taxonomy was used as a template to improve learning in an introductory accounting…

  7. Ascent Guidance Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Shrader, M. Wade; Cruzen, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper contains results from ascent guidance studies conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The studies include investigation of different guidance schemes for a variety of potential launch vehicles. Criteria of a successful ascent guidance scheme are low operations cost, satisfaction of load indicator constraints, and maximization of performance. Results show that open-loop designs as a function of altitude or velocity are preferable to designs that are functions of time. Optimized open-loop trajectories can increase performance while maintaining load indicators within limits. Closed-loop atmospheric schemes that involve linear tangent steering or feedback of velocity terms for trajectory modification did not yield any improvement. Early release of vacuum closed-loop guidance, including use during solid rocket booster operation, yields some improvements. Evaluation of a closed-loop optimization scheme for flying through the atmosphere shows no advantages over open-loop optimization. Dispersion study results for several potential guidance schemes and launch vehicles are included in the paper and are not a discriminator between guidance schemes. The primary cost driver is mission operations philosophy, not choice of guidance scheme. More autonomous guidance schemes can help in movement towards a philosophy that would reduce operations costs.

  8. Resolution-adapted recombination of structural features significantly improves sampling in restraint-guided structure calculation

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Oliver F; Baker, David

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has shown that NMR structures can be determined by integrating sparse NMR data with structure prediction methods such as Rosetta. The experimental data serve to guide the search for the lowest energy state towards the deep minimum at the native state which is frequently missed in Rosetta de novo structure calculations. However, as the protein size increases, sampling again becomes limiting; for example, the standard Rosetta protocol involving Monte Carlo fragment insertion starting from an extended chain fails to converge for proteins over 150 amino acids even with guidance from chemical shifts (CS-Rosetta) and other NMR data. The primary limitation of this protocol—that every folding trajectory is completely independent of every other—was recently overcome with the development of a new approach involving resolution-adapted structural recombination (RASREC). Here we describe the RASREC approach in detail and compare it to standard CS-Rosetta. We show that the improved sampling of RASREC is essential in obtaining accurate structures over a benchmark set of 11 proteins in the 15-25 kDa size range using chemical shifts, backbone RDCs and HN-HN NOE data; in a number of cases the improved sampling methodology makes a larger contribution than incorporation of additional experimental data. Experimental data are invaluable for guiding sampling to the vicinity of the global energy minimum, but for larger proteins, the standard Rosetta fold-from-extended-chain protocol does not converge on the native minimum even with experimental data and the more powerful RASREC approach is necessary to converge to accurate solutions. PMID:22423358

  9. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  10. Improving Vocational Guidance and Counseling at Virginia Commonwealth University by Developing Career/Vocational Assessment Programs. Vocational Guidance and Counseling Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerian, Jean M.

    The quality and quantity of assessment programs used at the Career Planning and Placement Department of Virginia Commonwealth University were improved, especially as such programs relate to two special needs groups. The two groups were freshmen in the humanities and sciences who lack clear vocational identity and adults who need to understand…

  11. Guidance Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan

    2005-01-01

    In this column, the author shares and comments on early childhood educators' use of guidance to foster young children's development and learning. He defines guidance as the commitment a teacher makes to teaching children how to solve their problems, rather than punishing them for having problems they haven't yet learned how to solve. The focus of…

  12. Automatic coronary lumen segmentation with partial volume modeling improves lesions' hemodynamic significance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiman, M.; Lamash, Y.; Gilboa, G.; Nickisch, H.; Prevrhal, S.; Schmitt, H.; Vembar, M.; Goshen, L.

    2016-03-01

    The determination of hemodynamic significance of coronary artery lesions from cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) based on blood flow simulations has the potential to improve CCTA's specificity, thus resulting in improved clinical decision making. Accurate coronary lumen segmentation required for flow simulation is challenging due to several factors. Specifically, the partial-volume effect (PVE) in small-diameter lumina may result in overestimation of the lumen diameter that can lead to an erroneous hemodynamic significance assessment. In this work, we present a coronary artery segmentation algorithm tailored specifically for flow simulations by accounting for the PVE. Our algorithm detects lumen regions that may be subject to the PVE by analyzing the intensity values along the coronary centerline and integrates this information into a machine-learning based graph min-cut segmentation framework to obtain accurate coronary lumen segmentations. We demonstrate the improvement in hemodynamic significance assessment achieved by accounting for the PVE in the automatic segmentation of 91 coronary artery lesions from 85 patients. We compare hemodynamic significance assessments by means of fractional flow reserve (FFR) resulting from simulations on 3D models generated by our segmentation algorithm with and without accounting for the PVE. By accounting for the PVE we improved the area under the ROC curve for detecting hemodynamically significant CAD by 29% (N=91, 0.85 vs. 0.66, p<0.05, Delong's test) with invasive FFR threshold of 0.8 as the reference standard. Our algorithm has the potential to facilitate non-invasive hemodynamic significance assessment of coronary lesions.

  13. How to Improve Collaborative Learning with Video Tools in the Classroom? Social vs. Cognitive Guidance for Student Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Carmen; Krauskopf, Karsten; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Pea, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Digital video technologies offer a variety of functions for supporting collaborative learning in classrooms. Yet, for novice learners, such as school students, positive learning outcomes also depend centrally on effective social interactions. We present empirical evidence for the positive effects of instructive guidance on performance and on…

  14. A Framework for Improvement of Educational and Vocational Guidance Services for Girls and Women in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    There is a shortfall in the provision of guidance programs to meet the specific educational and vocational needs of girls and women in Asia and the Pacific. Unemployment rates of women are higher than those of men, the lack of articulation between vocational education and the realities of the labor market lead to unemployment, and the narrow range…

  15. Rehearsal significantly improves immediate and delayed recall on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test.

    PubMed

    Hessen, Erik

    2011-10-01

    A repeated observation during memory assessment with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is that patients who spontaneously employ a memory rehearsal strategy by repeating the word list more than once achieve better scores than patients who only repeat the word list once. This observation led to concern about the ability of the standard test procedure of RAVLT and similar tests in eliciting the best possible recall scores. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a rehearsal recall strategy of repeating the word list more than once would result in improved scores of recall on the RAVLT. We report on differences in outcome after standard administration and after experimental administration on Immediate and Delayed Recall measures from the RAVLT of 50 patients. The experimental administration resulted in significantly improved scores for all the variables employed. Additionally, it was found that patients who failed effort screening showed significantly poorer improvement on Delayed Recall compared with those who passed the effort screening. The general clear improvement both in raw scores and T-scores demonstrates that recall performance can be significantly influenced by the strategy of the patient or by small variations in instructions by the examiner. PMID:22074064

  16. Group mindfulness-based therapy significantly improves sexual desire in women.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Basson, Rosemary

    2014-06-01

    At least a third of women across reproductive ages experience low sexual desire and impaired arousal. There is increasing evidence that mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental present moment awareness, may improve women's sexual functioning. The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy, either immediately or after a 3-month waiting period, in women seeking treatment for low sexual desire and arousal. Women participated in four 90-min group sessions that included mindfulness meditation, cognitive therapy, and education. A total of 117 women were assigned to either the immediate treatment (n = 68, mean age 40.8 yrs) or delayed treatment (n = 49, mean age 42.2 yrs) group, in which women had two pre-treatment baseline assessments followed by treatment. A total of 95 women completed assessments through to the 6-month follow-up period. Compared to the delayed treatment control group, treatment significantly improved sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, sexual satisfaction, and overall sexual functioning. Sex-related distress significantly decreased in both conditions, regardless of treatment, as did orgasmic difficulties and depressive symptoms. Increases in mindfulness and a reduction in depressive symptoms predicted improvements in sexual desire. Mindfulness-based group therapy significantly improved sexual desire and other indices of sexual response, and should be considered in the treatment of women's sexual dysfunction. PMID:24814472

  17. Communication: Proper treatment of classically forbidden electronic transitions significantly improves detailed balance in surface hopping.

    PubMed

    Sifain, Andrew E; Wang, Linjun; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2016-06-01

    Surface hopping is the most popular method for nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. Many have reported that it does not rigorously attain detailed balance at thermal equilibrium, but does so approximately. We show that convergence to the Boltzmann populations is significantly improved when the nuclear velocity is reversed after a classically forbidden hop. The proposed prescription significantly reduces the total number of classically forbidden hops encountered along a trajectory, suggesting that some randomization in nuclear velocity is needed when classically forbidden hops constitute a large fraction of attempted hops. Our results are verified computationally using two- and three-level quantum subsystems, coupled to a classical bath undergoing Langevin dynamics. PMID:27276938

  18. Significantly Improved Mechanical Properties of Bi- Sn Solder Alloys by Ag- Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, M.; Chen, H. S.; Kammlott, G. W.; Jin, S.

    1997-08-01

    The addition of small amounts of Ag (less than ~;0.5 wt. %) is found to significantly improve the ductility of the binary Bi-Sn eutectic solder. The ductility improvement, more than a threefold increase in tensile elongation, is observed even at a relatively high strain rate (0.01 s-1). As the Bi-Sn binary eutectic alloy tends to fail catastrophically by brittle fracture at high strain rates, the reduced strain-rate sensitivity in the Ag-containing alloy is beneficial for improving solder reliability on sudden impacting as might be encountered during device assembly, shipping, or thermal shock/cycling. The observed increase in alloy ductility by Ag additions is attributed to a substantial refinement of the solidification microstructure.

  19. Comparison of improved operating parameters of five different wavelength LEDs for significantly brighter illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Eduard K.; Lee, Susanne M.; Van de Workeen, Brian C.; Mueller, Otward M.

    2001-05-01

    Although light-emitting diodes exhibit much higher efficiencies and greatly reduced power consumption compared to incandescent light sources, the use of LEDs in lighting applications is limited by their smaller size and subsequently lower light output. However, it has been found that these parameters can be increased significantly by cooling the diodes to cryogenic temperatures. This may make their use feasible for several applications requiring more efficient and brighter illumination for much less cost. In this paper, we compare the temperature-dependent behavior of five commercially available LEDs of different wavelengths down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. It was found that three AlInGaP diodes (red, yellow, and green) demonstrated significant operating improvements. The performance of InGaN-based blue LEDs declined at low temperatures, and because most white LEDs are simply blue LEDs coated with YAG, these exhibited similar behavior. However, the three AlInGaP LEDs demonstrated at least an order of magnitude improvement in illuminance, absolute intensity, and maximum operating current. The green LEDs showed the largest improvement factors, while the yellow LEDs produced the brightest illumination at low temperatures. The emissions of all five LEDs shifted to shorter wavelengths at low temperatures. This is significant in terms of lighting applications since the low-temperature AlInGaP diodes emitted more visible spectra.

  20. PXD101 significantly improves nuclear reprogramming and the in vitro developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • First explored that the effects of PXD101 on the development of SCNT embryos in vitro. • 0.5 μM PXD101 treated for 24 h improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos. • Level of AcH3K9 was significantly higher than control group at early stages. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor PXD101 (belinostat) on the preimplantation development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos and their expression of the epigenetic markers histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 (AcH3K9). We compared the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with various concentrations of PXD101 for 24 h. Treatment with 0.5 μM PXD101 significantly increased the proportion of SCNT embryos that reached the blastocyst stage, in comparison to the control group (23.3% vs. 11.5%, P < 0.05). We tested the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with 0.5 μM PXD101 for various amounts of times following activation. Treatment for 24 h significantly improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos, with a significantly higher proportion of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage in comparison to the control group (25.7% vs. 10.6%, P < 0.05). PXD101-treated SCNT embryos were transferred into two surrogate sows, one of whom became pregnant and four fetuses developed. PXD101 treatment significantly increased the fluorescence intensity of immunostaining for AcH3K9 in embryos at the pseudo-pronuclear and 2-cell stages. At these stages, the fluorescence intensities of immunostaining for AcH3K9 were significantly higher in PXD101-treated embryos than in control untreated embryos. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that PXD101 can significantly improve the in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos and can enhance their nuclear reprogramming.

  1. Active Hemovigilance Significantly Improves Reporting of Acute Non-infectious Adverse Reactions to Blood Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Naveen; Agnihotri, Ajju

    2016-09-01

    One of the key purposes of a hemovigilance program is to improve reporting of transfusion related adverse events and subsequent data-driven improvement in blood transfusion (BT) practices. We conducted a study over 3 years to assess the impact of healthcare worker training and an active feedback programme on reporting of adverse reactions to BTs. All hospitalized patients who required a BT were included in the study. Healthcare workers involved in BT to patients were sensitized and trained in adverse reaction reporting by conducting training sessions and meetings. All the transfused patients were 'actively' monitored for any acute adverse reaction by using a uniquely coded blood issue form. A total of 18,914 blood components transfused to 5785 different patients resulted in 61 adverse reaction episodes. This incidence of 0.32 % in our study was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.005) than that reported from the same region in the past. Red blood cell units were the most frequently transfused component and thus most commonly involved in an adverse reaction (42.6 %), however apheresis platelets had the highest chance of reaction per unit transfused (0.66 %). There was no mortality associated with the BT during the study period. An active surveillance program significantly improves reporting and management of adverse reactions to BTs. PMID:27429527

  2. Storage of human pancreatic digest in University of Wisconsin solution significantly improves subsequent islet purification.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G S; Chadwick, D; Contractor, H; Rose, S; Chamberlain, R; Clayton, H; Bell, P R; James, R F; London, N J

    1992-09-01

    Density-gradient purification of human pancreatic islets from the collagenase-digested pancreas relies on the exocrine tissue being denser than the islets. Cold storage of the pancreas before and after digestion causes cell swelling, which can decrease the density of pancreatic exocrine tissue and adversely affect subsequent purification. Using 14 human pancreata (seven perfused in situ with hyperosmolar citrate (HOC) and seven with University of Wisconsin solution (UW)), it is shown that storage of the pancreatic digest in UW significantly increases the density of pancreatic exocrine tissue compared with storage in minimal essential medium (MEM) (P = 0.009). This results in an improvement in islet purity (P = 0.036) for HOC- but not UW-perfused pancreata. Storage in UW for 1 h not only prevented the deterioration that occurred in MEM, but resulted in an improvement in islet purity for five of the seven HOC-perfused pancreata. Most pancreata in the UK are perfused with HOC, but storage of the digest in UW results in significantly better islet purity and, when islets cannot be purified immediately, a period of storage will often improve separation and allow islets to be purified. PMID:1422750

  3. Surgically-Induced Weight Loss Significantly Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mattar, Samer G.; Velcu, Laura M.; Rabinovitz, Mordechai; Demetris, A J.; Krasinskas, A M.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Eid, George M.; Ramanathan, Ramesh; Taylor, Debra S.; Schauer, Philip R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of surgical weight loss on fatty liver disease in severely obese patients. Summary Background Data: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a spectrum that extends to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, is rising at an alarming rate. This increase is occurring in conjunction with the rise of severe obesity and is probably mediated in part by metabolic syndrome (MS). Surgical weight loss operations, probably by reversing MS, have been shown to result in improvement in liver histology. Methods: Patients who underwent laparoscopic surgical weight loss operations from March 1999 through August 2004, and who agreed to have an intraoperative liver biopsy followed by at least one postoperative liver biopsy, were included. Results: There were 70 patients who were eligible. All patients underwent laparoscopic operations, the majority being laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The mean excess body weight loss at time of second biopsy was 59% ± 22% and the time interval between biopsies was 15 ± 9 months. There was a reduction in prevalence of metabolic syndrome, from 70% to 14% (P < 0.001), and a marked improvement in liver steatosis (from 88% to 8%), inflammation (from 23% to 2%), and fibrosis (from 31% to 13%; all P < 0.001). Inflammation and fibrosis resolved in 37% and 20% of patients, respectively, corresponding to improvement of 82% (P < 0.001) in grade and 39% (P < 0.001) in stage of liver disease. Conclusion: Surgical weight loss results in significant improvement of liver morphology in severely obese patients. These beneficial changes may be associated with a significant reduction in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:16192822

  4. Intestinal-borne dermatoses significantly improved by oral application of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917

    PubMed Central

    Manzhalii, Elina; Hornuss, Daniel; Stremmel, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of oral Escherichia coli (E. coli) Nissle application on the outcome of intestinal-borne dermatoses. METHODS: In a randomized, controlled, non-blinded prospective clinical trial 82 patients with intestinal-borne facial dermatoses characterized by an erythematous papular-pustular rash were screened. At the initiation visit 37 patients entered the experimental arm and 20 patients constituted the control arm. All 57 patients were treated with a vegetarian diet and conventional topical therapy of the dermatoses with ointments containing tetracycline, steroids and retinoids. In the experimental arm patients received a one month therapy with oral E. coli Nissle at a maintenance dose of 2 capsules daily. The experimental group was compared to a non-treatment group only receiving the diet and topical therapy. The primary outcome parameter was improvement of the dermatoses, secondary parameters included life quality and adverse events. In addition the immunological reaction profile (IgA, interleucin-8 and interferon-α) was determined. Furthermore the changes of stool consistency and the microbiota composition over the time of intervention were recorded. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of the patients with acne, papular-pustular rosacea and seborrhoic dermatitis responded to E. coli Nissle therapy with significant amelioration or complete recovery in contrast to 56% in the control arm (P < 0.01). Accordingly, in the E. coli Nissle treated patients life quality improved significantly (P < 0.01), and adverse events were not recorded. The clinical improvement was associated with a significant increase of IgA levels to normal values in serum as well as suppression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 (P < 0.01 for both parameters). In the E. coli Nissle treated group a shift towards a protective microbiota with predominance of bifidobacteria and lactobacteria (> 107 CFU/g stool) was observed in 79% and 63% of the patients, respectively (P < 0

  5. [Orally administered polaprezinc significantly improves taste disorders in ovarian cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Shota; Yanase, Toru; Hata, Yuki; Tamura, Ryo; Tsuneki, Ikunosuke; Tamura, Masaki; Kurabayashi, Takumi

    2011-04-01

    The subject was a 75-year-old female who was receiving paclitaxel and carboplatin(TC)chemotherapy every other week after surgery for ovarian cancer. She greatly complained of taste disorders after four cycles(of every other week administration) of TC chemotherapy. To understand how the taste disorder was caused by chemotherapy objectively, taste examinations were conducted for the patient in our department. These examinations were conducted after receiving the informed consent from the patient. The authors conducted taste examinations for the patient using serum zinc measurement, tongue cell culture, electrogustometry, and filter paper disc tests(before and after starting chemotherapy), and found that her serum zinc level fell significantly after four cycles of chemotherapy. Orally disintegrating tablets of polaprezinc were then administered to the patient, after which the subjective symptom of taste disorder improved. Her serum zinc level increased, and the electrogustometric threshold rapidly fell(an improvement). The filter paper disc test showed some improvement, particularly in the glossopharyngeal nerve and the greater petrosal nerve field. PMID:21499007

  6. Significant Improvements in the Practice Patterns of Adult Related Donor Care in US Transplantation Centers.

    PubMed

    Anthias, Chloe; Shaw, Bronwen E; Kiefer, Deidre M; Liesveld, Jane L; Yared, Jean; Kamble, Rammurti T; D'Souza, Anita; Hematti, Peiman; Seftel, Matthew D; Norkin, Maxim; DeFilipp, Zachariah; Kasow, Kimberly A; Abidi, Muneer H; Savani, Bipin N; Shah, Nirali N; Anderlini, Paolo; Diaz, Miguel A; Malone, Adriana K; Halter, Joerg P; Lazarus, Hillard M; Logan, Brent R; Switzer, Galen E; Pulsipher, Michael A; Confer, Dennis L; O'Donnell, Paul V

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations have found a higher incidence of adverse events associated with hematopoietic cell donation in related donors (RDs) who have morbidities that if present in an unrelated donor (UD) would preclude donation. In the UD setting, regulatory standards ensure independent assessment of donors, one of several crucial measures to safeguard donor health and safety. A survey conducted by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) Donor Health and Safety Working Committee in 2007 reported a potential conflict of interest in >70% of US centers, where physicians had simultaneous responsibility for RDs and their recipients. Consequently, several international organizations have endeavored to improve practice through regulations and consensus recommendations. We hypothesized that the changes in the 2012 Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy and the Joint Accreditation Committee-International Society for Cellular Therapy and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation standards resulting from the CIBMTR study would have significantly impacted practice. Accordingly, we conducted a follow-up survey of US transplantation centers to assess practice changes since 2007, and to investigate additional areas where RD care was predicted to differ from UD care. A total of 73 centers (53%), performing 79% of RD transplantations in the United States, responded. Significant improvements were observed since the earlier survey; 62% centers now ensure separation of RD and recipient care (P < .0001). This study identifies several areas where RD management does not meet international donor care standards, however. Particular concerns include counseling and assessment of donors before HLA typing, with 61% centers first disclosing donor HLA results to an individual other than the donor, the use of unlicensed mobilization agents, and the absence of long-term donor follow-up. Recommendations for improvement are made. PMID

  7. Carfilzomib significantly improves the progression-free survival of high-risk patients in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Rafael; Siegel, David; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Špička, Ivan; Masszi, Tamás; Hájek, Roman; Rosiñol, Laura; Goranova-Marinova, Vesselina; Mihaylov, Georgi; Maisnar, Vladimír; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Wang, Michael; Niesvizky, Ruben; Oriol, Albert; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; Minarik, Jiri; Palumbo, Antonio; Bensinger, William; Kukreti, Vishal; Ben-Yehuda, Dina; Stewart, A. Keith; Obreja, Mihaela; Moreau, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The presence of certain high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, such as translocations (4;14) and (14;16) and deletion (17p), are known to have a negative impact on survival in multiple myeloma (MM). The phase 3 study ASPIRE (N = 792) demonstrated that progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly improved with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd), compared with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed MM. This preplanned subgroup analysis of ASPIRE was conducted to evaluate KRd vs Rd by baseline cytogenetics according to fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 417 patients with known cytogenetic risk status, 100 patients (24%) were categorized with high-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 48; Rd, n = 52) and 317 (76%) were categorized with standard-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 147; Rd, n = 170). For patients with high-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd resulted in a median PFS of 23.1 months, a 9-month improvement relative to treatment with Rd. For patients with standard-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd led to a 10-month improvement in median PFS vs Rd. The overall response rates for KRd vs Rd were 79.2% vs 59.6% (high-risk cytogenetics) and 91.2% vs 73.5% (standard-risk cytogenetics); approximately fivefold as many patients with high- or standard-risk cytogenetics achieved a complete response or better with KRd vs Rd (29.2% vs 5.8% and 38.1% vs 6.5%, respectively). KRd improved but did not abrogate the poor prognosis associated with high-risk cytogenetics. This regimen had a favorable benefit-risk profile in patients with relapsed MM, irrespective of cytogenetic risk status, and should be considered a standard of care in these patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01080391. PMID:27439911

  8. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Yovino, Susannah; Poppe, Matthew; Jabbour, Salma; David, Vera; Garofalo, Michael; Pandya, Naimesh; Alexander, Richard; Hanna, Nader; Regine, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  9. Internet Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Frank X.

    1999-01-01

    States that children need proper guidance and boundaries to reap the benefits of the Internet. Focuses on two issues: how parents can protect their children from the Internet's potential dangers and how they can help their children use the Internet to get work done. Includes suggestions for teachers to help parents meet these challenges. (VWC)

  10. GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Defn: Guidance Document - A peer-reviewed document stating overarching principles and practices to be followed (also includes handbook documents).

    Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies (ITAGCT) has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future reusable vehicle concepts.

  11. Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (or any space vehicle that enters an atmosphere) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future vehicle concepts.

  12. Significantly improving electromagnetic performance of nanopaper and its shape-memory nanocomposite by aligned carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haibao; Gou, Jan

    2012-04-01

    A new nanopaper that exhibits exciting electrical and electromagnetic performances is fabricated by incorporating magnetically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) with carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Electromagnetic CNTs were blended with and aligned into the nanopaper using a magnetic field, to significantly improve the electrical and electromagnetic performances of nanopaper and its enabled shape-memory polymer (SMP) composite. The morphology and structure of the aligned CNT arrays in nanopaper were characterized with scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). A continuous and compact network of CNFs and aligned CNTs indicated that the nanopaper could have highly conductive properties. Furthermore, the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding efficiency of the SMP composites with different weight content of aligned CNT arrays was characterized. Finally, the aligned CNT arrays in nanopapers were employed to achieve the electrical actuation and accelerate the recovery speed of SMP composites.

  13. Primary Guidance Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauck, Ruth, Comp.

    Designed for the primary grades, the guidance activities in this document cover thirty-three topical areas: capabilities, changes, cooperation, criticism, differences, family, feelings, free time, friends, following directions, handicaps, honesty, improving environment, kindness, patience, paying attention, problem solving, rejection,…

  14. Novel analogues of the therapeutic complement inhibitor compstatin with significantly improved affinity and potency1

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hongchang; Magotti, Paola; Ricklin, Daniel; Wu, Emilia L.; Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Wu, You-Qiang; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.; Lambris, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Compstatin is a 13-residue disulfide-bridged peptide that inhibits a key step in the activation of the human complement system. Compstatin and its derivatives have shown great promise for the treatment of many clinical disorders associated with unbalanced complement activity. To obtain more potent compstatin analogues, we have now performed an N-methylation scan of the peptide backbone and amino acid substitutions at position 13. One analogue (Ac-I[CVW(Me)QDW-Sar-AHRC](NMe)I-NH2) displayed a 1,000-fold increase in both potency (IC50=62 nM) and binding affinity for C3b (KD=2.3 nM) over that of the original compstatin. Biophysical analysis using surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry suggests that the improved binding originates from more favorable free conformation and stronger hydrophobic interactions. This study provides a series of significantly improved drug leads for therapeutic applications in complement-related diseases, and offers new insights into the structure-activity relationships of compstatin analogues. PMID:21067811

  15. Significantly improved cyclability of lithium manganese oxide under elevated temperature by an easily oxidized electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yunmin; Rong, Haibo; Mai, Shaowei; Luo, Xueyi; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Weishan

    2015-12-01

    Spinel lithium manganese oxide, LiMn2O4, is a promising cathode for lithium ion battery in large-scale applications, because it possesses many advantages compared with currently used layered lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) and olivine phosphate (LiFePO4), including naturally abundant resource, environmental friendliness and high and long work potential plateau. Its poor cyclability under high temperature, however, limits its application. In this work, we report a significant cyclability improvement of LiMn2O4 under elevated temperature by using dimethyl phenylphonite (DMPP) as an electrolyte additive. Charge/discharge tests demonstrate that the application of 0.5 wt.% DMPP yields a capacity retention improvement from 16% to 82% for LiMn2O4 after 200 cycles under 55 °C at 1 C (1C = 148 mAh g-1) between 3 and 4.5 V. Electrochemical and physical characterizations indicate that DMPP is electrochemically oxidized at the potential lower than that for lithium extraction, forming a protective cathode interphase on LiMn2O4, which suppresses the electrolyte decomposition and prevents LiMn2O4 from crystal destruction.

  16. Aerodynamic Improvements of an Empty Timber Truck can Have the Potential of Significantly Reducing Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Magnus; Marashi, Seyedeh Sepideh; Karlsson, Matts

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, aerodynamic drag (AD) has been estimated for an empty and a fully loaded conceptual timber truck (TT) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The increasing fuel prices have challenged heavy duty vehicle (HDV) manufactures to strive for better fuel economy, by e.g. utilizing drag reducing external devices. Despite this knowledge, the TT fleets seem to be left in the dark. Like HDV aerodynamics, similarities can be observed as a large low pressure wake is formed behind the tractor (unloaded) and downstream of the trailer (full load) thus generating AD. As TTs travel half the time without any cargo, focus on drag reduction is important. The full scaled TTs where simulated using the realizable k-epsilon model with grid adaption techniques for mesh independence. Our results indicate that a loaded TT reduces the AD significantly as both wake size and turbulence kinetic energy are lowered. In contrast to HDV the unloaded TTs have a much larger design space available for possible drag reducing devices, e.g. plastic wrapping and/or flaps. This conceptual CFD study has given an indication of the large AD difference between the unloaded and fully loaded TT, showing the potential for significant AD improvements.

  17. Significant improvement in one-dimensional cursor control using Laplacian electroencephalography over electroencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudria, Yacine; Feltane, Amal; Besio, Walter

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on electroencephalography (EEG) have been shown to accurately detect mental activities, but the acquisition of high levels of control require extensive user training. Furthermore, EEG has low signal-to-noise ratio and low spatial resolution. The objective of the present study was to compare the accuracy between two types of BCIs during the first recording session. EEG and tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) EEG (tEEG) brain signals were recorded and used to control one-dimensional cursor movements. Approach. Eight human subjects were asked to imagine either ‘left’ or ‘right’ hand movement during one recording session to control the computer cursor using TCRE and disc electrodes. Main results. The obtained results show a significant improvement in accuracies using TCREs (44%-100%) compared to disc electrodes (30%-86%). Significance. This study developed the first tEEG-based BCI system for real-time one-dimensional cursor movements and showed high accuracies with little training.

  18. SPOT HRVIR: A significant improvement of high resolution visible SPOT camera to i.r. wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouan, J.; Reulet, J. F.; Costes, G.

    Since March 1986, the SPOT-HRV cameras are imaging the Earth in a 10 m resolution panchromatic mode and three 20 m resolution spectral modes all in the visible and near infra-red wavelengths. The interest of medium i.r. imaging for observing vegetation has raised in the past and the implementation of a 1.6 μm band was decided by CNES for SPOT 4. New 3000 elements detector matrix had to be developed. This work is nearly completed now through a contract placed at Thomson by CNES. In parallel, the focal plane of the previous HRV cameras has been completely redesigned and the video electronics has also been significantly improved taking into account both some problems identified on SPOT 1 in orbit and the implementation of the MIR band. A significant change in integration and test is introduced by the operating temperature of the MIR detectors to be accurately controlled at 5°C and a calibration of the whole instrument in vacuum is foreseen. Following a presentation of HRV-SPOT 1 main flight results, technical and programmatical points of the SPOT 4 HRVIR situation is presented in the paper.

  19. Three-Dimensional Path Planning and Guidance of Leg Vascular Based on Improved Ant Colony Algorithm in Augmented Reality.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ming-ke; Chen, Yi-min; Liu, Quan; Huang, Chen; Li, Ze-yu; Zhang, Dian-hua

    2015-11-01

    Preoperative path planning plays a critical role in vascular access surgery. Vascular access surgery has superior difficulties and requires long training periods as well as precise operation. Yet doctors are on different leves, thus bulky size of blood vessels is usually chosen to undergo surgery and other possible optimal path is not considered. Moreover, patients and surgeons will suffer from X-ray radiation during the surgical procedure. The study proposed an improved ant colony algorithm to plan a vascular optimal three-dimensional path with overall consideration of factors such as catheter diameter, vascular length, diameter as well as the curvature and torsion. To protect the doctor and patient from exposing to X-ray long-term, the paper adopted augmented reality technology to register the reconstructed vascular model and physical model meanwhile, locate catheter by the electromagnetic tracking system and used Head Mounted Display to show the planning path in real time and monitor catheter push procedure. The experiment manifests reasonableness of preoperative path planning and proves the reliability of the algorithm. The augmented reality experiment real time and accurately displays the vascular phantom model, planning path and the catheter trajectory and proves the feasibility of this method. The paper presented a useful and feasible surgical scheme which was based on the improved ant colony algorithm to plan vascular three-dimensional path in augmented reality. The study possessed practical guiding significance in preoperative path planning, intraoperative catheter guiding and surgical training, which provided a theoretical method of path planning for vascular access surgery. It was a safe and reliable path planning approach and possessed practical reference value. PMID:26319273

    1. Significantly Improving Regional Seismic Amplitude Tomography at Higher Frequencies by Determining S -Wave Bandwidth

      DOE PAGESBeta

      Fisk, Mark D.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

      2016-05-03

      Characterizing regional seismic signals continues to be a difficult problem due to their variability. Calibration of these signals is very important to many aspects of monitoring underground nuclear explosions, including detecting seismic signals, discriminating explosions from earthquakes, and reliably estimating magnitude and yield. Amplitude tomography, which simultaneously inverts for source, propagation, and site effects, is a leading method of calibrating these signals. A major issue in amplitude tomography is the data quality of the input amplitude measurements. Pre-event and prephase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) tests are typically used but can frequently include bad signals and exclude good signals. The deficiencies ofmore » SNR criteria, which are demonstrated here, lead to large calibration errors. To ameliorate these issues, we introduce a semi-automated approach to assess the bandwidth of a spectrum where it behaves physically. We determine the maximum frequency (denoted as Fmax) where it deviates from this behavior due to inflections at which noise or spurious signals start to bias the spectra away from the expected decay. We compare two amplitude tomography runs using the SNR and new Fmax criteria and show significant improvements to the stability and accuracy of the tomography output for frequency bands higher than 2 Hz by using our assessments of valid S-wave bandwidth. We compare Q estimates, P/S residuals, and some detailed results to explain the improvements. Lastly, for frequency bands higher than 4 Hz, needed for effective P/S discrimination of explosions from earthquakes, the new bandwidth criteria sufficiently fix the instabilities and errors so that the residuals and calibration terms are useful for application.« less

    2. Improved bowel preparation increases polyp detection and unmasks significant polyp miss rate

      PubMed Central

      Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Magdalinos, Nektarios; Beintaris, Iosif; Lazaridis, Lazaros-Dimitrios; Polymeros, Dimitrios; Malli, Chrysoula; Dimitriadis, George D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

      2015-01-01

      AIM: To retrospectively compare previous-day vs split-dose preparation in terms of bowel cleanliness and polyp detection in patients referred for polypectomy. METHODS: Fifty patients underwent two colonoscopies: one diagnostic in a private clinic and a second for polypectomy in a University Hospital. The latter procedures were performed within 12 wk of the index ones. Examinations were accomplished by two experienced endoscopists, different in each facility. Twenty-seven patients underwent screening/surveillance colonoscopy, while the rest were symptomatic. Previous day bowel preparation was utilized initially and split-dose for polypectomy. Colon cleansing was evaluated using the Aronchick scale. We measured the number of detected polyps, and the polyp miss rates per-polyp. RESULTS: Excellent/good preparation was reported in 38 cases with previous-day preparation (76%) vs 46 with split-dose (92%), respectively (P = 0.03). One hundred and twenty-six polyps were detected initially and 169 subsequently (P < 0.0001); 88 vs 126 polyps were diminutive (P < 0.0001), 25 vs 29 small (P = 0.048) and 13 vs 14 equal or larger than 10 mm. The miss rates for total, diminutive, small and large polyps were 25.4%, 30.1%, 13.7% and 6.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that split-dose preparation was significantly associated (OR, P) with increased number of polyps detected overall (0.869, P < 0.001), in the right (0.418, P = 0.008) and in the left colon (0.452, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Split-dose preparation improved colon cleansing, enhanced polyp detection and unmasked significant polyp miss rates. PMID:26488024

    3. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children

      PubMed Central

      Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V.; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Weili, Lin; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S.; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

      2013-01-01

      Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9–24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:23986703

    4. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children.

      PubMed

      Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-Kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

      2013-01-01

      Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9-24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:23986703

    5. Development of significantly improved catalysts for coal liquefaction and upgrading of coal extracts

      SciTech Connect

      Sinha, V.T.; Kutzenco, P.D.; Preston, W.J.; Brinen, J.S.; Graham, S.W.; Butensky, M.; Muchnick, T.L.; Hyman, D.

      1982-01-01

      During 1979-80, a new generation of very active, long-lived catlaysts for hydrotrating was discovered at the Stamford Research Laboratories of the American Cyanamid Company. The catalysts are based on a unique substrate prepared in bead form from a rehydratable alumina. Their spherical shape, crush strength, and abrasion resistance seem ideally suited for the ebullated bed reactors used in the H-COAL process developed by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI). The beads have internal pore structures that are controllable over a wider range than conventional alumina supports, leading to active catalysts that are resistant to poisoning. In September, 1981, the Department of Energy granted a 3-year contract to the American Cyanamid Company for the development of significantly improved catalysts for coal liquefaction anf for upgrading coal extracts, particularly in reactors used in the H-COAL process. Catalysts will first be screened in a batch reactor to identify promising candidated. The latter will be tested in a continuous aging reactor to evaluate their resistance to deactivation under col-liquefaction and extract upgrading conditions. Cold flow ebullation tests of catalysts of different head size are presented, along with some screening and crying of experimental catalysts. Spherical methods for examining catalysts are described.

    6. Activation of Big Grain1 significantly improves grain size by regulating auxin transport in rice

      PubMed Central

      Liu, Linchuan; Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Che, Ronghui; Xu, Fan; Hu, Bin; Liang, Chengzhen; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Jiayang; Chu, Chengcai

      2015-01-01

      Grain size is one of the key factors determining grain yield. However, it remains largely unknown how grain size is regulated by developmental signals. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a dominant mutant big grain1 (Bg1-D) that shows an extra-large grain phenotype from our rice T-DNA insertion population. Overexpression of BG1 leads to significantly increased grain size, and the severe lines exhibit obviously perturbed gravitropism. In addition, the mutant has increased sensitivities to both auxin and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an auxin transport inhibitor, whereas knockdown of BG1 results in decreased sensitivities and smaller grains. Moreover, BG1 is specifically induced by auxin treatment, preferentially expresses in the vascular tissue of culms and young panicles, and encodes a novel membrane-localized protein, strongly suggesting its role in regulating auxin transport. Consistent with this finding, the mutant has increased auxin basipetal transport and altered auxin distribution, whereas the knockdown plants have decreased auxin transport. Manipulation of BG1 in both rice and Arabidopsis can enhance plant biomass, seed weight, and yield. Taking these data together, we identify a novel positive regulator of auxin response and transport in a crop plant and demonstrate its role in regulating grain size, thus illuminating a new strategy to improve plant productivity. PMID:26283354

    7. Significant effect of Ca2+ on improving the heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

      PubMed

      Huang, Song; Chen, Xiao Dong

      2013-07-01

      The heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been extensively investigated due to its highly practical significance. Reconstituted skim milk (RSM) has been found to be one of the most effective protectant wall materials for microencapsulating microorganisms during convective drying, such as spray drying. In addition to proteins and carbohydrate, RSM is rich in calcium. It is not clear which component is critical in the RSM protection mechanism. This study investigated the independent effect of calcium. Ca(2+) was added to lactose solution to examine its influence on the heat resistance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZY, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, Lactobacillus plantarum P8 and Streptococcus thermophilus ND03. The results showed that certain Ca(2+) concentrations enhanced the heat resistance of the LAB strains to different extents, that is produced higher survival and shorter regrowth lag times of the bacterial cells. In some cases, the improvements were dramatic. More scientifically insightful and more intensive instrumental study of the Ca(2+) behavior around and in the cells should be carried out in the near future. In the meantime, this work may lead to the development of more cost-effective wall materials with Ca(2+) added as a prime factor. PMID:23617813

    8. Activation of Big Grain1 significantly improves grain size by regulating auxin transport in rice.

      PubMed

      Liu, Linchuan; Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Che, Ronghui; Xu, Fan; Hu, Bin; Liang, Chengzhen; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Jiayang; Chu, Chengcai

      2015-09-01

      Grain size is one of the key factors determining grain yield. However, it remains largely unknown how grain size is regulated by developmental signals. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a dominant mutant big grain1 (Bg1-D) that shows an extra-large grain phenotype from our rice T-DNA insertion population. Overexpression of BG1 leads to significantly increased grain size, and the severe lines exhibit obviously perturbed gravitropism. In addition, the mutant has increased sensitivities to both auxin and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an auxin transport inhibitor, whereas knockdown of BG1 results in decreased sensitivities and smaller grains. Moreover, BG1 is specifically induced by auxin treatment, preferentially expresses in the vascular tissue of culms and young panicles, and encodes a novel membrane-localized protein, strongly suggesting its role in regulating auxin transport. Consistent with this finding, the mutant has increased auxin basipetal transport and altered auxin distribution, whereas the knockdown plants have decreased auxin transport. Manipulation of BG1 in both rice and Arabidopsis can enhance plant biomass, seed weight, and yield. Taking these data together, we identify a novel positive regulator of auxin response and transport in a crop plant and demonstrate its role in regulating grain size, thus illuminating a new strategy to improve plant productivity. PMID:26283354

    9. An extended bioreaction database that significantly improves reconstruction and analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks.

      PubMed

      Stelzer, Michael; Sun, Jibin; Kamphans, Tom; Fekete, Sándor P; Zeng, An-Ping

      2011-11-01

      The bioreaction database established by Ma and Zeng (Bioinformatics, 2003, 19, 270-277) for in silico reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks has been widely used. Based on more recent information in the reference databases KEGG LIGAND and Brenda, we upgrade the bioreaction database in this work by almost doubling the number of reactions from 3565 to 6851. Over 70% of the reactions have been manually updated/revised in terms of reversibility, reactant pairs, currency metabolites and error correction. For the first time, 41 spontaneous sugar mutarotation reactions are introduced into the biochemical database. The upgrade significantly improves the reconstruction of genome scale metabolic networks. Many gaps or missing biochemical links can be recovered, as exemplified with three model organisms Homo sapiens, Aspergillus niger, and Escherichia coli. The topological parameters of the constructed networks were also largely affected, however, the overall network structure remains scale-free. Furthermore, we consider the problem of computing biologically feasible shortest paths in reconstructed metabolic networks. We show that these paths are hard to compute and present solutions to find such paths in networks of small and medium size. PMID:21952610

    10. Improvement in toxicity in high risk prostate cancer patients treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy compared to 3D conformal radiotherapy without daily image guidance

      PubMed Central

      2014-01-01

      Background Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) facilitates the delivery of a very precise radiation dose. In this study we compare the toxicity and biochemical progression-free survival between patients treated with daily image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) without daily image guidance for high risk prostate cancer (PCa). Methods A total of 503 high risk PCa patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) and endocrine treatment between 2000 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. 115 patients were treated with 3DCRT, and 388 patients were treated with IG-IMRT. 3DCRT patients were treated to 76 Gy and without daily image guidance and with 1–2 cm PTV margins. IG-IMRT patients were treated to 78 Gy based on daily image guidance of fiducial markers, and the PTV margins were 5–7 mm. Furthermore, the dose-volume constraints to both the rectum and bladder were changed with the introduction of IG-IMRT. Results The 2-year actuarial likelihood of developing grade > = 2 GI toxicity following RT was 57.3% in 3DCRT patients and 5.8% in IG-IMRT patients (p < 0.001). For GU toxicity the numbers were 41.8% and 29.7%, respectively (p = 0.011). On multivariate analysis, 3DCRT was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing grade > = 2 GI toxicity compared to IG-IMRT (p < 0.001, HR = 11.59 [CI: 6.67-20.14]). 3DCRT was also associated with an increased risk of developing GU toxicity compared to IG-IMRT. The 3-year actuarial biochemical progression-free survival probability was 86.0% for 3DCRT and 90.3% for IG-IMRT (p = 0.386). On multivariate analysis there was no difference in biochemical progression-free survival between 3DCRT and IG-IMRT. Conclusion The difference in toxicity can be attributed to the combination of the IMRT technique with reduced dose to organs-at-risk, daily image guidance and margin reduction. PMID:24495815

    11. Using gas modifiers to significantly improve sensitivity and selectivity in a cylindrical FAIMS device.

      PubMed

      Purves, Randy W; Ozog, Allison R; Ambrose, Stephen J; Prasad, Satendra; Belford, Michael; Dunyach, Jean-Jacques

      2014-07-01

      Recent reports describing enhanced performance when using gas additives in a DMS device (planar electrodes) have indicated that comparable benefits are not attainable using FAIMS (cylindrical electrodes), owing to the non-homogeneous electric fields within the analyzer region. In this study, a FAIMS system (having cylindrical electrodes) was modified to allow for controlled delivery of gas additives. An experiment was carried out that illustrates the important distinction between gas modifiers present as unregulated contaminants and modifiers added in a controlled manner. The effect of contamination was simulated by adjusting the ESI needle position to promote incomplete desolvation, thereby permitting ESI solvent vapor into the FAIMS analyzer region, causing signal instability and irreproducible CV values. However, by actively controlling the delivery of the gas modifier, reproducible CV spectra were obtained. The effects of adding different gas modifiers were examined using 15 positive ions having mass-to-charge (m/z) values between 90 and 734. Significant improvements in peak capacity and increases in ion transmission were readily attained by adding acetonitrile vapor, even at trace levels (≤0.1%). Increases in signal intensity were greatest for the low m/z ions; for the six lowest molecular weight species, signal intensities increased by ∼10- to over 100-fold compared with using nitrogen without gas additives, resulting in equivalent or better signal intensities compared with ESI without FAIMS. These results confirm that analytical benefits derived from the addition of gas modifiers reported with a uniform electric field (DMS) also are observed using a non-homogenous electric field (FAIMS) in the analyser region. PMID:24796261

    12. Significant contribution of realistic vegetation representation to improved simulation and prediction of climate anomalies over land

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco; De Felice, Matteo; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; van den Hurk, Bart; Miller, Paul

      2015-04-01

      The EC-Earth earth system model has been recently developed to include the dynamics of vegetation through the coupling with the LPJ-Guess model. In its original formulation, the coupling between atmosphere and vegetation variability is simply operated by the vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI), which affects climate by only changing the vegetation physiological resistance to evapotranspiration. This coupling with no implied change of the vegetation fractional coverage has been reported to have a weak effect on the surface climate modeled by EC-Earth (e.g.: also Weiss et al. 2012). The effective sub-grid vegetation fractional coverage can vary seasonally and at interannual time-scales as a function of leaf-canopy growth, phenology and senescence, and therefore affect biophysical parameters such as the surface roughness, albedo and soil field capacity. To adequately represent this effect in EC-Earth, we included an exponential dependence of the vegetation densitiy to the LAI, based on a Lambert-Beer formulation. By comparing historical 20th century simulations and retrospective forecasts performed applying the new effective fractional-coverage parameterization with the respective reference simulations using the original constant vegetation-fraction, we showed an increased effect of vegetation on the EC-Earth surface climate. The analysis shows considerable sensitivity of EC-Earth surface climate at seasonal to interannual time-scales due to the variability of vegetation effective fractional coverage. Particularly large effects are shown over boreal winter middle-to-high latitudes, where the cooling effect of the new parameterization corrects the warm biases of the control simulations over land. For boreal winter, the realistic representation of vegetation variability leads to a significant improvement of the skill in predicting surface climate over land at seasonal time-scales. A potential predictability experiment extended to longer time-scales also indicates the

    13. An optimized procedure for plant recovery from somatic embryos significantly facilitates the genetic improvement of Vitis.

      PubMed

      Li, Zhijian T; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Jasinski, Jonathan R; Creech, Matthew R; Gray, Dennis J

      2014-01-01

      Plant regeneration from grapevine (Vitis spp.) via somatic embryogenesis typically is poor. Recovery of plants from Vitis rotundifolia Michx. (muscadine grape) is particularly problematic due to extremely low efficiency, including extended culture durations required for embryo-plant conversion. Poor plant recovery is an obstacle to the selection of improved genetically modified lines. Somatic embryos (SEs) of V. rotundifolia cultivar Delicious (Del-HS) and Vitis vinifera L cultivar Thompson Seedless (TS) were used to identify culture media and conditions that promoted embryo differentiation and plant conversion; this resulted in a two-step culture system. In comparative culture experiments, C2D medium containing 6% sucrose was the most effective, among four distinct formulae tested, for inducing precocious SE germination and cell differentiation. This medium, further supplemented with 4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (C2D4B), was subsequently determined to enhance post-germinative growth of SE. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (MSN) was then utilized to stimulate root and shoot growth of germinated SE. An average of 35% and 80% 'Del-HS' and 'TS' SE, respectively, developed into plants. All plants developed robust root and shoot systems and exhibited excellent survival following transfer to soil. Over 150 plants of 'Del-HS' were regenerated and established within 2.5 months, which is a dramatic reduction from the 6- to 12-month time period previously required. Similarly, 88 'TS' plant lines were obtained within the same time period. Subsequently, seven out of eight Vitis cultivars exhibited significantly increased plant conversion percentages, demonstrating broad application of the two-step culture system to produce the large numbers of independent plant lines needed for selection of desired traits. PMID:26504540

    14. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions

      PubMed Central

      Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Shepherd, Keith D.; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A.; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E.

      2015-01-01

      80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008–2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management—organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15–75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological

    15. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions.

      PubMed

      Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B M; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G B; Walsh, Markus G; Shepherd, Keith D; Sila, Andrew; MacMillan, Robert A; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge; Tamene, Lulseged; Tondoh, Jérôme E

      2015-01-01

      80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management--organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15-75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological

    16. An optimized procedure for plant recovery from somatic embryos significantly facilitates the genetic improvement of Vitis

      PubMed Central

      Li, Zhijian T; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Jasinski, Jonathan R; Creech, Matthew R; Gray, Dennis J

      2014-01-01

      Plant regeneration from grapevine (Vitis spp.) via somatic embryogenesis typically is poor. Recovery of plants from Vitis rotundifolia Michx. (muscadine grape) is particularly problematic due to extremely low efficiency, including extended culture durations required for embryo–plant conversion. Poor plant recovery is an obstacle to the selection of improved genetically modified lines. Somatic embryos (SEs) of V. rotundifolia cultivar Delicious (Del-HS) and Vitis vinifera L cultivar Thompson Seedless (TS) were used to identify culture media and conditions that promoted embryo differentiation and plant conversion; this resulted in a two-step culture system. In comparative culture experiments, C2D medium containing 6% sucrose was the most effective, among four distinct formulae tested, for inducing precocious SE germination and cell differentiation. This medium, further supplemented with 4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (C2D4B), was subsequently determined to enhance post-germinative growth of SE. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (MSN) was then utilized to stimulate root and shoot growth of germinated SE. An average of 35% and 80% ‘Del-HS’ and ‘TS’ SE, respectively, developed into plants. All plants developed robust root and shoot systems and exhibited excellent survival following transfer to soil. Over 150 plants of ‘Del-HS’ were regenerated and established within 2.5 months, which is a dramatic reduction from the 6- to 12-month time period previously required. Similarly, 88 ‘TS’ plant lines were obtained within the same time period. Subsequently, seven out of eight Vitis cultivars exhibited significantly increased plant conversion percentages, demonstrating broad application of the two-step culture system to produce the large numbers of independent plant lines needed for selection of desired traits. PMID:26504540

    17. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

      SciTech Connect

      Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

      2003-02-26

      Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

    18. School Improvement Grants. Guidance and Tools for the 2015 Amended Regulations: Maximizing the Optional Planning/Pre-Implementation Year

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Redding, Sam; Dunn, Lenay; McCauley, Carlas

      2015-01-01

      School Improvement Grants (SIGs) are authorized under section 1003(g) of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The grants are made to state education agencies (SEAs), and the SEAs award competitive subgrants to local education agencies (LEAs) that demonstrate: (1) the greatest need for the funds; and (2) the strongest…

    19. School Improvement Grants: Guidance and Tools for the 2015 Amended Regulations--Maximizing the Optional Planning/Pre-Implementation Year

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Redding, Sam; Dunn, Lenay; McCauley, Carlas

      2015-01-01

      The purpose of this guide is to provide states, districts, and schools with information and support to prepare applications for 2015-2016 School Improvement Grants (SIGs). The guide includes tools, checklists, and questions for SEAs and LEAs aligned with the revised SIG requirements, primarily focused on how to leverage the "planning…

    20. Guidance on School Improvement Grants under Section 1003(g) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. Revised

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, US Department of Education, 2010

      2010-01-01

      The School Improvement Grants (SIG) program is authorized by section 1003(g) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA). Under section 1003(g)(1) of the ESEA, the Secretary must "award grants to States to enable the States to provide subgrants to local educational agencies for the purpose of providing assistance for school…

    1. A Review of New and Developing Technology to Significantly Improve Mars Sample-Return Missions

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Carsey, F.; Brophy, J.; Gilmore, M.; Rodgers, D.; Wilcox, B.

      2000-01-01

      A JPL development activity was initiated in FY 1999 for the purpose of examining and evaluating technologies that could materially improve future (i.e., beyond the 2005 launch) Mars sample return missions. The scope of the technology review was comprehensive and end-to-end; the goal was to improve mass, cost, risk, and scientific return. A specific objective was to assess approaches to sample return with only one Earth launch. While the objective of the study was specifically for sample-return, in-situ missions can also benefit from using many of the technologies examined.

    2. Improving the identification of people with dementia in primary care: evaluation of the impact of primary care dementia coding guidance on identified prevalence

      PubMed Central

      Russell, Paul; Banerjee, Sube; Watt, Jen; Adleman, Rosalyn; Agoe, Belinda; Burnie, Nerida; Carefull, Alex; Chandan, Kiran; Constable, Dominie; Daniels, Mark; Davies, David; Deshmukh, Sid; Huddart, Martin; Jabin, Ashrafi; Jarrett, Penelope; King, Jenifer; Koch, Tamar; Kumar, Sanjoy; Lees, Stavroula; Mir, Sinan; Naidoo, Dominic; Nyame, Sylvia; Sasae, Ryuichiro; Sharma, Tushar; Thormod, Clare; Vedavanam, Krish; Wilton, Anja; Flaherty, Breda

      2013-01-01

      Objective Improving dementia care is a policy priority nationally and internationally; there is a ‘diagnosis gap’ with less than half of the cases of dementia ever diagnosed. The English Health Department's Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) encourages primary care recognition and recording of dementia. The codes for dementia are complex with the possibility of underidentification through miscoding. We developed guidance on coding of dementia; we report the impact of applying this to ‘clean up’ dementia coding and records at a practice level. Design The guidance had five elements: (1) identify Read Codes for dementia; (2) access QOF dementia register; (3) generate lists of patients who may have dementia; (4) compare search with QOF data and (5) review cases. In each practice, one general practitioner conducted the exercise. The number of dementia QOF registers before and after the exercise was recorded with the hours taken to complete the exercise. Setting London primary care. Participants 23 (85%) of 27 practices participated, covering 79 312 (19 562 over 65 s) participants. Outcomes The number on dementia QOF registers; time taken. Results The number of people with dementia on QOF registers increased from 1007 to 1139 (χ2=8.17, p=0.004), raising identification rates by 8.8%. It took 4.7 h per practice, on an average. Conclusions These data demonstrate the potential of a simple primary care coding exercise, requiring no specific training, to increase the dementia identification rate. An improvement of 8.8% between 2011 and 2012 is equivalent to that of the fourth most improved primary care trust in the UK. In absolute terms, if this effects were mirrored across the UK primary care, the number of cases with dementia identified would rise by over 70 000 from 364 329 to 434 488 raising the recognition rate from 46% to 54.8%. Implementing this exercise appears to be a simple and effective way to improve recognition rates in primary care. PMID

    3. Advanced Guidance and Control Project for Reusable Launch Vehicles

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hanson, John M.

      2000-01-01

      The goals of this project are to significantly reduce the time and cost associated with guidance and control design for reusable launch vehicles, and to increase their safety and reliability. Success will lead to reduced cycle times during vehicle design and to reduced costs associated with flying to new orbits, with new payloads, and with modified vehicles. Success will also lead to more robustness to unforeseen circumstances in flight thereby enhancing safety and reducing risk. There are many guidance and control methods available that hold some promise for improvement in the desired areas. Investigators are developing a representative set of independent guidance and control methods for this project. These methods are being incorporated into a high-fidelity off is being conducted across a broad range of flight requirements. The guidance and control methods that perform the best will have demonstrated the desired qualities.

    4. A chemically reactive spinning dope for significant improvements in wet spun carbon nanotube fibres.

      PubMed

      González-Domínguez, Jose M; Neri, Wilfrid; Maugey, Maryse; Poulin, Philippe; Ansón-Casaos, Alejandro; Martínez, M Teresa

      2013-05-11

      Single-walled carbon nanotubes can be spun in a polyvinyl alcohol stream to produce nanocomposite fibres. We use a facile ester linking between both elements to create improved fibres which exhibit outstanding enhancements in the absence of post-processing stages, providing a promising alternative based on a chemical method. PMID:23471091

    5. Regulatory guidance document

      SciTech Connect

      1994-05-01

      The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

    6. Significant improvement in electronic properties of transparent amorphous indium zinc oxide through yttrium doping

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sun, Jian; Yu, Zhigen; Huang, Yanhua; Xia, Yijie; Lai, Weng Soon; Gong, Hao

      2014-04-01

      One big challenge in transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) is to achieve high conductivity and mobility at a low processing temperature. Although optimized conductivity has been achieved in indium zinc oxide (IZO) without doping, it is still interesting to find whether doping can improve conductivity of IZO further. In this paper, we report a low processing temperature achievement of high conductivity and mobility of IZO through yttrium (Y) doping. We found that with different Y doping levels, room temperature fabricated amorphous IZO (a-IZO) samples can be controlled to exhibit either metallic or semiconductor characteristics. Y2O3 is demonstrated to be an effective doping source to achieve conductivity 300% higher than the non-doped IZO sample. Anomalously improved mobility of certain Y2O3-doped IZO samples compared with the non-doped IZO sample is found and analyzed. Besides, a low-temperature resistivity anomaly (semiconductor metal transition) phenomenon is observed and discussed.

    7. Brief Communication: Upper air relaxation in RACMO2 significantly improves modelled interannual SMB variability in Antarctica

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      van de Berg, W. J.; Medley, B.

      2015-09-01

      The regional climate model RACMO2 has been a powerful tool for improving SMB estimates from GCMs or reanalyses. However, new yearly SMB observations for West Antarctica show that the modelled interannual variability in SMB is poorly simulated by RACMO2, in contrast to ERA-Interim, which resolves this variability well. In an attempt to remedy RACMO2 performance, we included additional upper air relaxation (UAR) in RACMO2. With UAR, the correlation to observations is similar for RACMO2 and ERA-Interim. The spatial SMB patterns and ice sheet integrated SMB modelled using UAR remain very similar to the estimates of RACMO2 without UAR. We only observe an upstream smoothing of precipitation in regions with very steep topography like the Antarctic Peninsula. We conclude that UAR is a useful improvement for RCM simulations, although results in regions with steep topography should be treated with care.

    8. Practical Communication Guidance to Improve Phase I Informed Consent Conversations and Decision-Making in Pediatric Oncology

      PubMed Central

      Johnson, Liza-Marie; Leek, Angela C.; Drotar, Dennis; Noll, Robert B.; Rheingold, Susan R.; Kodish, Eric D.; Baker, Justin N.

      2015-01-01

      Background It can be difficult to explain pediatric Phase I oncology trials to families of children with refractory cancer. Parents may misunderstand the information presented to them, and physicians may assume that certain topics are covered in the informed consent document and need not be discussed. Communication models can help to ensure effective discussions. Methods Suggestions for improving the informed consent process were first solicited from Phase I study clinicians via questionnaire. Eight parents who had enrolled their child on a Phase I pediatric oncology trial were recruited for an advisory group designed to assess the clinicians’ suggestions and make additional recommendations for improving informed consent for pediatric Phase I trials. Results A Phase I Communication Model was designed to incorporate the suggestions of clinicians and families. It focuses on education of parents/families about Phase I trials at specific time points during a child’s illness, but specifically at the point of relapse. We also present an informative Phase I fact sheet that can be distributed to families. Conclusions Families who will be offered information about a Phase I clinical trial can first receive a standardized fact sheet explaining the general purpose of these early-phase clinical trials. Parental understanding may be further enhanced when oncologists address key themes, beginning at diagnosis and continuing through important decision points during the child’s illness. This model should be prospectively evaluated. PMID:25873253

    9. Significant Advancements in Technology to Improve Instruction for All Students: Including Those with Disabilities

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Meyen, Edward

      2015-01-01

      Sharing thoughts on what represents significant advancements involving the education of persons for whom typical instruction is not effective seems simple enough. You think about the work you are engaged in and reflect on how you came to do what you are doing. If you have a record of being persistent in your work, then that becomes the context for…

    10. Targeted agri-environment schemes significantly improve the population size of common farmland bumblebee species.

      PubMed

      Wood, Thomas J; Holland, John M; Hughes, William O H; Goulson, Dave

      2015-04-01

      Changes in agricultural practice across Europe and North America have been associated with range contractions and local extinction of bumblebees (Bombus spp.). A number of agri-environment schemes have been implemented to halt and reverse these declines, predominantly revolving around the provision of additional forage plants. Although it has been demonstrated that these schemes can attract substantial numbers of foraging bumblebees, it remains unclear to what extent they actually increase bumblebee populations. We used standardized transect walks and molecular techniques to compare the size of bumblebee populations between Higher Level Stewardship (HLS) farms implementing pollinator-friendly schemes and Entry Level Stewardship (ELS) control farms. Bumblebee abundance on the transect walks was significantly higher on HLS farms than ELS farms. Molecular analysis suggested maximum foraging ranges of 566 m for Bombus hortorum, 714 m for B. lapidarius, 363 m for B. pascuorum and 799 m for B. terrestris. Substantial differences in maximum foraging range were found within bumblebee species between farm types. Accounting for foraging range differences, B. hortorum (47 vs 13 nests/km(2) ) and B. lapidarius (45 vs 22 nests/km(2) ) were found to nest at significantly greater densities on HLS farms than ELS farms. There were no significant differences between farm type for B. terrestris (88 vs 38 nests/km(2) ) and B. pascuorum (32 vs 39 nests/km(2) ). Across all bumblebee species, HLS management had a significantly positive effect on bumblebee nest density. These results show that targeted agri-environment schemes that increase the availability of suitable forage can significantly increase the size of wild bumblebee populations. PMID:25753513

    11. Significant Improvement of Metabolic Characteristics and Bioactivities of Clopidogrel and Analogs by Selective Deuteration.

      PubMed

      Xu, Xueyu; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Zhichao; Wang, Hao; Meng, Xiangjun; Su, Chong; Liu, Mingyuan; Fawcett, John Paul; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai

      2016-01-01

      In the search for prodrug analogs of clopidogrel with improved metabolic characteristics and antiplatelet bioactivity, a group of clopidogrel and vicagrel analogs selectively deuterated at the benzylic methyl ester group were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated. The compounds included clopidogrel-d₃ (8), 2-oxoclopidogrel-d₃ (9), vicagrel-d₃ (10a), and 12 vicagrel-d₃ analogs (10b-10m) with different alkyl groups in the thiophene ester moiety. The D₃C-O bond length in 10a was shown by X-ray single crystal diffraction to be shorter than the H₃C-O bond length in clopidogrel, consistent with the slower rate of hydrolysis of 8 than of clopidogrel in rat whole blood in vitro. A study of the ability of the compounds to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation in fresh rat whole blood collected 2 h after oral dosing of rats with the compounds (7.8 μmol/kg) showed that deuteration increased the activity of clopidogrel and that increasing the size of the alkyl group in the thiophene ester moiety reduced activity. A preliminary pharmacokinetic study comparing 10a with vicagrel administered simultaneously as single oral doses (72 μmol/kg of each drug) to male Wistar rats showed 10a generated more of its active metabolite than vicagrel. These results suggest that 10a is a potentially superior antiplatelet agent with improved metabolic characteristics and bioactivity, and less dose-related toxicity. PMID:27248988

    12. Significant improvement of mouse cloning technique by treatment with trichostatin A after somatic nuclear transfer

      SciTech Connect

      Kishigami, Satoshi . E-mail: kishigami@cdb.riken.jp; Mizutani, Eiji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Thuan, Nguyen Van; Wakayama, Sayaka; Bui, Hong-Thuy; Wakayama, Teruhiko

      2006-02-03

      The low success rate of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is believed to be associated with epigenetic errors including abnormal DNA hypermethylation. Recently, we elucidated by using round spermatids that, after nuclear transfer, treatment of zygotes with trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can remarkably reduce abnormal DNA hypermethylation depending on the origins of transferred nuclei and their genomic regions [S. Kishigami, N. Van Thuan, T. Hikichi, H. Ohta, S. Wakayama. E. Mizutani, T. Wakayama, Epigenetic abnormalities of the mouse paternal zygotic genome associated with microinsemination of round spermatids, Dev. Biol. (2005) in press]. Here, we found that 5-50 nM TSA-treatment for 10 h following oocyte activation resulted in more efficient in vitro development of somatic cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage from 2- to 5-fold depending on the donor cells including tail tip cells, spleen cells, neural stem cells, and cumulus cells. This TSA-treatment also led to more than 5-fold increase in success rate of mouse cloning from cumulus cells without obvious abnormality but failed to improve ES cloning success. Further, we succeeded in establishment of nuclear transfer-embryonic stem (NT-ES) cells from TSA-treated cloned blastocyst at a rate three times higher than those from untreated cloned blastocysts. Thus, our data indicate that TSA-treatment after SCNT in mice can dramatically improve the practical application of current cloning techniques.

    13. Significant improvements in the area of stroke timing of motor-operated valves for nuclear plants

      SciTech Connect

      Wohld, P.R. ); Newsome, R.C. )

      1990-01-01

      This paper reports on valve stroke timing test equipment developed and tested for use in a nuclear power plant main control room that can provide significant advantages to the user for valve surveillance testing required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The equipment is particularly suitable for Motor-Operated Valves (MOVs) because of its accuracy and repeatability that is necessary to detect the effects of small changes in actuator motor RPM.

    14. An improved method to set significance thresholds for β diversity testing in microbial community comparisons.

      PubMed

      Gülay, Arda; Smets, Barth F

      2015-09-01

      Exploring the variation in microbial community diversity between locations (β diversity) is a central topic in microbial ecology. Currently, there is no consensus on how to set the significance threshold for β diversity. Here, we describe and quantify the technical components of β diversity, including those associated with the process of subsampling. These components exist for any proposed β diversity measurement procedure. Further, we introduce a strategy to set significance thresholds for β diversity of any group of microbial samples using rarefaction, invoking the notion of a meta-community. The proposed technique was applied to several in silico generated operational taxonomic unit (OTU) libraries and experimental 16S rRNA pyrosequencing libraries. The latter represented microbial communities from different biological rapid sand filters at a full-scale waterworks. We observe that β diversity, after subsampling, is inflated by intra-sample differences; this inflation is avoided in the proposed method. In addition, microbial community evenness (Gini > 0.08) strongly affects all β diversity estimations due to bias associated with rarefaction. Where published methods to test β significance often fail, the proposed meta-community-based estimator is more successful at rejecting insignificant β diversity values. Applying our approach, we reveal the heterogeneous microbial structure of biological rapid sand filters both within and across filters. PMID:25534614

    15. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Scotland 2000-2010: Improved outcomes but a significant weekend effect

      PubMed Central

      Ahmed, Asma; Armstrong, Matthew; Robertson, Ishbel; Morris, Allan John; Blatchford, Oliver; Stanley, Adrian J

      2015-01-01

      AIM: To assess numbers and case fatality of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), effects of deprivation and whether weekend presentation affected outcomes. METHODS: Data was obtained from Information Services Division (ISD) Scotland and National Records of Scotland (NRS) death records for a ten year period between 2000-2001 and 2009-2010. We obtained data from the ISD Scottish Morbidity Records (SMR01) database which holds data on inpatient and day-case hospital discharges from non-obstetric and non-psychiatric hospitals in Scotland. The mortality data was obtained from NRS and linked with the ISD SMR01 database to obtain 30-d case fatality. We used 23 ICD-10 (International Classification of diseases) codes which identify UGIB to interrogate database. We analysed these data for trends in number of hospital admissions with UGIB, 30-d mortality over time and assessed effects of social deprivation. We compared weekend and weekday admissions for differences in 30-d mortality and length of hospital stay. We determined comorbidities for each admission to establish if comorbidities contributed to patient outcome. RESULTS: A total of 60643 Scottish residents were admitted with UGIH during January, 2000 and October, 2009. There was no significant change in annual number of admissions over time, but there was a statistically significant reduction in 30-d case fatality from 10.3% to 8.8% (P < 0.001) over these 10 years. Number of admissions with UGIB was higher for the patients from most deprived category (P < 0.05), although case fatality was higher for the patients from the least deprived category (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant change in this trend between 2000/01-2009/10. Patients admitted with UGIB at weekends had higher 30-d case fatality compared with those admitted on weekdays (P < 0.001). Thirty day mortality remained significantly higher for patients admitted with UGIB at weekends after adjusting for comorbidities. Length of

    16. Lithium deficient mesoporous Li2-xMnSiO4 with significantly improved electrochemical performance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wang, Haiyan; Hou, Tianli; Sun, Dan; Huang, Xiaobing; He, Hanna; Tang, Yougen; Liu, Younian

      2014-02-01

      Li2-xMnSiO4 compounds with mesoporous structure are first proposed in the present work. It is interesting to note that the lithium deficient compounds exhibit much higher electrochemical performance in comparison with the stoichiometric one. Among these compounds, Li1.8MnSiO4 shows the best electrochemical performance. It is found that mesoporous Li1.8MnSiO4 without carbon coating delivers a maximum discharge capacity of 110.9 mAh g-1 at 15 mA g-1, maintaining 90.8 mAh g-1 after 25 cycles, while that of the stoichiometric one is only 48.0 mAh g-1, with 12.5 mAh g-1 remaining. The superior properties are mainly due to the great improvement of electronic conductivity and structure stability, as well as suppressed charge-transfer resistance.

    17. A patient/family-centered strategic plan can drive significant improvement.

      PubMed

      Brilli, Richard J; Crandall, Wallace V; Berry, Janet C; Stoverock, Linda; Rosen, Kerry; Budin, Lee; Kelleher, Kelly J; Gleeson, Sean P; Davis, J Terrance

      2014-08-01

      The use of a PFCSP, as a road map to operationalize the hospital's vision, has been a compelling paradigm to achieve significant QI results. The framework is simple yet directly aligns with the IOM domains of quality. It has inspired and helped actively engage hospital personnel in the work required to achieve the goals and vision of the hospital system. Five years after initiating this type of plan, activity is flourishing in each of the domains and midterm results are substantial. We think that the nature of this strategic plan has been an important aspect of our success to date. PMID:25037128

    18. Active loading into extracellular vesicles significantly improves the cellular uptake and photodynamic effect of porphyrins.

      PubMed

      Fuhrmann, Gregor; Serio, Andrea; Mazo, Manuel; Nair, Rekha; Stevens, Molly M

      2015-05-10

      Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are phospholipid-based particles endogenously produced by cells. Their natural composition and selective cell interactions make them promising drug carriers. However, in order to harness their properties, efficient exogenous drug encapsulation methods need to be investigated. Here, EVs from various cellular origins (endothelial, cancer and stem cells) were produced and characterised for size and composition. Porphyrins of different hydrophobicities were employed as model drugs and encapsulated into EVs using various passive and active methods (electroporation, saponin, extrusion and dialysis). Hydrophobic compounds loaded very efficiently into EVs and at significantly higher amounts than into standard liposomes composed of phosphocholine and cholesterol using passive incubation. Moreover, loading into EVs significantly increased the cellular uptake by >60% and the photodynamic effect of hydrophobic porphyrins in vitro compared to free or liposome encapsulated drug. The active encapsulation techniques, with the saponin-assisted method in particular, allowed an up to 11 fold higher drug loading of hydrophilic porphyrins compared to passive methods. EVs loaded with hydrophilic porphyrins induced a stronger phototoxic effect than free drug in a cancer cell model. Our findings create a firm basis for the development of EVs as smart drug carriers based on straightforward and transferable methods. PMID:25483424

    19. Constituent Aspects of Workplace Guidance in Secondary VET

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Swager, Robert; Klarus, Ruud; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

      2015-01-01

      Purpose: This paper aims to present an integrated model of workplace guidance to enhance awareness of what constitutes good guidance, to improve workplace guidance practices in vocational education and training. Design/methodology/approach: To identify constituent aspects of workplace guidance, a systematic search of Web of Science was conducted,…

    20. Possible breakthrough: Significant improvement of signal to noise ratio by stochastic resonance

      SciTech Connect

      Kiss, L.B.

      1996-06-01

      The {ital simplest} {ital stochastic} {ital resonator} {ital is} {ital used}, {ital a} {ital level} {ital crossing} {ital detector} (LCD), to investigate key properties of stochastic resonance (SR). It is pointed out that successful signal processing and biological applications of SR require to work in the {ital large} {ital signal} {ital limit} (nonlinear transfer limit) which requires a completely new approach: {ital wide} {ital band} {ital input} {ital signal} and a {ital new}, {ital generalised} {ital definition} {ital of} {ital output} {ital noise}. The new way of approach is illustrated by a new arrangement. The arrangement employs a special LCD, white input noise and a special, large, subthreshold wide band signal. {ital First} {ital time} {ital in} {ital the} {ital history} {ital of} {ital SR} (for a wide band input noise), the {ital signal} {ital to} {ital noise} {ital ratio} {ital becomes} {ital much} {ital higher} {ital at} {ital the} {ital output} of a stochastic resonator than {ital at} {ital its} {ital input}. In that way, SR is proven to have a potential to improve signal transfer. Note, that the new arrangement seems to have resemblance to {ital neurone} {ital models}, therefore, it has a potential also for biological applications. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

    1. Three-phase textile nanocomposites: significant improvements in strength, toughness and ductility.

      PubMed

      Srivastava, Iti; Proper, Andrew; Rafiee, Mohammad A; Koratkar, Nikhil

      2010-02-01

      It is well established that in-plane tensile properties of unidirectional microfiber-reinforced composites are not significantly influenced by addition of carbon nanotubes to the matrix. This is because the principal effect of the nanotubes is to enhance the matrix dominated (out-of-plane) properties. Here we report that the above situation changes when nanotubes are incorporated into woven-fabric (textile) composites. We report up to 200% increase in strain-to-break and 180% increase in toughness under in-plane tensile load with approximately 0.05% weight of nanotube additives. We attribute this effect to the geometrical arrangement of the micro-fibers and the critical role of the pure-matrix-block in textile composites. PMID:20352752

    2. Global regulator engineering significantly improved Escherichia coli tolerances toward inhibitors of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

      PubMed

      Wang, Jianqing; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Yilu; Lin, Min; Lin, Zhanglin

      2012-12-01

      Lignocellulosic biomass is regarded as the most viable source of feedstock for industrial biorefinery, but the harmful inhibitors generated from the indispensable pretreatments prior to fermentation remain a daunting technical hurdle. Using an exogenous regulator, irrE, from the radiation-resistant Deinococcus radiodurans, we previously showed that a novel global regulator engineering (GRE) approach significantly enhanced tolerances of Escherichia coli to alcohol and acetate stresses. In this work, an irrE library was subjected to selection under various stresses of furfural, a typical hydrolysate inhibitor. Three furfural tolerant irrE mutants including F1-37 and F2-1 were successfully obtained. The cells containing these mutants reached OD(600) levels of 4- to 16-fold of that for the pMD18T cells in growth assay under 0.2% (v/v) furfural stress. The cells containing irrE F1-37 and F2-1 also showed considerably reduced intracellular oxygen species (ROS) levels under furfural stress. Moreover, these two irrE mutants were subsequently found to confer significant cross tolerances to two other most common inhibitors, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF), vanillin, as well as real lignocellulosic hydrolysates. When evaluated in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with corn stover cellulosic hydrolysate (prepared with a solid loading of 30%), the cells containing the mutants exhibited lag phases markedly shortened by 24-44 h in comparison with the control cells. This work thus presents a promising step forward to resolve the inhibitor problem for E. coli. From the view of synthetic biology, irrE can be considered as an evolvable "part" for various stresses. Furthermore, this GRE approach can be extended to exploit other exogenous global regulators from extremophiles, and the native counterparts in E. coli, for eliciting industrially useful phenotypes. PMID:22684885

    3. Oxamflatin Significantly Improves Nuclear Reprogramming, Blastocyst Quality, and In Vitro Development of Bovine SCNT Embryos

      PubMed Central

      Li, Yanyan; Li, Ruizhe; Li, Qian; Wu, Yongyan; Quan, Fusheng; Liu, Jun; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

      2011-01-01

      Aberrant epigenetic nuclear reprogramming results in low somatic cloning efficiency. Altering epigenetic status by applying histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) enhances developmental potential of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. The present study was carried out to examine the effects of Oxamflatin, a novel HDACi, on the nuclear reprogramming and development of bovine SCNT embryos in vitro. We found that Oxamflatin modified the acetylation status on H3K9 and H3K18, increased total and inner cell mass (ICM) cell numbers and the ratio of ICM∶trophectoderm (TE) cells, reduced the rate of apoptosis in SCNT blastocysts, and significantly enhanced the development of bovine SCNT embryos in vitro. Furthermore, Oxamflatin treatment suppressed expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax and stimulated expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-XL and the pluripotency-related genes OCT4 and SOX2 in SCNT blastocysts. Additionally, the treatment also reduced the DNA methylation level of satellite I in SCNT blastocysts. In conclusion, Oxamflatin modifies epigenetic status and gene expression, increases blastocyst quality, and subsequently enhances the nuclear reprogramming and developmental potential of SCNT embryos. PMID:21912607

    4. A Cell Type Independent Binary Grading System Does Not Significantly Improve Endometrial Biopsy Interpretation.

      PubMed

      Nastic, Denis; Kahlin, Frida; Dahlstrand, Hanna; Carlson, Joseph W

      2016-05-01

      The revised International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) grading system is widely accepted as the standard in evaluating endometrial carcinoma on biopsy. Determination of tumor cell type [using the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria] and grade (using FIGO) guides surgical approach. Several studies have highlighted discrepancies between biopsy and hysterectomy diagnosis. Recently, a binary grading system was proposed, yielding a low-risk and high-risk assessment but in a cell type independent (CTI) way. No study has assessed its utility in biopsy grading, a situation where this system may be particularly useful. Archived endometrial biopsies from 70 cases of endometrial carcinoma were graded by 3 independent observers using the WHO/FIGO and the CTI grading systems. The overall accuracy, interobserver agreement, and ease of use were assessed. This study found comparable substantial accuracy between the WHO/FIGO and CTI grading systems (κ=0.71 vs. κ=0.69), with the same setbacks in overgrading of 20.9% versus 25.6% of low-risk tumors. The CTI grading system was not superior to the WHO/FIGO grading system in accuracy of subtyping and grading and interobserver reproducibility. Although determination of cell type is difficult, it does not appear that the proposed CTI system confers any significant advantages over existing grading. PMID:26863477

    5. Under-reporting of notifiable infectious disease hospitalizations: significant improvements in the Irish context.

      PubMed

      Brabazon, E D; Sheridan, A; Finnegan, P; Carton, M W; Bedford, D

      2015-04-01

      Notification of infectious disease is essential for prompt public health action and epidemiological analysis. The aim of this study was to compare national hospitalization data to national notification data in order to assess if there was significant under-reporting of hospitalized notifiable infectious diseases in recent years in Ireland. All in-patient discharges from public hospitals in the Republic of Ireland from 2006 to 2011 with a principal diagnosis of a notifiable disease were compared with national notification data. It was found that only a potential 1·8% of extra notifications could have arisen due to these hospitalization events and would represent a tenfold reduction on a previous estimate of under-reporting in the Irish context. Viral meningitis, viral encephalitis, bacterial meningitis not otherwise specified and malaria were the most common diseases for which there were more hospitalizations than notifications reported. The results of this study support the conclusion that the reduction in under-reporting can mainly be accounted for by the introduction of laboratories as notifiers in conjunction with the roll out of the Computerized Infectious Disease Reporting system (CIDR). However, for the diseases highlighted, the notification data underestimates the true burden of disease and this has implications for understanding the epidemiology of these diseases. PMID:25035904

    6. Routine Testing for Anaerobic Bacteria in Cerebrospinal Fluid Cultures Improves Recovery of Clinically Significant Pathogens

      PubMed Central

      Pittman, Meredith E.; Thomas, Benjamin S.; Wallace, Meghan A.; Weber, Carol J.

      2014-01-01

      In North America, the widespread use of vaccines targeting Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae have dramatically altered the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis, while the methodology for culturing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens has remained largely unchanged. The aims of this study were 2-fold: to document the current epidemiology of bacterial meningitis at a tertiary care medical center and to assess the clinical utility of routinely querying for anaerobes in CSF cultures. To that end, we assessed CSF cultures submitted over a 2-year period. A brucella blood agar (BBA) plate, incubated anaerobically for 5 days, was included in the culture procedure for all CSF specimens during the second year of evaluation. In the pre- and postimplementation years, 2,353 and 2,302 CSF specimens were cultured, with 49 and 99 patients having positive culture results, respectively. The clinical and laboratory data for patients with positive cultures were reviewed. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated in the CSF samples from 33 patients post-BBA compared to two patients pre-BBA (P = 0.01). The anaerobic isolates included Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (n = 1), Propionibacterium species (n = 15), and Propionibacterium acnes (n = 19) isolates; all of these isolates were recovered on the BBA. Eight of the 35 patients from whom anaerobic organisms were isolated received antimicrobial therapy. Although six of these patients had central nervous system hardware, two patients did not have a history of a neurosurgical procedure and had community-acquired anaerobic bacterial meningitis. This study demonstrates that the simple addition of an anaerobically incubated BBA to the culture of CSF specimens enhances the recovery of clinically significant anaerobic pathogens. PMID:24622102

    7. Improving Significant Wave Height detection for Coastal Satellite Altimetry: validation in the German Bight.

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Passaro, Marcello; Benveniste, Jérôme; Cipollini, Paolo; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana

      For more than two decades, it has been possible to map the Significant Wave Height (SWH) globally through Satellite Altimetry. SWH estimation is possible because the shape of an altimetric waveform, which usually presents a sharp leading edge and a slowly decaying trailing edge, depends on the sea state: in particular, the higher the sea state, the longer the rising time of the leading edge. The algorithm for SWH also depends on the width of the point target response (PTR) function, which is usually approximated by a constant value that contributes to the rising time. Particularly challenging for SWH detection are coastal data and low sea states. The first are usually flagged as unreliable due to land and calm water interference in the altimeter footprint; the second are characterized by an extremely sharp leading edge that is consequently poorly sampled in the digitalized waveform. ALES, a new algorithm for reprocessing altimetric waveforms, has recently been validated for sea surface height estimation (Passaro et al. 2014). The aim of this work is to check its validity also for SWH estimation in a particularly challenging area. The German Bight region presents both low sea state and coastal issues and is particularly suitable for validation, thanks to the extended network of buoys of the Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH). In-situ data include open sea, off-shore and coastal sea conditions, respectively at the Helgoland, lighthouse Alte Weser and Westerland locations. Reprocessed data from Envisat, Jason-1 and Jason-2 tracks are validated against those three buoys. The in-situ validation is applied both at the nearest point and at points along-track. The skill metrics is based on bias, standard deviation, slope of regression line, scatter index, number of cycles with correlation larger than 90%. The same metrics is applied to the altimeter data obtained by standard processing and the validation results are compared. Data are evaluated at high

    8. Automated Guidance for Thermodynamics Essays: Critiquing Versus Revisiting

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Donnelly, Dermot F.; Vitale, Jonathan M.; Linn, Marcia C.

      2015-12-01

      Middle school students struggle to explain thermodynamics concepts. In this study, to help students succeed, we use a natural language processing program to analyze their essays explaining the aspects of thermodynamics and provide guidance based on the automated score. The 346 sixth-grade students were assigned to either the critique condition where they criticized an explanation or the revisit condition where they reviewed visualizations. Within each condition, the student was assigned one of two types of tailored guidance based on the sophistication of their original essay. Both forms of guidance led to significant improvement in student understanding on the posttest. Guidance was more effective for students with low prior knowledge than for those with high prior knowledge (consistent with regression toward the mean). However, analysis of student responses to the guidance illustrates the value of aligning guidance with prior knowledge. All students were required to revise their essay as an embedded assessment. While effective, teachers involved in this study reported that revising is resisted by students and does not align with typical, vocabulary-focused classroom writing activities.

    9. Significant Improvements to LOGIST.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Wingersky, Marilyn S.

      The computer program LOGIST (Wingersky, Patrick, and Lord, 1988) estimates the item parameters and the examinee's abilities for Birnbaum's three-parameter logistic item response theory model using Newton's method for solving the joint maximum likelihood equations. In 1989, Martha Stocking discovered a problem with this procedure in that when the…

    10. Aerocapture Guidance Performance for the Neptune Orbiter

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Masciarelli, James P.; Westhelle, Carlos H.; Graves, Claude A.

      2004-01-01

      A performance evaluation of the Hybrid Predictor corrector Aerocapture Scheme (HYPAS) guidance algorithm for aerocapture at Neptune is presented in this paper for a Mission to Neptune and the Neptune moon Triton'. This mission has several challenges not experienced in previous aerocapture guidance assessments. These challengers are a very high Neptune arrival speed, atmospheric exit into a high energy orbit about Neptune, and a very high ballistic coefficient that results in a low altitude acceleration capability when combined with the aeroshell LD. The evaluation includes a definition of the entry corridor, a comparison to the theoretical optimum performance, and guidance responses to variations in atmospheric density, aerodynamic coefficients and flight path angle for various vehicle configurations (ballistic numbers). The benefits of utilizing angle-of-attack modulation in addition to bank angle modulation to improve flight performance is also discussed. The results show that despite large sensitivities in apoapsis targeting, the algorithm performs within the allocated AV budget for the Neptune mission bank angle only modulation. The addition of angle-of-attack modulation with as little as 5 degrees of amplitude significantly improves the scatter in final orbit apoapsis. Although the angle-of-attack modulation complicates the vehicle design, the performance enhancement reduces aerocapture risk and reduces the propellant consumption needed to reach the high energy target orbit for a conventional propulsion system.

    11. EPA guidance on cultural competence training.

      PubMed

      Schouler-Ocak, Meryam; Graef-Calliess, Iris T; Tarricone, Ilaria; Qureshi, Adil; Kastrup, Marianne C; Bhugra, Dinesh

      2015-03-01

      The stress of migration as well as social factors and changes related to the receiving society may lead to the manifestation of psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals after migration. The diversity of cultures, ethnicities, races and reasons for migration poses a challenge for those seeking to understand how illness is experienced by immigrants whose backgrounds differ significantly from their clinicians. Cultural competence represents good clinical practice and can be defined as such that a clinician regards each patient in the context of the patient's own culture as well as from the perspective of the clinician's cultural values and prejudices. The EPA Guidance on cultural competence training outlines some of the key issues related to cultural competence and how to deal with these. It points out that cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant patients and requires knowledge, skills and attitudes which can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. To reach these aims, both individual and organizational competence are needed, as well as teaching competence in terms of educational leadership. The WPA Guidance on Mental Health and Mental Health Care for Migrants and the EPA Guidance on Mental Health Care for Migrants list a series of recommendations for policy makers, service providers and clinicians; these are aimed at improving mental health care for immigrants. The authors of this paper would like to underline these recommendations and, focusing on cultural competency and training, believe that they will be of positive value. PMID:25725596

    12. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings

      PubMed Central

      Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Capra, Ruggero

      2015-01-01

      Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up. PMID:26148120

    13. Catheter-based endomyocardial delivery of mesenchymal precursor cells using 3D echo guidance improves cardiac function in a chronic myocardial injury ovine model.

      PubMed

      Cheng, Yanping; Yi, Genghua; Conditt, Gerard B; Sheehy, Alexander; Kolodgie, Frank D; Tellez, Armando; Polyakov, Igor; Gu, Anguo; Aboodi, Michael S; Wallace-Bradley, David; Schuster, Michael; Martens, Timothy; Itescu, Silviu; Kaluza, Greg L; Basu, Shubhayu; Virmani, Renu; Granada, Juan F; Sherman, Warren

      2013-01-01

      The administration of bone marrow-derived stem cells may provide a new treatment option for patients with heart failure. Transcatheter cell injection may require multi-imaging modalities to optimize delivery. This study sought to evaluate whether endomyocardial injection of mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) could be guided by real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) in treating chronic, postinfarction (MI) left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in sheep. Four weeks after induction of an anterior wall myocardial infarction in 39 sheep, allogeneic MPCs in doses of either 25 × 10(6) (n = 10), 75 × 10(6) (n = 9), or 225 × 10(6) (n = 10) cells or nonconditioned control media (n = 10) were administered intramyocardially into infarct and border zone areas using a catheter designed for combined fluoroscopic and RT3DE-guided injections. LV function was assessed before and after injection. Infarct dimension and vascular density were evaluated histologically. RT3DE-guided injection procedures were safe. Compared to controls, the highest dose MPC treatment led to increments in ejection fraction (3 ventricula 3% in 225M MPCs vs. -5 ± 4% in the control group, p < 0.01) and wall thickening in both infarct (4 ± 4% in 225M MPCs vs. -3 ± 6% in the control group, p = 0.02) and border zones (4 ± 6% in 225M MPCs vs. -8 ± 9% in the control group, p = 0.01). Histology analysis demonstrated significantly higher arteriole density in the infarct and border zones in the highest dose MPC-treated animals compared to the lower dose or control groups. Endomyocardial implantation of MPCs under RT3DE guidance was safe and without observed logistical obstacles. Significant increases in LV performance (ejection fraction and wall thickening) and neovascularization resulted from this technique, and so this technique has important implications for treating patients with postischemic LV dysfunction. PMID:23107489

    14. Elementary School Guidance Bibliography.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Biasco, Frank

      This bibliography lists articles and books dealing with elementary school guidance. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically by author. No annotations are given. Approximately 70 titles are given, covering most phases of elementary guidance. (KJ)

    15. Unified powered flight guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

      1973-01-01

      A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

    16. 75 FR 9607 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Guidance Document Request and Evaluation

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2010-03-03

      ... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; Guidance Document Request and Evaluation AGENCY... guidance document request form and the guidance document evaluation form will help OEC stakeholders to... stakeholders. OEC will use the evaluation information for continuous improvement to its documents....

    17. Strategic Communication During Whole-System Change: Advice and Guidance for School District Leaders and PR Specialists. Leading Systemic School Improvement #9

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Duffy, Francis M.; Chance, Patti L.

      2006-01-01

      Times of great change in school districts require strategic communication with internal and external stakeholders including the use of school public relations tools and techniques. This book provides theoretical and practical advice and guidance to district-based change leaders and school public relations specialists on how they can support their…

    18. Feasibility Study of Needle Placement in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Guidance Versus Conventional Fluoroscopy

      SciTech Connect

      Braak, Sicco J.; Zuurmond, Kirsten Aerts, Hans C. J.; Leersum, Marc van Overtoom, Timotheus T. Th. Heesewijk, Johannes P. M. van Strijen, Marco J. L. van

      2013-08-01

      ObjectiveTo investigate the accuracy, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, and dose area product (DAP) of needle placement during percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance versus fluoroscopy.Materials and MethodsOn 4 spine phantoms with 11 vertebrae (Th7-L5), 4 interventional radiologists (2 experienced with CBCT guidance and two inexperienced) punctured all vertebrae in a bipedicular fashion. Each side was randomization to either CBCT guidance or fluoroscopy. CBCT guidance is a sophisticated needle guidance technique using CBCT, navigation software, and real-time fluoroscopy. The placement of the needle had to be to a specific target point. After the procedure, CBCT was performed to determine the accuracy, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, and DAP. Analysis of the difference between methods and experience level was performed.ResultsMean accuracy using CBCT guidance (2.61 mm) was significantly better compared with fluoroscopy (5.86 mm) (p < 0.0001). Procedure time was in favor of fluoroscopy (7.39 vs. 10.13 min; p = 0.001). Fluoroscopy time during CBCT guidance was lower, but this difference is not significant (71.3 vs. 95.8 s; p = 0.056). DAP values for CBCT guidance and fluoroscopy were 514 and 174 mGy cm{sup 2}, respectively (p < 0.0001). There was a significant difference in favor of experienced CBCT guidance users regarding accuracy for both methods, procedure time of CBCT guidance, and added DAP values for fluoroscopy.ConclusionCBCT guidance allows users to perform PVP more accurately at the cost of higher patient dose and longer procedure time. Because procedural complications (e.g., cement leakage) are related to the accuracy of the needle placement, improvements in accuracy are clinically relevant. Training in CBCT guidance is essential to achieve greater accuracy and decrease procedure time/dose values.

    19. Significant improvement of GaN crystal quality with ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layers

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Chen, Shuo-Wei; Yang, Young; Wen, Wei-Chih; Li, Heng; Lu, Tien-Chang

      2016-03-01

      Ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layer has been demonstrated effective to significantly improve crystal quality and electrical properties of GaN epitaxy layers for GaN based Light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this report, we have successfully reduced X-ray (102) FWHM from 240 to 110 arcsec, and (002) FWHM from 230 to 101 arcsec. In addition, reverse-bias voltage (Vr) increased around 20% with the sputtered AlN nucleation layer. Furthermore, output power of LEDs grown on sputtered AlN nucleation layer can be improved around 4.0% compared with LEDs which is with conventional GaN nucleation layer on pattern sapphire substrate (PSS).

    20. Long-term treatment with naproxcinod significantly improves skeletal and cardiac disease phenotype in the mdx mouse model of dystrophy.

      PubMed

      Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Quinn, James L; Tatem, Kathleen S; Van Der Meulen, Jack H; Yu, Qing; Phadke, Aditi; Miller, Brittany K; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Ongini, Ennio; Miglietta, Daniela; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

      2014-06-15

      In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and the mouse model of DMD, mdx, dystrophin deficiency causes a decrease and mislocalization of muscle-specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ), leading to functional impairments. Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) donation associated with anti-inflammatory action has beneficial effects in dystrophic mouse models. In this study, we have systematically investigated the effects of naproxcinod, an NO-donating naproxen derivative, on the skeletal and cardiac disease phenotype in mdx mice. Four-week-old mdx and C57BL/10 mice were treated with four different concentrations (0, 10, 21 and 41 mg/kg) of naproxcinod and 0.9 mg/kg of prednisolone in their food for 9 months. All mice were subjected to twice-weekly treadmill sessions, and functional and behavioral parameters were measured at 3, 6 and 9 months of treatment. In addition, we evaluated in vitro force contraction, optical imaging of inflammation, echocardiography and blood pressure (BP) at the 9-month endpoint prior to sacrifice. We found that naproxcinod treatment at 21 mg/kg resulted in significant improvement in hindlimb grip strength and a 30% decrease in inflammation in the fore- and hindlimbs of mdx mice. Furthermore, we found significant improvement in heart function, as evidenced by improved fraction shortening, ejection fraction and systolic BP. In addition, the long-term detrimental effects of prednisolone typically seen in mdx skeletal and heart function were not observed at the effective dose of naproxcinod. In conclusion, our results indicate that naproxcinod has significant potential as a safe therapeutic option for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. PMID:24463621

    1. Long-term treatment with naproxcinod significantly improves skeletal and cardiac disease phenotype in the mdx mouse model of dystrophy

      PubMed Central

      Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Quinn, James L; Tatem, Kathleen S; Van Der Meulen, Jack H; Yu, Qing; Phadke, Aditi; Miller, Brittany K; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Ongini, Ennio; Miglietta, Daniela; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

      2014-01-01

      In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and the mouse model of DMD, mdx, dystrophin deficiency causes a decrease and mislocalization of muscle-specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ), leading to functional impairments. Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) donation associated with anti-inflammatory action has beneficial effects in dystrophic mouse models. In this study, we have systematically investigated the effects of naproxcinod, an NO-donating naproxen derivative, on the skeletal and cardiac disease phenotype in mdx mice. Four-week-old mdx and C57BL/10 mice were treated with four different concentrations (0, 10, 21 and 41 mg/kg) of naproxcinod and 0.9 mg/kg of prednisolone in their food for 9 months. All mice were subjected to twice-weekly treadmill sessions, and functional and behavioral parameters were measured at 3, 6 and 9 months of treatment. In addition, we evaluated in vitro force contraction, optical imaging of inflammation, echocardiography and blood pressure (BP) at the 9-month endpoint prior to sacrifice. We found that naproxcinod treatment at 21 mg/kg resulted in significant improvement in hindlimb grip strength and a 30% decrease in inflammation in the fore- and hindlimbs of mdx mice. Furthermore, we found significant improvement in heart function, as evidenced by improved fraction shortening, ejection fraction and systolic BP. In addition, the long-term detrimental effects of prednisolone typically seen in mdx skeletal and heart function were not observed at the effective dose of naproxcinod. In conclusion, our results indicate that naproxcinod has significant potential as a safe therapeutic option for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. PMID:24463621

    2. Assimilation of GOES satellite-based convective initiation and cloud growth observations into the Rapid Refresh and HRRR systems to improve aviation forecast guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Mecikalski, John; Smith, Tracy; Weygandt, Stephen

      2014-05-01

      Latent heating profiles derived from GOES satellite-based cloud-top cooling rates are being assimilated into a retrospective version of the Rapid Refresh system (RAP) being run at the Global Systems Division. Assimilation of these data may help reduce the time lag for convection initiation (CI) in both the RAP model forecasts and in 3-km High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model runs that are initialized off of the RAP model grids. These data may also improve both the location and organization of developing convective storm clusters, especially in the nested HRRR runs. These types of improvements are critical for providing better convective storm guidance around busy hub airports and aviation corridor routes, especially in the highly congested Ohio Valley - Northeast - Mid-Atlantic region. Additional work is focusing on assimilating GOES-R CI algorithm cloud-top cooling-based latent heating profiles directly into the HRRR model. Because of the small-scale nature of the convective phenomena depicted in the cloud-top cooling rate data (on the order of 1-4 km scale), direct assimilation of these data in the HRRR may be more effective than assimilation in the RAP. The RAP is an hourly assimilation system developed at NOAA/ESRL and was implemented at NCEP as a NOAA operational model in May 2012. The 3-km HRRR runs hourly out to 15 hours as a nest within the ESRL real-time experimental RAP. The RAP and HRRR both use the WRF ARW model core, and the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) is used within an hourly cycle to assimilate a wide variety of observations (including radar data) to initialize the RAP. Within this modeling framework, the cloud-top cooling rate-based latent heating profiles are applied as prescribed heating during the diabatic forward model integration part of the RAP digital filter initialization (DFI). No digital filtering is applied on the 3-km HRRR grid, but similar forward model integration with prescribed heating is used to assimilate

    3. Guidance for state attainment plans

      SciTech Connect

      Strait, R.

      1994-06-01

      Title I of the Clean Air act Amendments of 1990 significantly changed requirements for regulatory agencies to prepare state implementation plans that demonstrate attainment of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards. State agencies now are required to submit plans that show how they will meet the standards by their attainment date. EPA has published a series of guidance documents to assist states in preparing their plans. In addition, the agency is developing software to assist states in projecting emissions and tracking reductions. This article summarizes the guidance documents and software program.

    4. APD125, a Selective Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor Inverse Agonist, Significantly Improves Sleep Maintenance in Primary Insomnia

      PubMed Central

      Rosenberg, Russell; Seiden, David J.; Hull, Steven G.; Erman, Milton; Schwartz, Howard; Anderson, Christen; Prosser, Warren; Shanahan, William; Sanchez, Matilde; Chuang, Emil; Roth, Thomas

      2008-01-01

      Introduction: Insomnia is a condition affecting 10% to 15% of the adult population and is characterized by difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, or nonrestorative sleep, accompanied by daytime impairment or distress. This study evaluates APD125, a selective inverse agonist of the 5-HT2A receptor, for treatment of chronic insomnia, with particular emphasis on sleep maintenance. In phase 1 studies, APD125 improved sleep maintenance and was well tolerated. Methodology: Adult subjects (n = 173) with DSM-IV defined primary insomnia were randomized into a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study to compare 2 doses of APD125 (10 mg and 40 mg) with placebo. Each treatment period was 7 days with a 7- to 9-day washout period between treatments. Polysomnographic recordings were performed at the initial 2 screening nights and at nights (N) 1/2 and N 6/7 of each treatment period. Results: APD125 was associated with significant improvements in key sleep maintenance parameters measured by PSG. Wake time after sleep onset decreased (SEM) by 52.5 (3.2) min (10 mg) and 53.5 (3.5) min (40 mg) from baseline to N 1/2 vs. 37.8 (3.4) min for placebo, (P < 0.0001 for both doses vs placebo), and by 51.7 (3.4) min (P = 0.01) and 48.0 (3.6) min (P = 0.2) at N 6/7 vs. 44.0 (3.8) min for placebo. Significant APD125 effects on wake time during sleep were also seen (P < 0.0001 N 1/2, P < 0.001 N 6/7). The number of arousals and number of awakenings decreased significantly with APD125 treatment compared to placebo. Slow wave sleep showed a statistically significant dose-dependent increase. There was no significant decrease in latency to persistent sleep. No serious adverse events were reported, and no meaningful differences in adverse event profiles were observed between either dose of APD125 and placebo. APD125 was not associated with next-day psychomotor impairment as measured by Digit Span, Digit Symbol Copy, and Digit Symbol Coding Tests

    5. Significant improvements in InGaN/GaN nano-photoelectrodes for hydrogen generation by structure and polarization optimization.

      PubMed

      Tao, Tao; Zhi, Ting; Liu, Bin; Li, Mingxue; Zhuang, Zhe; Dai, Jiangping; Li, Yi; Jiang, Fulong; Luo, Wenjun; Xie, Zili; Chen, Dunjun; Chen, Peng; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

      2016-01-01

      The photoelectrodes based on III-nitride semiconductors with high energy conversion efficiency especially for those self-driven ones are greatly desirable for hydrogen generation. In this study, highly ordered InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well nanorod-based photoelectrodes have been fabricated by a soft UV-curing nano-imprint lithography and a top-down etching technique, which improve the incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) from 16% (planar structure) to 42% (@ wavelength = 400 nm). More significantly, the turn-on voltage is reduced low to -0.6 V, which indicates the possibility of achieving self-driven. Furthermore, SiO2/Si3N4 dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors are employed to further improve the IPCE up to 60%. And the photocurrent (@ 1.1 V) is enhanced from 0.37 mA/cm(2) (original planar structure) to 1.5 mA/cm(2). These improvements may accelerate the possible applications for hydrogen generation with high energy-efficiency. PMID:26853933

    6. Significant improvements in InGaN/GaN nano-photoelectrodes for hydrogen generation by structure and polarization optimization

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Tao, Tao; Zhi, Ting; Liu, Bin; Li, Mingxue; Zhuang, Zhe; Dai, Jiangping; Li, Yi; Jiang, Fulong; Luo, Wenjun; Xie, Zili; Chen, Dunjun; Chen, Peng; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

      2016-02-01

      The photoelectrodes based on III-nitride semiconductors with high energy conversion efficiency especially for those self-driven ones are greatly desirable for hydrogen generation. In this study, highly ordered InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well nanorod-based photoelectrodes have been fabricated by a soft UV-curing nano-imprint lithography and a top-down etching technique, which improve the incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) from 16% (planar structure) to 42% (@ wavelength = 400 nm). More significantly, the turn-on voltage is reduced low to -0.6 V, which indicates the possibility of achieving self-driven. Furthermore, SiO2/Si3N4 dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors are employed to further improve the IPCE up to 60%. And the photocurrent (@ 1.1 V) is enhanced from 0.37 mA/cm2 (original planar structure) to 1.5 mA/cm2. These improvements may accelerate the possible applications for hydrogen generation with high energy-efficiency.

    7. Significant improvements in InGaN/GaN nano-photoelectrodes for hydrogen generation by structure and polarization optimization

      PubMed Central

      Tao, Tao; Zhi, Ting; Liu, Bin; Li, Mingxue; Zhuang, Zhe; Dai, Jiangping; Li, Yi; Jiang, Fulong; Luo, Wenjun; Xie, Zili; Chen, Dunjun; Chen, Peng; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

      2016-01-01

      The photoelectrodes based on III-nitride semiconductors with high energy conversion efficiency especially for those self-driven ones are greatly desirable for hydrogen generation. In this study, highly ordered InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well nanorod-based photoelectrodes have been fabricated by a soft UV-curing nano-imprint lithography and a top-down etching technique, which improve the incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) from 16% (planar structure) to 42% (@ wavelength = 400 nm). More significantly, the turn-on voltage is reduced low to −0.6 V, which indicates the possibility of achieving self-driven. Furthermore, SiO2/Si3N4 dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors are employed to further improve the IPCE up to 60%. And the photocurrent (@ 1.1 V) is enhanced from 0.37 mA/cm2 (original planar structure) to 1.5 mA/cm2. These improvements may accelerate the possible applications for hydrogen generation with high energy-efficiency. PMID:26853933

    8. Methylphenidate significantly improves driving performance of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized crossover trial.

      PubMed

      Verster, Joris C; Bekker, Evelijne M; de Roos, Marlise; Minova, Anita; Eijken, Erik J E; Kooij, J J Sandra; Buitelaar, Jan K; Kenemans, J Leon; Verbaten, Marinus N; Olivier, Berend; Volkerts, Edmund R

      2008-05-01

      Although patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have reported improved driving performance on methylphenidate, limited evidence exists to support an effect of treatment on driving performance and some regions prohibit driving on methylphenidate. A randomized, crossover trial examining the effects of methylphenidate versus placebo on highway driving in 18 adults with ADHD was carried out. After three days of no treatment, patients received either their usual methylphenidate dose (mean: 14.7 mg; range: 10-30 mg) or placebo and then the opposite treatment after a six to seven days washout period. Patients performed a 100 km driving test during normal traffic, 1.5 h after treatment administration. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car, was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measurements included the standard deviation of speed and patient reports of driving performance. Driving performance was significantly better in the methylphenidate than in the placebo condition, as reflected by the SDLP difference (2.3 cm, 95% CI = 0.8-3.8, P = 0.004). Variation in speed was similar on treatment and on placebo (-0.05 km/h, 95% CI = -0.4 to 0.2, P = 0.70). Among adults with ADHD, with a history of a positive clinical response to methylphenidate, methylphenidate significantly improves driving performance. PMID:18308788

    9. Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) nanosuspensions based on a self-assembly stabilizer and the significantly improved anti-tumor efficacy.

      PubMed

      Hong, Jingyi; Li, Yanhong; Xiao, Yao; Li, Yijing; Guo, Yifei; Kuang, Haixue; Wang, Xiangtao

      2016-09-01

      Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) have exhibited antitumor activity against various cancers. However, these substances' poor solubility has limited clinical applications. In this study, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and soybean lecithin (SPC) were self-assembled into an amphiphilic complex. ACGs nanosuspensions (ACGs-NSps) were prepared with a mean particle size of 144.4nm, a zeta potential of -22.9mV and a high drug payload of 46.17% using this complex as stabilizer. The ACGs-NSps demonstrated sustained release in vitro and good stability in plasma as well as simulated gastrointestinal fluid, and met the demand of both intravenous injection and oral administration. The ACGs-NSps demonstrated significantly increased cytotoxicity against Hela and HepG2 cancer cell lines compared to ACGs in solution (in vitro cytotoxicity assay). An in vivo study with H22-tumor bearing mice demonstrated that nanosuspensions significantly improved ACGs' antitumor activity. When orally administered, ACGs-NSps achieved a similar tumor inhibition rate at 1/10th the dose of ACGs in an oil solution (47.94% vs. 49.74%, p>0.05). Improved therapeutic efficacy was further achieved when the ACGs-NSps were intravenously injected into mice (70.31%). With the help of nanosuspension technology, ACGs may be an effective antitumor drug for clinic use. PMID:27209384

    10. Improving Growth and Productivity of Oleiferous Brassicas under Changing Environment: Significance of Nitrogen and Sulphur Nutrition, and Underlying Mechanisms

      PubMed Central

      Anjum, Naser A.; Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Umar, Shahid; Ahmad, Iqbal; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda

      2012-01-01

      Mineral nutrients are the integral part of the agricultural systems. Among important plant nutrients, nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) are known essential elements for growth, development, and various physiological functions in plants. Oleiferous brassicas (rapeseed and mustard) require higher amounts of S in addition to N for optimum growth and yield. Therefore, balancing S-N fertilization, optimization of nutrient replenishment, minimization of nutrient losses to the environment, and the concept of coordination in action between S and N could be a significant strategy for improvement of growth and productivity of oleiferous brassicas. Additionally, positive interaction between S and N has been reported to be beneficial for various aspects of oilseed brassicas. The current paper updates readers on the significance of N and S for the improvement of plant growth, development, and productivity in detail. In addition, S-N nutrition-mediated control of major plant antioxidant defense system components involved in the removal and/or metabolism of stress-induced/generated reactive oxygen species in plants (hence, the control of plant growth, development, and productivity) has been overviewed. PMID:22629181

    11. Delta launch vehicle inertial guidance system (DIGS)

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Duck, K. I.

      1973-01-01

      The Delta inertial guidance system, part of the Delta launch vehicle improvement effort, has been flown on three launches and was found to perform as expected for a variety of mission profiles and vehicle configurations.

    12. Complete Au@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced plasmonic absorption enabling significantly improved photocatalysis.

      PubMed

      Sun, Yiqiang; Sun, Yugang; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Guozhu; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Dilong; Cai, Weiping; Li, Yue; Yang, Xianfeng; Li, Cuncheng

      2016-05-19

      Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic absorption in the visible range due to the Au NP cores. They also show a significantly improved photocatalytic performance in comparison with their single-component counterparts, i.e., the Au NPs and ZnO NPs. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of the as-synthesized Au@ZnO core-shell NPs can be maintained even after many cycles of photocatalytic reaction. Our results shed light on the fact that the Au@ZnO core-shell NPs represent a promising class of candidates for applications in plasmonics, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, light harvest devices, solar energy conversion, and degradation of organic pollutants. PMID:27160795

    13. Can ultrasound guidance reduce the risk of pneumothorax following thoracentesis?*, **

      PubMed Central

      Perazzo, Alessandro; Gatto, Piergiorgio; Barlascini, Cornelius; Ferrari-Bravo, Maura; Nicolini, Antonello

      2014-01-01

      OBJECTIVE: Thoracentesis is one of the bedside procedures most commonly associated with iatrogenic complications, particularly pneumothorax. Various risk factors for complications associated with thoracentesis have recently been identified, including an inexperienced operator; an inadequate or inexperienced support team; the lack of a standardized protocol; and the lack of ultrasound guidance. We sought to determine whether ultrasound-guided thoracentesis can reduce the risk of pneumothorax and improve outcomes (fewer procedures without fluid removal and greater volumes of fluid removed during the procedures). In our comparison of thoracentesis with and without ultrasound guidance, all procedures were performed by a team of expert pulmonologists, using the same standardized protocol in both conditions. METHODS: A total of 160 participants were randomly allocated to undergo thoracentesis with or without ultrasound guidance (n = 80 per group). The primary outcome was pneumothorax following thoracentesis. Secondary outcomes included the number of procedures without fluid removal and the volume of fluid drained during the procedure. RESULTS: Pneumothorax occurred in 1 of the 80 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided thoracentesis and in 10 of the 80 patients who underwent thoracentesis without ultrasound guidance, the difference being statistically significant (p = 0.009). Fluid was removed in 79 of the 80 procedures performed with ultrasound guidance and in 72 of the 80 procedures performed without it. The mean volume of fluid drained was larger during the former than during the latter (960 ± 500 mL vs. 770 ± 480 mL), the difference being statistically significant (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound guidance increases the yield of thoracentesis and reduces the risk of post-procedure pneumothorax. (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-12002174 [http://www.chictr.org/en/]) PMID:24626264

    14. Significant Improvement of Thermal Stability for CeZrPrNd Oxides Simply by Supercritical CO2 Drying

      PubMed Central

      Fan, Yunzhao; Wang, Zizi; Xin, Ying; Li, Qian; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yingxia

      2014-01-01

      Pr and Nd co-doped Ce-Zr oxide solid solutions (CZPN) were prepared using co-precipitation and microemulsion methods. It is found that only using supercritical CO2 drying can result in a significant improvement of specific surface area and oxygen storage capacity at lower temperatures for CZPN after aging at 1000°C for 12 h in comparison with those using conventional air drying and even supercritical ethanol drying. Furthermore, the cubic structure was obtained in spite of the fact that the atomic ratio of Ce/(Ce+Zr+Pr+Nd) is as low as 29%. The high thermal stability can be attributed to the loosely aggregated morphology and the resultant Ce enrichment on the nanoparticle surface, which are caused by supercritical CO2 drying due to the elimination of surface tension effects on the gas-liquid interface. PMID:24516618

    15. Significant improvement of thermal stability for CeZrPrNd oxides simply by supercritical CO(2) drying.

      PubMed

      Fan, Yunzhao; Wang, Zizi; Xin, Ying; Li, Qian; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yingxia

      2014-01-01

      Pr and Nd co-doped Ce-Zr oxide solid solutions (CZPN) were prepared using co-precipitation and microemulsion methods. It is found that only using supercritical CO(2) drying can result in a significant improvement of specific surface area and oxygen storage capacity at lower temperatures for CZPN after aging at 1000°C for 12 h in comparison with those using conventional air drying and even supercritical ethanol drying. Furthermore, the cubic structure was obtained in spite of the fact that the atomic ratio of Ce/(Ce+Zr+Pr+Nd) is as low as 29%. The high thermal stability can be attributed to the loosely aggregated morphology and the resultant Ce enrichment on the nanoparticle surface, which are caused by supercritical CO(2) drying due to the elimination of surface tension effects on the gas-liquid interface. PMID:24516618

    16. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of α -Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris.

      PubMed

      Wang, Jian-Rong; Li, Yang-Yuan; Liu, Dan-Ni; Liu, Jing-Shan; Li, Peng; Chen, Li-Zhi; Xu, Shu-De

      2015-01-01

      α-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis), the α-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168 h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000 U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for α-amylase production in industrial use. PMID:26171389

    17. Zero Valent Iron Significantly Enhances Methane Production from Waste Activated Sludge by Improving Biochemical Methane Potential Rather Than Hydrolysis Rate

      PubMed Central

      Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

      2015-01-01

      Anaerobic digestion has been widely applied for waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment. However, methane production from anaerobic digestion of WAS is usually limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor biochemical methane potential of WAS. This work systematically studied the effects of three different types of zero valent iron (i.e., iron powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap) on methane production from WAS in anaerobic digestion, by using both experimental and mathematical approaches. The results demonstrated that both the clean and the rusty iron scrap were more effective than the iron powder for improving methane production from WAS. Model-based analysis showed that ZVI addition significantly enhanced methane production from WAS through improving the biochemical methane potential of WAS rather than its hydrolysis rate. Economic analysis indicated that the ZVI-based technology for enhancing methane production from WAS is economically attractive, particularly considering that iron scrap can be freely acquired from industrial waste. Based on these results, the ZVI-based anaerobic digestion process of this work could be easily integrated with the conventional chemical phosphorus removal process in wastewater treatment plant to form a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach, enabling maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving enhanced methane production in wastewater treatment system. PMID:25652244

    18. The crystallization of apo-form UMP kinase from Xanthomonas campestris is significantly improved in a strong magnetic field

      SciTech Connect

      Tu, Jhe-Le; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

      2007-05-01

      A bacterial UMP kinase from the plant pathogen X. campestris pathovar campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized in a strong magnetic field. The crystals diffracted to 2.35 Å. Bacterial UMP kinases (UMPKs) are crucial enzymes that are responsible for microbial UTP biosynthesis. Interestingly, eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells use different enzymes for UMP-phosphorylation reactions. Prokaryotic UMPKs are thus believed to be potential targets for antimicrobial drug development. Here, the cloning, expression and crystallization of SeMet-substituted XC1936, a bacterial UMPK from Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris, are reported. The crystallization of the apo-form UMPK was found to be significantly improved in a strong magnetic field; the crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.35 Å, a dramatic improvement over the original value of 3.6 Å. Preliminary structural analyses of apo-form XC1936 using crystals grown in a strong magnetic field clearly reveal well defined loop regions involved in substrate-analogue binding that were previously not visible. Crystallization in a strong magnetic field thus was found to be indispensable in determining the flexible region of the XC1936 UMPK structure.

    19. Zero Valent Iron Significantly Enhances Methane Production from Waste Activated Sludge by Improving Biochemical Methane Potential Rather Than Hydrolysis Rate

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

      2015-02-01

      Anaerobic digestion has been widely applied for waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment. However, methane production from anaerobic digestion of WAS is usually limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor biochemical methane potential of WAS. This work systematically studied the effects of three different types of zero valent iron (i.e., iron powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap) on methane production from WAS in anaerobic digestion, by using both experimental and mathematical approaches. The results demonstrated that both the clean and the rusty iron scrap were more effective than the iron powder for improving methane production from WAS. Model-based analysis showed that ZVI addition significantly enhanced methane production from WAS through improving the biochemical methane potential of WAS rather than its hydrolysis rate. Economic analysis indicated that the ZVI-based technology for enhancing methane production from WAS is economically attractive, particularly considering that iron scrap can be freely acquired from industrial waste. Based on these results, the ZVI-based anaerobic digestion process of this work could be easily integrated with the conventional chemical phosphorus removal process in wastewater treatment plant to form a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach, enabling maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving enhanced methane production in wastewater treatment system.

    20. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of α-Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris

      PubMed Central

      Wang, Jian-Rong; Li, Yang-Yuan; Liu, Dan-Ni; Liu, Jing-Shan; Li, Peng; Chen, Li-Zhi; Xu, Shu-De

      2015-01-01

      α-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis), the α-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168 h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000 U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for α-amylase production in industrial use. PMID:26171389

    1. Complete Au@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced plasmonic absorption enabling significantly improved photocatalysis

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sun, Yiqiang; Sun, Yugang; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Guozhu; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Dilong; Cai, Weiping; Li, Yue; Yang, Xianfeng; Li, Cuncheng

      2016-05-01

      Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic absorption in the visible range due to the Au NP cores. They also show a significantly improved photocatalytic performance in comparison with their single-component counterparts, i.e., the Au NPs and ZnO NPs. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of the as-synthesized Au@ZnO core-shell NPs can be maintained even after many cycles of photocatalytic reaction. Our results shed light on the fact that the Au@ZnO core-shell NPs represent a promising class of candidates for applications in plasmonics, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, light harvest devices, solar energy conversion, and degradation of organic pollutants.Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic

    2. Augmented Reality Image Guidance in Minimally Invasive Prostatectomy

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Cohen, Daniel; Mayer, Erik; Chen, Dongbin; Anstee, Ann; Vale, Justin; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Edwards, Philip'eddie'

      This paper presents our work aimed at providing augmented reality (AR) guidance of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALP) using the da Vinci system. There is a good clinical case for guidance due to the significant rate of complications and steep learning curve for this procedure. Patients who were due to undergo robotic prostatectomy for organ-confined prostate cancer underwent preoperative 3T MRI scans of the pelvis. These were segmented and reconstructed to form 3D images of pelvic anatomy. The reconstructed image was successfully overlaid onto screenshots of the recorded surgery post-procedure. Surgeons who perform minimally-invasive prostatectomy took part in a user-needs analysis to determine the potential benefits of an image guidance system after viewing the overlaid images. All surgeons stated that the development would be useful at key stages of the surgery and could help to improve the learning curve of the procedure and improve functional and oncological outcomes. Establishing the clinical need in this way is a vital early step in development of an AR guidance system. We have also identified relevant anatomy from preoperative MRI. Further work will be aimed at automated registration to account for tissue deformation during the procedure, using a combination of transrectal ultrasound and stereoendoscopic video.

    3. Combat-Related Intradural Gunshot Wound to the Thoracic Spine: Significant Improvement and Neurologic Recovery Following Bullet Removal

      PubMed Central

      Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H

      2015-01-01

      The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury. PMID:25705346

    4. A Matter of Timing: Identifying Significant Multi-Dose Radiotherapy Improvements by Numerical Simulation and Genetic Algorithm Search

      PubMed Central

      Angus, Simon D.; Piotrowska, Monika Joanna

      2014-01-01

      -effecitive means of significantly improving clinical efficacy. PMID:25460164

    5. Research And Innovation In Elementary School Guidance And Counseling

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Keat, Donald B., II

      1973-01-01

      Elementary school teachers were trained in seven guidance learnings over a two-day span so that they could use guidance approaches in their classes. The Guidance Learning Rating Scale was developed to evaluate statements before and after their exposure to confluent education activities. There were significant changes in test scores in the expect…

    6. Stressor Identification Guidance Document

      EPA Science Inventory

      EPA has made availabile the Stressor Identification Guidance Document (EPA 822-B-00-025) published under the authority of Section 304(a)(2) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This technical guidance doc...

    7. Evaluating Guidance Activities.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Sanborn, Marshall P.

      This report discusses one of the consistent problems in school counseling and guidance-that of furnishing concrete evidence concerning the effects of counseling and guidance activities on the development of children. The following causal factors are discussed: (1) the difficulty of pinning down abstractly stated goals in an operational manner at…

    8. Corporate information management guidance

      SciTech Connect

      1997-08-01

      At the request of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Information Management (IM) Council, IM representatives from nearly all Headquarters (HQ) organizations have been meeting over the past year as the Corporate Guidance Group (CGG) to develop useful and sound corporate information management (IM) guidance. The ability of the Department`s IM community to develop such unified guidance continues to be critical to the success of future Departmental IM planning processes and the establishment of a well-coordinated IM environment between Headquarters and field organizations. This report, with 26 specific corporate IM guidance items documented and unanimously agreed to, as well as 12 items recommended for further development and 3 items deferred for future consideration, represents a highly successful effort by the IM community. The effort has proven that the diverse DOE organizations can put aside individual preferences and work together towards a common and mutually beneficial goal. In examining most areas and issues associated with information management in the Department, they have developed specific, far-reaching, and useful guidance. The IM representatives recommend that the documented guidance items provided in this report and approved by the DOE IM Council be followed by all IM organizations. The representatives also strongly recommend that the guidance process developed by the CGG be the single process for developing corporate IM guidance.

    9. Guidance for Total Development.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Van Hoose, William H.

      Elementary guidance, deriving much of its content from the developmental phenomena of middle childhood, is viewed as the maximization of human potentiality in the total range of the population. Included in the list of elementary school guidance objectives are (1) aiding academic development, (2) helping children develop health self-concepts, (3)…

    10. An integrated model-based neurosurgical guidance system

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ji, Songbai; Fan, Xiaoyao; Fontaine, Kathryn; Hartov, Alex; Roberts, David; Paulsen, Keith

      2010-02-01

      Maximal tumor resection without damaging healthy tissue in open cranial surgeries is critical to the prognosis for patients with brain cancers. Preoperative images (e.g., preoperative magnetic resonance images (pMR)) are typically used for surgical planning as well as for intraoperative image-guidance. However, brain shift even at the start of surgery significantly compromises the accuracy of neuronavigation, if the deformation is not compensated for. Compensating for brain shift during surgical operation is, therefore, critical for improving the accuracy of image-guidance and ultimately, the accuracy of surgery. To this end, we have developed an integrated neurosurgical guidance system that incorporates intraoperative three-dimensional (3D) tracking, acquisition of volumetric true 3D ultrasound (iUS), stereovision (iSV) and computational modeling to efficiently generate model-updated MR image volumes for neurosurgical guidance. The system is implemented with real-time Labview to provide high efficiency in data acquisition as well as with Matlab to offer computational convenience in data processing and development of graphical user interfaces related to computational modeling. In a typical patient case, the patient in the operating room (OR) is first registered to pMR image volume. Sparse displacement data extracted from coregistered intraoperative US and/or stereovision images are employed to guide a computational model that is based on consolidation theory. Computed whole-brain deformation is then used to generate a model-updated MR image volume for subsequent surgical guidance. In this paper, we present the key modular components of our integrated, model-based neurosurgical guidance system.

    11. An ensemble strategy that significantly improves de novo assembly of microbial genomes from metagenomic next-generation sequencing data

      PubMed Central

      Deng, Xutao; Naccache, Samia N.; Ng, Terry; Federman, Scot; Li, Linlin; Chiu, Charles Y.; Delwart, Eric L.

      2015-01-01

      Next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches rapidly produce millions to billions of short reads, which allow pathogen detection and discovery in human clinical, animal and environmental samples. A major limitation of sequence homology-based identification for highly divergent microorganisms is the short length of reads generated by most highly parallel sequencing technologies. Short reads require a high level of sequence similarities to annotated genes to confidently predict gene function or homology. Such recognition of highly divergent homologues can be improved by reference-free (de novo) assembly of short overlapping sequence reads into larger contigs. We describe an ensemble strategy that integrates the sequential use of various de Bruijn graph and overlap-layout-consensus assemblers with a novel partitioned sub-assembly approach. We also proposed new quality metrics that are suitable for evaluating metagenome de novo assembly. We demonstrate that this new ensemble strategy tested using in silico spike-in, clinical and environmental NGS datasets achieved significantly better contigs than current approaches. PMID:25586223

    12. Novel ventilation design of combining spacer and mesh structure in sports T-shirt significantly improves thermal comfort.

      PubMed

      Sun, Chao; Au, Joe Sau-chuen; Fan, Jintu; Zheng, Rong

      2015-05-01

      This paper reports on novel ventilation design in sports T-shirt, which combines spacer and mesh structure, and experimental evidence on the advantages of design in improving thermal comfort. Evaporative resistance (Re) and thermal insulation (Rc) of T-shirts were measured using a sweating thermal manikin under three different air velocities. Moisture permeability index (i(m)) was calculated to compare the different designed T-shirts. The T-shirts of new and conventional designs were also compared by wearer trials, which were comprised of 30 min treadmill running followed by 10 min rest. Skin temperature, skin relative humidity, heart rate, oxygen inhalation and energy expenditure were monitored, and subjective sensations were asked. Results demonstrated that novel T-shirt has 11.1% significant lower im than control sample under windy condition. The novel T-shirt contributes to reduce the variation of skin temperature and relative humidity up to 37% and 32%, as well as decrease 3.3% energy consumption during exercise. PMID:25683541

    13. First significant image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory

      SciTech Connect

      Olivier, S.S.; Max, C.E.; Friedman, H.W.; An, J.; Avicola, K.; Beeman, B.V.; Bissinger, H.D.; Brase, J.M.; Erbert, G.V.; Gavel, D.T.; Kanz, K.; Macintosh, B.; Neeb, K.P.; Waltjen, K.E.

      1997-07-14

      Atmospheric turbulence severely limits the resolution of ground-based telescopes. Adaptive optics can correct for the aberrations caused by the atmosphere, but requires a bright wavefront reference source in close angular proximity to the object being imaged. Since natural reference stars of the necessary brightness are relatively rare, methods of generating artificial reference beacons have been under active investigation for more than a decade. In this paper, we report the first significant image improvement achieved using a sodium-layer laser guide star as a wavefront reference for a high- order adaptive optics system. An artificial beacon was created by resonant scattering from atomic sodium in the mesosphere, at an altitude of 95 km. Using this laser guide star, an adaptive optics system on the 3 m Shane Telescope at Lick Observatory produced a factor of 2.4 increase in peak intensity and a factor of 2 decrease in full width at half maximum of a stellar image, compared with image motion compensation alone. The Strehl ratio when using the laser guide star as the reference was 65% of that obtained with a natural guide star, and the image full widths at half maximum were identical, 0.3 arc sec, using either the laser or the natural guide star. This sodium-layer laser guide star technique holds great promise for the world`s largest telescopes. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

    14. Proposed fish passage improvements at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, Umatilla River, Oregon: Finding of no significant impact

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1986-05-01

      The Bureau of Reclamation proposes to administer the construction of fish passage and protective facilities at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam on the Umatilla River in Oregon to increase the numbers of anadromous fish. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to provide funding for the project. These agencies' actions would implement section 904(d) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program which addresses the provision of offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric project development and operations throughout the Columbia River Basin. This Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) decision document for both agencies. The proposed action would improve both upstream and downstream passage by providing a new right bank ladder on Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, modifying the existing left bank ladder, and installing rotary drum fish screens and related structures on the adjacent West Extension Irrigation District (WEID) Canal. Four other alternatives are considered in the environmental assessment (EA): a concrete apron plus a left bank ladder; a cap on the crest of the dam plus a left bank ladder; dam removal; and no action. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

    15. Shuttle entry guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Harpold, J. C.; Graves, C. A., Jr.

      1978-01-01

      This paper describes the design of the entry guidance for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This guidance provides the steering commands for trajectory control from initial penetration of the earth's atmosphere until the terminal area guidance is activated at an earth-relative speed of 2500 fps. At this point, the Orbiter is at a distance of about 50 nmi from the runway threshold, and at an altitude of about 80,000 ft. The entry guidance design is based on an analytic solution of the equations of motion defining the drag acceleration profile that meets the terminal criteria of the entry flight while maintaining the flight within systems and operational constraints. Guidance commands, which are based on a control law that ensures damping of oscillatory type trajectory motion, are computed to steer the Orbiter to this drag acceleration profile.

    16. The revised HSE fatigue guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Stacey, A.; Sharp, J.V.

      1995-12-31

      Fatigue cracking has been a principal cause of damage to North Sea structures and consequently considerable attention has been given to the development of guidance for the prediction of fatigue performance. The fatigue guidance of the Offshore Safety Division of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) was recently revised and published, following a significant offshore industry review in the period 1987 to 1990, and is based on the results of a considerable amount of research and development work on the fatigue behavior of welded tubular and plated joints. As a result of this review, the revised fatigue guidance incorporates several new clauses and recommendations. The revised recommendations apply to joint classification, basic design S-N curves for welded joints and cast or forged steel components, the thickness effect, the effects of environment and the treatment of low and high stress ranges. Additionally, a new appendix on the derivation of stress concentration factors is included. The new clauses cover high strength steels, bolts and threaded connectors, moorings, repaired joints and the use of fracture mechanics analysis. This paper presents an overview of the revisions to the fatigue guidance, the associated background technical information and aspects of the fatigue behavior of offshore structures which are considered to require further investigation. 67 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

    17. Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System

      PubMed Central

      Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

      2015-01-01

      Abstract Prospective nonrandomized control study. The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED). Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory. The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic time, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time. A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture time(s) were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P < 0.001). The fluoroscopic times were 14.03 ± 2.54 in Group A and 25.19 ± 4.28 in Group B (P < 0.001). The preoperative location time was 4.67 ± 1.41 minutes in Group A and 6.98 ± 0.94 minutes in Group B (P < 0.001). The operation time was 79.42 ± 10.15 minutes in Group A and 89.65 ± 14.06 minutes in Group B (P

    18. 76 FR 48870 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2011-08-09

      ..., and ease of reading. The draft of this guidance issued on September 28, 2010 (75 FR 59726) and the... supersedes the guidance with the same name that issued on April 3, 2007 (72 FR 15888). II. Significance of...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological...

    19. SU-E-J-185: A Systematic Review of Breathing Guidance in Radiation Oncology and Radiology

      SciTech Connect

      Pollock, S; Keall, P; Keall, R

      2015-06-15

      Purpose: The advent of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has led to dramatic improvements in the accuracy of treatment delivery in radiotherapy. Such advancements have highlighted the deleterious impact tumor motion can have on both image quality and radiation treatment delivery. One approach to reducing tumor motion is the use of breathing guidance systems during imaging and treatment. A review of such research had not yet been performed, it was therefore our aim to perform a systematic review of breathing guidance interventions within the fields of radiation oncology and radiology. Methods: Results of online database searches were filtered in accordance to a set of eligibility criteria. The search, filtration, and analysis of articles were conducted in accordance with the PRISMAStatement reporting standard (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) utilizing the PICOS approach (Participants, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Study design). Participants: Cancer patients, healthy volunteers. Intervention: Biofeedback breathing guidance systems. Comparison: No breathing guidance of the same breathing type. Outcome: Regularity of breathing signal and anatomic/tumor motion, medical image quality, radiation treatment margins and coverage, medical imaging and radiation treatment times. Study design: Quantitative and controlled prospective or retrospective trials. Results: The systematic search yielded a total of 479 articles, which were filtered down to 27 relevant articles in accordance to the eligibility criteria. The vast majority of investigated outcomes were significantly positively impacted by the use of breathing guidance; however, this was dependent upon the nature of the breathing guidance system and study design. In 25/27 studies significant improvements from the use of breathing guidance were observed. Conclusion: The results found here indicate that further clinical studies are warranted which quantify more comprehensively the

    20. Development of Polarizable Models for Molecular Mechanical Calculations II: Induced Dipole Models Significantly Improve Accuracy of Intermolecular Interaction Energies

      PubMed Central

      Wang, Junmei; Cieplak, Piotr; Li, Jie; Wang, Jun; Cai, Qin; Hsieh, MengJuei; Lei, Hongxing; Luo, Ray; Duan, Yong

      2011-01-01

      In the companion paper, we presented a set of induced dipole interaction models using four types of screening functions, which include the Applequist (no screening), the Thole linear, the Thole exponential model, and the Thole Tinker-like (another form of exponential screening function) functions. In this work, we evaluate the performance of polarizability models using large set of amino acid analog pairs that are frequently observed in protein structures as a benchmark. For each amino acid pair we calculated quantum mechanical interaction energies at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level with the basis set superposition error (BSSE) correction and compared them with molecular mechanics results. Encouragingly, all the polarizable models significantly outperform the additive F94 and F03 models (mimicking AMBER ff94/ff99 and ff03 force fields, respectively) in reproducing the BSSE-corrected quantum mechanical interaction energies. Particularly, the root-mean-square errors (RMSE) for three Thole models in Set A (where the 1–2 and 1–3 interactions are turned off and all 1–4 interactions are included) are 1.456, 1.417 and 1.406 kcal/mol for Model AL (Thole Linear), Model AE (Thole exponential) and Model AT (Thole Tinker-like), respectively. In contrast, the RMSE are 3.729 and 3.433 kcal/mol for F94 and F03 models, respectively. A similar trend was observed for the average unsigned errors (AUE), which are 1.057, 1.025, 1.011, 2.219 and 2.070 kcal/mol for AL, AE, AT, F94/ff99 and F03, respectively. Analyses based on the trend line slopes indicate that the two fixed charge models substantially underestimate the relative strengths of non-charge-charge interactions by 24% (F03) and 35% (F94), respectively, whereas the four polarizable models over-estimate the relative strengths by 5% (AT), 3% (AL, AE) and 13% (AA), respectively. Agreement was further improved by adjusting the van der Waals parameters. Judging from the notably improved accuracy in comparison to

    1. Development of polarizable models for molecular mechanical calculations II: induced dipole models significantly improve accuracy of intermolecular interaction energies.

      PubMed

      Wang, Junmei; Cieplak, Piotr; Li, Jie; Wang, Jun; Cai, Qin; Hsieh, MengJuei; Lei, Hongxing; Luo, Ray; Duan, Yong

      2011-03-31

      In the companion paper, we presented a set of induced dipole interaction models using four types of screening functions, which include the Applequist (no screening), the Thole linear, the Thole exponential model, and the Thole Tinker-like (another form of exponential screening function) functions. In this work, we evaluate the performance of polarizability models using a large set of amino acid analog pairs in conformations that are frequently observed in protein structures as a benchmark. For each amino acid pair, we calculated quantum mechanical interaction energies at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level with the basis set superposition error (BSSE) correction and compared them with molecular mechanics results. Encouragingly, all polarizable models significantly outperform the additive F94 and F03 models (mimicking AMBER ff94/ff99 and ff03 force fields, respectively) in reproducing the BSSE-corrected quantum mechanical interaction energies. In particular, the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for three Thole models in Set A (where the 1-2 and 1-3 interactions are turned off and all 1-4 interactions are included) are 1.456, 1.417, and 1.406 kcal/mol for model AL (Thole Linear), model AE (Thole exponential), and model AT (Thole Tinker-like), respectively. In contrast, the RMSEs are 3.729 and 3.433 kcal/mol for F94 and F03 models, respectively. A similar trend was observed for the average unsigned errors (AUEs), which are 1.057, 1.025, 1.011, 2.219, and 2.070 kcal/mol for AL, AE, AT, F94/ff99, and F03, respectively. Analyses based on the trend line slopes indicate that the two fixed charge models substantially underestimate the relative strengths of noncharge-charge interactions by 24 (F03) and 35% (F94), respectively, whereas the four polarizable models overestimate the relative strengths by 5 (AT), 3 (AL, AE), and 13% (AA), respectively. Agreement was further improved by adjusting the van der Waals parameters. Judging from the notably improved accuracy in

    2. Entry Guidance for the Reusable Launch Vehicle

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lu, Ping

      1999-01-01

      The X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator is a half-scale prototype developed to test the key technologies needed for a full-scale single-stage reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The X-33 is a suborbital vehicle that will be launched vertically, and land horizontally. The goals of this research were to develop an alternate entry guidance scheme for the X-33 in parallel to the actual X-33 entry guidance algorithms, provide comparative and complementary study, and identify potential new ways to improve entry guidance performance. Toward these goals, the nominal entry trajectory is defined by a piecewise linear drag-acceleration-versus-energy profile, which is in turn obtained by the solution of a semi-analytical parameter optimization problem. The closed-loop guidance is accomplished by tracking the nominal drag profile with primarily bank-angle modulation on-board. The bank-angle is commanded by a single full-envelope nonlinear trajectory control law. Near the end of the entry flight, the guidance logic is switched to heading control in order to meet strict conditions at the terminal area energy management interface. Two methods, one on ground-track control and the other on heading control, were proposed and examined for this phase of entry guidance where lateral control is emphasized. Trajectory dispersion studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the entry guidance algorithms against a number of uncertainties including those in propulsion system, atmospheric properties, winds, aerodynamics, and propellant loading. Finally, a new trajectory-regulation method is introduced at the end as a promising precision entry guidance method. The guidance principle is very different and preliminary application in X-33 entry guidance simulation showed high precision that is difficult to achieve by existing methods.

    3. Decrease of global methylation improves significantly hepatic differentiation of Ad-MSCs: possible future application for urea detoxification.

      PubMed

      Seeliger, C; Culmes, M; Schyschka, L; Yan, X; Damm, G; Wang, Z; Kleeff, J; Thasler, W E; Hengstler, J; Stöckle, U; Ehnert, S; Nüssler, A K

      2013-01-01

      Hepatocyte transplantation is considered to be an alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation. Cells can be used to bridge patients waiting for a donor organ, decrease mortality in acute liver failure, and support metabolic liver diseases. The limited availability of primary human hepatocytes for such applications has led to the generation of alternative hepatocyte-like cells from various adult stem or precursor cells. The aim of this study was to generate hepatocyte-like cells from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) for clinical applications, which are available "off the shelf." Epigenetic changes in hepatocyte-like cells were induced by 5-azacytidine, which, in combination with other supplements, leads to significantly improved metabolic and enzymatic activities compared to nontreated cells. Cells with sufficient hepatic features were generated with a four-step protocol: 5-azacytidine (step 1); epidermal growth factor (step 2); fibroblast growth factor-4, dexamethasone, insulin-transferrin-sodium-selenite, and nicotinamide (step 3); and hepatocyte growth factor, dexamethasone, insulin-transferrin-sodium-selenite, and nicotinamide (step 4). Generated differentiated cells had higher phase I (CYP1A1/2, CYP2E1, CYP2B6, CYP3A4) and phase II activities compared to the undifferentiated cells. A strong expression of CYP3A7 and a weak expression of 3A4, as well as the important detoxification markers α-fetoprotein and albumin, could also be detected at the mRNA level. Importantly, urea metabolism (basal, NH4-stimulated, NH4- and ornithine-stimulated) was comparable to freshly isolated human hepatocytes, and unlike cryopreserved human hepatocytes, this activity was maintained after 6 months of cryopreservation. These findings suggest that these cells may be suitable for clinical application, especially for treatment of urea cycle disorders. PMID:22507189

    4. Delayed Administration of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Conditioned Medium Significantly Improves Outcome After Retinal Ischemia in Rats

      PubMed Central

      Dreixler, John C.; Poston, Jacqueline N.; Balyasnikova, Irina; Shaikh, Afzhal R.; Tupper, Kelsey Y.; Conway, Sineadh; Boddapati, Venkat; Marcet, Marcus M.; Lesniak, Maciej S.; Roth, Steven

      2014-01-01

      Purpose. Delayed treatment after ischemia is often unsatisfactory. We hypothesized that injection of bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) conditioned medium after ischemia could rescue ischemic retina, and in this study we characterized the functional and histological outcomes and mechanisms of this neuroprotection. Methods. Retinal ischemia was produced in adult Wistar rats by increasing intraocular pressure for 55 minutes. Conditioned medium (CM) from rat BMSCs or unconditioned medium (uCM) was injected into the vitreous 24 hours after the end of ischemia. Recovery was assessed 7 days after ischemia using electroretinography, at which time we euthanized the animals and then prepared 4-μm-thick paraffin-embedded retinal sections. TUNEL and Western blot were used to identify apoptotic cells and apoptosis-related gene expression 24 hours after injections; that is, 48 hours after ischemia. Protein content in CM versus uCM was studied using tandem mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics methods were used to model protein interactions. Results. Intravitreal injection of CM 24 hours after ischemia significantly improved retinal function and attenuated cell loss in the retinal ganglion cell layer. CM attenuated postischemic apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression. By spectral counting, 19 proteins that met stringent identification criteria were increased in the CM compared to uCM; the majority were extracellular matrix proteins that mapped into an interactional network together with other proteins involved in cell growth and adhesion. Conclusions. By restoring retinal function, attenuating apoptosis, and preventing retinal cell loss after ischemia, CM is a robust means of delayed postischemic intervention. We identified some potential candidate proteins for this effect. PMID:24699381

    5. [A CASE OF ADVANCED BLADDER NEUROENDOCRINE CARCINOMA (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA) SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED BY LOW DOSE OF ORAL TEGAFUR-URACIL].

      PubMed

      Nomi, Hayahito; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Minami, Koichiro; Maenosono, Ryoichi; Matsunaga, Tomohisa; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Tsujino, Takuya; Hirano, Hajime; Inamoto, Teruo; Yamamoto, Ikuhisa; Tsuji, Motomu; Kiyama, Satoshi; Azuma, Haruhito

      2015-10-01

      A 81-old-woman underwent a transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) at a nearby hospital in April 2011. The diagnosis was invasive urothelial carcinoma, G3 with a component of bladder small cell carcinoma, T1 or more. She was recommended to visit our hospital for combined modality therapy of bladder cancer, but she refused the treatment for over one year. In May 2012, she came to our hospital with the chief complaint of pain at urination. Cystoscopy revealed non-papillary sessile tumor in the top of the bladder, and CT scan demonstrated the presence of the right obturator lymph nodes swollen up to 1.2 cm in size. The second TURBT was performed and the diagnosis was bladder small cell carcinoma (pT3N2M0) according to urothelial cancer guidelines of the Japanese Urological Association (JUA). Because she strongly refused hospitalization anymore, we started daily oral intake of low dose Tegafur-Uracil (100 mg) for the treatment. After one month, the serum Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE; tumor maker of small cell cancer) level was elevated to 27.6 ng/ml and the right obturator lymph node was enlarged up to 1.9 cm. Therefore, the Trgafur-Uracil dose was increased to 200 mg daily. After then, the serum NSE level was decreased to 15.5 ng/ml following reduction in size of the obturator lymph nodes with partial response in December 2013. After two years of follow-up period, her regular urine test showed normal findings, and no apparent recurrence was detected on urinary bladder with MRI and Cystoscopy. This is a case of advanced bladder small cell carcinoma significantly improved by oral administration of Tegafur-Uracil 200 mg/day for over 2 years. PMID:26717786

    6. Understanding Teacher Effectiveness: Significant State Data Capacity Is Required to Measure and Improve Teacher Effectiveness. Data for Action 2012

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Data Quality Campaign, 2012

      2012-01-01

      States are increasingly focused on understanding and improving teacher effectiveness. There are several funding opportunities that incentivize states to use data to inform measurements of teacher effectiveness. Local, state, and federal efforts support using data to improve teacher preparation programs. Preparation programs seek "access to data…

    7. Development and application of pulmonary structure-function registration methods: towards pulmonary image-guidance tools for improved airway targeted therapies and outcomes

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Guo, Fumin; Pike, Damien; Svenningsen, Sarah; Coxson, Harvey O.; Drozd, John J.; Yuan, Jing; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

      2014-03-01

      Objectives: We aimed to develop a way to rapidly generate multi-modality (MRI-CT) pulmonary imaging structurefunction maps using novel non-rigid image registration methods. This objective is part of our overarching goal to provide an image processing pipeline to generate pulmonary structure-function maps and guide airway-targeted therapies. Methods: Anatomical 1H and functional 3He MRI were acquired in 5 healthy asymptomatic ex-smokers and 7 ex-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at inspiration breath-hold. Thoracic CT was performed within ten minutes of MRI using the same breath-hold volume. Landmark-based affine registration methods previously validated for imaging of COPD, was based on corresponding fiducial markers located in both CT and 1H MRI coronal slices and compared with shape-based CT-MRI non-rigid registration. Shape-based CT-MRI registration was developed by first identifying the shapes of the lung cavities manually, and then registering the two shapes using affine and thin-plate spline algorithms. We compared registration accuracy using the fiducial localization error (FLE) and target registration error (TRE). Results: For landmark-based registration, the TRE was 8.4±5.3 mm for whole lung and 7.8±4.6 mm for the R and L lungs registered independently (p=0.4). For shape-based registration, the TRE was 8.0±4.6 mm for whole lung as compared to 6.9±4.4 mm for the R and L lung registered independently and this difference was significant (p=0.01). The difference for shape-based (6.9±4.4 mm) and landmark-based R and L lung registration (7.8±4.6 mm) was also significant (p=.04) Conclusion: Shape-based registration TRE was significantly improved compared to landmark-based registration when considering L and R lungs independently.

    8. Aeroassist flight experiment guidance Quiet Time

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Striepe, Scott A.; Suit, William T.

      1988-01-01

      The science experiments for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) will be greatly enhanced by taking measurements with no Reaction Control System (RCS) contamination just before perigee. Methods of modifying the AFE guidance to accomplish this are discussed. Several methods that could give up to 30 seconds of quiet time were investigated and the results of these guidance modifications shown. A 20 second quiet time is definitely possible and a 30 second quiet time may be possible if the guidance can be inactive past perigee. Some of the most significant being the criterion for determining if the mission is threatened. A limited follow-on test program is outlined.

    9. Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) supply significantly improves xanthan gum production mediated by Xanthomonas campestris in vitro.

      PubMed

      Cheng, Rong; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Yongkui

      2012-05-01

      To improve xanthan gum productivity, a strategy of adding hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) was studied. The method could intensify oxygen supply through degradation of H₂O₂ to oxygen (O₂). In shake flask testing, the xanthan gum yield reached 2.8% (improved by 39.4%) when adding 12.5 mM H₂O₂ after 24 h of fermentation. In fermentor testing, it was obvious that the oxygen conditions varied with the H₂O₂ addition time. Eventually, gum yield of 4.2% (w/w) was achieved (increased by 27.3%). Compared with the method of intense mixing and increasing the air flow rate, adding H₂O₂ to improve the dissolved oxygen concentration was more effective and much better. Moreover, addition of H₂O₂ improved the quality of xanthan gum; the pyruvate content of xanthan was 4.4% (w/w), higher than that of the control (3.2%). PMID:22183692

    10. Cone beam CT guidance provides superior accuracy for complex needle paths compared with CT guidance

      PubMed Central

      Braak, S J; Fütterer, J J; van Strijen, M J L; Hoogeveen, Y L; de Lange, F; Schultze Kool, L J

      2013-01-01

      Objective: To determine the accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) guidance and CT guidance in reaching small targets in relation to needle path complexity in a phantom. Methods: CBCT guidance combines three-dimensional CBCT imaging with fluoroscopy overlay and needle planning software to provide real-time needle guidance. The accuracy of needle positioning, quantified as deviation from a target, was assessed for inplane, angulated and double angulated needle paths. Four interventional radiologists reached four targets along the three paths using CBCT and CT guidance. Accuracies were compared between CBCT and CT for each needle path and between the three approaches within both modalities. The effect of user experience in CBCT guidance was also assessed. Results: Accuracies for CBCT were significantly better than CT for the double angulated needle path (2.2 vs 6.7 mm, p<0.001) for all radiologists. CBCT guidance showed no significant differences between the three approaches. For CT, deviations increased with increasing needle path complexity from 3.3 mm for the inplane placements to 4.4 mm (p=0.007) and 6.7 mm (p<0.001) for the angulated and double angulated CT-guided needle placements, respectively. For double angulated needle paths, experienced CBCT users showed consistently higher accuracies than trained users [1.8 mm (range 1.2–2.2) vs 3.3 mm (range 2.1–7.2) deviation from target, respectively; p=0.003]. Conclusion: In terms of accuracy, CBCT is the preferred modality, irrespective of the level of user experience, for more difficult guidance procedures requiring double angulated needle paths as in oncological interventions. Advances in knowledge: Accuracy of CBCT guidance has not been discussed before. CBCT guidance allows accurate needle placement irrespective of needle path complexity. For angulated and double-angulated needle paths, CBCT is more accurate than CT guidance. PMID:23913308

    11. Microfluidic control of axonal guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gu, Ling; Black, Bryan; Ordonez, Simon; Mondal, Argha; Jain, Ankur; Mohanty, Samarendra

      2014-10-01

      The precision of axonal pathfinding and the accurate formation of functional neural circuitry are crucial for an organism during development as well as during adult central and peripheral nerve regeneration. While chemical cues are believed to be primarily responsible for axonal pathfinding, we hypothesize that forces due to localized fluid flow may directly affect neuronal guidance during early organ development. Here, we report direct evidence of fluid flow influencing axonal migration, producing turning angles of up to 90°. Microfluidic flow simulations indicate that an axon may experience significant bending force due to cross-flow, which may contribute to the observed axonal turning. This method of flow-based guidance was successfully used to fasciculate one advancing axon onto another, showcasing the potential of this technique to be used for the formation of in vitro neuronal circuits.

    12. Optical technologies for intraoperative neurosurgical guidance.

      PubMed

      Valdés, Pablo A; Roberts, David W; Lu, Fa-Ke; PhD; Golby, Alexandra

      2016-03-01

      Biomedical optics is a broadly interdisciplinary field at the interface of optical engineering, biophysics, computer science, medicine, biology, and chemistry, helping us understand light-tissue interactions to create applications with diagnostic and therapeutic value in medicine. Implementation of biomedical optics tools and principles has had a notable scientific and clinical resurgence in recent years in the neurosurgical community. This is in great part due to work in fluorescence-guided surgery of brain tumors leading to reports of significant improvement in maximizing the rates of gross-total resection. Multiple additional optical technologies have been implemented clinically, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and imaging, optical coherence tomography, Raman spectroscopy and imaging, and advanced quantitative methods, including quantitative fluorescence and lifetime imaging. Here we present a clinically relevant and technologically informed overview and discussion of some of the major clinical implementations of optical technologies as intraoperative guidance tools in neurosurgery. PMID:26926066

    13. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mendeck, Gavin F.

      2011-01-01

      The Mars Science Laboratory will be the first Mars mission to attempt a guided entry with the objective of safely delivering the entry vehicle to a survivable parachute deploy state within 12.5 km of the pre-designated parachute deploy coordinates. The Entry Terminal Point Controller guidance algorithm is derived from the final phase Apollo Command Module guidance and, like Apollo, modulates the bank angle to control range based on deviations in range, altitude rate, and drag acceleration from a reference trajectory. For application to Mars landers which must make use of the tenuous Martian atmosphere, it is critical to balance the lift of the vehicle to minimize the range while still ensuring a safe deploy altitude. An overview of the process to generate optimized guidance settings is presented, discussing improvements made over the last nine years. Performance tradeoffs between ellipse size and deploy altitude will be presented, along with imposed constraints of entry acceleration and heating. Performance sensitivities to the bank reversal deadbands, heading alignment, attitude initialization error, and entry delivery errors are presented.

    14. On the design of fuzzified trajectory shaping guidance law.

      PubMed

      Lin, Chun-Liang; Lin, Yu-Ping; Chen, Kai-Ming

      2009-04-01

      Midcourse guidance is commonly designed to save as much energy as possible so that the missile's final speed can be maximized while entering the homing stage. For this purpose, a competitive guidance design should be able to generate an admissible flight trajectory as to bring the interceptor to a superior altitude for a favorable target engagement. In this paper, a new adaptive trajectory shaping guidance scheme based on the adaptive fuzzy inference system, which is capable of generating a variety of trajectories for efficient target interception, is presented. The guidance law is developed with the aim of saving the interceptor's energy conservation while improving performance robustness. Applications of the presented approach have included a variety of mission oriented guidance, such as cruise missile guidance, anti-ballistic missile guidance, etc. PMID:19054508

    15. Significant Improvement in Sleep in People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Residential Settings by Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hylkema, T.; Vlaskamp, C.

      2009-01-01

      Background: Although about 15 to 50 percent of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in residential settings suffer from sleep problems, scant attention is paid to these problems. Most available studies focus on pharmaceutical solutions. In this study we focus on improving sleep in people with intellectual disabilities living in…

    16. Comprehensive Guidance Programs That Work.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gysbers, Norman C.; And Others

      This monograph describes how the comprehensive guidance model is transforming elementary-secondary school guidance and counseling programs in schools across the country. It incorporates the ideas and experiences of 12 guidance program developers in the actual use of the comprehensive guidance model in diverse school and cultural settings. The book…

    17. Transsphenoidal pituitary resection with intraoperative MR guidance: preliminary results

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pergolizzi, Richard S., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard B.; Hsu, Liangge; Wong, Terence Z.; Black, Peter M.; Martin, Claudia; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

      1999-05-01

      The use of intraoperative MR image guidance has the potential to improve the precision, extent and safety of transsphenoidal pituitary resections. At Brigham and Women's Hospital, an open-bore configuration 0.5T MR system (SIGNA SP, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) has been used to provide image guidance for nine transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma resections. The intraoperative MR system allowed the radiologist to direct the surgeon toward the sella turcica successfully while avoiding the cavernous sinus, optic chiasm and other sensitive structures. Imaging performed during the surgery monitored the extent of resection and allowed for removal of tumor beyond the surgeon's view in five cases. Dynamic MR imaging was used to distinguish residual tumor from normal gland and postoperative changes permitting more precise tumor localization. A heme-sensitive long TE gradient echo sequence was used to evaluate for the presence of hemorrhagic debris. All patients tolerated the procedure well without significant complications.

    18. Video guidance sensor

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Howard, Richard

      1991-01-01

      A Martin-Marietta study comparing the application of laser, video, or RF sensors was conducted in 1982. The study concluded that video was the most attractive sensor (the video also could be used for operator monitoring). The Retro-Reflector field Tracker from the Solar Array Flight Experiment was chosen as a 'first generation' sensor and integrated with guidance algorithms for evaluation on the air-bearing vehicle. Results indicated that this sensor was not applicable for the noise environment posed by the multi-layer insulation used on most spacecraft. A 'second generation' sensor was developed to be used with a modified RMS target. This sensor utilized two sets of laser diodes to acquire three optically filtered targets. The targets were illuminated first with a 780 nanometer diode, followed by illumination with a 830 nm diode. The second digitized picture was subtracted from the first to get a low-noise image. The centroids of the retroreflectors were used then to uniquely derive target attitude and range. The sensor presently operates to 80 feet and within +/- 40 degrees in pitch and yaw. Sensor operability is a concern if the sun is within a +/- 40 degree cone angle to the target. The present sensor performance characteristics are less than 1 percent range error and less than 1 degree angle error. Future sensor development is anticipated to extend the operating range to 150 feet and reduce the cone angle of sensor inoperability to within +/- 10 degrees of direct sunlight. Performance improvements also are anticipated. TRW currently is developing a system that utilizes dual cameras with simultaneous diode illumination. Although further development is being pursued, the basic system has proven sound, and the sensor is essentially ready for application.

    19. Brief Communication: Upper-air relaxation in RACMO2 significantly improves modelled interannual surface mass balance variability in Antarctica

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      van de Berg, Willem Jan; Medley, Brooke

      2016-03-01

      The Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2) has been a powerful tool for improving surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from GCMs or reanalyses. However, new yearly SMB observations for West Antarctica show that the modelled interannual variability in SMB is poorly simulated by RACMO2, in contrast to ERA-Interim, which resolves this variability well. In an attempt to remedy RACMO2 performance, we included additional upper-air relaxation (UAR) in RACMO2. With UAR, the correlation to observations is similar for RACMO2 and ERA-Interim. The spatial SMB patterns and ice-sheet-integrated SMB modelled using UAR remain very similar to the estimates of RACMO2 without UAR. We only observe an upstream smoothing of precipitation in regions with very steep topography like the Antarctic Peninsula. We conclude that UAR is a useful improvement for regional climate model simulations, although results in regions with steep topography should be treated with care.

    20. Vocational Guidance and the Labour Market: Guidance to Transform or Guidance to Domesticate?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kann, Ulla

      1988-01-01

      Explores the conflict in guidance arising from the desire to consider the needs of society while guaranteeing individual freedom of choice. Discusses the theoretical basis of vocational guidance. Gives examples of "domestication" and "transformation" approaches to guidance and discusses the consequences of viewing guidance as a change strategy.(KO)

    1. Highly Asymmetric n(+) -p Heterojunction Quantum-Dot Solar Cells with Significantly Improved Charge-Collection Efficiencies.

      PubMed

      Choi, Min-Jae; Kim, Sunchuel; Lim, Hunhee; Choi, Jaesuk; Sim, Dong Min; Yim, Soonmin; Ahn, Byung Tae; Kim, Jin Young; Jung, Yeon Sik

      2016-03-01

      The depletion region width of metal-oxide/quantum-dot (QD) heterojunction solar cells is increased by a new method in which heavily boron-doped n(+) -ZnO is employed. It is effectively increased in the QD layer by 30% compared to the counterpart with conventional n-ZnO, and provides 41% and 37% improvement of Jsc (16.7 mA cm(-2) to 23.5 mA cm(-2) ) and power conversion efficiency (5.52% to 7.55%), respectively. PMID:26689133

    2. [Significance of intermittent CDDP therapy for improving long-term prognosis in patients with advanced ovarian cancer].

      PubMed

      Umesaki, N; Yamamoto, A; Nakano, M; Matsumoto, Y; Tsuda, K; Kawabata, M; Sugawa, T

      1991-12-01

      In cases of advanced ovarian cancer, intermittent CDDP therapy (ICDDPT) was applied after the first operation and induction chemotherapy, and its efficacy and limit were studied. One cycle of this therapy involved consecutive 5 day CDDP treatment (25-30mg/body/day). The therapy was repeated at intervals of 3 months. In many cases, ovarian cancer was histologically rated as epithelial adenocarcinoma. The study included 18 cases in total. ICDDPT was applied to 13 cases in which no tumor mass was detected by second look operation (SLO) or which showed clinical remission after operation. Only 3 of these 13 cases showed recurrence, and all these 13 are still living. Of the 5 cases in which SLO disclosed a tumor mass or which did not show remission after the first operation, 2 died. When the survival rate after ICDDPT was compared by the Kaplan-Meier method with that of controls without CDDP therapy, the effectiveness of ICDDPT was demonstrated. The survival rate could therefore be improved by ICDDPT. The therapy particularly improved the long term prognosis of SLO negative cases and cases in clinical remission. It seems necessary to repeat this therapy for a long period to achieve satisfactory results. In SLO positive cases and cases without clinical remission, the therapy had only a limited effect. PMID:1744459

    3. Stochastically optimized monocular vision-based navigation and guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Watanabe, Yoko

      -effort guidance (MEG) law for multiple target tracking is applied for a guidance design to achieve the mission. Through simulations, it is shown that the control effort can be reduced by using the MEG-based guidance design instead of a conventional proportional navigation-based one. The navigation and guidance designs are implemented and evaluated in a 6 DoF UAV flight simulation. Furthermore, the vision-based obstacle avoidance system is also tested in a flight test using a balloon as an obstacle. For monocular vision-based control problems, it is well-known that the separation principle between estimation and control does not hold. In other words, that vision-based estimation performance highly depends on the relative motion of the vehicle with respect to the target. Therefore, this thesis aims to derive an optimal guidance law to achieve a given mission under the condition of using the EKF-based relative navigation. Unlike many other works on observer trajectory optimization, this thesis suggests a stochastically optimized guidance design that minimizes the expected value of a cost function of the guidance error and the control effort subject to the EKF prediction and update procedures. A suboptimal guidance law is derived based on an idea of the one-step-ahead (OSA) optimization, in which the optimization is performed under the assumption that there will be only one more final measurement at the one time step ahead. The OSA suboptimal guidance law is applied to problems of vision-based rendezvous and vision-based obstacle avoidance. Simulation results are presented to show that the suggested guidance law significantly improves the guidance performance. The OSA suboptimal optimization approach is generalized as the n-step-ahead (nSA) optimization for an arbitrary number of n. Furthermore, the nSA suboptimal guidance law is extended to the p %-ahead suboptimal guidance by changing the value of n at each time step depending on the current time. The nSA (including the OSA) and

    4. Improving Data Quality for Title I Standards, Assessments, and Accountability Reporting: Guidelines for States, LEAs, and Schools (Non-Regulatory Guidance)

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      US Department of Education, 2006

      2006-01-01

      Spurred by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001, virtually every educational reform program now includes an accountability component that requires sound data collection and reporting. Improving data quality has thus emerged as a high priority for educators and policymakers across the country. The list of programs for which data quality is…

    5. Guidance on Fiscal Year 2010 School Improvement Grants under Section 1003(g) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, US Department of Education, 2011

      2011-01-01

      The School Improvement Grants (SIG) program is authorized by section 1003(g) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA). Under section 1003(g)(1) of the ESEA, the Secretary must award grants to States to enable the States to provide subgrants to local educational agencies for the purpose of providing assistance for school…

    6. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Proposed Improvements at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Newport News, Virginia

      SciTech Connect

      N /A

      2002-07-13

      The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), in this Environmental Assessment (EA), reports the results of an analysis of the potential environmental impacts from the proposed construction of various site improvements and the proposed installation and operation of the Helios light source at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in Newport News, Virginia. Jefferson Lab is operated by the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc. (SURA) under contract to DOE. With this proposal, DOE intends to construct no more than four major two or three story additions totaling about 151,000 sq. ft. (square feet) to CEBAF Center, the main facility administration building, and the addition of three new single story and one two story operations support structures on the accelerator site. The structures are a 28,000 sq. ft. storage building, a 15,100 sq. ft. technical support building, a 3,500 sq. ft. refrigeration service building, and a two-story 22,600 sq. ft addition to the Free Electron Laser (FEL) facility. The proposed action also involves the installation and operation of the Helios (High-Energy Lithography Source) accelerator in the FEL Addition. DOE proposes to take this action to provide Jefferson Lab with improved staff and operations support facilities that, along with the operation of Helios, will provide an increased capability to facilitate accelerator and physics program operations. Support activities necessary to effect the installation and operation of Helios would begin in Fiscal Year (FY) 03. It is expected that the Helios machine should be available to serve developmental and operational activities in support of the physics program later in FY 04. In this EA, DOE presents the no action alternative, alternatives considered and dismissed, and the proposed action alternative. It also evaluates the impacts of each.

    7. MicroRNA-145 Inhibitor Significantly Improves the Development of Bovine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos In Vitro.

      PubMed

      Li, Wenzhe; Xiong, Yongjie; Wang, Fengyu; Liu, Xin; Gao, Yang; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Yaping

      2016-08-01

      Directly regulating the translation of POU5F1, SOX2, KLF4, and miRNA-145 plays an important role in maintaining the pluripotency of stem cells and the development of early embryos. In the present study, the expression model of miRNA-145 on bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos were investigated and compared. Results indicated that (1) the expression level of miRNA-145 was significantly higher in SCNT embryos than that in IVF embryos after the eight-cell stage; (2) miRNA-145 negatively regulated the POU5F1, SOX2, and KLF4 in bovine embryos; (3) decreasing the expression of miRNA-145 by the miRNA-145 inhibitor significantly enhanced the expression of these three genes and the blastocyst formation rate; it also increased the total cell number and inner cell mass ratio of the bovine day 7 SCNT embryos. In conclusion, decreasing miRNA-145 expression might be a feasible means to enhance SCNT efficiency in bovines. PMID:27459582

    8. Significantly improving stellar mass and radius estimates: a new reference function for the Δν scaling relation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Guggenberger, Elisabeth; Hekker, Saskia; Basu, Sarbani; Bellinger, Earl

      2016-08-01

      The scaling relations between global asteroseismic observables and stellar properties are widely used to estimate masses and radii of stars exhibiting solar-like oscillations. Since the mass and radius of the Sun are known independently, the Sun is commonly used as a reference to scale to. However, the validity of the scaling relations depends on the homology between the star under study and the reference star. Solar-like oscillators span a wide range of masses and metallicities, as well as evolutionary phases. Most of these stars are therefore not homologous to the Sun. This leads to errors of up to 10% (5%) in mass (radius) when using the asteroseismic scaling relations with the Sun as the reference. In this paper we derive a reference function to replace the solar-reference value used in the large-frequency-separation scaling relation. Our function is the first that depends on both effective temperature and metallicity, and is applicable from the end of the main sequence to just above the bump on the red giant branch. This reference function improves the estimates of masses and radii determined through scaling relations by a factor of 2, i.e. allows masses and radii to be recovered with an accuracy of 5% and 2%, respectively.

    9. Improving winter leaf area index estimation in coniferous forests and its significance in estimating the land surface albedo

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wang, Rong; Chen, Jing M.; Pavlic, Goran; Arain, Altaf

      2016-09-01

      Winter leaf area index (LAI) of evergreen coniferous forests exerts strong control on the interception of snow, snowmelt and energy balance. Simulation of winter LAI and associated winter processes in land surface models is challenging. Retrieving winter LAI from remote sensing data is difficult due to cloud contamination, poor illumination, lower solar elevation and higher radiation reflection by snow background. Underestimated winter LAI in evergreen coniferous forests is one of the major issues limiting the application of current remote sensing LAI products. It has not been fully addressed in past studies in the literature. In this study, we used needle lifespan to correct winter LAI in a remote sensing product developed by the University of Toronto. For the validation purpose, the corrected winter LAI was then used to calculate land surface albedo at five FLUXNET coniferous forests in Canada. The RMSE and bias values for estimated albedo were 0.05 and 0.011, respectively, for all sites. The albedo map over coniferous forests across Canada produced with corrected winter LAI showed much better agreement with the GLASS (Global LAnd Surface Satellites) albedo product than the one produced with uncorrected winter LAI. The results revealed that the corrected winter LAI yielded much greater accuracy in simulating land surface albedo, making the new LAI product an improvement over the original one. Our study will help to increase the usability of remote sensing LAI products in land surface energy budget modeling.

    10. Significantly improving stellar mass and radius estimates: a new reference function for the Δν scaling relation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Guggenberger, Elisabeth; Hekker, Saskia; Basu, Sarbani; Bellinger, Earl

      2016-08-01

      The scaling relations between global asteroseismic observables and stellar properties are widely used to estimate masses and radii of stars exhibiting solar-like oscillations. Since the mass and radius of the Sun are known independently, the Sun is commonly used as a reference to scale to. However, the validity of the scaling relations depends on the homology between the star under study and the reference star. Solar-like oscillators span a wide range of masses and metallicities, as well as evolutionary phases. Most of these stars are therefore not homologous to the Sun. This leads to errors of up to 10 per cent (5 per cent) in mass (radius) when using the asteroseismic scaling relations with the Sun as the reference. In this paper, we derive a reference function to replace the solar-reference value used in the large-frequency separation scaling relation. Our function is the first that depends on both effective temperature and metallicity, and is applicable from the end of the main sequence to just above the bump on the red giant branch. This reference function improves the estimates of masses and radii determined through scaling relations by a factor of 2, i.e. allows masses and radii to be recovered with an accuracy of 5 per cent and 2 per cent, respectively.

    11. Significantly improving stellar mass and radius estimates: A new reference function for the Δν scaling relation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Guggenberger, Elisabeth; Hekker, Saskia; Basu, Sarbani; Bellinger, Earl

      2016-06-01

      The scaling relations between global asteroseismic observables and stellar properties are widely used to estimate masses and radii of stars exhibiting solar-like oscillations. Since the mass and radius of the Sun are known independently, the Sun is commonly used as a reference to scale to. However, the validity of the scaling relations depends on the homology between the star under study and the reference star. Solar-like oscillators span a wide range of masses and metallicities, as well as evolutionary phases. Most of these stars are therefore not homologous to the Sun. This leads to errors of up to 10% (5%) in mass (radius) when using the asteroseismic scaling relations with the Sun as the reference. In this paper we derive a reference function to replace the solar-reference value used in the large-frequency-separation scaling relation. Our function is the first that depends on both effective temperature and metallicity, and is applicable from the end of the main sequence to just above the bump on the red giant branch. This reference function improves the estimates of masses and radii determined through scaling relations by a factor of 2, i.e. allows masses and radii to be recovered with an accuracy of 5% and 2%, respectively.

    12. Systematic chemical modifications of single stranded siRNAs significantly improved CTNNB1 mRNA silencing.

      PubMed

      Chang, Wonsuk; Pei, Yi; Guidry, Erin N; Zewge, Daniel; Parish, Craig A; Sherer, Edward C; DiMuzio, Jillian; Zhang, Hangchun; South, Victoria J; Strapps, Walter R; Sepp-Lorenzino, Laura; Colletti, Steven L; Stanton, Matthew G

      2016-09-15

      Single-stranded silencing RNAs (ss siRNA), while not as potent as duplex RNAs, have the potential to become a novel platform technology in RNA interference based gene silencing by virtue of their simplicity and plausibly favorable characteristics in pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Like other therapeutic pharmaceutical agents, ss siRNA can be optimized to achieve higher potency through a structure-activity based approach. Systematic chemical modification at each position of a 21-mer oligonucleotide identified 2',5'-linked 3'-deoxythymidine (3dT) at position 1 and locked nucleic acids (LNAs) at the seed region as key components to afford significant enhancement in knockdown activity both in vitro and in vivo. Further optimization by additional chemical modifications should enable ss siRNA as an alternative gene silencing modality. PMID:27503684

    13. Dimension Reduction via Unsupervised Learning Yields Significant Computational Improvements for Support Vector Machine Based Protein Family Classification.

      SciTech Connect

      Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

      2009-02-26

      Reducing the dimension of vectors used in training support vector machines (SVMs) results in a proportional speedup in training time. For large-scale problems this can make the difference between tractable and intractable training tasks. However, it is critical that classifiers trained on reduced datasets perform as reliably as their counterparts trained on high-dimensional data. We assessed principal component analysis (PCA) and sequential project pursuit (SPP) as dimension reduction strategies in the biology application of classifying proteins into well-defined functional ‘families’ (SVM-based protein family classification) by their impact on run-time, sensitivity and selectivity. Homology vectors of 4352 elements were reduced to approximately 2% of the original data size without significantly affecting accuracy using PCA and SPP, while leading to approximately a 28-fold speedup in run-time.

    14. Exploring Goals. Career Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

      Materials contained in this career guidance unit are designed to enable senior high school students to relate their abilities scores from the Developed Abilities Performance (DAP) instrument to actual vocational areas and Long Range [occupational] Goals (LRG) for later indepth study. The length of the unit is six 55-minute periods. Instructional…

    15. Differentiating Classroom Guidance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Akos, Patrick; Cockman, Caroline R.; Strickland, Cindy A.

      2007-01-01

      To differentiate is to make different, distinct, or specialized (Costello, 1994). Differentiation has become popular in education as an instructional philosophy aimed at equitably meeting the learning needs of all students in the classroom. Differentiated planning and delivery of classroom guidance is also necessary for appropriate school…

    16. The Counseling & Guidance Curriculum.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ediger, Marlow

      Counseling and guidance services are vital in any school curriculum. Counselors may themselves be dealing with students of diverse abilities and handicaps. Counselors may have to work with students affected by drug addiction, fetal alcohol syndrome, homelessness, poverty, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and divorce. Students may present…

    17. Developmental Guidance Program Implementation.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Vernon, Ann; Strub, Richard

      This packet of materials was developed for workshops provided to teams of school counselors and administrators for the purpose of developing knowledge and competencies in the delivery of a comprehensive, sequential, developmental guidance program. Section I contains a rationale, definition, and description of program components. In section II…

    18. Quality in Careers Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Plant, Peter

      This paper examines quality issues in career guidance, counseling, and information services in Europe and elsewhere from a range of different perspectives related to economic, ethical, and/or effectiveness criteria. Selected examples from the European Union member states, Canada, and the United States are used to illustrate how quality is…

    19. Vocational Development and Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Tennyson, W. Wesley; And Others

      The vocational education volume considers questions of career development, the role of guidance in the school, vocational training, the relation of self-concept to vocational choice, and occupational information. Twenty-six papers deal with theories of vocational behavior, the success of vocational education programs, and testing information.…

    20. Significantly improved dehydrogenation of ball-milled MgH2 doped with CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Shan, Jiawei; Li, Ping; Wan, Qi; Zhai, Fuqiang; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ziliang; Liu, Zhaojiang; Volinsky, Alex A.; Qu, Xuanhui

      2014-12-01

      CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are added to magnesium hydride (MgH2) by high-energy ball milling in order to improve its hydriding properties. The hydrogen storage properties and catalytic mechanism are investigated by pressure-composition-temperature (PCT), differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nonisothermal desorption results show that the onset desorption temperature of the MgH2 + 7 mol% CoFe2O4 is 160 °C, which is 200 °C lower than of the as-received MgH2. The dehydrogenation process of the MgH2 doped with the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles includes two steps. DTA curves and XRD patterns reveal that a chemical reaction happens between MgH2 and CoFe2O4, forming the final products of the ternary combination, corresponding to Co3Fe7, MgO and Co. The onset desorption temperature of the ball-milled MgH2 doped with Co3Fe7, MgO and Co is about 260 °C, approximately 100 °C lower than the un-doped MgH2, demonstrating that the ternary combination (Co3Fe7, MgO, and Co) also has a great catalytic effect on the MgH2 hydrogen storage properties. It is also confirmed that the various methods of adding the ternary combination have different effects on the MgH2 hydriding-dehydriding process.

    1. The use of predictive lithostratigraphy to significantly improve the ability to forecast reservoir and source rocks? Final CRADA report.

      SciTech Connect

      Doctor, R. D.; Moore, T. L.; Energy Systems

      2010-06-29

      The purpose of this CRADA, which ended in 2003, was to make reservoir and source rock distribution significantly more predictable by quantifying the fundamental controls on stratigraphic heterogeneity. To do this, the relationships among insolation, climate, sediment supply, glacioeustasy, and reservoir and source rock occurrence were investigated in detail. Work current at the inception of the CRADA had uncovered previously unrecognized associations among these processes and properties that produce a phenomenon that, when properly analyzed, will make lithostratigraphic variability (including texture, porosity, and permeability) substantially more understandable. Computer climate simulations of selected time periods, compared with the global distribution of paleoclimatic indicators, documented spatial and temporal climate changes as a function of insolation and provided quantitative changes in runoff, lake level, and glacioeustasy. The effect of elevation and climate on sediment yield was assessed numerically by analyzing digital terrain and climate data. The phase relationships of climate, yield, and glacioeustatic cycles from the Gulf of Mexico and/or other sedimentary basins were assessed by using lacunarity, a statistical technique.

    2. Combined Statistical Analyses of Peptide Intensities and Peptide Occurrences Improves Identification of Significant Peptides from MS-based Proteomics Data

      SciTech Connect

      Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; McCue, Lee Ann; Waters, Katrina M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Metz, Thomas O.; Varnum, Susan M.; Pounds, Joel G.

      2010-11-01

      Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS) proteomics uses peak intensities of proteolytic peptides to infer the differential abundance of peptides/proteins. However, substantial run-to-run variability in peptide intensities and observations (presence/absence) of peptides makes data analysis quite challenging. The missing abundance values in LC-MS proteomics data are difficult to address with traditional imputation-based approaches because the mechanisms by which data are missing are unknown a priori. Data can be missing due to random mechanisms such as experimental error, or non-random mechanisms such as a true biological effect. We present a statistical approach that uses a test of independence known as a G-test to test the null hypothesis of independence between the number of missing values and the experimental groups. We pair the G-test results evaluating independence of missing data (IMD) with a standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) that uses only means and variances computed from the observed data. Each peptide is therefore represented by two statistical confidence metrics, one for qualitative differential observation and one for quantitative differential intensity. We use two simulated and two real LC-MS datasets to demonstrate the robustness and sensitivity of the ANOVA-IMD approach for assigning confidence to peptides with significant differential abundance among experimental groups.

    3. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

      PubMed Central

      Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

      2015-01-01

      The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d−1 compared to 0.118 d−1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment. PMID:25644239

    4. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

      2015-02-01

      The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d-1 compared to 0.118 d-1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment.

    5. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection

      PubMed Central

      Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Rommelaere, Heidi; Stortelers, Catelijne; Van Gucht, Steven

      2016-01-01

      Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days) and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate), when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP. PMID:27483431

    6. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield.

      PubMed

      Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

      2015-11-01

      Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1-T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20-30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. PMID:26220082

    7. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield

      PubMed Central

      Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

      2015-01-01

      Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1–T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20–30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. PMID:26220082

    8. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection.

      PubMed

      Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Rommelaere, Heidi; Stortelers, Catelijne; Van Gucht, Steven

      2016-08-01

      Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days) and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate), when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP. PMID:27483431

    9. Guidance for the design and management of a maintenance plan to assure safety and improve the predictability of a DOE nuclear irradiation facility. Final report

      SciTech Connect

      Booth, R.S.; Kryter, R.C.; Shepard, R.L.; Smith, O.L.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Rowan, W.J.

      1994-10-01

      A program is recommended for planning the maintenance of DOE nuclear facilities that will help safety and enhance availability throughout a facility`s life cycle. While investigating the requirements for maintenance activities, a major difference was identified between the strategy suitable for a conventional power reactor and one for a research reactor facility: the latter should provide a high degree of predicted availability (referred to hereafter as ``predictability``) to its users, whereas the former should maximize total energy production. These differing operating goals necessitate different maintenance strategies. A strategy for scheduling research reactor facility operation and shutdown for maintenance must balance safety, reliability,and predicted availability. The approach developed here is based on three major elements: (1) a probabilistic risk analysis of the balance between assured reliability and predictability (presented in Appendix C), (2) an assessment of the safety and operational impact of maintenance activities applied to various components of the facility, and (3) a data base of historical and operational information on the performance and requirements for maintenance of various components. These factors are integrated into a set of guidelines for designing a new highly maintainable facility, for preparing flexible schedules for improved maintenance of existing facilities, and for anticipating the maintenance required to extend the life of an aging facility. Although tailored to research reactor facilities, the methodology has broader applicability and may therefore be used to improved the maintenance of power reactors, particularly in anticipation of peak load demands.

    10. [Auditory guidance systems for the visually impaired people].

      PubMed

      He, Jing; Nie, Min; Luo, Lan; Tong, Shanbao; Niu, Jinhai; Zhu, Yisheng

      2010-04-01

      Visually impaired people face many inconveniences because of the loss of vision. Therefore, scientists are trying to design various guidance systems for improving the lives of the blind. Based on sensory substitution, auditory guidance has become an interesting topic in the field of biomedical engineering. In this paper, we made a state-of-technique review of the auditory guidance system. Although there have been many technical challenges, the auditory guidance system would be a useful alternative for the visually impaired people. PMID:20481341

    11. Museum Personnel's Opinions on Mobile Guidance Systems

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Yoshimura, Hirokazu; Sekiguchi, Hiromi; Yabumoto, Yoshitaka

      2007-01-01

      While opinions from the general public are certainly important, opinions from the museum staff are also necessary to improve user service systems. this article introduces two groups of museum staff who have evaluated the usability of mobile guidance systems in Japanese museums. One group is the research team who used the PDA system in the National…

    12. IUS guidance algorithm gamma guide assessment

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Bray, R. E.; Dauro, V. A.

      1980-01-01

      The Gamma Guidance Algorithm which controls the inertial upper stage is described. The results of an independent assessment of the algorithm's performance in satisfying the NASA missions' targeting objectives are presented. The results of a launch window analysis for a Galileo mission, and suggested improvements are included.

    13. Movement Strategy Discovery during Training via Haptic Guidance.

      PubMed

      Gibo, Tricia L; Abbink, David A

      2016-01-01

      Haptic guidance has previously been investigated to facilitate motor skill training, whereupon a robotic device assists a trainee in executing the desired movement. However, many studies have reported a null or even detrimental effect of haptic guidance on training compared to unassisted practice. While prior studies have focused on using haptic guidance to refine a movement strategy, our study explores its effect on the discovery of a new strategy. Subjects learned to manipulate a virtual under-actuated system via a haptic device either with or without haptic guidance (and without haptic feedback of system dynamics). The guidance enabled subjects to experience a range of successful movements, rather than strictly enforcing one trajectory. Subjects who trained with guidance adopted a strategy that involved faster reaches, required greater control of the system's degrees of freedom, and increased the potential for faster task completion. However, overall improvement of task performance was limited with the new strategy. PMID:26766379

    14. Framework Based Guidance Navigation and Control Flight Software Development

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      McComas, David

      2007-01-01

      This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's guidance navigation and control flight software development background. The contents include: 1) NASA/Goddard Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) Flight Software (FSW) Development Background; 2) GN&C FSW Development Improvement Concepts; and 3) GN&C FSW Application Framework.

    15. Needed Concepts in Elementary Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Warner, Tom, Ed.

      School administrators and developmental guidance is the topic of the first speech. Developmental guidance, concerned with personalizing the educational experience, should be available to each child to gain self-understanding. Major responsibilities of the elementary guidance department are pupil appraisal, consultation, and developmental…

    16. New Interpretations of Guidance Role

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kerlan, Julius H.; Ryan, Charles W.

      1972-01-01

      A panoramic view of Guidance Division general sessions and workshops covering some exemplary career guidance programs, as well as such topics as career choice, leadership, evaluation, and program development and management. Presented at the Guidance division session of the American Vocational Association 1971 annual meeting. (Editor/MU)

    17. A translation table for patient-centered comparative effectiveness research: guidance to improve the value of research for clinical and health policy decision-making.

      PubMed

      Tunis, Sean R; Messner, Donna A; Mohr, Penny; Gliklich, Richard E; Dubois, Robert W

      2012-05-01

      This article provides background and context for a series of papers stemming from a collaborative effort by Outcome Sciences, Inc., the National Pharmaceutical Council and the Center for Medical Technology Policy to use a stakeholder-driven process to develop a decision tool to select appropriate methods for comparative effectiveness research. The perceived need and origins of the 'translation table' concept for method selection are described and the legislative history and role of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute are reviewed. The article concludes by stressing the significance of this effort for future health services and clinical research, and the importance of consulting end-users--patients, providers, payers and policy-makers--in the process of defining research questions and approaches to them. PMID:24237407

    18. Trajectory shaping rendezvous guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Klumpp, A. R.

      The Space Station will bring a great increase in rendezvous traffic. Formerly, rendezvous has been expensive in terms of time and crew involvement. Multiple trajectory adjustments on separate orbits have been required to meet safety, lighting, and geometry requirements. This paper describes a new guidance technique in which the approach trajectory is shaped by a sequence of velocity increments in order to satisfy multiple constraints within a single orbit. The approach phase is planned before the mission, leaving a group of free parameters that are optimized by onboard guidance. Fuel penalties are typically a few percent, compared to unshaped Hohmann transfers, and total fuel costs can be less than those of more time-consuming ways of meeting the same requirements.

    19. Flight Guidance System Requirements Specification

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Miller, Steven P.; Tribble, Alan C.; Carlson, Timothy M.; Danielson, Eric J.

      2003-01-01

      This report describes a requirements specification written in the RSML-e language for the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System of a typical regional jet aircraft. This model was created as one of the first steps in a five-year project sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center, Rockwell Collins Inc., and the Critical Systems Research Group of the University of Minnesota to develop new methods and tools to improve the safety of avionics designs. This model will be used to demonstrate the application of a variety of methods and techniques, including safety analysis of system and subsystem requirements, verification of key properties using theorem provers and model checkers, identification of potential sources mode confusion in system designs, partitioning of applications based on the criticality of system hazards, and autogeneration of avionics quality code. While this model is representative of the mode logic of a typical regional jet aircraft, it does not describe an actual or planned product. Several aspects of a full Flight Guidance System, such as recovery from failed sensors, have been omitted, and no claims are made regarding the accuracy or completeness of this specification.

    20. Environmental guidance regulatory bulletin

      SciTech Connect

      1997-01-31

      This document describes the background on expanding public participation in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and DOE`s response. The bulletin also describes the changes made by the final rule to existing regulations, guidance provided by EPA in the preamble and in the revised RCRA Public Participation Manual, the relationship between public participation and environmental justice, and DOE`s recent public participation and environmental justice initiatives.

    1. The Possible Relationship of the California Master Plan for Special Education to the State Department of Education Bureau of Pupil Personnel Services Plan for Improvement of Guidance Services in California Relative to Delivery of Services to Handicapped Pupils: Who's On First?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mendocino County Office of Education, Ukiah, CA.

      Service delivery to handicapped pupils is discussed in regard to the relationship between the California Master Plan for Special Education (see EC 062 915) and the Bureau of Pupil Personnel's Plan for Improvement of Guidance Services. The goals, benefits and limitations of both plans are described; and each plan is examined and compared in terms…

    2. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

      SciTech Connect

      OHARA,J.; BROWN,W.; STUBLER,W.; HIGGINS,J.; WACHTEL,J.; PERSENSKY,J.J.

      2000-07-30

      The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ``Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1.

    3. VTOL shipboard letdown guidance system analysis

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Phatak, A. V.; Karmali, M. S.

      1983-01-01

      Alternative letdown guidance strategies are examined for landing of a VTOL aircraft onboard a small aviation ship under adverse environmental conditions. Off line computer simulation of shipboard landing task is utilized for assessing the relative merits of the proposed guidance schemes. The touchdown performance of a nominal constant rate of descent (CROD) letdown strategy serves as a benchmark for ranking the performance of the alternative letdown schemes. Analysis of ship motion time histories indicates the existence of an alternating sequence of quiescent and rough motions called lulls and swells. A real time algorithms lull/swell classification based upon ship motion pattern features is developed. The classification algorithm is used to command a go/no go signal to indicate the initiation and termination of an acceptable landing window. Simulation results show that such a go/no go pattern based letdown guidance strategy improves touchdown performance.

    4. Method for continuous guidance of endoscopy

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Merritt, Scott A.; Rai, Lav; Gibbs, Jason D.; Yu, Kun-Chang; Higgins, William E.

      2007-03-01

      Previous research has indicated that use of guidance systems during endoscopy can improve the performance and decrease the skill variation of physicians. Current guidance systems, however, rely on computationally intensive registration techniques or costly and error-prone electromagnetic (E/M) registration techniques, neither of which fit seamlessly into the clinical workflow. We have previously proposed a real-time image-based registration technique that addresses both of these problems. We now propose a system-level approach that incorporates this technique into a complete paradigm for real-time image-based guidance in order to provide a physician with continuously-updated navigational and guidance information. At the core of the system is a novel strategy for guidance of endoscopy. Additional elements such as global surface rendering, local cross-sectional views, and pertinent distances are also incorporated into the system to provide additional utility to the physician. Phantom results were generated using bronchoscopy performed on a rapid prototype model of a human tracheobronchial airway tree. The system has also been tested in ongoing live human tests. Thus far, ten such tests, focused on bronchoscopic intervention of pulmonary patients, have been run successfully.

    5. Human Genetic Disorders of Axon Guidance

      PubMed Central

      Engle, Elizabeth C.

      2010-01-01

      This article reviews symptoms and signs of aberrant axon connectivity in humans, and summarizes major human genetic disorders that result, or have been proposed to result, from defective axon guidance. These include corpus callosum agenesis, L1 syndrome, Joubert syndrome and related disorders, horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, Kallmann syndrome, albinism, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1, Duane retraction syndrome, and pontine tegmental cap dysplasia. Genes mutated in these disorders can encode axon growth cone ligands and receptors, downstream signaling molecules, and axon transport motors, as well as proteins without currently recognized roles in axon guidance. Advances in neuroimaging and genetic techniques have the potential to rapidly expand this field, and it is feasible that axon guidance disorders will soon be recognized as a new and significant category of human neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:20300212

    6. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

      SciTech Connect

      Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

      2005-09-30

      This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all Phase 1 testing and is planning Phase 2 development.

    7. [Guidance for education on medicines in school].

      PubMed

      Kito, Hideaki

      2013-01-01

      To promote the education on medicines in school, guidance is, as a rule, to be given in the health education of the Subject, "Health and Physical Education" indicated as a curriculum standard in lower and upper secondary school, and in the health guidance, which carry out in Special Activities and Integrated Studies, etc. Guidance is mainly carried by the teacher for health and physical in health education and school nurse teacher (yogo teacher) in health guidance. In health education we have only limited school hours, and generally use the text book. Some teachers feel resistance to teach medicines because of needs on the special knowledge, however teachers should deal with medicines based on curriculum standard. School pharmacist is a member of school, and has a special knowledge for medicines, and he/she can support teachers as a provider of teaching materials, an adviser, and for a guest teacher. It is important for school pharmacist to understand the contents indicated in curriculum standard and to use glossary to be able to understand for children. In the guidance of health, it is not necessary to teach based on curriculum standard, and it can deal with advanced contents on medicines. However it is important to understand for children what are appropriate contents according to the development stage. To use the packages and instructions for medicines provided at home are good materials for children to have interest the medicines in their guidance. The objectives of education on medicines enable children to cultivate practical abilities for the maintenance and improvement of health. PMID:24292178

    8. Health-related quality of life is impaired in primary hyperparathyroidism and significantly improves after surgery: a prospective study using the 15D instrument

      PubMed Central

      Ryhänen, Eeva M; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Sintonen, Harri; Välimäki, Matti J; Roine, Risto P; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla

      2015-01-01

      Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is frequently impaired in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) but it is unclear if surgery is beneficial. The objective was to prospectively assess HRQoL in PHPT (n=124) with the 15D instrument before and after surgery, to compare it with that of a comparable sample of the general population (n=4295), and search for predictors of HRQoL and its change. HRQoL, and clinical and laboratory parameters were measured before and at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Regression techniques were used to search for predictors of HRQoL and gains from treatment. Before surgery, PHPT patients had significantly lower mean 15D score compared to controls (0.813 vs 0.904, P<0.001). Excretion, mental function, discomfort and symptoms, distress, depression, vitality, and sexual activity were most impaired (all P<0.001). Number of medications (P=0.001) and subjective symptoms (P<0.05) but not calcium or parathyroid hormone (PTH) predicted impaired HRQoL. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was of borderline significance (P=0.051). Compared to baseline, mean 15D score improved significantly 6 months after surgery (0.813 vs 0.865, P<0.001) and the effect sustained at 1 year (0.878, P<0.001). The improvement was clinically important in 77.4% of patients (P<0.001). Educational level independently predicted improvement (P<0.005). HRQoL is severely impaired in PHPT but improves significantly after surgery. The 15D is a sensitive tool for assessing HRQoL and recognizing patients likely to benefit from surgery. PMID:26155796

    9. Health-related quality of life is impaired in primary hyperparathyroidism and significantly improves after surgery: a prospective study using the 15D instrument.

      PubMed

      Ryhänen, Eeva M; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Sintonen, Harri; Välimäki, Matti J; Roine, Risto P; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla

      2015-09-01

      Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is frequently impaired in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) but it is unclear if surgery is beneficial. The objective was to prospectively assess HRQoL in PHPT (n=124) with the 15D instrument before and after surgery, to compare it with that of a comparable sample of the general population (n=4295), and search for predictors of HRQoL and its change. HRQoL, and clinical and laboratory parameters were measured before and at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Regression techniques were used to search for predictors of HRQoL and gains from treatment. Before surgery, PHPT patients had significantly lower mean 15D score compared to controls (0.813 vs 0.904, P<0.001). Excretion, mental function, discomfort and symptoms, distress, depression, vitality, and sexual activity were most impaired (all P<0.001). Number of medications (P=0.001) and subjective symptoms (P<0.05) but not calcium or parathyroid hormone (PTH) predicted impaired HRQoL. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was of borderline significance (P=0.051). Compared to baseline, mean 15D score improved significantly 6 months after surgery (0.813 vs 0.865, P<0.001) and the effect sustained at 1 year (0.878, P<0.001). The improvement was clinically important in 77.4% of patients (P<0.001). Educational level independently predicted improvement (P<0.005). HRQoL is severely impaired in PHPT but improves significantly after surgery. The 15D is a sensitive tool for assessing HRQoL and recognizing patients likely to benefit from surgery. PMID:26155796

    10. Product Evaluation of the Counseling and Career Guidance Component of the Detroit Desegregation Court Order.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Fisher, Arnold

      The goal of the Counseling and Career Guidance Component of the Detroit (Michigan) school desegregation plan was to improve student effectiveness in the areas of personal, social, academic, and career development. Major program functions included individual and group counseling, program selection and placement guidance, career guidance, and…

    11. Station-keeping guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Gustafson, D. E.; Kriegsman, B. A.

      1972-01-01

      The station-keeping guidance system is described, which is designed to automatically keep one orbiting vehicle within a prescribed zone fixed with respect to another orbiting vehicle. The active vehicle, i.e. the one performing the station-keeping maneuvers, is referred to as the shuttle. The other passive orbiting vehicle is denoted as the workshop. The passive vehicle is assumed to be in a low-eccentricity near-earth orbit. The primary navigation sensor considered is a gimballed tracking radar located on board the shuttle. It provides data on relative range and range rate between the two vehicles. Also measured are the shaft and trunnion axes gimbal angles. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) is provided on board the orbiter. The IMU is used at all times to provide an attitude reference for the vehicle. The IMU accelerometers are used periodically to monitor the velocity-correction burns applied to the shuttle during the station-keeping mode. The guidance system is capable of station-keeping the shuttle in any arbitrary position with respect to the workshop by periodically applying velocity-correction pulses to the shuttle.

    12. Guidance of Nonlinear Systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Meyer, George

      1997-01-01

      The paper describes a method for guiding a dynamic system through a given set of points. The paradigm is a fully automatic aircraft subject to air traffic control (ATC). The ATC provides a sequence of way points through which the aircraft trajectory must pass. The way points typically specify time, position, and velocity. The guidance problem is to synthesize a system state trajectory which satisfies both the ATC and aircraft constraints. Complications arise because the controlled process is multi-dimensional, multi-axis, nonlinear, highly coupled, and the state space is not flat. In addition, there is a multitude of possible operating modes, which may number in the hundreds. Each such mode defines a distinct state space model of the process by specifying the state space coordinatization, the partition of the controls into active controls and configuration controls, and the output map. Furthermore, mode transitions must be smooth. The guidance algorithm is based on the inversion of the pure feedback approximations, which is followed by iterative corrections for the effects of zero dynamics. The paper describes the structure and modules of the algorithm, and the performance is illustrated by several example aircraft maneuvers.

    13. Bilinear tangent yaw guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Brusch, R. G.

      1979-01-01

      This paper presents a parametric yaw steering law which has been used to provide closed-loop yaw guidance for the launch of the HEAO (High Energy Astronomy Observatory) satellite mission using the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle. This bilinear tangent steering law provides near optimal yaw steering for maneuvers requiring insertion into orbits with a specified inclination and node. Bilinear tangent steering is shown to be optimal in both the pitch and yaw planes when a uniform gravitational field is assumed. The conditions under which the general bilinear tangent laws degenerate into linear tangent and constant attitude laws are presented. The flight computer implementation of these laws in a rotating coordinate system using real-time integration of the equations of motion is detailed. Explicit solution of the parametric guidance equations requires the inflight solution of (2x2) two-point boundary value problems in the pitch and yaw planes. Excellent results are obtained even for very large (greater than 50 deg) out-of-plane steering angles.

    14. Co-overexpressing a Plasma Membrane and a Vacuolar Membrane Sodium/Proton Antiporter Significantly Improves Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

      PubMed Central

      Pehlivan, Necla; Sun, Li; Jarrett, Philip; Yang, Xiaojie; Mishra, Neelam; Chen, Lin; Kadioglu, Asim; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

      2016-01-01

      The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane-bound sodium/proton (Na+/H+) antiporter that transports Na+ into the vacuole and exports H+ into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane-bound Na+/H+ antiporter that exports Na+ to the extracellular space and imports H+ into the plant cell. Plants rely on these enzymes either to keep Na+ out of the cell or to sequester Na+ into vacuoles to avoid the toxic level of Na+ in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AtNHX1 or SOS1 could improve salt tolerance in transgenic plants, but the improved salt tolerance is limited. NaCl at concentration >200 mM would kill AtNHX1-overexpressing or SOS1-overexpressing plants. Here it is shown that co-overexpressing AtNHX1 and SOS1 could further improve salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, making transgenic Arabidopsis able to tolerate up to 250 mM NaCl treatment. Furthermore, co-overexpression of AtNHX1 and SOS1 could significantly reduce yield loss caused by the combined stresses of heat and salt, confirming the hypothesis that stacked overexpression of two genes could substantially improve tolerance against multiple stresses. This research serves as a proof of concept for improving salt tolerance in other plants including crops. PMID:26985021

    15. Co-overexpressing a Plasma Membrane and a Vacuolar Membrane Sodium/Proton Antiporter Significantly Improves Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

      PubMed

      Pehlivan, Necla; Sun, Li; Jarrett, Philip; Yang, Xiaojie; Mishra, Neelam; Chen, Lin; Kadioglu, Asim; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

      2016-05-01

      The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane-bound sodium/proton (Na(+)/H(+)) antiporter that transports Na(+) into the vacuole and exports H(+) into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane-bound Na(+)/H(+) antiporter that exports Na(+) to the extracellular space and imports H(+) into the plant cell. Plants rely on these enzymes either to keep Na(+) out of the cell or to sequester Na(+) into vacuoles to avoid the toxic level of Na(+) in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AtNHX1 or SOS1 could improve salt tolerance in transgenic plants, but the improved salt tolerance is limited. NaCl at concentration >200 mM would kill AtNHX1-overexpressing or SOS1-overexpressing plants. Here it is shown that co-overexpressing AtNHX1 and SOS1 could further improve salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, making transgenic Arabidopsis able to tolerate up to 250 mM NaCl treatment. Furthermore, co-overexpression of AtNHX1 and SOS1 could significantly reduce yield loss caused by the combined stresses of heat and salt, confirming the hypothesis that stacked overexpression of two genes could substantially improve tolerance against multiple stresses. This research serves as a proof of concept for improving salt tolerance in other plants including crops. PMID:26985021

    16. Partial stabilization-based guidance.

      PubMed

      Shafiei, M H; Binazadeh, T

      2012-01-01

      A novel nonlinear missile guidance law against maneuvering targets is designed based on the principles of partial stability. It is demonstrated that in a real approach which is adopted with actual situations, each state of the guidance system must have a special behavior and asymptotic stability or exponential stability of all states is not realistic. Thus, a new guidance law is developed based on the partial stability theorem in such a way that the behaviors of states in the closed-loop system are in conformity with a real guidance scenario that leads to collision. The performance of the proposed guidance law in terms of interception time and control effort is compared with the sliding mode guidance law by means of numerical simulations. PMID:21963401

    17. Beyond Discipline to Guidance: A Primer on the Guidance Alternative.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gartrell, Dan

      As early childhood teachers apply principles of guidance rather than punishment in their classrooms, they face the challenge of avoiding a slippage into traditional discipline practices and transcending the punitive aspects of discipline. Guidance is designed to teach children democratic life skills and therefore goes beyond discipline. Teachers…

    18. EPA guidance mental health care of migrants.

      PubMed

      Bhugra, D; Gupta, S; Schouler-Ocak, M; Graeff-Calliess, I; Deakin, N A; Qureshi, A; Dales, J; Moussaoui, D; Kastrup, M; Tarricone, I; Till, A; Bassi, M; Carta, M

      2014-02-01

      Migration is an increasingly commonplace phenomenon for a number of reasons. People migrate from rural to urban areas or across borders for reasons including economic, educational or political. There is increasing recent research evidence from many countries in Europe that indicates that migrants are more prone to certain psychiatric disorders. Because of their experiences of migration and settling down in the new countries, they may also have special needs such as lack of linguistic abilities which must be taken into account using a number of strategies at individual, local and national policy levels. In this guidance document, we briefly present the evidence and propose that specific measures must be taken to improve and manage psychiatric disorders experienced by migrants and their descendants. This improvement requires involvement at the highest level in governments. This is a guidance document and not a systematic review. PMID:24503244

    19. Endangerment assessment guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1985-11-22

      The directive clarifies the requirement that an endangerment assessment be developed to support all administrative and judicial enforcement actions under Section 106 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Section 7003 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Before taking enforcement action under these provisions to abate the hazards or potential hazards at a site, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must be able to properly document and justify its assertion that an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health or welfare or the environment may exist. The endangerment assessment provides this documentation and justification. The endangerment assessment is not necessary to support Section 104 actions. It also provides guidance on the content, timing, level of detail, format, and resources required for the preparation of endangerment assessments.

    20. Advanced entry guidance algorithm with landing footprint computation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Leavitt, James Aaron

      The design and performance evaluation of an entry guidance algorithm for future space transportation vehicles is presented. The algorithm performs two functions: on-board trajectory planning and trajectory tracking. The planned longitudinal path is followed by tracking drag acceleration, as is done by the Space Shuttle entry guidance. Unlike the Shuttle entry guidance, lateral path curvature is also planned and followed. A new trajectory planning function for the guidance algorithm is developed that is suitable for suborbital entry and that significantly enhances the overall performance of the algorithm for both orbital and suborbital entry. In comparison with the previous trajectory planner, the new planner produces trajectories that are easier to track, especially near the upper and lower drag boundaries and for suborbital entry. The new planner accomplishes this by matching the vehicle's initial flight path angle and bank angle, and by enforcing the full three-degree-of-freedom equations of motion with control derivative limits. Insights gained from trajectory optimization results contribute to the design of the new planner, giving it near-optimal downrange and crossrange capabilities. Planned trajectories and guidance simulation results are presented that demonstrate the improved performance. Based on the new planner, a method is developed for approximating the landing footprint for entry vehicles in near real-time, as would be needed for an on-board flight management system. The boundary of the footprint is constructed from the endpoints of extreme downrange and crossrange trajectories generated by the new trajectory planner. The footprint algorithm inherently possesses many of the qualities of the new planner, including quick execution, the ability to accurately approximate the vehicle's glide capabilities, and applicability to a wide range of entry conditions. Footprints can be generated for orbital and suborbital entry conditions using a pre

    1. Combined therapy with thrombospondin-1 type I repeats (3TSR) and chemotherapy induces regression and significantly improves survival in a preclinical model of advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer

      PubMed Central

      Russell, Samantha; Duquette, Mark; Liu, Joyce; Drapkin, Ronny; Lawler, Jack; Petrik, Jim

      2015-01-01

      Most women are diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) at advanced stage, where therapies have limited effectiveness and the long-term survival rate is low. We evaluated the effects of combined antiangiogenic and chemotherapy treatments on advanced stage EOC. Treatment of EOC cells with a recombinant version of the thrombospondin-1 type I repeats (3TSR) induced more apoptotic cell death (36.5 ± 9.6%) in vitro compared to untreated controls (4.1 ± 1.4). In vivo, tumors were induced in an orthotopic, syngeneic mouse model of advanced stage EOC. Mice were treated with 3TSR (4 mg/kg per day) alone or in combination with chemotherapy drugs delivered with maximum tolerated dose or metronomic scheduling. Pretreatment with 3TSR induced tumor regression, normalized tumor vasculature, and improved uptake of chemotherapy drugs. Combination 3TSR and metronomic chemotherapy induced the greatest tumor regression (6.2-fold reduction in size compared to PBS-treated controls) and highest survival when treatment was initiated at advanced stage. 3TSR binding to its receptor, CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36), increased binding of CD36 and SHP-1, which significantly inhibited phosphorylation of the VEGF receptor. In this study, we describe a novel treatment approach and mechanism of action with 3TSR and chemotherapy that induces regression of advanced stage EOC and significantly improves survival.—Russell, S., Duquette, M., Liu, J., Drapkin, R., Lawler, J., Petrik, J. Combined therapy with thrombospondin-1 type I repeats (3TSR) and chemotherapy induces regression and significantly improves survival in a preclinical model of advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:25395453

    2. Guidance for the New Millenium?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      McLaren, David J.

      1996-01-01

      Reviews the "Guidance Arrangements" consultation document issued with "Higher Still" (proposed new Scottish upper secondary curricula). Argues that the paper ignores the full implications for educational change in Higher Still and misses the opportunity for timely modernization of school guidance. Advocates a cross-curricular model of guidance…

    3. Push drill guidance indication apparatus

      SciTech Connect

      Bockhorst, R.W.; Elenburg, J.H.

      1984-06-05

      The present invention relates to a program controlled apparatus for providing rapid calibration and update of sensor parameters in a push drill guidance apparatus which is remotely controllable from microprocessor circuitry. A special calibration program is set into nonvolatile memory for coaction with the control processor to compute sensor parameters for storage and recall during normal programmed guidance operation.

    4. Guidance in the Secondary School

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kumar, V. Jurist Lional

      2010-01-01

      Secondary School Students face a lot of problems in their body as well as in mind due to puberty that tends to adolescence stage. Adolescence has peculiar characters of their own. They need proper Guidance and Counselling to tackle their own problems. Guidance is described as a counselling service to assist the individual in achieving self…

    5. Discussing Diverse Perspectives on Guidance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gonzalez-Mena, Janet; Shareef, Intisar

      2005-01-01

      Ideas about discipline and guidance get extremely complex when they intersect with culture and oppression. Some groups of people who are targets of racism have to protect their children from the oppressive practices of racist individuals and institutions. Their methods of guidance and discipline may be different from those of groups for whom…

    6. Automated Guidance for Student Inquiry

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gerard, Libby F.; Ryoo, Kihyun; McElhaney, Kevin W.; Liu, Ou Lydia; Rafferty, Anna N.; Linn, Marcia C.

      2016-01-01

      In 4 classroom experiments we investigated uses for technologies that automatically score student generated essays, concept diagrams, and drawings in inquiry curricula. We used the automatic scores to assign typical and research-based guidance and studied the impact of the guidance on student progress. Seven teachers and their 897 students…

    7. Guidance: Agent of the Counterculture.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Patouillet, Raymond A.; Marin, Roselyn L.

      1979-01-01

      This article was an introduction to a convention program presented at the Florida Personnel and Guidance Association Convention (Tampa, Nov., 1977) by Raymond Patouillet, shortly before his sudden death. It encapsulates his guidance philosophy, his understanding of the human condition, and his faith in the crucial role of the caring profession.…

    8. Innovative Approaches to Career Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Freeman, Andrew R.

      A key part of a broad-based approach to career education in Australian schools is vocational/career guidance. Various vocational guidance programs have been developed for specific groups in Australian society, including work experience, caravans, and micrographics technology for the handicapped; pre-employment courses and a family education center…

    9. Marxist Guidance: A Dialectic Lesson

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Drapela, Victor J.

      1971-01-01

      Based on primary sources published in the Soviet Bloc, this article compares the stated goals of Marxist guidance with actual outcomes, and identifies the foundations of guidance in the Soviet Bloc in terms of Marxist philosophy and social doctrine. Current symptoms of ideological unrest in socialist society as exemplified by the suppressed reform…

    10. Signaling from axon guidance receptors.

      PubMed

      Bashaw, Greg J; Klein, Rüdiger

      2010-05-01

      Determining how axon guidance receptors transmit signals to allow precise pathfinding decisions is fundamental to our understanding of nervous system development and may suggest new strategies to promote axon regeneration after injury or disease. Signaling mechanisms that act downstream of four prominent families of axon guidance cues--netrins, semaphorins, ephrins, and slits--have been extensively studied in both invertebrate and vertebrate model systems. Although details of these signaling mechanisms are still fragmentary and there appears to be considerable diversity in how different guidance receptors regulate the motility of the axonal growth cone, a number of common themes have emerged. Here, we review recent insights into how specific receptors for each of these guidance cues engage downstream regulators of the growth cone cytoskeleton to control axon guidance. PMID:20452961

    11. Modern control theory for Army missile guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Travassos, R. H.; Levari, H.; Gupta, N. K.

      1982-11-01

      A Singular perturbation guidance law has been developed for medium-range surface-to-air missiles. This guidance law is a significant extension of a previously developed guidance law for short-range missiles; in medium-range intercepts, the problem of energy management should be addressed in addition to homing guidance. The mathematical formulation has been simplified by introducing separation of time scales. Target Trajectory Estimation: A recursive algorithm for estimation of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model parameters from noisy samples has been developed. Application of this algorithm to parameter estimation problems has exhibited its fast convergence and unbiasedness in the presence of noise, even with short data records. The algorithm has two versions, a Recursive Maximum Likelihood (RML) form and a Recursive Prediction Error (RPE) form, both of which possess a parallel structure that makes them highly suitable for parallel-processing implementation. Adaptive autopilots: Lattice-form algorithms have been developed for fast, recursive identification and control of time-varying systems. These algorithms have excellent numerical properties and a modular structure that makes them suitable for on-board real-time implementation.

    12. Guidance for an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hall, Kenneth R.

      1988-01-01

      The use of atmospheric drag for slowing satellite in high energy, high apogee orbits to a lower energy, lower apogee orbit about the Earth is investigated. The high energy orbit is assumed to intercept the Earth's atmosphere. Guidance for the atmospheric phase of the trajectory may be done using the aerodynamic forces generated by the passage through the atmosphere. This research was concerned with the investigation of several methods of guidance during the atmospheric phase to cause a significant reduction in the final velocity as the vehicle leaves the atmosphere. In addition, the velocity direction was controlled to exit to a desired target orbit. Lastly excess aerodynamic lift was used to effect a plane change between the entry orbit plane and the exit orbit plane to achieve a desired orbit plane. The guidance methods were applied to a 3 degree-of-freedom simulation which included an oblate Earth gravity model and a rotating atmosphere. Simulation results were compared on the basis of speed of computation of the guidance parameters and amount of added velocity necessary to achieve the desired orbit.

    13. Self-help treatment for insomnia: bibliotherapy with and without professional guidance.

      PubMed

      Mimeault, V; Morin, C M

      1999-08-01

      Fifty-four adults with primary insomnia were randomly assigned to a self-help treatment (cognitive-behavioral bibliotherapy [BT]), BT with weekly phone consultations, or a waiting-list control (WL) group. Treated participants were mailed 6 treatment booklets at the rate of 1 booklet per week; 1/2 of them also received minimal professional guidance through a 15-min weekly phone consultation. The WL group members continued to monitor their sleep during this period. Participants in both treatment conditions improved significantly on the main outcome variables (total wake time and sleep efficiency) at posttreatment, whereas WL participants remained unchanged. The addition of weekly phone calls slightly enhanced improvements at posttreatment. However, both treatment conditions were comparable at follow-up. These results suggest that BT, with or without minimal professional guidance, is an effective approach for treating primary insomnia. PMID:10450621

    14. Dietary guidance normalizes large intestinal endocrine cell densities in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

      PubMed Central

      Mazzawi, T; Hausken, T; Gundersen, D; El-Salhy, M

      2016-01-01

      Background/Objectives: To determine the large intestinal endocrine cell types affected following dietary guidance in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Subjects/Methods: The study included 13 IBS patients and 13 control subjects. The patients received three sessions of individualized dietary guidance. Both the control subjects and the patients were scheduled for colonoscopies at baseline and again for the patients at 3–9 months after dietary guidance. Biopsy samples were taken from the colon and rectum and were immunostained for all types of large intestinal endocrine cells. The endocrine cells were quantified using computerized image analysis. Results: The daily total consumption (mean±s.e.m. values) of fruits and vegetables rich in FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) decreased significantly from 16.2±5.3 g before receiving dietary guidance to 9.2±3.2 g after receiving dietary guidance (P=0.02). In the total colon, the densities of serotonin cells were 46.8±8.9, 10.5±2.1 and 22.6±3.2 cells/mm2 in control subjects and in IBS patients before and after receiving dietary guidance, respectively (P=0.007); the corresponding densities of peptide YY cells were 11.6±1.8, 10.8±1.7 and 16.8±2.1 cells/mm2, respectively (P=0.06). The cell densities for both serotonin and peptide YY did not change significantly in the rectum. The densities of somatostatin cells in the rectum were 13.5±3.0, 13.2±3.0, and 22.3±3.2 cells/mm2 for control subjects and for IBS patients before and after receiving dietary guidance, respectively (P=0.01). Conclusions: The densities of the large intestinal endocrine cells tend to normalize following dietary guidance that may have contributed to the improvement of the patients with IBS symptoms. PMID:26603880

    15. An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

      SciTech Connect

      TerraTek

      2007-06-30

      A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

    16. Successful Application of a Canadian Mental Health Curriculum Resource by Usual Classroom Teachers in Significantly and Sustainably Improving Student Mental Health Literacy

      PubMed Central

      Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Morgan, Catherine

      2015-01-01

      Objective: To investigate whether the significant and substantive findings from a previous study of youth mental health literacy (MHL) could be replicated using the same methods in another population. Method: We examined the impact of a curriculum resource, the Mental Health and High School Curriculum Guide (The Guide), taught by usual classroom teachers on students’ knowledge and attitudes related to mental health and mental illness in Canadian secondary schools. Survey data were collected before, immediately after, and 2 months after implementation of The Guide by teachers in usual classroom teaching. We conducted paired-sample t tests and calculated the Cohen d value to determine outcomes and impact of the curriculum resource application. Results: One hundred fourteen students were matched for analysis of knowledge data and 112 students were matched for analysis of attitude data at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 2-month follow-up time periods. Following classroom exposure to the curriculum resource, students’ knowledge scores increased significantly and substantively, compared with baseline (P < 0.001, d = 1.11), and this was maintained at 2-month follow-up (P < 0.001, d = 0.91). Similar findings for attitude improvement were found (P < 0.001, d = 0.66), and this improvement was maintained at 2-month follow-up (P < 0.001, d = 0.52). Conclusions: These findings corroborate those from a previous study conducted in a different location. Taken together these results suggest a simple but effective approach to improving MHL in young people by embedding a classroom resource, delivered by usual classroom teachers in usual school settings. PMID:26720827

    17. RH Packaging Program Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Washington TRU Solutions LLC

      2008-01-12

      The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

    18. RH Packaging Program Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Washington TRU Solutions LLC

      2006-11-07

      The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

    19. Autonomous landing guidance program

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Brown, John A.

      1996-05-01

      The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

    20. Mobile phone-based clinical guidance for rural health providers in India.

      PubMed

      Gautham, Meenakshi; Iyengar, M Sriram; Johnson, Craig W

      2015-12-01

      There are few tried and tested mobile technology applications to enhance and standardize the quality of health care by frontline rural health providers in low-resource settings. We developed a media-rich, mobile phone-based clinical guidance system for management of fevers, diarrhoeas and respiratory problems by rural health providers. Using a randomized control design, we field tested this application with 16 rural health providers and 128 patients at two rural/tribal sites in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Protocol compliance for both groups, phone usability, acceptability and patient feedback for the experimental group were evaluated. Linear mixed-model analyses showed statistically significant improvements in protocol compliance in the experimental group. Usability and acceptability among patients and rural health providers were very high. Our results indicate that mobile phone-based, media-rich procedural guidance applications have significant potential for achieving consistently standardized quality of care by diverse frontline rural health providers, with patient acceptance. PMID:24621929

    1. Precision visual guidance for agricultural applicator aircraft

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hartt, Joseph R.; Bletzacker, Frank R.; Forgette, T. J.; Vetter, Alan A.

      1992-07-01

      The in-cockpit swath centerline identifier (SCI) for aerial applicators uses differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) signals to determine precise ground track of an aircraft and provide guidance to the pilot for flying patterns for aerial application of materials such as pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers. Cross track distance from the swath centerline is provided by a heads up light bar display while detailed navigation, position, and status information is provided on an alphanumeric display on a panel mounted console. This system provides straight line guidance when executing a swath and turn-in guidance when proceeding from one swath to the next. It provides a record of the swaths which were sprayed and logs all of the associated navigation and operational data, including time. In addition, it provides navigation information from base to the fields, between fields, and return. The SCI eliminates the need for flaggers while providing improved accuracy of application. Reduced exposure to liability and improved quality control results as the position, altitude, time, and spray status are logged for post flight analysis. The SCI has been used in commercial agricultural applications. Demonstrations of the SCI showed better precision than anticipated.

    2. Peacekeeper - Guidance system flight readiness review

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Knight, D. S.; Harrington, E. V.

      The Ballistic Missile Office (BMO) has developed and employed a procedure to insure the flight readiness of a Peacekeeper guidance system. The goals of this additional review procedure (over and above acceptance testing) are to minimize the risk of the guidance system failure and/or achieving substantially less than the designed accuracy. The roles, mission and interaction of teams of personnel from seven associate contractors are discussed using flow diagrams. The paper also includes methods used to identify and resolve areas of concern as well as examples of actual concerns discovered. The scope is discused, including both the various technical disciplines involved and the lowest level of build and test areas reviewed. Resulting build and test improvements are shown.

    3. [Recipients adverse reactions: guidance supports].

      PubMed

      Bazin, A

      2010-12-01

      Since 1994, adverse effects of transfusion transmitted to the French haemovigilance network are registered on "e-fit", the database of the French agency for the safety of health products (Afssaps). In order to improve their analysis, guidance supports have been made by Afssaps working groups. Each support deals with a blood transfusion side effect and is composed of five parts including pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnostic criteria, management recommendations, etiologic investigations and rules of filing the notification form on e-fit. The major characteristics of sheets published or soon-to-be published are presented: transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection, non-haemolytic febrile reaction, allergic reaction, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, hypotensive transfusion reaction, alloimmunization, erythrocyte incompatibility reaction and hemosiderosis. These new supports give relevant guidelines allowing a better analysis and evaluation of recipients' adverse reactions, particularly their diagnosis, gravity and accountability. They could also initiate studies in European and international haemovigilance and transfusion networks. PMID:21051267

    4. Uprated fine guidance sensor study

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1984-01-01

      Future orbital observatories will require star trackers of extremely high precision. These sensors must maintain high pointing accuracy and pointing stability simultaneously with a low light level signal from a guide star. To establish the fine guidance sensing requirements and to evaluate candidate fine guidance sensing concepts, the Space Telescope Optical Telescope Assembly was used as the reference optical system. The requirements review was separated into three areas: Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), Fine Guidance Sensing and astrometry. The results show that the detectors should be installed directly onto the focal surface presented by the optics. This would maximize throughput and minimize point stability error by not incoporating any additional optical elements.

    5. Intrarectal Amifostine During External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Produces Significant Improvements in Quality of Life Measured by EPIC Score

      SciTech Connect

      Simone, Nicole L.; Menard, Cynthia; Soule, Benjamin P.; Albert, Paul S.; Guion, Peter; Smith, Sharon; Godette, Denise; Crouse, Nancy S.; Sciuto, Linda C.; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa; Camphausen, Kevin; Coleman, C. Norman; Singh, Anurag K. E-mail: singan@mail.nih.gov

      2008-01-01

      Purpose: To test whether intrarectal amifostine limits symptoms of radiation proctitis, measured by using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity score and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) score. Methods and Materials: Patients with localized prostate cancer received amifostine as a rectal suspension 30-45 minutes before daily three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The first 18 patients received 1 g of amifostine, and the next 12 patients received 2 g. Toxicity was assessed at baseline, during treatment, and at follow-up visits by using RTOG grading and the EPIC Quality of Life (QoL) 50-item questionnaire. The Bowel Function subset of the bowel domain (EPIC-BF), which targets symptom severity, and the Bowel Bother subset of the bowel domain (EPIC-BB), which assesses QoL, were evaluated and compared with the RTOG GI toxicity score. Results: Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 18-36 months). Overall, EPIC-BF and EPIC-BB scores both tracked closely with the RTOG GI toxicity score. Seven weeks after the start of radiation therapy, the incidence of RTOG Grade 2 toxicity was 33% in the 1-g group (6/18 patients) compared with 0% (0/12 patients) in the 2-g group and trended toward statistical significance (p = 0.06). A significant difference between amifostine groups was observed using the EPIC-BF score at 7 weeks (p = 0.04). A difference in EPIC-BB scores between dose groups was evident at 7 weeks (p = 0.07) and was significant at 12 months (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Higher doses of amifostine produced significant improvements in acute and late bowel QoL (up to 1 year after therapy), measured using the EPIC score.

    6. Looking to Learn: The Effects of Visual Guidance on Observational Learning of the Golf Swing.

      PubMed

      D'Innocenzo, Giorgia; Gonzalez, Claudia C; Williams, A Mark; Bishop, Daniel T

      2016-01-01

      Skilled performers exhibit more efficient gaze patterns than less-skilled counterparts do and they look more frequently at task-relevant regions than at superfluous ones. We examine whether we may guide novices' gaze towards relevant regions during action observation in order to facilitate their learning of a complex motor skill. In a Pre-test-Post-test examination of changes in their execution of the full golf swing, 21 novices viewed one of three videos at intervention: i) a skilled golfer performing 10 swings (Free Viewing, FV); ii) the same video with transient colour cues superimposed to highlight key features of the setup (Visual Guidance; VG); iii) or a History of Golf video (Control). Participants in the visual guidance group spent significantly more time looking at cued areas than did the other two groups, a phenomenon that persisted after the cues had been removed. Moreover, the visual guidance group improved their swing execution at Post-test and on a Retention test one week later. Our results suggest that visual guidance to cued areas during observational learning of complex motor skills may accelerate acquisition of the skill. PMID:27224057

    7. Looking to Learn: The Effects of Visual Guidance on Observational Learning of the Golf Swing

      PubMed Central

      Gonzalez, Claudia C.; Williams, A. Mark

      2016-01-01

      Skilled performers exhibit more efficient gaze patterns than less-skilled counterparts do and they look more frequently at task-relevant regions than at superfluous ones. We examine whether we may guide novices’ gaze towards relevant regions during action observation in order to facilitate their learning of a complex motor skill. In a Pre-test-Post-test examination of changes in their execution of the full golf swing, 21 novices viewed one of three videos at intervention: i) a skilled golfer performing 10 swings (Free Viewing, FV); ii) the same video with transient colour cues superimposed to highlight key features of the setup (Visual Guidance; VG); iii) or a History of Golf video (Control). Participants in the visual guidance group spent significantly more time looking at cued areas than did the other two groups, a phenomenon that persisted after the cues had been removed. Moreover, the visual guidance group improved their swing execution at Post-test and on a Retention test one week later. Our results suggest that visual guidance to cued areas during observational learning of complex motor skills may accelerate acquisition of the skill. PMID:27224057

    8. OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION

      SciTech Connect

      Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

      2004-10-01

      The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

    9. Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage.

      PubMed

      Kahlon, Talwinder Singh; Chiu, Mei-Chen M; Chapman, Mary H

      2008-06-01

      Bile acid binding capacity has been related to the cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculation of bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Previously, we have reported bile acid binding by several uncooked vegetables. However, most vegetables are consumed after cooking. How cooking would influence in vitro bile acid binding of various vegetables was investigated using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile under physiological conditions. Eight replicate incubations were conducted for each treatment simulating gastric and intestinal digestion, which included a substrate only, a bile acid mixture only, and 6 with substrate and bile acid mixture. Cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid binding drug) was the positive control treatment and cellulose was the negative control. Relative to cholestyramine, in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for the collard greens, kale, and mustard greens, 13%; broccoli, 10%; Brussels sprouts and spinach, 8%; green bell pepper, 7%; and cabbage, 5%. These results point to the significantly different (P < or = .05) health-promoting potential of collard greens = kale = mustard greens > broccoli > Brussels sprouts = spinach = green bell pepper > cabbage as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Steam cooking significantly improved the in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage compared with previously observed bile acid binding values for these vegetables raw (uncooked). Inclusion of steam-cooked collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage in our daily diet as health-promoting vegetables should be emphasized. These green

    10. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

      SciTech Connect

      Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

      2003-10-01

      This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

    11. RH Packaging Program Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

      2003-08-25

      The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

    12. Genipin-structured peptide-polysaccharide nanoparticles with significantly improved resistance to harsh gastrointestinal environments and their potential for oral delivery of polyphenols.

      PubMed

      Hu, Bing; Xie, Minhao; Zhang, Chen; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

      2014-12-24

      Genipin-cross-linked caseinophosphopeptide (CPP)-chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (smaller than 300 nm) showed significantly improved stability and adjustable release profile in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Optimal purification of the nanoparticles was established by centrifugation to terminate the cross-linking reaction, which was further confirmed and characterized by FT-IR. Results from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and electrophoretic mobility (ζ-potential) measurements revealed that genipin cross-linking significantly prevented the bursting of the CPP-CS nanoparticles in simulated stomach acid and their precipitation under neutral intestinal environment. Pepsin showed little impact on the nanoparticle colloid stability; however, trypsin induced their aggregations. Genipin cross-linking slowed the burst release of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from the nanoparticles. The EGCG-loaded nanoparticles showed strong cytotoxicity against cancer cells; meanwhile, the net nanoparticles demonstrated high biocompatibility. The findings in the present work provide fundamental information for the rational design of biopolymer nanoparticles as an effective delivery systems for polyphenols. PMID:25479066

    13. Significant Improvement of Antithrombotic Responses to Clopidogrel by Use of a Novel Conjugate as Revealed in an Arterial Model of Thrombosis.

      PubMed

      Zhang, Haoming; Lauver, D Adam; Wang, Hui; Sun, Duxin; Hollenberg, Paul F; Chen, Y Eugene; Osawa, Yoichi; Eitzman, Daniel T

      2016-10-01

      Clopidogrel is a prodrug that requires bioactivation by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes to a pharmacologically active metabolite for antiplatelet action. The clinical limitations of clopidogrel are in large part due to its poor pharmacokinetics resulting from inefficient bioactivation by P450s. In this study, we determined the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a novel conjugate of clopidogrel, referred to as ClopNPT, in animal models and we evaluated its potential to overcome the limitations of clopidogrel. Results from pharmacokinetic (PK) studies showed that ClopNPT released the active metabolite with a time to maximal plasma concentration of <5 minutes in C57BL/6 mice after either oral or intravenous administration, and plasma concentrations of the active metabolite reached Cmax values of 1242 and 1100 ng/ml after a 10-mg/kg oral dose and a 5-mg/kg intravenous dose, respectively. Furthermore, ClopNPT was highly effective in preventing arterial thrombosis in rabbits and mice after vascular injuries. Formation of occlusive thrombi was prevented by ClopNPT at the 1-mg/kg dose with no significant increase in tongue bleeding time, whereas clopidogrel was ineffective at the same dose. These results suggest that ClopNPT has favorable PK/pharmacodynamic properties that can potentially overcome the attenuated PK properties of clopidogrel and thus significantly improve the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy. PMID:27511819

    14. GUIDANCE DOCUMENT ON ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS

      EPA Science Inventory

      This guidance provides recommendations intended to assist in the development, evaluation and application of high quality environmental models that the Environmental Protection Agency uses to address environmental problems and to support regulatory activities. These guidelines wi...

    15. Effects of dietary guidance on the symptoms, quality of life and habitual dietary intake of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

      PubMed

      Mazzawi, Tarek; Hausken, Trygve; Gundersen, Doris; El-Salhy, Magdy

      2013-09-01

      Diet is important in triggering the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study investigated the impact of dietary guidance on the symptoms, quality of life and habitual diet of patients with IBS. Forty-six patients who fulfilled the Rome III criteria for the diagnosis of IBS were included. Of these patients, 17 completed the entire study. Each patient attended three sessions (~45 min in duration) and received individual guidance on their dietary management. The patients were asked to complete the following questionnaires prior to receiving the dietary guidance, and at least 3 months subsequently: The Birmingham IBS symptom score questionnaire, the IBS Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) questionnaire, the Short-Form Nepean and Dyspepsia Index (SF‑NDI) and the MoBa Food Frequency Questionnaire (MoBa FFQ). The time at which patients completed the questionnaires following dietary guidance ranged from 3-9 months (median, 4 months). The total IBS symptom scores were reduced once the patients had received dietary guidance (P=0.001). The total score for the quality of life, as assessed by the IBS‑QOL and the SF-NDI, increased significantly following the dietary guidance sessions (P=0.003 and P=0.002, respectively). There were no statistical differences in the intake of calories, carbohydrate, fiber, protein, fat or alcohol in the patients with IBS following dietary guidance. There were increases in the consumption of dairy products, β-carotene, retinol equivalents, riboflavin, vitamin B12 and calcium, although only the increase in vitamin B12 consumption was statistically significant. There was a significant reduction in the consumption of certain fruits and vegetables that were rich in highly fermentable short-chain carbohydrates, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols, as well as insoluble fibers. In conclusion, three 45-min dietary guidance sessions, administered by a nurse, reduced the symptoms and improved the quality of life of patients with IBS, and

    16. Numerical Skip-Entry Guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Tigges, Michael; Crull, Timothy; Rea, Jeremy; Johnson, Wyatt

      2006-01-01

      This paper assesses a preliminary guidance and targeting strategy for accomplishing Skip-Entry (SE) flight during a lunar return-capsule entry flight. One of the primary benefits of flying a SE trajectory is to provide the crew with continuous Continental United States (CONUS) landing site access throughout the lunar month. Without a SE capability, the capsule must land either in water or at one of several distributed land sites in the Southern Hemisphere for a significant portion of a lunar month using a landing and recovery scenario similar to that employed during the Apollo program. With a SE trajectory, the capsule can land either in water at a site in proximity to CONUS or at one of several distributed landing sites within CONUS, thereby simplifying the operational requirements for crew retrieval and vehicle recovery, and possibly enabling a high degree of vehicle reusability. Note that a SE capability does not require that the vehicle land on land. A SE capability enables a longer-range flight than a direct-entry flight, which permits the vehicle to land at a much greater distance from the Entry Interface (EI) point. This does not exclude using this approach to push the landing point to a water location in proximity of CONUS and utilizing water or airborne recovery forces.

    17. Optofluidic control of axonal guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gu, Ling; Ordonez, Simon; Black, Bryan; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

      2013-03-01

      Significant efforts are being made for control on axonal guidance due to its importance in nerve regeneration and in the formation of functional neuronal circuitry in-vitro. These include several physical (topographic modification, optical force, and electric field), chemical (surface functionalization cues) and hybrid (electro-chemical, photochemical etc) methods. Here, we report comparison of the effect of linear flow versus microfluidic flow produced by an opticallydriven micromotor in guiding retinal ganglion axons. A circularly polarized laser tweezers was used to hold, position and spin birefringent calcite particle near growth cone, which in turn resulted in microfluidic flow. The flow rate and resulting shear-force on axons could be controlled by a varying the power of the laser tweezers beam. The calcite particles were placed separately in one chamber and single particle was transported through microfluidic channel to another chamber containing the retina explant. In presence of flow, the turning of axons was found to strongly correlate with the direction of flow. Turning angle as high as 90° was achieved. Optofluidic-manipulation can be applied to other types of mammalian neurons and also can be extended to stimulate mechano-sensing neurons.

    18. Dynamic contact guidance of migrating cells

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Losert, Wolfgang; Sun, Xiaoyu; Guven, Can; Driscoll, Meghan; Fourkas, John

      2014-03-01

      We investigate the effects of nanotopographical surfaces on the cell migration and cell shape dynamics of the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Amoeboid motion exhibits significant contact guidance along surfaces with nanoscale ridges or grooves. We show quantitatively that nanoridges spaced 1.5 μm apart exhibit the greatest contact guidance efficiency. Using principal component analysis, we characterize the dynamics of the cell shape modulated by the coupling between the cell membrane and ridges. We show that motion parallel to the ridges is enhanced, while the turning, at the largest spatial scales, is suppressed. Since protrusion dynamics are principally governed by actin dynamics, we imaged the actin polymerization of cells on ridges. We found that actin polymerization occurs preferentially along nanoridges in a ``monorail'' like fashion. The ridges then provide us with a tool to study actin dynamics in an effectively reduced dimensional system.

    19. Low Dose, Low Energy 3d Image Guidance during Radiotherapy

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Moore, C. J.; Marchant, T.; Amer, A.; Sharrock, P.; Price, P.; Burton, D.

      2006-04-01

      Patient kilo-voltage X-ray cone beam volumetric imaging for radiotherapy was first demonstrated on an Elekta Synergy mega-voltage X-ray linear accelerator. Subsequently low dose, reduced profile reconstruction imaging was shown to be practical for 3D geometric setup registration to pre-treatment planning images without compromising registration accuracy. Reconstruction from X-ray profiles gathered between treatment beam deliveries was also introduced. The innovation of zonal cone beam imaging promises significantly reduced doses to patients and improved soft tissue contrast in the tumour target zone. These developments coincided with the first dynamic 3D monitoring of continuous body topology changes in patients, at the moment of irradiation, using a laser interferometer. They signal the arrival of low dose, low energy 3D image guidance during radiotherapy itself.

    20. High-dose electron beam sterilization of soft-tissue grafts maintains significantly improved biomechanical properties compared to standard gamma treatment.

      PubMed

      Hoburg, A; Keshlaf, S; Schmidt, T; Smith, M; Gohs, U; Perka, C; Pruss, A; Scheffler, S

      2015-06-01

      Gy: 0.50 ± 0.34 mm; 34 kGy: 0.26 ± 0.24 mm) and control (0.20 ± 0.18 mm) group that did not differ significantly. Strain difference was not different between either control or study groups (controls: 1.0 ± 0.03; Ebeam 34 kGy 1.04 ± 0.018; Gamma 34 kGy 1.0 ± 0.028; 25 kGy: 1.4 ± 2,0; 34 kGy: 1.1 ± 1.1). The most important result of this study was that ebeam irradiation showed significantly less impairment of the biomechanical properties than gamma irradiation. Considering the results of this study and the improved control of irradiation application with electronic beam, this technique might be a promising alternative in soft-tissue sterilization. PMID:25037592

    1. Significant Improvements in Cognitive Performance Post-Transcranial, Red/Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Open-Protocol Study

      PubMed Central

      Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H.; Martin, Paula I.; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R.; Knight, Jeffrey A.; Meehan, William P.; Baker, Errol H.

      2014-01-01

      Abstract This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26–62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500 mW, 22.2 mW/cm2) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm2). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1–5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest

    2. Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study.

      PubMed

      Naeser, Margaret A; Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H; Martin, Paula I; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R; Knight, Jeffrey A; Meehan, William P; Baker, Errol H

      2014-06-01

      This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26-62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500 mW, 22.2 mW/cm(2)) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm(2)). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1-5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest that placebo

    3. Omega-conotoxin MVIIC attenuates neuronal apoptosis in vitro and improves significant recovery after spinal cord injury in vivo in rats

      PubMed Central

      Oliveira, Karen M; Lavor, Mário Sérgio L; Silva, Carla Maria O; Fukushima, Fabíola B; Rosado, Isabel R; Silva, Juneo F; Martins, Bernardo C; Guimarães, Laís B; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Melo, Marília M; Melo, Eliane G

      2014-01-01

      Excessive accumulation of intracellular calcium is the most critical step after spinal cord injury (SCI). Reducing the calcium influx should result in a better recovery from SCI. Calcium channel blockers have been shown a great potential in reducing brain and spinal cord injury. In this study, we first tested the neuroprotective effect of MVIIC on slices of spinal cord subjected to ischemia evaluating cell death and caspase-3 activation. Thereafter, we evaluated the efficacy of MVIIC in ameliorating damage following SCI in rats, for the first time in vivo. The spinal cord slices subjected a pretreatment with MVIIC showed a cell protection with a reduction of dead cells in 24.34% and of caspase-3-specific protease activation. In the in vivo experiment, Wistar rats were subjected to extradural compression of the spinal cord at the T12 vertebral level using a weigh of 70 g/cm, following intralesional treatment with either placebo or MVIIC in different doses (15, 30 and 60 pmol) five minutes after injury. Behavioral testing of hindlimb function was done using the Basso Beattie Bresnahan locomotor rating scale, and revealed significant recovery with 15 pmol (G15) compared to other trauma groups. Also, histological bladder structural revealed significant outcome in G15, with no morphological alterations, and anti-NeuN and TUNEL staining showed that G15 provided neuron preservation and indicated that this group had fewer neuron cell death, similar to sham. These results showed the neuroprotective effects of MVIIC in in vitro and in vivo model of SCI with neuronal integrity, bladder and behavioral improvements. PMID:25120731

    4. Using Automated Scores of Student Essays to Support Teacher Guidance in Classroom Inquiry

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gerard, Libby F.; Linn, Marcia C.

      2016-02-01

      Computer scoring of student written essays about an inquiry topic can be used to diagnose student progress both to alert teachers to struggling students and to generate automated guidance. We identify promising ways for teachers to add value to automated guidance to improve student learning. Three teachers from two schools and their 386 students participated. We draw on evidence from student progress, observations of how teachers interact with students, and reactions of teachers. The findings suggest that alerts for teachers prompted rich teacher-student conversations about energy in photosynthesis. In one school, the combination of the automated guidance plus teacher guidance was more effective for student science learning than two rounds of personalized, automated guidance. In the other school, both approaches resulted in equal learning gains. These findings suggest optimal combinations of automated guidance and teacher guidance to support students to revise explanations during inquiry and build integrated understanding of science.

    5. Information Paper 18: Guidance in Secondary Schools.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ashton, Terry

      1986-01-01

      Traces impetus for introduction of structured guidance into Scottish secondary schools. Identifies 1968 "Orange Paper" as first attempt to set out rationale for guidance. Describes how guidance is organized; outlines tasks of guidance teachers; and presents current developments, training requirements, and trends. (NEC)

    6. Books for Professionals: Discipline and Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      King, Margaret A.

      1994-01-01

      Reviews two books that promote a view of discipline as teaching and guidance. "Guiding Young Children" (Verna Hildebrand) offers specific child guidance techniques and a discussion of general issues affecting child guidance. "Constructive Guidance and Discipline: Preschool and Primary Education" (Majorie V. Fields and Cindy Boesser) focuses on…

    7. Measuring Client Progression in Adult Guidance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hearne, Lucy

      2007-01-01

      Currently, in the field of guidance, relevant stakeholders including guidance practitioners, educators and policy makers, have identified progression for adults in education and employment as one of the key outcomes of educational guidance. Lifelong guidance is now inextricably linked with lifelong learning as a mechanism to enhance individual…

    8. Very low amount of TiO2 on N-doped carbon nanotubes significantly improves oxygen reduction activity and stability of supported Pt nanoparticles.

      PubMed

      Zhao, Anqi; Masa, Justus; Xia, Wei

      2015-04-28

      Electrochemical corrosion is a major problem for carbon materials used in electrocatalysis. Highly dispersed TiO2 was deposited on O-functionalized and N-doped carbon nanotubes by chemical vapour deposition to tackle the carbon corrosion problem. Very low Ti loadings of about 1 wt% were applied to minimize the negative influence of TiO2 as a semiconductor on the high conductivity of carbon materials. Both N doping and TiO2 coating facilitate strong metal-support interactions and favour the formation of small Pt particles. N doping improved the intrinsic catalytic activity of the carbon support and enhanced the conductivity due to the removal of surface oxygen groups, while the negative effect of TiO2 on conductivity is counterbalanced by its promoting effect on metal-support interactions leading to enhanced overall catalytic performance. Pt/TiO2/NCNTs showed the highest ORR activity, and significantly outperformed Pt/NCNTs in electrochemical stability tests. PMID:25811122

    9. Post-Flight EDL Entry Guidance Performance of the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mendeck, Gavin F.; McGrew, Lynn Craig

      2013-01-01

      The 2011 Mars Science Laboratory was the first Mars guided entry which safely delivered the rover to a landing within a touchdown ellipse of 19.1 km x 6.9 km. The Entry Terminal Point Controller guidance algorithm is derived from the final phase Apollo Command Module guidance and, like Apollo, modulates the bank angle to control the range flown. The guided entry performed as designed without any significant exceptions. The Curiosity rover was delivered about 2.2 km from the expected touchdown. This miss distance is attributed to little time to correct the downrange drift from the final bank reversal and a suspected tailwind during heading alignment. The successful guided entry for the Mars Science Laboratory lays the foundation for future Mars missions to improve upon.

    10. Initiation of insulin aspart to Indian subjects on OADs show significant improvement in glycaemic outcomes: the A1chieve observational study.

      PubMed

      Rao, P V; Bhattacharyya, A; Sahay, R K

      2013-01-01

      The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide and India stands second next only to china. The management of diabetes in real life settings needs to be evaluated for deriving better management practices. A1chieve observational study evaluated the use of modern insulin in real life settings. This was a 24-week, international, prospective, multicenter, non-interventional, observational study of people with type 2 diabetes. India recruited with 20,554 subjects and a total of 1815 patients were enrolled to receive insulin aspart as bolus insulin therapy of whom 1450 (79.9%) were insulin naïve and 365 (20.1%) were insulin users. At the end of 24 weeks, only one SAE was reported in this study and overall hypoglycemia events per patient year decreased from 2.49 (348 episodes) to 0.17 (20 episodes). There were no major hypoglycemic episodes reported in either insulin naive or insulin treated subjects. There was a significant improvement in the HbA(1c) values from the baseline in both insulin naive and insulin users. The mean HbA(1c) value was reduced from 9.5 to 7.4 (p < 0.001) for insulin naïve subjects and from 9.2 to 7.7 (p < 0.001) in insulin experienced subjects. Fasting plasma glucose values decreased by 70 mg/dL and 50 mg/dL in insulin naive and insulin experienced, respectively and the difference from baseline was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The post prandial glucose value was also significantly (p < 0.001) reduced by 105 mg/dL for insulin naïve subjects and 55 mg/dL for insulin experienced subjects. The composite end point was achieved by 46.6% of insulin naive and 38.1% of insulin-experienced subjects. The study concluded with good HbA(1c) reduction along with lower incidence of hypoglycemia and better health related quality of life outcomes in both in insulin naive and insulin experienced subjects who used insulin aspart as bolus insulin treatment. PMID:24482983

    11. Significant Treasures.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Andrews, Ian A.

      1999-01-01

      Provides a crossword puzzle with an answer key corresponding to the book entitled "Significant Treasures/Tresors Parlants" that is filled with color and black-and-white prints of paintings and artifacts from 131 museums and art galleries as a sampling of the 2,200 such Canadian institutions. (CMK)

    12. Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System: Preliminary Report of Prospective Hello Study.

      PubMed

      Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

      2015-12-01

      Prospective nonrandomized control study.The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED).Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory.The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic times, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time.A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture times were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P < 0.001). The fluoroscopic times were 14.03 ± 2.54 in Group A and 25.19 ± 4.28 in Group B (P < 0.001). The preoperative location time was 4.67 ± 1.41 minutes in Group A and 6.98 ± 0.94 minutes in Group B (P < 0.001). The operation time was 79.42 ± 10.15 minutes in Group A and 89.65 ± 14.06 minutes in Group B (P = 0.002). The

    13. Write Proposals. Module CG B-2 of Category B--Supporting. Competency-Based Career Guidance Modules.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gustafson, Richard A.

      This module is intended to help guidance personnel in a variety of educational and agency settings plan and develop successful proposals to assist in financing the improvement of existing or future career guidance programs. The module is one of a series of competency-based guidance program training packages focusing upon specific professional and…

    14. Environmental restoration value engineering guidance document

      SciTech Connect

      1995-07-01

      This document provides guidance on Value Engineering (VE). VE is an organized team effort led by a person trained in the methodology to analyze the functions of projects, systems, equipment, facilities, services, and processes for achieving the essential functions at the lowest life cycle cost while maintaining required performance, reliability, availability, quality, and safety. VE has proven to be a superior tool to improve up-front project planning, cut costs, and create a better value for each dollar spent. This document forms the basis for the Environmental Restoration VE Program, describes the VE process, and provides recommendations on when it can be most useful on ER projects.

    15. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse ("Prevent It!") That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior.

      PubMed

      Martin, Erin K; Silverstone, Peter H

      2016-01-01

      Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking "how many times in the previous 3-months" have you "talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know"; "suspected a child was sexually abused"; "taken steps to protect a child"; or "reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare"? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline to 48

    16. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse (“Prevent It!”) That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior

      PubMed Central

      Martin, Erin K.; Silverstone, Peter H.

      2016-01-01

      Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking “how many times in the previous 3-months” have you “talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know”; “suspected a child was sexually abused”; “taken steps to protect a child”; or “reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare”? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from

    17. Effects of a Velocity-Vector Based Command Augmentation System and Synthetic Vision System Terrain Portrayal and Guidance Symbology Concepts on Single-Pilot Performance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Liu, Dahai; Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Peak, Bob

      2010-01-01

      This study investigated the effects of synthetic vision system (SVS) concepts and advanced flight controls on the performance of pilots flying a light, single-engine general aviation airplane. We evaluated the effects and interactions of two levels of terrain portrayal, guidance symbology, and flight control response type on pilot performance during the conduct of a relatively complex instrument approach procedure. The terrain and guidance presentations were evaluated as elements of an integrated primary flight display system. The approach procedure used in the study included a steeply descending, curved segment as might be encountered in emerging, required navigation performance (RNP) based procedures. Pilot performance measures consisted of flight technical performance, perceived workload, perceived situational awareness and subjective preference. The results revealed that an elevation based generic terrain portrayal significantly improved perceived situation awareness without adversely affecting flight technical performance or workload. Other factors (pilot instrument rating, control response type, and guidance symbology) were not found to significantly affect the performance measures.

    18. Derivation of Primordial germ cells from Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells is significantly improved by co-culture with human fetal gonadal cells

      PubMed Central

      Park, Tae Sub; Galic, Zoran; Conway, Anne E.; Lindgren, Anne; Van Handel, Benjamin J.; Magnusson, Mattias; Richter, Laura; Teitell, Michael A.; Mikkola, Hanna K.A; Lowry, William E.; Plath, Kathrin; Clark, Amander T

      2012-01-01

      The derivation of germ cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem (hIPS) cells represents a desirable experimental model and potential strategy for treating infertility. In the current study we developed a triple biomarker assay for identifying and isolating human primordial germ cells (PGCs) by first evaluating human PGC formation during the first trimester in vivo. Next, we applied this technology to characterizing in vitro derived PGCs (iPGCs) from pluripotent cells. Our results show that co-differentiation of hESCs on human fetal gonadal stromal cells significantly improves the efficiency of generating iPGCs. Furthermore, the efficiency was comparable between various pluripotent cell lines regardless of origin from the inner cell mass of human blastocysts (hESCs), or reprogramming of human skin fibroblasts (hIPS). In order to better characterize the iPGCs we performed Real time PCR, microarray and bisulfite sequencing. Our results show that iPGCs at day 7 of differentiation are transcriptionally distinct from the somatic cells, expressing genes associated with pluripotency and germ cell development while repressing genes associated with somatic differentiation (specifically multiple HOX genes). Using bisulfite sequencing, we show that iPGCs initiate imprint erasure from differentially methylated imprinted regions by day 7 of differentiation. However, iPGCs derived from hIPS cells do not initiate imprint erasure as efficiently. In conclusion, our results indicate that triple positive iPGCs derived from pluripotent cells differentiated on hFGS cells correspond to committed first trimester germ cells (before 9 weeks) that have initiated the process of imprint erasure. PMID:19350678

    19. Adding blood to agitated saline significantly improves detection of right-to-left shunt by contrast-transcranial color-coded duplex sonography.

      PubMed

      Gentile, Mauro; De Vito, Alessandro; Azzini, Cristiano; Tamborino, Carmine; Casetta, Ilaria

      2014-11-01

      Contrast-transcranial Doppler and contrast-transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (c-TCCD) have been reported to have high sensitivity in detecting patent foramen ovale as compared with transesophageal echocardiography. An international consensus meeting (Jauss and Zanette 2000) recommended that the contrast agent for right-to left-shunt (RLS) detection using contrast-transcranial Doppler be prepared by mixing 9 mL of isotonic saline solution and 1 mL of air. The aim of our study was to determine whether adding blood to the contrast agent results in improved detection of RLS. We enrolled all consecutive patients admitted to our neurosonology laboratory for RLS diagnosis. For each patient, we performed c-TCCD both at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver using two different contrast agents: ANSs (1 mL of air mixed with 9 mL of normal saline) and ANSHBs (1 mL of air mixed with 8 mL of normal saline and 1 mL of the patient's blood). To classify RLS, we used a four-level visual categorization: (i) no occurrence of micro-embolic signals; (ii) grade I, 1-10 signals; (iii) grade II, >10 signals but no curtain; grade III, curtain pattern. We included 80 patients, 33 men and 47 women. RLS was detected in 18.8% at rest and in 35% during the Valsalva maneuver using ANSs, and in 31.3% and in 46.3% using ANSHBs, respectively (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant increase in the number of micro-embolic signals with the use of ANSHBs. The use of blood mixed with saline solution and air as a c-TCCD contrast agent produced an increase in positive tests and a higher grade of RLS compared with normal saline and air alone, either with or without the Valsalva maneuver. PMID:25220269

    20. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      1997-04-01

      The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

    1. Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Bordano, A. J.; Mcswain, G. G.; Fernandes, S. T.

      1991-01-01

      The NASA Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Bridging program is reviewed to demonstrate the program plan and GN&C systems for the Space Shuttle. The ascent CN&C system is described in terms of elements such as the general-purpose digital computers, sensors for the navigation subsystem, the guidance-system software, and the flight-control subsystem. Balloon-based and lidar wind soundings are used for operations assessment on the day of launch, and the guidance software is based on dedicated units for atmospheric powered flight, vacuum powered flight, and abort-specific situations. Optimization of the flight trajectories is discussed, and flight-control responses are illustrated for wavelengths of 500-6000 m. Alternate sensors are used for load relief, and adaptive GN&C systems based on alternate gain synthesis are used for systems failures.

    2. Motor learning with fading and growing haptic guidance.

      PubMed

      Heuer, Herbert; Lüttgen, Jenna

      2014-07-01

      Haptic guidance has been shown to have both facilitatory and interfering effects on motor learning. Interfering effects have been hypothesized to result from the particular dynamic environment, which supports a passive role of the learner, and they should be attenuated by fading guidance. Facilitatory effects, in particular for dynamic movement characteristics, have been hypothesized to result from the high-quality information provided by haptic demonstration. If haptic demonstration provides particularly precise information about target movements, the motor system's need for such information should more likely increase in the course of motor learning, in which case growing guidance should be more beneficial for learning. We contrasted fading and growing guidance in the course of learning a spatio-temporal motor pattern. To stimulate an active role of the learner, practice trials consisted of three phases, a visual demonstration of the target movement, a guided reproduction, and a reproduction without haptic guidance. Performance was assessed in terms of variable duration errors, relative-timing errors, variable path-length errors, and shape errors. Motor learning with growing and fading guidance turned out to be largely equivalent, so that the notion of an increasing optimal precision of haptic demonstrations, which matches a demand of increasingly precise information on the target movement, found no support. Duration errors declined only with fading, but not with growing guidance. Relative timing revealed a benefit of immediately preceding haptic demonstration, but learning was not different between the two practice protocols. This contrast between absolute and relative timing adds to other evidence according to which acquisition of these two aspects of motor timing involves different learning mechanisms. Whereas relative timing gained from immediately preceding haptic demonstration, but revealed no practice-related improvement in the presence of haptic guidance

    3. The impact of expert visual guidance on trainee visual search strategy, visual attention and motor skills

      PubMed Central

      Leff, Daniel R.; James, David R. C.; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Sun, Loi Wah; Mylonas, George; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara W.; Yang, Guang-Zhong

      2015-01-01

      Minimally invasive and robotic surgery changes the capacity for surgical mentors to guide their trainees with the control customary to open surgery. This neuroergonomic study aims to assess a “Collaborative Gaze Channel” (CGC); which detects trainer gaze-behavior and displays the point of regard to the trainee. A randomized crossover study was conducted in which twenty subjects performed a simulated robotic surgical task necessitating collaboration either with verbal (control condition) or visual guidance with CGC (study condition). Trainee occipito-parietal (O-P) cortical function was assessed with optical topography (OT) and gaze-behavior was evaluated using video-oculography. Performance during gaze-assistance was significantly superior [biopsy number: (mean ± SD): control = 5.6 ± 1.8 vs. CGC = 6.6 ± 2.0; p < 0.05] and was associated with significantly lower O-P cortical activity [ΔHbO2 mMol × cm [median (IQR)] control = 2.5 (12.0) vs. CGC 0.63 (11.2), p < 0.001]. A random effect model (REM) confirmed the association between guidance mode and O-P excitation. Network cost and global efficiency were not significantly influenced by guidance mode. A gaze channel enhances performance, modulates visual search, and alleviates the burden in brain centers subserving visual attention and does not induce changes in the trainee’s O-P functional network observable with the current OT technique. The results imply that through visual guidance, attentional resources may be liberated, potentially improving the capability of trainees to attend to other safety critical events during the procedure. PMID:26528160

    4. The impact of expert visual guidance on trainee visual search strategy, visual attention and motor skills.

      PubMed

      Leff, Daniel R; James, David R C; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Sun, Loi Wah; Mylonas, George; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara W; Yang, Guang-Zhong

      2015-01-01

      Minimally invasive and robotic surgery changes the capacity for surgical mentors to guide their trainees with the control customary to open surgery. This neuroergonomic study aims to assess a "Collaborative Gaze Channel" (CGC); which detects trainer gaze-behavior and displays the point of regard to the trainee. A randomized crossover study was conducted in which twenty subjects performed a simulated robotic surgical task necessitating collaboration either with verbal (control condition) or visual guidance with CGC (study condition). Trainee occipito-parietal (O-P) cortical function was assessed with optical topography (OT) and gaze-behavior was evaluated using video-oculography. Performance during gaze-assistance was significantly superior [biopsy number: (mean ± SD): control = 5.6 ± 1.8 vs. CGC = 6.6 ± 2.0; p < 0.05] and was associated with significantly lower O-P cortical activity [ΔHbO2 mMol × cm [median (IQR)] control = 2.5 (12.0) vs. CGC 0.63 (11.2), p < 0.001]. A random effect model (REM) confirmed the association between guidance mode and O-P excitation. Network cost and global efficiency were not significantly influenced by guidance mode. A gaze channel enhances performance, modulates visual search, and alleviates the burden in brain centers subserving visual attention and does not induce changes in the trainee's O-P functional network observable with the current OT technique. The results imply that through visual guidance, attentional resources may be liberated, potentially improving the capability of trainees to attend to other safety critical events during the procedure. PMID:26528160

    5. Apollo experience report guidance and control systems: Lunar module abort guidance system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kurten, P. M.

      1975-01-01

      The history of a unique development program that produced an operational fixed guidance system of inertial quality is presented. Each phase of development, beginning with requirement definition and concluding with qualification and testing, is addressed, and developmental problems are emphasized. Software generation and mission operations are described, and specifications for the inertial reference unit are included, as are flight performance results. Significant program observations are noted.

    6. Phase contrast image guidance for synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pelliccia, Daniele; Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Larkin, Kieran G.

      2016-08-01

      Recent image guidance developments for preclinical synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy represent a necessary step for future clinical translation of the technique. Image quality can be further improved using x-ray phase contrast, which is readily available at synchrotron facilities. We here describe a methodology for phase contrast image guidance at the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Differential phase contrast is measured alongside conventional attenuation and used to improve the image quality. Post-processing based on the inverse Riesz transform is employed on the measured data to obtain noticeably sharper images. The procedure is extremely well suited for applications such as image guidance which require both visual assessment and sample alignment based on semi automatic image registration. Moreover, our approach can be combined with all other differential phase contrast imaging techniques, in all cases where a quantitative evaluation of the refractive index is not required.

    7. Phase contrast image guidance for synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy.

      PubMed

      Pelliccia, Daniele; Crosbie, Jeffrey C; Larkin, Kieran G

      2016-08-21

      Recent image guidance developments for preclinical synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy represent a necessary step for future clinical translation of the technique. Image quality can be further improved using x-ray phase contrast, which is readily available at synchrotron facilities. We here describe a methodology for phase contrast image guidance at the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Differential phase contrast is measured alongside conventional attenuation and used to improve the image quality. Post-processing based on the inverse Riesz transform is employed on the measured data to obtain noticeably sharper images. The procedure is extremely well suited for applications such as image guidance which require both visual assessment and sample alignment based on semi automatic image registration. Moreover, our approach can be combined with all other differential phase contrast imaging techniques, in all cases where a quantitative evaluation of the refractive index is not required. PMID:27436750

    8. MRI-Guided 3D Optimization Significantly Improves DVH Parameters of Pulsed-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

      SciTech Connect

      Lindegaard, Jacob C. Tanderup, Kari; Nielsen, Soren Kynde; Haack, Soren; Gelineck, John

      2008-07-01

      {sub 90} was 91 {+-} 8 Gy{sub {alpha}}{sub /{beta}}{sub 10} and D{sub 100} was 76 {+-} 5 Gy{sub {alpha}}{sub /{beta}}{sub 10}. The minimal dose to 2 cm{sup 3} for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid was 73 {+-} 6, 67 {+-} 6, and 69 {+-} 6 Gy{sub {alpha}}{sub /{beta}}{sub 3}, respectively. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that magnetic resonance imaging-guided optimization of PDR-BT for locally advanced cervical cancer significantly improved the dose-volume histogram parameters.

    9. Equivalent Activities of Repulsive Axon Guidance Receptors

      PubMed Central

      Long, Hong; Yoshikawa, Shingo

      2016-01-01

      Receptors on the growth cone at the leading edge of elongating axons play critical guidance roles by recognizing cues via their extracellular domains and transducing signals via their intracellular domains, resulting in changes in direction of growth. An important concept to have emerged in the axon guidance field is the importance of repulsion as a major guidance mechanism. Given the number and variety of different repulsive receptors, it is generally thought that there are likely to be qualitative differences in the signals they transduce. However, the nature of these possible differences is unknown. By creating chimeras using the extracellular and intracellular domains of three different Drosophila repulsive receptors, Unc5, Roundabout (Robo), and Derailed (Drl) and expressing them in defined cells within the embryonic nervous system, we examined the responses elicited by their intracellular domains systematically. Surprisingly, we found no qualitative differences in growth cone response or axon growth, suggesting that, despite their highly diverged sequences, each intracellular domain elicits repulsion via a common pathway. In terms of the signaling pathway(s) used by the repulsive receptors, mutations in the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio strongly enhance the repulsive activity of all three intracellular domains, suggesting that repulsion by Unc5, Robo, and Drl, and perhaps repulsion in general, involves Trio activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A prevailing concept that has emerged in the axon guidance field is the importance of repulsion as a guidance mechanism for steering axons to their appropriate targets. Given the number and variety of different repulsive receptors, it is generally thought that there are differences in the signals that they transduce. However, this has never been tested directly. We have used the advanced genetics of Drosophila to compare directly the outputs of different repulsive receptors. Surprisingly, we found no qualitative

    10. Theater As A Guidance Technique

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Wolpert, William

      1973-01-01

      Guidance-drama activity provides (a) crisp definitions of selected issues; (b) potent modeling from the characters in the play, the students actively engaged in the play, and the students involved in the discussions that follow the play; and (c) a technique for peer-led discussions on sensitive issues. This article gives precise definition to the…

    11. Humanizing Education Through Guidance Counseling.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Accola, W. V.

      A computerized information retrieval system has been designed to support the secondary school counseling effort. The system, entitled Total Guidance Information Support System (TGISS), runs on an IBM System/360 Model 65 facility and uses the IBM 2848 Display Control Unit. The software consists of an interactive communications program developed in…

    12. THE STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

      EPA Science Inventory

      THE STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

      Susan M. Cormier, ORD/NRMRL, Susan B. Norton, ORD/NCEA, Glenn W. Suter, II ORD/NCEA, William Swietlik, OW lOST

      Science Question(s):

      MYP Science Question: How can multiple and possibly related causes of biological ...

    13. Reading Guidance: Death and Grief.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Smith, Alice Gullen

      1989-01-01

      Gives guidelines for the librarian using reading guidance (similar to bibliotherapy). Provides a nine-item annotated bibliography of novels for children and adolescents on the subject of death and grief. Appends an embryo list of categories suitable for content analysis of any file librarians might wish to keep on books suitable for use in this…

    14. Career Guidance in Singapore Schools.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Tan, Esther

      2002-01-01

      Reviews the history and stages of development for career guidance in Singapore schools. Asserts that to meet the challenges of the new millennium, there is a need to train professional career counselors, develop indigenous resource materials, and promote a new concept of career development among students. (Contains 15 references.) (GCP)

    15. Developing Local Lifelong Guidance Strategies.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Watts, A. G.; Hawthorn, Ruth; Hoffbrand, Jill; Jackson, Heather; Spurling, Andrea

      1997-01-01

      Outlines the background, rationale, methodology, and outcomes of developing local lifelong guidance strategies in four geographic areas. Analyzes the main components of the strategies developed and addresses a number of issues relating to the process of strategy development. Explores implications for parallel work in other localities. (RJM)

    16. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Kirkpatrick, T.D.

      1995-01-01

      This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

    17. The Significance of Emotions and Professional Relations for Accommodating a Web-Based Ulcer Record and Improving Home-Based Care

      PubMed Central

      Ekeland, Anne G.

      2015-01-01

      Evidence of technological performance, medical improvements and economic effectiveness is generally considered sufficient for judging advances in healthcare. In this paper, I aim to add knowledge about the ways human emotions and professional relations play roles in the processes of accommodating new technologies for quality improvements. A newly-implemented, web-based ulcer record service for patients with chronic skin ulcers constitutes the case. After one year, only a few home care nurses were using the service, interacting with a specialist team. The result was disappointing, but the few users were enthusiastic. An explorative, qualitative study was initiated to understand the users, the processes that accounted for use and how improvements were enacted. In the paper, I expose the emotional aspects of the record accommodation by analyzing the ways emotions were translated in the process and how they influenced the improvements. I contend that use came about through a heterogeneous assemblage of ethical engagement and compassionate emotions stemming from frustration, combined with technological affordances and relations between different professionals. Certain aspects of the improvements are exposed. These are discussed as: (1) reconciliations between the medical facts and rational judgments, on one side, and the emotional and subjective values for judging quality, on the other; and (2) mediation between standardized and personalized care. The healing of ulcers was combined with a sense of purpose and wellbeing to validate improvements. Emotions were strongly involved, and the power of evaluative emotions and professional relations should be further explored to add to the understanding of innovation processes and to validate quality improvements. PMID:27417745

    18. A new paradigm in optimal missile guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Morgan, Robert W.

      2007-12-01

      This dissertation investigates advanced concepts in terminal missile guidance. The terminal phase of missile guidance usually lasts less than ten seconds and calls for very accurate maneuvering to ensure intercept. Technological advancements have produced increasingly sophisticated threats that greatly reduce the effectiveness of traditional approaches to missile guidance. Because of this, terminal missile guidance is, and will remain, an important and active area of research. The complexity of the problem and the desire for an optimal solution has resulted in researchers focusing on simplistic, usually linear, models. The fruit of these endeavors has resulted in some of the world's most advanced weapons systems. Even so, the resulting guidance schemes cannot possibly counter the evolving threats that will push the system outside the linear envelope for which they were designed. The research done in this dissertation greatly extends previous research in the area of optimal missile guidance. Herein it is shown that optimal missile guidance is fundamentally a pairing of an optimal guidance strategy and an optimal control strategy. The optimal guidance strategy is determined from a missile's information constraints, which are themselves largely determined from the missile's sensors. The optimal control strategy is determined by the missile's control constraints, and works to achieve a specified guidance strategy. This dichotomy of missile guidance is demonstrated by showing that missiles having different control constraints utilize the same guidance strategy so long as the information constraints are the same. This concept has hitherto been unrecognized because of the difficulty in developing an optimal control for the nonlinear set of equations that result from control constraints. Having overcome this difficulty by indirect means, evidence of the guidance strategy paradigm emerged. The guidance strategy paradigm is used to develop two advanced guidance laws. The new

    19. Optoelectronic Sensor System for Guidance in Docking

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Book, Michael L.; Jackson, John L.

      2004-01-01

      The Video Guidance Sensor (VGS) system is an optoelectronic sensor that provides automated guidance between two vehicles. In the original intended application, the two vehicles would be spacecraft docking together, but the basic principles of design and operation of the sensor are applicable to aircraft, robots, vehicles, or other objects that may be required to be aligned for docking, assembly, resupply, or precise separation. The system includes a sensor head containing a monochrome charge-coupled- device video camera and pulsed laser diodes mounted on the tracking vehicle, and passive reflective targets on the tracked vehicle. The lasers illuminate the targets, and the resulting video images of the targets are digitized. Then, from the positions of the digitized target images and known geometric relationships among the targets, the relative position and orientation of the vehicles are computed. As described thus far, the VGS system is based on the same principles as those of the system described in "Improved Video Sensor System for Guidance in Docking" (MFS-31150), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 21, No. 4 (April 1997), page 9a. However, the two systems differ in the details of design and operation. The VGS system is designed to operate with the target completely visible within a relative-azimuth range of +/-10.5deg and a relative-elevation range of +/-8deg. The VGS acquires and tracks the target within that field of view at any distance from 1.0 to 110 m and at any relative roll, pitch, and/or yaw angle within +/-10deg. The VGS produces sets of distance and relative-orientation data at a repetition rate of 5 Hz. The software of this system also accommodates the simultaneous operation of two sensors for redundancy

    20. Drag-based composite super-twisting sliding mode control law design for Mars entry guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zhao, Zhenhua; Yang, Jun; Li, Shihua; Guo, Lei

      2016-06-01

      In this paper, the drag-based trajectory tracking guidance problem is investigated for Mars entry vehicle subject to uncertainties. A composite super twisting sliding mode control method based on finite-time disturbance observer is proposed for guidance law design. The proposed controller not only eliminates the effects of matched and mismatched disturbances due to uncertainties of atmospheric models and vehicle aerodynamics but also guarantees the continuity of control action. Numerical simulations are carried out on the basis of Mars Science Laboratory mission, where the results show that the proposed methods can improve the Mars entry guidance precision as compared with some existing guidance methods including PID and ADRC.

    1. INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ) GUIDANCE FOR COMMERCIAL AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS

      EPA Science Inventory

      This will provide guidance to designers, construction mangers, and building operation/maintenance managers to improve IEQ and reduce risks of encountering IEQ problems (e.g. mold due to insufficient moisture control). EPA will be producing a document entitled "Moisture Contro...

    2. GOAL: Guidance Opportunities for Affective Learning (K-6).

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Irvine Unified School District, CA.

      This document contains two curriculum guides, the first dealing with accountability skills and the second with social skills. The guides are products of project GOAL (Guidance Opportunities for Affective Learning), a program intended to meet the social/emotional needs of handicapped mainstreamed students in grades K-6 by improving classroom…

    3. Taking Comprehensive Competency-Based Guidance to Business and Industry.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ammon, Tina K.

      This chapter discusses the successful implementation of the Arizona Comprehensive Competency-Based Guidance program model, and how lessons learned from this project can be applied to business and industry settings. Also discussed is the Career Decidedness Study, developed to improve counseling skills and the services offered to employees seeking…

    4. Developing & Managing Your School Guidance & Counseling Program. Fifth Edition

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gysbers, Norman C.; Henderson, Patricia

      2012-01-01

      Five phases for establishing and improving Pre-K-12 comprehensive guidance and counseling programs serve as the organizational framework for this enduring, influential textbook written for counselor educators and their students, school leaders, practicing school counselors, and state or district supervisors. The fifth edition of this bestseller…

    5. Effects of Video Interaction Guidance on Early Childhood Teachers

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Fukkink, Ruben G.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.

      2010-01-01

      An experimental study showed that a video feedback intervention improved the interaction skills of early childhood education and care teachers. The teachers who had received the Video Interaction Guidance training appeared more stimulating in their behavior, were more sensitive and more verbally stimulating than teachers from the control group.…

    6. Engineering Guidance: A Human Resource Development.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Snarponis, Joseph M.; Prien, John D.

      1979-01-01

      Describes the role of The National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) in providing guidance activities for students. Discusses structional organization, goals, and guidance activities for engineering and technical and professional societies. (MA)

    7. Activity Group Guidance: A Developmental Approach

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hillman, Bill W.; And Others

      1975-01-01

      Illustrates the content, process, and group dynamics of Activity Group Guidance. Describes and evaluates a comprehensive Activity Group Guidance program. Gives specific suggestions to counselors who wish to start Activity Groups. (Author)

    8. ELEMENTARY GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING--A PROGRESS REPORT OF THE ACTIVITIES OF A LABORATORY.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      USITALO, RICHARD J.

      THE TWO PRIMARY OBJECTIVES OF THE OLYMPIA SCHOOL DISTRICT'S ELEMENTARY GUIDANCE PROGRAM WERE TO IMPROVE TEACHER ATTITUDES AND THE CHILD'S SELF-CONCEPT THROUGH THE TEACHER-CHILD RELATIONSHIP. THE PHILOSOPHICAL BASIS OF THE PROGRAM VIEWED GUIDANCE AS A PART OF THE TOTAL DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS, EMPHASIZING PREVENTIVE COUNSELING INSTEAD OF REMEDIAL…

    9. Using Automated Scores of Student Essays to Support Teacher Guidance in Classroom Inquiry

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gerard, Libby F.; Linn, Marcia C.

      2016-01-01

      Computer scoring of student written essays about an inquiry topic can be used to diagnose student progress both to alert teachers to struggling students and to generate automated guidance. We identify promising ways for teachers to add value to automated guidance to improve student learning. Three teachers from two schools and their 386 students…

    10. Ultrasound-guided procedures in the emergency department-needle guidance and localization.

      PubMed

      Tirado, Alfredo; Nagdev, Arun; Henningsen, Charlotte; Breckon, Pav; Chiles, Kris

      2013-02-01

      Ultrasound has rapidly become an essential tool in the emergency department, specifically in procedural guidance. Its use has been demonstrated to improve the success rate of procedures, while decreasing complications. In this article, we explore some of these specific procedures involving needle guidance and structure localization with ultrasound. PMID:23200330

    11. Exploring the Use of Individualized, Reflective Guidance In an Educational Multi-User Virtual Environment

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Nelson, Brian C.

      2007-02-01

      This study examines the patterns of use and potential impact of individualized, reflective guidance in an educational Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE). A guidance system embedded within a MUVE-based scientific inquiry curriculum was implemented with a sample of middle school students in an exploratory study investigating (a) whether access to the guidance system was associated with improved learning, (b) whether students viewing more guidance messages saw greater improvement on content tests than those viewing less, and (c) whether there were any differences in guidance use among boys and girls. Initial experimental findings showed that basic access to individualized guidance used with a MUVE had no measurable impact on learning. However, post-hoc exploratory analyses indicated that increased use of the system among those with access to it was positively associated with content test score gains. In addition, differences were found in overall learning outcomes by gender and in patterns of guidance use by boys and girls, with girls outperforming boys across a spectrum of guidance system use. Based on these exploratory findings, the paper suggests design guidelines for the development of guidance systems embedded in MUVEs and outlines directions for further research.

    12. Dispersion-correcting potentials can significantly improve the bond dissociation enthalpies and noncovalent binding energies predicted by density-functional theory

      SciTech Connect

      DiLabio, Gino A.; Koleini, Mohammad

      2014-05-14

      Dispersion-correcting potentials (DCPs) are atom-centered Gaussian functions that are applied in a manner that is similar to effective core potentials. Previous work on DCPs has focussed on their use as a simple means of improving the ability of conventional density-functional theory methods to predict the binding energies of noncovalently bonded molecular dimers. We show in this work that DCPs developed for use with the LC-ωPBE functional along with 6-31+G(2d,2p) basis sets are capable of simultaneously improving predicted noncovalent binding energies of van der Waals dimer complexes and covalent bond dissociation enthalpies in molecules. Specifically, the DCPs developed herein for the C, H, N, and O atoms provide binding energies for a set of 66 noncovalently bonded molecular dimers (the “S66” set) with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.21 kcal/mol, which represents an improvement of more than a factor of 10 over unadorned LC-ωPBE/6-31+G(2d,2p) and almost a factor of two improvement over LC-ωPBE/6-31+G(2d,2p) used in conjunction with the “D3” pairwise dispersion energy corrections. In addition, the DCPs reduce the MAE of calculated X-H and X-Y (X,Y = C, H, N, O) bond dissociation enthalpies for a set of 40 species from 3.2 kcal/mol obtained with unadorned LC-ωPBE/6-31+G(2d,2p) to 1.6 kcal/mol. Our findings demonstrate that broad improvements to the performance of DFT methods may be achievable through the use of DCPs.

    13. HFE Process Guidance and Standards for potential application to updating NRC guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Jacques Hugo; J. J. Persensky

      2012-07-01

      The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews and evaluates the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of these guidance documents to ensure that they remain state-of-the-art design evaluation tools. Thus, the NRC has initiated a project with BNL to update the NRC guidance to remain current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology. INL supported Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) to update the detailed HFE review criteria contained in NUREG-0711 and NUREG-0700 based on (1) feedback obtained from end users, (2) the results of NRC research and development efforts supporting the NRC staff’s HFE safety reviews, and (3) other material the project staff identify as applicable to the update effort. INL submitted comments on development plans and sections of NUREGs 0800, 0711, and 0700. The contractor prepared the report attached here as the deliverable for this work.

    14. Lrig2 Negatively Regulates Ectodomain Shedding of Axon Guidance Receptors by ADAM Proteases.

      PubMed

      van Erp, Susan; van den Heuvel, Dianne M A; Fujita, Yuki; Robinson, Ross A; Hellemons, Anita J C G M; Adolfs, Youri; Van Battum, Eljo Y; Blokhuis, Anna M; Kuijpers, Marijn; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Hedman, Håkan; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Siebold, Christian; Yamashita, Toshihide; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen

      2015-12-01

      Many guidance receptors are proteolytically cleaved by membrane-associated metalloproteases of the ADAM family, leading to the shedding of their ectodomains. Ectodomain shedding is crucial for receptor signaling and function, but how this process is controlled in neurons remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the transmembrane protein Lrig2 negatively regulates ADAM-mediated guidance receptor proteolysis in neurons. Lrig2 binds Neogenin, a receptor for repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs), and prevents premature Neogenin shedding by ADAM17 (TACE). RGMa reduces Lrig2-Neogenin interactions, providing ADAM17 access to Neogenin and allowing this protease to induce ectodomain shedding. Regulation of ADAM17-mediated Neogenin cleavage by Lrig2 is required for neurite growth inhibition by RGMa in vitro and for cortical neuron migration in vivo. Furthermore, knockdown of Lrig2 significantly improves CNS axon regeneration. Together, our data identify a unique ligand-gated mechanism to control receptor shedding by ADAMs and reveal functions for Lrigs in neuron migration and regenerative failure. PMID:26651291

    15. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

      1993-01-01

      The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission waypoints that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system.

    16. Quality Assurance in University Guidance Services

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Simon, Alexandra

      2014-01-01

      In Europe there is no common quality assurance framework for the delivery of guidance in higher education. Using a case study approach in four university career guidance services in England, France and Spain, this article aims to study how quality is implemented in university career guidance services in terms of strategy, standards and models,…

    17. Idaho Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Program Model.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

      This handbook describes a series of procedures for establishing school guidance and counseling programs in Idaho based on the Missouri Comprehensive Guidance Program model developed by Dr. Norman Gysbers. It begins with a conceptual framework and moves through the development, evaluation, and refinement steps of setting guidance programs in Idaho…

    18. Computer-Assisted Guidance: Concepts and Practices.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Katz, Martin R.; Shatkin, Laurence

      This report reviews and analyzes the development and status of computer-assisted-guidance (CAG) systems. In terms of eight major topics which are introduced in a discussion of guidance and the computer, the report discusses the capabilities of computers in reference to other resources for guidance and describes and differentiates various CAG…

    19. Optical guidance vidicon test program

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Eiseman, A. R.; Stanton, R. H.; Voge, C. C.

      1976-01-01

      A laboratory and field test program was conducted to quantify the optical navigation parameters of the Mariner vidicons. A scene simulator and a camera were designed and built for vidicon tests under a wide variety of conditions. Laboratory tests characterized error sources important to the optical navigation process and field tests verified star sensitivity and characterized comet optical guidance parameters. The equipment, tests and data reduction techniques used are described. Key test results are listed. A substantial increase in the understanding of the use of selenium vidicons as detectors for spacecraft optical guidance was achieved, indicating a reduction in residual offset errors by a factor of two to four to the single pixel level.

    20. Teleautonomous guidance for mobile robots

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Borenstein, J.; Koren, Y.

      1990-01-01

      Teleautonomous guidance (TG), a technique for the remote guidance of fast mobile robots, has been developed and implemented. With TG, the mobile robot follows the general direction prescribed by an operator. However, if the robot encounters an obstacle, it autonomously avoids collision with that obstacle while trying to match the prescribed direction as closely as possible. This type of shared control is completely transparent and transfers control between teleoperation and autonomous obstacle avoidance gradually. TG allows the operator to steer vehicles and robots at high speeds and in cluttered environments, even without visual contact. TG is based on the virtual force field (VFF) method, which was developed earlier for autonomous obstacle avoidance. The VFF method is especially suited to the accommodation of inaccurate sensor data (such as that produced by ultrasonic sensors) and sensor fusion, and allows the mobile robot to travel quickly without stopping for obstacles.

    1. Guidance molecules in lung cancer

      PubMed Central

      Nasarre, Patrick; Potiron, Vincent; Drabkin, Harry

      2010-01-01

      Guidance molecules were first described in the nervous system to control axon outgrowth direction. They are also widely expressed outside the nervous system where they control cell migration, tissue development and establishment of the vascular network. In addition, they are involved in cancer development, tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. This review is primarily focused on their functions in lung cancer and their involvement in lung development is also presented. Five guidance molecule families and their corresponding receptors are described, including the semaphorins/neuropilins/plexins, ephrins and Eph receptors, netrin/DCC/UNC5, Slit/Robo and Notch/Delta. In addition, the possibility to target these molecules as a therapeutic approach in cancer is discussed. PMID:20139699

    2. Mental health promotion: guidance and strategies.

      PubMed

      Kalra, G; Christodoulou, G; Jenkins, R; Tsipas, V; Christodoulou, N; Lecic-Tosevski, D; Mezzich, J; Bhugra, D

      2012-02-01

      Public mental health incorporates a number of strategies from mental well-being promotion to primary prevention and other forms of prevention. There is considerable evidence in the literature to suggest that early interventions and public education can work well for reducing psychiatric morbidity and resulting burden of disease. Educational strategies need to focus on individual, societal and environmental aspects. Targeted interventions at individuals will also need to focus on the whole population. A nested approach with the individual at the heart of it surrounded by family surrounded by society at large is the most suitable way to approach this. This Guidance should be read along with the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) Guidance on Prevention. Those at risk of developing psychiatric disorders also require adequate interventions as well as those who may have already developed illness. However, on the model of triage, mental health and well-being promotion need to be prioritized to ensure that, with the limited resources available, these activities do not get forgotten. One possibility is to have separate programmes for addressing concerns of a particular population group, another that is relevant for the broader general population. Mental health promotion as a concept is important and this will allow prevention of some psychiatric disorders and, by improving coping strategies, is likely to reduce the burden and stress induced by mental illness. PMID:22197146

    3. Numerical investigation of oxygen impurity distribution during multicrystalline silicon crystal growth using a gas flow guidance device

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Teng, Ying-Yang; Chen, Jyh-Chen; Lu, Chung-Wei; Chen, Chi-Yung

      2012-12-01

      Oxygen is one of the most important types of impurities that can cause thermal donor or light-induced degradation in mc-Si solar cells. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect that installing a gas flow guidance device in a mc-Si crystal-growth furnace would have on the oxygen impurity distribution in the melt during the growth process. The installation of such a gas flow guidance device can enhance the gas flow near the free surface, which would allow the argon to carry a greater amount of evaporated SiO gas outside the furnace. Furthermore, the enhanced motion of the gas flow also improves heat transfer near the free surface, which would make the melt vortex separate more easily. The separated melt vortex, which is located near the central region of the melt-crystal interface, directs any oxygen impurity towards the central region of the melt-crystal interface. This is why the oxygen concentration can be reduced by installing the gas flow guidance device. The effectiveness of the gas flow guidance device depends on the vertical distance between it and the free surface (h) as well as the gap between the crucible sidewall and the tip of the device (d). The effect on the oxygen concentration in the melt is significant when smaller values for h and d are adopted.

    4. Entry Guidance for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mendeck, Gavin F.; Craig, Lynn E.

      2011-01-01

      The 2011 Mars Science Laboratory will be the first Mars mission to attempt a guided entry to safely deliver the rover to a touchdown ellipse of 25 km x 20 km. The Entry Terminal Point Controller guidance algorithm is derived from the final phase Apollo Command Module guidance and, like Apollo, modulates the bank angle to control the range flown. For application to Mars landers which must make use of the tenuous Martian atmosphere, it is critical to balance the lift of the vehicle to minimize the range error while still ensuring a safe deploy altitude. An overview of the process to generate optimized guidance settings is presented, discussing improvements made over the last nine years. Key dispersions driving deploy ellipse and altitude performance are identified. Performance sensitivities including attitude initialization error and the velocity of transition from range control to heading alignment are presented.

    5. Towards viable, useful and usable human factors design guidance.

      PubMed

      Burns, C M; Vicente, K J; Christoffersen, K; Pawlak, W S

      1997-01-01

      This paper investigates the factors relevant to producing effective human factors design guidance, using the Engineering Data Compendium (EDC) as a research vehicle. A series of three exploratory experiments focusing on the factors that affect the usability, usefulness and viability of human factors handbooks was conducted. The results of these studies were interpreted in the context of the process by which the EDC was developed, leading to the following recommendations: (a) human factors guidance should be organized in a manner that is stepped in context; (b) human factors guidance should be based on an explicit requirements analysis; (c) the calibration of designers' perceptions of the cost of obtaining human factors information must be improved; (d) organizational policies must be changed to induce more effective information search behaviour. PMID:9414371

    6. Optimal diving maneuver strategy considering guidance accuracy for hypersonic vehicle

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zhu, Jianwen; Liu, Luhua; Tang, Guojian; Bao, Weimin

      2014-11-01

      An optimal maneuver strategy considering terminal guidance accuracy for hypersonic vehicle in dive phase is investigated in this paper. First, it derives the complete three-dimensional nonlinear coupled motion equation without any approximations based on diving relative motion relationship directly, and converts it into linear decoupled state space equation with the same relative degree by feedback linearization. Second, the diving guidance law is designed based on the decoupled equation to meet the terminal impact point and falling angle constraints. In order to further improve the interception capability, it constructs maneuver control model through adding maneuver control item to the guidance law. Then, an integrated performance index consisting of maximum line-of-sight angle rate and minimum energy consumption is designed, and optimal control is employed to obtain optimal maneuver strategy when the encounter time is determined and undetermined, respectively. Furthermore, the performance index and suboptimal strategy are reconstructed to deal with the control capability constraint and the serous influence on terminal guidance accuracy caused by maneuvering flight. Finally, the approach is tested using the Common Aero Vehicle-H model. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategy can achieve high precision guidance and effective maneuver at the same time, and the indices are also optimized.

    7. Varying protein source and quantity does not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      This pilot study tested whether varying protein source and quantity in a reduced energy diet would result in significant differences in weight, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5 month weight reduction study, invol...

    8. Significant improvement following combination treatment with mefloquine and mirtazapine in a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

      PubMed

      Yoshida, Hitoshi; Ohshima, Kenji; Toda, Jun; Kusakabe, Shinsuke; Masaie, Hiroaki; Yagi, Toshinari; Ishikawa, Jun

      2014-01-01

      We report a case of a 40-year-old female who developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), which is associated with JC virus reactivation, after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. As she had been suffering from graft-versus-host disease and lung damage after pneumocystis pneumonia, the administration of calcineurin inhibitor and steroid could not be discontinued. However, she showed a favorable improvement in clinical symptoms and imaging findings after treatment with the anti-malarial drug, mefloquine and a serotonin receptor blocker, mirtazapine. Continuation of the treatment for eight months finally led to the clearance of the JC virus from her cerebrospinal fluid. She currently shows no neurological disturbance and has resumed her daily activities. PML due to the severe immunosuppressive condition has been reported as a fatal complication after allo-SCT. Our case suggests that combination treatment with mefloquine and mirtazapine may be of great value for the treatment for PML patients in the post allo-SCT setting, although it is difficult to say whether the combination treatment alone led to improvement. Further clinical study is needed to clarify the efficacy of these drugs for the treatment of PML. PMID:24264833

    9. Soft-Etching Copper and Silver Electrodes for Significant Device Performance Improvement toward Facile, Cost-Effective, Bottom-Contacted, Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

      PubMed

      Wang, Zongrui; Dong, Huanli; Zou, Ye; Zhao, Qiang; Tan, Jiahui; Liu, Jie; Lu, Xiuqiang; Xiao, Jinchong; Zhang, Qichun; Hu, Wenping

      2016-03-01

      Poor charge injection and transport at the electrode/semiconductor contacts has been so far a severe performance hurdle for bottom-contact bottom-gate (BCBG) organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, we have developed a simple, economic, and effective method to improve the carrier injection efficiency and obtained high-performance devices with low cost and widely used source/drain (S/D) electrodes (Ag/Cu). Through the simple electrode etching process, the work function of the electrodes is more aligned with the semiconductors, which reduces the energy barrier and facilitates the charge injection. Besides, the formation of the thinned electrode edge with desirable micro/nanostructures not only leads to the enlarged contact side area beneficial for the carrier injection but also is in favor of the molecular self-organization for continuous crystal growth at the contact/active channel interface, which is better for the charge injection and transport. These effects give rise to the great reduction of contact resistance and the amazing improvement of the low-cost bottom-contact configuration OFETs performance. PMID:26967358

    10. Experimental Guidance of ISB Corrections via Direct Nuclear Reactions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Leach, K. G.; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bangay, J. C.; Bianco, L.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Kriicken, R.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E. T.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Towner, I. S.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.; Wong, J.

      2011-09-01

      The most recent isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections, δc, of Towner and Hardy for superallowed Fermi β-decay transitions, have included the opening of specific core orbitals. This change has resulted in significant deviations in some of the δc factors from their previous calculations, and an improved agreement of the individual corrected Script Ft values with the overall world average of the 13 most precise cases. While this is consistent with the conserved-vector-current (CVC) hypothesis of the Standard Model, these new calculations must be thoroughly tested, and guidance must be given for the improvement of calculations for the upper-pf shell nuclei. Using the (d,t) reaction mechanism to probe the single neutron wavefunction overlap, information regarding the relevant shell-model configurations needed in the calculation can be determined. An experiment was therefore performed with a 22 MeV polarized deuterium beam from the MP tandem Van de Graaff accelerator in Munich, Germany. Using the Q3D magnetic spectrograph, and a cathode-strip focal-plane detector, outgoing tritons were analyzed at 9 angles between 10° and 60°, up to an excitation energy of 4.8 MeV. This proceeding reports the motivational and experimental details for the 64Zn(d,t)63Zn transfer work presented.

    11. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

      1993-01-01

      The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center have developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system. AVRADA's NUH-60A STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) helicopter was specially modified, in house, for the flight evaluation of the CALAHF system. The near terrain trajectory generation algorithm runs on a multiprocessor flight computer. Global Positioning System (GPS) data are integrated with Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) data in the flight computer to provide a precise navigation solution. The near-terrain trajectory and the aircraft state information are passed to a Silicon Graphics computer to provide the graphical 'pilot centered' guidance, presented on a Honeywell Integrated Helmet And Display Sighting System (IHADSS). The system design, piloted simulation, and initial flight test results are presented.

    12. Image-guidance enables new methods for customizing cochlear implant stimulation strategies

      PubMed Central

      Noble, Jack H.; Labadie, Robert F.; Gifford, René H.; Dawant, Benoit M.

      2013-01-01

      Over the last 20 years, cochlear implants (CIs) have become what is arguably the most successful neural prosthesis to date. Despite this success, a significant number of CI recipients experience marginal hearing restoration, and, even among the best performers, restoration to normal fidelity is rare. In this article, we present image processing techniques that can be used to detect, for the first time, the positions of implanted CI electrodes and the nerves they stimulate for individual CI users. These techniques permit development of new, customized CI stimulation strategies. We present one such strategy and show that it leads to significant hearing improvement in an experiment conducted with 11 CI recipients. These results indicate that image-guidance can be used to improve hearing outcomes for many existing CI recipients without requiring additional surgical procedures. PMID:23529109

    13. Special nuclear material information, security classification guidance. Instruction

      SciTech Connect

      Flickinger, A.

      1982-12-03

      The Instruction reissues DoD Instruction 5210.67, July 5, 1979, and provides security classification guidance for information concerning significant quantities of special nuclear material, other than that contained in nuclear weapons and that used in the production of energy in the reactor plant of nuclear-powered ships. Security classification guidance for these data in the latter two applications is contained in Joint DoE/DoD Nuclear Weapons Classification Guide and Joint DoE/DoD Classification Guide for the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program.

    14. Use of ultrasound guidance to remove entrapped stimulating popliteal catheters

      PubMed Central

      Hulin, James B.; Daniels, Don J.

      2016-01-01

      Peripheral nerve catheters are beneficial for continuous pain relief following surgery or trauma to an extremity. However, spring-loaded peripheral nerve catheters can become uncoiled and entrapped, resulting in difficulty in catheter removal. We present two cases where ultrasound guidance provided significant assistance in the safe removal of entrapped peripheral nerve catheters without neurologic sequelae. One of the catheters was adhered to nearby tissue, and one had become uncoiled and anchored in place by the distal tip. Guidelines for the safe management of entrapped catheters are suggested, including the use of saline injections through the catheter under ultrasound guidance to assist in the evaluation and removal of the catheters. PMID:27034548

    15. Development of a Tactical Guidance Research and Evaluation System (TGRES)

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.

      1989-01-01

      The development of a simulation tool for tactical guidance research and the evaluation of systems performance in a tactically significant environment is described. The objective of the tool is to provide a means by which researchers can explore and exploit enhancements to airplane agility. The completed tool will include high-fidelity batch and piloted simulation capabilities, an advanced tactical guidance logic and a user-friendly interface. While the tool is being developed for the purpose of studying airplane agility, its modularity should make it easily adaptable to the analysis of other technologies and thus be of interest to a number of potential users.

    16. Using edge-preserving algorithm with non-local mean for significantly improved image-domain material decomposition in dual-energy CT

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zhao, Wei; Niu, Tianye; Xing, Lei; Xie, Yaoqin; Xiong, Guanglei; Elmore, Kimberly; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Luyao; Min, James K.

      2016-02-01

      Increased noise is a general concern for dual-energy material decomposition. Here, we develop an image-domain material decomposition algorithm for dual-energy CT (DECT) by incorporating an edge-preserving filter into the Local HighlY constrained backPRojection reconstruction (HYPR-LR) framework. With effective use of the non-local mean, the proposed algorithm, which is referred to as HYPR-NLM, reduces the noise in dual-energy decomposition while preserving the accuracy of quantitative measurement and spatial resolution of the material-specific dual-energy images. We demonstrate the noise reduction and resolution preservation of the algorithm with an iodine concentrate numerical phantom by comparing the HYPR-NLM algorithm to the direct matrix inversion, HYPR-LR and iterative image-domain material decomposition (Iter-DECT). We also show the superior performance of the HYPR-NLM over the existing methods by using two sets of cardiac perfusing imaging data. The DECT material decomposition comparison study shows that all four algorithms yield acceptable quantitative measurements of iodine concentrate. Direct matrix inversion yields the highest noise level, followed by HYPR-LR and Iter-DECT. HYPR-NLM in an iterative formulation significantly reduces image noise and the image noise is comparable to or even lower than that generated using Iter-DECT. For the HYPR-NLM method, there are marginal edge effects in the difference image, suggesting the high-frequency details are well preserved. In addition, when the search window size increases from 11× 11 to 19× 19 , there are no significant changes or marginal edge effects in the HYPR-NLM difference images. The reference drawn from the comparison study includes: (1) HYPR-NLM significantly reduces the DECT material decomposition noise while preserving quantitative measurements and high-frequency edge information, and (2) HYPR-NLM is robust with respect to parameter selection.

    17. Facilitating endoscopic submucosal dissection: the suture-pulley method significantly improves procedure time and minimizes technical difficulty compared with conventional technique: an ex vivo study (with video)

      PubMed Central

      Aihara, Hiroyuki; Kumar, Nitin; Ryou, Marvin; Abidi, Wasif; Ryan, Michele B.; Thompson, Christopher C.

      2015-01-01

      Background The lack of countertraction in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) results in increased technical demand and procedure time. Although the suture-pulley method for countertraction has been reported, its effectiveness compared with the traditional ESD technique remains unclear. Objective To objectively analyze efficacy of countertraction using the suture-pulley method for ESD. Design Prospective ex vivo animal study. Setting Animal laboratory. Interventions Twenty simulated gastric lesions were created in porcine stomachs by using a standard circular template 30 mm in diameter. In the control arm (n = 10), ESD was performed by using the standard technique. In the suture-pulley arm (N = 10), a circumferential incision was made, and an endoscopic suturing device was used to place the suture pulley. Main Outcome Measurements The primary outcome of this study was total procedure time. Results The median total procedure time with the suture-pulley method was significantly shorter than the traditional ESD technique (median, 25% to 75%, interquartile range [IQR]: 531 seconds [474.3–549.3 seconds] vs 845 seconds [656.3–1547.5 seconds], P < .001). The median time (IQR) for suture-pulley placement was 160.5 seconds (150.0–168.8 seconds). Although there was a significantly longer procedure time for proximal versus middle/lower stomach lesions with traditional ESD (median, 1601 seconds; IQR, 1547.5–1708.8 seconds vs median, 663 seconds; IQR, 627.5–681.8 seconds; P =.01), there was no significant difference in procedure time for lesions of various locations when using the suture-pulley method. Compared with traditional ESD, the suture-pulley method was less demanding in all categories evaluated by the NASA Task Load Index. Limitations Ex vivo study. Conclusions The suture-pulley method facilitates direct visualization of the submucosal layer during ESD and significantly reduces procedure time and technical difficulty. In addition, the benefit of the suture

    18. Combined Use of Hyperbaric and Hypobaric Ropivacaine Significantly Improves Hemodynamic Characteristics in Spinal Anesthesia for Caesarean Section: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Study

      PubMed Central

      Quan, ZheFeng; Tian, Ming; Chi, Ping; Li, Xin; He, HaiLi; Luo, Chao

      2015-01-01

      Purpose To observe the hemodynamic changes of parturients in the combined use of hyperbaric (4 mg) and hypobaric (6 mg) ropivacaine during spinal anesthesia for caesarean section in this randomized double-blind study. Methods Parturients (n = 136) undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomly and equally allocated to receive either combined hyperbaric and hypobaric ropivacaine (Group A) or hyperbaric ropivacaine (Group B). Outcome measures were: hemodynamic characteristics, maximum height of sensory block, time to achieve T8 sensory blockade level, incidence of complications, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min, and neonatal blood gas analysis. Results Group A had a lower level of sensory blockade (T6 [T6-T7]) and longer time to achieve T8 sensory blockade level (8 ± 1.3 min) than did patients in Group B (T3 [T2-T4] and 5 ± 1.0 min, respectively; P < 0.001, both). The incidence rates for hypotension, nausea, and vomiting were significantly lower in Group A (13%, 10%, and 3%, respectively) than Group B (66%, 31%, and 13%; P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.028). Conclusions Combined use of hyperbaric (4 mg) and hypobaric (6 mg) ropivacaine significantly decreased the incidences of hypotension and complications in spinal anesthesia for caesarean section by extending induction time and decreasing the level of sensory blockade. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-TRC-13004622 PMID:25970485

    19. Haptic Shared Control in Tele-Manipulation: Effects of Inaccuracies in Guidance on Task Execution.

      PubMed

      van Oosterhout, Jeroen; Wildenbeest, Jeroen G W; Boessenkool, Henri; Heemskerk, Cock J M; de Baar, Marco R; van der Helm, Frans C T; Abbink, David A

      2015-01-01

      Haptic shared control is a promising approach to improve tele-manipulated task execution, by making safe and effective control actions tangible through guidance forces. In current research, these guidance forces are most often generated based on pre-generated, errorless models of the remote environment. Hence such guidance forces are exempt from the inaccuracies that can be expected in practical implementations. The goal of this research is to quantify the extent to which task execution is degraded by inaccuracies in the model on which haptic guidance forces are based. In a human-in-the-loop experiment, subjects (n = 14) performed a realistic tele-manipulated assembly task in a virtual environment. Operators were provided with various levels of haptic guidance, namely no haptic guidance (conventional tele-manipulation), haptic guidance without inaccuracies, and haptic guidance with translational inaccuracies (one large inaccuracy, in the order of magnitude of the task, and a second smaller inaccuracy). The quality of natural haptic feedback (i.e., haptic transparency) was varied between high and low to identify the operator's ability to detect and cope with inaccuracies in haptic guidance. The results indicate that haptic guidance is beneficial for task execution when no inaccuracies are present in the guidance. When inaccuracies are present, this may degrade task execution, depending on the magnitude and the direction of the inaccuracy. The effect of inaccuracies on overall task performance is dominated by effects found for the Constrained Translational Movement, due to its potential for jamming. No evidence was found that a higher quality of haptic transparency helps operators to detect and cope with inaccuracies in the haptic guidance. PMID:25850094

    20. Site-specific replacement of the thymine methyl group by fluorine in thrombin binding aptamer significantly improves structural stability and anticoagulant activity

      PubMed Central

      Virgilio, Antonella; Petraccone, Luigi; Vellecco, Valentina; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Varra, Michela; Irace, Carlo; Santamaria, Rita; Pepe, Antonietta; Mayol, Luciano; Esposito, Veronica; Galeone, Aldo

      2015-01-01

      Here we report investigations, based on circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, molecular modelling, differential scanning calorimetry and prothrombin time assay, on analogues of the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) in which individual thymidines were replaced by 5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine residues. The whole of the data clearly indicate that all derivatives are able to fold in a G-quadruplex structure very similar to the ‘chair-like’ conformation typical of the TBA. However, only ODNs TBA-F4 and TBA-F13 have shown a remarkable improvement both in the melting temperature (ΔTm ≈ +10) and in the anticoagulant activity in comparison with the original TBA. These findings are unusual, particularly considering previously reported studies in which modifications of T4 and T13 residues in TBA sequence have clearly proven to be always detrimental for the structural stability and biological activity of the aptamer. Our results strongly suggest the possibility to enhance TBA properties through tiny straightforward modifications. PMID:26582916

    1. Disruption of the 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction significantly improves the erythroid defect in a mouse model for Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

      PubMed

      Jaako, P; Debnath, S; Olsson, K; Zhang, Y; Flygare, J; Lindström, M S; Bryder, D; Karlsson, S

      2015-11-01

      Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital erythroid hypoplasia caused by haploinsufficiency of genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPs). Perturbed ribosome biogenesis in DBA has been shown to induce a p53-mediated ribosomal stress response. However, the mechanisms of p53 activation and its relevance for the erythroid defect remain elusive. Previous studies have indicated that activation of p53 is caused by the inhibition of mouse double minute 2 (Mdm2), the main negative regulator of p53, by the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP). Meanwhile, it is not clear whether this mechanism solely mediates the p53-dependent component found in DBA. To approach this question, we crossed our mouse model for RPS19-deficient DBA with Mdm2(C305F) knock-in mice that have a disrupted 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction. Upon induction of the Rps19 deficiency, Mdm2(C305F) reversed the p53 response and improved expansion of hematopoietic progenitors in vitro, and ameliorated the anemia in vivo. Unexpectedly, disruption of the 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction also led to selective defect in erythropoiesis. Our findings highlight the sensitivity of erythroid progenitor cells to aberrations in p53 homeostasis mediated by the 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction. Finally, we provide evidence indicating that physiological activation of the 5S RNP-Mdm2-p53 pathway may contribute to functional decline of the hematopoietic system in a cell-autonomous manner over time. PMID:25987256

    2. PolySearch2: a significantly improved text-mining system for discovering associations between human diseases, genes, drugs, metabolites, toxins and more

      PubMed Central

      Liu, Yifeng; Liang, Yongjie; Wishart, David

      2015-01-01

      PolySearch2 (http://polysearch.ca) is an online text-mining system for identifying relationships between biomedical entities such as human diseases, genes, SNPs, proteins, drugs, metabolites, toxins, metabolic pathways, organs, tissues, subcellular organelles, positive health effects, negative health effects, drug actions, Gene Ontology terms, MeSH terms, ICD-10 medical codes, biological taxonomies and chemical taxonomies. PolySearch2 supports a generalized ‘Given X, find all associated Ys’ query, where X and Y can be selected from the aforementioned biomedical entities. An example query might be: ‘Find all diseases associated with Bisphenol A’. To find its answers, PolySearch2 searches for associations against comprehensive collections of free-text collections, including local versions of MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, Wikipedia full-text articles and US Patent application abstracts. PolySearch2 also searches 14 widely used, text-rich biological databases such as UniProt, DrugBank and Human Metabolome Database to improve its accuracy and coverage. PolySearch2 maintains an extensive thesaurus of biological terms and exploits the latest search engine technology to rapidly retrieve relevant articles and databases records. PolySearch2 also generates, ranks and annotates associative candidates and present results with relevancy statistics and highlighted key sentences to facilitate user interpretation. PMID:25925572

    3. Significantly improving enzymatic saccharification of high crystallinity index's corn stover by combining ionic liquid [Bmim]Cl-HCl-water media with dilute NaOH pretreatment.

      PubMed

      He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Feng; Gong, Lei; Zhu, Zheng-Zhong; Ding, Yun; Wang, Cheng; Xue, Yu-Feng; Rui, Huan; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Ma, Cui-Luan

      2015-01-01

      In this study, a pretreatment by combining acidified aqueous ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (IL [Bmim]Cl) solution with dilute NaOH extraction was employed to pretreat high crystallinity index (CrI) of corn stover before its enzymatic saccharification. After NaOH extraction, [Bmim]Cl-HCl-water (78.8:1.2:20, w/w/w) media was used for further pretreatment at 130 °C for 30 min. After being enzymatically hydrolyzed for 48 h, corn stover pretreated could be biotransformed into reducing sugars in the yield of 95.1%. Furthermore, SEM, XRD and FTIR analyses of untreated and pretreated corn stovers were examined. It was found that the intact structure was disrupted by combination pretreatment and resulted in a porous and amorphous regenerated cellulosic material that greatly improved enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, the recovered hydrolyzates obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated corn stovers could be fermented into ethanol efficiently. In conclusion, the combination pretreatment shows high potential application in future. PMID:25921785

    4. PolySearch2: a significantly improved text-mining system for discovering associations between human diseases, genes, drugs, metabolites, toxins and more.

      PubMed

      Liu, Yifeng; Liang, Yongjie; Wishart, David

      2015-07-01

      PolySearch2 (http://polysearch.ca) is an online text-mining system for identifying relationships between biomedical entities such as human diseases, genes, SNPs, proteins, drugs, metabolites, toxins, metabolic pathways, organs, tissues, subcellular organelles, positive health effects, negative health effects, drug actions, Gene Ontology terms, MeSH terms, ICD-10 medical codes, biological taxonomies and chemical taxonomies. PolySearch2 supports a generalized 'Given X, find all associated Ys' query, where X and Y can be selected from the aforementioned biomedical entities. An example query might be: 'Find all diseases associated with Bisphenol A'. To find its answers, PolySearch2 searches for associations against comprehensive collections of free-text collections, including local versions of MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, Wikipedia full-text articles and US Patent application abstracts. PolySearch2 also searches 14 widely used, text-rich biological databases such as UniProt, DrugBank and Human Metabolome Database to improve its accuracy and coverage. PolySearch2 maintains an extensive thesaurus of biological terms and exploits the latest search engine technology to rapidly retrieve relevant articles and databases records. PolySearch2 also generates, ranks and annotates associative candidates and present results with relevancy statistics and highlighted key sentences to facilitate user interpretation. PMID:25925572

    5. Visually Estimated MRI Targeted Prostate Biopsy Could Improve the Detection of Significant Prostate Cancer in Patients with a PSA Level <10 ng/mL

      PubMed Central

      Lee, Dong Hoon; Nam, Jong Kil; Park, Sung Woo; Lee, Seung Soo; Han, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Sang Don; Lee, Joon Woo

      2016-01-01

      Purpose To compare prostate cancer detection rates between 12 cores transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) and visually estimated multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI)-targeted prostate biopsy (MRI-visual-Bx) for patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) level less than 10 ng/mL. Materials and Methods In total, 76 patients with PSA levels below 10 ng/mL underwent 3.0 Tesla mp-MRI and TRUS-Bx prospectively in 2014. In patients with abnormal lesions on mp-MRI, we performed additional MRI-visual-Bx. We compared pathologic results, including the rate of clinically significant prostate cancer cores (cancer length greater than 5 mm and/or any Gleason grade greater than 3 in the biopsy core). Results The mean PSA was 6.43 ng/mL. In total, 48 of 76 (63.2%) patients had abnormal lesions on mp-MRI, and 116 targeted biopsy cores, an average of 2.42 per patient, were taken. The overall detection rates of prostate cancer using TRUS-Bx and MRI-visual-Bx were 26/76 (34.2%) and 23/48 (47.9%), respectively. In comparing the pathologic results of TRUS-Bx and MRI-visual-Bx cores, the positive rates were 8.4% (77 of 912 cores) and 46.6% (54 of 116 cores), respectively (p<0.001). Mean cancer core lengths and mean cancer core percentages were 3.2 mm and 24.5%, respectively, in TRUS-Bx and 6.3 mm and 45.4% in MRI-visual-Bx (p<0.001). In addition, Gleason score ≥7 was noted more frequently using MRI-visual-Bx (p=0.028). The detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer was 27/77 (35.1%) and 40/54 (74.1%) for TRUS-Bx and MRI-visual-Bx, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusion MRI-visual-Bx showed better performance in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer, compared to TRUS-Bx among patients with a PSA level less than 10 ng/mL. PMID:26996553

    6. 15 CFR 287.1 - Purpose and scope of this guidance.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-01-01

      ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT... unnecessary duplication. This guidance is intended to help Federal agencies improve the management and... technology (where statutes permit) in establishing regulatory and procurement objectives; and determining...

    7. Significantly enhanced tumor cellular and lysosomal hydroxychloroquine delivery by smart liposomes for optimal autophagy inhibition and improved antitumor efficiency with liposomal doxorubicin.

      PubMed

      Wang, Yang; Shi, Kairong; Zhang, Li; Hu, Guanlian; Wan, Jingyu; Tang, Jiajing; Yin, Sheng; Duan, Jiandong; Qin, Ming; Wang, Neng; Xie, Dandan; Gao, Xinle; Gao, Huile; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

      2016-06-01

      Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) inhibits autophagy and therefore can sensitize some cancer cells to chemotherapy, but the high doses required limit its clinical use. Here we show that loading HCQ into liposomes (HCQ/Lip) decorated with a pH-sensitive TH-RGD targeting peptide (HCQ/Lip-TR) can concentrate HCQ in B16F10 tumor cells and lysosomes. HCQ/Lip-TR was efficiently internalized as a result of its ability to bind ITGAV-ITGB3/integrin αvβ3 receptors highly expressed on the tumor cell surface and to undergo charge reversal from anionic at pH 7.4 to cationic at pH 6.5. Studies in vitro at pH 6.5 showed that the intracellular HCQ concentration was 35.68-fold higher, and lysosomal HCQ concentration 32.22-fold higher, after treating cultures with HCQ/Lip-TR than after treating them with free HCQ. The corresponding enhancements observed in mice bearing B16F10 tumors were 15.16-fold within tumor cells and 14.10-fold within lysosomes. HCQ/Lip-TR was associated with milder anemia and milder myosuppressive reductions in white blood cell and platelet counts than free HCQ, as well as less accumulation in the small intestine, which may reduce risk of intestinal side effects. In addition, co-delivering HCQ/Lip-TR with either free doxorubicin (DOX) or liposomal DOX improved the ability of DOX to inhibit tumor growth. Biochemical, electron microscopy and immunofluorescence experiments confirmed that HCQ/Lip-TR blocked autophagic flux in tumor cells. Our results suggest that loading HCQ into Lip-TR liposomes may increase the effective concentration of the inhibitor in tumor cells, allowing less toxic doses to be used. PMID:27123811

    8. A novel liposomal irinotecan formulation with significant anti-tumour activity: use of the divalent cation ionophore A23187 and copper-containing liposomes to improve drug retention.

      PubMed

      Ramsay, Euan; Alnajim, Jehan; Anantha, Malathi; Zastre, Jason; Yan, Hong; Webb, Murray; Waterhouse, Dawn; Bally, Marcel

      2008-03-01

      We determined whether the method used to encapsulate irinotecan into 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine/cholesterol (DSPC/Chol; 55:45 mol%) liposomes influenced: (i) irinotecan release rate and (ii) therapeutic efficacy. DSPC/Chol (55:45 mol%) liposomes were prepared with: (i) unbuffered CuSO4; (ii) buffered (pH 7.5) CuSO4; (iii) unbuffered MnSO4 and the ionophore A23187 (exchanges internal metal2+ with external 2H+ to establish and maintain a transmembrane pH gradient); and (iv) unbuffered CuSO4 and ionophore A23187. All formulations exhibited >98% irinotecan encapsulation (0.2 drug-to-lipid molar ratio; 10 min incubation at 50 degrees C). Following a single intravenous injection (100mg/kg irinotecan) into Balb/c mice, the unbuffered CuSO4 plus A23187 formulation mediated a half-life of irinotecan release of 44.4h; a >or=4-fold increase compared to the other liposome formulations. This surprising observation demonstrated that the CuSO4 plus A23187 formulation enhanced irinotecan retention compared to the MnSO4 plus A23187 formulation, indicating the importance of the divalent metal. A single dose of the CuSO4 plus A23187 formulation (50mg/kg irinotecan) mediated an 18-fold increase in median T-C (the difference in days for treated and control subcutaneous human LS 180 adenocarcinoma xenografts to increase their initial volume by 400%) when compared to a comparable dose of Camptosar. Improved irinotecan retention was associated with increased therapeutic activity. PMID:17904831

    9. Gamma-ray detector guidance of breast cancer therapy

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ravi, Ananth

      2009-12-01

      . One method to provide intraoperative seed localization is through the use of a gamma-camera system. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted of a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) gamma-camera system and a realistic model of a breast with 3 layers of seeds distributed according to the pre-implant treatment plan of a typical patient. The simulations showed that a gamma-camera was able to localize the seeds with a maximum error of 2.0 mm within 20 seconds. An experimental prototype was designed and constructed to validate these promising Monte Carlo results. Using a 64 pixel linear array CZT detector fitted with a custom built brass collimator, images were acquired of a physical phantom similar to the model used in the Monte Carlo simulations. The experimental prototype was able to reliably detect the seeds within 30 seconds with a median error in localization of 1 mm. The results from this thesis suggest that gamma-ray detecting technology may be able to provide significant improvements in guidance of breast cancer therapies and, thus, potentially improved therapeutic outcomes.

    10. Tribological characteristics of bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) as an antiwear additive in polyalkylene glycol and polyurea grease for significantly improved lubrication

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zhu, Lili; Wu, Xinhu; Zhao, Gaiqing; Wang, Xiaobo

      2016-02-01

      A new antiwear additive of Bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BAFDP) was synthesized and characterized. The tribological behaviors of the additive for polyalkylene glycol (PAG) and polyurea grease (PG) application in steel/steel contacts were evaluated on an Optimol SRV-IV oscillating reciprocating friction and wear tester at elevated temperature. The results revealed that BAFDP could drastically reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs in both PAG and also in PG at 100 °C. The tribological properties of BAFDP are superior to the normally used zinc dialkyldithiophosphate-based additive package (ZDDP) in PAG and PG. Moreover, BAFDP as additive for PAG and PG displays relatively significant tribological properties in temperature-ramp tests by performing well at 50-300 °C, indicating the excellent high temperature friction reduction and anti-wear capacity of BAFDP. XPS results showed that boundary lubrication films composed of Fe(OH)O, Fe3O4, FePO4, FeF2, FeF3, compounds containing the Psbnd O bonds, nitrogen oxide, and so forth, were formed on the worn surface, which contributed to excellent friction reduction and antiwear performance.

    11. Physicochemical state of the nanotopographic surface of commercially pure titanium following anodization-hydrothermal treatment reveals significantly improved hydrophilicity and surface energy profiles.

      PubMed

      Takebe, Jun; Ito, Shigeki; Miura, Shingo; Miyata, Kyohei; Ishibashi, Kanji

      2012-01-01

      A method of coating commercially pure titanium (cpTi) implants with a highly crystalline, thin hydroxyapatite (HA) layer using discharge anodic oxidation followed by hydrothermal treatment (Spark discharged Anodic oxidation treatment ; SA-treated cpTi) has been reported for use in clinical dentistry. We hypothesized that a thin HA layer with high crystallinity and nanostructured anodic titanium oxide film on such SA-treated cpTi implant surfaces might be a crucial function of their surface-specific potential energy. To test this, we analyzed anodic oxide (AO) cpTi and SA-treated cpTi disks by SEM and AFM. Contact angles and surface free energy of each disk surface was measured using FAMAS software. High-magnification SEM and AFM revealed the nanotopographic structure of the anodic titanium oxide film on SA-treated cpTi; however, this was not observed on the AO cpTi surface. The contact angle and surface free energy measurements were also significantly different between AO cpTi and SA-treated cpTi surfaces (Tukey's, P<0.05). These data indicated that the change of physicochemical properties of an anodic titanium oxide film with HA crystals on an SA-treated cpTi surface may play a key role in the phenomenon of osteoconduction during the process of osseointegration. PMID:23177772

    12. Significant reduction in bacterial shedding and improvement in milk production in dairy farms after the use of a new inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine in a field trial

      PubMed Central

      2009-01-01

      Background Paratuberculosis vaccination has been in use in some regions for many decades, but results have not been widely spread. A new Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) killed vaccine was studied in relationship with its effects on fecal shedding and milk production in four farms while other two were kept as controls submitted to a test and cull scheme. Findings Fecal detection (n = 1829) and milking records (n = 2413) have been analyzed after two (5 herds) and four (1 herd) years of the beginning of the intervention. Shedder prevalence was reduced by 100% in three of the four vaccinated farms, 68% in the total of vaccinated animals and 46% in the two control farms. Total amount of MAP shed was reduced 77% in the vaccinated farms and 94% in the control farms. Overall milk production increased up to 3.9% after vaccination, while there was no significant difference in production after intervention in the non-vaccinated farms. Conclusion MAP shedding reduction can be quickly accomplished both by vaccination and by testing and culling. However, vaccination appears to be a less expensive and more sustainable strategy since it required one single intervention and was also associated with an increase in milk production. PMID:19930604

    13. Integrated study of fermentation and downstream processing in a miniplant significantly improved the microbial 1,3-propanediol production from raw glycerol.

      PubMed

      Kaeding, Thomas; DaLuz, Julian; Kube, Jürgen; Zeng, An-Ping

      2015-03-01

      In this work, an integrated and optimized production process for 99 % pure 1,3-propanediol (PDO) from raw glycerol is presented. Glycerol fermentation is carried out applying a newly isolated strain Clostridium pasteurianum K1 under non-sterile conditions without any complex ingredients in the fermentation media. In this environment over 55 g/L PDO, yields of 0.52 g/g and space time yields over 2.3 g/(Lh) were achieved in up to 1 m(3) pilot scale. The downstream process for PDO purification consists of an ultrafiltration for biomass and protein separation, an evaporation step for concentration of PDO and a two-step rectification for final purification. For a proof of concept, process optimization and especially investigation of interactions of individual steps, the downstream process was performed in miniplant scale. A minimum salt input into the downstream process was shown to be important to overcome precipitation in evaporation as well as rectification. Thus, raw glycerol is desalinated before fermentation and the fermentation medium was minimized and complex nutrients, such as yeast extract, were avoided totally to prevent furthermore dark color formation. Furthermore, by titration of fermentation with ammonia instead of sodium hydroxide, the later separation of the major by-products, organic acids, in the evaporation step was significantly enhanced. PMID:25362888

    14. On-orbit performance of the Hubble Space Telescope fine guidance sensors.

      PubMed

      Eaton, D J; Whittlesey, R A; Allen, B W; Stoll, R; Abramowicz-Reed, L; Margulies, M

      1993-04-01

      The observed and measured on-orbit performance of various aspects of the fine guidance sensors is presented and discussed in the light of the original requirements and predictions. The fine guidance sensors are shown to meet or exceed the original requirements concerning dynamic pointing errors, photometric repeatability, and moving-target tracking capability. Calibration accuracy has been sufficient for observations to date, and fine-lock acquisitions are approaching a 100% success rate. Improvements to the fine-guidance-sensor tolerance of telescope spherical aberration, the South Atlantic anomaly, and solar-panel vibrations have been made, and further improvements are expected. PMID:20820301

    15. Preparation of highly dispersible and tumor-accumulative, iron oxide nanoparticles Multi-point anchoring of PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate) improves performance significantly.

      PubMed

      Ujiie, Kodai; Kanayama, Naoki; Asai, Kei; Kishimoto, Mikio; Ohara, Yusuke; Akashi, Yoshimasa; Yamada, Keiichi; Hashimoto, Shinji; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Fujii, Hirofumi; Nagasaki, Yukio

      2011-12-01

      multipoint anchoring character by the phosphonate groups, is rational design for improvement in nanoparticle as in vivo application. Two major points, viz., extremely stable anchoring character and dense PEG chains tethered on the nanoparticle surface, worked simultaneously to become PEG-PIONs as an ideal biomedical devices intact for prolonged periods in harsh biological environments. PMID:21890332

    16. TqPCR: A Touchdown qPCR Assay with Significantly Improved Detection Sensitivity and Amplification Efficiency of SYBR Green qPCR

      PubMed Central

      Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jing; Deng, Fang; Yan, Zhengjian; Xia, Yinglin; Wang, Zhongliang; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Zhang, Zhonglin; Qiao, Min; Li, Ruifang; Denduluri, Sahitya K.; Wei, Qiang; Zhao, Lianggong; Lu, Shun; Wang, Xin; Tang, Shengli; Liu, Hao; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; He, Tong-Chuan; Jiang, Li

      2015-01-01

      The advent of fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has revolutionized the quantification of gene expression analysis in many fields, including life sciences, agriculture, forensic science, molecular diagnostics, and medicine. While SYBR Green-based qPCR is the most commonly-used platform due to its inexpensive nature and robust chemistry, quantifying the expression of genes with low abundance or RNA samples extracted from highly restricted or limited sources can be challenging because the detection sensitivity of SYBR Green-based qPCR is limited. Here, we develop a novel and effective touchdown qPCR (TqPCR) protocol by incorporating a 4-cycle touchdown stage prior to the quantification amplification stage. Using the same cDNA templates, we find that TqPCR can reduce the average Cq values for Gapdh, Rps13, and Hprt1 reference genes by 4.45, 5.47, and 4.94 cycles, respectively, when compared with conventional qPCR; the overall average Cq value reduction for the three reference genes together is 4.95. We further find that TqPCR can improve PCR amplification efficiency and thus increase detection sensitivity. When the quantification of Wnt3A-induced target gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells is analyzed, we find that, while both conventional qPCR and TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the relatively abundant target Axin2, only TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the lowly-expressed targets Oct4 and Gbx2. Finally, we demonstrate that the MRQ2 and MRQ3 primer pairs derived from mouse reference gene Tbp can be used to validate the RNA/cDNA integrity of qPCR samples. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that TqPCR may increase detection sensitivity and PCR amplification efficiency. Overall, TqPCR should be advantageous over conventional qPCR in expression quantification, especially when the transcripts of interest are lowly expressed, and/or the availability of total RNA is highly restricted or limited. PMID:26172450

    17. Significant Improvement of Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Properties by Incorporating Thiophene in a Solution-Processable D-A-D Modular Chromophore.

      PubMed

      Raynor, Aaron M; Gupta, Akhil; Plummer, Christopher M; Jackson, Sam L; Bilic, Ante; Patil, Hemlata; Sonar, Prashant; Bhosale, Sheshanath V

      2015-01-01

      Through the incorporation of a thiophene functionality, a novel solution-processable small organic chromophore was designed, synthesized and characterized for application in bulk-heterojunction solar cells. The new chromophore, (2Z,2'Z)-2,2'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-(5-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile) (coded as AS2), was based on a donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) module where a simple triphenylamine unit served as an electron donor, 1,4-phenylenediacetonitrile as an electron acceptor, and a thiophene ring as the π-bridge embedded between the donor and acceptor functionalities. AS2 was isolated as brick-red, needle-shaped crystals, and was fully characterized by ¹H- and (13)C-NMR, IR, mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The optoelectronic and photovoltaic properties of AS2 were compared with those of a structural analogue, (2Z,2'Z)-2,2'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-acrylonitrile) (AS1). Benefiting from the covalent thiophene bridges, compared to AS1 thin solid film, the AS2 film showed: (1) an enhancement of light-harvesting ability by 20%; (2) an increase in wavelength of the longest wavelength absorption maximum (497 nm vs. 470 nm) and (3) a narrower optical band-gap (1.93 eV vs. 2.17 eV). Studies on the photovoltaic properties revealed that the best AS2-[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)-based device showed an impressive enhanced power conversion efficiency of 4.10%, an approx. 3-fold increase with respect to the efficiency of the best AS1-based device (1.23%). These results clearly indicated that embodiment of thiophene functionality extended the molecular conjugation, thus enhancing the light-harvesting ability and short-circuit current density, while further improving the bulk-heterojunction device performance. To our knowledge, AS2 is the first example in the literature where a thiophene unit has been used in conjunction with a 1,4-phenylenediacetonitrile accepting functionality to extend

    18. Significant Improvement in Thermal and UV Resistances of UHMWPE Fabric through in Situ Formation of Polysiloxane-TiO2 Hybrid Layers.

      PubMed

      Hu, Jiangtao; Gao, Qianhong; Xu, Lu; Zhang, Mingxing; Xing, Zhe; Guo, Xiaojing; Zhang, Kuo; Wu, Guozhong

      2016-09-01

      Anatase nanocrystalline titanium dioxide coatings were produced on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric by radiation-induced graft polymerization of γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (MAPS) and subsequent cohydrolysis of the graft chains (PMAPS) with tetrabutyl titanate, followed by boiling water treatment for 180 min. The resulting material was coded as UHMWPE-g-PMAPS/TiO2 and characterized by attenuated total reflection infrared spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetry, and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, among others. The predominant form of TiO2 in the thin film was anatase. The coating layer was composed of two sublayers: an inner part consisting of an organic-inorganic hybrid layer to prevent photocatalytic degradation of the matrix by TiO2 film, and an outer part consisting of anatase nanocrystalline TiO2 capable of UV absorption. This UHMWPE-g-PMAPS/TiO2 composite exhibited much better thermal resistance than conventional UHMWPE fabric, as reflected by the higher melting point, decreased maximum degradation rate, and higher char yield at 700 °C. Compared with UHMWPE fabric, UHMWPE-g-PMAPS/TiO2 exhibited significantly enhanced UV absorption and excellent duration of UV illumination. Specifically, the UV absorption intensity was 2.4-fold higher than that of UHMWPE fabric; the retention of the break strength of UHMWPE-g-PMAPS/TiO2 reached 92.3% after UV irradiation. This work provides an approach for addressing the issue of self-degradation of TiO2-coated polymeric materials due to the inherent photoactivity of TiO2. PMID:27513017

    19. In visual search, guidance by surface type is different than classic guidance

      PubMed Central

      Wolfe, Jeremy M; Reijnen, Ester; Van Wert, Michael J.; Kuzmova, Yoana

      2009-01-01

      Visual search for targets among distractors is more efficient if attention can be guided to targets by attributes like color. In real-world search, we guide attention using information about surfaces. (e.g., paintings are on walls). We compare “classic” color guidance to surface guidance in “scenes” of cubes. When a target can lie on one of many surfaces, color guidance is effective but surface guidance is not (Exp. 1-3). Surface guidance works when cued surfaces are coplanar (Exp. 4) or few in number (Exp. 5). We speculate that surface guidance is slow and limited to very few surfaces at one time. PMID:19236891

    20. Family planning methods: new guidance.

      PubMed

      1996-10-01

      Presented in this report are the recommendations of two expert groups, the Technical Guidance/Competence Working Group of the US Agency for International Development's Maximizing Access and Quality Initiative and the World Health Organization's Family Planning and Population Unit, regarding currently available family planning methods. The former group addressed key biomedical questions and formulated recommendations about 11 groups of family planning methods: combined oral contraceptives, progestin-only pills during breast feeding, progestin-only injectables, combined injectable contraceptives, Norplant implants, copper-bearing IUDs, tubal occlusion, vasectomy, lactational amenorrhea method, natural family planning, and barrier methods. A table presents the relative importance, by method, of procedures such as pelvic exam, blood pressure reading, breast exam, and screening for sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cancer. The medical eligibility recommendations for each method are also presented in tabular form, with four categories for temporary methods: 1) no restrictions on use, 2) advantages generally outweigh theoretical or proven risks, 3) theoretical or proven risks usually outweigh the advantages, and 4) unacceptable health risks. Included among the 41 conditions for which eligibility criteria are specified are age, smoking, thromboembolic disorder, headaches, irregular vaginal bleeding, family history of breast cancer, obesity, drug interactions, parity, breast feeding, postpartum, and postabortion. The new guidance presented in this report enables providers to give family planning clients expanded contraceptive choices while ensuring method safety and effectiveness. PMID:9342775

    1. Aerocapture Guidance Algorithm Comparison Campaign

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Rousseau, Stephane; Perot, Etienne; Graves, Claude; Masciarelli, James P.; Queen, Eric

      2002-01-01

      The aerocapture is a promising technique for the future human interplanetary missions. The Mars Sample Return was initially based on an insertion by aerocapture. A CNES orbiter Mars Premier was developed to demonstrate this concept. Mainly due to budget constraints, the aerocapture was cancelled for the French orbiter. A lot of studies were achieved during the three last years to develop and test different guidance algorithms (APC, EC, TPC, NPC). This work was shared between CNES and NASA, with a fruitful joint working group. To finish this study an evaluation campaign has been performed to test the different algorithms. The objective was to assess the robustness, accuracy, capability to limit the load, and the complexity of each algorithm. A simulation campaign has been specified and performed by CNES, with a similar activity on the NASA side to confirm the CNES results. This evaluation has demonstrated that the numerical guidance principal is not competitive compared to the analytical concepts. All the other algorithms are well adapted to guaranty the success of the aerocapture. The TPC appears to be the more robust, the APC the more accurate, and the EC appears to be a good compromise.

    2. Ionic liquid integrated multiwalled carbon nanotube in a poly(vinylidene fluoride) matrix: formation of a piezoelectric β-polymorph with significant reinforcement and conductivity improvement.

      PubMed

      Mandal, Amit; Nandi, Arun K

      2013-02-01

      Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are functionalized covalently with ionic liquid (IL, 3-aminoethyl imidazolium bromide) which helps good dispersion of IL-functionalized MWNTs (MWNT-IL) in the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix. Analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs suggests ∼10 nm coating thickness of MWNTs by ILs, and the covalent linkage of ILs with MWNTs is confirmed from FT-IR and Raman spectra. PVDF nanocomposites with full β-polymorphic (piezoelectric) form are prepared using MWNT-IL by both the solvent cast and melt-blending methods. The FE-SEM and TEM micrographs indicate that IL-bound MWNTs are homogeneously dispersed within the PVDF matrix. Increasing MWNT-IL concentration in the composites results in increased β polymorph formation with a concomitant decrease of the α polymorph, and a 100% β polymorph formation occurs for 1 wt % MWNT-IL in both the fabrication conditions. A differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study shows that the MWNT-ILs are an efficient nucleating agent for PVDF crystallization preferentially nucleating the β form due to its dipolar interactions with PVDF. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) gradually increases with an increase in MWNT-IL concentration, and the storage modulus (G') of the composites increases significantly, showing a maximum increase of 101.3% for 0.5 wt % MWNT-IL. The Young's modulus increases with MWNT-IL concentration, and analysis of the data using the Halpin-Tsai equation suggests that at low concentration they adopt an orientation parallel to the film surface; however, at higher MWNT-IL concentration it is randomly oriented. The tensile strength also increases with an increase in MWNT-IL concentration, and both the Young's modulus and the tensile strength of solvent cast films are lower than melt-blended samples. The elongation at break in the solvent cast samples shows a maximum, but in melt-blended samples it decreases continuously with increasing MWNT

    3. Kinetics of improved 1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase biosynthesis from a newly isolated Aspergillus oryzae IIB-6 and parameter significance analysis by 2-factorial design.

      PubMed

      Fatima, Bilqees; Ali, Sikander

      2012-01-01

      Sixteen different mould cultures viz. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Arthroderma, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Chochliobolus were isolated from the soil samples of Qatar by serial dilution method. The preliminary screening of isolates was done by selecting initial colonies showing relatively bigger zones of starch hydrolysis on nutrient agar plates. The isolates were then subjected to secondary screening by submerged fermentation (SmF). The 1,4-α-D-glucan glucohydrolase (GGH) activity ranged from 1.906-12.675 U/ml/min. The product yield was analysed in dependence of mycelial morphology, biomass level and protein content. The isolate Aspergillus oryzae llB-6 which gave maximum enzyme production was incubated in M3 medium containing 20 g/l starch, 10 g/l lactose, 8.5 g/l yeast extract, 6 g/l corn steep liquor (CSL), 1.2 g/l MgSO4.7H2O, 1.3 g/l NH4Cl, 0.6 g/l CaCl2.2H2O, pH 5 at 30±2°C and 200 rpm. On the basis of kinetic variables, notably Qp (0.058±0.01(a) U/g/h), Yp/s (0.308±0.03(ab) U/g) and qp (0.210±0.032(abc) U/g fungal biomass/h), A. oryzae IIB-6 was found to be a hyper producer of GGH (LSD 0.0345) compared to A. kawachii IIB-2. A noticeable enhancement in enzyme activity of over 30% was observed (13.917±1.01 U/ml/min) when the process parameters viz. cultural conditions (pH 5, incubation period 72 h) and nutritional requirements (6 g/l CSL, 9.5 g/l yeast extract, 10 g/l starch, 20 g/l lactose) were further optimized using a 2-factorial Plackett-Burman design. The model terms were found to be highly significant (HS, p≤0.05), indicating the potential utility of the culture (dof~3). PMID:23961361

    4. Energy angular momentum closed-loop guidance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Patera, Russell P.

      2015-03-01

      A novel guidance algorithm for launch vehicle ascent to the desired mission orbit is proposed. The algorithm uses total specific energy and orbital angular momentum as new state vector parameters. These parameters are ideally suited for the ascent guidance task, since the guidance algorithm steers the launch vehicle along a pre-flight optimal trajectory in energy angular momentum space. The guidance algorithm targets apogee, perigee, inclination and right ascension of ascending node. Computational complexities are avoided by eliminating time in the guidance computation and replacing it with angular momentum magnitude. As a result, vehicle acceleration, mass, thrust, length of motor burns, and staging times are also eliminated from the pitch plane guidance calculations. The algorithm does not involve launch vehicle or target state propagation, which results in minimal computational effort. Proof of concept of the new algorithm is presented using several numerical examples that illustrate performance results.

    5. Collective cell migration: guidance principles and hierarchies.

      PubMed

      Haeger, Anna; Wolf, Katarina; Zegers, Mirjam M; Friedl, Peter

      2015-09-01

      Collective cell migration results from the establishment and maintenance of collective polarization, mechanocoupling, and cytoskeletal kinetics. The guidance of collective cell migration depends on a reciprocal process between cell-intrinsic multicellular organization with leader-follower cell behavior and results in mechanosensory integration of extracellular guidance cues. Important guidance mechanisms include chemotaxis, haptotaxis, durotaxis, and strain-induced mechanosensing to move cell groups along interfaces and paths of least resistance. Additional guidance mechanisms steering cell groups during specialized conditions comprise electrotaxis and passive drift. To form higher-order cell and tissue structures during morphogenesis and cancer invasion, these guidance principles act in parallel and are integrated for collective adaptation to and shaping of varying tissue environments. We review mechanochemical and electrical inputs and multiparameter signal integration underlying collective guidance, decision making, and outcome. PMID:26137890

    6. Guidance assistance, autonomous guidance and assisted distance guidance in precision agriculture

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gomez Gil, Jaime

      The present doctoral thesis analyses the potential of technological advances in electronics, telematics and communications for their application in agriculture. Research has been carried out and some prototypes have been developed in four stages: In a first phase, it has been carried out the analysis and development of guidance assistance devices. It has been carried out the development of a microcontroller based device which has been patented by the author of this thesis and later, has been developed and commercialized by the company GMV Sistemas. In a second phase, it has been developed a module of distance guidance which allows the remote driving of an agricultural tractor. There have been made the mechanical modifications in a tractor and the necessary hardware has been installed in order to allow the remote control of the tractor steering. The laptop receives the guidance instructions by means of wireless communication from the computer installed in the base. In a third phase, there have been developed two autonomous guidance systems, one by means of GPS and the other by means of Computer Vision, using as base the platform developed in the previous phase. It is incorporated a module of path generation from the plot outline. With this trajectory, the tractor is able to do most of the farming work in a plot without the participation of the driver. The last phase has been developed at the same time than the previous ones and it is located in Precision Agriculture. In this phase it has been carried out the performance of a centrifugal spreader of fertilizer and it has been developed an application for the generation in a precise way of fertilizer maps. The carried out studies have produced real developments implanted on the machinery of the author's farm. The development of the work has been carried out on a software platform with modules which are intercommunicated between them, because a large part of the developed applications have a common base of work. This

    7. Mission-based guidance system design for autonomous UAVs

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Moon, Jongki

      The advantages of UAVs in the aviation arena have led to extensive research activities on autonomous technology of UAVs to achieve specific mission objectives. This thesis mainly focuses on the development of a mission-based guidance system. Among various missions expected for future needs, autonomous formation flight (AFF) and obstacle avoidance within safe operation limits are investigated. In the design of an adaptive guidance system for AFF, the leader information except position is assumed to be unknown to a follower. Thus, the only measured information related to the leader is the line-of-sight (LOS) range and angle. Adding an adaptive element with neural networks into the guidance system provides a capability to effectively handle leader's velocity changes. Therefore, this method can be applied to the AFF control systems that use a passive sensing method. In this thesis, an adaptive velocity command guidance system and an adaptive acceleration command guidance system are developed and presented. Since relative degrees of the LOS range and angle are different depending on the outputs from the guidance system, the architecture of the guidance system changes accordingly. Simulations and flight tests are performed using the Georgia Tech UAV helicopter, the GTMax, to evaluate the proposed guidance systems. The simulation results show that the neural network (NN) based adaptive element can improve the tracking performance by effectively compensating for the effect of unknown dynamics. It has also been shown that the combination of an adaptive velocity command guidance system and the existing GTMax autopilot controller performs better than the combination of an adaptive acceleration command guidance system and the GTMax autopilot controller. The successful flight evaluation using an adaptive velocity command guidance system clearly shows that the adaptive guidance control system is a promising solution for autonomous formation flight of UAVs. In addition, an

    8. Virtual Ultrasound Guidance for Inexperienced Operators

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Caine, Timothy; Martin, Davis

      2012-01-01

      Medical ultrasound or echocardiographic studies are highly operator-dependent and generally require lengthy training and internship to perfect. To obtain quality echocardiographic images in remote environments, such as on-orbit, remote guidance of studies has been employed. This technique involves minimal training for the user, coupled with remote guidance from an expert. When real-time communication or expert guidance is not available, a more autonomous system of guiding an inexperienced operator through an ultrasound study is needed. One example would be missions beyond low Earth orbit, in which the time delay inherent with communication will make remote guidance impractical.

    9. 78 FR 48175 - Retrospective Review of Draft Guidance Documents Issued Before 2010; Withdrawal of Guidances

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-08-07

      ... ``Administrative Practices and Procedures; Good Guidance Practices'' (GGP) (65 FR 56468; September 19, 2000). The... manufacturing practice (cGMP) compliance specific to manufacturing, processing, and dose unit sampling and... following guidances: 1. ``Manufacturing, Processing, or Holding Active Pharmaceutical...

    10. Advanced Video Guidance Sensor and Next Generation Autonomous Docking Sensors

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Granade, Stephen R.

      2004-01-01

      In recent decades, NASA's interest in spacecraft rendezvous and proximity operations has grown. Additional instrumentation is needed to improve manned docking operations' safety, as well as to enable telerobotic operation of spacecraft or completely autonomous rendezvous and docking. To address this need, Advanced Optical Systems, Inc., Orbital Sciences Corporation, and Marshall Space Flight Center have developed the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) under the auspices of the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) program. Given a cooperative target comprising several retro-reflectors, AVGS provides six-degree-of-freedom information at ranges of up to 300 meters for the DART target. It does so by imaging the target, then performing pattern recognition on the resulting image. Longer range operation is possible through different target geometries. Now that AVGS is being readied for its test flight in 2004, the question is: what next? Modifications can be made to AVGS, including different pattern recognition algorithms and changes to the retro-reflector targets, to make it more robust and accurate. AVGS could be coupled with other space-qualified sensors, such as a laser range-and-bearing finder, that would operate at longer ranges. Different target configurations, including the use of active targets, could result in significant miniaturization over the current AVGS package. We will discuss these and other possibilities for a next-generation docking sensor or sensor suite that involve AVGS.

    11. High-performance C-arm cone-beam CT guidance of thoracic surgery

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Schafer, Sebastian; Otake, Yoshito; Uneri, Ali; Mirota, Daniel J.; Nithiananthan, Sajendra; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Graumann, Rainer; Sussman, Marc; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

      2012-02-01

      Localizing sub-palpable nodules in minimally invasive video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) presents a significant challenge. To overcome inherent problems of preoperative nodule tagging using CT fluoroscopic guidance, an intraoperative C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) image-guidance system has been developed for direct localization of subpalpable tumors in the OR, including real-time tracking of surgical tools (including thoracoscope), and video-CBCT registration for augmentation of the thoracoscopic scene. Acquisition protocols for nodule visibility in the inflated and deflated lung were delineated in phantom and animal/cadaver studies. Motion compensated reconstruction was implemented to account for motion induced by the ventilated contralateral lung. Experience in CBCT-guided targeting of simulated lung nodules included phantoms, porcine models, and cadavers. Phantom studies defined low-dose acquisition protocols providing contrast-to-noise ratio sufficient for lung nodule visualization, confirmed in porcine specimens with simulated nodules (3-6mm diameter PE spheres, ~100-150HU contrast, 2.1mGy). Nodule visibility in CBCT of the collapsed lung, with reduced contrast according to air volume retention, was more challenging, but initial studies confirmed visibility using scan protocols at slightly increased dose (~4.6-11.1mGy). Motion compensated reconstruction employing a 4D deformation map in the backprojection process reduced artifacts associated with motion blur. Augmentation of thoracoscopic video with renderings of the target and critical structures (e.g., pulmonary artery) showed geometric accuracy consistent with camera calibration and the tracking system (2.4mm registration error). Initial results suggest a potentially valuable role for CBCT guidance in VATS, improving precision in minimally invasive, lungconserving surgeries, avoid critical structures, obviate the burdens of preoperative localization, and improve patient safety.

    12. Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor Development and Test

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Lee, Jimmy; Robertson, Bryan

      2009-01-01

      The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) was the primary docking sensor for the Orbital Express mission. The sensor performed extremely well during the mission, and the technology has been proven on orbit in other flights too. Parts obsolescence issues prevented the construction of more AVGS units, so the next generation of sensor was designed with current parts and updated to support future programs. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been tested as a breadboard, two different brassboard units, and a prototype. The testing revealed further improvements that could be made and demonstrated capability beyond that ever demonstrated by the sensor on orbit. This paper presents some of the sensor history, parts obsolescence issues, radiation concerns, and software improvements to the NGAVGS. In addition, some of the testing and test results are presented. The NGAVGS has shown that it will meet the general requirements for any space proximity operations or docking need.

    13. Endangerment assessment guidance. Final report

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1985-10-21

      The directive clarifies the requirement that an endangerment assessment be developed to support all administrative and judicial enforcement actions under Section 106 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Section 7003 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Before taking enforcement action under these provisions to abate the hazards or potential hazards at a site, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must be able to properly document and justify its assertion that an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health or welfare or the environment may exist. The endangerment assessment provides the documentation and justification. The endangerment assessment is not necessary to support Section 104 actions. It also provides guidance on the content, timing, level of detail, format, and resources required for the preparation of endangerment assessments.

    14. Longwall Guidance and Control Development

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1982-01-01

      The longwall guidance and control (G&C) system was evaluated to determine which systems and subsystems lent themselves to automatic control in the mining of coal. The upper coal/shale interface was identified as the reference for a vertical G&C system, with two sensors (the natural backgound and the sensitized pick) being used to locate and track this boundary. In order to insure a relatively smooth recession surface (roof and floor of the excavated seam), a last and present cut measuring instrument (acoustic sensor) was used. Potentiometers were used to measure elevations of the shearer arms. The intergration of these components comprised the vertical control system (pitch control). Yaw and roll control were incorporated into a face alignment system which was designed to keep the coal face normal to its external boundaries. Numerous tests, in the laboratory and in the field, have confirmed the feasibility of automatic horizon control, as well as determining the face alignment.

    15. Orion Cislunar Guidance and Navigation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      D'Souza, Christopher; Crain, Timothy; Clark, Fred C.

      2007-01-01

      The Orion vehicle is being designed to provide nominal crew transport to the lunar transportation stack in low Earth orbit, crew abort prior during transit to the moon, and crew return to Earth once lunar orbit is achieved. Design of guidance and navigation algorithms to perform maneuvers in support of these functions is dependent on the support provided by navigation infrastructure, the performance of the onboard GN&C system, and the choice of trajectory maneuver methodology for outbound and return mission phases. This paper documents the preliminary integrated analyses performed by members of the Orion Orbit GN&C System team investigating the navigation update accuracy of a modern equivalent to the Apollo era ground tracking network and the expected onboard dispersion and navigation errors during a lunar mission using a linear covariance error analysis technique.

    16. New developments in the treatment of early-onset spinal deformity: role of the Shilla growth guidance system

      PubMed Central

      Morell, Sean M; McCarthy, Richard E

      2016-01-01

      Early-onset scoliosis is a complex condition with multiple facets. The goal of treating any spinal deformity is to improve the condition of the patient with the least intervention necessary. A system that allows for continuation of natural spinal growth while correcting the deformity should be the goal of treating this complex condition. The SHILLA growth guidance system allows for continued growth of the pediatric spine while correcting and guiding the apex and guiding the future growth of the curvature. The system involves selective fusion across the apex of the curvature, and minimally invasive instrumentation is then used above and below the apex to allow for continued growth of the spine. A review of recent literature on the SHILLA growth guidance system shows promising results. Early animal models showed continued growth across unfused levels with minimal facet articular damage. Comparative studies to traditional growing rods showed significantly less total surgeries along with comparable correction and longitudinal growth. The SHILLA growth guidance system is a good option for this complex patient group. Results are comparable with other growing constructs with significantly less operative interventions. The SHILLA system allows for natural growth of the pediatric spine while correcting the scoliotic deformity in a minimally invasive method. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive review of the SHILLA system surgical technique and the associated literature concerning this topic. PMID:27499651

    17. Guidance, Navigation, and Control Program

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hinkel, Heather; Tamblyn, Scott; Jackson, William L.; Foster, Chris; Brazzel, Jack; Manning, Thomas R.; Clark, Fred; Spehar, Pete; Barrett, Jim D.; Milenkovic, Zoran

      2011-01-01

      The Rendezvous and Proximity Operations Program (RPOP) is real-time guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) domain piloting-aid software that provides 3D Orbiter graphics and runs on the Space Shuttle's Criticality-3 Payload and General Support Computer (PGSC) in the crew cockpit. This software provides the crew with Situational Awareness during the rendezvous and proximity operations phases of flight. RPOP can be configured from flight to flight, accounting for mission-specific flight scenarios and target vehicles, via initialization load (I-load) data files. The software provides real-time, automated, closed-loop guidance recommendations and the capability to integrate the crew s manual backup techniques. The software can bring all relative navigation sensor data, including the Orbiter's GPC (general purpose computer) data, into one central application to provide comprehensive situational awareness of the rendezvous and proximity operations trajectory. RPOP also can separately maintain trajectory estimates (past, current, and predicted) based on certain data types and co-plot them, in order to show how the various navigation solutions compare. RPOP s best estimate of the relative trajectory is determined by a relative Kalman filter processing data provided by the sensor suite s most accurate sensor, the trajectory control sensor (TCS). Integrated with the Kalman filter is an algorithm that identifies the reflector that the TCS is tracking. Because RPOP runs on PC laptop computers, the development and certification lifecycles are more agile, flexible, and cheaper than those that govern the Orbiter FSW (flight software) that runs in the GPC. New releases of RPOP can be turned around on a 3- to 6-month template, from new Change Request (CR) to certification, depending on the complexity of the changes.

    18. Strategic Environmental Assessment as catalyst of healthier spatial planning: The Danish guidance and practice

      SciTech Connect

      Kornov, Lone

      2009-01-15

      A wide range of factors within spatial planning can affect health. There is therefore an important scope for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of spatial plans to protect and improve human health. Due to the EU Directive 2001/42/EC on SEA, health has been made explicit in Danish legislation and guidance. This paper examines the inclusion of health as a formal component in impact assessment of spatial plans. Based upon a documentary study of 100 environmental reports, the paper analyses and discusses how health impact considerations are incorporated in SEA practice. It is found that health impacts are included in SEA practice and are being interpreted in a broader sense than what the national guidance exemplifies. The frequent included health aspects are noise, drinking water, air pollution, recreation/outdoor life and traffic safety. The primary determinant for health is transport-whether it is at the overall or local planning level. The main conclusion is that SEA shows a potential to catalyse healthier spatial planning. Despite the broad inclusion of health in SEA practice the examination shows potential improvements, hereunder qualification of assessments by better explaining the nature and significance of impacts and by including the distributional aspects of human health impacts. Inclusion from the health sector is put forward as an important institutional mean to secure cross disciplinarily and higher quality assessment.

    19. 78 FR 56752 - Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-09-13

      ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors... and operate integral pressurized water reactors (iPWR). This guidance applies to environmental reviews... purchase copies of public documents at the NRC's PDR, Room O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555...

    20. Integrating scientific guidance into marine spatial planning

      PubMed Central

      Rassweiler, Andrew; Costello, Christopher; Hilborn, Ray; Siegel, David A.

      2014-01-01

      Marine spatial planning (MSP), whereby areas of the ocean are zoned for different uses, has great potential to reduce or eliminate conflicts between competing management goals, but only if strategically applied. The recent literature overwhelmingly agrees that including stakeholders in these planning processes is critical to success; but, given the countless alternative ways even simple spatial regulations can be configured, how likely is it that a stakeholder-driven process will generate plans that deliver on the promise of MSP? Here, we use a spatially explicit, dynamic bioeconomic model to show that stakeholder-generated plans are doomed to fail in the absence of strong scientific guidance. While strategically placed spatial regulations can improve outcomes remarkably, the vast majority of possible plans fail to achieve this potential. Surprisingly, existing scientific rules of thumb do little to improve outcomes. Here, we develop an alternative approach in which models are used to identify efficient plans, which are then modified by stakeholders. Even if stakeholders alter these initial proposals considerably, results hugely outperform plans guided by scientific rules of thumb. Our results underscore the importance of spatially explicit dynamic models for the management of marine resources and illustrate how such models can be harmoniously integrated into a stakeholder-driven MSP process. PMID:24573841

    1. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

      SciTech Connect

      1991-09-01

      EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

    2. Vocational Guidance Requests within the International Scene

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Goodman, Jane; Gillis, Sarah

      2009-01-01

      This article summarizes the work of a diverse group of researchers and practitioners from 5 continents on "Vocational Guidance Requests Within the International Scene" presented in the discussion group at a symposium of the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance, the Society for Vocational Psychology, and the National…

    3. Behavioral mechanisms of mammalian sperm guidance

      PubMed Central

      Pérez-Cerezales, Serafín; Boryshpolets, Sergii; Eisenbach, Michael

      2015-01-01

      In mammals, sperm guidance in the oviduct appears essential for successful sperm arrival at the oocyte. Hitherto, three different potential sperm guidance mechanisms have been recognized: thermotaxis, rheotaxis, and chemotaxis, each of them using specific stimuli – a temperature gradient, fluid flow, and a chemoattractant gradient, respectively. Here, we review sperm behavioral in these mechanisms and indicate commonalities and differences between them. PMID:25999361

    4. HANDBOOK: HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE

      EPA Science Inventory

      This publication, Volume III of the Hazardous Waste Incineration Guidance Series, contains general guidance to permit writers in reviewing hazardous waste incineration permit applications and trial burn plans. he handbook is a how-to document dealing with how incineration measure...

    5. 45 CFR 1235.2 - Implementation guidance.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-10-01

      ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Implementation guidance. 1235.2 Section 1235.2... SERVICE LOCALLY GENERATED CONTRIBUTIONS IN OLDER AMERICAN VOLUNTEER PROGRAMS § 1235.2 Implementation guidance. ACTION's implementation of section 224 of the DVSA is based on fundamental principles...

    6. 21 CFR 312.145 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-04-01

      ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Miscellaneous § 312.145 Guidance documents. (a) FDA has... Evaluation and Research (CBER) maintain lists of guidance documents that apply to the centers'...

    7. 21 CFR 312.145 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-04-01

      ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Miscellaneous § 312.145 Guidance documents. (a) FDA has... Evaluation and Research (CBER) maintain lists of guidance documents that apply to the centers'...

    8. 21 CFR 312.145 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-04-01

      ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Miscellaneous § 312.145 Guidance documents. (a) FDA has... Evaluation and Research (CBER) maintain lists of guidance documents that apply to the centers'...

    9. 21 CFR 312.145 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-04-01

      ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Miscellaneous § 312.145 Guidance documents. (a) FDA has... Evaluation and Research (CBER) maintain lists of guidance documents that apply to the centers'...

    10. Educational Guidance for Adults. Identifying Competences.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Oakeshott, Martin

      A brief study conducted for the Further Education Unit, Great Britain, defined the competencies associated with educational guidance for adults. The objective was to develop a qualification for educational guidance workers with adults. The project provided an example of applying a competence model to a "higher level" interpersonal field of work.…

    11. Learners' Needs in College-Based Guidance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Further Education Unit, London (England).

      Recent Further Education Unit (FEU) research has provided clear evidence of technical college students' needs for career and educational guidance throughout their program of study. Inhouse technical college guidance services to individuals and institutions offer a number of benefits to both students receiving the services and the institutions…

    12. Guidance Counsellor Strategies for Handling Bullying

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Power-Elliott, Michleen; Harris, Gregory E.

      2012-01-01

      The purpose of this exploratory-descriptive study was to examine how guidance counsellors in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador would handle a specific verbal-relational bullying incident. Also of interest was guidance counsellor involvement and training in bullying programmes and Positive Behaviour Supports. Data for this study was…

    13. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-03-12

      ...The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or Commission) is announcing the availability of a document prepared by CPSC staff titled, ``Strong Sensitizer Guidance.'' This guidance document is intended to clarify the ``strong sensitizer'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding how CPSC staff would assess whether a substance and/or product containing that substance should be......

    14. Career Guidance in the Elementary School

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Smith, Phyllis E.; Rost, Paul

      1973-01-01

      Three practical ideas that can be implemented in elementary schools are given: (1) a guidance committee (composed of representatives from each grade level and an administrator) to facilitate involvement in the school guidance program; (2) field trips to introduce students to the world of work and to establish motivations for learning subject…

    15. Social Benefits of Career Guidance. NICEC Briefing.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Killeen, John; Watts, Tony; Kidd, Jenny

      Social benefits can be thought of as aggregates of individual benefits, though with possible "snowball" effects. Potential social benefits of career guidance fall into the following two main categories: reducing social exclusion and enhancing social development. Guidance is a way of making the structure of society work, by linking individual needs…

    16. Career Guidance in Wales: Retrospect and Prospect

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Clark, Mike; Talbot, John

      2006-01-01

      Deregulation of the LEA Careers Service followed by the establishment of the National Assembly for Wales in 1999 led, through consultation, to the establishment of a bi-lingual all-age career guidance service under the banner of Careers Wales. The article traces the history of career guidance in Wales from 1974, showing how it has taken a very…

    17. Career Guidance and Public Mental Health

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Robertson, Peter J.

      2013-01-01

      Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…

    18. Foundations for Policy in Guidance and Counseling.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Herr, Edwin L., Ed.; Pinson, Nancy M., Ed.

      This book provides educators, counselors, policy makers, and community members with information about the state of the art of federal and state policy in guidance and counseling. The two chapters in part 1, Overview, are: "Foundations for Policy in Guidance and Counseling: An Introduction", by Edwin L. Herr and Nancy M. Pinson; and "A Counselor…

    19. The Internationalization of Educational and Vocational Guidance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Savickas, Mark L.; Van Esbroeck, Raoul; Herr, Edwin L.

      2005-01-01

      The authors identify and discuss the main themes from the discourse on the internationalization of educational and vocational guidance at the 2004 "Symposium on International Perspectives on Career Development," co sponsored by the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance and the National Career Development Association.…

    20. 78 FR 57450 - State Rail Plan Guidance

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-09-18

      ... authorized in the Act and available under the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail program. This guidance... qualifies States to receive grants for high-speed rail only. Response: Operational information about all... Federal Railroad Administration State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...

    1. Getting Closer: Workplace Guidance for Lifelong Learning

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Plant, Peter; Turner, Bob

      2005-01-01

      The purposes of this article are twofold. First, it considers the policy links between guidance and lifelong learning, highlighting in particular the implications of findings from a recent study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Secondly, it critically compares two approaches to workplace guidance about…

    2. New Tools for Guidance in Business Education.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Shimberg, Benjamin

      Several recently developed measurement instruments, the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), the Comparative Guidance and Placement Program (CGP), the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey (DD), the Ohio Vocational Interest Survey (OVIS), and the Gordon Occupational Check List, are considered in connection with guidance testing for occupational…

    3. Career Guidance in the Elementary School

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Leonard, George E.

      1971-01-01

      The purpose of this column is to discuss, describe and disseminate information regarding career guidance principles and practices in the elementary schools. Specifically the activities of the Developmental Career Guidance Projects in inner city Detroit are described. The activities emphasize action involvement of children while didactic learning…

    4. Elementary School Guidance Work Conference. Conference Report.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Herr, Edwin L.; Hershberger, James K.

      In October, 1967, 100 invited participants representing all aspects of guidance, education, school administration, counselor education, psychology, and interested government agencies in Pennsylvania met for three days to listen, think, discuss, and hopefully develop some recommendations for those who want a better program of elementary guidance.…

    5. Preparation of Occupational Guidance Counselors. Final Report.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Occupational Research Unit.

      The project had three goals: to increase the supply of elementary counselors in North Carolina, to provide guidance services to seventeen elementary schools in a satisfactory manner so the program would be adopted after expiration of the project, and to provide systematic guidance services for children in grades one through six. Four full time…

    6. Percutaneous Bone Biopsies: Comparison between Flat-Panel Cone-Beam CT and CT-Scan Guidance

      SciTech Connect

      Tselikas, Lambros Joskin, Julien; Roquet, Florian; Farouil, Geoffroy; Dreuil, Serge; Hakimé, Antoine Teriitehau, Christophe; Auperin, Anne; Baere, Thierry de Deschamps, Frederic

      2015-02-15

      PurposeThis study was designed to compare the accuracy of targeting and the radiation dose of bone biopsies performed either under fluoroscopic guidance using a cone-beam CT with real-time 3D image fusion software (FP-CBCT-guidance) or under conventional computed tomography guidance (CT-guidance).MethodsSixty-eight consecutive patients with a bone lesion were prospectively included. The bone biopsies were scheduled under FP-CBCT-guidance or under CT-guidance according to operating room availability. Thirty-four patients underwent a bone biopsy under FP-CBCT and 34 under CT-guidance. We prospectively compared the two guidance modalities for their technical success, accuracy, puncture time, and pathological success rate. Patient and physician radiation doses also were compared.ResultsAll biopsies were technically successful, with both guidance modalities. Accuracy was significantly better using FP-CBCT-guidance (3 and 5 mm respectively: p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in puncture time (32 and 31 min respectively, p = 0.51) nor in pathological results (88 and 88 % of pathological success respectively, p = 1). Patient radiation doses were significantly lower with FP-CBCT (45 vs. 136 mSv, p < 0.0001). The percentage of operators who received a dose higher than 0.001 mSv (dosimeter detection dose threshold) was lower with FP-CBCT than CT-guidance (27 vs. 59 %, p = 0.01).ConclusionsFP-CBCT-guidance for bone biopsy is accurate and reduces patient and operator radiation doses compared with CT-guidance.

    7. Approach guidance for outer planet pioneer missions

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Bejczy, A. K.

      1975-01-01

      Onboard optical approach guidance measurements for spin-stabilized Pioneer-type spacecraft are discussed. Approach guidance measurement accuracy requirements are outlined. The application concept and operation principle of the V-slit star tracker are discussed within the context of approach guidance measurements and measurables. It is shown that the accuracy of onboard optical approach guidance measurements is inherently coupled to the stability characteristics of the spacecraft spin axis. Geometrical and physical measurement parameters are presented for Pioneer entry probe missions to Uranus via Jupiter or Saturn flyby. The impact of these parameters on both sensor instrumentation and measurement system design is discussed. The need for sensing extended objects is shown. The feasibility of implementing an onboard approach guidance measurement system for Pioneer-type spacecraft is indicated. Two Pioneer 10 onboard measurement experiments performed in May-June 1974 are described.

    8. An adaptive guidance algorithm for aerospace vehicles

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bradt, J. E.; Hardtla, J. W.; Cramer, E. J.

      The specifications for proposed space transportation systems are placing more emphasis on developing reusable avionics subsystems which have the capability to respond to vehicle evolution and diverse missions while at the same time reducing the cost of ground support for mission planning, contingency response and verification and validation. An innovative approach to meeting these goals is to specify the guidance problem as a multi-point boundary value problen and solve that problem using modern control theory and nonlinear constrained optimization techniques. This approach has been implemented as Gamma Guidance (Hardtla, 1978) and has been successfully flown in the Inertial Upper Stage. The adaptive guidance algorithm described in this paper is a generalized formulation of Gamma Guidance. The basic equations are presented and then applied to four diverse aerospace vehicles to demonstrate the feasibility of using a reusable, explicit, adaptive guidance algorithm for diverse applications and vehicles.

    9. Development of a unified guidance system for geocentric transfer. [for solar electric propulsion spacecraft

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Cake, J. E.; Regetz, J. D., Jr.

      1975-01-01

      A method is presented for open loop guidance of a solar electric propulsion spacecraft to geosynchronous orbit. The method consists of determining the thrust vector profiles on the ground with an optimization computer program, and performing updates based on the difference between the actual trajectory and that predicted with a precision simulation computer program. The motivation for performing the guidance analysis during the mission planning phase is discussed, and a spacecraft design option that employs attitude orientation constraints is presented. The improvements required in both the optimization program and simulation program are set forth, together with the efforts to integrate the programs into the ground support software for the guidance system.

    10. Development of a unified guidance system for geocentric transfer. [solar electric propulsion spacecraft

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Cake, J. E.; Regetz, J. D., Jr.

      1975-01-01

      A method is presented for open loop guidance of a solar electric propulsion spacecraft to geosynchronsus orbit. The method consists of determining the thrust vector profiles on the ground with an optimization computer program, and performing updates based on the difference between the actual trajectory and that predicted with a precision simulation computer program. The motivation for performing the guidance analysis during the mission planning phase is discussed, and a spacecraft design option that employs attitude orientation constraints is presented. The improvements required in both the optimization program and simulation program are set forth, together with the efforts to integrate the programs into the ground support software for the guidance system.

    11. Use of random Martian atmosphere to evaluate potential entry guidance schemes

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Tomlinson, Barbara S.; Suit, William T.

      1990-01-01

      A random Martian atmosphere was developed and was used with three guidance schemes to determine the effect of random density variations on the guidance. This random atmosphere was shown to be useful for testing the robustness of guidance schemes for vehicles encountering random disturbances during aerobraking for capture into planetary orbit. Levels of disturbance that could be tolerated and areas where performance could be improved were established. The need for Monte Carlo studies to define the excursion boundaries of capture orbit parameters was indicated.

    12. Gamma guidance of trajectories for coplanar, aeroassisted orbital transfer

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Miele, A.; Wang, T.

      1990-01-01

      The optimization and guidance of trajectories for coplaner, aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) from high Earth orbit (HEO) to low Earth orbit (LEO) are examined. In particular, HEO can be a geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). It is assumed that the initial and final orbits are circular, that the gravitational field is central and is governed by the inverse square law, and that at most three impulses are employed: one at HEO exit, one at atmospheric exit, and one at LEO entry. It is also assumed that, during the atmospheric pass, the trajectory is controlled via the lift coefficient. The presence of upper and lower bounds on the lift coefficient is considered. First, optimal trajectories are computed by minimizing the total velocity impulse (hence, the propellant consumption) required for AOT transfer. The sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (SGRA) is used for optimal control problems. The optimal trajectory is shown to include two branches: a relatively short descending flight branch (branch 1) and a long ascending flight branch (branch 2). Next, attention is focused on guidance trajectories capable of approximating the optimal trajectories in real time, while retaining the essential characteristics of simplicity, ease of implementation, and reliability. For the atmospheric pass, a feedback control scheme is employed and the lift coefficient is adjusted according to a two-stage gamma guidance law. Further improvements are possible via a modified gamma guidance which is more stable with respect to dispersion effects arising from navigation errors, variations of the atmospheric density, and uncertainties in the aerodynamic coefficients than gamma guidance trajectory. A byproduct of the studies on dispersion effects is the following design concept. For coplaner aeroassisted orbital transfer, the lift-range-to-weight ratio appears to play a more important role than the lift-to-drag ratio. This is because the lift-range-to-weight ratio controls mainly the minimum

    13. Space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control design equations. Volume 3: Guidance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1973-01-01

      Space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control design equations are presented. The space-shuttle mission includes three relatively distinct guidance phases which are discussed; atmospheric boost, which is characterized by an adaptive guidance law; extra-atmospheric activities; and re-entry activities, where aerodynamic surfaces are the principal effectors. Guidance tasks include pre-maneuver targeting and powered flight guidance, where powered flight is defined to include the application of aerodynamic forces as well as thruster forces. A flow chart which follows guidance activities throughout the mission from the pre-launch phase through touchdown is presented. The main guidance programs and subroutines used in each phase of a typical rendezvous mission are listed. Detailed software requirements are also presented.

    14. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS) for interventional tool guidance.

      PubMed

      Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M

      2014-01-01

      Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

    15. Active Ultrasound Pattern Injection System (AUSPIS) for Interventional Tool Guidance

      PubMed Central

      Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M.

      2014-01-01

      Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

    16. Percutaneous needle placement using laser guidance: a practical solution

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Xu, Sheng; Kapoor, Ankur; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Imbesi, Kimberly; Hong, Cheng William; Mazilu, Dumitru; Sharma, Karun; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Levy, Elliot; Wood, Bradford J.

      2013-03-01

      In interventional radiology, various navigation technologies have emerged aiming to improve the accuracy of device deployment and potentially the clinical outcomes of minimally invasive procedures. While these technologies' performance has been explored extensively, their impact on daily clinical practice remains undetermined due to the additional cost and complexity, modification of standard devices (e.g. electromagnetic tracking), and different levels of experience among physicians. Taking these factors into consideration, a robotic laser guidance system for percutaneous needle placement is developed. The laser guidance system projects a laser guide line onto the skin entry point of the patient, helping the physician to align the needle with the planned path of the preoperative CT scan. To minimize changes to the standard workflow, the robot is integrated with the CT scanner via optical tracking. As a result, no registration between the robot and CT is needed. The robot can compensate for the motion of the equipment and keep the laser guide line aligned with the biopsy path in real-time. Phantom experiments showed that the guidance system can benefit physicians at different skill levels, while clinical studies showed improved accuracy over conventional freehand needle insertion. The technology is safe, easy to use, and does not involve additional disposable costs. It is our expectation that this technology can be accepted by interventional radiologists for CT guided needle placement procedures.

    17. 78 FR 54949 - Major Project Financial Plan Guidance

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2013-09-06

      ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Major Project Financial Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Highway... Major Project Financial Plan Guidance outlining the procedures the FHWA will follow when reviewing and approving Financial Plans. The proposed Major Project Financial Plan Guidance incorporates changes...

    18. Optimal guidance law in quantum mechanics

      SciTech Connect

      Yang, Ciann-Dong Cheng, Lieh-Lieh

      2013-11-15

      Following de Broglie’s idea of a pilot wave, this paper treats quantum mechanics as a problem of stochastic optimal guidance law design. The guidance scenario considered in the quantum world is that an electron is the flight vehicle to be guided and its accompanying pilot wave is the guidance law to be designed so as to guide the electron to a random target driven by the Wiener process, while minimizing a cost-to-go function. After solving the stochastic optimal guidance problem by differential dynamic programming, we point out that the optimal pilot wave guiding the particle’s motion is just the wavefunction Ψ(t,x), a solution to the Schrödinger equation; meanwhile, the closed-loop guidance system forms a complex state–space dynamics for Ψ(t,x), from which quantum operators emerge naturally. Quantum trajectories under the action of the optimal guidance law are solved and their statistical distribution is shown to coincide with the prediction of the probability density function Ψ{sup ∗}Ψ. -- Highlights: •Treating quantum mechanics as a pursuit-evasion game. •Reveal an interesting analogy between guided flight motion and guided quantum motion. •Solve optimal quantum guidance problem by dynamic programming. •Gives a formal proof of de Broglie–Bohm’s idea of a pilot wave. •The optimal pilot wave is shown to be a wavefunction solved from Schrödinger equation.

    19. Predictive Lateral Logic for Numerical Entry Guidance Algorithms

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Smith, Kelly M.

      2016-01-01

      Recent entry guidance algorithm development123 has tended to focus on numerical integration of trajectories onboard in order to evaluate candidate bank profiles. Such methods enjoy benefits such as flexibility to varying mission profiles and improved robustness to large dispersions. A common element across many of these modern entry guidance algorithms is a reliance upon the concept of Apollo heritage lateral error (or azimuth error) deadbands in which the number of bank reversals to be performed is non-deterministic. This paper presents a closed-loop bank reversal method that operates with a fixed number of bank reversals defined prior to flight. However, this number of bank reversals can be modified at any point, including in flight, based on contingencies such as fuel leaks where propellant usage must be minimized.

    20. Image Guidance in Radiation Therapy: Techniques and Applications

      PubMed Central

      Kataria, Tejinder

      2014-01-01

      In modern day radiotherapy, the emphasis on reduction on volume exposed to high radiotherapy doses, improving treatment precision as well as reducing radiation-related normal tissue toxicity has increased, and thus there is greater importance given to accurate position verification and correction before delivering radiotherapy. At present, several techniques that accomplish these goals impeccably have been developed, though all of them have their limitations. There is no single method available that eliminates treatment-related uncertainties without considerably adding to the cost. However, delivering “high precision radiotherapy” without periodic image guidance would do more harm than treating large volumes to compensate for setup errors. In the present review, we discuss the concept of image guidance in radiotherapy, the current techniques available, and their expected benefits and pitfalls. PMID:25587445

    1. Quantitative stove use and ventilation guidance for behavior change strategies.

      PubMed

      Johnson, Michael A; Chiang, Ranyee A

      2015-01-01

      Achieving World Health Organization air quality targets and aspirational fuel savings targets through clean cooking solutions will require high usage rates of high-performing products and low usage rates of traditional stoves. Catalyzing this shift is challenging as fuel and stove use practices associated with new technologies generally differ from those used with traditional technologies. Accompanying this shift with ventilation improvements can help further reduce exposure to emissions of health damaging pollutants. Behavior change strategies will be central to these efforts to move users to new technologies and minimize exposure to emissions. In this article, the authors show how behavior change can be linked to quantitative guidance on stove usage, household ventilation rates, and performance. The guidance provided here can help behavior change efforts in the household energy sector set and achieve quantitative goals for usage and ventilation rates. PMID:25839198

    2. Navigating through 'a labyrinth' of guidance.

      PubMed

      Pearson, Susan

      2014-09-01

      Devising a strategy to deliver safe water to thousands of outlets spread across numerous buildings is always going to be a challenge, so how do you navigate your way through a bewildering labyrinth of sometimes contradictory guidance documents? Is there, in fact, simply too much guidance? Posing this question at a recent one-day conference on waterborne infections in healthcare facilities, Paul Nolan, authorised water engineer (AE), and operations manager for PFI provider, Lend Lease, took delegates through a review of the latest guidance and regulations, as Susan Pearson reports. PMID:25282983

    3. 76 FR 43332 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2011-07-20

      ...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use... Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use.'' This guidance document describes a means by which focused ultrasound stimulator systems for aesthetic use may comply with...

    4. Travel guidance system for vehicles

      SciTech Connect

      Takanabe, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Ito, K.; Fujinami, H.

      1987-02-24

      A travel guidance system is described for vehicles including: a heading sensor for detecting a direction of movement of a vehicle; a distance sensor for detecting a distance traveled by the vehicle; a map data storage medium preliminarily storing map data; a control unit for receiving a heading signal from the heading sensor and a distance signal from the distance sensor to successively compute a present position of the vehicle and for generating video signals corresponding to display data including map data from the map data storage medium and data of the present position; and a display having first and second display portions and responsive to the video signals from the control unit to display on the first display portion a map and a present portion mark, in which: the map data storage medium comprises means for preliminarily storing administrative division name data and landmark data; and the control unit comprises: landmark display means for: (1) determining a landmark closest to the present position, (2) causing a position of the landmark to be displayed on the map and (3) retrieving a landmark massage concerning the landmark from the storage medium to cause the display to display the landmark message on the second display portion; division name display means for retrieving the name of an administrative division to which the present position belongs from the storage medium and causing the display to display a division name message on the second display portion; and selection means for selectively actuating at least one of the landmark display means and the division name display means.

    5. Enhancing pilot situation awareness by using an onboard taxi guidance system: an empirical study

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lorenz, Bernd; Biella, Markus; Jakobi, Joern

      2004-08-01

      This study supplements prior and concurrent field trials testing the operational benefit of an Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). A-SMGCS comprises a range of new technologies for both the flight deck and the air traffic control tower enabling more efficient and safe airport surface movement. These technologies are expected to significantly increase the throughput at presently highly congested major airports without compromising safety. A flight deck A-SMGCS module is the onboard guidance system TARMAC-AS. This module consists of a controller pilot data link (DL) communication and an electronic moving map (EMM), which also displays airport surface traffic information to the pilot crew. TARMAC-AS is evaluated in an investigation involving twenty commercial pilots who performed a series of approach, landing and taxiing simulation trials that were completed in a fixed-base cockpit simulator. Evaluation was based on subjective questionnaires, effectiveness of taxi operation, and visual scanning strategies derived from eye-point-of-gaze measurements. Results support the notion that EMM + DL improve awareness of the global airport surface situation, particularly under conditions of low visibility, enabling more efficient and timely surface movements and avoidance of conflicting traffic. A potential negative impact of increased head-down times was not substantiated.

    6. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial

      PubMed Central

      Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W.M.; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F.; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

      2016-01-01

      Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

    7. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial.

      PubMed

      Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W M; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

      2016-02-01

      Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

    8. 7 CFR 1794.7 - Guidance.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-01-01

      ...)); RUS Bulletin 1794A-601 provides guidance in preparing the ER for proposed actions which require EAs... (§ 1794.22(b)) and EAs (§ 1794.23(b)). A copy of this bulletin is available upon request by contacting...

    9. 7 CFR 1794.7 - Guidance.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-01-01

      ...)); RUS Bulletin 1794A-601 provides guidance in preparing the ER for proposed actions which require EAs... (§ 1794.22(b)) and EAs (§ 1794.23(b)). A copy of this bulletin is available upon request by contacting...

    10. 7 CFR 1794.7 - Guidance.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-01-01

      ...)); RUS Bulletin 1794A-601 provides guidance in preparing the ER for proposed actions which require EAs... (§ 1794.22(b)) and EAs (§ 1794.23(b)). A copy of this bulletin is available upon request by contacting...

    11. 7 CFR 1794.7 - Guidance.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-01-01

      ...)); RUS Bulletin 1794A-601 provides guidance in preparing the ER for proposed actions which require EAs... (§ 1794.22(b)) and EAs (§ 1794.23(b)). A copy of this bulletin is available upon request by contacting...

    12. 21 CFR 316.50 - Guidance documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-04-01

      ... USE ORPHAN DRUGS Availability of Information § 316.50 Guidance documents. FDA's Office of Orphan... Federal Register. A request for a copy of the list should be directed to the Office of Orphan...

    13. 7 CFR 1794.7 - Guidance.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-01-01

      ... Analysis, Stop 1522, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20250-1522. (b) Water and waste program... appropriate State Director. State Directors may provide supplemental guidance to meet state and local laws...

    14. 77 FR 14403 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2012-03-09

      ...: Norovirus Serological Reagents.'' This guidance document describes a means by which norovirus serological... by following the recommendations in the guidance document or by some other means that...

    15. Soil screening guidance: User`s guide

      SciTech Connect

      1996-04-01

      The Soil Screening Guidance is a tool that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed to help standardize and accelerate the evaluation and cleanup of contaminated soils at sites on the National Priorities List (NPL) with future residential land use. This guidance provides a methodology for environmental science/engineering professionals to calculate risk-based, site-specific, soil screening levels (SSLs) for contaminants in soil that may be used to identify areas needing further investigation at NPL sites.

    16. Ultrasound image guidance of cardiac interventions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Peters, Terry M.; Pace, Danielle F.; Lang, Pencilla; Guiraudon, Gérard M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Linte, Cristian A.

      2011-03-01

      Surgical procedures often have the unfortunate side-effect of causing the patient significant trauma while accessing the target site. Indeed, in some cases the trauma inflicted on the patient during access to the target greatly exceeds that caused by performing the therapy. Heart disease has traditionally been treated surgically using open chest techniques with the patient being placed "on pump" - i.e. their circulation being maintained by a cardio-pulmonary bypass or "heart-lung" machine. Recently, techniques have been developed for performing minimally invasive interventions on the heart, obviating the formerly invasive procedures. These new approaches rely on pre-operative images, combined with real-time images acquired during the procedure. Our approach is to register intra-operative images to the patient, and use a navigation system that combines intra-operative ultrasound with virtual models of instrumentation that has been introduced into the chamber through the heart wall. This paper illustrates the problems associated with traditional ultrasound guidance, and reviews the state of the art in real-time 3D cardiac ultrasound technology. In addition, it discusses the implementation of an image-guided intervention platform that integrates real-time ultrasound with a virtual reality environment, bringing together the pre-operative anatomy derived from MRI or CT, representations of tracked instrumentation inside the heart chamber, and the intra-operatively acquired ultrasound images.

    17. Bayesian Modeling of Population Variability -- Practical Guidance and Pitfalls

      SciTech Connect

      Dana L. Kelly; Corwin L. Atwood

      2008-05-01

      With the advent of easy-to-use open-source software for Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, hierarchical Bayesian analysis is gaining in popularity. This paper presents practical guidance for hierarchical Bayes analysis of typical problems in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The guidance is related to choosing parameterizations that accelerate convergence of the MCMC sampling and to illustrating the potential sensitivity of the results to the functional form chosen for the first-stage prior. This latter issue has significant ramifications because the mean of the average population variability curve (PVC) from hierarchical Bayes (or the mean of the point estimate distribution from empirical Bayes) can be very sensitive to this choice in cases where variability is large. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the issues discussed.

    18. Guidance for Environmental Mangement Science and Technology Roadmapping

      SciTech Connect

      Dixon, Brent Wayne

      2001-02-01

      Science and technology roadmapping is a planning process to help identify technical capabilities needed for both project- and program-level cleanup efforts, map them into technology alternatives, and develop plans to ensure that the required scientific knowledge and tools will be available when needed. Application of science and technology roadmapping within Invironmental Management (EM) requires significant flexibility to accommodate the variations between different projects and programs and the different levels of roadmapping application. The author has provided direct support to EM’s Office of Science and Technology (OST) in the development of draft guidance for science and technology roadmapping in EM. This paper provides a summary of this guidance and a synopsis of lessons learned from the application of roadmapping to a number of EM projects and programs.

    19. Chondroitin-4-sulfation negatively regulates axonal guidance and growth

      PubMed Central

      Wang, Hang; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; McCann, Thomas E.; Unsworth, Edward; Goldsmith, Paul; Yu, Zu-Xi; Tan, Fei; Santiago, Lizzie; Mills, Edward M.; Wang, Yu; Symes, Aviva J.; Geller, Herbert M.

      2008-01-01

      Summary Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains endow extracellular matrix proteoglycans with diversity and complexity based upon the length, composition, and charge distribution of the polysaccharide chain. Using cultured primary neurons, we show that specific sulfation in the GAG chains of chondroitin sulfate (CS) mediates neuronal guidance cues and axonal growth inhibition. Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS-A), but not chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS-C), exhibits a strong negative guidance cue to mouse cerebellar granule neurons. Enzymatic and gene-based manipulations of 4-sulfation in the GAG side chains alter their ability to direct growing axons. Furthermore, 4-sulfated CS GAG chains are rapidly and significantly increased in regions that do not support axonal regeneration proximal to spinal cord lesions in mice. Thus, our findings provide the evidence showing that specific sulfation along the carbohydrate backbone carries instructions to regulate neuronal function. PMID:18768934

    20. Three-dimensional multimodal image-guidance for neurosurgery

      SciTech Connect

      Peters, T.; Munger, P.; Comeau, R.; Evans, A.; Olivier, A.; Davey, B.

      1996-04-01

      The authors address the use of multimodality imaging as an aid to the planning and guidance of neurosurgical procedures, and discuss the integration of anatomical (CT and MRI), vascular (DSA), and functional (PET) data for presentation to the surgeon during surgery. The workstation is an enhancement of a commercially available system, and in addition to the guidance offered via a hand-held probe, it incorporates the use of multimodality imaging and adds enhanced realism to the surgeon through the use of a stereoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) image display. The probe may be visualized stereoscopically in single or multimodality images. The integration of multimodality data in this manner provides the surgeon with a complete overview of brain structures on which he is performing surgery, or through which he is passing probes or cannulas, enabling him to avoid critical vessels and/or structures of functional significance.